Science.gov

Sample records for coronavirus rna synthesis

  1. Insights into RNA synthesis, capping, and proofreading mechanisms of SARS-coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Sevajol, Marion; Subissi, Lorenzo; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-12-19

    The successive emergence of highly pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs) such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has stimulated a number of studies on the molecular biology. This research has provided significant new insight into functions and activities of the replication/transcription multi-protein complex. The latter directs both continuous and discontinuous RNA synthesis to replicate and transcribe the large coronavirus genome made of a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of ∼30 kb. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of SARS-CoV enzymes involved in RNA biochemistry, such as the in vitro characterization of a highly active and processive RNA polymerase complex which can associate with methyltransferase and 3'-5' exoribonuclease activities involved in RNA capping, and RNA proofreading, respectively. The recent discoveries reveal fascinating RNA-synthesizing machinery, highlighting the unique position of coronaviruses in the RNA virus world. PMID:25451065

  2. Genomic RNA sequence of Feline coronavirus strain FIPV WSU-79/1146

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Charlotte; Siddell, Stuart G.

    2008-01-01

    A consensus sequence of the Feline coronavirus (FCoV) (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) genome was determined from overlapping cDNA fragments produced by RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA. The genome was found to be 29 125 nt in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. Analysis of the sequence identified conserved open reading frames and revealed an overall genome organization similar to that of other coronaviruses. The genomic RNA was analysed for putative cis-acting elements and the pattern of subgenomic mRNA synthesis was analysed by Northern blotting. Comparative sequence analysis of the predicted FCoV proteins identified 16 replicase proteins (nsp1–nsp16) and four structural proteins (spike, membrane, envelope and nucleocapsid). Two mRNAs encoding putative accessory proteins were also detected. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed that FIPV WSU-79/1146 belongs to the coronavirus subgroup G1-1. These results confirm and extend previous findings from partial sequence analysis of FCoV genomes. PMID:16033972

  3. Integrity of the Early Secretory Pathway Promotes, but Is Not Required for, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus RNA Synthesis and Virus-Induced Remodeling of Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Knoops, Kèvin; Swett-Tapia, Cindy; van den Worm, Sjoerd H. E.; te Velthuis, Aartjan J. W.; Koster, Abraham J.; Mommaas, A. Mieke; Snijder, Eric J.; Kikkert, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    To accommodate its RNA synthesis in the infected cell, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) induces a cytoplasmic reticulovesicular network (RVN) that is derived from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes. We set out to investigate how the early secretory pathway interacts with the RVN and the viral replication/transcription complex (RTC) that is anchored to it. When the secretory pathway was disrupted by brefeldin A (BFA) treatment at the start of infection, RVN formation and viral RTC activity were not blocked and continued up to 11 h postinfection, although RNA synthesis was reduced by ca. 80%. In vitro RTC assays, using membrane fractions from infected cells, demonstrated that BFA does not directly interfere with the activity of the viral RNA-synthesizing enzymes. Confocal microscopy studies showed that early secretory pathway components are not associated with SARS-CoV-induced replication sites, although our studies revealed that infection induces a remarkable redistribution of the translocon subunit Sec61α. Ultrastructural studies, including electron tomography, revealed that the formation of the RVN and all its previously documented features can occur in the presence of BFA, despite differences in the volume and morphology of the network. We therefore conclude that early secretory pathway proteins do not play a direct role in RVN morphogenesis or the functionality of the SARS-CoV RTC. The BFA-induced disruption of ER integrity and functionality probably affects the overall quality of the membrane scaffold that is needed to support the viral RTC and/or the availability of specific host factors, which in turn compromises viral RNA synthesis. PMID:19889777

  4. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; Gorbalenya, Alexander E; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-09-16

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3'-5' exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5'-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  5. One severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein complex integrates processive RNA polymerase and exonuclease activities

    PubMed Central

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Posthuma, Clara C.; Collet, Axelle; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Decroly, Etienne; Snijder, Eric J.; Canard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    In addition to members causing milder human infections, the Coronaviridae family includes potentially lethal zoonotic agents causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome. The ∼30-kb positive-stranded RNA genome of coronaviruses encodes a replication/transcription machinery that is unusually complex and composed of 16 nonstructural proteins (nsps). SARS-CoV nsp12, the canonical RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), exhibits poorly processive RNA synthesis in vitro, at odds with the efficient replication of a very large RNA genome in vivo. Here, we report that SARS-CoV nsp7 and nsp8 activate and confer processivity to the RNA-synthesizing activity of nsp12. Using biochemical assays and reverse genetics, the importance of conserved nsp7 and nsp8 residues was probed. Whereas several nsp7 mutations affected virus replication to a limited extent, the replacement of two nsp8 residues (P183 and R190) essential for interaction with nsp12 and a third (K58) critical for the interaction of the polymerase complex with RNA were all lethal to the virus. Without a loss of processivity, the nsp7/nsp8/nsp12 complex can associate with nsp14, a bifunctional enzyme bearing 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and RNA cap N7-guanine methyltransferase activities involved in replication fidelity and 5′-RNA capping, respectively. The identification of this tripartite polymerase complex that in turn associates with the nsp14 proofreading enzyme sheds light on how coronaviruses assemble an RNA-synthesizing machinery to replicate the largest known RNA genomes. This protein complex is a fascinating example of the functional integration of RNA polymerase, capping, and proofreading activities. PMID:25197083

  6. Specific interaction between coronavirus leader RNA and nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    Stohlman, S.A.; Baric, R.S.; Nelson, G.N.; Soe, L.H.; Welter, L.M.; Deans, R.J.

    1988-11-01

    Northwestern blot analysis in the presence of competitor RNA was used to examine the interaction between the mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid protein (N) and virus-specific RNAs. The authors accompanying article demonstrates that anti-N monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated all seven MHV-specific RNAs as well as the small leader-containing RNAs from infected cells. In this article the authors report that a Northwestern blotting protocol using radiolabeled viral RNAs in the presence of host cell competitor RNA can be used to demonstrate a high-affinity interaction between the MHV N protein and the virus-specific RNAs. Further, RNA probes prepared by in vitro transcription were used to define the sequences that participate in such high-affinity binding. A specific interaction occurs between the N protein and sequences contained with the leader RNA which is conserved at the 5' end of all MHV RNAs. They have further defined the binding sites to the area of nucleotides 56 to 65 at the 3' end of the leader RNA and suggest that this interaction may play an important role in the discontinuous nonprocessive RNA transcriptional process unique to coronaviruses.

  7. Replication of murine coronavirus defective interfering RNA from negative-strand transcripts.

    PubMed

    Joo, M; Banerjee, S; Makino, S

    1996-09-01

    The positive-strand defective interfering (DI) RNA of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), when introduced into MHV-infected cells, results in DI RNA replication and accumulation. We studied whether the introduction of negative-strand transcripts of MHV DI RNA would also result in replication. At a location downstream of the T7 promoter and upstream of the human hepatitis delta virus ribozyme domain, we inserted a complete cDNA clone of MHV DI RNA in reverse orientation; in vitro-synthesized RNA from this plasmid yielded a negative-strand RNA copy of the MHV DI RNA. When the negative-strand transcripts of the DI RNA were expressed in MHV-infected cells by a vaccinia virus T7 expression system, positive-strand DI RNAs accumulated in the plasmid-transfected cells. DI RNA replication depended on the expression of T7 polymerase and on the presence of the T7 promoter. Transfection of in vitro-synthesized negative-strand transcripts into MHV-infected cells and serial passage of virus samples from RNA-transfected cells also resulted in accumulation of the DI RNA. Positive-strand DI RNA transcripts were undetectable in sample preparations of the in vitro-synthesized negative-strand DI RNA transcripts, and DI RNA did not accumulate after cotransfection of a small amount of positive-strand DI RNA and truncated-replication-disabled negative-strand transcripts; clearly, the DI RNA replicated from the transfected negative-strand transcripts and not from minute amounts of positive-strand DI RNAs that might be envisioned as artifacts of T7 transcription. Sequence analysis of positive-strand DI RNAs in the cells transfected with negative-strand transcripts showed that DI RNAs maintained the DI-specific unique sequences introduced within the leader sequence. These data indicated that positive-strand DI RNA synthesis occurred from introduced negative-strand transcripts in the MHV-infected cells; this demonstration, using MHV, of DI RNA replication from transfected

  8. Viral RNA in Blood as Indicator of Severe Outcome in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sun Jae; Cho, Sook Young; Cha, Ran-hui; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Gayeon; Shin, Hyoung-Shik; Kim, Yeonjae; Jung, Yu Mi; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Jee-Soo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic and clinical usefulness of blood specimens to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in 21 patients from the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. Viral RNA was detected in blood from 33% of patients at initial diagnosis, and the detection preceded a worse clinical course. PMID:27479636

  9. Viral RNA in Blood as Indicator of Severe Outcome in Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Park, Sun Jae; Cho, Sook Young; Cha, Ran-Hui; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Gayeon; Shin, Hyoung-Shik; Kim, Yeonjae; Jung, Yu Mi; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon; Cho, Sung Im; Kim, Man Jin; Lee, Jee-Soo; Lee, Seung Jun; Seo, Soo Hyun; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic and clinical usefulness of blood specimens to detect Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in 21 patients from the 2015 outbreak in South Korea. Viral RNA was detected in blood from 33% of patients at initial diagnosis, and the detection preceded a worse clinical course. PMID:27479636

  10. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling.

    PubMed

    Irigoyen, Nerea; Firth, Andrew E; Jones, Joshua D; Chung, Betty Y-W; Siddell, Stuart G; Brierley, Ian

    2016-02-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global "snap-shot" of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  11. High-Resolution Analysis of Coronavirus Gene Expression by RNA Sequencing and Ribosome Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Joshua D.; Chung, Betty Y.-W.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Brierley, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Members of the family Coronaviridae have the largest genomes of all RNA viruses, typically in the region of 30 kilobases. Several coronaviruses, such as Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), are of medical importance, with high mortality rates and, in the case of SARS-CoV, significant pandemic potential. Other coronaviruses, such as Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and Avian coronavirus, are important livestock pathogens. Ribosome profiling is a technique which exploits the capacity of the translating ribosome to protect around 30 nucleotides of mRNA from ribonuclease digestion. Ribosome-protected mRNA fragments are purified, subjected to deep sequencing and mapped back to the transcriptome to give a global “snap-shot” of translation. Parallel RNA sequencing allows normalization by transcript abundance. Here we apply ribosome profiling to cells infected with Murine coronavirus, mouse hepatitis virus, strain A59 (MHV-A59), a model coronavirus in the same genus as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. The data obtained allowed us to study the kinetics of virus transcription and translation with exquisite precision. We studied the timecourse of positive and negative-sense genomic and subgenomic viral RNA production and the relative translation efficiencies of the different virus ORFs. Virus mRNAs were not found to be translated more efficiently than host mRNAs; rather, virus translation dominates host translation at later time points due to high levels of virus transcripts. Triplet phasing of the profiling data allowed precise determination of translated reading frames and revealed several translated short open reading frames upstream of, or embedded within, known virus protein-coding regions. Ribosome pause sites were identified in the virus replicase polyprotein pp1a ORF and investigated experimentally. Contrary to expectations, ribosomes were not found to pause at the ribosomal

  12. Sequence and translation of the murine coronavirus 5'-end genomic RNA reveals the N-terminal structure of the putative RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Soe, L H; Shieh, C K; Baker, S C; Chang, M F; Lai, M M

    1987-01-01

    A 28-kilodalton protein has been suggested to be the amino-terminal protein cleavage product of the putative coronavirus RNA polymerase (gene A) (M.R. Denison and S. Perlman, Virology 157:565-568, 1987). To elucidate the structure and mechanism of synthesis of this protein, the nucleotide sequence of the 5' 2.0 kilobases of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM genome was determined. This sequence contains a single, long open reading frame and predicts a highly basic amino-terminal region. Cell-free translation of RNAs transcribed in vitro from DNAs containing gene A sequences in pT7 vectors yielded proteins initiated from the 5'-most optimal initiation codon at position 215 from the 5' end of the genome. The sequence preceding this initiation codon predicts the presence of a stable hairpin loop structure. The presence of an RNA secondary structure at the 5' end of the RNA genome is supported by the observation that gene A sequences were more efficiently translated in vitro when upstream noncoding sequences were removed. By comparing the translation products of virion genomic RNA and in vitro transcribed RNAs, we established that our clones encompassing the 5'-end mouse hepatitis virus genomic RNA encode the 28-kilodalton N-terminal cleavage product of the gene A protein. Possible cleavage sites for this protein are proposed. Images PMID:2824826

  13. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Coronaviruses Acts as a Viral Suppressor of RNA Silencing in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lei; Wang, Haiying; Ji, Yanxi; Yang, Jie; Xu, Shan; Huang, Xingyu; Wang, Zidao; Qin, Lei; Tien, Po; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT RNA interference (RNAi) is a process of eukaryotic posttranscriptional gene silencing that functions in antiviral immunity in plants, nematodes, and insects. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi also plays a role in antiviral mechanism in mammalian cells. To combat RNAi-mediated antiviral responses, many viruses encode viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSR) to facilitate their replication. VSRs have been widely studied for plant and insect viruses, but only a few have been defined for mammalian viruses currently. We identified a novel VSR from coronaviruses, a group of medically important mammalian viruses including Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and showed that the nucleocapsid protein (N protein) of coronaviruses suppresses RNAi triggered by either short hairpin RNAs or small interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) is closely related to SARS-CoV in the family Coronaviridae and was used as a coronavirus replication model. The replication of MHV increased when the N proteins were expressed in trans, while knockdown of Dicer1 or Ago2 transcripts facilitated the MHV replication in mammalian cells. These results support the hypothesis that RNAi is a part of the antiviral immunity responses in mammalian cells. IMPORTANCE RNAi has been well known to play important antiviral roles from plants to invertebrates. However, recent studies provided strong supports that RNAi is also involved in antiviral response in mammalian cells. An important indication for RNAi-mediated antiviral activity in mammals is the fact that a number of mammalian viruses encode potent suppressors of RNA silencing. Our results demonstrate that coronavirus N protein could function as a VSR through its double-stranded RNA binding activity. Mutational analysis of N protein allowed us to find out the critical residues for the VSR activity. Using the MHV-A59 as the coronavirus replication model, we showed that ectopic

  14. A Three-Stemmed mRNA Pseudoknot in the SARS Coronavirus Frameshift Signal

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    A wide range of RNA viruses use programmed −1 ribosomal frameshifting for the production of viral fusion proteins. Inspection of the overlap regions between ORF1a and ORF1b of the SARS-CoV genome revealed that, similar to all coronaviruses, a programmed −1 ribosomal frameshift could be used by the virus to produce a fusion protein. Computational analyses of the frameshift signal predicted the presence of an mRNA pseudoknot containing three double-stranded RNA stem structures rather than two. Phylogenetic analyses showed the conservation of potential three-stemmed pseudoknots in the frameshift signals of all other coronaviruses in the GenBank database. Though the presence of the three-stemmed structure is supported by nuclease mapping and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance studies, our findings suggest that interactions between the stem structures may result in local distortions in the A-form RNA. These distortions are particularly evident in the vicinity of predicted A-bulges in stems 2 and 3. In vitro and in vivo frameshifting assays showed that the SARS-CoV frameshift signal is functionally similar to other viral frameshift signals: it promotes efficient frameshifting in all of the standard assay systems, and it is sensitive to a drug and a genetic mutation that are known to affect frameshifting efficiency of a yeast virus. Mutagenesis studies reveal that both the specific sequences and structures of stems 2 and 3 are important for efficient frameshifting. We have identified a new RNA structural motif that is capable of promoting efficient programmed ribosomal frameshifting. The high degree of conservation of three-stemmed mRNA pseudoknot structures among the coronaviruses suggests that this presents a novel target for antiviral therapeutics. PMID:15884978

  15. A highly conserved WDYPKCDRA epitope in the RNA directed RNA polymerase of human coronaviruses can be used as epitope-based universal vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronaviruses are the diverse group of RNA virus. From 1960, six strains of human coronaviruses have emerged that includes SARS-CoV and the recent infection by deadly MERS-CoV which is now going to cause another outbreak. Prevention of these viruses is urgent and a universal vaccine for all strain could be a promising solution in this circumstance. In this study we aimed to design an epitope based vaccine against all strain of human coronavirus. Results Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) approach was employed among spike (S), membrane (M), enveloped (E) and nucleocapsid (N) protein and replicase polyprotein 1ab to identify which one is highly conserve in all coronaviruses strains. Next, we use various in silico tools to predict consensus immunogenic and conserved peptide. We found that conserved region is present only in the RNA directed RNA polymerase protein. In this protein we identified one epitope WDYPKCDRA is highly immunogenic and 100% conserved among all available human coronavirus strains. Conclusions Here we suggest in vivo study of our identified novel peptide antigen in RNA directed RNA polymerase protein for universal vaccine – which may be the way to prevent all human coronavirus disease. PMID:24884408

  16. Genetic interactions between an essential 3' cis-acting RNA pseudoknot, replicase gene products, and the extreme 3' end of the mouse coronavirus genome.

    PubMed

    Züst, Roland; Miller, Timothy B; Goebel, Scott J; Thiel, Volker; Masters, Paul S

    2008-02-01

    The upstream end of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse hepatitis virus genome contains two essential and overlapping RNA secondary structures, a bulged stem-loop and a pseudoknot, which have been proposed to be elements of a molecular switch that is critical for viral RNA synthesis. It has previously been shown that a particular six-base insertion in loop 1 of the pseudoknot is extremely deleterious to the virus. We have now isolated multiple independent second-site revertants of the loop 1 insertion mutant, and we used reverse-genetics methods to confirm the identities of suppressor mutations that could compensate for the original insertion. The suppressors were localized to two separate regions of the genome. Members of one class of suppressor were mapped to the portions of gene 1 that encode nsp8 and nsp9, thereby providing the first evidence for specific interactions between coronavirus replicase gene products and a cis-acting genomic RNA element. The second class of suppressor was mapped to the extreme 3' end of the genome, a result which pointed to the existence of a direct base-pairing interaction between loop 1 of the pseudoknot and the genomic terminus. The latter finding was strongly supported by phylogenetic evidence and by the construction of a deletion mutant that reduced the 3' UTR to its minimal essential elements. Taken together, the interactions revealed by the two classes of suppressors suggest a model for the initiation of coronavirus negative-strand RNA synthesis.

  17. Group 2 coronaviruses prevent immediate early interferon induction by protection of viral RNA from host cell recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Versteeg, Gijs A.; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Worm, Sjoerd H.E. van den; Spaan, Willy J.M. . E-mail: w.j.m.spaan@lumc.nl

    2007-04-25

    Many viruses encode antagonists to prevent interferon (IFN) induction. Infection of fibroblasts with the murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) and SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) did not result in nuclear translocation of interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor involved in IFN induction, and induction of IFN mRNA transcription. Furthermore, MHV and SARS-CoV infection could not prevent IFN induction by poly (I:C) or Sendai virus, suggesting that these CoVs do not inactivate IRF3-mediated transcription regulation, but apparently prevent detection of replicative RNA by cellular sensory molecules. Our data indicate that shielding of viral RNA to host cell sensors might be the main general mechanism for coronaviruses to prevent IFN induction.

  18. Coronavirus diversity, phylogeny and interspecies jumping.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Huang, Yi; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-10-01

    The SARS epidemic has boosted interest in research on coronavirus biodiversity and genomics. Before 2003, there were only 10 coronaviruses with complete genomes available. After the SARS epidemic, up to December 2008, there was an addition of 16 coronaviruses with complete genomes sequenced. These include two human coronaviruses (human coronavirus NL63 and human coronavirus HKU1), 10 other mammalian coronaviruses [bat SARS coronavirus, bat coronavirus (bat-CoV) HKU2, bat-CoV HKU4, bat-CoV HKU5, bat-CoV HKU8, bat-CoV HKU9, bat-CoV 512/2005, bat-CoV 1A, equine coronavirus, and beluga whale coronavirus] and four avian coronaviruses (turkey coronavirus, bulbul coronavirus HKU11, thrush coronavirus HKU12, and munia coronavirus HKU13). Two novel subgroups in group 2 coronavirus (groups 2c and 2d) and two novel subgroups in group 3 coronavirus (groups 3b and 3c) have been proposed. The diversity of coronaviruses is a result of the infidelity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, high frequency of homologous RNA recombination, and the large genomes of coronaviruses. Among all hosts, the diversity of coronaviruses is most evidenced in bats and birds, which may be a result of their species diversity, ability to fly, environmental pressures, and habits of roosting and flocking. The present evidence supports that bat coronaviruses are the gene pools of group 1 and 2 coronaviruses, whereas bird coronaviruses are the gene pools of group 3 coronaviruses. With the increasing number of coronaviruses, more and more closely related coronaviruses from distantly related animals have been observed, which were results of recent interspecies jumping and may be the cause of disastrous outbreaks of zoonotic diseases. PMID:19546349

  19. To sense or not to sense viral RNA--essentials of coronavirus innate immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Kindler, Eveline; Thiel, Volker

    2014-08-01

    An essential function of innate immunity is to distinguish self from non-self and receptors have evolved to specifically recognize viral components and initiate the expression of antiviral proteins to restrict viral replication. Coronaviruses are RNA viruses that replicate in the host cytoplasm and evade innate immune sensing in most cell types, either passively by hiding their viral signatures and limiting exposure to sensors or actively, by encoding viral antagonists to counteract the effects of interferons. Since many cytoplasmic viruses exploit similar mechanisms of innate immune evasion, mechanistic insight into the direct interplay between viral RNA, viral RNA-processing enzymes, cellular sensors and antiviral proteins will be highly relevant to develop novel antiviral targets and to restrict important animal and human infections.

  20. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus replication induces host translational shutoff and mRNA decay, with concomitant formation of stress granules and processing bodies.

    PubMed

    Raaben, Matthijs; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Rottier, Peter J M; de Haan, Cornelis A M

    2007-09-01

    Many viruses, including coronaviruses, induce host translational shutoff, while maintaining synthesis of their own gene products. In this study we performed genome-wide microarray analyses of the expression patterns of mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)-infected cells. At the time of MHV-induced host translational shutoff, downregulation of numerous mRNAs, many of which encode protein translation-related factors, was observed. This downregulation, which is reminiscent of a cellular stress response, was dependent on viral replication and caused by mRNA decay. Concomitantly, phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha was increased in MHV-infected cells. In addition, stress granules and processing bodies appeared, which are sites for mRNA stalling and degradation respectively. We propose that MHV replication induces host translational shutoff by triggering an integrated stress response. However, MHV replication per se does not appear to benefit from the inhibition of host protein synthesis, at least in vitro, since viral replication was not negatively affected but rather enhanced in cells with impaired translational shutoff.

  1. Identification of a new transcriptional initiation site and the corresponding functional gene 2b in the murine coronavirus RNA genome.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, C K; Lee, H J; Yokomori, K; La Monica, N; Makino, S; Lai, M M

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown that some strains of the murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) synthesize an additional mRNA species (mRNA 2b, previously called mRNA 2a) with a size intermediate between that of mRNAs 2 and 3, suggesting the presence of an optional transcriptional initiation site. This transcriptional start is dependent on the leader sequence of the virus strains. To study the mechanism of coronavirus transcriptional regulation, we have cloned and sequenced the region of the viral genome corresponding to the 5' unique coding region of mRNA 2 of the JHM strain of MHV. In addition to the open reading frame (ORF) predicted to encode the viral nonstructural protein p30, a second complete ORF, with the potential to encode a 439-amino-acid polypeptide, was discovered. The transcriptional initiation sites of both mRNA 2a (formerly called mRNA 2) and mRNA 2b were determined by primer extension studies and RNA sequencing. The data indicated that transcription of mRNA 2a initiated at a site, UCUAUAC, that resembled the consensus intergenic sequence. In contrast, the start signal of the optional mRNA 2b, UAAUAAAC, deviated from the consensus sequence. mRNA 2b is a functional mRNA, as shown by in vitro translation studies of mRNA and ORF 2b and by the detection of an additional viral structural protein, gp65, in the JHM strain that synthesized this mRNA. Although the A59 strain of MHV was found to retain ORF 2b, it lacked the correct transcriptional and translational start signals for this gene. This study has therefore identified an optional gene product for murine coronaviruses and provided insights into the mechanism of regulation of MHV RNA transcription. Images PMID:2547994

  2. Detection of ascitic feline coronavirus RNA from cats with clinically suspected feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Soma, Takehisa; Wada, Makoto; Taharaguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Tomoko

    2013-10-01

    Ascitic feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA was examined in 854 cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) by RT-PCR. The positivity was significantly higher in purebreds (62.2%) than in crossbreds (34.8%) (P<0.0001). Among purebreds, the positivities in the Norwegian forest cat (92.3%) and Scottish fold (77.6%) were significantly higher than the average of purebreds (P=0.0274 and 0.0251, respectively). The positivity was significantly higher in males (51.5%) than in females (35.7%) (P<0.0001), whereas no gender difference has generally been noted in FCoV antibody prevalence, indicating that FIP more frequently develops in males among FCoV-infected cats. Genotyping was performed for 377 gene-positive specimens. Type I (83.3%) was far more predominantly detected than type II (10.6%) (P<0.0001), similar to previous serological and genetic surveys. PMID:23719724

  3. A facile inhibitor screening of SARS coronavirus N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun

    2012-01-01

    Hundreds of million people worldwide have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), and the rate of global death from SARS has remarkably increased. Hence, the development of efficient drug treatments for the biological effects of SARS is highly needed. We have previously shown that quantum dots (QDs)-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide is sensitive to the specific recognition of the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. In this study, we found that a designed biochip could analyze inhibitors of the SARS-CoV N protein using nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide. Among the polyphenolic compounds examined, (−)-catechin gallate and (−)-gallocatechin gallate demonstrated a remarkable inhibition activity on SARS-CoV N protein. (−)-catechin gallate and (−)-gallocatechin gallate attenuated the binding affinity in a concentrated manner as evidenced by QDs-conjugated RNA oligonucleotide on a designed biochip. At a concentration of 0.05 μg mL−1, (−)-catechin gallate and (−)-gallocatechin gallate showed more than 40% inhibition activity on a nanoparticle-based RNA oligonucleotide biochip system. PMID:22619553

  4. Synthesis and processing of structural and intracellular proteins of two enteric coronaviruses

    SciTech Connect

    Sardinia, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of virus-specific proteins of two economically important enteric coronaviruses, bovine enteric coronavirus (BCV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), were studied at the molecular level. To determine the time of appearance of virus-specific proteins, virus-infected cells were labeled with /sup 35/S-methionine at various times during infection, immunoprecipitated with specific hyperimmune ascitic fluid, and analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The peak of BCV protein synthesis was found to be at 12 hours postinfection (hpi). The appearance of all virus-specific protein was coordinated. In contrast, the peak of TGEV protein synthesis was at 8 hpi, but the nucleocapsid proteins was present as early as 4 hpi. Virus-infected cells were treated with tunicamycin to ascertain the types of glycosidic linkages of the glycoproteins. The peplomer proteins of both viruses were sensitive to inhibition by tunicamycin indicating that they possessed N-linked carbohydrates. The matrix protein of TGEV was similarly affected. The matrix protein of BCV, however, was resistant to tunicamycin treatment and, therefore, has O-linked carbohydrates. Only the nucleocapsid protein of both viruses is phosphorylated as detected by radiolabeling with /sup 32/P-orthophosphate. Pulse-chase studies and comparison of intracellular and virion proteins were done to detect precursor-product relationships.

  5. Genomic RNA sequence of feline coronavirus strain FCoV C1Je

    PubMed Central

    Dye, Charlotte; Siddell, Stuart G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the first genomic RNA sequence of a field strain feline coronavirus (FCoV). Viral RNA was isolated at post mortem from the jejunum and liver of a cat with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A consensus sequence of the jejunum-derived genomic RNA (FCoV C1Je) was determined from overlapping cDNA fragments produced by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification. RT-PCR products were sequenced by a reiterative sequencing strategy and the genomic RNA termini were determined using a rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR strategy. The FCoV C1Je genome was found to be 29,255 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail. Comparison of the FCoV C1Je genomic RNA sequence with that of the laboratory strain FCoV FIP virus (FIPV) 79-1146 showed that both viruses have a similar genome organisation and predictions made for the open reading frames and cis-acting elements of the FIPV 79-1146 genome hold true for FCoV C1Je. In addition, the sequence of the 3′-proximal third of the liver derived genomic RNA (FCoV C1Li), which encompasses the structural and accessory protein genes of the virus, was also determined. Comparisons of the enteric (jejunum) and non-enteric (liver) derived viral RNA sequences revealed 100% nucleotide identity, a finding that questions the well accepted ‘internal mutation theory’ of FIPV pathogenicity. PMID:17363313

  6. Differential Sensitivity of Bat Cells to Infection by Enveloped RNA Viruses: Coronaviruses, Paramyxoviruses, Filoviruses, and Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Drexler, Jan Felix; Glende, Jörg; Erdt, Meike; Gützkow, Tim; Losemann, Christoph; Binger, Tabea; Deng, Hongkui; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Herrler, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3) were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed. PMID:24023659

  7. Differential sensitivity of bat cells to infection by enveloped RNA viruses: coronaviruses, paramyxoviruses, filoviruses, and influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Markus; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Drexler, Jan Felix; Glende, Jörg; Erdt, Meike; Gützkow, Tim; Losemann, Christoph; Binger, Tabea; Deng, Hongkui; Schwegmann-Weßels, Christel; Esser, Karl-Heinz; Drosten, Christian; Herrler, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. We analyzed six different cell lines from either Yinpterochiroptera (including African flying foxes and a rhinolophid bat) or Yangochiroptera (genera Carollia and Tadarida) for susceptibility to infection by different enveloped RNA viruses. None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. VSV pseudotypes containing the S proteins of two bat SARS-related CoV (Bg08 and Rp3) were unable to infect any of the six tested bat cell lines. By contrast, viral pseudotypes containing the surface protein GP of Marburg virus from the family Filoviridae infected all six cell lines though at different efficiency. Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. The implications for the isolation of coronaviruses from bats are discussed. PMID:24023659

  8. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp1 facilitates efficient propagation in cells through a specific translational shutoff of host mRNA.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohisa; Kamitani, Wataru; DeDiego, Marta L; Enjuanes, Luis; Matsuura, Yoshiharu

    2012-10-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SCoV) is an enveloped virus containing a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. Nine mRNAs carrying a set of common 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTR) are synthesized from the incoming viral genomic RNA in cells infected with SCoV. A nonstructural SCoV nsp1 protein causes a severe translational shutoff by binding to the 40S ribosomal subunits. The nsp1-40S ribosome complex further induces an endonucleolytic cleavage near the 5'UTR of host mRNA. However, the mechanism by which SCoV viral proteins are efficiently produced in infected cells in which host protein synthesis is impaired by nsp1 is unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the viral UTRs in evasion of the nsp1-mediated shutoff. Luciferase activities were significantly suppressed in cells expressing nsp1 together with the mRNA carrying a luciferase gene, while nsp1 failed to suppress luciferase activities of the mRNA flanked by the 5'UTR of SCoV. An RNA-protein binding assay and RNA decay assay revealed that nsp1 bound to stem-loop 1 (SL1) in the 5'UTR of SCoV RNA and that the specific interaction with nsp1 stabilized the mRNA carrying SL1. Furthermore, experiments using an SCoV replicon system showed that the specific interaction enhanced the SCoV replication. The specific interaction of nsp1 with SL1 is an important strategy to facilitate efficient viral gene expression in infected cells, in which nsp1 suppresses host gene expression. Our data indicate a novel mechanism of viral gene expression control by nsp1 and give new insight into understanding the pathogenesis of SARS.

  9. Flavivirus RNA synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Takhampunya, Ratree; Teramoto, Tadahisa; Choi, Kyung H

    2015-12-01

    Establishment of in vitro systems to study mechanisms of RNA synthesis for positive strand RNA viruses have been very useful in the past and have shed light on the composition of protein and RNA components, optimum conditions, the nature of the products formed, cis-acting RNA elements and trans-acting protein factors required for efficient synthesis. In this review, we summarize our current understanding regarding the requirements for flavivirus RNA synthesis in vitro. We describe details of reaction conditions, the specificity of template used by either the multi-component membrane-bound viral replicase complex or by purified, recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We also discuss future perspectives to extend the boundaries of our knowledge. PMID:26272247

  10. Catalysis and prebiotic RNA synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James P.

    1993-01-01

    The essential role of catalysis for the origins of life is discussed. The status of the prebiotic synthesis of 2',5'- and 3'5'-linked oligomers of RNA is reviewed. Examples of the role of metal ion and mineral catalysis in RNA oligomer formation are discussed.

  11. RNA 3'-end mismatch excision by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp10/nsp14 exoribonuclease complex.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Imbert, Isabelle; Subissi, Lorenzo; Gluais, Laure; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-06-12

    The replication/transcription complex of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus is composed of at least 16 nonstructural proteins (nsp1-16) encoded by the ORF-1a/1b. This complex includes replication enzymes commonly found in positive-strand RNA viruses, but also a set of RNA-processing activities unique to some nidoviruses. The nsp14 protein carries both exoribonuclease (ExoN) and (guanine-N7)-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) activities. The nsp14 ExoN activity ensures a yet-uncharacterized function in the virus life cycle and must be regulated to avoid nonspecific RNA degradation. In this work, we show that the association of nsp10 with nsp14 stimulates >35-fold the ExoN activity of the latter while playing no effect on N7-MTase activity. Nsp10 mutants unable to interact with nsp14 are not proficient for ExoN activation. The nsp10/nsp14 complex hydrolyzes double-stranded RNA in a 3' to 5' direction as well as a single mismatched nucleotide at the 3'-end mimicking an erroneous replication product. In contrast, di-, tri-, and longer unpaired ribonucleotide stretches, as well as 3'-modified RNAs, resist nsp10/nsp14-mediated excision. In addition to the activation of nsp16-mediated 2'-O-MTase activity, nsp10 also activates nsp14 in an RNA processing function potentially connected to a replicative mismatch repair mechanism. PMID:22635272

  12. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  13. Combination siRNA therapy against feline coronavirus can delay the emergence of antiviral resistance in vitro.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Phillip; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-03-23

    Virulent biotypes of feline coronavirus (FCoV), commonly referred to as feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), can result in the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a typically fatal immune mediated disease for which there is currently no effective antiviral treatment. We previously reported the successful in vitro inhibition of FIPV replication by synthetic siRNA mediated RNA interference (RNAi) in an immortalised cell line (McDonagh et al., 2011). A major challenge facing the development of any antiviral strategy is that of resistance, a problem which is particularly acute for RNAi based therapeutics due to the exquisite sequence specificity of the targeting mechanism. The development of resistance during treatment can be minimised using combination therapy to raise the genetic barrier or using highly potent compounds which result in a more rapid and pronounced reduction in the viral replication rate, thereby reducing the formation of mutant, and potentially resistant viruses. This study investigated the efficacy of combination siRNA therapy and its ability to delay or prevent viral escape. Virus serially passaged through cells treated with a single or dual siRNAs rapidly acquired resistance, with mutations identified in the siRNA target sites. Combination therapy with three siRNA prevented viral escape over the course of five passages. To identify more potent silencing molecules we also compared the efficacy, in terms of potency and duration of action, of canonical versus Dicer-substrate siRNAs for two previously identified effective viral motifs. Dicer-substrate siRNAs showed equivalent or better potency than canonical siRNAs for the target sites investigated, and may be a more appropriate molecule for in vivo use. Combined, these data inform the potential therapeutic application of antiviral RNAi against FIPV.

  14. Generation of coronavirus spike deletion variants by high-frequency recombination at regions of predicted RNA secondary structure.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, C L; Fleming, J O; Nathan, M J; Sgro, J Y; Palmenberg, A C; Baker, S C

    1997-01-01

    Coronavirus RNA evolves in the central nervous systems (CNS) of mice during persistent infection. This evolution can be monitored by detection of a viral quasispecies of spike deletion variants (SDVs) (C. L. Rowe, S. C. Baker, M. J. Nathan, and J. O. Fleming, J. Virol. 71:2959-2969, 1997). We and others have found that the deletions cluster in the region from 1,200 to 1,800 nucleotides from the 5' end of the spike gene sequence, termed the "hypervariable" region. To address how SDVs might arise, we generated the predicted folding structures of the positive- and negative-strand senses of the entire 4,139-nt spike RNA sequence. We found that a prominent, isolated stem-loop structure is coincident with the hypervariable region in each structure. To determine if this predicted stem-loop is a "hot spot" for RNA recombination, we assessed whether this region of the spike is more frequently deleted than three other selected regions of the spike sequence in a population of viral sequences isolated from the CNS of acutely and persistently infected mice. Using differential colony hybridization of cloned spike reverse transcription-PCR products, we detected SDVs in which the hot spot was deleted but did not detect SDVs in which other regions of the spike sequence were exclusively deleted. Furthermore, sequence analysis and mapping of the crossover sites of 25 distinct patterns of SDVs showed that the majority of crossover sites clustered to two regions at the base of the isolated stem-loop, which we designated as high-frequency recombination sites 1 and 2. Interestingly, the majority of the left and right crossover sites of the SDVs were directly across from or proximal to one another, suggesting that these SDVs are likely generated by intramolecular recombination. Overall, our results are consistent with there being an important role for the spike RNA secondary structure as a contributing factor in the generation of SDVs during persistent infection. PMID:9223514

  15. Detection of group 1 coronaviruses in bats in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dominguez, S.R.; O'Shea, T.J.; Oko, L.M.; Holmes, K.V.

    2007-01-01

    The epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was caused by a newly emerged coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Bats of several species in southern People's Republic of China harbor SARS-like CoVs and may be reservoir hosts for them. To determine whether bats in North America also harbor coronaviruses, we used reverse transcription-PCR to detect coronavirus RNA in bats. We found coronavirus RNA in 6 of 28 fecal specimens from bats of 2 of 7 species tested. The prevalence of viral RNA shedding was high: 17% in Eptesicus fuscus and 50% in Myotis occultus. Sequence analysis of a 440-bp amplicon in gene 1b showed that these Rocky Mountain bat coronaviruses formed 3 clusters in phylogenetic group 1 that were distinct from group 1 coronaviruses of Asian bats. Because of the potential for bat coronaviruses to cause disease in humans and animals, further surveillance and characterization of bat coronaviruses in North America are needed.

  16. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) RNA and neutralising antibodies in milk collected according to local customs from dromedary camels, Qatar, April 2014.

    PubMed

    Reusken, C B; Farag, E A; Jonges, M; Godeke, G J; El-Sayed, A M; Pas, S D; Raj, V S; Mohran, K A; Moussa, H A; Ghobashy, H; Alhajri, F; Ibrahim, A K; Bosch, B J; Pasha, S K; Al-Romaihi, H E; Al-Thani, M; Al-Marri, S A; AlHajri, M M; Haagmans, B L; Koopmans, M P

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were detected in serum and milk collected according to local customs from 33 camels in Qatar, April 2014. At one location, evidence for active virus shedding in nasal secretions and/or faeces was observed for 7/12 camels; viral RNA was detected in milk of five of these seven camels. The presence of MERS-CoV RNA in milk of camels actively shedding the virus warrants measures to prevent putative food-borne transmission of MERS-CoV.

  17. Coronavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be able to reduce your risk of infection by washing your hands often with soap and ... sick. There is no vaccine to prevent coronavirus infection. There are no specific treatments. You can relieve ...

  18. Cyclosporin A inhibits the replication of diverse coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Adriaan H; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C; van der Meer, Yvonne; Thiel, Volker; Narayanan, Krishna; Makino, Shinji; Snijder, Eric J; van Hemert, Martijn J

    2011-11-01

    Low micromolar, non-cytotoxic concentrations of cyclosporin A (CsA) strongly affected the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), human coronavirus 229E and mouse hepatitis virus in cell culture, as was evident from the strong inhibition of GFP reporter gene expression and a reduction of up to 4 logs in progeny titres. Upon high-multiplicity infection, CsA treatment rendered SARS-CoV RNA and protein synthesis almost undetectable, suggesting an early block in replication. siRNA-mediated knockdown of the expression of the prominent CsA targets cyclophilin A and B did not affect SARS-CoV replication, suggesting either that these specific cyclophilin family members are dispensable or that the reduced expression levels suffice to support replication. PMID:21752960

  19. Coronaviruses: An Overview of Their Replication and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fehr, Anthony R.; Perlman, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs), enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses, are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, and a unique replication strategy. Coronaviruses cause a variety of diseases in mammals and birds ranging from enteritis in cows and pigs and upper respiratory disease chickens to potentially lethal human respiratory infections. Here we provide a brief introduction to coronaviruses discussing their replication and pathogenicity, and current prevention and treatment strategies. We will also discuss the outbreaks of the highly pathogenic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the recently identified Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). PMID:25720466

  20. Regulation of Flavivirus RNA synthesis and replication.

    PubMed

    Selisko, Barbara; Wang, Chunling; Harris, Eva; Canard, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    RNA synthesis and replication of the members of the Flavivirus genus (including dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses) is regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms and actors. These include the sequestration of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for functions other than RNA synthesis, regulatory interactions with other viral and host proteins within the replication complex (RC), and regulatory elements within the RNA genome itself. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the multiple levels at which Flavivirus RNA synthesis is controlled. We aim to bring together two active research fields: the structural and functional biology of individual proteins of the RC and the impressive wealth of knowledge acquired regarding the viral genomic RNA. PMID:25462437

  1. Regulation of Flavivirus RNA synthesis and replication

    PubMed Central

    Selisko, Barbara; Wang, Chunling; Harris, Eva; Canard, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    RNA synthesis and replication of the members of the Flavivirus genus (including dengue, West Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses) is regulated by a wide variety of mechanisms and actors. These include the sequestration of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) for functions other than RNA synthesis, regulatory interactions with other viral and host proteins within the replication complex (RC), and regulatory elements within the RNA genome itself. In this review, we discuss our current knowledge of the multiple levels at which Flavivirus RNA synthesis is controlled. We aim to bring together two active research fields: the structural and functional biology of individual proteins of the RC and the impressive wealth of knowledge acquired regarding the viral genomic RNA. PMID:25462437

  2. About Coronavirus

    MedlinePlus

    ... or surfaces then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes. Also see MERS-CoV Transmission and How SARS Spreads . Q: When can I get infected? A: In the United States, people usually get infected with common human coronaviruses in the fall and winter. However, you ...

  3. Coronavirus Pathogenesis and the Emerging Pathogen Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Susan R.; Navas-Martin, Sonia

    2005-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-strand RNA viruses classified within the Nidovirales order. This coronavirus family consists of pathogens of many animal species and of humans, including the recently isolated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). This review is divided into two main parts; the first concerns the animal coronaviruses and their pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the functions of individual viral genes, and the second discusses the newly described human emerging pathogen, SARS-CoV. The coronavirus part covers (i) a description of a group of coronaviruses and the diseases they cause, including the prototype coronavirus, murine hepatitis virus, which is one of the recognized animal models for multiple sclerosis, as well as viruses of veterinary importance that infect the pig, chicken, and cat and a summary of the human viruses; (ii) a short summary of the replication cycle of coronaviruses in cell culture; (iii) the development and application of reverse genetics systems; and (iv) the roles of individual coronavirus proteins in replication and pathogenesis. The SARS-CoV part covers the pathogenesis of SARS, the developing animal models for infection, and the progress in vaccine development and antiviral therapies. The data gathered on the animal coronaviruses continue to be helpful in understanding SARS-CoV. PMID:16339739

  4. The human coronavirus 229E superfamily 1 helicase has RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities with 5'-to-3' polarity.

    PubMed Central

    Seybert, A; Hegyi, A; Siddell, S G; Ziebuhr, J

    2000-01-01

    The human coronavirus 229E replicase gene encodes a protein, p66HEL, that contains a putative zinc finger structure linked to a putative superfamily (SF) 1 helicase. A histidine-tagged form of this protein, HEL, was expressed using baculovirus vectors in insect cells. The purified recombinant protein had in vitro ATPase activity that was strongly stimulated by poly(U), poly(dT), poly(C), and poly(dA), but not by poly(G). The recombinant protein also had both RNA and DNA duplex-unwinding activities with 5'-to-3' polarity. The DNA helicase activity of the enzyme preferentially unwound 5'-oligopyrimidine-tailed, partial-duplex substrates and required a tail length of at least 10 nucleotides for effective unwinding. The combined data suggest that the coronaviral SF1 helicase functionally differs from the previously characterized RNA virus SF2 helicases. PMID:10917600

  5. RNA-Primed DNA Synthesis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Walter

    1972-01-01

    In vitro DNA synthesis on single-stranded circular DNA can be initiated by RNA primers. RNA chains are covalently extended by DNA polymerase II from KB cells and DNA polymerase I from Micrococcus luteus, but not by an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase from avian myeloblastosis virus. The reaction product consists of DNA chains with a piece of RNA at their 5′-ends, hydrogen bonded to the template DNA. The primer RNA is linked to the product DNA via a 3′:5′-phosphodiester bond, and can be specifically removed by ribonuclease H. The possible role of ribonuclease H in RNA-primed DNA synthesis in vivo is discussed. Images PMID:4338598

  6. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jheeta, Sohan; Joshi, Prakash C.

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the "Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA)" conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5-6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1). Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7) produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M) enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl- > Br- > I-. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt.

  7. Prebiotic RNA Synthesis by Montmorillonite Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Jheeta, Sohan; Joshi, Prakash C.

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes our recent findings on the role of mineral salts in prebiotic RNA synthesis, which is catalyzed by montmorillonite clay minerals. The clay minerals not only catalyze the synthesis of RNA but also facilitate homochiral selection. Preliminary data of these findings have been presented at the “Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA)” conference at the Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 5–6 September 2013. The objective of this meeting was to recognize the significance of RNA in LUCA. We believe that the prebiotic RNA synthesis from its monomers must have been a simple process. As a first step, it may have required activation of the 5'-end of the mononucleotide with a leaving group, e.g., imidazole in our model reaction (Figure 1). Wide ranges of activating groups are produced from HCN under plausible prebiotic Earth conditions. The final step is clay mineral catalysis in the presence of mineral salts to facilitate selective production of functional RNA. Both the clay minerals and mineral salts would have been abundant on early Earth. We have demonstrated that while montmorillonite (pH 7) produced only dimers from its monomers in water, addition of sodium chloride (1 M) enhanced the chain length multifold, as detected by HPLC. The effect of monovalent cations on RNA synthesis was of the following order: Li+ > Na+ > K+. A similar effect was observed with the anions, enhancing catalysis in the following order: Cl− > Br− > I−. The montmorillonite-catalyzed RNA synthesis was not affected by hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions. We thus show that prebiotic synthesis of RNA from its monomers was a simple process requiring only clay minerals and a small amount of salt. PMID:25370375

  8. The RNA synthesis machinery of negative-stranded RNA viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Ortín, Juan; Martín-Benito, Jaime

    2015-05-15

    The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and function of the ribonucleoprotein components: Atomic structure of the RNA polymerase complex. • Commonalities and differences between segmented- and non-segmented NSVs. • Transcription versus replication programmes.

  9. Crystal Structure and Functional Analysis of the SARS-Coronavirus RNA Cap 2′-O-Methyltransferase nsp10/nsp16 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Decroly, Etienne; Debarnot, Claire; Ferron, François; Bouvet, Mickael; Coutard, Bruno; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Sharff, Andrew; Bricogne, Gérard; Ortiz-Lombardia, Miguel; Lescar, Julien; Canard, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Cellular and viral S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases are involved in many regulated processes such as metabolism, detoxification, signal transduction, chromatin remodeling, nucleic acid processing, and mRNA capping. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus nsp16 protein is a S-adenosylmethionine-dependent (nucleoside-2′-O)-methyltransferase only active in the presence of its activating partner nsp10. We report the nsp10/nsp16 complex structure at 2.0 Å resolution, which shows nsp10 bound to nsp16 through a ∼930 Å2 surface area in nsp10. Functional assays identify key residues involved in nsp10/nsp16 association, and in RNA binding or catalysis, the latter likely through a SN2-like mechanism. We present two other crystal structures, the inhibitor Sinefungin bound in the S-adenosylmethionine binding pocket and the tighter complex nsp10(Y96F)/nsp16, providing the first structural insight into the regulation of RNA capping enzymes in (+)RNA viruses. PMID:21637813

  10. Initiation of (-)-strand RNA synthesis catalyzed by the BMV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: synthesis of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Sun, J H; Adkins, S; Faurote, G; Kao, C C

    1996-12-01

    RNA replication, a process of fundamental importance for pathogenesis by many viruses, remains poorly understood at the mechanistic level because relatively few of the responsible enzymes have been purified and characterized biochemically. Partially purified RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from brome mosaic virus (BMV)-infected barley leaves is able to synthesize (-)-strand RNAs from input (+)-strand templates. In resolving RdRp products generated during (-)-strand BMV RNA synthesis, we found that an RNA of eight nucleotides was generated at approximately 10-fold molar excess to the full-length (-)-strand RNA. Production of the 8-mer was dependent upon and specific to BMV RNA templates. Furthermore, inhibitors of full-length (-)-strand RNA synthesis by RdRp also affected the production of the 8-mer. Analysis of the sequence of the 8-mer suggests that it is initiated at the authentic initiation site on the BMV RNA template, consistent with the possibility that the 8-mer is an abortive initiation product of RNA synthesis by RdRp in vitro. Addition of heparin or Mn2+ differentially affected production of the 8-mer and full-length (-)-strand RNA, as did some nucleotide changes near the site of RNA initiation. These studies further define the initiation process of (-)-strand RNA synthesis.

  11. Coronavirus genotype diversity and prevalence of infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fickel, Jörns; Hofer, Heribert; Beier, Sandra; East, Marion L

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of coronaviruses in wild carnivores is limited. This report describes coronavirus genetic diversity, species specificity and infection prevalence in three wild African carnivores. Coronavirus RNA was recovered from fresh feces from spotted hyena and silver-backed jackal, but not bat-eared fox. Analysis of sequences of membrane (M) and spike (S) gene fragments revealed strains in the genus Alphacoronavirus, including three distinct strains in hyenas and one distinct strain in a jackal. Coronavirus RNA prevalence was higher in feces from younger (17 %) than older (3 %) hyenas, highlighting the importance of young animals for coronavirus transmission in wild carnivores. PMID:23212740

  12. Coronavirus genotype diversity and prevalence of infection in wild carnivores in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Goller, Katja V; Fickel, Jörns; Hofer, Heribert; Beier, Sandra; East, Marion L

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge of coronaviruses in wild carnivores is limited. This report describes coronavirus genetic diversity, species specificity and infection prevalence in three wild African carnivores. Coronavirus RNA was recovered from fresh feces from spotted hyena and silver-backed jackal, but not bat-eared fox. Analysis of sequences of membrane (M) and spike (S) gene fragments revealed strains in the genus Alphacoronavirus, including three distinct strains in hyenas and one distinct strain in a jackal. Coronavirus RNA prevalence was higher in feces from younger (17 %) than older (3 %) hyenas, highlighting the importance of young animals for coronavirus transmission in wild carnivores.

  13. Coupling mRNA Synthesis and Decay

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    What has been will be again, what has been done will be done again; there is nothing new under the sun.—Ecclesiastes 1:9 (New International Version) Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression has an important role in defining the phenotypic characteristics of an organism. Well-defined steps in mRNA metabolism that occur in the nucleus—capping, splicing, and polyadenylation—are mechanistically linked to the process of transcription. Recent evidence suggests another link between RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and a posttranscriptional process that occurs in the cytoplasm—mRNA decay. This conclusion appears to represent a conundrum. How could mRNA synthesis in the nucleus and mRNA decay in the cytoplasm be mechanistically linked? After a brief overview of mRNA processing, we will review the recent evidence for transcription-coupled mRNA decay and the possible involvement of Snf1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, in this process. PMID:25154419

  14. The Structure and Functions of Coronavirus Genomic 3’ and 5’ Ends

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Leibowitz, Julian L.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are an important cause of illness in humans and animals. Most human coronaviruses commonly cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses; however two zoonotic coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, can cause severe illness and death. Investigations over the past thirty-five years have illuminated many aspects of coronavirus replication. The focus of this review is the functional analysis of conserved RNA secondary structures in the 5’ and 3’ of the betacoronavirus genomes. The 5’ 350 nucleotides folds into a set of RNA secondary structures which are well conserved, and reverse genetic studies indicate that these structures play an important role in the discontinuous synthesis of subgenomic RNAs in the betacoronaviruses. These cis-acting elements extend 3’ of the 5’UTR into ORF1a. The 3’UTR is similarly conserved and contains all of the cis-acting sequences necessary for viral replication. Two competing conformations near the 5’ end of the 3’UTR have been shown to make up a potential molecular switch. There is some evidence that an association between the 3’ and 5’UTRs is necessary for subgenomic RNA synthesis, but the basis for this association is not yet clear. A number of host RNA proteins have been shown to bind to the 5’ and 3’ cis-acting regions, but the significance of these in viral replication is not clear. Two viral proteins have been identified as binding to the 5’ cis-acting region, nsp1 and N protein. A genetic interaction between nsp8 and nsp9 and the region of the 3’UTR that contains the putative molecular switch suggests that these two proteins bind to this region. PMID:25736566

  15. Synthesis of RNA oligomers on heterogeneous templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertem, G.; Ferris, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The concept of an RNA world in the chemical origin of life is appealing, as nucleic acids are capable of both information storage and acting as templates that catalyse the synthesis of complementary molecules. Template-directed synthesis has been demonstrated for homogeneous oligonucleotides that, like natural nucleic acids, have 3',5' linkages between the nucleotide monomers. But it seems likely that prebiotic routes to RNA-like molecules would have produced heterogeneous molecules with various kinds of phosphodiester linkages and both linear and cyclic nucleotide chains. Here we show that such heterogeneity need be no obstacle to the templating of complementary molecules. Specifically, we show that heterogeneous oligocytidylates, formed by the montmorillonite clay-catalysed condensation of actuated monomers, can serve as templates for the synthesis of oligoguanylates. Furthermore, we show that oligocytidylates that are exclusively 2',5'-linked can also direct synthesis of oligoguanylates. Such heterogeneous templating reactions could have increased the diversity of the pool of protonucleic acids from which life ultimately emerged.

  16. Control of RNA synthesis by chromatin proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cedar, H; Solage, A; Zurucki, F

    1976-01-01

    The effect of chromatin proteins on template activity has been studied. Using both E. coli RNA polymerase and calf thymmus polymerase B we have measured the number of initiation sites on chromatin and various histone-DNA complexes. Chromatin can be reconstituted with histone proteins alone and this complex is still a restricted template for RNA synthesis. The removal of histone f1 causes a large increase in the template activity. Chromatin is then treated with Micrococcal nuclease and the DNA fragments protected from nuclease attack ("covered DNA") are isolated. Alternatively, the chromatin is titrated with poly-D-lysine, and by successive treatment with Pronase and nuclease, the DNA regions accessible to polylysine are isolated ("open DNA"). Both fractions were tested for template activity. It was found that RNA polymerase initiation sites are distributed equally in open and covered region DNA. PMID:787926

  17. Coronavirus infection of spotted hyenas in the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    East, Marion L; Moestl, Karin; Benetka, Viviane; Pitra, Christian; Höner, Oliver P; Wachter, Bettina; Hofer, Heribert

    2004-08-19

    Sera from 38 free-ranging spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania, were screened for exposure to coronavirus of antigenic group 1. An immunofluorescence assay indicated high levels of exposure to coronavirus among Serengeti hyenas: 95% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:10 and 74% when considering sera with titer levels of > or = 1:40. Cubs had generally lower mean titer levels than adults. Exposure among Serengeti hyenas to coronavirus was also confirmed by a serum neutralisation assay and an ELISA. Application of RT-PCR to 27 fecal samples revealed viral RNA in three samples (11%). All three positive fecal samples were from the 15 juvenile animals (<24 months of age) sampled, and none from the 12 adults sampled. No viral RNA was detected in tissue samples (lymph node, intestine, lung) from 11 individuals. Sequencing of two amplified products from the S protein gene of a positive sample revealed the presence of coronavirus specific RNA with a sequence homology to canine coronavirus of 76 and 78% and to feline coronavirus type II of 80 and 84%, respectively. Estimation of the phylogenetic relationship among coronavirus isolates indicated considerable divergence of the hyena variant from those in European, American and Japanese domestic cats and dogs. From long-term observations of several hundred known individuals, the only clinical sign in hyenas consistent with those described for coronavirus infections in dogs and cats was diarrhea. There was no evidence that coronavirus infection in hyenas caused clinical signs similar to feline infectious peritonitis in domestic cats or was a direct cause of mortality in hyenas. To our knowledge, this is the first report of coronavirus infection in Hyaenidae.

  18. Eucaryotic RNA polymerase conditional mutant that rapidly ceases mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Nonet, M; Scafe, C; Sexton, J; Young, R

    1987-01-01

    We have isolated a yeast conditional mutant which rapidly ceases synthesis of mRNA when subjected to the nonpermissive temperature. This mutant (rpb1-1) was constructed by replacing the wild-type chromosomal copy of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II with one mutagenized in vitro. The rapid cessation of mRNA synthesis in vivo and the lack of RNA polymerase II activity in crude extracts indicate that the mutant possesses a functionally defective, rather than an assembly-defective, RNA polymerase II. The shutdown in mRNA synthesis in the rpb1-1 mutant has pleiotropic effects on the synthesis of other RNAs and on the heat shock response. This mutant provides direct evidence that the RPB1 protein has a functional role in mRNA synthesis. Images PMID:3299050

  19. De Novo RNA Synthesis by RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Activity of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Maida, Yoshiko; Yasukawa, Mami; Masutomi, Kenkichi

    2016-04-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) plays key roles in RNA silencing to generate double-stranded RNAs. In model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Neurospora crassa, two types of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), primary siRNAs and secondary siRNAs, are expressed; RdRP produces secondary siRNAs de novo, without using either Dicer or primers, while primary siRNAs are processed by Dicer. We reported that human telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has RdRP activity and produces endogenous siRNAs in a Dicer-dependent manner. However, de novo synthesis of siRNAs by human TERT has not been elucidated. Here we show that the TERT RdRP generates short RNAs that are complementary to template RNAs and have 5'-triphosphorylated ends, which indicates de novo synthesis of the RNAs. In addition, we confirmed short RNA synthesis by TERT in several human carcinoma cell lines and found that TERT protein levels are positively correlated with RdRP activity. PMID:26830230

  20. Role of RNA and Protein Synthesis in Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, F. B.

    1968-01-01

    The cell separation aspect of abscission is thought to involve the action of specific cell wall degrading enzymes. Enzymes represent synthesis which in turn is preceded by the synthesis of specific RNA molecules, and it follows that inhibition of either of these processes would also block abscission. Since abscission is a localized phenomenon usually involving 2 or 3 cell layers, RNA and protein synthesis should also be localized. Manipulations of plant material which either accelerate or retard abscission may be due to the regulation of RNA and protein synthesis. This paper is a review of literature concerned with these and related questions. Images PMID:16657020

  1. 2-Selenouridine triphosphate synthesis and Se-RNA transcription.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huiyan; Jiang, Sibo; Caton-Williams, Julianne; Liu, Hehua; Huang, Zhen

    2013-09-01

    2-Selenouridine ((Se)U) is one of the naturally occurring modifications of Se-tRNAs ((Se)U-RNA) at the wobble position of the anticodon loop. Its role in the RNA-RNA interaction, especially during the mRNA decoding, is elusive. To assist the research exploration, herein we report the enzymatic synthesis of the (Se)U-RNA via 2-selenouridine triphosphate ((Se)UTP) synthesis and RNA transcription. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the synthesized (Se)UTP is stable and recognizable by T7 RNA polymerase. Under the optimized conditions, the transcription yield of (Se)U-RNA can reach up to 85% of the corresponding native RNA. Furthermore, the transcribed (Se)U-hammerhead ribozyme has the similar activity as the corresponding native, which suggests usefulness of (Se)U-RNAs in function and structure studies of noncoding RNAs, including the Se-tRNAs.

  2. A 5′ RNA element promotes dengue virus RNA synthesis on a circular genome

    PubMed Central

    Filomatori, Claudia V.; Lodeiro, Maria F.; Alvarez, Diego E.; Samsa, Marcelo M.; Pietrasanta, Lía; Gamarnik, Andrea V.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanisms of RNA replication of plus-strand RNA viruses are still unclear. Here, we identified the first promoter element for RNA synthesis described in a flavivirus. Using dengue virus as a model, we found that the viral RdRp discriminates the viral RNA by specific recognition of a 5′ element named SLA. We demonstrated that RNA–RNA interactions between 5′ and 3′ end sequences of the viral genome enhance dengue virus RNA synthesis only in the presence of an intact SLA. We propose a novel mechanism for minus-strand RNA synthesis in which the viral polymerase binds SLA at the 5′ end of the genome and reaches the site of initiation at the 3′ end via long-range RNA–RNA interactions. These findings provide an explanation for the strict requirement of dengue virus genome cyclization during viral replication. PMID:16882970

  3. Flaviviral Replication Complex: Coordination between RNA Synthesis and 5'-RNA Capping.

    PubMed

    Klema, Valerie J; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Choi, Kyung H

    2015-08-13

    Genome replication in flavivirus requires (-) strand RNA synthesis, (+) strand RNA synthesis, and 51-RNA capping and methylation. To carry out viral genome replication, flavivirus assembles a replication complex, consisting of both viral and host proteins, on the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. Two major components of the replication complex are the viral non-structural (NS) proteins NS3 and NS5. Together they possess all the enzymatic activities required for genome replication, yet how these activities are coordinated during genome replication is not clear. We provide an overview of the flaviviral genome replication process, the membrane-bound replication complex, and recent crystal structures of full-length NS5. We propose a model of how NS3 and NS5 coordinate their activities in the individual steps of (-) RNA synthesis, (+) RNA synthesis, and 51-RNA capping and methylation.

  4. Initiation of protein-primed picornavirus RNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Aniko V.; Wimmer, Eckard

    2015-01-01

    Plus strand RNA viruses use different mechanisms to initiate the synthesis of their RNA chains. The Picornaviridae family constitutes a large group of plus strand RNA viruses that possess a small terminal protein (VPg) covalently linked to the 5’-end of their genomes. The RNA polymerases of these viruses use VPg as primer for both minus and plus strand RNA synthesis. In the first step of the initiation reaction the RNA polymerase links a UMP to the hydroxyl group of a tyrosine in VPg using as template a cis-replicating element (cre) positioned in different regions of the viral genome. In this review we will summarize what is known about the intiation reaction of protein-primed RNA synthesis by the RNA polymerases of the Picornaviridae. As an example we will use the RNA polymerase of poliovirus, the prototype of Picornaviridae. We will also discuss models of how these nucleotidylylated protein primers might be used, together with viral and cellular replication proteins and other cis-replicating RNA elements, during minus and plus strand RNA synthesis. PMID:25592245

  5. RNA synthesis in the thymus of the immunologically mature mouse

    PubMed Central

    Patt, D. J.; Cohen, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    RNA synthesis was investigated in the thymus glands of adult immunized mice. After the intraperitoneal injection of mice with sheep red blood cells (SRBC), the net synthesis of RNA in the gland increased. A small but consistent amount of the RNA synthesized was distinguished by RNA:DNA hybridizations from that found in the glands of mice not injected with antigen. The RNA formed after immunization did not appear by hybridization to be specific for different antigens since the species of RNA formed in the glands of mice injected with SRBC was indistinguishable from RNA formed in the thymuses of mice injected with chicken red blood cells. RNA synthesized in the thymus glands of mice pharmacologically `stressed' by the injections of hydrocortisone, however, was distinguishable from that formed in the glands of mice injected with antigen. PMID:4854183

  6. Metabolic Labeling in the Study of Mammalian Ribosomal RNA Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Stefanovsky, Victor Y; Moss, Tom

    2016-01-01

    RNA metabolic labeling is a method of choice in the study of dynamic changes in the rate of gene transcription and RNA processing. It is particularly applicable to transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes and their processing products due to the very high levels of ribosomal RNA synthesis. Metabolic labeling can detect changes in ribosomal RNA transcription that occur within a few minutes as opposed to the still widely used RT-PCR or Northern blot procedures that measure RNA pool sizes and at best are able to detect changes occurring over several hours or several days. Here, we describe a metabolic labeling technique applicable to the measurement of ribosomal RNA synthesis and processing rates, as well as to the determination of RNA Polymerase I transcription elongation rates. PMID:27576716

  7. Initiation of minus-strand RNA synthesis by the brome mosaicvirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: use of oligoribonucleotide primers.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, C C; Sun, J H

    1996-01-01

    Various DNA- and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases have been reported to use oligoribonucleotide primers to initiate nucleic acid synthesis. For the brome mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), we determined that in reactions performed with limited GTP concentrations, minus-strand RNA synthesis can be stimulated by the inclusion of guanosine monophosphate or specific oligoribonucleotides. Furthermore, guanylyl-3',5'-guanosine (GpG) was incorporated into minus-strand RNA and increased the rate of minus-strand RNA synthesis. In the presence of GpG, RdRp's Km for GTP decreased from 50 microM to approximately 3 microM while the Kms for other nucleotides were unaffected. These results have implications for the mechanism of initiation by RdRp. PMID:8794323

  8. RNA-catalysed synthesis of complementary-strand RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doudna, Jennifer A.; Szostak, Jack W.

    1989-06-01

    The Tetrahymena ribozyme can splice together multiple oligonucleotides aligned on a template strand to yield a fully complementary product strand. This reaction demonstrates the feasibility of RNA-catalysed RNA replications.

  9. Genome structure and transcriptional regulation of human coronavirus NL63

    PubMed Central

    Pyrc, Krzysztof; Jebbink, Maarten F; Berkhout, Ben; van der Hoek, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Background Two human coronaviruses are known since the 1960s: HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43. SARS-CoV was discovered in the early spring of 2003, followed by the identification of HCoV-NL63, the fourth member of the coronaviridae family that infects humans. In this study, we describe the genome structure and the transcription strategy of HCoV-NL63 by experimental analysis of the viral subgenomic mRNAs. Results The genome of HCoV-NL63 has the following gene order: 1a-1b-S-ORF3-E-M-N. The GC content of the HCoV-NL63 genome is extremely low (34%) compared to other coronaviruses, and we therefore performed additional analysis of the nucleotide composition. Overall, the RNA genome is very low in C and high in U, and this is also reflected in the codon usage. Inspection of the nucleotide composition along the genome indicates that the C-count increases significantly in the last one-third of the genome at the expense of U and G. We document the production of subgenomic (sg) mRNAs coding for the S, ORF3, E, M and N proteins. We did not detect any additional sg mRNA. Furthermore, we sequenced the 5' end of all sg mRNAs, confirming the presence of an identical leader sequence in each sg mRNA. Northern blot analysis indicated that the expression level among the sg mRNAs differs significantly, with the sg mRNA encoding nucleocapsid (N) being the most abundant. Conclusions The presented data give insight into the viral evolution and mutational patterns in coronaviral genome. Furthermore our data show that HCoV-NL63 employs the discontinuous replication strategy with generation of subgenomic mRNAs during the (-) strand synthesis. Because HCoV-NL63 has a low pathogenicity and is able to grow easily in cell culture, this virus can be a powerful tool to study SARS coronavirus pathogenesis. PMID:15548333

  10. Characterization of the Role of Hexamer AGUAAA and Poly(A) Tail in Coronavirus Polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yu-Hui; Lin, Ching-Houng; Lin, Chao-Nan; Lo, Chen-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Lin; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Similar to eukaryotic mRNA, the positive-strand coronavirus genome of ~30 kilobases is 5’-capped and 3’-polyadenylated. It has been demonstrated that the length of the coronaviral poly(A) tail is not static but regulated during infection; however, little is known regarding the factors involved in coronaviral polyadenylation and its regulation. Here, we show that during infection, the level of coronavirus poly(A) tail lengthening depends on the initial length upon infection and that the minimum length to initiate lengthening may lie between 5 and 9 nucleotides. By mutagenesis analysis, it was found that (i) the hexamer AGUAAA and poly(A) tail are two important elements responsible for synthesis of the coronavirus poly(A) tail and may function in concert to accomplish polyadenylation and (ii) the function of the hexamer AGUAAA in coronaviral polyadenylation is position dependent. Based on these findings, we propose a process for how the coronaviral poly(A) tail is synthesized and undergoes variation. Our results provide the first genetic evidence to gain insight into coronaviral polyadenylation. PMID:27760233

  11. Regulation of Stress Responses and Translational Control by Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To Sing; Liao, Ying; Liu, Ding Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Similar to other viruses, coronavirus infection triggers cellular stress responses in infected host cells. The close association of coronavirus replication with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the ER stress responses, which impose a challenge to the viruses. Viruses, in turn, have come up with various mechanisms to block or subvert these responses. One of the ER stress responses is inhibition of the global protein synthesis to reduce the amount of unfolded proteins inside the ER lumen. Viruses have evolved the capacity to overcome the protein translation shutoff to ensure viral protein production. Here, we review the strategies exploited by coronavirus to modulate cellular stress response pathways. The involvement of coronavirus-induced stress responses and translational control in viral pathogenesis will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27384577

  12. Host cell proteases: critical determinants of coronavirus tropism and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Jean Kaoru; Whittaker, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses are a large group of enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of avian and mammalian species, including humans. The emergence of deadly human coronaviruses, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have bolstered research in these viral and often zoonotic pathogens. While coronavirus cell and tissue tropism, host range, and pathogenesis are initially controlled by interactions between the spike envelope glycoprotein and host cell receptor, it is becoming increasingly apparent that proteolytic activation of spike by host cell proteases also plays a critical role. Coronavirus spike proteins are the main determinant of entry as they possess both receptor binding and fusion functions. Whereas binding to the host cell receptor is an essential first step in establishing infection, the proteolytic activation step is often critical for the fusion function of spike, as it allows for controlled release of the fusion peptide into target cellular membranes. Coronaviruses have evolved multiple strategies for proteolytic activation of spike, and a large number of host proteases have been shown to proteolytically process the spike protein. These include, but are not limited to, endosomal cathepsins, cell surface transmembrane protease/serine (TMPRSS) proteases, furin, and trypsin. This review focuses on the diversity of strategies coronaviruses have evolved to proteolytically activate their fusion protein during spike protein biosynthesis and the critical entry step of their life cycle, and highlights important findings on how proteolytic activation of coronavirus spike influences tissue and cell tropism, host range and pathogenicity. PMID:25445340

  13. The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus replicative protein nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding subunit unique in the RNA virus world

    PubMed Central

    Egloff, Marie-Pierre; Ferron, François; Campanacci, Valérie; Longhi, Sonia; Rancurel, Corinne; Dutartre, Hélène; Snijder, Eric J.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    The recently identified etiological agent of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) belongs to Coronaviridae (CoV), a family of viruses replicating by a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.7-Å resolution of nsp9, a hitherto uncharacterized subunit of the SARS-CoV replicative polyproteins. We show that SARS-CoV nsp9 is a single-stranded RNA-binding protein displaying a previously unreported, oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide fold-like fold. The presence of this type of protein has not been detected in the replicative complexes of RNA viruses, and its presence may reflect the unique and complex CoV viral replication/transcription machinery. PMID:15007178

  14. RNA Synthesis by in Vitro Selected Ribozymes for Recreating an RNA World

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Lyssa L.; Unrau, Peter J.; Müller, Ulrich F.

    2015-01-01

    The RNA world hypothesis states that during an early stage of life, RNA molecules functioned as genome and as the only genome-encoded catalyst. This hypothesis is supported by several lines of evidence, one of which is the in vitro selection of catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) in the laboratory for a wide range of reactions that might have been used by RNA world organisms. This review focuses on three types of ribozymes that could have been involved in the synthesis of RNA, the core activity in the self-replication of RNA world organisms. These ribozyme classes catalyze nucleoside synthesis, triphosphorylation, and the polymerization of nucleoside triphosphates. The strengths and weaknesses regarding each ribozyme’s possible function in a self-replicating RNA network are described, together with the obstacles that need to be overcome before an RNA world organism can be generated in the laboratory. PMID:25610978

  15. Extensive coronavirus-induced membrane rearrangements are not a determinant of pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Helena J.; Neuman, Benjamin W.; Bickerton, Erica; Keep, Sarah M.; Alrashedi, Hasan; Hall, Ross; Britton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA (+RNA) viruses rearrange cellular membranes during replication, possibly in order to concentrate and arrange viral replication machinery for efficient viral RNA synthesis. Our previous work showed that in addition to the conserved coronavirus double membrane vesicles (DMVs), Beau-R, an apathogenic strain of avian Gammacoronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), induces regions of ER that are zippered together and tethered open-necked double membrane spherules that resemble replication organelles induced by other +RNA viruses. Here we compared structures induced by Beau-R with the pathogenic lab strain M41 to determine whether membrane rearrangements are strain dependent. Interestingly, M41 was found to have a low spherule phenotype. We then compared a panel of pathogenic, mild and attenuated IBV strains in ex vivo tracheal organ culture (TOC). Although the low spherule phenotype of M41 was conserved in TOCs, each of the other tested IBV strains produced DMVs, zippered ER and spherules. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation for the presence of DMVs with spherules, suggesting that these structures are spatially and temporally linked. Our data indicate that virus induced membrane rearrangements are fundamentally linked to the viral replicative machinery. However, coronavirus replicative apparatus clearly has the plasticity to function in different structural contexts. PMID:27255716

  16. The nsp2 Replicase Proteins of Murine Hepatitis Virus and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Are Dispensable for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Rachel L.; Sims, Amy C.; Brockway, Sarah M.; Baric, Ralph S.; Denison, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2, respectively). Infectious MHVΔnsp2 and SARSΔnsp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Δnsp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVΔnsp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVΔnsp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  17. The nsp2 replicase proteins of murine hepatitis virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus are dispensable for viral replication.

    PubMed

    Graham, Rachel L; Sims, Amy C; Brockway, Sarah M; Baric, Ralph S; Denison, Mark R

    2005-11-01

    The positive-stranded RNA genome of the coronaviruses is translated from ORF1 to yield polyproteins that are proteolytically processed into intermediate and mature nonstructural proteins (nsps). Murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) polyproteins incorporate 16 protein domains (nsps), with nsp1 and nsp2 being the most variable among the coronaviruses and having no experimentally confirmed or predicted functions in replication. To determine if nsp2 is essential for viral replication, MHV and SARS-CoV genome RNA was generated with deletions of the nsp2 coding sequence (MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2, respectively). Infectious MHVDeltansp2 and SARSDeltansp2 viruses recovered from electroporated cells had 0.5 to 1 log10 reductions in peak titers in single-cycle growth assays, as well as a reduction in viral RNA synthesis that was not specific for any positive-stranded RNA species. The Deltansp2 mutant viruses lacked expression of both nsp2 and an nsp2-nsp3 precursor, but cleaved the engineered chimeric nsp1-nsp3 cleavage site as efficiently as the native nsp1-nsp2 cleavage site. Replication complexes in MHVDeltansp2-infected cells lacked nsp2 but were morphologically indistinguishable from those of wild-type MHV by immunofluorescence. nsp2 expressed in cells by stable retroviral transduction was specifically recruited to viral replication complexes upon infection with MHVDeltansp2. These results demonstrate that while nsp2 of MHV and SARS-CoV is dispensable for viral replication in cell culture, deletion of the nsp2 coding sequence attenuates viral growth and RNA synthesis. These findings also provide a system for the study of determinants of nsp targeting and function. PMID:16227261

  18. [The first steps of chlorophyll synthesis: RNA involvement and regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Soell, D.

    1992-01-01

    Glu-tRNA[sup Glu] is synthesized from glutamate and tRNA[sup Glu] by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS). Recent work has demonstrated that Glu-tRNA[sup Glu] has dual functions and is a precursor for protein and 5-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthesis. Current data does not provide compelling evidence for the notion that GluRS is regulated by chlorophyll precursors or in concert with the other enzymes of ALA synthesis. We have redefined the C5-pathway as a two-step route to ALA starting with Glu-tRNA[sup Glu]. Only two enzymes, Glu-tRNA reductase (GluTR) and GSA-2,1-amino-mutase (GSA-AM), are specifically involved in ALA synthesis. We have purified these enzymatic activities from Chlamydomonas and demonstrated that the two purified proteins in the presence of their cofactors NADPH and pyridoxal phosphate are sufficient for the in vitro Glu-tRNA [yields] ALA conversion. We have cloned the genes encoding GluTR. The sequences of the GluTR proteins deduced from these genes share highly conserved regions with those of bacterial origin. We havealso cloned and analyzed the gene encoding GSA-AM from Arabidopsis. As in Salmonella typhimurium, there are indications of the existence of an additional pathway for ALA formation in E. coli. To shed light on the recognition of the single tRNA[sup Glu] by the chloroplast enzymes GluTR, GluRS we characterized a chlorophyll-deficient mutant of Euglena having tRNA[sup Glu] with a point mutation in the T[Psi]C-loop. The altered tRNA supports protein but not ALA synthesis.

  19. Ultraviolet light-induced inhibition of small nuclear RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Eliceiri, B P; Choudhury, K; Scott, Q O; Eliceiri, G L

    1989-03-01

    Two apparently distinct types of inhibition of the synthesis of U1, U2, U3, U4, and U5 small nuclear RNA, induced by ultraviolet (UV) radiation, have been described before: immediate and delayed. Our present observation can be summarized as follows: a) neither the immediate nor the delayed inhibition appear to be mediated by the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, since they were not prevented by photoreactivating light, in ICR 2A frog cells; b) the inhibition of U1 RNA synthesis, monitored in HeLA cells within the first few minutes after irradiation, extrapolated to a substantial suppression at time zero of postirradiation cell incubation, providing further support for the proposal that the immediate inhibition is a reaction separate from the delayed UV light-induced inhibition of U1 RNA synthesis; c) the transition from the pattern of the immediate inhibition to that of the delayed inhibition (disappearance of the UV-resistant fraction of U1 RNA synthesis and increased rate of inhibition) occurred gradually, without an apparent threshold, within the first 2 hr of incubation after irradiation; and d) the incident UV dose that resulted in a 37% level of residual U1 RNA synthesis (D37) during the delayed inhibition was about 7 J/m2, with an apparent UV dose threshold, and was about 60 J/m2 for the immediate inhibition. PMID:2925798

  20. Necessity of transferrin for RNA synthesis in chick myotubes.

    PubMed

    Shoji, A; Ozawa, E

    1986-06-01

    Chick transferrin (Tf) is essential not only for growth and differentiation but also for the maintenance of chick myotubes in culture. Its removal from the culture medium gives rise to degeneration of the myotubes. The analysis of this process revealed that the removal resulted in decrease in total and messenger RNA content in the myotubes; this was mainly due to a decrease in RNA synthesis. Activity of in vitro RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei from myotubes cultured without Tf was lower than the activity in nuclei from myotubes cultured with Tf and increased with the addition of FeCl3. Although RNA degradation in myotubes was also enhanced following Tf removal, the degree was small. The synthesis of most proteins was reduced. In contrast to this, a few new proteins of unknown nature were synthesised in myotubes cultured in Tf-free medium. The role of Fe ion carried into the cells by Tf in promoting myogenic cell growth and differentiation and in preventing the myotubes from degeneration can be explained, at least in part, on the basis of its effect on RNA synthesis. Since we have found that Fe is required for activation of RNA polymerase purified from embryonic muscles (Shoji and Ozawa, 1985b), these effects may be ascribed to this activating effect. PMID:2423539

  1. Inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis by 8-methoxypsoralen.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowski, M; Czyz, M; Wilmańska, D; Studzian, K; Frasunek, M; Płucienniczak, A; Szmigiero, L

    1988-09-01

    The effect of the photobinding of 8-methoxypsoralen to phage T7 DNA on different steps of RNA synthesis in vitro was assayed. Total RNA synthesis is reduced to a few percent and the transcript size is decreased, as shown by means of gel filtration on a Sepharose 4B column when DNA of the adduct content of six drug molecules per 10(3) nucleotides is used. The initiation of RNA chains seems to be less affected, as inferred from an abortive initiation assay. Synthesis of pppApU on DNA of the same adduct content is inhibited to 34% of the corresponding controls, while the overall RNA synthesis is inhibited to 6%. The amount of the enzyme needed for maximal retention of DNA, the kinetics of its binding and the decay of the polymerase-DNA complex at high ionic strength (or on decrease of the temperature) are similar with DNA either irradiated in the absence of the drug or DNA bearing six 8-methoxypsoralen molecules per 10(3) nucleotides. It is concluded from this study that 8-methoxypsoralen partially inhibits initiation and blocks movement of RNA polymerase along the template, inducing premature termination. It does not appear to influence the binding of the enzyme to DNA. PMID:3048406

  2. [Effect of gibberellic acid on RNA synthesis in dwarf peas].

    PubMed

    Kilev, S N; Kholodar', A V; Chekurov, V M; Mertvetsov, N P

    1982-04-01

    The effect of gibberellic acid (GA) on total RNA and polysomal poly-[A]+-RNA synthesis in epicotylia and embryos of dwarf pea of two varieties differing in their physiological sensitivity to GA was studied. It was found that incubation with GA increases the accumulation of total RNA in pea epicotylia, var. "Pioner" and "Polzunok". The maximal stimulation of RNA accumulation makes up to 40% for the low sensitivity variety "Polzunok" and 150% for the highly sensitive variety "Pioner". GA increases the synthesis of polysomal poly (A)+-mRNA in 5-year-old pea sprouts and that of newly synthesized poly (A)+-mRNA in epicotylian polysomes of both varieties 5, 24, 48 and 72 hrs after incubation with GA. GA at concentrations of 10(-6) and 10(-5) stimulates the incorporation of [3H]uridine into polysomal mRNA during the first 1--3 hours after treatment and enhances the accumulation of newly synthesized mRNA in pea embryonic polyribosomes. The stimulating effect is directly proportional to the dose of the hormone. The mechanisms of GA effect on the transcription and translation in pea plant cells are discussed. PMID:6177351

  3. Montmorillonite Clay-Catalyzed Synthesis of RNA Oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Miyakawa, S.; Huang, W.; Joshi, P.

    2005-12-01

    It is proposed that catalysis had a central role in the origins of life. This will be illustrated using the montmorillonite clay-catalyzed synthesis of oligomers of RNA from activated monomers, (Ferris and Ertem, 1993) a possible step in the origin of the RNA world (Ferris, 2005). Structural analysis of oligomers formed in the reaction of the activated monomer of 5'-AMP with that of 5'-CMP demonstrated that the oligomers formed were not produced by random synthesis but rather the sequences observed were directed by the montmorillonite catalyst (Miyakawa and Ferris, 2003). RNA oligomers containing up to 40 mers have been synthesized in reactions performed in water at 25 oC in the presence of montmorillonite (Huang and Ferris, 2003). Analysis of the structure elements in these oligomers from the 7 to 39 mers showed that they did not vary. Reaction of D, L-mixtures of the activated monomers of A and U resulted in the formation of greater amounts of the homochiral amounts of dimers and trimers of A than would be expected if there was no selectivity in the reaction. A limited number of the dimers and trimers of U were also formed but here the selectivity was for the formation of an excess of heterochiral products (Joshi et al., 2000). A postulate that explains why homochiral trimers of U are not formed and the significance of catalysis in prebiotic synthesis will be discussed. Ferris, J.P. (2005) Origins of life, molecular basis of. In R.A. Meyers, Ed. Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and Molecular Medicine, 10. Wiley-VCH Verlag, Weinheim, Germany. Ferris, J.P., and Ertem, G. (1993) Montmorillonite catalysis of RNA oligomer formation in aqueous solution. A model for the prebiotic formation of RNA. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 115, 12270-12275. Huang, W., and Ferris, J.P. (2003) Synthesis of 35-40 mers of RNA oligomers from unblocked monomers. A simple approach to the RNA world. Chem. Commun., 1458-1459. Joshi, P.C., Pitsch, S., and Ferris, J.P. (2000) Homochiral selection

  4. Mutation in human selenocysteine transfer RNA selectively disrupts selenoprotein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schoenmakers, Erik; Carlson, Bradley; Agostini, Maura; Moran, Carla; Rajanayagam, Odelia; Bochukova, Elena; Tobe, Ryuta; Peat, Rachel; Gevers, Evelien; Muntoni, Francesco; Guicheney, Pascale; Schoenmakers, Nadia; Farooqi, Sadaf; Lyons, Greta; Hatfield, Dolph; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Selenium is a trace element that is essential for human health and is incorporated into more than 25 human selenocysteine-containing (Sec-containing) proteins via unique Sec-insertion machinery that includes a specific, nuclear genome-encoded, transfer RNA (tRNA[Ser]Sec). Here, we have identified a human tRNA[Ser]Sec mutation in a proband who presented with a variety of symptoms, including abdominal pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and low plasma levels of selenium. This mutation resulted in a marked reduction in expression of stress-related, but not housekeeping, selenoproteins. Evaluation of primary cells from the homozygous proband and a heterozygous parent indicated that the observed deficit in stress-related selenoprotein production is likely mediated by reduced expression and diminished 2'-O-methylribosylation at uridine 34 in mutant tRNA[Ser]Sec. Moreover, this methylribosylation defect was restored by cellular complementation with normal tRNA[Ser]Sec. This study identifies a tRNA mutation that selectively impairs synthesis of stress-related selenoproteins and demonstrates the importance of tRNA modification for normal selenoprotein synthesis. PMID:26854926

  5. Gliotoxin: inhibitor of poliovirus RNA synthesis that blocks the viral RNA polymerase 3Dpol.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, P L; Carrasco, L

    1992-01-01

    The mode of action of gliotoxin against poliovirus has been analyzed in detail. This fungal metabolite inhibits the appearance of poliovirus proteins when present from the beginning of infection but has no effect on viral translation when added at late times. In agreement with previous findings, this toxin potently inhibited the incorporation of [3H]uridine into poliovirus RNA soon after its addition to the culture medium. Analysis of the synthesis of poliovirus plus- or minus-stranded RNA in the presence of gliotoxin suggests that this compound effectively hampered both processes. This result contrasts with the mode of action of other inhibitors of poliovirus RNA synthesis, such as guanidine or flavones, that selectively block plus-stranded RNA synthesis and suggests that the target of gliotoxin differs from the target of guanidine, i.e., poliovirus protein 2C. Indeed, gliotoxin was found to be a potent inhibitor of poliovirus RNA synthesis in cell-free systems, using membranous crude replication complexes, a reaction that is not blocked by guanidine or Ro 09-0179. Moreover, in vitro activity of the purified poliovirus polymerase 3Dpol was efficiently inhibited by gliotoxin. These results indicate that this toxin acts on the poliovirus polymerase 3Dpol, providing the first description of an inhibitor of this viral enzyme. Images PMID:1372367

  6. Cytokine responses in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected macrophages in vitro: possible relevance to pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chung Y; Poon, Leo L M; Ng, Iris H Y; Luk, Winsie; Sia, Sin-Fun; Wu, Mavis H S; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Gordon, Siamon; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S M

    2005-06-01

    The pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) remains unclear. Macrophages are key sentinel cells in the respiratory system, and it is therefore relevant to compare the responses of human macrophages to infections with the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and other respiratory viruses. Primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with SARS-CoV in vitro. Virus replication was monitored by measuring the levels of positive- and negative-strand RNA, by immunofluorescence detection of the SARS-CoV nucleoprotein, and by titration of the infectious virus. The gene expression profiles of macrophages infected with SARS-CoV, human coronavirus 229E, and influenza A (H1N1) virus were compared by using microarrays and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. Secreted cytokines were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. SARS-CoV initiated viral gene transcription and protein synthesis in macrophages, but replication was abortive and no infectious virus was produced. In contrast to the case with human coronavirus 229E and influenza A virus, there was little or no induction of beta interferon (IFN-beta) in SARS-CoV-infected macrophages. Furthermore, SARS-CoV induced the expression of chemokines such as CXCL10/IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 and CCL2/monocyte chemotactic protein 1. The poor induction of IFN-beta, a key component of innate immunity, and the ability of the virus to induce chemokines could explain aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS.

  7. Flock house virus RNA polymerase initiates RNA synthesis de novo and possesses a terminal nucleotidyl transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhaowei; Xia, Hongjie; Liu, Yongxiang; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Yujie; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Flock House virus (FHV) is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a bipartite genome of RNAs, RNA1 and RNA2, and belongs to the family Nodaviridae. As the most extensively studied nodavirus, FHV has become a well-recognized model for studying various aspects of RNA virology, particularly viral RNA replication and antiviral innate immunity. FHV RNA1 encodes protein A, which is an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and functions as the sole viral replicase protein responsible for RNA replication. Although the RNA replication of FHV has been studied in considerable detail, the mechanism employed by FHV protein A to initiate RNA synthesis has not been determined. In this study, we characterized the RdRP activity of FHV protein A in detail and revealed that it can initiate RNA synthesis via a de novo (primer-independent) mechanism. Moreover, we found that FHV protein A also possesses a terminal nucleotidyl transferase (TNTase) activity, which was able to restore the nucleotide loss at the 3'-end initiation site of RNA template to rescue RNA synthesis initiation in vitro, and may function as a rescue and protection mechanism to protect the 3' initiation site, and ensure the efficiency and accuracy of viral RNA synthesis. Altogether, our study establishes the de novo initiation mechanism of RdRP and the terminal rescue mechanism of TNTase for FHV protein A, and represents an important advance toward understanding FHV RNA replication. PMID:24466277

  8. Synthesis of infectious poliovirus RNA by purified T7 RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf, S; Bradley, J; Wimmer, E; Studier, F W; Dunn, J J

    1986-01-01

    Plasmids containing the entire cDNA sequence of poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney strain) under control of a promoter for T7 RNA polymerase have been constructed. Purified T7 RNA polymerase efficiently transcribes the entire poliovirus cDNA in either direction to produce full-length poliovirus RNA [(+)RNA] or its complement [(-)RNA]. The (+)RNA produced initially had 60 nucleotides on the 5' side of the poliovirus RNA sequence, including a string of 18 consecutive guanine residues generated in the original cloning and an additional 626 nucleotides of pBR322 sequence beyond the poly(A) tract at the 3' end. Such RNA, while much more infectious than the plasmid DNA, is only about 0.1% as infectious as RNA isolated from the virus. Subsequently, a T7 promoter was placed only 2 base pairs ahead of the poliovirus sequence, so that T7 RNA polymerase synthesizes poliovirus RNA with only 2 additional guanine residues at the 5' end and no more than seven nucleotides past the poly(A) tract at the 3' end. Such RNA has much higher specific infectivity, about 5% that of RNA isolated from the virus. The ability to make infectious poliovirus RNA efficiently from cloned DNA makes it possible to apply techniques of in vitro mutagenesis to the analysis of poliovirus functions and the construction of novel and perhaps useful derivatives of poliovirus. A source of variant RNAs should also allow detailed study of the synthesis and processing of poliovirus proteins in vitro. Images PMID:3010307

  9. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  10. Evolution of Protein Synthesis from an RNA World

    PubMed Central

    Noller, Harry F.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Because of the molecular complexity of the ribosome and protein synthesis, it is a challenge to imagine how translation could have evolved from a primitive RNA World. Two specific suggestions are made here to help to address this, involving separate evolution of the peptidyl transferase and decoding functions. First, it is proposed that translation originally arose not to synthesize functional proteins, but to provide simple (perhaps random) peptides that bound to RNA, increasing its available structure space, and therefore its functional capabilities. Second, it is proposed that the decoding site of the ribosome evolved from a mechanism for duplication of RNA. This process involved homodimeric “duplicator RNAs,” resembling the anticodon arms of tRNAs, which directed ligation of trinucleotides in response to an RNA template. PMID:20610545

  11. Nuclear Localization of Flavivirus RNA Synthesis in Infected Cells

    PubMed Central

    Uchil, Pradeep Devappa; Kumar, Anil V. A.; Satchidanandam, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Flaviviral replication is believed to be exclusively cytoplasmic, occurring within virus-induced membrane-bound replication complexes in the host cytoplasm. Here we show that a significant proportion (20%) of the total RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity from cells infected with West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and dengue virus is resident within the nucleus. Consistent with this, the major replicase proteins NS3 and NS5 of JEV also localized within the nucleus. NS5 was found distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but NS3 was present at sites of active flaviviral RNA synthesis, colocalizing with NS5, and visible as distinct foci along the inner periphery of the nucleus by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy. Both these viral replicase proteins were also present in the nuclear matrix, colocalizing with the peripheral lamina, and revealed a well-entrenched nuclear location for the viral replication complex. In keeping with this observation, antibodies to either NS3 or NS5 coimmunoprecipitated the other protein from isolated nuclei along with newly synthesized viral RNA. Taken together these data suggest an absolute requirement for both of the replicase proteins for nucleus-localized synthesis of flavivirus RNA. Thus, we conclusively demonstrate for the first time that the host cell nucleus functions as an additional site for the presence of functionally active flaviviral replicase complex. PMID:16699025

  12. RNA Synthesis in Whole Cells and Protoplasts of Centaurea

    PubMed Central

    Kulikowski, Robert R.; Mascarenhas, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Protoplasts enzymically isolated from suspension cultures of Centaurea cyanus L. incorporate radioactive precursors into RNA with kinetics similar to that of whole cells. There are differences, however, in several other aspects of RNA metabolism. The proportion of total RNA that contains poly(A) sequences (25 to 30%) is similar in both freshly isolated protoplasts and whole cells after a 20-minute pulse with [3H]adenosine. After a 4-hour pulse, however, poly(A)-containing RNA makes up 30% of the total RNA in protoplasts whereas it drops to 8% in whole cells. There appears to be a faulty processing of ribosomal precursor into the mature ribosomal species, as the precursor seems to accumulate to higher levels relative to the mature 18S and 25S rRNAs in protoplasts as compared to whole cells. Additional differences are seen in the size distributions of poly(A)-containing RNA, although the length of the poly(A) segment is similar in both protoplasts and whole cells. Within 24 hours protoplasts appear to have resumed a pattern of RNA synthesis similar to that of whole cells. PMID:16660339

  13. Construction of murine coronavirus mutants containing interspecies chimeric nucleocapsid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Peng, D; Koetzner, C A; McMahon, T; Zhu, Y; Masters, P S

    1995-01-01

    Targeted RNA recombination was used to construct mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) mutants containing chimeric nucleocapsid (N) protein genes in which segments of the bovine coronavirus N gene were substituted in place of their corresponding MHV sequences. This defined portions of the two N proteins that, despite evolutionary divergence, have remained functionally equivalent. These regions included most of the centrally located RNA-binding domain and two putative spacers that link the three domains of the N protein. By contrast, the amino terminus of N, the acidic carboxy-terminal domain, and a serine- and arginine-rich segment of the central domain could not be transferred from bovine coronavirus to MHV, presumably because these parts of the molecule participate in protein-protein interactions that are specific for each virus (or, possibly, each host). Our results demonstrate that targeted recombination can be used to make extensive substitutions in the coronavirus genome and can generate recombinants that could not otherwise be made between two viruses separated by a species barrier. The implications of these findings for N protein structure and function as well as for coronavirus RNA recombination are discussed. PMID:7636993

  14. The Effect of Light and Inhibitors on Chloroplast and Cytoplasmic RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, J.

    1968-01-01

    Chloroplast RNA is synthesized in dark-grown radish cotyledons at about one-third the rate of that in the light. The synthesis, however, continues for longer in the dark and the percentage of chloroplast RNA can approach that in light-grown tissue. Light stimulates the synthesis and accumulation of both cytoplasmic and chloroplast RNA, but shows a 4-fold greater stimulation of the chloroplast RNA. Chloramphenicol, streptomycin and cycloheximide inhibit the synthesis of chloroplast RNA with little effect on cytoplasmic RNA. 5-Fluorouracil inhibits the synthesis of cytoplasmic more than chloroplast RNA. Synthesis of the 0.56 × 106 mol wt chloroplast RNA is inhibited much less than the other ribosomal RNA components by actinomycin D. PMID:5699149

  15. Bovine coronavirus hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    King, B; Potts, B J; Brian, D A

    1985-02-01

    Treatment of purified bovine coronavirus (Mebus strain) with pronase destroyed the integrity of virion surface glycoproteins gp140, gp120, gp100, reduced the amount of gp26 and destroyed the hemagglutinating activity of the virus. Bromelain, on the other hand, destroyed the integrity of gp120, gp100 and gp26 but failed to remove gp140 and failed to destroy viral hemagglutinating activity. These experiments suggest that gp140 is the virion hemagglutinin. Immunoblotting studies using monospecific antiserum demonstrate that gp140 is a disulfide-linked dimeric structure reducible to monomers of 65 kDa.

  16. Role of the lipid rafts in the life cycle of canine coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2015-02-01

    Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses that have evolved complex relationships with their host cells, and modulate their lipid composition, lipid synthesis and signalling. Lipid rafts, enriched in sphingolipids, cholesterol and associated proteins, are special plasma membrane microdomains involved in several processes in viral infections. The extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to lipid rafts. Because cholesterol-rich microdomains appear to be a general feature of the entry mechanism of non-eneveloped viruses and of several coronaviruses, the purpose of this study was to analyse the contribution of lipids to the infectivity of canine coronavirus (CCoV). The CCoV life cycle is closely connected to plasma membrane cholesterol, from cell entry to viral particle production. The methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) was employed to remove cholesterol and to disrupt the lipid rafts. Cholesterol depletion from the cell membrane resulted in a dose-dependent reduction, but not abolishment, of virus infectivity, and at a concentration of 15 mM, the reduction in the infection rate was about 68 %. MβCD treatment was used to verify if cholesterol in the envelope was required for CCoV infection. This resulted in a dose-dependent inhibitory effect, and at a concentration of 9 mM MβCD, infectivity was reduced by about 73 %. Since viral entry would constitute a target for antiviral strategies, inhibitory molecules interacting with viral and/or cell membranes, or interfering with lipid metabolism, may have strong antiviral potential. It will be interesting in the future to analyse the membrane microdomains in the CCoV envelope.

  17. Primer-Dependent and Primer-Independent Initiation of Double Stranded RNA Synthesis by Purified Arabidopsis RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases RDR2 and RDR6

    PubMed Central

    Devert, Anthony; Fabre, Nicolas; Floris, Maïna; Canard, Bruno; Robaglia, Christophe; Crété, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are fundamental components of RNA silencing in plants and many other eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana genetic studies have demonstrated that RDR2 and RDR6 are involved in the synthesis of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) from single stranded RNA (ssRNA) targeted by RNA silencing. The dsRNA is subsequently cleaved by the ribonuclease DICER-like into secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that reinforce and/or maintain the silenced state of the target RNA. Models of RNA silencing propose that RDRs could use primer-independent and primer-dependent initiation to generate dsRNA from a transcript targeted by primary siRNA or microRNA (miRNA). However, the biochemical activities of RDR proteins are still partly understood. Here, we obtained active recombinant RDR2 and RDR6 in a purified form. We demonstrate that RDR2 and RDR6 have primer-independent and primer-dependent RNA polymerase activities with different efficiencies. We further show that RDR2 and RDR6 can initiate dsRNA synthesis either by elongation of 21- to 24- nucleotides RNAs hybridized to complementary RNA template or by elongation of self-primed RNA template. These findings provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of RNA silencing in plants. PMID:25793874

  18. Primer-dependent and primer-independent initiation of double stranded RNA synthesis by purified Arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerases RDR2 and RDR6.

    PubMed

    Devert, Anthony; Fabre, Nicolas; Floris, Maïna; Canard, Bruno; Robaglia, Christophe; Crété, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) are fundamental components of RNA silencing in plants and many other eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis thaliana genetic studies have demonstrated that RDR2 and RDR6 are involved in the synthesis of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) from single stranded RNA (ssRNA) targeted by RNA silencing. The dsRNA is subsequently cleaved by the ribonuclease DICER-like into secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that reinforce and/or maintain the silenced state of the target RNA. Models of RNA silencing propose that RDRs could use primer-independent and primer-dependent initiation to generate dsRNA from a transcript targeted by primary siRNA or microRNA (miRNA). However, the biochemical activities of RDR proteins are still partly understood. Here, we obtained active recombinant RDR2 and RDR6 in a purified form. We demonstrate that RDR2 and RDR6 have primer-independent and primer-dependent RNA polymerase activities with different efficiencies. We further show that RDR2 and RDR6 can initiate dsRNA synthesis either by elongation of 21- to 24- nucleotides RNAs hybridized to complementary RNA template or by elongation of self-primed RNA template. These findings provide new insights into our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of RNA silencing in plants. PMID:25793874

  19. Alphavirus RNA synthesis and non-structural protein functions

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Jonathan C.; Sokoloski, Kevin J.; Gebhart, Natasha N.

    2015-01-01

    The members of the genus Alphavirus are positive-sense RNA viruses, which are predominantly transmitted to vertebrates by a mosquito vector. Alphavirus disease in humans can be severely debilitating, and depending on the particular viral species, infection may result in encephalitis and possibly death. In recent years, alphaviruses have received significant attention from public health authorities as a consequence of the dramatic emergence of chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean islands and the Caribbean. Currently, no safe, approved or effective vaccine or antiviral intervention exists for human alphavirus infection. The molecular biology of alphavirus RNA synthesis has been well studied in a few species of the genus and represents a general target for antiviral drug development. This review describes what is currently understood about the regulation of alphavirus RNA synthesis, the roles of the viral non-structural proteins in this process and the functions of cis-acting RNA elements in replication, and points to open questions within the field. PMID:26219641

  20. A new gene in E. coli RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liebke, H H; Speyer, J F

    1983-01-01

    A novel spontaneous temperature sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli, which stops synthesizing stable RNA and some proteins immediately upon temperature shift from 30 degrees C to 42 degrees C, is described. Stable RNA species are not preferentially degraded in the mutant at the nonpermissive temperature. The guanine polyphosphate compounds, ppGpp (MS1) and pppGpp (MS2), are not produced at 42 degrees C. The mutant strain does not grow at 42 degrees C in either broth or defined minimal medium supplemented with any of a variety of carbon sources. The temperature sensitive mutation in this strain maps between dap A, E and pts I and defines a new locus affecting RNA synthesis in E. coli.

  1. Synthesis of Glu-tRNA(Gln) by engineered and natural aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Annia; Bhaskaran, Hari; Hadd, Andrew; Perona, John J

    2010-08-10

    A protein engineering approach to delineating which distinct elements of homologous tRNA synthetase architectures are responsible for divergent RNA-amino acid pairing specificities is described. Previously, we constructed a hybrid enzyme in which 23 amino acids from the catalytic domain of Escherichia coli glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS) were replaced with the corresponding residues of human glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS). The engineered hybrid (GlnRS S1/L1/L2) synthesizes Glu-tRNA(Gln) more than 10(4)-fold more efficiently than GlnRS. Detailed comparison of kinetic parameters between GlnRS S1/L1/L2 and the naturally occurring Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus GluRS(ND), which is also capable of Glu-tRNA(Gln) synthesis, now shows that both k(cat) and K(m) for glutamate are recapitulated in the engineered enzyme, but that K(m) for tRNA is 200-fold higher. Thus, the simultaneous optimization of paired amino acid and tRNA binding sites found in a naturally occurring enzyme is not recapitulated in a hybrid that is successfully engineered for amino acid complementarity. We infer that the GlnRS architecture has differentiated to match only cognate amino acid-RNA pairs, and that the substrate selection functions do not operate independently of each other. Design and characterization of four additional hybrids identify further residues involved in improving complementarity for glutamate and in communicating between amino acid and tRNA binding sites. The robust catalytic function demonstrated in this engineered system offers a novel platform for exploring the stereochemical origins of coding as a property of the ancient Rossmann fold.

  2. In Vitro Synthesis of Rous Sarcoma Virus-Specific RNA is Catalyzed by a DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rymo, L.; Parsons, J. T.; Coffin, J. M.; Weissmann, C.

    1974-01-01

    Synthesis of Rous sarcoma virus RNA was examined in vitro with a new assay for radioactive virus-specific RNA. Nuclei from infected and uninfected cells were incubated with ribonucleoside [α-32P]triphosphates, Mn++, Mg++ and (NH4)2SO4. Incorporation into total and viral RNA proceeded with similar kinetics for up to 25 min at 37°. About 0.5% of the RNA synthesized by the infected system was scored as virus-specific, compared to 0.03% of the RNA from the uninfected system and 0.005% of the RNA synthesized by monkey kidney cell nuclei. Preincubation with DNase or actinomycin D completely suppressed total and virus-specific RNA synthesis. α-Amanitin, a specific inhibitor of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, completely inhibited virus-specific RNA synthesis, while reducing total RNA synthesis by only 50%. We conclude that tumor virus-specific RNA is synthesized on a DNA template, most probably by the host's RNA polymerase II. PMID:4368801

  3. pp32 and APRIL are host cell-derived regulators of influenza virus RNA synthesis from cRNA

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2015-01-01

    Replication of influenza viral genomic RNA (vRNA) is catalyzed by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRP). Complementary RNA (cRNA) is first copied from vRNA, and progeny vRNAs are then amplified from the cRNA. Although vRdRP and viral RNA are minimal requirements, efficient cell-free replication could not be reproduced using only these viral factors. Using a biochemical complementation assay system, we found a novel activity in the nuclear extracts of uninfected cells, designated IREF-2, that allows robust unprimed vRNA synthesis from a cRNA template. IREF-2 was shown to consist of host-derived proteins, pp32 and APRIL. IREF-2 interacts with a free form of vRdRP and preferentially upregulates vRNA synthesis rather than cRNA synthesis. Knockdown experiments indicated that IREF-2 is involved in in vivo viral replication. On the basis of these results and those of previous studies, a plausible role(s) for IREF-2 during the initiation processes of vRNA replication is discussed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08939.001 PMID:26512887

  4. From SARS coronavirus to novel animal and human coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    To, Kelvin K. W.; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Jasper F. W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused one of the most devastating epidemics known to the developed world. There were two important lessons from this epidemic. Firstly, coronaviruses, in addition to influenza viruses, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. Secondly, bats can serve as the origin and natural animal reservoir of deadly human viruses. Since then, researchers around the world, especially those in Asia where SARS-CoV was first identified, have turned their focus to find novel coronaviruses infecting humans, bats, and other animals. Two human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63, were identified shortly after the SARS-CoV epidemic as common causes of human respiratory tract infections. In 2012, a novel human coronavirus, now called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in the Middle East to cause fatal human infections in three continents. MERS-CoV human infection is similar to SARS-CoV in having a high fatality rate and the ability to spread from person to person which resulted in secondary cases among close contacts including healthcare workers without travel history to the Middle East. Both viruses also have close relationships with bat coronaviruses. New cases of MERS-CoV infection in humans continue to occur with the origins of the virus still unknown in many cases. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control this evolving MERS-CoV outbreak. Source identification requires detailed epidemiological studies of the infected patients and enhanced surveillance of MERS-CoV or similar coronaviruses in humans and animals. Early diagnosis of infected patients and appropriate infection control measures will limit the spread in hospitals, while social distancing strategies may be necessary to control the outbreak in communities if it remained uncontrolled as in the SARS epidemic. PMID:23977429

  5. Neotropical Bats from Costa Rica harbour Diverse Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Soto, A; Taylor-Castillo, L; Vargas-Vargas, N; Rodríguez-Herrera, B; Jiménez, C; Corrales-Aguilar, E

    2015-11-01

    Bats are hosts of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) known to potentially cross the host-species barrier. For analysing coronavirus diversity in a bat species-rich country, a total of 421 anal swabs/faecal samples from Costa Rican bats were screened for CoV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene sequences by a pancoronavirus PCR. Six families, 24 genera and 41 species of bats were analysed. The detection rate for CoV was 1%. Individuals (n = 4) from four different species of frugivorous (Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata and Carollia castanea) and nectivorous (Glossophaga soricina) bats were positive for coronavirus-derived nucleic acids. Analysis of 440 nt. RdRp sequences allocated all Costa Rican bat CoVs to the α-CoV group. Several CoVs sequences clustered near previously described CoVs from the same species of bat, but were phylogenetically distant from the human CoV sequences identified to date, suggesting no recent spillover events. The Glossophaga soricina CoV sequence is sufficiently dissimilar (26% homology to the closest known bat CoVs) to represent a unique coronavirus not clustering near other CoVs found in the same bat species so far, implying an even higher CoV diversity than previously suspected.

  6. [Nosocomial infections due to human coronaviruses in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Gagneur, A; Legrand, M C; Picard, B; Baron, R; Talbot, P J; de Parscau, L; Sizun, J

    2002-01-01

    Human coronaviruses, with two known serogroups named 229-E and OC-43, are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The large RNA is surrounded by a nucleoprotein (protein N). The envelop contains 2 or 3 glycoproteins: spike protein (or protein S), matrix protein (or protein M) and a hemagglutinin (or protein HE). Their pathogen role remains unclear because their isolation is difficult. Reliable and rapid methods as immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction allow new researches on epidemiology. Human coronaviruses can survive for as long as 6 days in suspension and 3 hours after drying on surfaces, suggesting that they could be a source of hospital-acquired infections. Two prospective studies conducted in a neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit demonstrated a significant association of coronavirus-positive nasopharyngal samples with respiratory illness in hospitalised preterm neonates. Positive samples from staff suggested either a patient-to-staff or a staff-to-patient transmission. No cross-infection were observed from community-acquired respiratory-syncitial virus or influenza-infected children to neonates. Universal precautions with hand washing and surface desinfection could be proposed to prevent coronavirus transmission.

  7. Synthesis of stable aminoacyl-tRNA analogs.

    PubMed

    Chemama, Maryline; Fonvielle, Matthieu; Lecerf, Maxime; Mellal, Dénia; Fief, Hélène; Arthur, Michel; Etheve-Quelquejeu, Mélanie

    2011-03-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNAs have important roles in a variety of biological processes. Here, we describe the synthesis of stable aminoacyl-tRNA analogs containing 1,4-substituted 1,2,3-triazole rings. The procedure involves (i) copper-catalyzed cycloadditions of 3'-or 2'-azido-adenosine and alkynes, (ii) coupling between the resulting triazole-deoxyadenosine derivatives and a deoxycytidine phosphoramidite, and (iii) the enzymatic ligation of the 2'- or 3'-triazole-dinucleotides with a 22-nt RNA microhelix that mimics the acceptor arm of tRNA. Each nucleoside and nucleotide intermediate was characterized by MS spectrometry and (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, and the tRNA-analogs were assayed for inhibition of FemXWv, an alanyl-transferase essential for the formation of the peptidoglycan network of Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. The low IC(50) values obtained (2 to 4 µM) indicate that the five-membered triazole rings acted as an isosteres of esters and can be used for the design of stable aminoacyl-tRNA analogs.

  8. Inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro by 9-aminoacridine carboxamide antitumor agents. Effects on overall RNA synthesis and synthesis of the initiating dinucleotide.

    PubMed

    Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Czyz, M; Denny, W A; Gniazdowski, M

    1990-01-01

    A series of 9-aminoacridine carboxamide derivatives of systematically varied structure was assayed in an RNA synthesis in vitro system. Escherichia coli DNA-dependent RNA polymerase and DNA derived from phage T7 or calf thymus were used to measure the effect of the drugs on overall RNA and the initiating dinucleotide (pppApU) syntheses. By means of multiple linear regression analysis it was shown that the inhibition of these reactions depends both on the drug equilibrium binding constant and kinetic parameters of dissociation of drug-DNA complexes. PMID:1705740

  9. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of 7-O-arylmethylquercetin derivatives against SARS-associated coronavirus (SCV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

    PubMed

    Park, Hye Ri; Yoon, Hyunjun; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Sung Dae; Chong, Youhoon

    2012-01-01

    Aryl diketoacid (ADK) is well known for antiviral activity which can be enhanced by introduction of an aromatic arylmethyl substituent. A natural flavonoid quercetin has a 3,5-dihydroxychromone pharmacophore which is in bioisosteric relationship with the 1,3-diketoacid moiety of the ADK. Thus, it was of our interest to test the antiviral activity of the quercetin derivatives with an arylmethyl group attached. In this study, we prepared a series of the 7-O-arylmethylquercetin derivatives with various aromatic substituents and evaluated their antiviral activity against the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV, SCV) as well as hepatitis C virus (HCV). Single difference in the aromatic substituent fine-tuned the biological activity of the 7-O-arylmethylquercetin derivatives to result in two different classes of derivatives selectively active against SCV and HCV.

  10. A Bat-Derived Putative Cross-Family Recombinant Coronavirus with a Reovirus Gene

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yi; Ji, Wei; Jia, Hao; Zhou, Yongming; Wen, Honghua; Zhao, Honglan; Liu, Huaxing; Li, Hong; Wang, Qihui; Wu, Ying; Wang, Liang; Liu, Di; Liu, Guang; Yu, Hongjie; Holmes, Edward C.; Lu, Lin; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 has generated enormous interest in the biodiversity, genomics and cross-species transmission potential of coronaviruses, especially those from bats, the second most speciose order of mammals. Herein, we identified a novel coronavirus, provisionally designated Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 (Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1), in the rectal swab samples of Rousettus leschenaulti bats by using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Although the virus is similar to Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 (Ro-BatCoV HKU9) in genome characteristics, it is sufficiently distinct to be classified as a new species according to the criteria defined by the International Committee of Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). More striking was that Ro-BatCoV GCCDC1 contained a unique gene integrated into the 3’-end of the genome that has no homologs in any known coronavirus, but which sequence and phylogeny analyses indicated most likely originated from the p10 gene of a bat orthoreovirus. Subgenomic mRNA and cellular-level observations demonstrated that the p10 gene is functional and induces the formation of cell syncytia. Therefore, here we report a putative heterologous inter-family recombination event between a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus and a double-stranded segmented RNA virus, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of viral evolution. PMID:27676249

  11. Lanthanide cofactors accelerate DNA-catalyzed synthesis of branched RNA.

    PubMed

    Javadi-Zarnaghi, Fatemeh; Höbartner, Claudia

    2013-08-28

    Most deoxyribozymes (DNA catalysts) require metal ions as cofactors for catalytic activity, with Mg(2+), Mn(2+), and Zn(2+) being the most represented activators. Trivalent transition-metal ions have been less frequently considered. Rare earth ions offer attractive properties for studying metal ion binding by biochemical and spectroscopic methods. Here we report the effect of lanthanide cofactors, in particular terbium (Tb(3+)), for DNA-catalyzed synthesis of 2',5'-branched RNA. We found up to 10(4)-fold increased ligation rates for the 9F7 deoxribozyme using 100 μM Tb(3+) and 7 mM Mg(2+), compared to performing the reaction with 7 mM Mg(2+) alone. Combinatorial mutation interference analysis (CoMA) was used to identify nucleotides in the catalytic region of 9F7 that are essential for ligation activity with different metal ion combinations. A minimized version of the DNA enzyme sustained high levels of Tb(3+)-assisted activity. Sensitized luminescence of Tb(3+) bound to DNA in combination with DMS probing and DNase I footprinting results supported the CoMA data. The accelerating effect of Tb(3+) was confirmed for related RNA-ligating deoxyribozymes, pointing toward favorable activation of internal 2'-OH nucleophiles. The results of this study offer fundamental insights into nucleotide requirements for DNA-catalyzed RNA ligation and will be beneficial for practical applications that utilize 2',5'-branched RNA.

  12. An intrinsically disordered peptide from Ebola virus VP35 controls viral RNA synthesis by modulating nucleoprotein-RNA interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Daisy  W.; Borek, Dominika; Luthra, Priya; Binning, Jennifer  M.; Anantpadma, Manu; Liu, Gai; Harvey, Ian B.; Su, Zhaoming; Endlich-Frazier, Ariel; Pan, Juanli; Shabman, Reed  S.; Chiu, Wah; Davey, Robert  A.; Otwinowski, Zbyszek; Basler, Christopher  F.; Amarasinghe, Gaya  K.

    2015-04-01

    During viral RNA synthesis, Ebola virus (EBOV) nucleoprotein (NP) alternates between an RNA-template-bound form and a template-free form to provide the viral polymerase access to the RNA template. In addition, newly synthesized NP must be prevented from indiscriminately binding to noncognate RNAs. Here, we investigate the molecular bases for these critical processes. We identify an intrinsically disordered peptide derived from EBOV VP35 (NPBP, residues 20–48) that binds NP with high affinity and specificity, inhibits NP oligomerization, and releases RNA from NP-RNA complexes in vitro. The structure of the NPBP/ΔNPNTD complex, solved to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals how NPBP peptide occludes a large surface area that is important for NP-NP and NP-RNA interactions and for viral RNA synthesis. Together, our results identify a highly conserved viral interface that is important for EBOV replication and can be targeted for therapeutic development.

  13. Internal initiation is responsible for synthesis of Wuhan nodavirus subgenomic RNA.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yang; Cai, Dawei; Qi, Nan; Wang, Zhaowei; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Jiamin; Hu, Yuanyang

    2011-05-01

    Nodaviruses are small nonenveloped spherical viruses with a bipartite genome of RNAs. In nodaviruses, subgenomic RNA3 (sgRNA3) plays a critical role in viral replication and survival, as it coordinates the replication of two viral genomic RNAs (RNA1 and RNA2) and encodes protein B2, which is a potent RNA-silencing inhibitor. Despite its importance, the molecular mechanism of nodaviral sgRNA3 synthesis is still poorly understood. Here, we propose that sgRNA3 of Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) is internally initiated from a promoter on the negative template of genomic RNA1. Serial deletion and mutation analyses further revealed that the core promoter of WhNV sgRNA3 is between nucleotide positions -22 and +6 of its transcription start site. Besides, a stem-loop structure of WhNV sgRNA3 was computationally predicted upstream of sgRNA3's transcription start site. Both the secondary structure and the primary sequence were determined to be required for promoter activity. Furthermore, our results show that the synthesis of WhNV sgRNA3 is counterregulated by the replication of WhNV genomic RNA2, which encodes a viral capsid precursor protein. And this sgRNA3 synthesis is also able to trans-activate the replication of RNA2. Altogether, findings in this study indicate that there is a newly discovered internal initiation model for the synthesis of nodaviral sgRNA. PMID:21325414

  14. Identification of a domain required for autoproteolytic cleavage of murine coronavirus gene A polyprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S C; Shieh, C K; Soe, L H; Chang, M F; Vannier, D M; Lai, M M

    1989-01-01

    The 5'-most gene of the murine coronavirus genome, gene A, is presumed to encode viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It has previously been shown that the N-terminal portion of this gene product is cleaved into a protein of 28 kilodaltons (p28). To further understand the mechanism of synthesis of the p28 protein, cDNA clones representing the 5'-most 5.3 kilobases of murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM were sequenced and subcloned into pT7 vectors from which RNAs were transcribed and translated in vitro. The sequence was found to encode a single long open reading frame continuing from near the 5' terminus of the genome. Although p28 is encoded from the first 1 kilobase at the 5' end of the genome, translation of in vitro-transcribed RNAs indicated that this protein was not detected unless the product of the entire 5.3-kilobase region was synthesized. Translation of RNAs of 3.9 kilobases or smaller yielded proteins which contained the p28 sequence, but p28 was not cleaved. This suggests that the sequence in the region between 3.9 and 5.3 kilobases from the 5' end of the genomic RNA is essential for proteolytic cleavage and contains autoproteolytic activity. The p28 protein could not be cleaved from the smaller primary translation products of gene A, even in the presence of the larger autocleaving protein. Cleavage of the p28 protein was inhibited by addition of the protease inhibitor ZnCl2. This study thus identified a protein domain essential for autoproteolytic cleavage of the gene A polyprotein. Images PMID:2547993

  15. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens. PMID:26920708

  16. Stochastic mRNA synthesis in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Raj, Arjun; Peskin, Charles S; Tranchina, Daniel; Vargas, Diana Y; Tyagi, Sanjay

    2006-10-01

    Individual cells in genetically homogeneous populations have been found to express different numbers of molecules of specific proteins. We investigated the origins of these variations in mammalian cells by counting individual molecules of mRNA produced from a reporter gene that was stably integrated into the cell's genome. We found that there are massive variations in the number of mRNA molecules present in each cell. These variations occur because mRNAs are synthesized in short but intense bursts of transcription beginning when the gene transitions from an inactive to an active state and ending when they transition back to the inactive state. We show that these transitions are intrinsically random and not due to global, extrinsic factors such as the levels of transcriptional activators. Moreover, the gene activation causes burst-like expression of all genes within a wider genomic locus. We further found that bursts are also exhibited in the synthesis of natural genes. The bursts of mRNA expression can be buffered at the protein level by slow protein degradation rates. A stochastic model of gene activation and inactivation was developed to explain the statistical properties of the bursts. The model showed that increasing the level of transcription factors increases the average size of the bursts rather than their frequency. These results demonstrate that gene expression in mammalian cells is subject to large, intrinsically random fluctuations and raise questions about how cells are able to function in the face of such noise. PMID:17048983

  17. Origins of tmRNA: the missing link in the birth of protein synthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Macé, Kevin; Gillet, Reynald

    2016-01-01

    The RNA world hypothesis refers to the early period on earth in which RNA was central in assuring both genetic continuity and catalysis. The end of this era coincided with the development of the genetic code and protein synthesis, symbolized by the apparition of the first non-random messenger RNA (mRNA). Modern transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is a unique hybrid molecule which has the properties of both mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA). It acts as a key molecule during trans-translation, a major quality control pathway of modern bacterial protein synthesis. tmRNA shares many common characteristics with ancestral RNA. Here, we present a model in which proto-tmRNAs were the first molecules on earth to support non-random protein synthesis, explaining the emergence of early genetic code. In this way, proto-tmRNA could be the missing link between the first mRNA and tRNA molecules and modern ribosome-mediated protein synthesis. PMID:27484476

  18. Origins of tmRNA: the missing link in the birth of protein synthesis?

    PubMed

    Macé, Kevin; Gillet, Reynald

    2016-09-30

    The RNA world hypothesis refers to the early period on earth in which RNA was central in assuring both genetic continuity and catalysis. The end of this era coincided with the development of the genetic code and protein synthesis, symbolized by the apparition of the first non-random messenger RNA (mRNA). Modern transfer-messenger RNA (tmRNA) is a unique hybrid molecule which has the properties of both mRNA and transfer RNA (tRNA). It acts as a key molecule during trans-translation, a major quality control pathway of modern bacterial protein synthesis. tmRNA shares many common characteristics with ancestral RNA. Here, we present a model in which proto-tmRNAs were the first molecules on earth to support non-random protein synthesis, explaining the emergence of early genetic code. In this way, proto-tmRNA could be the missing link between the first mRNA and tRNA molecules and modern ribosome-mediated protein synthesis.

  19. Relationship between RNA synthesis and the Ca2+-filled state of the nuclear envelope store.

    PubMed

    Benech, Juan Claudio; Escande, Carlos; Sotelo, José Roberto

    2005-08-01

    RNA synthesis and ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) uptake were measured simultaneously in isolated nuclear fraction of rat liver nuclei. Maximal level of RNA synthesis was obtained under ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+)-uptake conditions (1 microM free [Ca(2+)] and 1 mM ATP in the bathing solution). This experimental condition was defined as "stimulated nuclei" condition. ATP-dependent (45)Ca(2+) uptake was inhibited using different strategies including: (a) eliminating Ca(2+) (1 mM EGTA); (b) lowering the ATP concentration; (c) modifying nuclear envelope membranes Ca(2+) permeability (Ca(2+) ionophores); or (d) inhibiting the nuclear Ca(2+) pump (thapsigargin and 3',3'',5',5''-tetraiodophenolsulfonephthalein). Under all the above conditions, RNA synthesis was lower than in "stimulated nuclei" condition. In the presence of ionomycin, RNA synthesis was significantly higher at 500 nM free [Ca(2+)], as compared with RNA synthesis in a Ca(2+)-free medium or at 1muM free [Ca(2+)]. However, even in such condition (500 nM free [Ca(2+)]), RNA synthesis was lower than RNA synthesis obtained in "stimulated nuclei" condition. We suggest two components for the effect of Ca(2+) on RNA synthesis: (A) a direct effect of nucleoplasmic [Ca(2+)]; and (B) an effect dependent on the accumulation of Ca(2+) in the nuclear envelope store mediated by the SERCA nuclear Ca(2+) pump.

  20. Procollagen mRNA metabolism during the fibroblast cell cycle and its synthesis in transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Parker, I; Fitschen, W

    1980-06-25

    Procollagen mRNA was isolated from mouse embryos and used for the synthesis of a highly labelled cDNA probe complementary to collagen mRNA. This probe was used for the investigation of procollagen mRNA metabolism during the cell cycle of 3T6 mouse embryo fibroblasts in culture. Titration hybridization experiments revealed that procollagen mRNA was present throughout the cell cycle following stumulation of confluent monolayers. Procollagen mRNA levels of sparse cultures appeared similar to those of unstimulated monolayers. The fluctuating levels of collagen synthesis during the cell cycle can be ascribed to changes in the amount of collagen mRNA present. In mouse sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells only 20--30% of the amount of procollagen mRNA in 3T3 cells is present indicating that the decline in collagen synthesis is due to mRNA availability.

  1. [Interrelationships in experiments in vitro between the migration activity of leukocytes and RNA and DNA synthesis].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, P G; Volgarev, A P; Ermakov, S A

    1978-06-01

    The following correlations were revealed in the parallel study of leukocyte migration in vitro in the presence of a specific antigen and of spontaneous RNA and DNA synthesis in the cultured lymphocytes: 1) a direct correlation between the RNA and DNA synthesis in lymphocytes; 2) a close correlation between the antigen-induced migration and the levels of RNA and DNA synthesis. The effect of the antigen was evidenced by the inhibition or stimulation of leukocyte migration. A high ratio of RNA synthesis to DNA synthesis corresponded to the migration inhibition and a low one--to the migration stimulation. The ratio value varied mainly on account of the changes in the level of DNA synthesis. Participation of T and B cells in the regulation of the antigen-induced leukocyte mobility is discussed. PMID:352440

  2. Quantitative analysis of RNA cleavage during RNA-directed DNA synthesis by human immunodeficiency and avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptases.

    PubMed Central

    DeStefano, J J; Mallaber, L M; Fay, P J; Bambara, R A

    1994-01-01

    We have determined the extent of RNA cleavage carried out during DNA synthesis by either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) reverse transcriptases (RTs). Conditions were chosen that allowed the analysis of the cleavage and synthesis performed by the RT during one binding event on a given template-primer. The maximum quantity of ribonuclease H (RNase H) sensitive template RNA left after synthesis by the RTs was determined by treatment with Escherichia coli RNase H. RNA cleavage products that were expected to be too short to remain hybridized, less than 13 nucleotides in length, were quantitated. Results showed that HIV- and AMV-RT degraded about 80% and less than 20%, respectively, of the potentially degradable RNA to these short products. Survival of longer, hybridized RNA was not a result of synthesis by a population of RTs that had selectively lost RNase H activity. Using an assay that evaluated the proportion of primers extended versus RNA templates cleaved during primer-extension by the RTs, we determined that essentially each molecule of HIV- and AMV-RT with polymerase also has RNase H activity. The results indicate that although both HIV- and AMV-RTs cleave the RNA template during synthesis, the number of cleavages per nucleotide addition with HIV-RT is much greater. They also suggest that some hybridized RNA segments remain right after the passage of the RT making the first DNA strand. In vivo, these segments would have to be cleaved or displaced in later reactions before second strand DNA synthesis could be completed. Images PMID:7524028

  3. The mechanism of montmorillonite catalysis in RNA synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash

    The formation of complex prebiotic molecules on the early Earth is likely to have involved a component of mineral catalysis. Amongst the variety of clay minerals that have been investigated by us for their ability to catalyze the formation of RNA oligomers is montmorillonite. These are 2:1 layer silicates that have a wide range of chemical compositions [(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Fe,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2.nH2O]. They are commonly produced by the weathering of silicic volcanic ashes to form Bentonite. Once formed, montmorillonites gradually transform to Illites at a modest pressure and temperature. Of the many samples of montmorillonite that we have experimentally examined, a selected subset has been observed to be catalytic for RNA synthesis (Joshi et. al., 2009; Aldersley et al., 2011). Those that have been observed to be excellent catalysts come from a restricted range of elemental compositions. The recent identification of phyllosilicates including montmorillonite on Mars (Bishop et al., 2008) raises the possibility that such processes may have taken place there too. The extent of catalysis depended not only upon the magnitude of the negative charge on the montmorillonite lattice and the number of cations associated with it, but also on the pH at which the reaction is promoted. The isotherm and catalysis studies were extended to provide binding information and catalytic outcomes over a wide pH range. When cations in raw montmorillonite are completely replaced by sodium ions, the resulting Na+-montmorillonite does not catalyze oligomer formation because the ions saturate the interlayer between the platelets of montmorillonite, which blocks the binding of the activated monomers. Acid washed montmorillonite titrated to pH 6-8 with alkali metal ions, serves as the model catalyst for this RNA synthesis (Aldersley et. al., 2011). The optimal binding occurred in the region of maximal oligomer formation. X-ray diffraction studies revealed changes in layer separations of

  4. Myelin basic protein synthesis is regulated by small non-coding RNA 715.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nina M; Moos, Christina; van Horssen, Jack; Witte, Maarten; van der Valk, Paul; Altenhein, Benjamin; Luhmann, Heiko J; White, Robin

    2012-09-01

    Oligodendroglial Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) synthesis is essential for myelin formation in the central nervous system. During oligodendrocyte differentiation, MBP mRNA is kept in a translationally silenced state while intracellularly transported, until neuron-derived signals initiate localized MBP translation. Here we identify the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as an inhibitor of MBP translation. SncRNA715 localizes to cytoplasmic granular structures and associates with MBP mRNA transport granule components. We also detect increased levels of sncRNA715 in demyelinated chronic human multiple sclerosis lesions, which contain MBP mRNA but lack MBP protein.

  5. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target.

  6. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase

    PubMed Central

    Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5′-to-3′ direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5′ loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  7. Biochemical Characterization of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Helicase.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Adeyemi O; Lazarus, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) helicase is a superfamily 1 helicase containing seven conserved motifs. We have cloned, expressed, and purified a Strep-fused recombinant MERS-CoV nonstructural protein 13 (M-nsp13) helicase. Characterization of its biochemical properties showed that it unwound DNA and RNA similarly to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV nsp13 (S-nsp13) helicase. We showed that M-nsp13 unwound in a 5'-to-3' direction and efficiently unwound the partially duplex RNA substrates with a long loading strand relative to those of the RNA substrates with a short or no loading strand. Moreover, the Km of ATP for M-nsp13 is inversely proportional to the length of the 5' loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrates. Finally, we also showed that the rate of unwinding (ku) of M-nsp13 is directly proportional to the length of the 5' loading strand of the partially duplex RNA substrate. These results provide insights that enhance our understanding of the biochemical properties of M-nsp13. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans in the Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and the United States of America. Helicases are motor proteins that catalyze the processive separation of double-stranded nucleic acids into two single-stranded nucleic acids by utilizing the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis. MERS-CoV helicase is one of the most important viral replication enzymes of this coronavirus. Herein, we report the first bacterial expression, enzyme purification, and biochemical characterization of MERS-CoV helicase. The knowledge obtained from this study might be used to identify an inhibitor of MERS-CoV replication, and the helicase might be used as a therapeutic target. PMID:27631026

  8. Detection of Coronaviruses in Bats of Various Species in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Lelli, Davide; Papetti, Alice; Sabelli, Cristiano; Rosti, Enrica; Moreno, Ana; Boniotti, Maria B.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are natural reservoirs for many mammalian coronaviruses, which have received renewed interest after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) CoV in humans. This study describes the identification and molecular characterization of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in bats in Italy, from 2010 to 2012. Sixty-nine faecal samples and 126 carcasses were tested using pan-coronavirus RT-PCR. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in seven faecal samples and nine carcasses. A phylogenetic analysis of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase sequence fragments aided in identifying two alphacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle (Pipistrellus kuhlii), three clade 2b betacoronaviruses from lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros), and 10 clade 2c betacoronaviruses from Kuhl’s pipistrelle, common noctule (Nyctalus noctula), and Savi’s pipistrelle (Hypsugo savii). This study fills a substantive gap in the knowledge on bat-CoV ecology in Italy, and extends the current knowledge on clade 2c betacoronaviruses with new sequences obtained from bats that have not been previously described as hosts of these viruses. PMID:24184965

  9. Interacting RNA polymerase motors on a DNA track: effects of traffic congestion and intrinsic noise on RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Tripti; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2008-01-01

    RNA polymerase (RNAP) is an enzyme that synthesizes a messenger RNA (mRNA) strand which is complementary to a single-stranded DNA template. From the perspective of physicists, an RNAP is a molecular motor that utilizes chemical energy input to move along the track formed by DNA. In many circumstances, which are described in this paper, a large number of RNAPs move simultaneously along the same track; we refer to such collective movements of the RNAPs as RNAP traffic. Here we develop a theoretical model for RNAP traffic by incorporating the steric interactions between RNAPs as well as the mechanochemical cycle of individual RNAPs during the elongation of the mRNA. By a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we calculate the rates of mRNA synthesis and the average density profile of the RNAPs on the DNA track. We also introduce, and compute, two different measures of fluctuations in the synthesis of RNA. Analyzing these fluctuations, we show how the level of intrinsic noise in mRNA synthesis depends on the concentrations of the RNAPs as well as on those of some of the reactants and the products of the enzymatic reactions catalyzed by RNAP. We suggest appropriate experimental systems and techniques for testing our theoretical predictions. PMID:18351890

  10. Regulation of cardiac myosin synthesis: Studies of RNA content in cultured heart cells

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, P.; Whitaker-Dowling, P.; Klein, I. Cornell Univ., New York, NY )

    1987-11-01

    Contraction regulates the myosin content and the rate of myosin synthesis in cultured neonatal rat heart cells. To further explore the mechanism for this regulation the authors examined various parameters of RNA content and RNA synthesis in contracting versus noncontracting myocytes. While contraction stimulated myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis by 72% compared to that of KCl-arrested cells, simultaneous analyses of polysome profiles were no different under the two culture conditions. Incorporation of ({sup 3}H) uridine monophosphate into cellular RNA revealed no change in the rate of total RNA or ribosomal subunits synthesis. In vitro translation of cellular RNA yielded similar incorporation of ({sup 35}S) methionine not trichloroacetic acid precipitable protein. Specific transcription of the MHC gene was examined by dot-blot analysis and was unaltered by contraction. Northern blot analysis of the MHC sequences detected by a cDNA probe revealed an mRNA sequence corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 30 S. These data suggest that RNA synthesis and RNA content are unaltered by contraction in cultured heart cells and therefore the changes in myosin synthesis may be mediated at a post-transcriptional control level.

  11. Synthesis and Purification of a Hammerhead Ribozyme and a Fluorescein-Labeled RNA Substrate. A Biochemistry Laboratory: Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Christine S.; Somne, Smita

    1999-05-01

    The applications of in vitro transcription and chemical synthesis of RNA are discussed. This laboratory describes the in vitro synthesis of a 38-nucleotide hammerhead ribozyme and the synthesis of a 17-nucleotide fluorescein-labeled RNA substrate by using standard phosphoramidite methodologies, two widely used methods in modern RNA research. The synthesis and purification procedures outlined allow students to develop an understanding of RNA handling procedures, synthesis of modified nucleic acids, gel electrophoresis, visualization of RNA by nonradioactive techniques, and quantitation of nucleic acids. The RNAs that are synthesized have applications in biotechnology and medicine; thus the students gain access to current problems in chemical and clinical research.

  12. Animal models for SARS and MERS coronaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Gretebeck, Lisa M; Subbarao, Kanta

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), two strains of animal coronaviruses that crossed the species barrier to infect and cause severe respiratory infections in humans within the last 12 years, have taught us that coronaviruses represent a global threat that does not recognize international borders. We can expect to see other novel coronaviruses emerge in the future. An ideal animal model should reflect the clinical signs, viral replication and pathology seen in humans. In this review, we present factors to consider in establishing an animal model for the study of novel coronaviruses and compare the different animal models that have been employed to study SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. PMID:26184451

  13. Increase in RNA and protein synthesis by mitochondria irradiated with helium-neon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, M.; Guida, G.; Perlino, E.; Marra, E.; Quagliariello, E. )

    1989-09-29

    To gain further insight into the mechanism of cell photostimulation by laser light, both RNA and protein synthesis were measured in mitochondria irradiated with the low power continuous wave He-Ne laser (Energy dose: 5 Joules/cm{sup 2}). Following mitochondrial irradiation, both the rate and amount of incorporation of alpha-({sup 32}P)UTP and L-({sup 35}S)methionine, used to monitor RNA and protein synthesis respectively, proved to increase. Electrophoretic analysis made of the synthesis products clearly shows that He-Ne laser irradiation stimulates the synthesis of all mitochondrial transcription and translation products.

  14. RNA primer used in synthesis of anticomplementary DNA by reverse transcriptase of avian myeloblastosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, J C; Dobkin, C; Spiegelman, S

    1980-01-01

    When either the homologous RNA (avian myeloblastosis virus RNA) or a heterologous RNA (poliovirus RNA) was used as a template, the anticomplementary DNA synthesized in vitro by avian myeloblastosis virus reverse transcriptase (RNA-directed DNA nucleotidyltransferase, EC 2.7.7.7) was primed by fragments of the original RNA template that usually had adenosine at their 3' ends. When we used phage T/ RNA ligase (EC 6.5.1.3) to label the 3' end of the RNA template fragments contained in the RNA . cDNA hybrid intermediate, adenosine was found to be the principal nucleoside carrying the label. We infer from these results that the ribonuclease H (hybrid nuclease) activity of the reverse transcriptase creates fragments of the original RNA template with adenosine as the principal 3' terminus and that these fragments serve as primers for the synthesis of anticomplementary DNA. Images PMID:6154930

  15. Ribosomal RNA synthesis in imbibing radish (Raphanus sativus) embryo axes : A biochemical and cytological study.

    PubMed

    Aspart, L; Cooke, R; Michaux-Ferriere, N; Delseny, M

    1980-02-01

    The first hours of seed germination are characterized by an increase in the rate of RNA synthesis. Although this change is most easily accounted for by changes in the ribonucleotide pool sizes, we investigated two other aspects of rRNA synthesis which are likely to contribute to the phenomenon. Using isolated radish embryo axes, we demonstrate that processing of rRNA gene transcripts is much slower during early germination than during the growth of the seedling. We also provide evidence that rRNA gene expression is sequentially reactivated in different tissues, starting in the provascular tissue and apex cells and only later in the cortical cells of the rootlet.

  16. NF-kappaB signaling differentially regulates influenza virus RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naveen; Xin, Zhong-Tao; Liang, Yuhong; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying

    2008-10-01

    The NF-kappaB signaling pathway has previously been shown to be required for efficient influenza A virus replication, although the molecular mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we identified a specific step of the influenza virus life cycle that is influenced by NF-kappaB signaling by using two known NF-kappaB inhibitors and a variety of influenza virus-specific assays. The results of time course experiments suggest that the NF-kappaB inhibitors Bay11-7082 and ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate inhibited an early postentry step of viral infection, but they did not appear to affect the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the viral ribonucleoprotein complex. Instead, we found that the levels of influenza virus genomic RNA (vRNA), but not the corresponding cRNA or mRNA, were specifically reduced by the inhibitors in virus-infected cells, indicating that NF-kappaB signaling is intimately involved in the vRNA synthesis. Furthermore, we showed that the NF-kappaB inhibitors specifically diminished influenza virus RNA transcription from the cRNA promoter but not from the vRNA promoter in a reporter assay, a result which is consistent with data obtained from virus-infected cells. The overexpression of the p65 NF-kappaB molecule could not only eliminate the inhibition but also activate influenza virus RNA transcription from the cRNA promoter. Finally, using p65-specific small interfering RNA, we have shown that p65 knockdown reduced the levels of influenza virus replication and vRNA synthesis. In summary, we have provided evidence showing, for the first time, that the NF-kappaB host signaling pathway can differentially regulate influenza virus RNA synthesis, which may also offer some new perspectives into understanding the host regulation of RNA synthesis by other RNA viruses.

  17. DNA and RNA Synthesis in Animal Cells in Culture--Methods for Use in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsell, P. M.; Balls, M.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the experimental procedures used for detecting DNA and RNA synthesis in xenopus cells by autoradiography. The method described is suitable for senior high school laboratory classes or biology projects, if supervised by a teacher qualified to handle radioisotopes. (JR)

  18. The C-Terminal Tail of TRIM56 Dictates Antiviral Restriction of Influenza A and B Viruses by Impeding Viral RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoming; Li, Nan L.; Shen, Yang; Bao, Xiaoyong; Elbahesh, Husni; Webby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Accumulating data suggest that tripartite-motif-containing (TRIM) proteins participate in host responses to viral infections, either by acting as direct antiviral restriction factors or through regulating innate immune signaling of the host. Of >70 TRIMs, TRIM56 is a restriction factor of several positive-strand RNA viruses, including three members of the family Flaviviridae (yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus) and a human coronavirus (OC43), and this ability invariably depends upon the E3 ligase activity of TRIM56. However, the impact of TRIM56 on negative-strand RNA viruses remains unclear. Here, we show that TRIM56 puts a check on replication of influenza A and B viruses in cell culture but does not inhibit Sendai virus or human metapneumovirus, two paramyxoviruses. Interestingly, the anti-influenza virus activity was independent of the E3 ligase activity, B-box, or coiled-coil domain. Rather, deletion of a 63-residue-long C-terminal-tail portion of TRIM56 abrogated the antiviral function. Moreover, expression of this short C-terminal segment curtailed the replication of influenza viruses as effectively as that of full-length TRIM56. Mechanistically, TRIM56 was found to specifically impede intracellular influenza virus RNA synthesis. Together, these data reveal a novel antiviral activity of TRIM56 against influenza A and B viruses and provide insights into the mechanism by which TRIM56 restricts these medically important orthomyxoviruses. IMPORTANCE Options to treat influenza are limited, and drug-resistant influenza virus strains can emerge through minor genetic changes. Understanding novel virus-host interactions that alter influenza virus fitness may reveal new targets/approaches for therapeutic interventions. We show here that TRIM56, a tripartite-motif protein, is an intrinsic host restriction factor of influenza A and B viruses. Unlike its antiviral actions against positive-strand RNA viruses, the anti

  19. Analysis of minimal promoter sequences for plus-strand synthesis by the Cucumber necrosis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Panavas, T; Pogany, J; Nagy, P D

    2002-05-10

    Tombusviruses are small, plus-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of plants. A partially purified RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) preparation of Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), which is capable of de novo initiation of complementary RNA synthesis from either plus-strand or minus-strand templates, was used to dissect minimal promoter sequences for tombusviruses and their defective interfering (DI) RNAs. In vitro RdRp assay revealed that the core plus-strand initiation promoter included only the 3'-terminal 11 nucleotides. A hypothetical promoter-like sequence, which has been termed consensus sequence by Wu and White (1998, J. Virol. 72, 9897-9905), is recognized less efficiently by the CNV RdRp than the core plus-strand initiation promoter. The CNV RdRp can efficiently recognize the core plus-strand initiation promoter for a satellite RNA associated with the distantly related Turnip crinkle virus, while artificial AU- or GC-rich 3'-terminal sequences make poor templates in the in vitro assays. Comparison of the "strength" of minimal plus-strand and minus-strand initiation promoters reveals that the latter is almost twice as efficient in promoting complementary RNA synthesis. Template competition experiments, however, suggest that the minimal plus-strand initiation promoter makes an RNA template more competitive than the minimal minus-strand initiation promoter. Taken together, these results demonstrate that promoter recognition by the tombusvirus RdRp requires only short sequences present at the 3' end of templates.

  20. Definition of the minimal viral components required for the initiation of unprimed RNA synthesis by influenza virus RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Lee, M T Michael; Bishop, Konrad; Medcalf, Liz; Elton, Debra; Digard, Paul; Tiley, Laurence

    2002-01-15

    The first 11 nt at the 5' end of influenza virus genomic RNA were shown to be both necessary and sufficient for specific binding by the influenza virus polymerase. A novel in vitro transcription assay, in which the polymerase was bound to paramagnetic beads via a biotinylated 5'-vRNA oligonucleotide, was used to study the activities of different forms of the polymerase. Complexes composed of co-expressed PB1/PB2/PA proteins and a sub-complex composed of PB1/PA bound to the 5'-vRNA oligonucleotide, whereas PB1 expressed alone did not. The enriched 5'-vRNA/PB1/PB2/PA complex was highly active for ApG and globin mRNA primed transcription on a model 3'-vRNA template. RNA synthesis in the absence of added primers produced products with 5'-terminal tri- or diphosphate groups, indicating that genuine unprimed initiation of transcription also occurred. No transcriptase activity was detected for the PB1/PA complex. These results demonstrate a role for PA in the enhancement of 5' end binding activity of PB1, a role for PB2 in the assembly of a polymerase complex able to perform both cap-dependent and -independent synthesis and that NP is not required for the initiation of replicative transcription.

  1. An intrinsically disordered peptide from Ebola virus VP35 controls viral RNA synthesis by modulating nucleoprotein-RNA interactions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leung, Daisy  W.; Borek, Dominika; Luthra, Priya; Binning, Jennifer  M.; Anantpadma, Manu; Liu, Gai; Harvey, Ian B.; Su, Zhaoming; Endlich-Frazier, Ariel; Pan, Juanli; et al

    2015-04-01

    During viral RNA synthesis, Ebola virus (EBOV) nucleoprotein (NP) alternates between an RNA-template-bound form and a template-free form to provide the viral polymerase access to the RNA template. In addition, newly synthesized NP must be prevented from indiscriminately binding to noncognate RNAs. Here, we investigate the molecular bases for these critical processes. We identify an intrinsically disordered peptide derived from EBOV VP35 (NPBP, residues 20–48) that binds NP with high affinity and specificity, inhibits NP oligomerization, and releases RNA from NP-RNA complexes in vitro. The structure of the NPBP/ΔNPNTD complex, solved to 3.7 Å resolution, reveals how NPBP peptide occludesmore » a large surface area that is important for NP-NP and NP-RNA interactions and for viral RNA synthesis. Together, our results identify a highly conserved viral interface that is important for EBOV replication and can be targeted for therapeutic development.« less

  2. Possible involvement of eEF1A in Tomato spotted wilt virus RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Komoda, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Kawamura-Nagaya, Kazue; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2014-11-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a negative-strand RNA virus in the family Bunyaviridae and propagates in both insects and plants. Although TSWV can infect a wide range of plant species, host factors involved in viral RNA synthesis of TSWV in plants have not been characterized. In this report, we demonstrate that the cell-free extract derived from one of the host plants can activate mRNA transcriptional activity of TSWV. Based on activity-guided fractionation of the cell-free extract, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor (eEF) 1A as a possible host factor facilitating TSWV transcription and replication. The RNA synthesis-supporting activity decreased in the presence of an eEF1A inhibitor, suggesting that eEF1A plays an important role in RNA synthesis of TSWV. PMID:25151062

  3. Studies on the control of ribosomal RNA synthesis in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Chesterton, C J; Coupar, B E; Butterworth, P H; Green, M H

    1975-09-01

    In many eucaryotic systems protein synthesis is coupled to ribosomal RNA synthesis such that shut-down of the former causes inhibition of the latter. We have investigated this stringency phenomenon in HeLa cells. The protein synthesis inhibitors cycloheximide and puromycin cause inactivation of both processes but valine starvation totally inhibits only the processing of 45-S RNA. DNA-dependent RNA polymerases from A, B and C (or I, II and III respectively) were extracted, separated partially by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and their activity levels determined. These do not decrease significantly during inhibition of protein synthesis. To find out whether or not form A is bound to its template under these conditions, proteins were removed from chromatin with the detergent sarkosyl. This does not affect bound RNA polymerase. Inhibition of protein synthesis caused up to 50% reduction in endogenous alpha-amanitin-insensitive chromatin-RNA-synthesising activity. This reduced level of activity was not affected by sarkosyl treatment. Levels in normal cells were stimulated. This result indicates that the form A RNA polymerase is not bound to its template when protein synthesis is inhibited.

  4. Inner structures of some coronaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, L; Marois, P; Marsolais, G; Di Franco, E; Assaf, R

    1981-01-01

    When treated with formaldehyde, Tween 80, sodium oleate and Nonidet P-40, avian infectious bronchitis virus, porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus, neonatal calf diarrhea coronavirus, porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus as well as the human coronavirus show similar inner structures by negative staining. The first one is an inner membranous bag. This structure could be evaginated following treatments used and does not show the characteristic projections of coronaviruses. Subsequently, the inner fold could be separated from the outer membrane at the point of junction between these two membranes. Each virus does not react in the same way to the action of the different products. The transmissible gastroenteritis virus appears more sensitive to treatments than other viruses. On the other hand, the hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus is the most resistant. The variable sensitivities of these viruses are not related to the type of host-cells. Also, a second internal structure, which is more dense than the viral particle, encircles partially the aperture of the internal tongue-shaped structure and seems to emerge from the viral particle through the aperture of the inner bag. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:6266623

  5. In Organello Transcription in Maize Mitochondria and Its Sensitivity to Inhibitors of RNA Synthesis 1

    PubMed Central

    Finnegan, Patrick M.; Brown, Gregory G.

    1987-01-01

    Purified mitochondrial preparations from etiolated maize shoots support the incorporation of radioactivity from labeled UTP into RNA. The incorporation is linear with time for up to 2 hours, shows Michaelis-Menton kinetics with respect to the concentration of the labeled substrate, UTP, and has salt and pH optima which are different than those previously reported for RNA synthesis by isolated chloroplasts. When a crude mitochondrial preparation is subjected to isopycnic sucrose gradient centrifugation, the bulk of the RNA synthetic activity co-sediments with mitochondrial marker enzymes and with the mitochondrial 26S and 18S rRNAs. Maize mitochondrial RNA synthesis is prevented by actinomycin D and ethidium bromide but unaffected by α-amanitin. It is strongly inhibited by rifampicin at concentrations which have no effect on nuclear and chloroplast RNA synthesis, but only moderately inhibited by rifampicin at concentrations which completely inhibit bacterial RNA synthesis. The optimization, cell fractionation, and inhibitor data all suggest that contaminating organelles and bacteria do not contribute appreciably to the RNA synthesis in purified mitochondrial preparations. Images Fig. 4 PMID:16665676

  6. Synthesis of heterogeneous mRNA-like RNA and low-molecular-weight RNA before the midblastula transition in embryos of Xenopus laevis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakakura, N.; Miura, T.; Yamana, K.; Ito, A.; Shiokawa, K.

    1987-10-01

    It has been proposed and is now widely accepted that in Xenopus laevis embryogenesis RNA synthesis starts only at and after 12 rounds of cleavage, at the time of the midblastula transition (MBT). In this report, however, we provide evidence that RNA synthesis takes place prior to the MBT stage in normally developing Xenopus embryos. In the present experiments, we cultured fertilized eggs in 80 mM phosphate buffer and loosened the adhesion between blastomeres, so that (/sup 3/H)uridine could be incorporated into blastomeres from the surrounding medium. By this method and also by microinjection of (/sup 3/H)GTP, we found that embryos synthesize heterogeneous, nonribosomal, high-molecular-weight RNAs and a relatively small amount of low-molecular-weight RNA as early as the sixth cleavage. RNAs synthesized were not of mitochondrial origin, and the synthesis was sensitive to actinomycin D and alpha-amanitin. From these results we conclude that mRNA-like RNA and low-molecular-weight RNA start to be synthesized during the cleavage stage.

  7. A Model for the Origin of Protein Synthesis as Coreplicational Scanning of Nascent RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhnin, Alexander V.

    2007-12-01

    The origin of protein synthesis is one of the major riddles of molecular biology. It was proposed a decade ago that the ribosomal RNA evolved from an earlier RNA-replisome (a ribozyme fulfilling RNA replication) while transfer RNA (tRNA) evolved from a genomic replication origin. Applying these hypotheses, I suggest that protein synthesis arose for the purpose of segregating copy and template RNA during replication through the conventional formation of a complementary strand. Nascent RNA was scanned in 5' to 3' direction following the progress of replication. The base pairing of several tRNA-like molecules with nascent RNA released the replication intermediates trapped in duplex. Synthesis of random peptides evolved to fuel the turnover of tRNAs. Then the combination of replication-coupled peptide formation and the independent development of amino acid-specific tRNA aminoacylation resulted in template-based protein synthesis. Therefore, the positioning of tRNAs adjacent to each other developed for the purpose of replication rather than peptide synthesis. This hypothesis does not include either selection for useful peptides or specific recognition of amino acids at the initial evolution of translation. It does, however, explain a number of features of modern translation apparatus, such as the relative flexibility of genetic code, the number of proteins shared by the transcription and translation machines, the universal participation of an RNA subunit in co-translational protein secretion, ‘unscheduled translation’, and factor-independent translocation. Assistance of original ribosomes in keeping apart the nascent transcript from its template is still widely explored by modern bacteria and perhaps by other domains of life.

  8. Comparative properties of feline coronaviruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    McKeirnan, A J; Evermann, J F; Davis, E V; Ott, R L

    1987-04-01

    Two feline coronaviruses were characterized to determine their biological properties in vitro and their antigenic relatedness to a previously recognized feline infectious peritonitis virus and canine coronavirus. The viruses, designated WSU 79-1146 and WSU 79-1683, were shown to have comparable growth curves with the prototype feline infectious peritonitis virus. Treatment of the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains with 0.25% trypsin indicated that they were relatively resistant to proteolytic inactivation when compared with the feline enteric coronavirus strain. This observation may serve as a useful in vitro marker to distinguish closely related members of the feline coronavirus group. Plaque assay results indicated that the feline infectious peritonitis virus strains produced large homogeneous plaques in comparison to the feline enteric coronavirus strain and canine coronavirus, which showed a heterogenous plaque size distribution. No naturally temperature sensitive mutants were detected in either of the feline coronavirus populations. Both of the viruses were antigenically related to feline infectious peritonitis virus and to a lesser extent to canine coronavirus by virus neutralization.

  9. A Recombinant Collagen-mRNA Platform for Controllable Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Xiong, Yunjing; Bashan, Anat; Zimmerman, Ella; Shulman Daube, Shirley; Peleg, Yoav; Albeck, Shira; Unger, Tamar; Yonath, Hagith; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Yonath, Ada

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a collagen-mRNA platform for controllable protein production that is intended to be less prone to the problems associated with commonly used mRNA therapy as well as with collagen skin-healing procedures. A collagen mimic was constructed according to a recombinant method and was used as scaffold for translating mRNA chains into proteins. Cysteines were genetically inserted into the collagen chain at positions allowing efficient ribosome translation activity while minimizing mRNA misfolding and degradation. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP) mRNA bound to collagen was successfully translated by cell-free Escherichia coli ribosomes. This system enabled an accurate control of specific protein synthesis by monitoring expression time and level. Luciferase-mRNA was also translated on collagen scaffold by eukaryotic cell extracts. Thus we have demonstrated the feasibility of controllable protein synthesis on collagen scaffolds by ribosomal machinery.

  10. Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2005-12-01

    The number of avian species in which coronaviruses have been detected has doubled in the past couple of years. While the coronaviruses in these species have all been in coronavirus Group 3, as for the better known coronaviruses of the domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV], in Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), there is experimental evidence to suggest that birds are not limited to infection with Group 3 coronaviruses. In China coronaviruses have been isolated from peafowl (Pavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris; also isolated in Brazil), partridge (Alectoris) and also from a non-gallinaceous bird, the teal (Anas), all of which were being reared in the vicinity of domestic fowl. These viruses were closely related in genome organization and in gene sequences to IBV. Indeed, gene sequencing and experimental infection of chickens indicated that the peafowl isolate was the H120 IB vaccine strain, while the teal isolate was possibly a field strain of a nephropathogenic IBV. Thus the host range of IBV does extend beyond the chicken. Most recently, Group 3 coronaviruses have been detected in greylag goose (Anser anser), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and pigeon (Columbia livia). It is clear from the partial genome sequencing of these viruses that they are not IBV, as they have two additional small genes near the 3' end of the genome. Twenty years ago a coronavirus was isolated after inoculation of mice with tissue from the coastal shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). While it is not certain whether the virus was actually from the shearwater or from the mice, recent experiments have shown that bovine coronavirus (a Group 2 coronavirus) can infect and also cause enteric disease in turkeys. Experiments with some Group 1 coronaviruses (all from mammals, to date) have shown that they are not limited to replicating or causing disease in a single host. SARS-coronavirus has a wide host range. Clearly there is the potential for

  11. Coronaviruses in poultry and other birds.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Dave

    2005-12-01

    The number of avian species in which coronaviruses have been detected has doubled in the past couple of years. While the coronaviruses in these species have all been in coronavirus Group 3, as for the better known coronaviruses of the domestic fowl (infectious bronchitis virus [IBV], in Gallus gallus), turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), there is experimental evidence to suggest that birds are not limited to infection with Group 3 coronaviruses. In China coronaviruses have been isolated from peafowl (Pavo), guinea fowl (Numida meleagris; also isolated in Brazil), partridge (Alectoris) and also from a non-gallinaceous bird, the teal (Anas), all of which were being reared in the vicinity of domestic fowl. These viruses were closely related in genome organization and in gene sequences to IBV. Indeed, gene sequencing and experimental infection of chickens indicated that the peafowl isolate was the H120 IB vaccine strain, while the teal isolate was possibly a field strain of a nephropathogenic IBV. Thus the host range of IBV does extend beyond the chicken. Most recently, Group 3 coronaviruses have been detected in greylag goose (Anser anser), mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and pigeon (Columbia livia). It is clear from the partial genome sequencing of these viruses that they are not IBV, as they have two additional small genes near the 3' end of the genome. Twenty years ago a coronavirus was isolated after inoculation of mice with tissue from the coastal shearwater (Puffinus puffinus). While it is not certain whether the virus was actually from the shearwater or from the mice, recent experiments have shown that bovine coronavirus (a Group 2 coronavirus) can infect and also cause enteric disease in turkeys. Experiments with some Group 1 coronaviruses (all from mammals, to date) have shown that they are not limited to replicating or causing disease in a single host. SARS-coronavirus has a wide host range. Clearly there is the potential for

  12. The role of the priming loop in influenza A virus RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Te Velthuis, Aartjan J W; Robb, Nicole C; Kapanidis, Achillefs N; Fodor, Ervin

    2016-01-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) are used by RNA viruses to replicate and transcribe their RNA genomes(1). They adopt a closed, right-handed fold with conserved subdomains called palm, fingers and thumb(1,2). Conserved RdRp motifs A-F coordinate the viral RNA template, NTPs and magnesium ions to facilitate nucleotide condensation(1). For the initiation of RNA synthesis, most RdRps use either a primer-dependent or de novo mechanism(3). The influenza A virus RdRp, in contrast, uses a capped RNA oligonucleotide to initiate transcription, and a combination of terminal and internal de novo initiation for replication(4). To understand how the influenza A virus RdRp coordinates these processes, we analysed the function of a thumb subdomain β-hairpin using initiation, elongation and single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) assays. Our data indicate that this β-hairpin is essential for terminal initiation during replication, but not necessary for internal initiation and transcription. Analysis of individual residues in the tip of the β-hairpin shows that PB1 proline 651 is critical for efficient RNA synthesis in vitro and in cell culture. Overall, this work advances our understanding of influenza A virus RNA synthesis and identifies the initiation platform of viral replication. PMID:27572643

  13. Genomic Analysis and Surveillance of the Coronavirus Dominant in Ducks in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Hou, Guang-Yu; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of some coronaviruses dominant in birds other than chickens remain enigmatic. In this study we sequenced the genome of a newly identified coronavirus dominant in ducks (DdCoV), and performed a large-scale surveillance of coronaviruses in chickens and ducks using a conserved RT-PCR assay. The viral genome harbors a tandem repeat which is rare in vertebrate RNA viruses. The repeat is homologous to some proteins of various cellular organisms, but its origin remains unknown. Many substitutions, insertions, deletions, and some frameshifts and recombination events have occurred in the genome of the DdCoV, as compared with the coronavirus dominant in chickens (CdCoV). The distances between DdCoV and CdCoV are large enough to separate them into different species within the genus Gammacoronavirus. Our surveillance demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs belong to different lineages and occupy different ecological niches, further supporting that they should be classified into different species. Our surveillance also demonstrated that DdCoVs and CdCoVs are prevalent in live poultry markets in some regions of China. In conclusion, this study shed novel insight into the genetic diversity, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy of the coronaviruses circulating in chickens and ducks. PMID:26053682

  14. Structure of the C-terminal domain of nsp4 from feline coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Manolaridis, Ioannis; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Panjikar, Santosh; Berglind, Hanna; Nordlund, Pär; Coutard, Bruno; Tucker, Paul A.

    2009-08-01

    The structure of the cytosolic C-terminal domain of nonstructural protein 4 from feline coronavirus has been determined and analyzed. Coronaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses that includes important pathogens of humans and other animals. The large coronavirus genome (26–31 kb) encodes 15–16 nonstructural proteins (nsps) that are derived from two replicase polyproteins by autoproteolytic processing. The nsps assemble into the viral replication–transcription complex and nsp3, nsp4 and nsp6 are believed to anchor this enzyme complex to modified intracellular membranes. The largest part of the coronavirus nsp4 subunit is hydrophobic and is predicted to be embedded in the membranes. In this report, a conserved C-terminal domain (∼100 amino-acid residues) has been delineated that is predicted to face the cytoplasm and has been isolated as a soluble domain using library-based construct screening. A prototypical crystal structure at 2.8 Å resolution was obtained using nsp4 from feline coronavirus. Unmodified and SeMet-substituted proteins were crystallized under similar conditions, resulting in tetragonal crystals that belonged to space group P4{sub 3}. The phase problem was initially solved by single isomorphous replacement with anomalous scattering (SIRAS), followed by molecular replacement using a SIRAS-derived composite model. The structure consists of a single domain with a predominantly α-helical content displaying a unique fold that could be engaged in protein–protein interactions.

  15. Gene 5 of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus is not essential for replication.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Davies, Marc; Cavanagh, David; Britton, Paul

    2005-07-01

    The avian coronavirus Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), like other coronaviruses, expresses several small nonstructural (ns) proteins in addition to those from gene 1 (replicase) and the structural proteins. These coronavirus ns genes differ both in number and in amino acid similarity between the coronavirus groups but show some concordance within a group or subgroup. The functions and requirements of the small ns gene products remain to be elucidated. With the advent of reverse genetics for coronaviruses, the first steps in elucidating their role can be investigated. We have used our reverse genetics system for IBV (R. Casais, V. Thiel, S. G. Siddell, D. Cavanagh, and P. Britton, J. Virol. 75:12359-12369, 2001) to investigate the requirement of IBV gene 5 for replication in vivo, in ovo, and ex vivo. We produced a series of recombinant viruses, with an isogenic background, in which complete expression of gene 5 products was prevented by the inactivation of gene 5 following scrambling of the transcription-associated sequence, thereby preventing the expression of IBV subgenomic mRNA 5, or scrambling either separately or together of the translation initiation codons for the two gene 5 products. As all of the recombinant viruses replicated very similarly to the wild-type virus, Beau-R, we conclude that the IBV gene 5 products are not essential for IBV replication per se and that they are accessory proteins.

  16. The Murine Norovirus Core Subgenomic RNA Promoter Consists of a Stable Stem-Loop That Can Direct Accurate Initiation of RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Muhammad Amir; Lin, Xiaoyan; Bailey, Dalan; Karakasiliotis, Ioannis; Chaudhry, Yasmin; Vashist, Surender; Zhang, Guo; Thorne, Lucy; Kao, C. Cheng

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT All members of the Caliciviridae family of viruses produce a subgenomic RNA during infection. The subgenomic RNA typically encodes only the major and minor capsid proteins, but in murine norovirus (MNV), the subgenomic RNA also encodes the VF1 protein, which functions to suppress host innate immune responses. To date, the mechanism of norovirus subgenomic RNA synthesis has not been characterized. We have previously described the presence of an evolutionarily conserved RNA stem-loop structure on the negative-sense RNA, the complementary sequence of which codes for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS7). The conserved stem-loop is positioned 6 nucleotides 3′ of the start site of the subgenomic RNA in all caliciviruses. We demonstrate that the conserved stem-loop is essential for MNV viability. Mutant MNV RNAs with substitutions in the stem-loop replicated poorly until they accumulated mutations that revert to restore the stem-loop sequence and/or structure. The stem-loop sequence functions in a noncoding context, as it was possible to restore the replication of an MNV mutant by introducing an additional copy of the stem-loop between the NS7- and VP1-coding regions. Finally, in vitro biochemical data suggest that the stem-loop sequence is sufficient for the initiation of viral RNA synthesis by the recombinant MNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, confirming that the stem-loop forms the core of the norovirus subgenomic promoter. IMPORTANCE Noroviruses are a significant cause of viral gastroenteritis, and it is important to understand the mechanism of norovirus RNA synthesis. Here we describe the identification of an RNA stem-loop structure that functions as the core of the norovirus subgenomic RNA promoter in cells and in vitro. This work provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of norovirus RNA synthesis and the sequences that determine the recognition of viral RNA by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. PMID:25392209

  17. The paradox of feline coronavirus pathogenesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Myrrha, Luciana Wanderley; Silva, Fernanda Miquelitto Figueira; Peternelli, Ethel Fernandes de Oliveira; Junior, Abelardo Silva; Resende, Maurício; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria

    2011-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present results from different FCoV studies and attempt to elucidate existing theories on the pathogenesis of FCoV infection.

  18. Depletion of ribosomal protein S19 causes a reduction of rRNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Juli, Giada; Gismondi, Angelo; Monteleone, Valentina; Caldarola, Sara; Iadevaia, Valentina; Aspesi, Anna; Dianzani, Irma; Proud, Christopher G.; Loreni, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis plays key roles in cell growth by providing increased capacity for protein synthesis. It requires coordinated production of ribosomal proteins (RP) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA), including the processing of the latter. Here, we show that, the depletion of RPS19 causes a reduction of rRNA synthesis in cell lines of both erythroid and non-erythroid origin. A similar effect is observed upon depletion of RPS6 or RPL11. The deficiency of RPS19 does not alter the stability of rRNA, but instead leads to an inhibition of RNA Polymerase I (Pol I) activity. In fact, results of nuclear run-on assays and ChIP experiments show that association of Pol I with the rRNA gene is reduced in RPS19-depleted cells. The phosphorylation of three known regulators of Pol I, CDK2, AKT and AMPK, is altered during ribosomal stress and could be involved in the observed downregulation. Finally, RNA from patients with Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA), shows, on average, a lower level of 47S precursor. This indicates that inhibition of rRNA synthesis could be one of the molecular alterations at the basis of DBA. PMID:27734913

  19. [The first steps of chlorophyll synthesis: RNA involvement and regulation]. Progress report, January 1990--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Soell, D.

    1992-12-31

    Glu-tRNA{sup Glu} is synthesized from glutamate and tRNA{sup Glu} by glutamyl-tRNA synthetase (GluRS). Recent work has demonstrated that Glu-tRNA{sup Glu} has dual functions and is a precursor for protein and 5-aminolevulinate (ALA) synthesis. Current data does not provide compelling evidence for the notion that GluRS is regulated by chlorophyll precursors or in concert with the other enzymes of ALA synthesis. We have redefined the C5-pathway as a two-step route to ALA starting with Glu-tRNA{sup Glu}. Only two enzymes, Glu-tRNA reductase (GluTR) and GSA-2,1-amino-mutase (GSA-AM), are specifically involved in ALA synthesis. We have purified these enzymatic activities from Chlamydomonas and demonstrated that the two purified proteins in the presence of their cofactors NADPH and pyridoxal phosphate are sufficient for the in vitro Glu-tRNA {yields} ALA conversion. We have cloned the genes encoding GluTR. The sequences of the GluTR proteins deduced from these genes share highly conserved regions with those of bacterial origin. We havealso cloned and analyzed the gene encoding GSA-AM from Arabidopsis. As in Salmonella typhimurium, there are indications of the existence of an additional pathway for ALA formation in E. coli. To shed light on the recognition of the single tRNA{sup Glu} by the chloroplast enzymes GluTR, GluRS we characterized a chlorophyll-deficient mutant of Euglena having tRNA{sup Glu} with a point mutation in the T{Psi}C-loop. The altered tRNA supports protein but not ALA synthesis.

  20. The In Vitro Synthesis of Avian Myeloblastosis Viral RNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Michel; Groner, Yoram; Monroy, Gladys; Hurwitz, Jerard

    1974-01-01

    Isolated nuclei, prepared from myeloblasts of chicks infected with avian myeloblastosis virus, synthesize RNA sequences present in avian myeloblastosis viral RNA. These sequences are also formed during transcription of chromatin, isolated from myeloblasts, by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases purified from Escherichia coli or calfthymus. In the latter case, transcription is α-amanitin sensitive. Formation of hybrids between RNA and avian myeloblastosis virus DNA probes has been monitored by the combined use of ribonucleases A, T1, and H, and ribonucleases specific for single strands. PMID:4370472

  1. Synthesis of capped RNA using a DMT group as a purification handle.

    PubMed

    Veliath, Elizabeth; Gaffney, Barbara L; Jones, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    We report a new method for synthesis of capped RNA or 2'-OMe RNA that uses a N(2-)4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) group as a lipophilic purification handle to allow convenient isolation and purification of the capped RNA. The DMT group is easily removed under mild conditions without degradation of the cap. We have used this approach to prepare capped 10- and 20-mers. This method is compatible with the many condensation reactions that have been reported for preparation of capped RNA or cap analogues.

  2. Overview of methods in RNA nanotechnology: synthesis, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology encompasses the use of RNA as a construction material to build homogeneous nanostructures by bottom-up self-assembly with defined size, structure, and stoichiometry; this pioneering concept demonstrated in 1998 (Guo et al., Molecular Cell 2:149-155, 1998; featured in Cell) has emerged as a new field that also involves materials engineering and synthetic structural biology (Guo, Nature Nanotechnology 5:833-842, 2010). The field of RNA nanotechnology has skyrocketed over the last few years, as evidenced by the burst of publications in prominent journals on RNA nanostructures and their applications in nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Rapid advances in RNA chemistry, RNA biophysics, and RNA biology have created new opportunities for translating basic science into clinical practice. RNA nanotechnology holds considerable promise in this regard. Increased evidence also suggests that substantial part of the 98.5 % of human genome (Lander et al. Nature 409:860-921, 2001) that used to be called "junk DNA" actually codes for noncoding RNA. As we understand more on how RNA structures are related to function, we can fabricate synthetic RNA nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This chapter provides a brief overview of the field regarding the design, construction, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles for diverse applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicince.

  3. Overview of methods in RNA nanotechnology: synthesis, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Haque, Farzin; Guo, Peixuan

    2015-01-01

    RNA nanotechnology encompasses the use of RNA as a construction material to build homogeneous nanostructures by bottom-up self-assembly with defined size, structure, and stoichiometry; this pioneering concept demonstrated in 1998 (Guo et al., Molecular Cell 2:149-155, 1998; featured in Cell) has emerged as a new field that also involves materials engineering and synthetic structural biology (Guo, Nature Nanotechnology 5:833-842, 2010). The field of RNA nanotechnology has skyrocketed over the last few years, as evidenced by the burst of publications in prominent journals on RNA nanostructures and their applications in nanomedicine and nanotechnology. Rapid advances in RNA chemistry, RNA biophysics, and RNA biology have created new opportunities for translating basic science into clinical practice. RNA nanotechnology holds considerable promise in this regard. Increased evidence also suggests that substantial part of the 98.5 % of human genome (Lander et al. Nature 409:860-921, 2001) that used to be called "junk DNA" actually codes for noncoding RNA. As we understand more on how RNA structures are related to function, we can fabricate synthetic RNA nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This chapter provides a brief overview of the field regarding the design, construction, purification, and characterization of RNA nanoparticles for diverse applications in nanotechnology and nanomedicince. PMID:25895992

  4. The synthesis of methylated, phosphorylated, and phosphonated 3'-aminoacyl-tRNA(Sec) mimics.

    PubMed

    Rigger, Lukas; Schmidt, Rachel L; Holman, Kaitlyn M; Simonović, Miljan; Micura, Ronald

    2013-11-18

    The twenty first amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec), is the only amino acid that is synthesized on its cognate transfer RNA (tRNA(Sec)) in all domains of life. The multistep pathway involves O-phosphoseryl-tRNA:selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase (SepSecS), an enzyme that catalyzes the terminal chemical reaction during which the phosphoseryl-tRNA(Sec) intermediate is converted into selenocysteinyl-tRNA(Sec). The SepSecS architecture and the mode of tRNA(Sec) recognition have been recently determined at atomic resolution. The crystal structure provided valuable insights that gave rise to mechanistic proposals that could not be validated because of the lack of appropriate molecular probes. To further improve our understanding of the mechanism of the biosynthesis of selenocysteine in general and the mechanism of SepSecS in particular, stable tRNA(Sec) substrates carrying aminoacyl moieties that mimic particular reaction intermediates are needed. Here, we report on the accurate synthesis of methylated, phosphorylated, and phosphonated serinyl-derived tRNA(Sec) mimics that contain a hydrolysis-resistant ribose 3'-amide linkage instead of the natural ester bond. The procedures introduced allow for efficient site-specific methylation and/or phosphorylation directly on the solid support utilized in the automated RNA synthesis. For the preparation of (S)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid-oligoribonucleotide conjugates, a separate solid support was generated. Furthermore, we developed a three-strand enzymatic ligation protocol to obtain the corresponding full-length tRNA(Sec) derivatives. Finally, we developed an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) for rapid, qualitative characterization of the SepSecS-tRNA interactions. The novel tRNA(Sec) mimics are promising candidates for further elucidation of the biosynthesis of selenocysteine by X-ray crystallography and other biochemical approaches, and could be attractive for similar studies on other tRNA-dependent enzymes.

  5. RT-PCR detection of avian coronaviruses of galliform birds (chicken, turkey, pheasant) and in a parrot.

    PubMed

    Culver, Francesca Anne; Britton, Paul; Cavanagh, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Of the many primer combinations that we have investigated for the detection of avian coronaviruses, two have worked better than any of the others: they worked with the largest number of strains/samples of a given coronavirus and the most species of avian coronavirus, and they also produced the most sensitive detection tests. The primer combinations were: oligonucleotide pair 2Bp/4Bm, which is in a region of gene 1 that is moderately conserved among all species of coronavirus (1); and UTR11-/UTR41+, which are in a highly conserved part of the 3' untranslated region of avian coronaviruses related to infectious bronchitis virus (2). The gene 1 primer pair enabled the detection of a new coronavirus in a green-checked Amazon parrot (Amazon viridigenalis Cassin). In this chapter we describe the use of these oligonucleotides in a one-step (single-tube) RT-PCR, and describe the procedure that we used to extract RNA from turkey feces.

  6. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus NS4b Protein Inhibits Host RNase L Activation

    PubMed Central

    Thornbrough, Joshua M.; Jha, Babal K.; Yount, Boyd; Goldstein, Stephen A.; Li, Yize; Elliott, Ruth; Sims, Amy C.; Baric, Ralph S.; Silverman, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the first highly pathogenic human coronavirus to emerge since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002. Like many coronaviruses, MERS-CoV carries genes that encode multiple accessory proteins that are not required for replication of the genome but are likely involved in pathogenesis. Evasion of host innate immunity through interferon (IFN) antagonism is a critical component of viral pathogenesis. The IFN-inducible oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)-RNase L pathway activates upon sensing of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Activated RNase L cleaves viral and host single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), which leads to translational arrest and subsequent cell death, preventing viral replication and spread. Here we report that MERS-CoV, a lineage C Betacoronavirus, and related bat CoV NS4b accessory proteins have phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity and antagonize OAS-RNase L by enzymatically degrading 2′,5′-oligoadenylate (2-5A), activators of RNase L. This is a novel function for NS4b, which has previously been reported to antagonize IFN signaling. NS4b proteins are distinct from lineage A Betacoronavirus PDEs and rotavirus gene-encoded PDEs, in having an amino-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS) and are localized mostly to the nucleus. However, the expression level of cytoplasmic MERS-CoV NS4b protein is sufficient to prevent activation of RNase L. Finally, this is the first report of an RNase L antagonist expressed by a human or bat coronavirus and provides a specific mechanism by which this occurs. Our findings provide a potential mechanism for evasion of innate immunity by MERS-CoV while also identifying a potential target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27025250

  7. Infectivity of human coronavirus strain 229E.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, M R; Thomas, B J; Davies, H A; Patterson, S

    1980-09-01

    The replication of human coronavirus strain 229E was observed by using indirect immunofluorescence in infected monolayers of MRC continuous cells. By 8 h after infection, bright cytoplasmic fluorescence was detected in cells infected with human coronavirus 229E. Discrete foci of infection were observed from 8 to 16 h after infection in cells infected with high dilutions of human coronavirus 229E; each fluorescent focus corresponded to a single virus infection. A fluorescent focus assay is described, using indirect immunofluorescence, which is more sensitive than the established techniques of tube titration and plaque assay. Particle/infectivity ratios for unpurified and purified virus preparations revealed a considerable drop in infectivity on purification.

  8. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus Papain-Like Novel Protease Inhibitors: Design, Synthesis, Protein-Ligand X-ray Structure and Biological Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Takayama, Jun; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswar; Ratia, Kiira; Chaudhuri, Rima; Mulhearn, Debbie C.; Lee, Hyun; Nichols, Daniel B.; Baliji, Surendranath; Baker, Susan C.; Johnson, Michael E.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2012-02-21

    The design, synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, molecular modeling, and biological evaluation of a series of new generation SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitors are described. A new lead compound 3 (6577871) was identified via high-throughput screening of a diverse chemical library. Subsequently, we carried out lead optimization and structure-activity studies to provide a series of improved inhibitors that show potent PLpro inhibition and antiviral activity against SARS-CoV infected Vero E6 cells. Interestingly, the (S)-Me inhibitor 15h (enzyme IC{sub 50} = 0.56 {mu}M; antiviral EC{sub 50} = 9.1 {mu}M) and the corresponding (R)-Me 15g (IC{sub 50} = 0.32 {mu}M; antiviral EC{sub 50} = 9.1 {mu}M) are the most potent compounds in this series, with nearly equivalent enzymatic inhibition and antiviral activity. A protein-ligand X-ray structure of 15g-bound SARS-CoV PLpro and a corresponding model of 15h docked to PLpro provide intriguing molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions.

  9. High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic parameter analysis of RNA synthesis and decay.

    PubMed

    Dölken, Lars; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Rädle, Bernd; Friedel, Caroline C; Zimmer, Ralf; Mages, Jörg; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Dickinson, Paul; Forster, Thorsten; Ghazal, Peter; Koszinowski, Ulrich H

    2008-09-01

    RNA levels in a cell are determined by the relative rates of RNA synthesis and decay. State-of-the-art transcriptional analyses only employ total cellular RNA. Therefore, changes in RNA levels cannot be attributed to RNA synthesis or decay, and temporal resolution is poor. Recently, it was reported that newly transcribed RNA can be biosynthetically labeled for 1-2 h using thiolated nucleosides, purified from total cellular RNA and subjected to microarray analysis. However, in order to study signaling events at molecular level, analysis of changes occurring within minutes is required. We developed an improved approach to separate total cellular RNA into newly transcribed and preexisting RNA following 10-15 min of metabolic labeling. Employing new computational tools for array normalization and half-life determination we simultaneously study short-term RNA synthesis and decay as well as their impact on cellular transcript levels. As an example we studied the response of fibroblasts to type I and II interferons (IFN). Analysis of RNA transcribed within 15-30 min at different times during the first three hours of interferon-receptor activation resulted in a >10-fold increase in microarray sensitivity and provided a comprehensive profile of the kinetics of IFN-mediated changes in gene expression. We identify a previously undisclosed highly connected network of short-lived transcripts selectively down-regulated by IFNgamma in between 30 and 60 min after IFN treatment showing strong associations with cell cycle and apoptosis, indicating novel mechanisms by which IFNgamma affects these pathways.

  10. Synthesis and Stability of Chloroplast Ribosomal—RNA's

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, J.

    1968-01-01

    The chloroplast ribosomal-RNAs (1.1 × 106 and 0.56 × 106 mol wt) are synthesized in the normal ratio of 2:1. The non-ribosomal distribution observed after extraction and fractionation results from the lability of the 1.1 × 106 component, and a correction for this breakdown can be applied in certain cases. Newly synthesized 1.1 × 106 RNA is more stable than the older accumulated 1.1 × 106 RNA. Accumulation of the chloroplast RNA during growth of radish cotyledons occurs at a later time than the accumulation of cytoplasmic RNA, and its turnover is much less than that of the cytoplasmic ribosomal-RNA. PMID:16656936

  11. [Effect of blue and red light on the synthesis of ribosomal RNA in Chlorella].

    PubMed

    Steup, M

    1975-10-27

    In autotrophic cultures of Chlorella pyrenoidosa (strain 211-8b) incorporation of tritiated guanosine and uridine into ribosomal RNA is stimulated by light. Blue light of wavelengths around 457 nm is considerably more effective than red light around 679 nm (5-10(-10) Einstein cm-2 sec-1 for both). This effect can be demonstrated for young daughter cells (at the end of the dark period) and for older cells (at the end of the light period). It is shown to depend on a regulation of rRNA-synthesis. The blue light dependent enhancement of incorporation is more pronounced in the cytoplasmic rRNA (25 and 18 s) than in the chloroplast rRNA (23 and 16 s). Blue light of low intensity (1-10(-10) Einstein cm-2 sec-1) has nearly the same effectivity as the fivefold intensity, whereas red light of equal quantum fluxes enhances incorporation only slightly compared with the dark control. The blue light dependent enhancement of rRNA-synthesis continues in the following darkness in contrary to that caused by red light. This enhancement is also found in DCMU-poisened cultures. In contrast to this, is red light in presence of DCMU, incorporation into rRNA is nearly the same as in dark. It is concluded that the regulation of rRNA-synthesis in red light is closely connected to complete photosynthesis, while in blue light an additional regulation takes place independent of photosynthesis.

  12. Efficient Automated Solid-Phase Synthesis of DNA and RNA 5'-Triphosphates.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Ivo; Meier, Chris

    2015-11-01

    A fast, high-yielding and reliable method for the synthesis of DNA- and RNA 5'-triphosphates is reported. After synthesizing DNA or RNA oligonucleotides by automated oligonucleotide synthesis, 5-chloro-saligenyl-N,N-diisopropylphosphoramidite was coupled to the 5'-end. Oxidation of the formed 5'-phosphite using the same oxidizing reagent used in standard oligonucleotide synthesis led to 5'-cycloSal-oligonucleotides. Reaction of the support-bonded 5'-cycloSal-oligonucleotide with pyrophosphate yielded the corresponding 5'-triphosphates. The 5'-triphosphorylated DNA and RNA oligonucleotides were obtained after cleavage from the support in high purity and excellent yields. The whole reaction sequence was adapted to be used on a standard oligonucleotide synthesizer.

  13. Rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus protein 6 suppresses systemic RNA silencing by blocking RDR6-mediated secondary siRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongyan; Song, Xiaoguang; Xie, Chuanmiao; Huo, Yan; Zhang, Fujie; Chen, Xiaoying; Geng, Yunfeng; Fang, Rongxiang

    2013-08-01

    The P6 protein of Rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus (RYSV) is a virion structural protein that can be phosphorylated in vitro. However its exact function remains elusive. We found that P6 enhanced the virulence of Potato virus X (PVX) in Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum plants, suggesting that it might function as a suppressor of RNA silencing. We examined the mechanism of P6-mediated silencing suppression by transiently expressing P6 in both N. benthamiana leaves and rice protoplasts. Our results showed that P6 could repress the production of secondary siRNAs and inhibit systemic green fluorescent protein RNA silencing but did not interfere with local RNA silencing in N. benthamiana plants or in rice protoplasts. Intriguingly, P6 and RDR6 had overlapping subcellular localization and P6 bound both rice and Arabidopsis RDR6 in vivo. Furthermore, transgenic rice plants expressing P6 showed enhanced susceptibility to infection by Rice stripe virus. Hence, we propose that P6 is part of the RYSV's counter-defense machinery against the plant RNA silencing system and plays a role mainly in affecting RDR6-mediated secondary siRNA synthesis. Our work provides a new perspective on how a plant-infecting nucleorhabdovirus may counteract host RNA silencing-mediated antiviral defense.

  14. Effects of actinomycin D on brain RNA synthesis and discrimination learning in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Ohi, S

    1977-08-01

    Intracranial injection of actinomycin D 2 microgram inhibited about 70% of the brain RNA synthesis from 3 hr to 4 days after injection in the goldfish. Under these conditions, fish were given 4-day-training of visual discrimination between a card with vertical stripes and one with horizontal stripes. Fish injected intracranially with actinomycin D showed deficits in between-day retention (long-term memory) but not interruption of within-day acquisition (short-term memory). It is suggested that brain RNA synthesis is necessary only for the formation of long-term memory but not short-term memory.

  15. Identification of in vivo-interacting domains of the murine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Kelley R; Koetzner, Cheri A; Masters, Paul S

    2009-07-01

    The coronavirus nucleocapsid protein (N), together with the large, positive-strand RNA viral genome, forms a helically symmetric nucleocapsid. This ribonucleoprotein structure becomes packaged into virions through association with the carboxy-terminal endodomain of the membrane protein (M), which is the principal constituent of the virion envelope. Previous work with the prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) has shown that a major determinant of the N-M interaction maps to the carboxy-terminal domain 3 of the N protein. To explore other domain interactions of the MHV N protein, we expressed a series of segments of the MHV N protein as fusions with green fluorescent protein (GFP) during the course of viral infection. We found that two of these GFP-N-domain fusion proteins were selectively packaged into virions as the result of tight binding to the N protein in the viral nucleocapsid, in a manner that did not involve association with either M protein or RNA. The nature of each type of binding was further explored through genetic analysis. Our results defined two strongly interacting regions of the N protein. One is the same domain 3 that is critical for M protein recognition during assembly. The other is domain N1b, which corresponds to the N-terminal domain that has been structurally characterized in detail for two other coronaviruses, infectious bronchitis virus and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

  16. Synthesis of Specifically Modified Oligonucleotides for Application in Structural and Functional Analysis of RNA

    PubMed Central

    Rublack, Nico; Nguyen, Hien; Appel, Bettina; Springstubbe, Danilo; Strohbach, Denise; Müller, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, RNA synthesis has become an essential tool not only in the field of molecular biology and medicine, but also in areas like molecular diagnostics and material sciences. Beyond synthetic RNAs for antisense, aptamer, ribozyme, and siRNA technologies, oligoribonucleotides carrying site-specific modifications for structure and function studies are needed. This often requires labeling of the RNA with a suitable spectroscopic reporter group. Herein, we describe the synthesis of functionalized monomer building blocks that upon incorporation in RNA allow for selective reaction with a specific reporter or functional entity. In particular, we report on the synthesis of 5′-O-dimethoxytrityl-2′-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl protected 3′-O-phosphoramidites of nucleosides that carry amino linkers of different lengths and flexibility at the heterocyclic base, their incorporation in a variety of RNAs, and postsynthetic conjugation with fluorescent dyes and nitroxide spin labels. Further, we show the synthesis of a flavine mononucleotide-N-hydroxy-succinimidyl ester and its conjugation to amino functionalized RNA. PMID:22013508

  17. Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylcytidine- and 5-Hydroxymethyl-uridine-Modified RNA

    PubMed Central

    Riml, Christian; Micura, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    We report on the syntheses of 5-hydroxymethyl-uridine [5hm(rU)] and -cytidine [5hm(rC)] phosphoramidites and their incorporation into RNA by solid-phase synthesis. Deprotection of the oligonucleotides is accomplished in a straightforward manner using standard conditions, confirming the appropriateness of the acetyl protection used for the pseudobenzylic alcohol moieties. The approach provides robust access to 5hm(rC/U)-modified RNAs that await applications in pull-down experiments to identify potential modification enzymes. They will also serve as synthetic probes for the development of high-throughput-sequencing methods in native RNAs. 1Introduction2Protection Strategies Reported for the Synthesis of 5hm(dC)-Modified DNA3Synthesis of 5-Hydroxymethylpyrimidine-Modified RNA3.1Synthesis of 5hm(rC) Phosphoramidite3.2Synthesis of 5hm(rU) Phosphoramidite3.3Synthesis of 5hm(rC)- and 5hm(rU)-Modified RNA4Conclusions PMID:27413246

  18. Nonenzymatic template-directed RNA synthesis inside model protocells.

    PubMed

    Adamala, Katarzyna; Szostak, Jack W

    2013-11-29

    Efforts to recreate a prebiotically plausible protocell, in which RNA replication occurs within a fatty acid vesicle, have been stalled by the destabilizing effect of Mg(2+) on fatty acid membranes. Here we report that the presence of citrate protects fatty acid membranes from the disruptive effects of high Mg(2+) ion concentrations while allowing RNA copying to proceed, while also protecting single-stranded RNA from Mg(2+)-catalyzed degradation. This combination of properties has allowed us to demonstrate the chemical copying of RNA templates inside fatty acid vesicles, which in turn allows for an increase in copying efficiency by bathing the vesicles in a continuously refreshed solution of activated nucleotides. PMID:24288333

  19. Suppression of coronavirus replication by inhibition of the MEK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yingyun; Liu, Yin; Zhang, Xuming

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that infection of cultured cells with murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) resulted in activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (Raf/MEK/ERK) signal transduction pathway (Y. Cai et al., Virology 355:152-163, 2006). Here we show that inhibition of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway by the MEK inhibitor UO126 significantly impaired MHV progeny production (a reduction of 95 to 99% in virus titer), which correlated with the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2. Moreover, knockdown of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2 by small interfering RNAs suppressed MHV replication. The inhibitory effect of UO126 on MHV production appeared to be a general phenomenon since the effect was consistently observed in all six different MHV strains and in three different cell types tested; it was likely exerted at the postentry steps of the virus life cycle because the virus titers were similarly inhibited from infected cells treated at 1 h prior to, during, or after infection. Furthermore, the treatment did not affect the virus entry, as revealed by the virus internalization assay. Metabolic labeling and reporter gene assays demonstrated that translation of cellular and viral mRNAs appeared unaffected by UO126 treatment. However, synthesis of viral genomic and subgenomic RNAs was severely suppressed by UO126 treatment, as demonstrated by a reduced incorporation of [3H]uridine and a decrease in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in a defective-interfering RNA-CAT reporter assay. These findings indicate that the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is involved in MHV RNA synthesis.

  20. RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in human cells reveals requirements for de novo initiation and protein-protein interaction.

    PubMed

    Subba-Reddy, Chennareddy V; Tragesser, Brady; Xu, Zhili; Stein, Barry; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Kao, C Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a model positive-strand RNA virus whose replication has been studied in a number of surrogate hosts. In transiently transfected human cells, the BMV polymerase 2a activated signaling by the innate immune receptor RIG-I, which recognizes de novo-initiated non-self-RNAs. Active-site mutations in 2a abolished RIG-I activation, and coexpression of the BMV 1a protein stimulated 2a activity. Mutations previously shown to abolish 1a and 2a interaction prevented the 1a-dependent enhancement of 2a activity. New insights into 1a-2a interaction include the findings that helicase active site of 1a is required to enhance 2a polymerase activity and that negatively charged amino acid residues between positions 110 and 120 of 2a contribute to interaction with the 1a helicase-like domain but not to the intrinsic polymerase activity. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that the BMV 1a and 2a colocalized to perinuclear region in human cells. However, no perinuclear spherule-like structures were detected in human cells by immunoelectron microscopy. Sequencing of the RNAs coimmunoprecipitated with RIG-I revealed that the 2a-synthesized short RNAs are derived from the message used to translate 2a. That is, 2a exhibits a strong cis preference for BMV RNA2. Strikingly, the 2a RNA products had initiation sequences (5'-GUAAA-3') identical to those from the 5' sequence of the BMV genomic RNA2 and RNA3. These results show that the BMV 2a polymerase does not require other BMV proteins to initiate RNA synthesis but that the 1a helicase domain, and likely helicase activity, can affect RNA synthesis by 2a.

  1. Lipid-assisted Synthesis of RNA-like Polymers from Mononucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamani, Sudha; Vlassov, Alexander; Benner, Seico; Coombs, Amy; Olasagasti, Felix; Deamer, David

    2008-02-01

    A fundamental problem in research on the origin of life is the process by which polymers capable of catalysis and replication were produced on the early Earth. Here we show that RNA-like polymers can be synthesized non-enzymatically from mononucleotides in lipid environments. The RNA-like polymers were initially identified by nanopore analysis, a technique with single molecule sensitivity. To our knowledge, this is the first such application of a nanopore instrument to detect RNA synthesis under simulated prebiotic conditions. The synthesis of the RNA-like polymers was confirmed by standard methods of enzymatic end labeling followed by gel electrophoresis. Chemical activation of the mononucleotides is not required. Instead, synthesis of phosphodiester bonds is driven by the chemical potential of fluctuating anhydrous and hydrated conditions, with heat providing activation energy during dehydration. In the final hydration step, the RNA-like polymer is encapsulated within lipid vesicles. This process provides a laboratory model of an early stage of evolution toward an RNA World.

  2. Enhancement of Polyribosome Formation and RNA Synthesis of Gibberellic Acid in Wounded Potato Tuber Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Wielgat, Bernard; Kahl, Günter

    1979-01-01

    As part of a more detailed study on plant tumorigenesis, the action of gibberellic acid (GA3) in wounded potato tuber tissues as a model system has been evaluated. GA3 stimulates total RNA synthesis in wounded tissues, the optimal concentration being 0.1 micromolar. The responsiveness of the tissue toward the hormone develops with time after wounding. Whereas freshly wounded tissue does not respond at all to the hormone, it becomes competent after about 6 hours, the competence being maximal after 1 day of wound healing. GA3 enhances the formation of polyribosomes in wounded tissues and stimulates the synthesis of both ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, 5S RNA, and a fraction, which in sucrose density gradients sediments between 18S rRNA and 5S RNA. This fraction contains presumptive mRNA. The hormone, then, is somehow recognized by wounded potato tissue in a time-specific way; the signal is transferred to the genome and triggers the synthesis of various RNA species. PMID:16661070

  3. HTCC: Broad Range Inhibitor of Coronavirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Milewska, Aleksandra; Kaminski, Kamil; Ciejka, Justyna; Kosowicz, Katarzyna; Zeglen, Slawomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Nowakowska, Maria; Szczubiałka, Krzysztof; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    To date, six human coronaviruses have been known, all of which are associated with respiratory infections in humans. With the exception of the highly pathogenic SARS and MERS coronaviruses, human coronaviruses (HCoV-NL63, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-229E, and HCoV-HKU1) circulate worldwide and typically cause the common cold. In most cases, infection with these viruses does not lead to severe disease, although acute infections in infants, the elderly, and immunocompromised patients may progress to severe disease requiring hospitalization. Importantly, no drugs against human coronaviruses exist, and only supportive therapy is available. Previously, we proposed the cationically modified chitosan, N-(2-hydroxypropyl)-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC), and its hydrophobically-modified derivative (HM-HTCC) as potent inhibitors of the coronavirus HCoV-NL63. Here, we show that HTCC inhibits interaction of a virus with its receptor and thus blocks the entry. Further, we demonstrate that HTCC polymers with different degrees of substitution act as effective inhibitors of all low-pathogenic human coronaviruses. PMID:27249425

  4. Genetic evolution and tropism of transmissible gastroenteritis coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, C M; Gebauer, F; Suñé, C; Mendez, A; Dopazo, J; Enjuanes, L

    1992-09-01

    Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an enteropathogenic coronavirus isolated for the first time in 1946. Nonenteropathogenic porcine respiratory coronaviruses (PRCVs) have been derived from TGEV. The genetic relationship among six European PRCVs and five coronaviruses of the TGEV antigenic cluster has been determined based on their RNA sequences. The S protein of six PRCVs have an identical deletion of 224 amino acids starting at position 21. The deleted area includes the antigenic sites C and B of TGEV S glycoprotein. Interestingly, two viruses (NEB72 and TOY56) with respiratory tropism have S proteins with a size similar to the enteric viruses. NEB72 and TOY56 viruses have in the S protein 2 and 15 specific amino acid differences with the enteric viruses. Four of the residues changed (aa 219 of NEB72 isolate and aa 92, 94, and 218 of TOY56) are located within the deletion present in the PRCVs and may be involved in the receptor binding site (RBS) conferring enteric tropism to TGEVs. A second RBS used by the virus to infect ST cells might be located in a conserved area between sites A and D of the S glycoprotein, since monoclonal antibodies specific for these sites inhibit the binding of the virus to ST cells. An evolutionary tree relating 13 enteric and respiratory isolates has been proposed. According to this tree, a main virus lineage evolved from a recent progenitor virus which was circulating around 1941. From this, secondary lineages originated PUR46, NEB72, TOY56, MIL65, BR170, and the PRCVs, in this order. Least squares estimation of the origin of TGEV-related coronaviruses showed a significant constancy in the fixation of mutations with time, that is, the existence of a well-defined molecular clock. A mutation fixation rate of 7 +/- 2 x 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site and per year was calculated for TGEV-related viruses. This rate falls in the range reported for other RNA viruses. Point mutations and probably recombination events have

  5. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Nsp15 from SARS coronavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Ricagno, Stéfano; Coutard, Bruno; Grisel, Sacha; Brémond, Nicolas; Dalle, Karen; Tocque, Fabienne; Campanacci, Valérie; Lichière, Julie; Lantez, Violaine; Debarnot, Claire; Cambillau, Christian; Canard, Bruno; Egloff, Marie-Pierre

    2006-04-01

    Crystals of Nsp15 from the aetiological agent of SARS have been grown at room temperature. Crystals have cubic symmetry and diffract to a maximum resolution of 2.7 Å. The non-structural protein Nsp15 from the aetiological agent of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) has recently been characterized as a uridine-specific endoribonuclease. This enzyme plays an essential role in viral replication and transcription since a mutation in the related H229E human coronavirus nsp15 gene can abolish viral RNA synthesis. SARS full-length Nsp15 (346 amino acids) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag and has been purified to homogeneity. The protein was subsequently crystallized using PEG 8000 or 10 000 as precipitants. Small cubic crystals of the apoenzyme were obtained from 100 nl nanodrops. They belong to space group P4{sub 1}32 or P4{sub 3}32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 166.8 Å. Diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.7 Å.

  6. [RNA synthesis gradients in the nucleus-free fragments of Acetabularia mediterranea under conditions of local illumination].

    PubMed

    Pikalov, A V; Gorbunova, E E; Naumova, G A; Sandakhchiev, L S; Stefanovich, L E

    1977-01-01

    The intensity of RNA synthesis was studied in different regions of anuclear fragments of the Acetabularia mediterranea stem under their local illumination. The local illumination was shown to activate RNA synthesis and formation of distal-medial gradients of this synthesis in the illuminated regions of the fragments to a much greater extent than in their darkened regions. The formation of the gradient in the illuminated region took place even if the growth in this region was insignificant and was not accompanied by the cap formation. The results obtained suggests the absence of obligatory correspondence between the ability of morphogenesis and the gradient of RNA synthesis.

  7. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus group-specific open reading frames encode nonessential functions for replication in cell cultures and mice.

    PubMed

    Yount, Boyd; Roberts, Rhonda S; Sims, Amy C; Deming, Damon; Frieman, Matthew B; Sparks, Jennifer; Denison, Mark R; Davis, Nancy; Baric, Ralph S

    2005-12-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) encodes several unique group-specific open reading frames (ORFs) relative to other known coronaviruses. To determine the significance of the SARS-CoV group-specific ORFs in virus replication in vitro and in mice, we systematically deleted five of the eight group-specific ORFs, ORF3a, OF3b, ORF6, ORF7a, and ORF7b, and characterized recombinant virus replication and gene expression in vitro. Deletion of the group-specific ORFs of SARS-CoV, either alone or in various combinations, did not dramatically influence replication efficiency in cell culture or in the levels of viral RNA synthesis. The greatest reduction in virus growth was noted following ORF3a deletion. SARS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein does not encode a rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)/Golgi retention signal, and it has been suggested that ORF3a interacts with and targets S glycoprotein retention in the rER/Golgi apparatus. Deletion of ORF3a did not alter subcellular localization of the S glycoprotein from distinct punctuate localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. These data suggest that ORF3a plays little role in the targeting of S localization in the rER/Golgi apparatus. In addition, insertion of the 29-bp deletion fusing ORF8a/b into the single ORF8, noted in early-stage SARS-CoV human and civet cat isolates, had little if any impact on in vitro growth or RNA synthesis. All recombinant viruses replicated to wild-type levels in the murine model, suggesting that either the group-specific ORFs play little role in in vivo replication efficiency or that the mouse model is not of sufficient quality for discerning the role of the group-specific ORFs in disease origin and development. PMID:16282490

  8. Reduced secreted mu mRNA synthesis in selective IgM deficiency of Bloom's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, N; Ozawa, T; Kato, Y; Motoyoshi, F; Kasahara, K; Kameyama, T; Orii, T

    1992-01-01

    Serum IgM concentrations were low although serum IgG and IgA concentrations were normal in both our patients with Bloom's syndrome. Although the percentages of surface IgM-bearing cells were not reduced, the numbers of IgM-secreting cells were markedly reduced. The membrane-bound mu (microns) and secreted mu (microseconds) mRNAs are produced from transcripts of a single immunoglobulin mu gene by alternative RNA processing pathways. The control of microseconds mRNA synthesis depends on the addition of poly(A) to microseconds C-terminal segment. In both patients, mu mRNA was well detected but microseconds C-terminal mRNA was scarcely detected, suggesting that microns mRNA was well transcribed but microseconds mRNA was not. There was, at least, no mutation or deletion in the microseconds C-terminal coding sequence, the RNA splice site (GG/TAAAC) at the 5' end of microseconds C-terminal segment and the AATAAA poly(A) signal sequence in both patients. Our results suggest that selective IgM deficiency in Bloom's syndrome is due to an abnormality in the maturation of surface IgM-bearing B cells into IgM-secreting cells and a failure of microseconds mRNA synthesis. Moreover, reduced microseconds mRNA synthesis may be due to the defect on developmental regulation of the site at which poly(A) is added to transcripts of the mu gene. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1563106

  9. Synthesis of Poly Linear shRNA Expression Cassettes Through Branch-PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbing; Xi, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    A facile and universal strategy to construct the poly linear small hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression cassettes with multiple shRNA transcription templates through polymerase chain reaction with flexible branched primers (branch-PCR) is described in this protocol. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is not stable enough for the study of RNA interference (RNAi) delivery in mammalian cells. Therefore, the more stable shRNA transcription template is employed to produce the endogenous transcribed dsRNA. Then, the covalent crosslinked linear shRNA expression cassettes are constructed through the branch-PCR for the long-lasting RNAi effect in this protocol. The branched primer pair is efficiently synthesized through classic click chemistry. In one step of PCR, the much more stable poly linear shRNA expression cassettes can be produced in large scale. This strategy of efficient synthesis of the poly linear gene expression cassettes can also be applied in the field for other target gene delivery. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27584702

  10. Role of the 3′ tRNA-Like Structure in Tobacco Mosaic Virus Minus-Strand RNA Synthesis by the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Osman, T. A. M.; Hemenway, C. L.; Buck, K. W.

    2000-01-01

    A template-dependent RNA polymerase has been used to determine the sequence elements in the 3′ untranslated region of tobacco mosaic virus RNA that are required for promotion of minus-strand RNA synthesis and binding to the RNA polymerase in vitro. Regions which were important for minus-strand synthesis were domain D1, which is equivalent to a tRNA acceptor arm; domain D2, which is similar to a tRNA anticodon arm; an upstream domain, D3; and a central core, C, which connects domains D1, D2, and D3 and determines their relative orientations. Mutational analysis of the 3′-terminal 4 nucleotides of domain D1 indicated the importance of the 3′-terminal CA sequence for minus-strand synthesis, with the sequence CCCA or GGCA giving the highest transcriptional efficiency. Several double-helical regions, but not their sequences, which are essential for forming pseudoknot and/or stem-loop structures in domains D1, D2, and D3 and the central core, C, were shown to be required for high template efficiency. Also important were a bulge sequence in the D2 stem-loop and, to a lesser extent, a loop sequence in a hairpin structure in domain D1. The sequence of the 3′ untranslated region upstream of domain D3 was not required for minus-strand synthesis. Template-RNA polymerase binding competition experiments showed that the highest-affinity RNA polymerase binding element region lay within a region comprising domain D2 and the central core, C, but domains D1 and D3 also bound to the RNA polymerase with lower affinity. PMID:11090166

  11. The Riia Gene of Bacteriophage T4. II. Regulation of Its Messenger RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Daegelen, P.; Brody, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the rII genes are first introduced into cells which had been previously infected by T4 phage deleted for these genes, the kinetics of synthesis of rIIA and rIIB RNA are rapid and identical. We show that this rapid synthesis depends on a functional motA gene for rIIB, but not for rIIA, RNA synthesis. By primer-extension mapping of T4 messenger RNA, we find three promoters close to the rIIA gene. One of them is an early promoter just before the rIIA.1 gene; it is used under all conditions tested. Another is in the coding portion of the rIIA.1 gene; it is weak, primarily because of a 19-bp spacing between the -10 and -35 elements, and its use is stimulated by T4 functions. The third is a motA-dependent (middle) promoter which has an unusual CCCGCTT box at -33. We present results which suggest that none of these promoters is likely to be the site at which the motB and motC gene products exercise their major influence on rIIA RNA synthesis. PMID:2379818

  12. Regulation of RNA Synthesis in Fibroblasts During Transition from Resting to Growing State

    PubMed Central

    Mauck, John C.; Green, Howard

    1973-01-01

    Addition of serum, containing fibroblast growth factors, to a culture of resting 3T6 cells stimulates a transition to the growing state. Studies of ghost monolayers prepared with the aid of detergent at intervals after stimulation showed an increase in the rate of ribosomal RNA synthesis within 10 min. The rate continued to increase for many hours and reached a level 2.5- to 3.5-fold higher by the time DNA synthesis began. The increasing rate of ribosomal RNA synthesis appeared independent of an increase in the number of ribosomal genes, since it was not affected by prevention of DNA synthesis with cytosine arabinoside. In contrast to ribosomal RNA, the overall rate of transscription of heterogeneous nuclear RNA was not directly affected by serum growth factors and does not appear to be regulated during the transition from resting to growing state. It seems, instead, to be fixed in relation to the amount of template, for it increases proportionally to DNA content. PMID:4517934

  13. Inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro by acridines--relation between structure and activity.

    PubMed

    Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Wilmańska, D; Studzian, K; Szemraj, J; Czyz, M; Denny, W A; Gniazdowski, M

    1998-01-01

    The effects of acridine derivatives (proflavine and 2,7-dialkyl derivatives, diacridines and triacridines, 9-aminoacridine carboxamides, and 9-anilinoacridine, amsacrine and its congeners) on overall RNA synthesis in vitro, on synthesis of initiating oligonucleotides and the binding of the enzyme to DNA were studied. The primary mechanism of action is related to inhibition of the enzyme binding to DNA. The acridines (intercalating or non-intercalating and bis-intercalating ligands) assayed here differ in the properties of their complexes with DNA. Correlation is generally observed between inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro and cytotoxicity in cell cultures for di- and triacridines and 9-aminoacridine carboxamide derivatives. No relationship was found between the effect on RNA polymerase system and biological effects for amsacrine and its derivatives in contrast to the other series of acridines studied here. The aniline ring seems to decrease the inhibitory potency of a ligand. The discrepancy between the biological effect and RNA synthesis inhibition may be due to a different mechanism of cytotoxicity action of amsacrine which is a potent topoisomerase II poison. PMID:9679327

  14. Synthesis and RNA polymerase incorporation of the degenerate ribonucleotide analogue rPTP.

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, K; Negishi, K; Briggs, M S; Smith, C L; Hill, F; Churcher, M J; Brown, D M; Loakes, D

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and enzymatic incorporation into RNA of the hydrogen bond degenerate nucleoside analogue 6-(beta-d-ribofuranosyl)-3, 4-dihydro-8H-pyrimido[4,5-c]-[1,2]oxazin-7-one (P) is described. The 5'-triphosphate of this analogue is readily incorporated by T3, T7 and SP6 RNA polymerases into RNA transcripts, being best incorporated in place of UTP, but also in place of CTP. When all the uridine residues in an HIV-1 TAR RNA transcript are replaced by P the transcript has similar characteristics to the wild-type TAR RNA, as demonstrated by similar melting temperatures and CD spectra. The P-substituted TAR transcript binds to the Tat peptide ADP-1 with only 4-fold lowered efficiency compared with wild-type TAR. PMID:9547267

  15. Receptor-Dependent Coronavirus Infection of Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Brian C.; Hemmila, Erin M.; Beauchemin, Nicole; Holmes, Kathryn V.

    2004-01-01

    In several mammalian species, including humans, coronavirus infection can modulate the host immune response. We show a potential role of dendritic cells (DC) in murine coronavirus-induced immune modulation and pathogenesis by demonstrating that the JAW SII DC line and primary DC from BALB/c mice and p/p mice with reduced expression of the murine coronavirus receptor, murine CEACAM1a, are susceptible to murine coronavirus infection by a receptor-dependent pathway. PMID:15113927

  16. Efficient synthesis of stably adenylated DNA and RNA adapters for microRNA capture using T4 RNA ligase 1.

    PubMed

    Song, Yunke; Liu, Kelvin J; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA profiling methods have become increasingly important due to the rapid rise of microRNA in both basic and translational sciences. A critical step in many microRNA profiling assays is adapter ligation using pre-adenylated adapters. While pre-adenylated adapters can be chemically or enzymatically prepared, enzymatic adenylation is preferred due to its ease and high yield. However, previously reported enzymatic methods either require tedious purification steps or use thermostable ligases that can generate side products during the subsequent ligation step. We have developed a highly efficient, template- and purification-free, adapter adenylation method using T4 RNA ligase 1. This method is capable of adenylating large amounts of adapter at ~100% efficiency and can efficiently adenylate both DNA and RNA bases. We find that the adenylation reaction speed can differ between DNA and RNA and between terminal nucleotides, leading to bias if reactions are not allowed to run to completion. We further find that the addition of high PEG levels can effectively suppress these differences.

  17. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tzeng, W.-P.; Frey, Teryl K. . E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu

    2005-07-05

    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4.3 for RUBrep/GFP vs. 1.3-1.4 for RUB). It was hypothesized that this modulation of the viral RNA synthesis was by one of the virus structural protein genes and it was found that introduction of the capsid (C) protein gene into the replicons as an in-frame fusion with GFP resulted in an increase of genomic RNA production (reducing the SG/genome RNA ratio), confirming the hypothesis and showing that the C gene was the moiety responsible for the modulation effect. The N-terminal one-third of the C gene was required for the effect of be exhibited. A similar phenomenon was not observed with the replicons of Sindbis virus, a related Alphavirus. Interestingly, modulation was not observed when RUBrep/GFP was co-transfected with either other RUBrep or plasmid constructs expressing the C gene, demonstrating that modulation could occur only when the C gene was provided in cis. Mutations that prevented translation of the C protein failed to modulate RNA synthesis, indicating that the C protein was the moiety responsible for modulation; consistent with this conclusion, modulation of RNA synthesis was maintained when synonymous codon mutations were introduced at the 5' end of the C gene that changed the C gene sequence without altering the amino acid sequence of the C protein. These results indicate that C protein translated in proximity of viral replication complexes, possibly from newly synthesized SG RNA, participate in regulating the replication of viral RNA.

  18. Coordinated regulation of synthesis and stability of RNA during the acute TNF-induced proinflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Michelle T.; Veloso, Artur; Prasad, Jayendra; Bedi, Karan; Ljungman, Emily A.; Tsan, Ya-Chun; Chang, Ching-Wei; Tarrier, Brendan; Washburn, Joseph G.; Lyons, Robert; Robinson, Daniel R.; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Wilson, Thomas E.; Ljungman, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state gene expression is a coordination of synthesis and decay of RNA through epigenetic regulation, transcription factors, micro RNAs (miRNAs), and RNA-binding proteins. Here, we present bromouride labeling and sequencing (Bru-Seq) and bromouridine pulse-chase and sequencing (BruChase-Seq) to assess genome-wide changes to RNA synthesis and stability in human fibroblasts at homeostasis and after exposure to the proinflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The inflammatory response in human cells involves rapid and dramatic changes in gene expression, and the Bru-Seq and BruChase-Seq techniques revealed a coordinated and complex regulation of gene expression both at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The combinatory analysis of both RNA synthesis and stability using Bru-Seq and BruChase-Seq allows for a much deeper understanding of mechanisms of gene regulation than afforded by the analysis of steady-state total RNA and should be useful in many biological settings. PMID:23345452

  19. Codon-specific and general inhibition of protein synthesis by the tRNA-sequestering minigenes.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Olivares, Luis; Zamora-Romo, Efraín; Guarneros, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Javier

    2006-07-01

    The expression of minigenes in bacteria inhibits protein synthesis and cell growth. Presumably, the translating ribosomes, harboring the peptides as peptidyl-tRNAs, pause at the last sense codon of the minigene directed mRNAs. Eventually, the peptidyl-tRNAs drop off and, under limiting activity of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, accumulate in the cells reducing the concentration of specific aminoacylable tRNA. Therefore, the extent of inhibition is associated with the rate of starvation for a specific tRNA. Here, we used minigenes harboring various last sense codons that sequester specific tRNAs with different efficiency, to inhibit the translation of reporter genes containing, or not, these codons. A prompt inhibition of the protein synthesis directed by genes containing the codons starved for their cognate tRNA (hungry codons) was observed. However, a non-specific in vitro inhibition of protein synthesis, irrespective of the codon composition of the gene, was also evident. The degree of inhibition correlated directly with the number of hungry codons in the gene. Furthermore, a tRNA(Arg4)-sequestering minigene promoted the production of an incomplete beta-galactosidase polypeptide interrupted, during bacterial polypeptide chain elongation at sites where AGA codons were inserted in the lacZ gene suggesting ribosome pausing at the hungry codons.

  20. The “Speedy” Synthesis of Atom-Specific 15N Imino/Amido-Labeled RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Christoph; Micura, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous reports on the synthesis of atom-specific 15N-labeled nucleosides exist, fast and facile access to the corresponding phosphoramidites for RNA solid-phase synthesis is still lacking. This situation represents a severe bottleneck for NMR spectroscopic investigations on functional RNAs. Here, we present optimized procedures to speed up the synthesis of 15N(1) adenosine and 15N(1) guanosine amidites, which are the much needed counterparts of the more straightforward-to-achieve 15N(3) uridine and 15N(3) cytidine amidites in order to tap full potential of 1H/15N/15N-COSY experiments for directly monitoring individual Watson–Crick base pairs in RNA. Demonstrated for two preQ1 riboswitch systems, we exemplify a versatile concept for individual base-pair labeling in the analysis of conformationally flexible RNAs when competing structures and conformational dynamics are encountered. PMID:26237536

  1. Evolutionary Relationships between Bat Coronaviruses and Their Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Han, Naijian; Streicker, Daniel; Li, Gang; Tang, Xianchun; Shi, Zhengli; Hu, Zhihong; Zhao, Guoping; Fontanet, Arnaud; Guan, Yi; Wang, Linfa; Jones, Gareth; Field, Hume E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bats are the natural reservoir of a range of coronaviruses (CoVs), and that rhinolophid bats harbor viruses closely related to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) CoV, which caused an outbreak of respiratory illness in humans during 2002–2003. We examined the evolutionary relationships between bat CoVs and their hosts by using sequence data of the virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene and the bat cytochrome b gene. Phylogenetic analyses showed multiple incongruent associations between the phylogenies of rhinolophid bats and their CoVs, which suggested that host shifts have occurred in the recent evolutionary history of this group. These shifts may be due to either virus biologic traits or host behavioral traits. This finding has implications for the emergence of SARS and for the potential future emergence of SARS-CoVs or related viruses. PMID:18258002

  2. An RNA synthesis inhibition assay for detecting toxic substances using click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Yukiko; Iwai, Shigenori; Kuraoka, Isao

    2014-04-01

    Biological risk assessment studies of chemical substances that induce DNA lesions have been primarily based on the action of DNA polymerases during replication. However, DNA lesions interfere not only with replication, but also with transcription. There is no simple method for the detection of the DNA lesion-induced inhibition of transcription. Here, we report an assay for estimating the toxicity of chemical substances by visualizing transcription in mammalian cells using nucleotide analog 5-ethynyluridine (EU) and its click chemistry reaction. Ultraviolet light and representative chemical substances (camptothecin, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, mitomycin C, and cisplatin, but not etoposide) of DNA- damaging agents show toxicity, as indicated by RNA synthesis inhibition in response to DNA damage in HeLa cells. Using titanium dioxide, we observed RNA synthesis inhibition in response to the rutile form, but not the anatase form, indicating that rutile titanium dioxide is a toxic substance. Because this method is based on the transcriptional response to DNA lesions, we can use terminally differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells, the differentiation of which can be induced by nerve growth factors, for evaluating chemical substances. Ultraviolet light and some chemicals (camptothecin, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, mitomycin C, and cisplatin, but not etoposide) inhibited RNA synthesis in non-differentiated PC12 cells. Conversely, camptothecin and cisplatin did not inhibit RNA synthesis in differentiated PC12 cells, but 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, mitomycin C, and etoposide did. And using titanium dioxide, we did not observed any RNA synthesis inhibition. These data suggest that this method might be used to estimate the potential risk of chemical substances in differentiated mammalian cells, which are the most common cell type found in the human body.

  3. Catalytic RNA and synthesis of the peptide bond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Usher, D. A.; Kozlowski, M.; Zou, X.

    1991-01-01

    We are studying whether the L-19 IVS ribozyme from Tetrahymena thermophila can catalyze the formation of the peptide bond when it is supplied with synthetic aminoacyl oligonucleotides. If this reaction works, it could give us some insight into the mechanism of peptide bond formation and the origin of coded protein synthesis. Two short oligoribonucleotides, CCCCC and a protected form of CCCCU were prepared; the former was made by the controlled hydrolysis of Poly(C), and the later by multistep chemical synthesis from the protected monomers. The homopentamer was then aminocylated using C-14 labelled Boc-protected glycine imidazolide. This aminoacylated oligo-nucleotide has now been shown to enter the active site of the L-19 IVS, and aminoacyl transfer, and peptide bond formation reactions are being sought. Our synthesis of CCCCU made us aware of the inadequacy of many of the 2'- hydroxyl protecting groups that are in use today and we therefore designed a new 2'- protecting group that is presently being tested.

  4. Role of procollagen mRNA levels in controlling the rate of procollagen synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, L B; Schwarz, R I

    1983-01-01

    Two factors must be present for primary avian tendon cells to commit 50% of their total protein production to procollagen: ascorbate and high cell density. Scorbutic primary avian tendon cells at high cell density (greater than 4 X 10(4) cells per cm2) responded to the addition of ascorbate by a sixfold increase in the rate of procollagen synthesis. The kinetics were biphasic, showing a slow increase during the first 12 h followed by a more rapid rise to a maximum after 36 to 48 h. In contrast, after ascorbate addition, the level of accumulated cytoplasmic procollagen mRNA (alpha 2) showed a 12-h lag followed by a slow linear increase requiring 60 to 72 h to reach full induction. At all stages of the induction process, the relative increase in the rate of procollagen synthesis over the uninduced state exceeded the relative increase in the accumulation of procollagen mRNA. A similar delay in mRNA induction was observed when the cells were grown in an ascorbate-containing medium but the cell density was allowed to increase. In all cases, the rate of procollagen synthesis peaked approximately 24 h before the maximum accumulation of procollagen mRNA. The kinetics for the increase in procollagen synthesis are not, therefore, in agreement with the simple model that mRNA levels are the rate-limiting factor in the collagen pathway. We propose that the primary control point is at a later step. Further support for this idea comes from inhibitor studies, using alpha, alpha'-dipyridyl to block ascorbate action. In the presence of 0.3 mM alpha, alpha'-dipyridyl there was a specific two- to threefold decrease in procollagen production after 4 h, but this was unaccompanied by a drop in procollagen mRNA levels. Therefore, inhibitor studies give further support to the idea that primary action of ascorbate is to release a post-translational block. Images PMID:6835211

  5. Development of Broad-Spectrum Halomethyl Ketone Inhibitors Against Coronavirus Main Protease 3CL(pro)

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha,U.; Barilla, J.; Gabelli, S.; Kiso, Y.; Amzel, L.; Freire, E.

    2008-01-01

    Coronaviruses comprise a large group of RNA viruses with diverse host specificity. The emergence of highly pathogenic strains like the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and the discovery of two new coronaviruses, NL-63 and HKU1, corroborates the high rate of mutation and recombination that have enabled them to cross species barriers and infect novel hosts. For that reason, the development of broad-spectrum antivirals that are effective against several members of this family is highly desirable. This goal can be accomplished by designing inhibitors against a target, such as the main protease 3CLpro (Mpro), which is highly conserved among all coronaviruses. Here 3CLpro derived from the SARS-CoV was used as the primary target to identify a new class of inhibitors containing a halomethyl ketone warhead. The compounds are highly potent against SARS 3CLpro with Ki's as low as 300 nm. The crystal structure of the complex of one of the compounds with 3CLpro indicates that this inhibitor forms a thioether linkage between the halomethyl carbon of the warhead and the catalytic Cys 145. Furthermore, Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) studies of these compounds have led to the identification of a pharmacophore that accurately defines the essential molecular features required for the high affinity.

  6. Use of a novel virus detection assay to identify coronavirus HKU1 in the lungs of a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient with fatal pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Uhlenhaut, Christine; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Pavletic, Steven; Illei, Gabor; Gea-Banacloche, Juan Carlos; Abu-Asab, Mones; Krogmann, Tammy; Gubareva, Larisa; McClenahan, Shasta; Krause, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old patient with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia for several months following immunodepleting autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. She was treated for influenza, which was isolated repeatedly from ororpharynx and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, and later empirically for lupus pneumonitis, but expired 6 months after transplant. Autopsy findings failed to show influenza in the lungs or lupus pneumonitis. A novel generic PCR-based assay using degenerate primers identified human coronavirus HKU1 RNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at autopsy. Coronavirus was confirmed by virus-specific PCRs of lung tissue at autopsy. Electron microscopy showed viral particles consistent with coronavirus HKU1 in lung tissue both at autopsy and from a previous biopsy. While human coronavirus HKU1 infection is not usually severe, in highly immunocompromised patients, it can be associated with fatal pneumonia. PMID:21749586

  7. PHF6 regulates cell cycle progression by suppressing ribosomal RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiadong; Leung, Justin Wai-chung; Gong, Zihua; Feng, Lin; Shi, Xiaobing; Chen, Junjie

    2013-02-01

    Mutation of PHF6, which results in the X-linked mental retardation disorder Börjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome, is also present in about 38% of adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias and 3% of adult acute myeloid leukemias. However, it remains to be determined exactly how PHF6 acts in vivo and what functions of PHF6 may be associated with its putative tumor suppressor function. Here, we demonstrate that PHF6 is a nucleolus, ribosomal RNA promoter-associated protein. PHF6 directly interacts with upstream binding factor (UBF) through its PHD1 domain and suppresses ribosomal RNA (rRNA) transcription by affecting the protein level of UBF. Knockdown of PHF6 impairs cell proliferation and arrests cells at G(2)/M phase, which is accompanied by an increased level of phosphorylated H2AX, indicating that PHF6 deficiency leads to the accumulation of DNA damage in the cell. We found that increased DNA damage occurs at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus in PHF6-deficient cells. This effect could be reversed by knocking down UBF or overexpressing RNASE1, which removes RNA-DNA hybrids, suggesting that there is a functional link between rRNA synthesis and genomic stability at the rDNA locus. Together, these results reveal that the key function of PHF6 is involved in regulating rRNA synthesis, which may contribute to its roles in cell cycle control, genomic maintenance, and tumor suppression.

  8. Potent inhibition of feline coronaviruses with peptidyl compounds targeting coronavirus 3C-like protease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Mandadapu, Sivakoteswara Rao; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok

    2013-02-01

    Feline coronavirus infection is common among domestic and exotic felid species and usually associated with mild or asymptomatic enteritis; however, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease of cats that is caused by systemic infection with a feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), a variant of feline enteric coronavirus (FECV). Currently, there is no specific treatment approved for FIP despite the importance of FIP as the leading infectious cause of death in young cats. During the replication process, coronavirus produces viral polyproteins that are processed into mature proteins by viral proteases, the main protease (3C-like [3CL] protease) and the papain-like protease. Since the cleavages of viral polyproteins are an essential step for virus replication, blockage of viral protease is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Previously, we reported the generation of broad-spectrum peptidyl inhibitors against viruses that possess a 3C or 3CL protease. In this study, we further evaluated the antiviral effects of the peptidyl inhibitors against feline coronaviruses, and investigated the interaction between our protease inhibitor and a cathepsin B inhibitor, an entry blocker, against a feline coronavirus in cell culture. Herein we report that our compounds behave as reversible, competitive inhibitors of 3CL protease, potently inhibited the replication of feline coronaviruses (EC(50) in a nanomolar range) and, furthermore, combination of cathepsin B and 3CL protease inhibitors led to a strong synergistic interaction against feline coronaviruses in a cell culture system.

  9. Interaction of TIF-90 and filamin A in the regulation of rRNA synthesis in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Le Xuan Truong; Chan, Steven M; Ngo, Tri Duc; Raval, Aparna; Kim, Kyeong Kyu; Majeti, Ravindra; Mitchell, Beverly S

    2014-07-24

    The transcription initiation factor I (TIF-IA) is an important regulator of the synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) through its facilitation of the recruitment of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) to the ribosomal DNA promoter. Activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, which occurs commonly in acute myelogenous leukemia, enhances rRNA synthesis through TIF-IA stabilization and phosphorylation. We have discovered that TIF-IA coexists with a splicing isoform, TIF-90, which is expressed preferentially in the nucleolus and at higher levels in proliferating and transformed hematopoietic cells. TIF-90 interacts directly with Pol I to increase rRNA synthesis as a consequence of Akt activation. Furthermore, TIF-90 binds preferentially to a 90-kDa cleavage product of the actin binding protein filamin A (FLNA) that inhibits rRNA synthesis. Increased expression of TIF-90 overcomes the inhibitory effect of this cleavage product and stimulates rRNA synthesis. Because activated Akt also reduces FLNA cleavage, these results indicate that activated Akt and TIF-90 function in parallel to increase rRNA synthesis and, as a consequence, cell proliferation in leukemic cells. These results provide evidence that the direct targeting of Akt would be an effective therapy in acute leukemias in which Akt is activated.

  10. Synthesis of double-stranded RNA in a virus-enriched fraction from Agaricus bisporus

    SciTech Connect

    Sriskantha, A.; Wach, P.; Schlagnhaufer, B.; Romaine, C.P.

    1986-03-01

    Partially purified virus preparations from sporophores of Agaricus bisporus affected with LaFrance disease had up to a 15-fold-higher RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity than did comparable preparations from health sporophores. Enzyme activity was dependent upon the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/ and the four nucleoside triphosphates and was insensitive to actinomycin D, ..cap alpha..-amanitin, and rifampin. The /sup 3/H-labeled enzyme reaction products were double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as indicated by CF-11 cellulose column chromatography and by their ionic-strength-dependent sensitivity to hydrolysis by RNase A. The principal dsRNA products had estimated molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium centrifugation of the virus preparation resolved a single peak of RNA polymerase activity that banded with a 35-nm spherical virus particle containing dsRNAs with molecular weights of 4.3 /times/ 10/sup 6/ and 1.4 /times/ 10/sup 6/. The data suggest that the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase associated with the 35-nm spherical virus is a replicase which catalyzes the synthesis of the genomic dsRNAs.

  11. RNA synthesis and turnover in the molluscan nervous system studied by Click-iT method.

    PubMed

    Ierusalimsky, Victor N; Balaban, Pavel M

    2016-02-15

    RNA synthesis can be detected by means of the in vivo incorporation of 5-ethynyluridine (EU) in newly-synthesized RNA with the relatively simple Click-iT method. We used this method to study the RNA synthesis in the CNS tissue of adult and juvenile terrestrial snails Helix lucorum L. Temporally, first labeled neurons were detected in the adult CNS after 4-h of isolated CNS incubation in EU solution, while 12-h of incubation led to extensive labeling of most CNS neurons. The EU labeling was present as the nuclear and nucleolar staining. The cytoplasm staining was observed after 2-3 days of CNS washout following the EU exposure for 16 h. In juvenile CNS, the first staining reaction was apparent as the staining of apical region in the procerebral lobe of cerebral ganglia after 1h of CNS incubation in EU, while the maximum pattern of staining was obtained after 4h of CNS incubation. Thus, age-related differences in RNA synthesis are present. Activation of neurons elicited by serotonin and caffeine applications noticeably increased the intensity of staining. EU readily penetrates into the bodies of juvenile snails immersed in the EU solution. When the intact juvenile animals were immersed in the EU solution for 1h, the procerebrum staining, similar to the one detected in the incubated juvenile CNS, was observed. PMID:26749075

  12. May Cyclic Nucleotides Be a Source for Abiotic RNA Synthesis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Pino, Samanta; Botta, Giorgia; Saladino, Raffaele; di Mauro, Ernesto

    2011-12-01

    Nucleic bases are obtained by heating formamide in the presence of various catalysts. Formamide chemistry also allows the formation of acyclonucleosides and the phosphorylation of nucleosides in every possible position, also affording 2',3' and 3',5' cyclic forms. We have reported that 3',5' cyclic GMP and 3',5' cyclic AMP polymerize in abiotic conditions yielding short oligonucleotides. The characterization of this reaction is being pursued, several of its parameters have been determined and experimental caveats are reported. The yield of non-enzymatic polymerization of cyclic purine nucleotides is very low. Polymerization is strongly enhanced by the presence of base-complementary RNA sequences.

  13. Detection of feline coronavirus using microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velanki, Sreepriya; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2006-11-01

    This work demonstrated the feasibility of detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) using microcantilever technology by showing that the feline coronavirus (FIP) type I virus can be detected by a microcantilever modified by feline coronavirus (FIP) type I anti-viral antiserum. A microcantilever modified by FIP type I anti-viral antiserum was developed for the detection of FIP type I virus. When the FIP type I virus positive sample is injected into the fluid cell where the microcantilever is held, the microcantilever bends upon the recognition of the FIP type I virus by the antiserum on the surface of the microcantilever. A negative control sample that does not contain FIP type I virus did not cause any bending of the microcantilever. The detection limit of the sensor was 0.1 µg ml-1 when the assay time was <1 h.

  14. Heat shock represses rRNA synthesis by inactivation of TIF-IA and lncRNA-dependent changes in nucleosome positioning.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhongliang; Dammert, Marcel A; Hoppe, Sven; Bierhoff, Holger; Grummt, Ingrid

    2016-09-30

    Attenuation of ribosome biogenesis in suboptimal growth environments is crucial for cellular homeostasis and genetic integrity. Here, we show that shutdown of rRNA synthesis in response to elevated temperature is brought about by mechanisms that target both the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription machinery and the epigenetic signature of the rDNA promoter. Upon heat shock, the basal transcription factor TIF-IA is inactivated by inhibition of CK2-dependent phosphorylations at Ser170/172. Attenuation of pre-rRNA synthesis in response to heat stress is accompanied by upregulation of PAPAS, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that is transcribed in antisense orientation to pre-rRNA. PAPAS interacts with CHD4, the adenosine triphosphatase subunit of NuRD, leading to deacetylation of histones and movement of the promoter-bound nucleosome into a position that is refractory to transcription initiation. The results exemplify how stress-induced inactivation of TIF-IA and lncRNA-dependent changes of chromatin structure ensure repression of rRNA synthesis in response to thermo-stress.

  15. Protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis in cultures of skin fibroblasts from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatic diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Abakumova, O.Y.; Kutsenko, N.G.; Panasyuk, A.F.

    1985-07-01

    To study the mechanism of the lasting disturbance of fibroblast function, protein, RNA and DNA synthesis was investigated in skin fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic scleroderma (SS). The labeled precursors used to analyze synthesis of protein, RNA, and DNA were /sup 14/C-protein hydrolysate, (/sup 14/C)uridine, and (/sup 14/C) thymidine. Stimulation was determined by measuring incorporation of (/sup 14/C)proline into fibroblast proteins. During analysis of stability of fast-labeled RNA tests were carried out to discover whether all measurable radioactivity belonged to RNA molecules.

  16. Characterization of a nodavirus replicase revealed a de novo initiation mechanism of RNA synthesis and terminal nucleotidyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaowei; Qiu, Yang; Liu, Yongxiang; Qi, Nan; Si, Jie; Xia, Xiaoling; Wu, Di; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2013-10-25

    Nodaviruses are a family of positive-stranded RNA viruses with a bipartite genome of RNAs. In nodaviruses, genomic RNA1 encodes protein A, which is recognized as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) and functions as the sole viral replicase protein responsible for its RNA replication. Although nodaviral RNA replication has been studied in considerable detail, and nodaviruses are well recognized models for investigating viral RNA replication, the mechanism(s) governing the initiation of nodaviral RNA synthesis have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the RdRP activity of Wuhan nodavirus (WhNV) protein A in detail and determined that this nodaviral protein A initiates RNA synthesis via a de novo mechanism, and this RNA synthesis initiation could be independent of other viral or cellular factors. Moreover, we uncovered that WhNV protein A contains a terminal nucleotidyltransferase (TNTase) activity, which is the first time such an activity has been identified in nodaviruses. We subsequently found that the TNTase activity could function in vitro to repair the 3' initiation site, which may be digested by cellular exonucleases, to ensure the efficiency and accuracy of viral RNA synthesis initiation. Furthermore, we determined the cis-acting elements for RdRP or TNTase activity at the 3'-end of positive or negative strand RNA1. Taken together, our data establish the de novo synthesis initiation mechanism and the TNTase activity of WhNV protein A, and this work represents an important advance toward understanding the mechanism(s) of nodaviral RNA replication. PMID:24019510

  17. Structure of acridines and their effect on RNA synthesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Szmigiero, L; Slaska, K; Ciesielska, E; Jaros-Kamińska, B; Gniazdowski, M

    1977-01-01

    1. Ledakrin (C-283), a 1-nitro-9-aminopropylacridine derivative, inhibits RNA synthesis in vitro if the complex with DNA is formed in the presence of thiol. 2. Using several analogues of Ledakrin, it has been found that the 1-nitro group is essential for enhancement of the inhibition by thiol; the length of 9-aminoalkyl side chain also plays a role in the reaction between DNA and the dye. 3. It is suggested that the low inhibitory effect of Ledakrin in the absence of thiol compounds is due to a steric hindrance between neighbouring 1-nitro and 9-aminoalkyl groups. This hypothesis has been confirmed by assaying inhibition of RNA synthesis by several analogues of Ledakrin. PMID:868436

  18. DNA polymerase-α regulates type I interferon activation through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J.; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C.; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K.; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R.; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations disrupting nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts expression of POLA1, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency results in increased type I interferon production. This enzyme is necessary for RNA:DNA primer synthesis during DNA replication and strikingly, POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Altogether, this work identified POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  19. Synthesis of oligodiaminomannoses and analysis of their RNA duplex binding properties and their potential application as siRNA-based drugs.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Rintaro; Doi, Akiko; Maeda, Yusuke; Wada, Takeshi

    2015-09-28

    The synthesis of artificial cationic oligodiaminosaccharides, α-(1 → 4)-linked-2,6-diamino-2,6-dideoxy-d-mannopyranose oligomers (ODAMans), and their interactions with RNA duplexes are described. The monomer through the pentamer, all of which bear unnatural 2,6-diaminomannose moieties, were successfully prepared. UV melting and fluorescence anisotropy analyses revealed that the ODAMans bound and thermodynamically stabilized both 12mer RNA duplexes and an siRNA. Furthermore, it was clearly shown that the siRNA acquired substantial RNase A resistance due to its binding to the ODAMan 4mer. PMID:26256756

  20. Osteoblast fibronectin mRNA, protein synthesis, and matrix are unchanged after exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Gilbertson, V.

    1999-01-01

    The well-defined osteoblast line, MC3T3-E1 was used to examine fibronectin (FN) mRNA levels, protein synthesis, and extracellular FN matrix accumulation after growth activation in spaceflight. These osteoblasts produce FN extracellular matrix (ECM) known to regulate adhesion, differentiation, and function in adherent cells. Changes in bone ECM and osteoblast cell shape occur in spaceflight. To determine whether altered FN matrix is a factor in causing these changes in spaceflight, quiescent osteoblasts were launched into microgravity and were then sera activated with and without a 1-gravity field. Synthesis of FN mRNA, protein, and matrix were measured after activation in microgravity. FN mRNA synthesis is significantly reduced in microgravity (0-G) when compared to ground (GR) osteoblasts flown in a centrifuge simulating earth's gravity (1-G) field 2.5 h after activation. However, 27.5 h after activation there were no significant differences in mRNA synthesis. A small but significant reduction of FN protein was found in the 0-G samples 2.5 h after activation. Total FN protein 27.5 h after activation showed no significant difference between any of the gravity conditions, however, there was a fourfold increase in absolute amount of protein synthesized during the incubation. Using immunofluorescence, we found no significant differences in the amount or in the orientation of the FN matrix after 27.5 h in microgravity. These results demonstrate that FN is made by sera-activated osteoblasts even during exposure to microgravity. These data also suggest that after a total period of 43 h of spaceflight FN transcription, translation, or altered matrix assembly is not responsible for the altered cell shape or altered matrix formation of osteoblasts.

  1. Synthesis and degradation of the mRNA of the Tn21 mer operon.

    PubMed

    Gambill, B D; Summers, A O

    1992-05-20

    The mercury resistance locus encoded by Tn21 on the monocopy IncFII plasmid R100 (merTn21) consists of a metal-responsive activator/repressor, merR, which controls initiation of a polycistronic message that includes genes for the uptake (merTPC) and reduction (merA) of Hg2+ and merD, which may also play a minor regulatory role. Comparison of the relative abundance of the 5' and 3' ends of the merTPCAD transcript revealed a strong transcriptional gradient in the operon, consistent with previous observations of lower relative abundance of the more promoter-distal gene products. In vivo mRNA degradation rates varied only slightly for the different genes: however, the rates of mRNA synthesis varied considerably from the beginning to the end of the operon. Specifically, mRNA corresponding to the promoter-proximal genes, merTPC, achieved a maximum in vivo synthesis rate between 60 and 120 seconds after induction; this rate was maintained for approximately ten minutes. In contrast, the synthesis rates of mRNA corresponding to the promoter-distal genes merA and merD, were initially fivefold lower than the rates of the promoter-proximal genes for the first five minutes after induction, and then rose gradually to approximately 50% of the merTPC synthesis rates. These data suggested that early after induction only 20% of the transcripts initiating at merT proceed beyond merC. At later times after induction approximately 50% of the transcripts proceed beyond merC. Nuclease end mapping did not reveal any discrete termination events in the merPCA region, thus, premature termination may occur at many sites.

  2. The Ebola Virus VP30-NP Interaction Is a Regulator of Viral RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Moyer, Crystal L.; Abelson, Dafna M.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2016-01-01

    Filoviruses are capable of causing deadly hemorrhagic fevers. All nonsegmented negative-sense RNA-virus nucleocapsids are composed of a nucleoprotein (NP), a phosphoprotein (VP35) and a polymerase (L). However, the VP30 RNA-synthesis co-factor is unique to the filoviruses. The assembly, structure, and function of the filovirus RNA replication complex remain unclear. Here, we have characterized the interactions of Ebola, Sudan and Marburg virus VP30 with NP using in vitro biochemistry, structural biology and cell-based mini-replicon assays. We have found that the VP30 C-terminal domain interacts with a short peptide in the C-terminal region of NP. Further, we have solved crystal structures of the VP30-NP complex for both Ebola and Marburg viruses. These structures reveal that a conserved, proline-rich NP peptide binds a shallow hydrophobic cleft on the VP30 C-terminal domain. Structure-guided Ebola virus VP30 mutants have altered affinities for the NP peptide. Correlation of these VP30-NP affinities with the activity for each of these mutants in a cell-based mini-replicon assay suggests that the VP30-NP interaction plays both essential and inhibitory roles in Ebola virus RNA synthesis. PMID:27755595

  3. Analysis of Global RNA Synthesis at the Single Cell Level following Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Biddlestone, John; Druker, Jimena; Shmakova, Alena; Ferguson, Gus; Swedlow, Jason R.; Rocha, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia or lowering of the oxygen availability is involved in many physiological and pathological processes. At the molecular level, cells initiate a particular transcriptional program in order to mount an appropriate and coordinated cellular response. The cell possesses several oxygen sensor enzymes that require molecular oxygen as cofactor for their activity. These range from prolyl-hydroxylases to histone demethylases. The majority of studies analyzing cellular responses to hypoxia are based on cellular populations and average studies, and as such single cell analysis of hypoxic cells are seldom performed. Here we describe a method of analysis of global RNA synthesis at the single cell level in hypoxia by using Click-iT RNA imaging kits in an oxygen controlled workstation, followed by microscopy analysis and quantification.  Using cancer cells exposed to hypoxia for different lengths of time, RNA is labeled and measured in each cell. This analysis allows the visualization of temporal and cell-to-cell changes in global RNA synthesis following hypoxic stress. PMID:24895009

  4. Coronaviruses in bats from Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Flores, R.; Rico-Chávez, O.; Navarrete-Macias, I.; Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M.; Rostal, M. K.; Epstein, J. H.; Tipps, T.; Liang, E.; Sanchez-Leon, M.; Sotomayor-Bonilla, J.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ávila-Flores, R.; Medellín, R. A.; Goldstein, T.; Suzán, G.; Daszak, P.

    2013-01-01

    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of human pathogens including Nipah, Hendra, rabies, Ebola, Marburg and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV). The recent implication of a novel beta (β)-CoV as the cause of fatal respiratory disease in the Middle East emphasizes the importance of surveillance for CoVs that have potential to move from bats into the human population. In a screen of 606 bats from 42 different species in Campeche, Chiapas and Mexico City we identified 13 distinct CoVs. Nine were alpha (α)-CoVs; four were β-CoVs. Twelve were novel. Analyses of these viruses in the context of their hosts and ecological habitat indicated that host species is a strong selective driver in CoV evolution, even in allopatric populations separated by significant geographical distance; and that a single species/genus of bat can contain multiple CoVs. A β-CoV with 96.5 % amino acid identity to the β-CoV associated with human disease in the Middle East was found in a Nyctinomops laticaudatus bat, suggesting that efforts to identify the viral reservoir should include surveillance of the bat families Molossidae/Vespertilionidae, or the closely related Nycteridae/Emballonuridae. While it is important to investigate unknown viral diversity in bats, it is also important to remember that the majority of viruses they carry will not pose any clinical risk, and bats should not be stigmatized ubiquitously as significant threats to public health. PMID:23364191

  5. The prebiotic synthesis of modified purines and their potential role in the RNA world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, M.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Modified purines are found in all organisms in the tRNA, rRNA, and even DNA, raising the possibility of an early role for these compounds in the evolution of life. These include N6-methyladenine, 1-methyladenine, N6,N6-dimethyladenine, 1-methylhypoxanthine, 1-methylguanine, and N2-methylguanine. We find that these bases as well as a number of nonbiological modified purines can be synthesized from adenine and guanine by the simple reaction of an amine or an amino group with adenine and guanine under the concentrated conditions of the drying-lagoon or drying-beach model of prebiotic synthesis with yields as high as 50%. These compounds are therefore as prebiotic as adenine and guanine and could have played an important role in the RNA world by providing additional functional groups in ribozymes, especially for the construction of hydrophobic binding pockets.

  6. Chemical synthesis of a biologically active natural tRNA with its minor bases.

    PubMed Central

    Gasparutto, D; Livache, T; Bazin, H; Duplaa, A M; Guy, A; Khorlin, A; Molko, D; Roget, A; Téoule, R

    1992-01-01

    The complete chemical synthesis of an E. coli tRNA(Ala) with its specific minor nucleosides, dihydrouridine, ribothymidine and pseudouridine, is reported. The method makes use of protected 2'-O-tertiobutyldimethylsilyl-ribonucleoside-3'-O-(2-cyanoethyl-N- ethyl-N- methyl)phosphoramidites. The exocyclic amino functions of the bases were protected by the phenoxyacetyl group for purines and acetyl for cytosine. The assembling has been performed on a silica support with coupling yield better than 98% within 2 min of condensation. Triethylamine tris-hydrofluoride allowed a clean and complete deprotection of the tBDMS groups. The synthetic tRNA(Ala) has been transcribed into cDNA by reverse transcriptase and sequenced. With E. coli alanyl-tRNA synthetase the alanyl acceptance activity and kcat/Km were 672 pmol/A260 and 6 x 10(4)M-1s-1, respectively. Images PMID:1383941

  7. Suppression of Coronavirus Replication by Cyclophilin Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Sato, Yuka; Sasaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect a variety of mammalian and avian species and cause serious diseases in humans, cats, mice, and birds in the form of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), mouse hepatitis, and avian infectious bronchitis, respectively. No effective vaccine or treatment has been developed for SARS-coronavirus or FIP virus, both of which cause lethal diseases. It has been reported that a cyclophilin inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA), could inhibit the replication of coronaviruses. CsA is a well-known immunosuppressive drug that binds to cellular cyclophilins to inhibit calcineurin, a calcium-calmodulin-activated serine/threonine-specific phosphatase. The inhibition of calcineurin blocks the translocation of nuclear factor of activated T cells from the cytosol into the nucleus, thus preventing the transcription of genes encoding cytokines such as interleukin-2. Cyclophilins are peptidyl-prolyl isomerases with physiological functions that have been described for many years to include chaperone and foldase activities. Also, many viruses require cyclophilins for replication; these include human immunodeficiency virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and hepatitis C virus. However, the molecular mechanisms leading to the suppression of viral replication differ for different viruses. This review describes the suppressive effects of CsA on coronavirus replication. PMID:23698397

  8. RNA synthesis in isolated nuclei of lactating mammary cells in presence of unmodified and mercury-labeled CTP.

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, R; Banerjee, M R

    1978-01-01

    Isolated nuclei of lactating mouse mammary gland were capable of supporting DNA-dependent RNA synthesis in vitro in presence of unmodified and mercurated CTP (Hg-CTP) at high ionic condition at 25 degrees C. In presence of unmodified CTP, [3H]UMP incorporation into RNA increased linearly upto 180 min. The kinetic pattern of the reaction and the rate of RNA synthesis were essentially similar when CTP was replaced by Hg-CTP. Both in unmodified and Hg-CTP containing reactions, 70-80% of RNA synthesis was inhibited by alpha-amanitin. Presence of poly(A) in a small portion of the in vitro synthesized messenger-like RNA was detectable by oligo(dT) cellulose chromatography. Both poly(A)+ and poly(A)- RNAs sedimented with a clear peak around 15S region in a formamide-sucrose denaturing gradient. The Hg-RNA after separation from endogenous nuclear RNA by SH-agarose affinity column chromatography also sedimented around 15S region in a formamide-sucrose gradient. The Hg-RNA synthesized in the isolated mammary cell nuclei in vitro should now permit monitoring hormonal regulation of specific gene (casein) transcription in the mammary cells by molecular hybridization of the Hg-RNA with cDNA to casein mRNA. PMID:724523

  9. Retargeting of Coronavirus by Substitution of the Spike Glycoprotein Ectodomain: Crossing the Host Cell Species Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Lili; Godeke, Gert-Jan; Raamsman, Martin J. B.; Masters, Paul S.; Rottier, Peter J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Coronaviruses generally have a narrow host range, infecting one or just a few species. Using targeted RNA recombination, we constructed a mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein (S) was replaced with the highly divergent ectodomain of the S protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus. The resulting chimeric virus, designated fMHV, acquired the ability to infect feline cells and simultaneously lost the ability to infect murine cells in tissue culture. This reciprocal switch of species specificity strongly supports the notion that coronavirus host cell range is determined primarily at the level of interactions between the S protein and the virus receptor. The isolation of fMHV allowed the localization of the region responsible for S protein incorporation into virions to the carboxy-terminal 64 of the 1,324 residues of this protein. This establishes a basis for further definition of elements involved in virion assembly. In addition, fMHV is potentially the ideal recipient virus for carrying out reverse genetics of MHV by targeted RNA recombination, since it presents the possibility of selecting recombinants, no matter how defective, that have regained the ability to replicate in murine cells. PMID:10627550

  10. [Visual Detection of Human Coronavirus NL63 by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification].

    PubMed

    Geng, Heyuan; Wang, Shengqiang; Xie, Xiaoqian; Xiao, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Tan, Wenjie; Su, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    A simple and sensitive assay for rapid detection of human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was developed by colorimetic reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). The method employed six specially designed primers that recognized eight distinct regions of the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein gene for amplification of target sequences under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for 1 h Amplification of RT-LAMP was monitored by addition of calcein before amplification. A positive reaction was confirmed by change from light-brown to yellow-green under visual detection. Specificity of the RT-LAMP assay was validated by cross-reaction with different human coronaviruses, norovirus, influenza A virus, and influenza B virus. Sensitivity was evaluated by serial dilution of HCoV-NL63 RNA from 1.6 x 10(9) to 1.6 x 10(1) per reaction. The RT-LAMP assay could achieve 1,600 RNA copies per reaction with high specificity. Hence, our colorimetric RT-LAMP assay could be used for rapid detection of human coronavirus NL63. PMID:27295884

  11. Retargeting of coronavirus by substitution of the spike glycoprotein ectodomain: crossing the host cell species barrier.

    PubMed

    Kuo, L; Godeke, G J; Raamsman, M J; Masters, P S; Rottier, P J

    2000-02-01

    Coronaviruses generally have a narrow host range, infecting one or just a few species. Using targeted RNA recombination, we constructed a mutant of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) in which the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein (S) was replaced with the highly divergent ectodomain of the S protein of feline infectious peritonitis virus. The resulting chimeric virus, designated fMHV, acquired the ability to infect feline cells and simultaneously lost the ability to infect murine cells in tissue culture. This reciprocal switch of species specificity strongly supports the notion that coronavirus host cell range is determined primarily at the level of interactions between the S protein and the virus receptor. The isolation of fMHV allowed the localization of the region responsible for S protein incorporation into virions to the carboxy-terminal 64 of the 1,324 residues of this protein. This establishes a basis for further definition of elements involved in virion assembly. In addition, fMHV is potentially the ideal recipient virus for carrying out reverse genetics of MHV by targeted RNA recombination, since it presents the possibility of selecting recombinants, no matter how defective, that have regained the ability to replicate in murine cells.

  12. Reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-12-12

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV.

  13. Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for the Detection of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T.; Weidmann, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV. PMID:24459611

  14. IFITM Proteins Inhibit Entry Driven by the MERS-Coronavirus Spike Protein: Evidence for Cholesterol-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wrensch, Florian; Winkler, Michael; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins 1, 2 and 3 inhibit the host cell entry of several enveloped viruses, potentially by promoting the accumulation of cholesterol in endosomal compartments. IFITM3 is essential for control of influenza virus infection in mice and humans. In contrast, the role of IFITM proteins in coronavirus infection is less well defined. Employing a retroviral vector system for analysis of coronavirus entry, we investigated the susceptibility of human-adapted and emerging coronaviruses to inhibition by IFITM proteins. We found that entry of the recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is sensitive to inhibition by IFITM proteins. In 293T cells, IFITM-mediated inhibition of cellular entry of the emerging MERS- and SARS-CoV was less efficient than blockade of entry of the globally circulating human coronaviruses 229E and NL63. Similar differences were not observed in A549 cells, suggesting that cellular context and/or IFITM expression levels can impact inhibition efficiency. The differential IFITM-sensitivity of coronaviruses observed in 293T cells afforded the opportunity to investigate whether efficiency of entry inhibition by IFITMs and endosomal cholesterol accumulation correlate. No such correlation was observed. Furthermore, entry mediated by the influenza virus hemagglutinin was robustly inhibited by IFITM3 but was insensitive to accumulation of endosomal cholesterol, indicating that modulation of cholesterol synthesis/transport did not account for the antiviral activity of IFITM3. Collectively, these results show that the emerging MERS-CoV is a target of the antiviral activity of IFITM proteins and demonstrate that mechanisms other than accumulation of endosomal cholesterol can contribute to viral entry inhibition by IFITMs. PMID:25256397

  15. Synthesis of human adenovirus early RNA species is similar in productive and abortive infections of monkey and human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K P; Klessig, D F

    1982-01-01

    Northern (RNA) blot analysis has been used to show that synthesis of early mRNA species is similar in monkey cells productively or abortively infected with human adenovirus. mRNA species from all five major early regions (1A, 1B, 2, 3, 4) are identical in size and comparable in abundance whether isolated from monkey cells infected with adenovirus type 2 or with the host range mutant Ad2hr400 or coinfected with adenovirus type 2 plus simian virus 40. The mRNA species isolated from monkey cells are identical in size to those isolated from human cells. Production of virus-associated RNA is also identical in productive and abortive infections of monkey cells. Synthesis of virus-associated RNA is, however, significantly greater in HeLa cells than in CV1 cells at late times after infection regardless of which virus is used in the infection. Images PMID:6283181

  16. Gene activity during germination of spores of the fern, Onoclea sensibilis: RNA and protein synthesis and the role of stored mRNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghavan, V.

    1991-01-01

    Pattern of 3H-uridine incorporation into RNA of spores of Onoclea sensibilis imbibed in complete darkness (non-germinating conditions) and induced to germinate in red light was followed by oligo-dT cellulose chromatography, gel electrophoresis coupled with fluorography and autoradiography. In dark-imbibed spores, RNA synthesis was initiated about 24 h after sowing, with most of the label accumulating in the high mol. wt. poly(A) -RNA fraction. There was no incorporation of the label into poly(A) +RNA until 48 h after sowing. In contrast, photo-induced spores began to synthesize all fractions of RNA within 12 h after sowing and by 24 h, incorporation of 3H-uridine into RNA of irradiated spores was nearly 70-fold higher than that into dark-imbibed spores. Protein synthesis, as monitored by 3H-arginine incorporation into the acid-insoluble fraction and by autoradiography, was initiated in spores within 1-2 h after sowing under both conditions. Autoradiographic experiments also showed that onset of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm of the germinating spore is independent of the transport of newly synthesized nuclear RNA. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 35S-methionine-labelled proteins revealed a good correspondence between proteins synthesized in a cell-free translation system directed by poly(A) +RNA of dormant spores and those synthesized in vivo by dark-imbibed and photo-induced spores. These results indicate that stored mRNAs of O. sensibilis spores are functionally competent and provide templates for the synthesis of proteins during dark-imbibition and germination.

  17. Virus-specific RNA synthesis in interferon-treated mouse cells productively infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fan, H; MacIsaac, P

    1978-01-01

    Mouse cells productively infected with Moloney murine leukemia virus were treated with interferon, and intracellular virus-specific RNA was studied by hybridization with complementary DNA. The steady-state concentration of virus-specific RNA in interferon-treated cells was somewhat greater than that in untreated cells, and the rates of virus-specific RNA synthesis were approximately equal in treated and untreated cells. PMID:691118

  18. Three men, a paint brush and a coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Macconnachie, A A; Collins, T C; Seaton, R A; Kennedy, D H

    2007-02-01

    Coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infection and a coryzal syndrome. Although described as a cause of gastroenteritis in HIV patients, with the exception of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), there is little in the literature about respiratory infection in HIV patients. We describe two patients with HIV, exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and proven coronavirus infection. A third patient presented with an upper respiratory tract infection but coronavirus was not isolated. All three men had spent a day decorating the first patient's flat four days prior to presentation. This is the first description of respiratory tract infection with coronavirus in HIV patients. Both patients with coronavirus required prolonged admission to hospital and extensive investigations because they were HIV infected. Coronavirus is often associated with less severe upper respiratory tract infection but can cause more severe disease and should be considered in patients with HIV and respiratory tract infection. PMID:17331291

  19. Single-gene dual-color reporter cell line to analyze RNA synthesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Palangat, Murali; Larson, Daniel R

    2016-07-01

    RNA synthesis occurs through the multi-step process of transcription which consists of initiation, elongation, termination, and cleavage of the nascent RNA. In recent years, post-initiation events have attracted considerable attention as regulatory steps in gene expression. In particular, changes in elongation rate have been proposed to alter RNA fate either through changes in RNA secondary structure or recruitment of trans-acting factors, but systematic approaches for perturbing and measuring elongation rate are currently lacking. Here, we describe a system for precisely measuring elongation dynamics for single nascent transcripts at a single gene locus in human cell lines. The system is based on observing the production of fluorescently labeled RNA stem loops which flank a region of interest. The region of interest can be altered using flp recombinases, thus allowing one to study the effects of cis-acting sequences on transcription rate. The dual-color RNAs which are made during this process are exported and translated, thus enabling visualization of each step in gene expression.

  20. Detection of reduced RNA synthesis in UV-irradiated Cockayne syndrome group B cells using an isolated nuclear system.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ayumi; Masutani, Chikahide; Hanaoka, Fumio

    2002-10-21

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a human hereditary disorder characterized by UV sensitivity, developmental abnormalities and premature aging. CS cells display a selective deficiency in transcription-coupled repair (TCR), a subpathway of nucleotide excision repair (NER) that preferentially removes lesions from transcribed strands. Following UV irradiation, the recovery of RNA synthesis is abnormally delayed in CS cells in conjunction with TCR deficiency. To date, TCR has been detected in cultured cells, but not in cell-free systems. In this study, we constructed an assay system using isolated nuclei. RNA synthesis catalyzed by RNA polymerases (pol I and II) was measured in nuclei prepared from UV-irradiated cells. In nuclei isolated from HeLa and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) group C cells, RNA synthesis was relatively resistant to UV irradiation. In contrast, RNA synthesis by pol I and, in particular, pol II in CS-B nuclei was significantly inhibited upon UV irradiation. Our data support the utility of this assay system for the in vitro detection of the recovery of RNA synthesis in cultured cells. PMID:12379475

  1. Source of amino acids for tRNA acylation. Implications for measurement of protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, D M; Calvert, C C; Klasing, K C

    1992-01-01

    Estimates of protein-synthesis rates using radioisotopes require accurate measurement of the specific radioactivity of the label in protein and in the precursor pool over time. Although the extracellular and intracellular pools of amino acids are easiest to sample, the tRNA pool is the direct precursor and is the appropriate pool for sampling. To test if the intracellular or extracellular pools reflect the tRNA specific radioactivity, a chicken macrophage cell line was incubated in medium containing either 0.23 mM-leucine and 14.5 microCi of [3H]leucine (tracer dose) or 2.3 microM-leucine plus 145.0 microCi of [3H]leucine (flooding dose). At both leucine levels, the tRNA specific radioactivity reached a plateau quickly, but did not equilibrate with either the extracellular or intracellular specific radioactivity within 30 min, and remained closer to that of protein. In a second experiment, proteins in chicken macrophages were labelled with [3H]leucine for 2 days. Labelling medium was removed, and the cells were washed free of residual free [3H]leucine and incubated with medium containing either 0.23 mM- or 2.3 mM-leucine (unlabelled). The specific radioactivity of leucyl-tRNA leucine reached a plateau within 2 min and remained considerably closer to that in the protein than that in intracellular or extracellular pools for at least 60 min. These results suggest that amino acids from protein degradation are a primary source for charging tRNA. When protein-synthesis rates are estimated by label incorporation, use of extracellular or intracellular specific-radioactivity values result in a marked underestimation. PMID:1575701

  2. A 3′-end structure in RNA2 of a crinivirus is essential for viral RNA synthesis and contributes to replication-associated translation activity

    PubMed Central

    Mongkolsiriwattana, Chawin; Zhou, Jaclyn S.; Ng, James C. K.

    2016-01-01

    The terminal ends in the genome of RNA viruses contain features that regulate viral replication and/or translation. We have identified a Y-shaped structure (YSS) in the 3′ terminal regions of the bipartite genome of Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV), a member in the genus Crinivirus (family Closteroviridae). The YSS is the first in this family of viruses to be determined using Selective 2′-Hydroxyl Acylation Analyzed by Primer Extension (SHAPE). Using luciferase constructs/replicons, in vivo and in vitro assays showed that the 5′ and YSS-containing 3′ terminal regions of LCV RNA1 supported translation activity. In contrast, similar regions from LCV RNA2, including those upstream of the YSS, did not. LCV RNA2 mutants with nucleotide deletions or replacements that affected the YSS were replication deficient. In addition, the YSS of LCV RNA1 and RNA2 were interchangeable without affecting viral RNA synthesis. Translation and significant replication were observed for specific LCV RNA2 replicons only in the presence of LCV RNA1, but both processes were impaired when the YSS and/or its upstream region were incomplete or altered. These results are evidence that the YSS is essential to the viral replication machinery, and contributes to replication enhancement and replication-associated translation activity in the RNA2 replicons. PMID:27694962

  3. Positive-strand RNA viruses stimulate host phosphatidylcholine synthesis at viral replication sites

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiantao; Zhang, Zhenlu; Chukkapalli, Vineela; Nchoutmboube, Jules A.; Li, Jianhui; Randall, Glenn; Belov, George A.; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    All positive-strand RNA viruses reorganize host intracellular membranes to assemble their viral replication complexes (VRCs); however, how these viruses modulate host lipid metabolism to accommodate such membrane proliferation and rearrangements is not well defined. We show that a significantly increased phosphatidylcholine (PC) content is associated with brome mosaic virus (BMV) replication in both natural host barley and alternate host yeast based on a lipidomic analysis. Enhanced PC levels are primarily associated with the perinuclear ER membrane, where BMV replication takes place. More specifically, BMV replication protein 1a interacts with and recruits Cho2p (choline requiring 2), a host enzyme involved in PC synthesis, to the site of viral replication. These results suggest that PC synthesized at the site of VRC assembly, not the transport of existing PC, is responsible for the enhanced accumulation. Blocking PC synthesis by deleting the CHO2 gene resulted in VRCs with wider diameters than those in wild-type cells; however, BMV replication was significantly inhibited, highlighting the critical role of PC in VRC formation and viral replication. We further show that enhanced PC levels also accumulate at the replication sites of hepatitis C virus and poliovirus, revealing a conserved feature among a group of positive-strand RNA viruses. Our work also highlights a potential broad-spectrum antiviral strategy that would disrupt PC synthesis at the sites of viral replication but would not alter cellular processes. PMID:26858414

  4. In low protein diets, microRNA-19b regulates urea synthesis by targeting SIRT5

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rui-Ping; Xi, Qian-Yun; Sun, Jia-Jie; Cheng, Xiao; Zhu, Yan-Ling; Ye, Ding-Ze; Chen, Ting; Wei, Li-Min; Ye, Rui-Song; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia detoxification, which takes place via the hepatic urea cycle, is essential for nitrogen homeostasis and physiological well-being. It has been reported that a reduction in dietary protein reduces urea nitrogen. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are major regulatory non-coding RNAs that have significant effects on several metabolic pathways; however, little is known on whether miRNAs regulate hepatic urea synthesis. The objective of this study was to assess the miRNA expression profile in a low protein diet and identify miRNAs involved in the regulation of the hepatic urea cycle using a porcine model. Weaned 28-days old piglets were fed a corn-soybean normal protein diet (NP) or a corn-soybean low protein diet (LP) for 30 d. Hepatic and blood samples were collected, and the miRNA expression profile was assessed by sequencing and qRT-PCR. Furthermore, we evaluated the possible role of miR-19b in urea synthesis regulation. There were 25 differentially expressed miRNAs between the NP and LP groups. Six of these miRNAs were predicted to be involved in urea cycle metabolism. MiR-19b negatively regulated urea synthesis by targeting SIRT5, which is a positive regulator of CPS1, the rate limiting enzyme in the urea cycle. Our study presented a novel explanation of ureagenesis regulation by miRNAs. PMID:27686746

  5. Recovery from ultraviolet tight-induced depression of ribosomal RNA synthesis in normal human, xeroderma pigmentosum and Cockayne syndrome cells.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, H; Hara, R; Ikenaga, M

    1996-06-01

    The rate of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis was analyzed at different times after ultraviolet light (UV) irradiation in normal human, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome (CS) cells. In normal cells, the rate of rRNA synthesis, as measured by the incorporation of 3H-uridine into 18S and 28S rRNAs, decreased immediately after UV irradiation to about half of that of unirradiated cells, and then recovered significantly at 24 h after UV. However, the rate of synthesis continued to decrease during post-UV incubation in XP cells belonging to groups A, D, E, F and G, as well as in CS cells of groups A and B. In contrast, group C XP cells showed a slight recovery at 24 h after UV, suggesting that they have the capacity to repair UV lesions in rRNA genes. PMID:8840721

  6. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fakeng; Jin, Rui; Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-19

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells.

  7. Aminoacyl-tRNA enrichment after a flood of labeled phenylalanine: insulin effect on muscle protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Caso, Giuseppe; Ford, G Charles; Nair, K Sreekumaran; Garlick, Peter J; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2002-05-01

    Muscle protein synthesis in dogs measured by flooding with L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine (70 mg/kg) was significantly stimulated by infusion of insulin with amino acids. The stimulation of muscle protein synthesis was similar when calculated from the enrichment of phenylalanyl-tRNA (61 +/- 10%, P < 0.001), plasma phenylalanine (61 +/- 10%, P < 0.001), or tissue fluid phenylalanine (54 +/- 10%, P < 0.001). The time course for changes in enrichment of L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine throughout the flooding period was determined for plasma, tissue fluid, and phenylalanyl-tRNA in the basal state and during the infusion of insulin with amino acids. Enrichments of plasma free phenylalanine and phenylalanyl-tRNA were equalized between 20 and 45 min, although the enrichment of phenylalanyl-tRNA was lower at early time points. Rates of muscle protein synthesis obtained with the flooding method and calculated from plasma phenylalanine enrichment were comparable to those calculated from phenylalanyl-tRNA and also to those obtained previously with a continuous infusion of phenylalanine with phenylalanyl-tRNA as precursor. This study confirms that, with a bolus injection of labeled phenylalanine, the enrichment of aminoacyl-tRNA, the true precursor pool for protein synthesis, can be assessed from more readily sampled plasma phenylalanine.

  8. Highly conserved base A55 of 16S ribosomal RNA is important for the elongation cycle of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bhubanananda; Khade, Prashant K; Joseph, Simpson

    2013-09-24

    Accurate decoding of mRNA requires the precise interaction of protein factors and tRNAs with the ribosome. X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy have provided detailed structural information about the 70S ribosome with protein factors and tRNAs trapped during translation. Crystal structures showed that one of the universally conserved 16S rRNA bases, A55, in the shoulder domain of the 30S subunit interacts with elongation factors Tu and G (EF-Tu and EF-G, respectively). The exact functional role of A55 in protein synthesis is not clear. We changed A55 to U and analyzed the effect of the mutation on the elongation cycle of protein synthesis using functional assays. Expression of 16S rRNA with the A55U mutation in cells confers a dominant lethal phenotype. Additionally, ribosomes with the A55U mutation in 16S rRNA show substantially reduced in vitro protein synthesis activity. Equilibrium binding studies showed that the A55U mutation considerably inhibited the binding of the EF-Tu·GTP·tRNA ternary complex to the ribosome. Furthermore, the A55U mutation slightly inhibited the peptidyl transferase reaction, the binding of EF-G·GTP to the ribosome, and mRNA-tRNA translocation. These results indicate that A55 is important for fine-tuning the activity of the ribosome during the elongation cycle of protein synthesis.

  9. Receptor Recognition Mechanisms of Coronaviruses: a Decade of Structural Studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Receptor recognition by viruses is the first and essential step of viral infections of host cells. It is an important determinant of viral host range and cross-species infection and a primary target for antiviral intervention. Coronaviruses recognize a variety of host receptors, infect many hosts, and are health threats to humans and animals. The receptor-binding S1 subunit of coronavirus spike proteins contains two distinctive domains, the N-terminal domain (S1-NTD) and the C-terminal domain (S1-CTD), both of which can function as receptor-binding domains (RBDs). S1-NTDs and S1-CTDs from three major coronavirus genera recognize at least four protein receptors and three sugar receptors and demonstrate a complex receptor recognition pattern. For example, highly similar coronavirus S1-CTDs within the same genus can recognize different receptors, whereas very different coronavirus S1-CTDs from different genera can recognize the same receptor. Moreover, coronavirus S1-NTDs can recognize either protein or sugar receptors. Structural studies in the past decade have elucidated many of the puzzles associated with coronavirus-receptor interactions. This article reviews the latest knowledge on the receptor recognition mechanisms of coronaviruses and discusses how coronaviruses have evolved their complex receptor recognition pattern. It also summarizes important principles that govern receptor recognition by viruses in general. PMID:25428871

  10. Genetic diversity of coronaviruses in Miniopterus fuliginosus bats.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Yang, Li; Ren, Xianwen; Zhang, Junpeng; Dong, Jie; Sun, Lilian; Zhu, Yafang; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Shuyi; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2016-06-01

    Coronaviruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, pose significant public health threats. Bats have been suggested to act as natural reservoirs for both these viruses, and periodic monitoring of coronaviruses in bats may thus provide important clues about emergent infectious viruses. The Eastern bent-wing bat Miniopterus fuliginosus is distributed extensively throughout China. We therefore analyzed the genetic diversity of coronaviruses in samples of M. fuliginosus collected from nine Chinese provinces during 2011-2013. The only coronavirus genus found was Alphacoronavirus. We established six complete and five partial genomic sequences of alphacoronaviruses, which revealed that they could be divided into two distinct lineages, with close relationships to coronaviruses in Miniopterus magnater and Miniopterus pusillus. Recombination was confirmed by detecting putative breakpoints of Lineage 1 coronaviruses in M. fuliginosus and M. pusillus (Wu et al., 2015), which supported the results of topological and phylogenetic analyses. The established alphacoronavirus genome sequences showed high similarity to other alphacoronaviruses found in other Miniopterus species, suggesting that their transmission in different Miniopterus species may provide opportunities for recombination with different alphacoronaviruses. The genetic information for these novel alphacoronaviruses will improve our understanding of the evolution and genetic diversity of coronaviruses, with potentially important implications for the transmission of human diseases. PMID:27125516

  11. Human Coronaviruses: Insights into Environmental Resistance and Its Influence on the Development of New Antiseptic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E.

    2012-01-01

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002–2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  12. Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies.

    PubMed

    Geller, Chloé; Varbanov, Mihayl; Duval, Raphaël E

    2012-11-12

    The Coronaviridae family, an enveloped RNA virus family, and, more particularly, human coronaviruses (HCoV), were historically known to be responsible for a large portion of common colds and other upper respiratory tract infections. HCoV are now known to be involved in more serious respiratory diseases, i.e. bronchitis, bronchiolitis or pneumonia, especially in young children and neonates, elderly people and immunosuppressed patients. They have also been involved in nosocomial viral infections. In 2002-2003, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), due to a newly discovered coronavirus, the SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV); led to a new awareness of the medical importance of the Coronaviridae family. This pathogen, responsible for an emerging disease in humans, with high risk of fatal outcome; underline the pressing need for new approaches to the management of the infection, and primarily to its prevention. Another interesting feature of coronaviruses is their potential environmental resistance, despite the accepted fragility of enveloped viruses. Indeed, several studies have described the ability of HCoVs (i.e. HCoV 229E, HCoV OC43 (also known as betacoronavirus 1), NL63, HKU1 or SARS-CoV) to survive in different environmental conditions (e.g. temperature and humidity), on different supports found in hospital settings such as aluminum, sterile sponges or latex surgical gloves or in biological fluids. Finally, taking into account the persisting lack of specific antiviral treatments (there is, in fact, no specific treatment available to fight coronaviruses infections), the Coronaviridae specificities (i.e. pathogenicity, potential environmental resistance) make them a challenging model for the development of efficient means of prevention, as an adapted antisepsis-disinfection, to prevent the environmental spread of such infective agents. This review will summarize current knowledge on the capacity of human coronaviruses to survive in the

  13. Identification of a broad-spectrum inhibitor of virus RNA synthesis: validation of a prototype virus-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Filone, Claire Marie; Hodges, Erin N.; Honeyman, Brian; Bushkin, G. Guy; Boyd, Karla; Platt, Andrew; Ni, Feng; Strom, Kyle; Hensley, Lisa; Snyder, John K.; Connor, John H.

    2013-01-01

    There are no approved therapeutics for the most deadly nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses, including Ebola (EBOV). To identify new chemical scaffolds for development of broad-spectrum antivirals, we undertook a prototype-based lead identification screen. Using the prototype NNS virus, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), multiple inhibitory compounds were identified. Three compounds were investigated for broad-spectrum activity, and inhibited EBOV infection. The most potent, CMLDBU3402, was selected for further study. CMLDBU3402 did not show significant activity against segmented negative-strand RNA viruses suggesting proscribed broad-spectrum activity. Mechanistic analysis indicated that CMLDBU3402 blocked VSV viral RNA synthesis and inhibited EBOV RNA transcription, demonstrating a consistent mechanism of action against genetically distinct viruses. The identification of this chemical backbone as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA synthesis offers significant potential for the development of new therapies for highly pathogenic viruses. PMID:23521799

  14. Temporal aspects of DNA and RNA synthesis during human immunodeficiency virus infection: Evidence for differential gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sunyoung; Baltimore, D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ); Byrn, R.; Groopman, J. )

    1989-09-01

    The kinetics of retroviral DNA and RNA synthesis are parameters vital to understanding viral growth, especially for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which encodes several of its own regulatory genes. The authors have established a single-cycle growth condition for HIV in H9 cells, a human CD4{sup +} lymphocyte line. The full-length viral linear DNA is first detectable by 4 h postinfection. During a one-step growth of HIV, amounts of viral DNA gradually increase until 8 to 12 h postinfection and then decrease. The copy number of unintegrated viral DNA is not extraordinarily high even at its peak. Most strikingly, there is a temporal program of RNA accumulation: the earliest RNA is greatly enriched in the 2-kilobase subgenomic mRNA species, while the level of 9.2-kilobase RNA which is both genomic RNA and mRNA remains low until after 24 h of infection. Virus production begins at about 24 h postinfection. Thus, viral DNA synthesis is as rapid as for other retroviruses, but viral RNA synthesis involves temporal alteration in the species that accumulate, presumably as a consequence of viral regulatory genes.

  15. Sequences more than 500 base pairs upstream of the human U3 small nuclear RNA gene stimulate the synthesis of U3 RNA in frog oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, D.; Reddy, R. ); Wright, D. )

    1991-06-04

    Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes contain strong promoters capable of initiating transcription once every 4 s. Studies on the human U1 snRNA gene, carried out in other laboratories, showed that sequences within 400 bp of the 5' flanking region are sufficient for maximal levels of transcription both in vivo and in frog oocytes (reviewed in Dahlberg and Lund (1988)). The authors studied the expression of a human U3 snRNA gene by injecting 5' deletion mutants into frog oocytes. The results show that sequences more than 500 bp upstream of the U3 snRNA gene have a 2-3-fold stimulatory effect on the U3 snRNA synthesis. These results indicate that the human U3 snRNA gene is different from human U1 snRNA gene in containing regulatory elements more than 500 bp upstream. The U3 snRNA gene upstream sequences contain an AluI homologous sequence in the {minus}1,200 region; these AluI sequences were transcribed in vitro and in frog oocytes but were not detectable in Hela cells.

  16. Thiol-dependent inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro by acridines: structure-inhibition relationships.

    PubMed

    Gniazdowski, M; Szmigiero, L; Wilmańska, D

    1982-01-01

    In the presence of sulfhydryl compounds an anticancer drug, 1-nitro-9-aminoalkylacridine derivative, forms with DNA irreversible, probably covalent, complexes of decreased template properties. Five 9-substituted 1-nitro-9-aminoacridine derivatives of cytostatic activity show irreversible thiol-dependent inhibitory effects on the RNA synthesis in vitro system while equal inhibition is observed both in the presence and in the absence of dithiothreitol with biologically inactive analogues of nitrocrine. In the absence of sulfhydryl compounds the inhibition depends on the planarity of the acridine ring. Hence, both 1-nitro-9-aminoalkylacridine and tetrahydroacridine derivatives show low inhibitory effect. PMID:6174208

  17. Inhibition of mRNA synthesis in the hippocampus impairs consolidation and reconsolidation of spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Weber C; Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-01-01

    Using two different mRNA synthesis inhibitors, we show that blockade of hippocampal gene expression during restricted posttraining or postretrieval time windows hinders retention of long-term spatial memory for the Morris water maze task, without affecting short-term memory, nonspatial learning, or the functionality of the hippocampus. Our results indicate that spatial memory consolidation induces the activation of the hippocampal transcriptional machinery and suggest the existence of a gene expression-dependent reconsolidation process that operates in the dorsal hippocampus at the moment of retrieval to stabilize the reactivated mnemonic trace.

  18. Translational pauses during the synthesis of proteins and mRNA structure.

    PubMed

    Zama, M

    1997-01-01

    Translational pauses are observed during a spider fibroin synthesis (1,2). The spider major ampullate (dragline) silk of the spider Nephila clavipes is composed of multiple proteins. The amino acid sequences of the partial cDNA clones for the two major dragline silk fibroin components (Spidroin 1 and 2) exhibit repetitive motifs (3,4). Our detailed inspection of the nucleotide sequences of the repetitive motifs revealed highly selective site-specific codon usage patterns within a motif, suggesting that the secondary structure of the spider fibroin mRNA is optimized by the nucleotide sequence of the fibroin gene. The results, combined with our preceding results on silk fibroin from Bombyx mori (5) suggest that translational pauses of spider silk are interpreted in terms of the mRNA secondary structure.

  19. Genomic plus-strand RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA replicase requires a sequence that is complementary to the binding site of the BMV helicase-like protein.

    PubMed

    Sivakumaran, K; Kao, C C

    2000-11-01

    Summary Initiation of genomic plus-strand RNA synthesis by the brome mosaic virus (BMV) replicase in vitro requires a 26-nucleotide (nt) RNA sequence at the 3' end of the minus-strand RNA and a nontemplated nucleotide 3' of the initiation cytidylate [Sivakumaran, K. and Kao, C.C. (1999)J. Virol.64, 6415-6423]. At the 5' end of this RNA is a 9-nt sequence called the cB box, the complement of the previously defined B box. The cB box can not be functionally replaced by the B box and has specific positional and sequence requirements. The portion of the cB box that is required for RNA synthesis in vitro is well-conserved in species in the Bromoviridae family. An equivalent RNA from Cucumber mosaic virus was unable to direct efficient RNA synthesis by the BMV replicase until the cB box was positioned at the same site relative to the BMV RNA and guanylates were present at positions +6 and +7 from the initiation cytidylate. These results further define the elements required for the recognition and initiation of viral genomic plus-strand RNA synthesis and suggest that a sequence important for minus-strand RNA synthesis is also required for plus-strand RNA synthesis.

  20. miR-122 Stimulates Hepatitis C Virus RNA Synthesis by Altering the Balance of Viral RNAs Engaged in Replication Versus Translation

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Takahiro; Arend, Kyle C.; Li, You; Yamane, Daisuke; McGivern, David R.; Kato, Takanobu; Wakita, Takaji; Moorman, Nathaniel J.; Lemon, Stanley M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The liver-specific microRNA, miR-122, stabilizes hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA genomes by recruiting host argonaute 2 (AGO2) to the 5′ end and preventing decay mediated by exonuclease Xrn1. However, HCV replication requires miR-122 in Xrn1-depleted cells, indicating additional function s. We show that miR-122 enhances HCV RNA levels by altering the fraction of HCV genomes available for RNA synthesis. Exogenous miR-122 increases viral RNA and protein levels in Xrn1-depleted cells, with enhanced RNA synthesis occurring before heightened protein synthesis. Inhibiting protein translation blocks miR-122-mediated increases in RNA synthesis, but independently enhances RNA synthesis by releasing ribosomes from viral genomes. Additionally, miR-122 reduces the fraction of viral genomes engaged in protein translation. Depleting AGO2 or PCBP2, which binds HCV RNA in competition with miR-122 and promotes translation, eliminates miR-122 stimulation of RNA synthesis. Thus, by displacing PCBP2, miR-122 reduces HCV genomes engaged in translation while increasing the fraction available for RNA synthesis. PMID:25662750

  1. Quantitation, biological and physicochemical properties of cell culture-adapted porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV).

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M; Wyler, R

    1989-06-01

    The porcine epidemic coronavirus (PEDV), tentatively classified as a coronavirus, was adapted to Vero cells and a plaque test developed for infectivity titration, allowing us to test the biological and biophysical properties of the virus. Growth kinetics showed peak titers of 10(5.5) plaque-forming units ml-1 15 h after infection. Filtration experiments and electron microscopy revealed a particle diameter between 100 and 200 nm. The buoyant density of the virus was 1.18. The particle lost its infectivity on treatment with lipid solvents. Virus replication could not be inhibited by 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine. PEDV was moderately stable at 50 degrees C, but heat sensitivity was not altered by divalent cations. At 4 degrees C, the virus was stable between pH 5.0 and 9.0, but at 37 degrees C stability was restricted to the pH range 6.5-7.5. Viral infectivity was not impaired by ultrasonication or by multiple freezing and thawing. PEDV was not neutralized by transmissible gastroenteritis virus antiserum. On the basis of the tests carried out, PEDV is a pleomorphic, enveloped RNA virus with a particle diameter of approximately 150 nm and a buoyant density of 1.18. Infectivity depends on the presence of trypsin, and infected cells show a tendency to fuse and to form syncytia. All of these properties, as well as its physicochemical characteristics, allow PEDV to be classified as a coronavirus.

  2. Molecular pathology of emerging coronavirus infections

    PubMed Central

    Gralinski, Lisa E; Baric, Ralph S

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory viruses can cause a wide spectrum of pulmonary diseases, ranging from mild, upper respiratory tract infections to severe and life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections, including the development of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Viral clearance and subsequent recovery from infection require activation of an effective host immune response; however, many immune effector cells may also cause injury to host tissues. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus cause severe infection of the lower respiratory tract, with 10% and 35% overall mortality rates, respectively; however, >50% mortality rates are seen in the aged and immunosuppressed populations. While these viruses are susceptible to interferon treatment in vitro, they both encode numerous genes that allow for successful evasion of the host immune system until after high virus titres have been achieved. In this review, we discuss the importance of the innate immune response and the development of lung pathology following human coronavirus infection. PMID:25270030

  3. Biological and genetic analysis of a bovine-like coronavirus isolated from water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    PubMed

    Decaro, Nicola; Martella, Vito; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Mari, Viviana; Desario, Costantina; Lucente, Maria Stella; Lorusso, Alessio; Greco, Grazia; Corrente, Marialaura; Tempesta, Maria; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2008-01-01

    We describe the isolation, biological and genetic characterization of a host-range variant of bovine coronavirus (BCoV) detected in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). By conventional and real-time RT-PCR assays, the virus was demonstrated in the intestinal contents of two 20-day-old buffalo calves dead of a severe form of enteritis and in the feces of additional 17 buffalo calves with diarrhea. Virus isolation, hemagglutination and receptor-destroying enzyme activity showed that the buffalo coronavirus (BuCoV) is closely related to BCoV but possesses some different biological properties. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 3' end (9.6 kb) of the BuCoV RNA revealed a genomic organization typical of group 2 coronaviruses. Moreover, the genetic distance between BuCoV and BCoV was proven to be the same or even higher than the distance between other ruminant coronaviruses and BCoV. In conclusion, our data support the existence of a host-range variant of BCoV associated with enteritis in buffaloes.

  4. Cdk7 mediates RPB1-driven mRNA synthesis in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Abhijit S.; Mitra, Pallabi; Maruthi, Mulaka

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 in conjunction with CyclinH and Mat1 activates cell cycle CDKs and is a part of the general transcription factor TFIIH. Role of Cdk7 is well characterized in model eukaryotes however its relevance in protozoan parasites has not been investigated. This important regulator of key processes warrants closer examination particularly in this parasite given its unique cell cycle progression and flexible mode of replication. We report functional characterization of TgCdk7 and its partners TgCyclinH and TgMat1. Recombinant Cdk7 displays kinase activity upon binding its cyclin partner and this activity is further enhanced in presence of Mat1. The activated kinase phosphorylates C-terminal domain of TgRPB1 suggesting its role in parasite transcription. Therefore, the function of Cdk7 in CTD phosphorylation and RPB1 mediated transcription was investigated using Cdk7 inhibitor. Unphosphorylated CTD binds promoter DNA while phosphorylation by Cdk7 triggers its dissociation from DNA with implications for transcription initiation. Inhibition of Cdk7 in the parasite led to strong reduction in Serine 5 phosphorylation of TgRPB1-CTD at the promoters of constitutively expressed actin1 and sag1 genes with concomitant reduction of both nascent RNA synthesis and 5′-capped transcripts. Therefore, we provide compelling evidence for crucial role of TgCdk7 kinase activity in mRNA synthesis. PMID:27759017

  5. Cell cycle specific distribution of killin: evidence for negative regulation of both DNA and RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Man; Luo, Dan; Kuang, Yi; Feng, Haiyan; Luo, Guangping; Liang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    p53 tumor-suppressor gene is a master transcription factor which controls cell cycle progression and apoptosis. killin was discovered as one of the p53 target genes implicated in S-phase control coupled to cell death. Due to its extreme proximity to pten tumor-suppressor gene on human chromosome 10, changes in epigenetic modification of killin have also been linked to Cowden syndrome as well as other human cancers. Previous studies revealed that Killin is a high-affinity DNA-binding protein with preference to single-stranded DNA, and it inhibits DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, co-localization studies of RFP-Killin with either GFP-PCNA or endogenous single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA during S-phase show that Killin always adopts a mutually exclusive punctuated nuclear expression pattern with the 2 accessory proteins in DNA replication. In contrast, when cells are not in S-phase, RFP-Killin largely congregates in the nucleolus where rRNA transcription normally occurs. Both of these cell cycle specific localization patterns of RFP-Killin are stable under high salt condition, consistent with Killin being tightly associated with nucleic acids within cell nuclei. Together, these cell biological results provide a molecular basis for Killin in competitively inhibiting the formation of DNA replication forks during S-phase, as well as potentially negatively regulate RNA synthesis during other cell cycle phases.

  6. Targeting of Arenavirus RNA Synthesis by a Carboxamide-Derivatized Aromatic Disulfide with Virucidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sepúlveda, Claudia S.; García, Cybele C.; Levingston Macleod, Jesica M.

    2013-01-01

    Several arenaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever (HF) in humans, representing a public health threat in endemic areas of Africa and South America. The present study characterizes the potent virucidal activity of the carboxamide-derivatized aromatic disulfide NSC4492, an antiretroviral zinc finger-reactive compound, against Junín virus (JUNV), the causative agent of Argentine HF. The compound was able to inactivate JUNV in a time and temperature-dependent manner, producing more than 99 % reduction in virus titer upon incubation with virions at 37°C for 90 min. The ability of NSC4492-treated JUNV to go through different steps of the multiplication cycle was then evaluated. Inactivated virions were able to bind and enter into the host cell with similar efficiency as control infectious particles. In contrast, treatment with NSC4492 impaired the capacity of JUNV to drive viral RNA synthesis, as measured by quantitative RT-PCR, and blocked viral protein expression, as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. These results suggest that the disulfide NSC4492 targets on the arenavirus replication complex leading to impairment in viral RNA synthesis. Additionally, analysis of VLP produced in NSC4492-treated cells expressing JUNV matrix Z protein revealed that the compound may interact with Z resulting in an altered aggregation behavior of this protein, but without affecting its intrinsic self-budding properties. The potential perspectives of NSC4492 as an inactivating vaccinal compound for pathogenic arenaviruses are discussed. PMID:24278404

  7. A coronavirus detected in the vampire bat Desmodus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Scheffer, Karin; Villarreal, Laura Yaneth; Achkar, Samira; Oliveira, Rafael de Novaes; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Castilho, Juliana Galera; Kotait, Ivanete; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

    2008-12-01

    This article reports on the identification of a group 2 coronavirus (BatCoV DR/2007) in a Desmodus rotundus vampire bat in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of ORF1b revealed that BatCoV DR/2007 originates from a unique lineage in the archetypical group 2 coronaviruses, as described for bat species elsewhere with putative importance in Public Health.

  8. Protease Inhibitors Targeting Coronavirus and Filovirus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanchen; Vedantham, Punitha; Lu, Kai; Agudelo, Juliet; Carrion, Ricardo; Nunneley, Jerritt W.; Barnard, Dale; Pöhlmann, Stefan; McKerrow, James H.; Renslo, Adam R.; Simmons, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In order to gain entry into cells, diverse viruses, including Ebola virus, SARS-coronavirus and the emerging MERS-coronavirus, depend on activation of their envelope glycoproteins by host cell proteases. The respective enzymes are thus excellent targets for antiviral intervention. In cell culture, activation of Ebola virus, as well as SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can be accomplished by the endosomal cysteine proteases, cathepsin L (CTSL) and cathepsin B (CTSB). In addition, SARS- and MERS-coronavirus can use serine proteases localized at the cell surface, for their activation. However, it is currently unclear which protease(s) facilitate viral spread in the infected host. We report here that the cysteine protease inhibitor K11777, ((2S)-N-[(1E,3S)-1-(benzenesulfonyl)-5-phenylpent-1-en-3-yl]-2-{[(E)-4-methylpiperazine-1-carbonyl]amino}-3-phenylpropanamide) and closely-related vinylsulfones act as broad-spectrum antivirals by targeting cathepsin-mediated cell entry. K11777 is already in advanced stages of development for a number of parasitic diseases, such as Chagas disease, and has proven to be safe and effective in a range of animal models. K11777 inhibition of SARS-CoV and Ebola virus entry was observed in the sub-nanomolar range. In order to assess, whether cysteine or serine proteases promote viral spread in the host, we compared the antiviral activity of an optimized K11777-derivative with that of camostat, an inhibitor of TMPRSS2 and related serine proteases. Employing a pathogenic animal model of SARS-CoV infection, we demonstrated that viral spread and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV is driven by serine rather than cysteine proteases and can be effectively prevented by camostat. Camostat has been clinically used to treat chronic pancreatitis, and thus represents an exciting potential therapeutic for respiratory coronavirus infections. Our results indicate that camostat, or similar serine protease inhibitors, might be an effective option for treatment of SARS and

  9. Identification of a human mitochondrial RNA that promotes tropomyosin synthesis and myocardial differentiation.

    PubMed

    Moses-Arms, Ashley; Kochegarov, Andrei; Arms, Jedidiah; Burlbaw, Shane; Lian, Will; Meyer, Jessica; Lemanski, Larry F

    2015-03-01

    Heart disease is the number one killer in the USA, making cardiogenesis and its related pathways a relevant area of study for improving health and life expectancy. The Mexican salamander (axolotl), Ambystoma mexicanum, provides an excellent vertebrate animal model for studying myofibrillogenesis due to its naturally occurring cardiac nonfunction mutation. Homozygous recessive embryos do not develop normal hearts due to a lack of myofibril formation. In previous studies, myofibril-inducing ribonucleic acid (MIR) from the normal wild-type axolotl genome was found to rescue mutant nonfunctioning hearts through restoration of tropomyosin levels followed by normal myofibril formation. Our purpose in this study is to identify and characterize functional homologs for the MIR from human fetal heart ribonucleic acid (RNA). After randomized cloning of human fetal heart RNA, 396 clones were analyzed for rescuing ability by using mutant heart rescue bioassays and confocal microscopy. By these analyses, we discovered a functional homolog of MIR from human fetal heart RNA, which is associated with the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II gene. This RNA came from our clone #30 and induces tropomyosin synthesis and myofibrillogenesis in mutant axolotl hearts which ordinarily do not synthesize tropomyosin or form organized myofibrils. Clone #30, a mitochondrial RNA molecule associated with human cytochrome c oxidase, serves as a functional homolog of MIR, leading to tropomyosin production, organized myofibrils, and beating cardiac tissue in mutant hearts. These findings hold great potential for the treatment and repair of damaged hearts in patients who have suffered from myocardial infarctions and other heart diseases. PMID:25408381

  10. Antibacterial activity of lichen secondary metabolite usnic acid is primarily caused by inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Maciąg-Dorszyńska, Monika; Węgrzyn, Grzegorz; Guzow-Krzemińska, Beata

    2014-04-01

    Usnic acid, a compound produced by various lichen species, has been demonstrated previously to inhibit growth of different bacteria and fungi; however, mechanism of its antimicrobial activity remained unknown. In this report, we demonstrate that usnic acid causes rapid and strong inhibition of RNA and DNA synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria, represented by Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, while it does not inhibit production of macromolecules (DNA, RNA, and proteins) in Escherichia coli, which is resistant to even high doses of this compound. However, we also observed slight inhibition of RNA synthesis in a Gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio harveyi. Inhibition of protein synthesis in B. subtilis and S. aureus was delayed, which suggest indirect action (possibly through impairment of transcription) of usnic acid on translation. Interestingly, DNA synthesis was halted rapidly in B. subtilis and S. aureus, suggesting interference of usnic acid with elongation of DNA replication. We propose that inhibition of RNA synthesis may be a general mechanism of antibacterial action of usnic acid, with additional direct mechanisms, such as impairment of DNA replication in B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  11. Tacaribe virus Z protein interacts with the L polymerase protein to inhibit viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Jácamo, Rodrigo; López, Nora; Wilda, Maximiliano; Franze-Fernández, María T

    2003-10-01

    Tacaribe virus (TV) is the prototype of the New World group of arenaviruses. The TV genome encodes four proteins, the nucleoprotein (N), the glycoprotein precursor, the polymerase (L), and a small RING finger protein (Z). Using a reverse genetic system, we recently demonstrated that TV N and L are sufficient to drive transcription and full-cycle RNA replication mediated by TV-like RNAs and that Z is a powerful inhibitor of these processes (N. López, R. Jácamo, and M. T. Franze-Fernández, J. Virol. 65:12241-12251, 2001). In the present study we investigated whether Z might interact with either of the proteins, N and L, required for RNA synthesis. To that end, we used coimmunoprecipitation with monospecific antibodies against the viral proteins and coimmunoprecipitation with serum against glutathione S-transferase (GST) and binding to glutathione-Sepharose beads when Z was expressed as a fusion protein with GST. We demonstrated that Z interacted with L but not with N and that Z inhibitory activity was dependent on its ability to bind to L. We also evaluated the contribution of different Z regions to its binding ability and functional activity. We found that integrity of the RING structure is essential for Z binding to L and for Z inhibitory activity. Mutants with deletions at the N and C termini of Z showed that amino acids within the C-terminal region and immediately adjacent to the RING domain N terminus contribute to efficient Z-L interaction and are required for inhibitory activity. The data presented here provide the first evidence of an interaction between Z and L, suggesting that Z interferes with viral RNA synthesis by direct interaction with L. In addition, coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed a previously unreported interaction between N and L.

  12. Biochemical characterization of exoribonuclease encoded by SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Jiang, Miao; Hu, Tao; Liu, Qingzhen; Chen, Xiaojiang S; Guo, Deyin

    2007-09-30

    The nsp14 protein is an exoribonuclease that is encoded by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We have cloned and expressed the nsp14 protein in Escherichia coli, and characterized the nature and the role(s) of the metal ions in the reaction chemistry. The purified recombinant nsp14 protein digested a 5'-labeled RNA molecule, but failed to digest the RNA substrate that is modified with fluorescein group at the 3'-hydroxyl group, suggesting a 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity. The exoribonuclease activity requires Mg2+ as a cofactor. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) analysis indicated a two-metal binding mode for divalent cations by nsp14. Endogenous tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectra measurements showed that there was a structural change of nsp14 when binding with metal ions. We propose that the conformational change induced by metal ions may be a prerequisite for catalytic activity by correctly positioning the side chains of the residues located in the active site of the enzyme.

  13. DNA repair and recovery of RNA synthesis following exposure to ultraviolet light are delayed in long genes.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Lima, Leonardo C; Veloso, Artur; Paulsen, Michelle T; Menck, Carlos F M; Ljungman, Mats

    2015-03-11

    The kinetics of DNA repair and RNA synthesis recovery in human cells following UV-irradiation were assessed using nascent RNA Bru-seq and quantitative long PCR. It was found that UV light inhibited transcription elongation and that recovery of RNA synthesis occurred as a wave in the 5'-3' direction with slow recovery and TC-NER at the 3' end of long genes. RNA synthesis resumed fully at the 3'-end of genes after a 24 h recovery in wild-type fibroblasts, but not in cells deficient in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) or global genomic NER (GG-NER). Different transcription recovery profiles were found for individual genes but these differences did not fully correlate to differences in DNA repair of these genes. Our study gives the first genome-wide view of how UV-induced lesions affect transcription and how the recovery of RNA synthesis of large genes are particularly delayed by the apparent lack of resumption of transcription by arrested polymerases.

  14. Intersection of RNA Processing and the Type II Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway in Yeast Mitochondria▿

    PubMed Central

    Schonauer, Melissa S.; Kastaniotis, Alexander J.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Dieckmann, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Distinct metabolic pathways can intersect in ways that allow hierarchical or reciprocal regulation. In a screen of respiration-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains for defects in mitochondrial RNA processing, we found that lack of any enzyme in the mitochondrial fatty acid type II biosynthetic pathway (FAS II) led to inefficient 5′ processing of mitochondrial precursor tRNAs by RNase P. In particular, the precursor containing both RNase P RNA (RPM1) and tRNAPro accumulated dramatically. Subsequent Pet127-driven 5′ processing of RPM1 was blocked. The FAS II pathway defects resulted in the loss of lipoic acid attachment to subunits of three key mitochondrial enzymes, which suggests that the octanoic acid produced by the pathway is the sole precursor for lipoic acid synthesis and attachment. The protein component of yeast mitochondrial RNase P, Rpm2, is not modified by lipoic acid in the wild-type strain, and it is imported in FAS II mutant strains. Thus, a product of the FAS II pathway is required for RNase P RNA maturation, which positively affects RNase P activity. In addition, a product is required for lipoic acid production, which is needed for the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which feeds acetyl-coenzyme A into the FAS II pathway. These two positive feedback cycles may provide switch-like control of mitochondrial gene expression in response to the metabolic state of the cell. PMID:18779316

  15. Synthesis of reinitiated transcripts by mammalian RNA polymerase II is controlled by elongation factor SII.

    PubMed Central

    Szentirmay, M N; Sawadogo, M

    1993-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that the in vitro synthesis of reinitiated transcripts by RNA polymerase II requires an additional activity, designated reinitiation transcription factor (RTF), which is distinct from all of the general class II initiation factors. While further characterizing this activity, it was found that RTF displays properties indistinguishable from those of the RNA polymerase II elongation factor SII. In addition, Western blot analysis using SII-specific antibodies revealed that human SII is a major component in purified RTF preparations. The functional equivalence of the two proteins was established using recombinant SII, which proved fully capable of substituting for RTF in the reinitiation assay. In these reconstituted reactions, transcription complexes resulting from reinitiation events required SII to proceed through a 400 bp G-free cassette, while complexes resulting from the first round of initiations were SII-independent. Reinitiations can take place in the absence of SII; however, addition of the elongation factor is essential for full extension of the reinitiated transcripts. These results suggest that events taking place at the promoter (e.g. first-round initiations versus reinitiations) can create marked differences in the properties of RNA polymerase II elongation complexes. Images PMID:8223477

  16. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain.

    PubMed

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  17. The methyltransferase domain of dengue virus protein NS5 ensures efficient RNA synthesis initiation and elongation by the polymerase domain

    PubMed Central

    Potisopon, Supanee; Priet, Stéphane; Collet, Axelle; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno; Selisko, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) responsible for the replication of single-strand RNA virus genomes exert their function in the context of complex replication machineries. Within these replication complexes the polymerase activity is often highly regulated by RNA elements, proteins or other domains of multi-domain polymerases. Here, we present data of the influence of the methyltransferase domain (NS5-MTase) of dengue virus (DENV) protein NS5 on the RdRp activity of the polymerase domain (NS5-Pol). The steady-state polymerase activities of DENV-2 recombinant NS5 and NS5-Pol are compared using different biochemical assays allowing the dissection of the de novo initiation, transition and elongation steps of RNA synthesis. We show that NS5-MTase ensures efficient RdRp activity by stimulating the de novo initiation and the elongation phase. This stimulation is related to a higher affinity of NS5 toward the single-strand RNA template indicating NS5-MTase either completes a high-affinity RNA binding site and/or promotes the correct formation of the template tunnel. Furthermore, the NS5-MTase increases the affinity of the priming nucleotide ATP upon de novo initiation and causes a higher catalytic efficiency of the polymerase upon elongation. The complex stimulation pattern is discussed under the perspective that NS5 adopts several conformations during RNA synthesis. PMID:25209234

  18. Development of Animal Models Against Emerging Coronaviruses: From SARS to MERS coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Troy C; Subbarao, Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Two novel coronaviruses have emerged to cause severe disease in humans. While bats may be the primary reservoir for both viruses, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) likely crossed into humans from civets in China, and MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been transmitted from camels in the Middle East. Unlike SARS-CoV that resolved within a year, continued introductions of MERS-CoV present an on-going public health threat. Animal models are needed to evaluate countermeasures against emerging viruses. With SARS-CoV, several animal species were permissive to infection. In contrast, most laboratory animals are refractory or only semi-permissive to infection with MERS-CoV. This host-range restriction is largely determined by sequence heterogeneity in the MERS-CoV receptor. We describe animal models developed to study coronaviruses, with a focus on host-range restriction at the level of the viral receptor and discuss approaches to consider in developing a model to evaluate countermeasures against MERS-CoV. PMID:25791336

  19. Recovery of RNA synthesis from the DHFR gene following UV-irradiation precedes the removal of photolesions from the transcribed strand.

    PubMed

    Ljungman, M

    1999-03-01

    It is thought that recovery of RNA synthesis following UV-irradiation is closely related to the removal of UV-induced lesions from the transcribed strand of active genes. To test this hypothesis, nascent RNA synthesis from three different locations within the DHFR gene in CHO cells was assessed following exposure to UV light (254 nm). Using both in vivo RNA labeling as well as the nuclear run-on technique, it was found that RNA synthesis from the middle and the 3'-end of the gene was inhibited within 20 min by approximately 30 and 70%, respectively, while RNA synthesis from the 5'-end of the DHFR gene was enhanced. RNA synthesis from the middle portion of the gene fully recovered within 30-45 min of post-UV incubation, while recovery was slower from the 3'-end of the gene. Compared with previously published data for the kinetics of removal of UV-induced DNA lesions from the 5'-half of the DHFR gene in these cells, it is concluded that RNA synthesis resumed significantly faster in this region than could be accounted for by the removal of photolesions from the transcribed strand. Thus, although RNA synthesis was initially inhibited by UV-induced photolesions, the results suggest that RNA polymerase II was able to bypass these lesions prior to their removal.

  20. A translation-attenuating intraleader open reading frame is selected on coronavirus mRNAs during persistent infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, M A; Senanayake, S D; Brian, D A

    1993-01-01

    Short open reading frames within the 5' leader of some eukaryotic mRNAs are known to regulate the rate of translation initiation on the downstream open reading frame. By employing the polymerase chain reaction, we learned that the 5'-terminal 5 nt on the common leader sequence of bovine coronavirus subgenomic mRNAs were heterogeneous and hypervariable throughout early infection in cell culture and that as a persistent infection became established, termini giving rise to a common 33-nt intraleader open reading frame were selected. Since the common leader is derived from the genomic 5' end during transcription, a common focus of origin for the heterogeneity is expected. The intraleader open reading frame was shown by in vitro translation studies to attenuate translation of downstream open reading frames in a cloned bovine coronavirus mRNA molecule. Selection of an intraleader open reading frame resulting in a general attenuation of mRNA translation and a consequent attenuation of virus replication may, therefore, be a mechanism by which coronaviruses and possibly other RNA viruses with a similar transcriptional strategy maintain a persistent infection. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8265618

  1. Inhibition of RNA synthesis in vitro and cell growth by anthracycline antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Studzian, K; Wasowska, M; Piestrzeniewicz, M K; Wilmańska, D; Szmigiero, L; Oszczapowicz, I; Gniazdowski, M

    2001-01-01

    New derivatives of doxorubicin and daunorubicin with amidine group bonded to daunosamine at C-3' atom and bearing the morpholine ring attached to the amidine group have been recently synthesized. Their cytotoxic activities and effects on RNA synthesis in vitro were assayed. The drug concentrations inhibiting mouse leukaemia L1210 cell growth to 50% were about two- and three fold higher for the derivatives compared to doxorubicin and daunorubicin respectively. Inhibition of phage T7 RNA polymerase by the non-covalently interacting derivatives was also slightly lower than that by the parent compounds. As doxorubicin and daunorubicin, their amidine derivatives in the presence of dithiothreitol and Fe(III) ions are activated and covalently bind to DNA. The adducts formed affect RNA polymerase activity. Several bands corresponding to prematurely terminated RNA chains are observed by means of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The patterns of bands are virtually identical for all the anthracyclines studied here and are similar to the terminations induced by actinomycin D. This observation is consistent with a notion that the adducts are formed at guanine in GpC sequences which are also binding sites of actinomycin D. A substantial difference between daunorubicin and its amidine derivative is shown by means of high performance liquid chromatography. The derivative undergoes rapid rearrangements in the presence of dithiothreitol and Fe(III) ions, while daunorubicin is stable for several hours under these conditions. The results presented here indicate that the amidine derivatives despite bulky morpholine substitution exhibit biological activity in the systems used here. PMID:11845988

  2. Arresting initiation of hepatitis C virus RNA synthesis using heterocyclic derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gu, Baohua; Johnston, Victor K; Gutshall, Lester L; Nguyen, Tammy T; Gontarek, Richard R; Darcy, Michael G; Tedesco, Rosanna; Dhanak, Dashyant; Duffy, Kevin J; Kao, C Cheng; Sarisky, Robert T

    2003-05-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), the primary catalytic enzyme of the HCV replicase complex. Recently, two benzo-1,2,4-thiadiazine compounds were shown to be potent, highly specific inhibitors of the genotype 1b HCV RdRp containing a carboxyl-terminal 21 residue truncation (delta21 HCV RdRp) (Dhanak, D., Duffy, K., Johnston, V. K., Lin-Goerke, J., Darcy, M., Shaw, A. N. G. B., Silverman, C., Gates, A. T., Earnshaw, D. L., Casper, D. J., Kaura, A., Baker, A., Greenwood, C., Gutshall, L. L., Maley, D., DelVecchio, A., Macarron, R., Hofmann, G. A., Alnoah, Z., Cheng, H.-Y., Chan, G., Khandekar, S., Keenan, R. M., and Sarisky, R. T. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 38322-38327). Compound 4 (C(21)H(21)N(3)O(4)S) reduces viral replication by virtue of its direct interaction with the viral polymerase rather than by nonspecific titration of nucleic acid template. In this study, we present several lines of evidence to demonstrate that this inhibitor interferes with the initiation step of RNA synthesis rather than acting as an elongation inhibitor. Inhibition of initial phosphodiester bond formation occurred regardless of whether replication was initiated by primer-dependent or de novo mechanisms. Filter binding studies using increasing concentrations of compound 4 did not interfere with the ability of delta21 HCV RdRp to interact with nucleic acid. Furthermore, varying the order of reagent addition in the primer extension assay showed no distinct differences in inhibition profile. Finally, surface plasmon resonance analyses provided evidence that a ternary complex is capable of forming between the RNA template, RdRp, and compound 4. Together, these data suggest that this heterocyclic agent interacts with the apoenzyme, as well as with the RNA-bound form of delta21 HCV RdRp, and therefore does not directly interfere with the RdRp-RNA interaction to mediate inhibition.

  3. LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-ribosomal RNA synthesis under uridine downregulated conditions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuju; Huang, Henry; Wilkinson, Scott C.; Zhong, Diansheng; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Fu, Haian; Marcus, Adam; He, Yulong; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the mechanism underlying 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) mediated apoptosis in LKB1-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Metabolic profile analysis revealed depletion of the intracellular pyrimidine pool after AICAR treatment, but uridine was the only nucleotide precursor capable of rescuing this apoptosis, suggesting the involvement of RNA metabolism. Because half of RNA transcription in cancer is for pre-ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, which is suppressed by over 90% after AICAR treatment, we evaluated the role of TIF-IA-mediated rRNA synthesis. While the depletion of TIF-IA by RNAi alone promoted apoptosis in LKB1-null cells, the overexpression of a wild-type or a S636A TIF-IA mutant, but not a S636D mutant, attenuated AICAR-induced apoptosis. In LKB1-null H157 cells, pre-rRNA synthesis was not suppressed by AICAR when wild-type LKB1 was present, and cellular fractionation analysis indicated that TIF-IA quickly accumulated in the nucleus in the presence of a wild-type LKB1 but not a kinase-dead mutant. Furthermore, ectopic expression of LKB1 was capable of attenuating AICAR-induced death in AMPK-null cells. Because LKB1 promotes cell survival by modulating TIF-IA-mediated pre-rRNA synthesis, this discovery suggested that targeted depletion of uridine related metabolites may be exploited in the clinic to eliminate LKB1-null cancer cells. PMID:26506235

  4. The Yeast Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor Complex Catalyzes Efficient Priming of DNA Synthesis on Single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Nandakumar, Divya; Deshpande, Aishwarya P; Lucas, Thomas P; R-Bhojappa, Ramanagouda; Tang, Guo-Qing; Raney, Kevin; Yin, Y Whitney; Patel, Smita S

    2016-08-01

    Primases use single-stranded (ss) DNAs as templates to synthesize short oligoribonucleotide primers that initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis or reprime DNA synthesis after replication fork collapse, but the origin of this activity in the mitochondria remains unclear. Herein, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA polymerase (Rpo41) and its transcription factor (Mtf1) is an efficient primase that initiates DNA synthesis on ssDNA coated with the yeast mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein, Rim1. Both Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 can synthesize short and long RNAs on ssDNA template and prime DNA synthesis by the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase Mip1. However, the ssDNA-binding protein Rim1 severely inhibits the RNA synthesis activity of Rpo41, but not the Rpo41-Mtf1 complex, which continues to prime DNA synthesis efficiently in the presence of Rim1. We show that RNAs as short as 10-12 nt serve as primers for DNA synthesis. Characterization of the RNA-DNA products shows that Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 have slightly different priming specificity. However, both prefer to initiate with ATP from short priming sequences such as 3'-TCC, TTC, and TTT, and the consensus sequence is 3'-Pu(Py)2-3 Based on our studies, we propose that Rpo41-Mtf1 is an attractive candidate for serving as the primase to initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis during normal replication and/or to restart stalled replication from downstream ssDNA.

  5. The Yeast Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase and Transcription Factor Complex Catalyzes Efficient Priming of DNA Synthesis on Single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Aparna; Nandakumar, Divya; Deshpande, Aishwarya P; Lucas, Thomas P; R-Bhojappa, Ramanagouda; Tang, Guo-Qing; Raney, Kevin; Yin, Y Whitney; Patel, Smita S

    2016-08-01

    Primases use single-stranded (ss) DNAs as templates to synthesize short oligoribonucleotide primers that initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis or reprime DNA synthesis after replication fork collapse, but the origin of this activity in the mitochondria remains unclear. Herein, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial RNA polymerase (Rpo41) and its transcription factor (Mtf1) is an efficient primase that initiates DNA synthesis on ssDNA coated with the yeast mitochondrial ssDNA-binding protein, Rim1. Both Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 can synthesize short and long RNAs on ssDNA template and prime DNA synthesis by the yeast mitochondrial DNA polymerase Mip1. However, the ssDNA-binding protein Rim1 severely inhibits the RNA synthesis activity of Rpo41, but not the Rpo41-Mtf1 complex, which continues to prime DNA synthesis efficiently in the presence of Rim1. We show that RNAs as short as 10-12 nt serve as primers for DNA synthesis. Characterization of the RNA-DNA products shows that Rpo41 and Rpo41-Mtf1 have slightly different priming specificity. However, both prefer to initiate with ATP from short priming sequences such as 3'-TCC, TTC, and TTT, and the consensus sequence is 3'-Pu(Py)2-3 Based on our studies, we propose that Rpo41-Mtf1 is an attractive candidate for serving as the primase to initiate lagging strand DNA synthesis during normal replication and/or to restart stalled replication from downstream ssDNA. PMID:27311715

  6. Characterization of a Novel Betacoronavirus Related to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in European Hedgehogs

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Kallies, René; Philipps, Heike; Göpner, Gertraude; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Eckerle, Isabella; Brünink, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Bats are known to host viruses closely related to important human coronaviruses (HCoVs), such as HCoV-229E, severe-acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), and Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). As RNA viruses may coevolve with their hosts, we sought to investigate the closest sister taxon to bats, the Eulipotyphla, and screened European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from Germany for CoV by nested reverse transcriptase PCR. A novel betacoronavirus species in a phylogenetic sister relationship to MERS-CoV and clade c bat CoVs was detected and characterized on the whole-genome level. A total of 58.9% of hedgehog fecal specimens were positive for the novel CoV (EriCoV) at 7.9 log10 mean RNA copies per ml. EriCoV RNA concentrations were higher in the intestine than in other solid organs, blood, or urine. Detailed analyses of the full hedgehog intestine showed the highest EriCoV concentrations in lower gastrointestinal tract specimens, compatible with viral replication in the lower intestine and fecal-oral transmission. Thirteen of 27 (48.2%) hedgehog sera contained non-neutralizing antibodies against MERS-CoV. The animal origins of this betacoronavirus clade that includes MERS-CoV may thus include both bat and nonbat hosts. PMID:24131722

  7. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift.

  8. Coronavirus Infection and Diversity in Bats in the Australasian Region.

    PubMed

    Smith, C S; de Jong, C E; Meers, J; Henning, J; Wang, L- F; Field, H E

    2016-03-01

    Following the SARS outbreak, extensive surveillance was undertaken globally to detect and identify coronavirus diversity in bats. This study sought to identify the diversity and prevalence of coronaviruses in bats in the Australasian region. We identified four different genotypes of coronavirus, three of which (an alphacoronavirus and two betacoronaviruses) are potentially new species, having less than 90% nucleotide sequence identity with the most closely related described viruses. We did not detect any SARS-like betacoronaviruses, despite targeting rhinolophid bats, the putative natural host taxa. Our findings support the virus-host co-evolution hypothesis, with the detection of Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8 (previously reported in Miniopterus species in China, Hong Kong and Bulgaria) in Australian Miniopterus species. Similarly, we detected a novel betacoronavirus genotype from Pteropus alecto which is most closely related to Bat coronavirus HKU9 identified in other pteropodid bats in China, Kenya and the Philippines. We also detected possible cross-species transmission of bat coronaviruses, and the apparent enteric tropism of these viruses. Thus, our findings are consistent with a scenario wherein the current diversity and host specificity of coronaviruses reflects co-evolution with the occasional host shift. PMID:27048154

  9. De Novo mRNA Synthesis Is Required for Both Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Fear Memories in the Amygdala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvarci, Sevil; Nader, Karim; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    Memory consolidation is the process by which newly learned information is stabilized into long-term memory (LTM). Considerable evidence indicates that retrieval of a consolidated memory returns it to a labile state that requires it to be restabilized. Consolidation of new fear memories has been shown to require de novo RNA and protein synthesis in…

  10. Serine Metabolism Supports the Methionine Cycle and DNA/RNA Methylation through De Novo ATP Synthesis in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Oliver D.K.; Labuschagne, Christiaan F.; Adams, Peter D.; Vousden, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Crosstalk between cellular metabolism and the epigenome regulates epigenetic and metabolic homeostasis and normal cell behavior. Changes in cancer cell metabolism can directly impact epigenetic regulation and promote transformation. Here we analyzed the contribution of methionine and serine metabolism to methylation of DNA and RNA. Serine can contribute to this pathway by providing one-carbon units to regenerate methionine from homocysteine. While we observed this contribution under methionine-depleted conditions, unexpectedly, we found that serine supported the methionine cycle in the presence and absence of methionine through de novo ATP synthesis. Serine starvation increased the methionine/S-adenosyl methionine ratio, decreasing the transfer of methyl groups to DNA and RNA. While serine starvation dramatically decreased ATP levels, this was accompanied by lower AMP and did not activate AMPK. This work highlights the difference between ATP turnover and new ATP synthesis and defines a vital function of nucleotide synthesis beyond making nucleic acids. PMID:26774282

  11. Serine Metabolism Supports the Methionine Cycle and DNA/RNA Methylation through De Novo ATP Synthesis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Oliver D K; Labuschagne, Christiaan F; Adams, Peter D; Vousden, Karen H

    2016-01-21

    Crosstalk between cellular metabolism and the epigenome regulates epigenetic and metabolic homeostasis and normal cell behavior. Changes in cancer cell metabolism can directly impact epigenetic regulation and promote transformation. Here we analyzed the contribution of methionine and serine metabolism to methylation of DNA and RNA. Serine can contribute to this pathway by providing one-carbon units to regenerate methionine from homocysteine. While we observed this contribution under methionine-depleted conditions, unexpectedly, we found that serine supported the methionine cycle in the presence and absence of methionine through de novo ATP synthesis. Serine starvation increased the methionine/S-adenosyl methionine ratio, decreasing the transfer of methyl groups to DNA and RNA. While serine starvation dramatically decreased ATP levels, this was accompanied by lower AMP and did not activate AMPK. This work highlights the difference between ATP turnover and new ATP synthesis and defines a vital function of nucleotide synthesis beyond making nucleic acids.

  12. Have organic interstellar grains redox-catalyzed RNA and other synthesis from cometary precursors ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krueger, F. R.; Kissel, J.; Werther, W.; Schmid, E. R.

    The recent in-situ investigations of cosmic dust clearly show, that the only building blocks of life therein are nucleobases. All the other building blocks are just found as precursors in cometary dust. They themselves must be formed from precursors by hydrolysis in liquid water, like phosphates from phosphides, sugars (stabilized at mineralic surfaces) may be from polyines, and amino and lipidic acids from nitriles. Nevertheless, the self-organized synthesis of polymers like RNA's and peptides needs, i.a., additional redox-catalysis. These catalysts act in stabilizing and transmitting single electrons and/or holes in chemical reactions. At mineralic surfaces transition metals like FeII/III may take the task. However, once life has emancipated itself from minerals redox catalysts should be furtheron present yet organically without prior encoding for synthesis - as the code itself must have been evolved already before the encoded enzymes can act. However, there may be another solution for this enigma: Except archeae, all stems of life make use of quinone-type co-enzymes of the PQQ (pyrrolo-quinoline-quinone) type of redox catalysts. Interstellar dust reaching the interior of the solar system consists at least of homologuous polymers which may convert to PQQ types in liquid water, after being decelerated in the upper atmosphere. Due to their enormous radiation stability, these types are the natural end-products after long interstellar trips. They can withstand the collision processes with atmospheric molecules, then being washed out.

  13. Poly(U) RNA-templated synthesis of AppA.

    PubMed

    Puthenvedu, Deepa; Janas, Teresa; Majerfeld, Irene; Illangasekare, Mali; Yarus, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Simple nucleotide templating activities are of interest as potential primordial reactions. Here we describe the acceleration of 5'-5' AppA synthesis by 3'-5' poly(U) under normal solution conditions. This reaction is apparently templated via complementary U:A base-pairing, despite the involvement of two different RNA backbones, because poly(U), unlike other polymers, significantly stimulates AppA synthesis. These interactions occur in moderate (K(+)) and (Mg(2+)) and are temperature sensitive, being more efficient at 10°C than at 4°C, but absent at 20°C. The reaction is only slightly pH sensitive, despite potentially relevant substrate pKa's. Kinetic data explicitly support production of AppA by interaction of stacked 2MeImpA and pA nucleotides paired with a single molecule of U template. At a lower rate, AppA can also be produced by a chemical reaction between 2MeImpA and pA, without participation of poly(U). Molecular modeling suggests that 5'-5' joining between stacked or concurrently paired A's can occur without major departures from normal U-A helical coordinates. So, coenzyme-like 5'-5' purine dinucleotides might be readily synthesized from 3'-5' RNAs with complementary sequences.

  14. Primary and secondary siRNA synthesis triggered by RNAs from food bacteria in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Carradec, Quentin; Götz, Ulrike; Arnaiz, Olivier; Pouch, Juliette; Simon, Martin; Meyer, Eric; Marker, Simone

    2015-02-18

    In various organisms, an efficient RNAi response can be triggered by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an endogenous gene. However, the detailed mechanisms and natural functions of this pathway are not well understood in most cases. Here, we studied siRNA biogenesis from exogenous RNA and its genetic overlap with endogenous RNAi in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by high-throughput sequencing. Using wild-type and mutant strains deficient for dsRNA feeding we found that high levels of primary siRNAs of both strands are processed from the ingested dsRNA trigger by the Dicer Dcr1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases Rdr1 and Rdr2 and other factors. We further show that this induces the synthesis of secondary siRNAs spreading along the entire endogenous mRNA, demonstrating the occurrence of both 3'-to-5' and 5'-to-3' transitivity for the first time in the SAR clade of eukaryotes (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria). Secondary siRNAs depend on Rdr2 and show a strong antisense bias; they are produced at much lower levels than primary siRNAs and hardly contribute to RNAi efficiency. We further provide evidence that the Paramecium RNAi machinery also processes single-stranded RNAs from its bacterial food, broadening the possible natural functions of exogenously induced RNAi in this organism. PMID:25593325

  15. Primary and secondary siRNA synthesis triggered by RNAs from food bacteria in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia

    PubMed Central

    Carradec, Quentin; Götz, Ulrike; Arnaiz, Olivier; Pouch, Juliette; Simon, Martin; Meyer, Eric; Marker, Simone

    2015-01-01

    In various organisms, an efficient RNAi response can be triggered by feeding cells with bacteria producing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against an endogenous gene. However, the detailed mechanisms and natural functions of this pathway are not well understood in most cases. Here, we studied siRNA biogenesis from exogenous RNA and its genetic overlap with endogenous RNAi in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia by high-throughput sequencing. Using wild-type and mutant strains deficient for dsRNA feeding we found that high levels of primary siRNAs of both strands are processed from the ingested dsRNA trigger by the Dicer Dcr1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerases Rdr1 and Rdr2 and other factors. We further show that this induces the synthesis of secondary siRNAs spreading along the entire endogenous mRNA, demonstrating the occurrence of both 3′-to-5′ and 5′-to-3′ transitivity for the first time in the SAR clade of eukaryotes (Stramenopiles, Alveolates, Rhizaria). Secondary siRNAs depend on Rdr2 and show a strong antisense bias; they are produced at much lower levels than primary siRNAs and hardly contribute to RNAi efficiency. We further provide evidence that the Paramecium RNAi machinery also processes single-stranded RNAs from its bacterial food, broadening the possible natural functions of exogenously induced RNAi in this organism. PMID:25593325

  16. Identification and Survey of a Novel Avian Coronavirus in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gui-Qian; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Liu, Shuo; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Jiang, Wen-Ming; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Yu, Jian-Min; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The rapid discovery of novel viruses using next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies including DNA-Seq and RNA-Seq, has greatly expanded our understanding of viral diversity in recent years. The timely identification of novel viruses using NGS technologies is also important for us to control emerging infectious diseases caused by novel viruses. In this study, we identified a novel duck coronavirus (CoV), distinct with chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), using RNA-Seq. The novel duck-specific CoV was a potential novel species within the genus Gammacoronavirus, as indicated by sequences of three regions in the viral 1b gene. We also performed a survey of CoVs in domestic fowls in China using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), targeting the viral nucleocapsid (N) gene. A total of 102 CoV positives were identified through the survey. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral N sequences suggested that CoVs in domestic fowls have diverged into several region-specific or host-specific clades or subclades in the world, and IBVs can infect ducks, geese and pigeons, although they mainly circulate in chickens. Moreover, this study provided novel data supporting the notion that some host-specific CoVs other than IBVs circulate in ducks, geese and pigeons, and indicated that the novel duck-specific CoV identified through RNA-Seq in this study is genetically closer to some CoVs circulating in wild water fowls. Taken together, this study shed new insight into the diversity, distribution, evolution and control of avian CoVs. PMID:24023656

  17. Clay catalyzed RNA synthesis under Martian conditions: Application for Mars return samples.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prakash C; Dubey, Krishna; Aldersley, Michael F; Sausville, Meaghen

    2015-06-26

    Catalysis by montmorillonites clay minerals is regarded as a feasible mechanism for the abiotic production and polymerization of key biomolecules on early Earth. We have investigated a montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of nucleosides as a model to probe prebiotic synthesis of RNA-type oligomers. Here we show that this model is specific for the generation of RNA oligomers despite deoxy-mononucleotides adsorbing equally well onto the montmorillonite catalytic surfaces. Optimum catalytic activity was observed over a range of pH (6-9) and salinity (1 ± 0.2 M NaCl). When the weathering steps of early Earth that generated catalytic montmorillonite were modified to meet Martian soil conditions, the catalytic activity remained intact without altering the surface layer charge. Additionally, the formation of oligomers up to tetramer was detected using as little as 0.1 mg of Na⁺-montmorillonite, suggesting that the catalytic activity of a Martian clay return sample can be investigated with sub-milligram scale samples.

  18. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorescent cap analogues for mRNA labelling

    PubMed Central

    Ziemniak, Marcin; Szabelski, Mariusz; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Nowicka, Anna; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Rhoads, Robert E.; Wieczorek, Zbigniew; Jemielity, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    We describe the synthesis and properties of five dinucleotide fluorescent cap analogues labelled at the ribose of the 7-methylguanosine moiety with either anthraniloyl (Ant) or N-methylanthraniloyl (Mant), which have been designed for the preparation of fluorescent mRNAs via transcription in vitro. Two of the analogues bear a methylene modification in the triphosphate bridge, providing resistance against either the Dcp2 or DcpS decapping enzymes. All these compounds were prepared by ZnCl2-mediated coupling of a nucleotide P-imidazolide with a fluorescently labelled mononucleotide. To evaluate the utility of these compounds for studying interactions with cap-binding proteins and cap-related cellular processes, both biological and spectroscopic features of those compounds were determined. The results indicate acceptable quantum yields of fluorescence, pH independence, environmental sensitivity, and photostability. The cap analogues are incorporated by RNA polymerase into mRNA transcripts that are efficiently translated in vitro. Transcripts containing fluorescent caps but unmodified in the triphosphate chain are hydrolysed by Dcp2 whereas those containing a α-β methylene modification are resistant. Model studies exploiting sensitivity of Mant to changes of local environment demonstrated utility of the synthesized compounds for studying cap-related proteins. PMID:24273643

  19. Alternative bases in the RNA world: the prebiotic synthesis of urazole and its ribosides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, V. M.; Dworkin, J. P.; Miller, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Urazole is a five-membered heterocyclic compound which is isosteric with uracil's hydrogen-bonding segment. Urazole reacts spontaneoulsy with ribose (and other aldoses) to give a mixture of four ribosides: alpha and beta pyranosides and furanosides. This reaction occurs in aqueous solution at mild temperatures. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the reaction of urazole with ribose were determined. In contrast, uracil is completely unreactive with ribose under these conditions. Urazole's unusual reactivity is ascribed to the hydrazine portion of the molecule. Urazole can be synthesized from biuret and hydrazine under prebiotic conditions. The prebiotic synthesis of guanazole, which is isosteric in part to diaminopyrimidine and cytosine, is accomplished from dicyandiamide and hydrazine. Kinetic parameters for both prebiotic reactions were measured. Urazole and guanazole are transparent in the UV, which would be a favorable property in the absence of an ozone layer on the early Earth. Urazole makes hydrogen bonds with adenine in DMSO similar to those of uracil, as established by H NMR. All of these properties make urazole an attractive potential precursor to uracil and guanazole a potential precursor to cytosine in the RNA or pre-RNA world.

  20. Alternative bases in the RNA world: the prebiotic synthesis of urazole and its ribosides.

    PubMed

    Kolb, V M; Dworkin, J P; Miller, S L

    1994-01-01

    Urazole is a five-membered heterocyclic compound which is isosteric with uracil's hydrogen-bonding segment. Urazole reacts spontaneoulsy with ribose (and other aldoses) to give a mixture of four ribosides: alpha and beta pyranosides and furanosides. This reaction occurs in aqueous solution at mild temperatures. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for the reaction of urazole with ribose were determined. In contrast, uracil is completely unreactive with ribose under these conditions. Urazole's unusual reactivity is ascribed to the hydrazine portion of the molecule. Urazole can be synthesized from biuret and hydrazine under prebiotic conditions. The prebiotic synthesis of guanazole, which is isosteric in part to diaminopyrimidine and cytosine, is accomplished from dicyandiamide and hydrazine. Kinetic parameters for both prebiotic reactions were measured. Urazole and guanazole are transparent in the UV, which would be a favorable property in the absence of an ozone layer on the early Earth. Urazole makes hydrogen bonds with adenine in DMSO similar to those of uracil, as established by H NMR. All of these properties make urazole an attractive potential precursor to uracil and guanazole a potential precursor to cytosine in the RNA or pre-RNA world.

  1. Clay catalyzed RNA synthesis under Martian conditions: Application for Mars return samples.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prakash C; Dubey, Krishna; Aldersley, Michael F; Sausville, Meaghen

    2015-06-26

    Catalysis by montmorillonites clay minerals is regarded as a feasible mechanism for the abiotic production and polymerization of key biomolecules on early Earth. We have investigated a montmorillonite-catalyzed reaction of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of nucleosides as a model to probe prebiotic synthesis of RNA-type oligomers. Here we show that this model is specific for the generation of RNA oligomers despite deoxy-mononucleotides adsorbing equally well onto the montmorillonite catalytic surfaces. Optimum catalytic activity was observed over a range of pH (6-9) and salinity (1 ± 0.2 M NaCl). When the weathering steps of early Earth that generated catalytic montmorillonite were modified to meet Martian soil conditions, the catalytic activity remained intact without altering the surface layer charge. Additionally, the formation of oligomers up to tetramer was detected using as little as 0.1 mg of Na⁺-montmorillonite, suggesting that the catalytic activity of a Martian clay return sample can be investigated with sub-milligram scale samples. PMID:25888789

  2. Crystallographic analysis of a subcomplex of the transsulfursome with tRNA for Cys-tRNA(Cys) synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meirong; Nakazawa, Yuto; Kubo, Yume; Asano, Nozomi; Kato, Koji; Tanaka, Isao; Yao, Min

    2016-07-01

    In most organisms, Cys-tRNA(Cys) is directly synthesized by cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS). Many methanogenic archaea, however, use a two-step, indirect pathway to synthesize Cys-tRNA(Cys) owing to a lack of CysRS and cysteine-biosynthesis systems. This reaction is catalyzed by O-phosphoseryl-tRNA synthetase (SepRS), Sep-tRNA:Cys-tRNA synthase (SepCysS) and SepRS/SepCysS pathway enhancer (SepCysE) as the transsulfursome, in which SepCysE connects both SepRS and SepCysS. On the transsulfursome, SepRS first ligates an O-phosphoserine to tRNA(Cys), and the mischarged intermediate Sep-tRNA(Cys) is then transferred to SepCysS, where it is further modified to Cys-tRNA(Cys). In this study, a subcomplex of the transsulfursome with tRNA(Cys) (SepCysS-SepCysE-tRNA(Cys)), which is involved in the second reaction step of the indirect pathway, was constructed and then crystallized. The crystals diffracted X-rays to a resolution of 2.6 Å and belonged to space group P6522, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 107.2, c = 551.1 Å. The structure determined by molecular replacement showed that the complex consists of a SepCysS dimer, a SepCysE dimer and one tRNA(Cys) in the asymmetric unit. PMID:27380375

  3. Control of adenovirus E1B mRNA synthesis by a shift in the activities of RNA splice sites.

    PubMed Central

    Montell, C; Fisher, E F; Caruthers, M H; Berk, A J

    1984-01-01

    The primary transcript from adenovirus 2 early region 1B (E1B) is processed by differential RNA splicing into two overlapping mRNAs, 13S and 22S. The 22S mRNA is the major E1B mRNA during the early phase of infection, whereas the 13S mRNA predominates during the late phase. In previous work, it has been shown that this shift in proportions of the E1B mRNAs is influenced by increased cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA at late times in infection. Two observations presented here demonstrate that the increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA at late times is also regulated by a change in the specificity of RNA splicing. First, the relative concentrations of the 13S to 22S nuclear RNAs were not constant throughout infection but increased at late times. Secondly, studies with the mutant, adenovirus 2 pm2250 , provided evidence that there was an increased propensity to utilize a 5' splice in the region of the 13S 5' splice site at late times in infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 has a G----C transversion in the first base of E1B 13S mRNA intron preventing splicing of the 13S mRNA but not of the 22S mRNA. During the early phase of a pm2250 infection, the E1B primary transcripts were processed into the 22S mRNA only. However, during the late phase, when the 13S mRNA normally predominates, E1B primary transcripts were also processed by RNA splicing at two formerly unused or cryptic 5' splice sites. Both cryptic splice sites were located much closer to the disrupted 13S 5' splice site than to the 22S 5' splice site. Thus, the temporal increase in proportion of the 13S mRNA to the 22S mRNA is regulated by two processes, an increase in cytoplasmic stability of the 13S mRNA and an increased propensity to utilize the 13S 5' splice site during the late phase of infection. Adenovirus 2 pm2250 was not defective for productive infection of HeLa cells or for transformation of rat cells. Images PMID:6727875

  4. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H; Groutas, William C; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C

    2016-03-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  5. Reversal of the Progression of Fatal Coronavirus Infection in Cats by a Broad-Spectrum Coronavirus Protease Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yunjeong; Liu, Hongwei; Galasiti Kankanamalage, Anushka C.; Weerasekara, Sahani; Hua, Duy H.; Groutas, William C.; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Pedersen, Niels C.

    2016-01-01

    Coronaviruses infect animals and humans causing a wide range of diseases. The diversity of coronaviruses in many mammalian species is contributed by relatively high mutation and recombination rates during replication. This dynamic nature of coronaviruses may facilitate cross-species transmission and shifts in tissue or cell tropism in a host, resulting in substantial change in virulence. Feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) causes inapparent or mild enteritis in cats, but a highly fatal disease, called feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), can arise through mutation of FECV to FIP virus (FIPV). The pathogenesis of FIP is intimately associated with immune responses and involves depletion of T cells, features shared by some other coronaviruses like Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus. The increasing risks of highly virulent coronavirus infections in humans or animals call for effective antiviral drugs, but no such measures are yet available. Previously, we have reported the inhibitors that target 3C-like protease (3CLpro) with broad-spectrum activity against important human and animal coronaviruses. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of our 3CLpro inhibitor in laboratory cats with FIP. Experimental FIP is 100% fatal once certain clinical and laboratory signs become apparent. We found that antiviral treatment led to full recovery of cats when treatment was started at a stage of disease that would be otherwise fatal if left untreated. Antiviral treatment was associated with a rapid improvement in fever, ascites, lymphopenia and gross signs of illness and cats returned to normal health within 20 days or less of treatment. Significant reduction in viral titers was also observed in cats. These results indicate that continuous virus replication is required for progression of immune-mediated inflammatory disease of FIP. These findings may provide important insights into devising therapeutic strategies and selection of antiviral compounds for further

  6. Open reading frames 1a and 1b of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) collaboratively initiate viral minus-strand RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Fang, Qiong-Qiong; Liu, Ji-Ting; Wang, Tong-Yun; Wang, Yu; Tao, Ye; Liu, Yong-Gang; Cai, Xue-Hui

    2016-09-01

    The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes a persistent threat to the swine industry, especially when highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) emerges. Previous studies have indicated that PRRSV RNA synthesis was correlated with HP-PRRSV virulence. PRRSV RNA synthesis includes genomic RNA and sub-genomic mRNA, and these processes require minus-strand RNA as a template. However, the mechanisms involved in PRRSV minus-strand RNA synthesis are not fully understood. A mini-genome system can be used to assess viral replication mechanisms and to evaluate the effects of potential antiviral drugs on viral replicase activities. In this study, we developed a mini-genome system that uses firefly luciferase as a reporter. Based on this system, we found that PRRSV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase nsp9 alone failed to activate virus minus-strand RNA synthesis. We also demonstrated that combinations of open reading frames 1a (ORF1a) and ORF1b are necessary for viral minus-strand RNA synthesis. PMID:27378424

  7. Rapid inactivation of SARS-like coronaviruses.

    SciTech Connect

    Kapil, Sanjay; Oberst, R. D.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David; Souza, Caroline Ann; Williams, Cecelia Victoria

    2004-03-01

    Chemical disinfection and inactivation of viruses is largely understudied, but is very important especially in the case of highly infectious viruses. The purpose of this LDRD was to determine the efficacy of the Sandia National Laboratories developed decontamination formulations against Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) as a surrogate for the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans. The outbreak of SARS in late 2002 resulted from a highly infectious virus that was able to survive and remain infectious for extended periods. For this study, preliminary testing with Escherichia coli MS-2 (MS-2) and Escherichia coli T4 (T4) bacteriophages was conducted to develop virucidal methodology for verifying the inactivation after treatment with the test formulations following AOAC germicidal methodologies. After the determination of various experimental parameters (i.e. exposure, concentration) of the formulations, final testing was conducted on BCV. All experiments were conducted with various organic challenges (horse serum, bovine feces, compost) for results that more accurately represent field use condition. The MS-2 and T4 were slightly more resistant than BCV and required a 2 minute exposure while BCV was completely inactivated after a 1 minute exposure. These results were also consistent for the testing conducted in the presence of the various organic challenges indicating that the test formulations are highly effective for real world application.

  8. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel Bat Coronavirus Closely Related to the Direct Progenitor of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing-Lou; Hu, Ben; Wang, Bo; Wang, Mei-Niang; Zhang, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Li-Jun; Ge, Xing-Yi; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Daszak, Peter; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of a novel bat coronavirus which is much closer to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in genomic sequence than others previously reported, particularly in its S gene. Cell entry and susceptibility studies indicated that this virus can use ACE2 as a receptor and infect animal and human cell lines. Our results provide further evidence of the bat origin of the SARS-CoV and highlight the likelihood of future bat coronavirus emergence in humans. PMID:26719272

  9. Severe acute respiratory syndrome diagnostics using a coronavirus protein microarray.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Heng; Hu, Shaohui; Jona, Ghil; Zhu, Xiaowei; Kreiswirth, Nate; Willey, Barbara M; Mazzulli, Tony; Liu, Guozhen; Song, Qifeng; Chen, Peng; Cameron, Mark; Tyler, Andrea; Wang, Jian; Wen, Jie; Chen, Weijun; Compton, Susan; Snyder, Michael

    2006-03-14

    To monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) infection, a coronavirus protein microarray that harbors proteins from SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and five additional coronaviruses was constructed. These microarrays were used to screen approximately 400 Canadian sera from the SARS outbreak, including samples from confirmed SARS-CoV cases, respiratory illness patients, and healthcare professionals. A computer algorithm that uses multiple classifiers to predict samples from SARS patients was developed and used to predict 206 sera from Chinese fever patients. The test assigned patients into two distinct groups: those with antibodies to SARS-CoV and those without. The microarray also identified patients with sera reactive against other coronavirus proteins. Our results correlated well with an indirect immunofluorescence test and demonstrated that viral infection can be monitored for many months after infection. We show that protein microarrays can serve as a rapid, sensitive, and simple tool for large-scale identification of viral-specific antibodies in sera.

  10. Automated parallel synthesis of 5'-triphosphate oligonucleotides and preparation of chemically modified 5'-triphosphate small interfering RNA.

    PubMed

    Zlatev, Ivan; Lackey, Jeremy G; Zhang, Ligang; Dell, Amy; McRae, Kathy; Shaikh, Sarfraz; Duncan, Richard G; Rajeev, Kallanthottathil G; Manoharan, Muthiah

    2013-02-01

    A fully automated chemical method for the parallel and high-throughput solid-phase synthesis of 5'-triphosphate and 5'-diphosphate oligonucleotides is described. The desired full-length oligonucleotides were first constructed using standard automated DNA/RNA solid-phase synthesis procedures. Then, on the same column and instrument, efficient implementation of an uninterrupted sequential cycle afforded the corresponding unmodified or chemically modified 5'-triphosphates and 5'-diphosphates. The method was readily translated into a scalable and high-throughput synthesis protocol compatible with the current DNA/RNA synthesizers yielding a large variety of unique 5'-polyphosphorylated oligonucleotides. Using this approach, we accomplished the synthesis of chemically modified 5'-triphosphate oligonucleotides that were annealed to form small-interfering RNAs (ppp-siRNAs), a potentially interesting class of novel RNAi therapeutic tools. The attachment of the 5'-triphosphate group to the passenger strand of a siRNA construct did not induce a significant improvement in the in vitro RNAi-mediated gene silencing activity nor a strong specific in vitro RIG-I activation. The reported method will enable the screening of many chemically modified ppp-siRNAs, resulting in a novel bi-functional RNAi therapeutic platform. PMID:23260577

  11. Structure of Main Protease from Human Coronavirus NL63: Insights for Wide Spectrum Anti-Coronavirus Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenghua; Chen, Cheng; Tan, Wenjie; Yang, Kailin; Yang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    First identified in The Netherlands in 2004, human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was found to cause worldwide infections. Patients infected by HCoV-NL63 are typically young children with upper and lower respiratory tract infection, presenting with symptoms including croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Unfortunately, there are currently no effective antiviral therapy to contain HCoV-NL63 infection. CoV genomes encode an integral viral component, main protease (Mpro), which is essential for viral replication through proteolytic processing of RNA replicase machinery. Due to the sequence and structural conservation among all CoVs, Mpro has been recognized as an attractive molecular target for rational anti-CoV drug design. Here we present the crystal structure of HCoV-NL63 Mpro in complex with a Michael acceptor inhibitor N3. Structural analysis, consistent with biochemical inhibition results, reveals the molecular mechanism of enzyme inhibition at the highly conservative substrate-recognition pocket. We show such molecular target remains unchanged across 30 clinical isolates of HCoV-NL63 strains. Through comparative study with Mpros from other human CoVs (including the deadly SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) and their related zoonotic CoVs, our structure of HCoV-NL63 Mpro provides critical insight into rational development of wide spectrum antiviral therapeutics to treat infections caused by human CoVs. PMID:26948040

  12. Insectivorous bats carry host specific astroviruses and coronaviruses across different regions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Kerstin; Zeus, Veronika; Kwasnitschka, Linda; Kerth, Gerald; Haase, Martin; Groschup, Martin H; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Recently several infectious agents with a zoonotic potential have been detected in different bat species. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the transmission dynamics within and between bat species, as well as from bats to other mammals. To better understand these processes, it is important to compare the phylogenetic relationships between different agents to that of their respective hosts. In this study, we analysed more than 950 urine, faeces and oral swab samples collected from 653 bats from mainly four species (Myotis nattereri, Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis daubentonii, and Plecotus auritus) for the presence of coronavirus, paramyxovirus and astrovirus related nucleic acids located in three different regions of Germany. Using hemi-nested reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR amplification of fragments within the highly conserved regions of the respective RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, we detected astrovirus sequences at an overall detection rate of 25.8% of the analysed animals, with a maximum of 65% in local populations. The detection rates for coronaviruses and paramyxoviruses were distinctly lower, ranging between 1.4% and 3.1%. Interestingly, the sequence similarities in samples collected from the same bat species in different geographical areas were distinctly larger than the sequence similarities between samples from different species sampled at the same location. This indicates that host specificity may be more important than host ecology for the presence of certain viruses in bats.

  13. Survey of feline leukemia virus and feline coronaviruses in captive neotropical wild felids from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge

    2009-06-01

    A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil.

  14. Newly Identified Phosphorylation Site in the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus P Protein Is Required for Viral RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Arindam; Victor, Ken G.; Pudupakam, R. S.; Lyons, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    The vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase consists of two viral proteins; the large (L) protein is the main catalytic subunit, and the phosphoprotein (P) is an essential cofactor for polymerase function. The P protein interacts with the L protein and the N-RNA template, thus connecting the polymerase to the template. P protein also binds to free N protein to maintain it in a soluble, encapsidation-competent form. Previously, five sites of phosphorylation were identified on the P protein and these sites were reported to be differentially important for mRNA synthesis or genomic replication. The previous studies were carried out by biochemical analysis of portions of the authentic viral P protein or by analysis of bacterium-expressed, exogenously phosphorylated P protein by mutagenesis. However, there has been no systematic biochemical search for phosphorylation sites on authentic, virus-expressed P protein. In this study, we analyzed the P protein isolated from VSV-infected cells for sites of phosphorylation by mass spectrometry. We report the identification of Tyr14 as a previously unidentified phosphorylation site of VSV P and show that it is essential for viral transcription and replication. However, our mass spectral analysis failed to observe the phosphorylation of previously reported C-terminal residues Ser226 and Ser227 and mutagenic analyses did not demonstrate a role for these sites in RNA synthesis. PMID:24257610

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of sideroblastic anemias: from defective heme synthesis to abnormal RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Malcovati, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The sideroblastic anemias are a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders characterized by the presence of ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow. X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) is caused by germline mutations in ALAS2. Hemizygous males have a hypochromic microcytic anemia, which is generally mild to moderate and is caused by defective heme synthesis and ineffective erythropoiesis. XLSA is a typical iron-loading anemia; although most patients are responsive to pyridoxine, treatment of iron overload is also important in the management of these patients. Autosomal recessive sideroblastic anemia attributable to mutations in SLC25A38, a member of the mitochondrial carrier family, is a severe disease: patients present in infancy with microcytic anemia, which soon becomes transfusion dependent. Conservative therapy includes regular red cell transfusion and iron chelation, whereas allogenic stem cell transplantation represents the only curative treatment. Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a myelodysplastic syndrome characterized mainly by anemia attributable to ineffective erythropoiesis. The clinical course of RARS is generally indolent, but there is a tendency to worsening of anemia over time, so that most patients become transfusion dependent in the long run. More than 90% of these patients carry somatic mutations in SF3B1, a gene encoding a core component of the RNA splicing machinery. These mutations cause misrecognition of 3' splice sites in downstream genes, resulting in truncated gene products and/or decreased expression attributable to nonsense-mediated RNA decay; this explains the multifactorial pathogenesis of RARS. Variants of RARS include refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia and ring sideroblasts, and RARS associated with marked thrombocytosis; these variants involve additional genetic lesions. Inhibitors of molecules of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily have been shown recently to target ineffective

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of piperazino-modified DNA that favours hybridization towards DNA over RNA

    PubMed Central

    Skov, Joan; Bryld, Torsten; Lindegaard, Dorthe; Nielsen, Katrine E.; Højland, Torben; Wengel, Jesper; Petersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of two C4′-modified DNA analogues and characterize their structural impact on dsDNA duplexes. The 4′-C-piperazinomethyl modification stabilizes dsDNA by up to 5°C per incorporation. Extension of the modification with a butanoyl-linked pyrene increases the dsDNA stabilization to a maximum of 9°C per incorporation. Using fluorescence, ultraviolet and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we show that the stabilization is achieved by pyrene intercalation in the dsDNA duplex. The pyrene moiety is not restricted to one intercalation site but rather switches between multiple sites in intermediate exchange on the NMR timescale, resulting in broad lines in NMR spectra. We identified two intercalation sites with NOE data showing that the pyrene prefers to intercalate one base pair away from the modified nucleotide with its linker curled up in the minor groove. Both modifications are tolerated in DNA:RNA hybrids but leave their melting temperatures virtually unaffected. Fluorescence data indicate that the pyrene moiety is residing outside the helix. The available data suggest that the DNA discrimination is due to (i) the positive charge of the piperazino ring having a greater impact in the narrow and deep minor groove of a B-type dsDNA duplex than in the wide and shallow minor groove of an A-type DNA:RNA hybrid and (ii) the B-type dsDNA duplex allowing the pyrene to intercalate and bury its apolar surface. PMID:21062815

  17. Ssrp1a controls organogenesis by promoting cell cycle progression and RNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Koltowska, Katarzyna; Apitz, Holger; Stamataki, Despina; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Verkade, Heather; Salecker, Iris; Ober, Elke A.

    2013-01-01

    Tightly controlled DNA replication and RNA transcription are essential for differentiation and tissue growth in multicellular organisms. Histone chaperones, including the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, are central for these processes and act by mediating DNA access through nucleosome reorganisation. However, their roles in vertebrate organogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we report the identification of zebrafish mutants for the gene encoding Structure specific recognition protein 1a (Ssrp1a), which, together with Spt16, forms the FACT heterodimer. Focussing on the liver and eye, we show that zygotic Ssrp1a is essential for proliferation and differentiation during organogenesis. Specifically, gene expression indicative of progressive organ differentiation is disrupted and RNA transcription is globally reduced. Ssrp1a-deficient embryos exhibit DNA synthesis defects and prolonged S phase, uncovering a role distinct from that of Spt16, which promotes G1 phase progression. Gene deletion/replacement experiments in Drosophila show that Ssrp1b, Ssrp1a and N-terminal Ssrp1a, equivalent to the yeast homologue Pob3, can substitute Drosophila Ssrp function. These data suggest that (1) Ssrp1b does not compensate for Ssrp1a loss in the zebrafish embryo, probably owing to insufficient expression levels, and (2) despite fundamental structural differences, the mechanisms mediating DNA accessibility by FACT are conserved between yeast and metazoans. We propose that the essential functions of Ssrp1a in DNA replication and gene transcription, together with its dynamic spatiotemporal expression, ensure organ-specific differentiation and proportional growth, which are crucial for the forming embryo. PMID:23515471

  18. Nonenzymatic synthesis of RNA and DNA oligomers on hexitol nucleic acid templates: the importance of the A structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlov, I. A.; Politis, P. K.; Van Aerschot, A.; Busson, R.; Herdewijn, P.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Dolan, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Hexitol nucleic acid (HNA) is an analogue of DNA containing the standard nucleoside bases, but with a phosphorylated 1,5-anhydrohexitol backbone. HNA oligomers form duplexes having the nucleic acid A structure with complementary DNA or RNA oligomers. The HNA decacytidylate oligomer is an efficient template for the oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of guanosine or deoxyguanosine. Comparison of the oligomerization efficiencies on HNA, RNA, and DNA decacytidylate templates under various conditions suggests strongly that only nucleic acid double helices with the A structure support efficient template-directed synthesis when 5'-phosphoroimidazolides of nucleosides are used as substrates.

  19. Update on Human Rhinovirus and Coronavirus Infections.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Stephen B

    2016-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (HRV) and coronavirus (HCoV) infections are associated with both upper respiratory tract illness ("the common cold") and lower respiratory tract illness (pneumonia). New species of HRVs and HCoVs have been diagnosed in the past decade. More sensitive diagnostic tests such as reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction have expanded our understanding of the role these viruses play in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts. Recent identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome viruses causing serious respiratory illnesses has led to renewed efforts for vaccine development. The role these viruses play in patients with chronic lung disease such as asthma makes the search for antiviral agents of increased importance. PMID:27486736

  20. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection.

  1. MERS: emergence of a novel human coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Raj, V. Stalin; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.; Fouchier, Ron A.M.; Haagmans, Bart L.

    2014-01-01

    A novel coronavirus (CoV) that causes a severe lower respiratory tract infection in humans, emerged in the Middle East region in 2012. This virus, named Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, is phylogenetically related to bat CoVs, but other animal species like dromedary camels may potentially act as intermediate hosts by spreading the virus to humans. Although human to human transmission has been demonstrated, analysis of human MERS clusters indicated that chains of transmission were not self-sustaining, especially when infection control was implemented. Thus, timely identification of new MERS cases followed by their quarantine, combined with measures to limit spread of the virus from the (intermediate) host to humans, may be crucial in controlling the outbreak of this emerging CoV. PMID:24584035

  2. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans.

  3. Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Su, Shuo; Wong, Gary; Shi, Weifeng; Liu, Jun; Lai, Alexander C K; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Wenjun; Bi, Yuhai; Gao, George F

    2016-06-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans. PMID:27012512

  4. DNA polymerase-α regulates the activation of type I interferons through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations that disrupt nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts the expression of POLA1, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency resulted in increased production of type I interferons. This enzyme is necessary for the synthesis of RNA:DNA primers during DNA replication and, strikingly, we found that POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Together this work identifies POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response. PMID:27019227

  5. DNA polymerase-α regulates the activation of type I interferons through cytosolic RNA:DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Starokadomskyy, Petro; Gemelli, Terry; Rios, Jonathan J; Xing, Chao; Wang, Richard C; Li, Haiying; Pokatayev, Vladislav; Dozmorov, Igor; Khan, Shaheen; Miyata, Naoteru; Fraile, Guadalupe; Raj, Prithvi; Xu, Zhe; Xu, Zigang; Ma, Lin; Lin, Zhimiao; Wang, Huijun; Yang, Yong; Ben-Amitai, Dan; Orenstein, Naama; Mussaffi, Huda; Baselga, Eulalia; Tadini, Gianluca; Grunebaum, Eyal; Sarajlija, Adrijan; Krzewski, Konrad; Wakeland, Edward K; Yan, Nan; de la Morena, Maria Teresa; Zinn, Andrew R; Burstein, Ezra

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant nucleic acids generated during viral replication are the main trigger for antiviral immunity, and mutations that disrupt nucleic acid metabolism can lead to autoinflammatory disorders. Here we investigated the etiology of X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR), a primary immunodeficiency with autoinflammatory features. We discovered that XLPDR is caused by an intronic mutation that disrupts the expression of POLA1, which encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase-α. Unexpectedly, POLA1 deficiency resulted in increased production of type I interferons. This enzyme is necessary for the synthesis of RNA:DNA primers during DNA replication and, strikingly, we found that POLA1 is also required for the synthesis of cytosolic RNA:DNA, which directly modulates interferon activation. Together this work identifies POLA1 as a critical regulator of the type I interferon response.

  6. [New coronavirus infection: new challenges, new legacies].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Vargas-Valerio, Alfredo; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: emergió una nueva enfermedad por coronavirus. Su historia natural y sus determinantes todavía se están investigando. Se carece de una publicación que estudie todos los casos identificados en el mundo, por lo que el objetivo de este artículo estriba en describir los casos y defunciones por el nuevo coronavirus. Métodos: se revisaron las publicaciones en línea de la Organización Mundial de la Salud, del Centro Europeo para el Control y Prevención de Enfermedades y de la Eurosurveillance. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo de los casos, se calcularon los límites para proporciones con un alfa del 0.05 por prueba de Wilson y una prueba t de Student para diferencia de medias. Resultados: son 17 casos confirmados y 11 defunciones en varios países de Asia y Europa; predominaron los pacientes masculinos. La tasa de letalidad fue de 64.70 %; los que fallecieron se hospitalizaron cinco días después de los primeros síntomas. Se carece de publicaciones que describan la historia natural de la enfermedad; sin embargo, lo descrito en las publicaciones de Europa coincide con los resultados de este estudio. Conclusión: es necesario continuar con la vigilancia epidemiológica y la realización de nuevos estudios para evaluar el impacto de esta enfermedad en la salud pública internacional.

  7. CRM1 and its ribosome export adaptor NMD3 localize to the nucleolus and affect rRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Baoyan; Moore, Henna M; Laiho, Marikki

    2013-01-01

    CRM1 is an export factor that together with its adaptor NMD3 transports numerous cargo molecules from the nucleus to cytoplasm through the nuclear pore. Previous studies have suggested that CRM1 and NMD3 are detected in the nucleolus. However, their localization with subnucleolar domains or participation in the activities of the nucleolus are unclear. We demonstrate here biochemically and using imaging analyses that CRM1 and NMD3 co-localize with nucleolar marker proteins in the nucleolus. In particular, their nucleolar localization is markedly increased by inhibition of RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription by actinomycin D or by silencing Pol I catalytic subunit, RPA194. We show that CRM1 nucleolar localization is dependent on its activity and the expression of NMD3, whereas NMD3 nucleolar localization is independent of CRM1. This suggests that NMD3 provides nucleolar tethering of CRM1. While inhibition of CRM1 by leptomycin B inhibited processing of 28S ribosomal (r) RNA, depletion of NMD3 did not, suggesting that their effects on 28S rRNA processing are distinct. Markedly, depletion of NMD3 and inhibition of CRM1 reduced the rate of pre-47S rRNA synthesis. However, their inactivation did not lead to nucleolar disintegration, a hallmark of Pol I transcription stress, suggesting that they do not directly regulate transcription. These results indicate that CRM1 and NMD3 have complex functions in pathways that couple rRNA synthetic and processing engines and that the rRNA synthesis rate may be adjusted according to proficiency in rRNA processing and export.

  8. RNA Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Barbara L.; Kundrot, Craig E.

    2003-01-01

    RNA molecules may be crystallized using variations of the methods developed for protein crystallography. As the technology has become available to syntheisize and purify RNA molecules in the quantities and with the quality that is required for crystallography, the field of RNA structure has exploded. The first consideration when crystallizing an RNA is the sequence, which may be varied in a rational way to enhance crystallizability or prevent formation of alternate structures. Once a sequence has been designed, the RNA may be synthesized chemically by solid-state synthesis, or it may be produced enzymatically using RNA polymerase and an appropriate DNA template. Purification of milligram quantities of RNA can be accomplished by HPLC or gel electrophoresis. As with proteins, crystallization of RNA is usually accomplished by vapor diffusion techniques. There are several considerations that are either unique to RNA crystallization or more important for RNA crystallization. Techniques for design, synthesis, purification, and crystallization of RNAs will be reviewed here.

  9. Trichrome Mallory's stain may indicate differential rates of RNA synthesis in eutopic and ectopic endometrium.

    PubMed

    Wołuń-Cholewa, Maria; Szymanowski, Krzysztof; Andrusiewicz, Mirosław; Szczerba, Anna; Warchoł, Jerzy B

    2010-01-01

    Mallory's triple staining is a histochemical technique used mainly for analysing connective tissues and glands and other tissues. We have described the differences in the nuclear staining between eutopic and ectopic endometrium as well as endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma using the Mallory's method. The ultrastructural differences between eutopic and ectopic endometrium have been detected. In normal and hyperplastic endometrium the presence of stromal cell nuclei with an increased affinity to aniline blue has been observed. The affinity has disappeared after digestion of tissues with RNase. In cases of endometriosis, independently of cell types, the nuclei have shown affinity to orange G. Similar effects in adenocarcinoma have been noted. The ultrastructural studies have shown that in normal endometrium the stroma contained cells with euchromatic and low electron density cell nuclei. In endometriosis heterochromatic cell nuclei present both in the stroma and within glands have been detected. The results indicate that the Mallory's technique may be a useful tool for recognizing the differences between eutopic and ectopic endometrium. The affinity for aniline blue in normal and hyperplastic endometrium occurs most likely due to increased RNA synthesis. Based on Mallory's staining a similarity between hyperplasia and unchanged endometrium in contrast to similar results of the staining obtained in cases of adenocarcinoma and endometriosis may be suggested.

  10. Direct Measurement of Intranuclear Strain Distributions and RNA Synthesis in Single Cells Embedded within Native Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jonathan T.; Shannon, Garrett; Veress, Alexander I.; Neu, Corey P.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear structure and mechanics play a critical role in diverse cellular functions, such as organizing direct access of chromatin to transcriptional regulators. Here, we use a new, to our knowledge, hybrid method, based on microscopy and hyperelastic warping, to determine three-dimensional strain distributions inside the nuclei of single living cells embedded within their native extracellular matrix. During physiologically relevant mechanical loading to tissue samples, strain was transferred to individual nuclei, resulting in submicron distributions of displacements, with compressive and tensile strain patterns approaching a fivefold magnitude increase in some locations compared to tissue-scale stimuli. Moreover, nascent RNA synthesis was observed in the interchromatin regions of the cells studied and spatially corresponded to strain patterns. Our ability to measure large strains in the interchromatin space, which reveals that movement of chromatin in the nucleus may not be due to random or biochemical mechanisms alone, but may result from the transfer of mechanical force applied at a distant tissue surface. PMID:24268137

  11. Short ROSE-Like RNA Thermometers Control IbpA Synthesis in Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski, Stefanie S.; Nagel, Miriam; Narberhaus, Franz

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial small heat shock protein IbpA protects client proteins from aggregation. Due to redundancy in the cellular chaperone network, deletion of the ibpA gene often leads to only a mild or no phenotypic defect. In this study, we show that a Pseudomonas putida ibpA deletion mutant has a severe growth defect under heat stress conditions and reduced survival during recovery revealing a critical role of IbpA in heat tolerance. Transcription of the ibpA gene depends on the alternative heat shock sigma factor σ32. Production of IbpA protein only at heat shock temperatures suggested additional translational control. We conducted a comprehensive structural and functional analysis of the 5′ untranslated regions of the ibpA genes from P. putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both contain a ROSE-type RNA thermometer that is substantially shorter and simpler than previously reported ROSE elements. Comprised of two hairpin structures only, they inhibit translation at low temperature and permit translation initiation after a temperature upshift. Both elements regulate reporter gene expression in Escherichia coli and ribosome binding in vitro in a temperature-dependent manner. Structure probing revealed local melting of the second hairpin whereas the first hairpin remained unaffected. High sequence and structure conservation of pseudomonal ibpA untranslated regions and their ability to confer thermoregulation in vivo suggest that short ROSE-like thermometers are commonly used to control IbpA synthesis in Pseudomonas species. PMID:23741480

  12. Genetically diverse coronaviruses in captive bird populations in a Brazilian zoological park.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Tereza C; Teixeira, Maria Cecília B; Gomes, Deriane E; Jerez, Antônio José

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of coronaviruses (CoVs) in captive birds placed inside a zoological park in Brazil. The role of captive birds in the epidemiology of CoVs in the tropics is poorly understood. A total of 25 (n=25) different species were tested for viral RNA using individual fecal samples collected from healthy birds. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction targeting the 3' untranslated region was used to detect CoV RNA, and positive samples were submitted for sequence analysis. The phylogenetic search revealed nine mutations in the black shouldered peafowl (Pavus cristatus) CoV sequence, which clustered separately from samples previously described in England. This is the first report on the detection of the CoV genome in captive birds in Brazil.

  13. Genetically diverse coronaviruses in captive bird populations in a Brazilian zoological park.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Tereza C; Teixeira, Maria Cecília B; Gomes, Deriane E; Jerez, Antônio José

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of coronaviruses (CoVs) in captive birds placed inside a zoological park in Brazil. The role of captive birds in the epidemiology of CoVs in the tropics is poorly understood. A total of 25 (n=25) different species were tested for viral RNA using individual fecal samples collected from healthy birds. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction targeting the 3' untranslated region was used to detect CoV RNA, and positive samples were submitted for sequence analysis. The phylogenetic search revealed nine mutations in the black shouldered peafowl (Pavus cristatus) CoV sequence, which clustered separately from samples previously described in England. This is the first report on the detection of the CoV genome in captive birds in Brazil. PMID:21142971

  14. Discovery of Novel Oral Protein Synthesis Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis That Target Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Palencia, Andrés; Li, Xianfeng; Bu, Wei; Choi, Wai; Ding, Charles Z.; Easom, Eric E.; Feng, Lisa; Hernandez, Vincent; Houston, Paul; Liu, Liang; Meewan, Maliwan; Mohan, Manisha; Rock, Fernando L.; Sexton, Holly; Zhang, Suoming; Zhou, Yasheen; Wan, Baojie; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G.; Woolhiser, Lisa; Gruppo, Veronica; Lenaerts, Anne J.; O'Malley, Theresa; Parish, Tanya; Cooper, Christopher B.; Waters, M. Gerard; Ma, Zhenkun; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.; Rullas, Joaquín; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Mendoza, Alfonso; Barros, David; Cusack, Stephen; Plattner, Jacob J.

    2016-01-01

    The recent development and spread of extensively drug-resistant and totally drug-resistant resistant (TDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlight the need for new antitubercular drugs. Protein synthesis inhibitors have played an important role in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) starting with the inclusion of streptomycin in the first combination therapies. Although parenteral aminoglycosides are a key component of therapy for multidrug-resistant TB, the oxazolidinone linezolid is the only orally available protein synthesis inhibitor that is effective against TB. Here, we show that small-molecule inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs), which are known to be excellent antibacterial protein synthesis targets, are orally bioavailable and effective against M. tuberculosis in TB mouse infection models. We applied the oxaborole tRNA-trapping (OBORT) mechanism, which was first developed to target fungal cytoplasmic leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), to M. tuberculosis LeuRS. X-ray crystallography was used to guide the design of LeuRS inhibitors that have good biochemical potency and excellent whole-cell activity against M. tuberculosis. Importantly, their good oral bioavailability translates into in vivo efficacy in both the acute and chronic mouse models of TB with potency comparable to that of the frontline drug isoniazid. PMID:27503647

  15. Discovery of Novel Oral Protein Synthesis Inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis That Target Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Andrés; Li, Xianfeng; Bu, Wei; Choi, Wai; Ding, Charles Z; Easom, Eric E; Feng, Lisa; Hernandez, Vincent; Houston, Paul; Liu, Liang; Meewan, Maliwan; Mohan, Manisha; Rock, Fernando L; Sexton, Holly; Zhang, Suoming; Zhou, Yasheen; Wan, Baojie; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G; Woolhiser, Lisa; Gruppo, Veronica; Lenaerts, Anne J; O'Malley, Theresa; Parish, Tanya; Cooper, Christopher B; Waters, M Gerard; Ma, Zhenkun; Ioerger, Thomas R; Sacchettini, James C; Rullas, Joaquín; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Pérez-Herrán, Esther; Mendoza, Alfonso; Barros, David; Cusack, Stephen; Plattner, Jacob J; Alley, M R K

    2016-10-01

    The recent development and spread of extensively drug-resistant and totally drug-resistant resistant (TDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis highlight the need for new antitubercular drugs. Protein synthesis inhibitors have played an important role in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) starting with the inclusion of streptomycin in the first combination therapies. Although parenteral aminoglycosides are a key component of therapy for multidrug-resistant TB, the oxazolidinone linezolid is the only orally available protein synthesis inhibitor that is effective against TB. Here, we show that small-molecule inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs), which are known to be excellent antibacterial protein synthesis targets, are orally bioavailable and effective against M. tuberculosis in TB mouse infection models. We applied the oxaborole tRNA-trapping (OBORT) mechanism, which was first developed to target fungal cytoplasmic leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS), to M. tuberculosis LeuRS. X-ray crystallography was used to guide the design of LeuRS inhibitors that have good biochemical potency and excellent whole-cell activity against M. tuberculosis Importantly, their good oral bioavailability translates into in vivo efficacy in both the acute and chronic mouse models of TB with potency comparable to that of the frontline drug isoniazid. PMID:27503647

  16. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of 2′-Methyl-RNA on a Homostar Support through Organic-Solvent Nanofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Piers R J; Kim, Jeong F; Valtcheva, Irina B; Williams, Glynn D; Anson, Mike S; Buswell, Andrew M; Livingston, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Due to the discovery of RNAi, oligonucleotides (oligos) have re-emerged as a major pharmaceutical target that may soon be required in ton quantities. However, it is questionable whether solid-phase oligo synthesis (SPOS) methods can provide a scalable synthesis. Liquid-phase oligo synthesis (LPOS) is intrinsically scalable and amenable to standard industrial batch synthesis techniques. However, most reported LPOS strategies rely upon at least one precipitation per chain extension cycle to separate the growing oligonucleotide from reaction debris. Precipitation can be difficult to develop and control on an industrial scale and, because many precipitations would be required to prepare a therapeutic oligonucleotide, we contend that this approach is not viable for large-scale industrial preparation. We are developing an LPOS synthetic strategy for 2′-methyl RNA phosphorothioate that is more amenable to standard batch production techniques, using organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) as the critical scalable separation technology. We report the first LPOS-OSN preparation of a 2′-Me RNA phosphorothioate 9-mer, using commercial phosphoramidite monomers, and monitoring all reactions by HPLC, 31P NMR spectroscopy and MS. PMID:26012874

  17. Liquid-Phase Synthesis of 2'-Methyl-RNA on a Homostar Support through Organic-Solvent Nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Piers R J; Kim, Jeong F; Valtcheva, Irina B; Williams, Glynn D; Anson, Mike S; Buswell, Andrew M; Livingston, Andrew G

    2015-06-22

    Due to the discovery of RNAi, oligonucleotides (oligos) have re-emerged as a major pharmaceutical target that may soon be required in ton quantities. However, it is questionable whether solid-phase oligo synthesis (SPOS) methods can provide a scalable synthesis. Liquid-phase oligo synthesis (LPOS) is intrinsically scalable and amenable to standard industrial batch synthesis techniques. However, most reported LPOS strategies rely upon at least one precipitation per chain extension cycle to separate the growing oligonucleotide from reaction debris. Precipitation can be difficult to develop and control on an industrial scale and, because many precipitations would be required to prepare a therapeutic oligonucleotide, we contend that this approach is not viable for large-scale industrial preparation. We are developing an LPOS synthetic strategy for 2'-methyl RNA phosphorothioate that is more amenable to standard batch production techniques, using organic solvent nanofiltration (OSN) as the critical scalable separation technology. We report the first LPOS-OSN preparation of a 2'-Me RNA phosphorothioate 9-mer, using commercial phosphoramidite monomers, and monitoring all reactions by HPLC, (31)P NMR spectroscopy and MS.

  18. Template-directed synthesis of a small molecule-antisense conjugate targeting an mRNA structure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Rodriguez, Lilia; Wolfe, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The targeting of structural features in mRNA with specificity remains a great chemical challenge. A hairpin structure near exon 10 in the pre-mRNA encoding the tau protein controls its splicing, and dementia-causing mutations that disrupt this structure increase exon 10 splicing. We previously reported the discovery of small molecules, mitoxantrone (MTX) and analogs, which bind to the tau RNA hairpin structure and the design of bipartite antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) that simultaneously bind to the discontinuous sequences that flank this hairpin. Herein we report the synthesis of a bipartite ASO conjugated to MTX using the tau RNA hairpin and flanking sequences as a template. A set of six MTX analogs, each containing a linker-azide, and a set of ten bipartite ASOs, each containing a branched linker-alkyne, were synthesized and tested in combinatorial fashion for their ability to conjugate in the presence or absence of template RNA. A single template-dependent MTX–ASO conjugate was identified from among the 60 reaction mixtures, demonstrating that the MTX and ASO precursors could simultaneously bind the RNA template and allow proper positioning of azide and alkyne for 1,3-cycloaddition. While the MTX–ASO conjugate proved too cytotoxic for cell-based assays, the conjugate inhibited tau exon 10 splicing under cell-free conditions more effectively than MTX or bipartite ASO alone. PMID:24691171

  19. Sequence and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sroubek, Jakub; Krishnan, Yamini; McDonald, Thomas V.

    2013-01-01

    Human ether-á-gogo-related gene (HERG) encodes a potassium channel that is highly susceptible to deleterious mutations resulting in susceptibility to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Most mutations adversely affect HERG channel assembly and trafficking. Why the channel is so vulnerable to missense mutations is not well understood. Since nothing is known of how mRNA structural elements factor in channel processing, we synthesized a codon-modified HERG cDNA (HERG-CM) where the codons were synonymously changed to reduce GC content, secondary structure, and rare codon usage. HERG-CM produced typical IKr-like currents; however, channel synthesis and processing were markedly different. Translation efficiency was reduced for HERG-CM, as determined by heterologous expression, in vitro translation, and polysomal profiling. Trafficking efficiency to the cell surface was greatly enhanced, as assayed by immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, and surface labeling. Chimeras of HERG-NT/CM indicated that trafficking efficiency was largely dependent on 5′ sequences, while translation efficiency involved multiple areas. These results suggest that HERG translation and trafficking rates are independently governed by noncoding information in various regions of the mRNA molecule. Noncoding information embedded within the mRNA may play a role in the pathogenesis of hereditary arrhythmia syndromes and could provide an avenue for targeted therapeutics.—Sroubek, J., Krishnan, Y., McDonald, T V. Sequence- and structure-specific elements of HERG mRNA determine channel synthesis and trafficking efficiency. PMID:23608144

  20. Monitor RNA synthesis in live cell nuclei by using two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiao; Lin, Danying; Wang, Yan; Qi, Jing; Yan, Wei; Qu, Junle

    2015-03-01

    Probing of local molecular environment in cells is of significant value in creating a fundamental understanding of cellular processes and molecular profiles of diseases, as well as studying drug cell interactions. In order to investigate the dynamically changing in subcellular environment during RNA synthesis, we applied two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) method to monitor the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused nuclear protein ASF/SF2. The fluorescence lifetime of fluorophore is known to be in inverse correlation with a local refractive index, and thus fluorescence lifetimes of GFP fusions provide real-time information of the molecular environment of ASF/SF2- GFP. The FLIM results showed continuous and significant fluctuations of fluorescence lifetimes of the fluorescent protein fusions in live HeLa cells under physiological conditions. The fluctuations of fluorescence lifetime values indicated the variations of activities of RNA polymerases. Moreover, treatment with pharmacological drugs inhibiting RNA polymerase activities led to irreversible decreases of fluorescence lifetime values. In summary, our study of FLIM imaging of GFP fusion proteins has provided a sensitive and real-time method to investigate RNA synthesis in live cell nuclei.

  1. The juxtamembrane sequence of the Hepatitis C virus polymerase can affect RNA synthesis and inhibition by allosteric polymerase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Y; Lin, X; Fan, B; Ranjith-Kumar, C T; Kao, C C

    2015-08-01

    The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B), is anchored in the membrane through a C-terminal helix. A sequence of ca. 12 residues that connects the catalytically competent portion of the RdRp and the C-terminal helix, the juxtamembrane sequence (JMS), has a poorly defined role in RdRp function in a large part since it is translated from a cis-acting RNA element (CRE) that is essential for HCV replication. Using a HCV replicon that transposed a second copy of CRE to the 3' UTR of the HCV replicon, we demonstrate that amino acid substitutions in the JMS were detrimental for HCV replicon replication. Substitutions in the JMS also resulted in a defect in de novo-initiated RNAs synthesis in vitro and in a cell-based reporter assay. A nonnucleoside inhibitor of the NS5B that binds to the catalytic pocket was less potent in inhibiting NS5B in the presence of JMS mutations. The JMS mutants exhibit reduced stability in thermodenaturation assays, suggesting that the JMS helps confer a more stable conformation to NS5B that could impact RNA synthesis. PMID:25895103

  2. Synthesis of a bifunctional cytidine derivative and its conjugation to RNA for in vitro selection of a cytidine deaminase ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Rublack, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Summary Over the past 20 years, the generation of functional RNAs by in vitro selection has become a standard technique. Apart from aptamers for simple binding of defined ligands, also RNAs for catalysis of chemical reactions have been selected. In the latter case, a key step often is the conjugation of one of the two reactants to the library, requiring suitable strategies for terminal or internal RNA functionalization. With the aim of selecting a ribozyme for deamination of cytidine, we have set up a selection scheme involving the attachment of the cytidine acting as deamination substrate to the 3'-terminus of the RNAs in the library, and library immobilization. Here, we report the synthesis of a bifunctional cytidine derivative suitable for conjugation to RNA and linkage of the conjugated library to a streptavidine-coated surface. Successful conjugation of the cytidine derivative to the 3'-terminus of a model RNA is demonstrated. PMID:25246949

  3. Enhancement of plaque formation and cell fusion of an enteropathogenic coronavirus by trypsin treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Storz, J; Rott, R; Kaluza, G

    1981-01-01

    Plaque formation, replication, and related cytopathic functions of the enteropathogenic bovine coronavirus strain L9 in bovine fetal thyroid (BFTy) and bovine fetal brain (BFB) cells were investigated in the presence and absence of trypsin. Plaque formation was enhanced in both cell types. Plaques reached a size with an average diameter of 5 mm within 4 days with trypsin in the overlay, whereas their diameter remained less than 1 mm at this time after plating without trypsin in the overlay. Fusion of both cell types was observed 12 to 18 h after infection when trypsin was present in the medium. Fusion was not observed in infected BFB cell cultures and was rarely observed 48 h after infection of BFTy cells maintained with the trypsin-free medium. The largest polycaryons formed had 15 to 22 nuclei. They then lysed and detached. Cell fusion depended on de novo synthesis of hemagglutinin and infectivity. Fusion from without was not observed. Virus produced under trypsin-enhancing conditions accompanied by cell fusion did not lyse mouse erythrocytes that reacted with L9 coronavirus hemagglutinin. Trypsin-treated, infected BFTy cultures produced coronaviral particles that excluded stain from the envelope confinement. These virions had uniformly shorter surface projections than did the viral forms generated by trypsin-free cell cultures. Images PMID:7228403

  4. The ns12.9 Accessory Protein of Human Coronavirus OC43 Is a Viroporin Involved in Virion Morphogenesis and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ronghua; Wang, Kai; Ping, Xianqiang; Yu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An accessory gene between the S and E gene loci is contained in all coronaviruses (CoVs), and its function has been studied in some coronaviruses. This gene locus in human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) encodes the ns12.9 accessory protein; however, its function during viral infection remains unknown. Here, we engineered a recombinant mutant virus lacking the ns12.9 protein (HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9) to characterize the contributions of ns12.9 in HCoV-OC43 replication. The ns12.9 accessory protein is a transmembrane protein and forms ion channels in both Xenopus oocytes and yeast through homo-oligomerization, suggesting that ns12.9 is a newly recognized viroporin. HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9 presented at least 10-fold reduction of viral titer in vitro and in vivo. Intriguingly, exogenous ns12.9 and heterologous viroporins with ion channel activity could compensate for the production of HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9, indicating that the ion channel activity of ns12.9 plays a significant role in the production of infectious virions. Systematic dissection of single-cycle replication revealed that ns12.9 protein had no measurable effect on virus entry, subgenomic mRNA (sgmRNA) synthesis, and protein expression. Further characterization revealed that HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9 was less efficient in virion morphogenesis than recombinant wild-type virus (HCoV-OC43-WT). Moreover, reduced viral replication, inflammatory response, and virulence in HCoV-OC43-Δns12.9-infected mice were observed compared to the levels for HCoV-OC43-WT-infected mice. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the ns12.9 accessory protein functions as a viroporin and is involved in virion morphogenesis and the pathogenesis of HCoV-OC43 infection. IMPORTANCE HCoV-OC43 was isolated in the 1960s and is a major agent of the common cold. The functions of HCoV-OC43 structural proteins have been well studied, but few studies have focused on its accessory proteins. In the present study, we demonstrated that the ns12.9 protein

  5. The mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase of Podospora anserina is a bifunctional enzyme active in protein synthesis and RNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Kämper, U; Kück, U; Cherniack, A D; Lambowitz, A M

    1992-01-01

    The Neurospora crassa mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (mt tyrRS), which is encoded by the nuclear gene cyt-18, functions not only in aminoacylation but also in the splicing of group I introns. Here, we isolated the cognate Podospora anserina mt tyrRS gene, designated yts1, by using the N. crassa cyt-18 gene as a hybridization probe. DNA sequencing of the P. anserina gene revealed an open reading frame (ORF) of 641 amino acids which has significant similarity to other tyrRSs. The yts1 ORF is interrupted by two introns, one near its N terminus at the same position as the single intron in the cyt-18 gene and the other downstream in a region corresponding to the nucleotide-binding fold. The P. anserina yts1+ gene transformed the N. crassa cyt-18-2 mutant at a high frequency and rescued both the splicing and protein synthesis defects. Furthermore, the YTS1 protein synthesized in Escherichia coli was capable of splicing the N. crassa mt large rRNA intron in vitro. Together, these results indicate that YTS1 is a bifunctional protein active in both splicing and protein synthesis. The P. anserina YTS1 and N. crassa CYT-18 proteins share three blocks of amino acids that are not conserved in bacterial or yeast mt tyrRSs which do not function in splicing. One of these blocks corresponds to the idiosyncratic N-terminal domain shown previously to be required for splicing activity of the CYT-18 protein. The other two are located in the putative tRNA-binding domain toward the C terminus of the protein and also appear to be required for splicing. Since the E. coli and yeast mt tyrRSs do not function in splicing, the adaptation of the Neurospora and Podospora spp. mt tyrRSs to function in splicing most likely occurred after the divergence of their common ancestor from yeast. Images PMID:1531084

  6. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Clifton; Chubet, Richard; Holtz, Kathy; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Cox, Manon; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Given periodic outbreaks of fatal human infections caused by coronaviruses, development of an optimal coronavirus vaccine platform capable of rapid production is an ongoing priority. This chapter describes the use of an insect cell expression system for rapid production of a recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Detailed methods are presented for expression, purification, and release testing of SARS recombinant spike protein antigen, followed by adjuvant formulation and animal testing. The methods herein described for rapid development of a highly protective SARS vaccine are equally suited to rapid development of vaccines against other fatal human coronavirus infections, e.g., the MERS coronavirus. PMID:27076136

  7. Intrinsic resistance of feline peritoneal macrophages to coronavirus infection correlates with in vivo virulence.

    PubMed

    Stoddart, C A; Scott, F W

    1989-01-01

    Cats infected with virulent feline coronavirus strains develop feline infectious peritonitis, an invariably fatal, immunologically mediated disease; avirulent strains cause either clinically inapparent infection or mild enteritis. Four virulent coronavirus isolates and five avirulent isolates were assessed by immunofluorescence and virus titration for their ability to infect and replicate in feline peritoneal macrophages in vitro. The avirulent coronaviruses infected fewer macrophages, produced lower virus titers, were less able to sustain viral replication, and spread less efficiently to other susceptible macrophages than the virulent coronaviruses. Thus, the intrinsic resistance of feline macrophages may play a pivotal role in the outcome of coronavirus infection in vivo.

  8. Development of a SARS Coronavirus Vaccine from Recombinant Spike Protein Plus Delta Inulin Adjuvant.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Clifton; Chubet, Richard; Holtz, Kathy; Honda-Okubo, Yoshikazu; Barnard, Dale; Cox, Manon; Petrovsky, Nikolai

    2016-01-01

    Given periodic outbreaks of fatal human infections caused by coronaviruses, development of an optimal coronavirus vaccine platform capable of rapid production is an ongoing priority. This chapter describes the use of an insect cell expression system for rapid production of a recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Detailed methods are presented for expression, purification, and release testing of SARS recombinant spike protein antigen, followed by adjuvant formulation and animal testing. The methods herein described for rapid development of a highly protective SARS vaccine are equally suited to rapid development of vaccines against other fatal human coronavirus infections, e.g., the MERS coronavirus.

  9. Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Chan, Jasper F W

    2015-12-22

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemics have proven the ability of coronaviruses to cross species barrier and emerge rapidly in humans. Other coronaviruses such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are also known to cause major disease epidemics in animals with huge economic loss. This special issue in Virology Journal aims to highlight the advances and key discoveries in the animal origin, viral evolution, epidemiology, diagnostics and pathogenesis of the emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in both humans and animals.

  10. Discovery of an essential nucleotidylating activity associated with a newly delineated conserved domain in the RNA polymerase-containing protein of all nidoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Kathleen C.; Gulyaeva, Anastasia; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Janssen, George M. C.; Ruben, Mark; Overkleeft, Hermen S.; van Veelen, Peter A.; Samborskiy, Dmitry V.; Kravchenko, Alexander A.; Leontovich, Andrey M.; Sidorov, Igor A.; Snijder, Eric J.; Posthuma, Clara C.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.

    2015-01-01

    RNA viruses encode an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that catalyzes the synthesis of their RNA(s). In the case of positive-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the order Nidovirales, the RdRp resides in a replicase subunit that is unusually large. Bioinformatics analysis of this non-structural protein has now revealed a nidoviral signature domain (genetic marker) that is N-terminally adjacent to the RdRp and has no apparent homologs elsewhere. Based on its conservation profile, this domain is proposed to have nucleotidylation activity. We used recombinant non-structural protein 9 of the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV) and different biochemical assays, including irreversible labeling with a GTP analog followed by a proteomics analysis, to demonstrate the manganese-dependent covalent binding of guanosine and uridine phosphates to a lysine/histidine residue. Most likely this was the invariant lysine of the newly identified domain, named nidovirus RdRp-associated nucleotidyltransferase (NiRAN), whose substitution with alanine severely diminished the described binding. Furthermore, this mutation crippled EAV and prevented the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in cell culture, indicating that NiRAN is essential for nidoviruses. Potential functions supported by NiRAN may include nucleic acid ligation, mRNA capping and protein-primed RNA synthesis, possibilities that remain to be explored in future studies. PMID:26304538

  11. MERS coronavirus: diagnostics, epidemiology and transmission.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Ian M; Arden, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    The first known cases of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), associated with infection by a novel coronavirus (CoV), occurred in 2012 in Jordan but were reported retrospectively. The case first to be publicly reported was from Jeddah, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Since then, MERS-CoV sequences have been found in a bat and in many dromedary camels (DC). MERS-CoV is enzootic in DC across the Arabian Peninsula and in parts of Africa, causing mild upper respiratory tract illness in its camel reservoir and sporadic, but relatively rare human infections. Precisely how virus transmits to humans remains unknown but close and lengthy exposure appears to be a requirement. The KSA is the focal point of MERS, with the majority of human cases. In humans, MERS is mostly known as a lower respiratory tract (LRT) disease involving fever, cough, breathing difficulties and pneumonia that may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiorgan failure and death in 20% to 40% of those infected. However, MERS-CoV has also been detected in mild and influenza-like illnesses and in those with no signs or symptoms. Older males most obviously suffer severe disease and MERS patients often have comorbidities. Compared to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), another sometimes- fatal zoonotic coronavirus disease that has since disappeared, MERS progresses more rapidly to respiratory failure and acute kidney injury (it also has an affinity for growth in kidney cells under laboratory conditions), is more frequently reported in patients with underlying disease and is more often fatal. Most human cases of MERS have been linked to lapses in infection prevention and control (IPC) in healthcare settings, with approximately 20% of all virus detections reported among healthcare workers (HCWs) and higher exposures in those with occupations that bring them into close contact with camels. Sero-surveys have found widespread evidence of past infection in adult camels and limited

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  13. An industrial process for selective synthesis of 7-methyl guanosine 5'-diphosphate: versatile synthon for synthesis of mRNA cap analogues.

    PubMed

    Kore, Anilkumar R; Parmar, Gaurang

    2006-03-01

    We report an industrial scale facile synthesis of 7-methyl guanosine 5'-diphosphate, which plays an important role in synthesis of various mRNA cap analogs. An efficient and selective methylation at position 7 of guanosine 5'-diphosphate was achieved by dissolving guanosine 5'-diphosphate in water and drops wise addition of dimethyl sulfate over a period of 1 h at room temperature. The reaction was completed within 2 h and resulted in more than a 96% yield. The desired product, 7-methyl GDP was purified by using BPG column on AKTA Purifier 100. Certainly, this method has advantages over the known methylation method, in terms of yield, economy, safety, and environmental concerns. PMID:16629126

  14. A key role for the carboxy-terminal tail of the murine coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in coordination of genome packaging.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lili; Koetzner, Cheri A; Masters, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    The prototype coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) exhibits highly selective packaging of its genomic positive-stranded RNA into assembled virions, despite the presence in infected cells of a large excess of subgenomic viral mRNAs. One component of this selectivity is the MHV packaging signal (PS), an RNA structure found only in genomic RNA and not in subgenomic RNAs. It was previously shown that a major determinant of PS recognition is the second of the two RNA-binding domains of the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. We have now found that PS recognition additionally depends upon a segment of the carboxy-terminal tail (domain N3) of the N protein. Since domain N3 is also the region of N protein that interacts with the membrane (M) protein, this finding suggests a mechanism by which selective genome packaging is accomplished, through the coupling of genome encapsidation to virion assembly.

  15. Inferring the hosts of coronavirus using dual statistical models based on nucleotide composition

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qin; Shi, Mijuan; Cheng, Yingyin; Zhang, Wanting; Xia, Xiao-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Many coronaviruses are capable of interspecies transmission. Some of them have caused worldwide panic as emerging human pathogens in recent years, e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In order to assess their threat to humans, we explored to infer the potential hosts of coronaviruses using a dual-model approach based on nineteen parameters computed from spike genes of coronaviruses. Both the support vector machine (SVM) model and the Mahalanobis distance (MD) discriminant model achieved high accuracies in leave-one-out cross-validation of training data consisting of 730 representative coronaviruses (99.86% and 98.08% respectively). Predictions on 47 additional coronaviruses precisely conformed to conclusions or speculations by other researchers. Our approach is implemented as a web server that can be accessed at http://bioinfo.ihb.ac.cn/seq2hosts. PMID:26607834

  16. Na/K-ATPase signaling regulates collagen synthesis through microRNA-29b-3p in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Christopher A; Hill, Michael C; Shi, Huilin; Fan, Xiaoming; Xie, Jeffrey X; Haller, Steven T; Kennedy, David J; Liu, Jiang; Garrett, Michael R; Xie, Zijian; Cooper, Christopher J; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tian, Jiang

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is accompanied by cardiac fibrosis, hypertrophy, and dysfunction, which are commonly referred to as uremic cardiomyopathy. Our previous studies found that Na/K-ATPase ligands or 5/6th partial nephrectomy (PNx) induces cardiac fibrosis in rats and mice. The current study used in vitro and in vivo models to explore novel roles for microRNA in this mechanism of cardiac fibrosis formation. To accomplish this, we performed microRNA profiling with RT-qPCR based arrays on cardiac tissue from rats subjected to marinobufagenin (MBG) infusion or PNx. The analysis showed that a series of fibrosis-related microRNAs were dysregulated. Among the dysregulated microRNAs, microRNA (miR)-29b-3p, which directly targets mRNA of collagen, was consistently reduced in both PNx and MBG-infused animals. In vitro experiments demonstrated that treatment of primary cultures of adult rat cardiac fibroblasts with Na/K-ATPase ligands induced significant increases in the fibrosis marker, collagen protein, and mRNA expression compared with controls, whereas miR-29b-3p expression decreased >50%. Transfection of miR-29b-3p mimics into cardiac fibroblasts inhibited cardiotonic steroids-induced collagen synthesis. Moreover, a specific Na/K-ATPase signaling antagonist, pNaKtide, prevented ouabain-induced increases in collagen synthesis and decreases in miR-29b-3p expression in these cells. In conclusion, these data are the first to indicate that signaling through Na/K-ATPase regulates miRNAs and specifically, miR-29b-3p expression both in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, these data indicate that miR-29b-3p expression plays an important role in the formation of cardiac fibrosis in CKD. PMID:26702050

  17. Safe deprotection strategy for the tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBS) group during RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zewge, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    This unit describes two protocols for the deprotection of 2'-O-TBS groups in oligoribonucleotides under mild conditions. Desilylation using ammonium fluoride is applicable to fully protected "RNA only" substrates and desilylation using potassium fluoride is applicable to "mixed RNA/non-RNA" substrates. Characterization of products is accomplished using LC/MS, RP HPLC and SAX HPLC.

  18. Effects of Inhibitors of RNA and Protein Synthesis on Aspartate Transcarbamylase Activity in Etiolated Plant Tissue 1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lowell B.; Niblett, Charles L.; Lee, Richard F.

    1976-01-01

    Aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) activity declines in etiolated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) hypocotyls between 3 and 11 days after planting. Treating cow-pea hypocotyls with cycloheximide (CH), actinomycin D (AMD), 6-methyl purine (6-MP), or cordycepin increases ATCase activity up to 740, 350, 465, and 305%, respectively, over water-treated controls 48 to 72 hours after treatment. In contrast erythromycin had no effect, and d-threo-chloramphenicol (CHL) reduced ATCase activity nearly 40%. CH, AMD, and CHL, whose effects were further characterized, each markedly reduced total RNA synthesis and protein synthesis. Respiration was stimulated by CH and AMD and reduced by CHL. In soybean, CHL-treated tissues and water-treated controls had comparable ATCase activities 48 hours after treatment, while AMD, 6-MP, and CH treatments reduced activities 29, 37, and 78%, respectively. The results suggest that the level of ATCase activity in etiolated cowpea hypocotyls is regulated by a mechanism or mechanisms that are interfered with by inhibition of RNA and protein synthesis. Possibly the mechanism is absent from etiolated soybean hypocotyls. PMID:16659653

  19. A conserved RpoS-dependent small RNA controls the synthesis of major porin OmpD.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Kathrin S; Papenfort, Kai; Berger, Allison A; Vogel, Jörg

    2012-04-01

    A remarkable feature of many small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) of Escherichia coli and Salmonella is their accumulation in the stationary phase of bacterial growth. Several stress response regulators and sigma factors have been reported to direct the transcription of stationary phase-specific sRNAs, but a widely conserved sRNA gene that is controlled by the major stationary phase and stress sigma factor, σ(S) (RpoS), has remained elusive. We have studied in Salmonella the conserved SdsR sRNA, previously known as RyeB, one of the most abundant stationary phase-specific sRNAs in E. coli. Alignments of the sdsR promoter region and genetic analysis strongly suggest that this sRNA gene is selectively transcribed by σ(S). We show that SdsR down-regulates the synthesis of the major Salmonella porin OmpD by Hfq-dependent base pairing; SdsR thus represents the fourth sRNA to regulate this major outer membrane porin. Similar to the InvR, MicC and RybB sRNAs, SdsR recognizes the ompD mRNA in the coding sequence, suggesting that this mRNA may be primarily targeted downstream of the start codon. The SdsR-binding site in ompD was localized by 3'-RACE, an experimental approach that promises to be of use in predicting other sRNA-target interactions in bacteria.

  20. Control of Fur synthesis by the non-coding RNA RyhB and iron-responsive decoding.

    PubMed

    Vecerek, Branislav; Moll, Isabella; Bläsi, Udo

    2007-02-21

    The Fe2+-dependent Fur protein serves as a negative regulator of iron uptake in bacteria. As only metallo-Fur acts as an autogeneous repressor, Fe2+scarcity would direct fur expression when continued supply is not obviously required. We show that in Escherichia coli post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms ensure that Fur synthesis remains steady in iron limitation. Our studies revealed that fur translation is coupled to that of an upstream open reading frame (uof), translation of which is downregulated by the non-coding RNA (ncRNA) RyhB. As RyhB transcription is negatively controlled by metallo-Fur, iron depletion creates a negative feedback loop. RyhB-mediated regulation of uof-fur provides the first example for indirect translational regulation by a trans-encoded ncRNA. In addition, we present evidence for an iron-responsive decoding mechanism of the uof-fur entity. It could serve as a backup mechanism of the RyhB circuitry, and represents the first link between iron availability and synthesis of an iron-containing protein.

  1. Cooperative Action of Cdk1/cyclin B and SIRT1 Is Required for Mitotic Repression of rRNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Voit, Renate; Seiler, Jeanette; Grummt, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic repression of rRNA synthesis requires inactivation of the RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific transcription factor SL1 by Cdk1/cyclin B-dependent phosphorylation of TAFI110 (TBP-associated factor 110) at a single threonine residue (T852). Upon exit from mitosis, T852 is dephosphorylated by Cdc14B, which is sequestered in nucleoli during interphase and is activated upon release from nucleoli at prometaphase. Mitotic repression of Pol I transcription correlates with transient nucleolar enrichment of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, which deacetylates another subunit of SL1, TAFI68. Hypoacetylation of TAFI68 destabilizes SL1 binding to the rDNA promoter, thereby impairing transcription complex assembly. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity alleviates mitotic repression of Pol I transcription if phosphorylation of TAFI110 is prevented. The results demonstrate that reversible phosphorylation of TAFI110 and acetylation of TAFI68 are key modifications that regulate SL1 activity and mediate fluctuations of pre-rRNA synthesis during cell cycle progression. PMID:26023773

  2. Pathogenesis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Smits, Saskia L; Haagmans, Bart L

    2015-01-01

    Human coronaviruses (CoVs) mostly cause a common cold that is mild and self-limiting. Zoonotic transmission of CoVs such as the recently identified Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, on the other hand, may be associated with severe lower respiratory tract infection. This article reviews the clinical and pathological data available on MERS and compares it to SARS. Most importantly, chest radiographs and imaging results of patients with MERS show features that resemble the findings of organizing pneumonia, different from the lesions in SARS patients, which show fibrocellular intra-alveolar organization with a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia-like pattern. These findings are in line with differences in the induction of cytopathological changes, induction of host gene responses and sensitivity to the antiviral effect of interferons in vitro when comparing both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. The challenge will be to translate these findings into an integrated picture of MERS pathogenesis in humans and to develop intervention strategies that will eventually allow the effective control of this newly emerging infectious disease.

  3. Genotyping coronaviruses associated with feline infectious peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Catherine S.; Porter, Emily; Matthews, David; Kipar, Anja; Tasker, Séverine; Helps, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infections are endemic among cats worldwide. The majority of infections are asymptomatic or result in only mild enteric disease. However, approximately 5 % of cases develop feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a systemic disease that is a frequent cause of death in young cats. In this study, we report the complete coding genome sequences of six FCoVs: three from faecal samples from healthy cats and three from tissue lesion samples from cats with confirmed FIP. The six samples were obtained over a period of 8 weeks at a single-site cat rescue and rehoming centre in the UK. We found amino acid differences located at 44 positions across an alignment of the six virus translatomes and, at 21 of these positions, the differences fully or partially discriminated between the genomes derived from the faecal samples and the genomes derived from the tissue lesion samples. In this study, two amino acid differences fully discriminated the two classes of genomes: these were both located in the S2 domain of the virus surface glycoprotein gene. We also identified deletions in the 3c protein ORF of genomes from two of the FIP samples. Our results support previous studies that implicate S protein mutations in the pathogenesis of FIP. PMID:25667330

  4. Synthesis of poly(A)-containing RNA by isolated spinach chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Bartolf, M; Price, C A

    1979-05-01

    Chloroplasts were isolated from spinach leaves and the intact chloroplasts separated by centrifugation on gradients of silica sol. Chloroplasts prepared in this way were almost completely free of cytoplasmic rRNA. The purified chloroplasts were incubated with 32PO4 in the light. The nucleic acids were then extracted and the RNA was fractionated into poly(A)-lacking RNA and poly(A)-containing RNA (poly(A)-RNA) via oligo(dT)-cellulose chromatography. The poly(A)-RNA had a mean size of approximately 18--20 S as determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The poly(A)-RNA was digested with RNase A and RNase T1, and the resulting poly(A) segments were subjected to electrophoresis on a 10% w/v polyacrylamide gel 98% v/v formamide). Radioactivity was incorporated into both poly(A)-RNA and poly(A)-lacking RNA and into the poly(A) segments themselves. The poly(A) segments were between 10 and 45 residues long and alkaline hydrolysis of poly(A) segments followed by descending paper chromatography showed that they were composed primarily of adenine residues. There was no 32PO4 incorporation into acid-insoluble material in the dark. We conclude that isolated chloroplasts are capable of synthesizing poly(A)-RNA. PMID:435477

  5. Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus Accessory Protein 4a Inhibits PKR-Mediated Antiviral Stress Responses

    PubMed Central

    Rabouw, Huib H.; Canton, Javier; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Kikkert, Marjolein; de Groot, Raoul J.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory infections that can be life-threatening. To establish an infection and spread, MERS-CoV, like most other viruses, must navigate through an intricate network of antiviral host responses. Besides the well-known type I interferon (IFN-α/β) response, the protein kinase R (PKR)-mediated stress response is being recognized as an important innate response pathway. Upon detecting viral dsRNA, PKR phosphorylates eIF2α, leading to the inhibition of cellular and viral translation and the formation of stress granules (SGs), which are increasingly recognized as platforms for antiviral signaling pathways. It is unknown whether cellular infection by MERS-CoV activates the stress response pathway or whether the virus has evolved strategies to suppress this infection-limiting pathway. Here, we show that cellular infection with MERS-CoV does not lead to the formation of SGs. By transiently expressing the MERS-CoV accessory proteins individually, we identified a role of protein 4a (p4a) in preventing activation of the stress response pathway. Expression of MERS-CoV p4a impeded dsRNA-mediated PKR activation, thereby rescuing translation inhibition and preventing SG formation. In contrast, p4a failed to suppress stress response pathway activation that is independent of PKR and dsRNA. MERS-CoV p4a is a dsRNA binding protein. Mutation of the dsRNA binding motif in p4a disrupted its PKR antagonistic activity. By inserting p4a in a picornavirus lacking its natural PKR antagonist, we showed that p4a exerts PKR antagonistic activity also under infection conditions. However, a recombinant MERS-CoV deficient in p4a expression still suppressed SG formation, indicating the expression of at least one other stress response antagonist. This virus also suppressed the dsRNA-independent stress response pathway. Thus, MERS-CoV interferes with antiviral stress responses using at least two different mechanisms, with p4a

  6. Synthesis and applications of selectively {sup 13}C-labeled RNA

    SciTech Connect

    SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Shen, L.X.; Lewis, H.; Cai, Z.; Tinoci, I. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Spectral overlap is a substantial problem in NMR studies of RNA molecules >30 nucleotides. To overcome this difficulty, we synthesized selectively {sup 13}C-labeled RNAs and adapted several isotope-edited two- and three-dimensional NMR experiments originally developed for protein studies. We optimized protocols for synthesis of multi-gram quantities of CTP, UTp, ATP, and GTP using a combination of synthetic organic and enzymatic methods. Uracil is prepared in 40 to 50% yield from {sup 13}C-cyanide in two steps. Using acetyl- tribenzoyl-ribose and standard chemistry uracil is then attached to the sugar (90% yield). The tribenzoyl-uridine intermediate is converted into uridine or cytidine quantitatively, depending on the deblocking protocol. Labeled purines are synthesized using simple pyrimidine precursors and reacting with {sup 13}C-formic acid (80% yield). Purine nucleosides are then synthesized using uridine phosphorylase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase. The nucleosides were converted to NMPs by treatment with POC1{sub 3} in triethylphosphate. We converted NMPs to NTPs by standard enzymatic methods. Selectively labeled RNAs were synthesized by run-off transcription using {sup 13}C-labeled NTPs. Several different strategies help solve over-lap problems in larger RNAs. Isotope-edited two-dimensional NMR experiments such as {omega}1-1/2 X-filtered NOESY simplify NMR spectra by dividing the normal NOESY spectrum into two subspectra-one involving NOEs from protons bound to {sup 12}C and one from protons bound to {sup 13}C. For example, we labeled A and U residues of a 34-nucleotide pseudoknot, and the {sup 12}C subspectrum of the 1/2 X-filtered NOESY contained NOEs only from G and C residues (along with adenine 2H); the {sup 13}C subspectrum contained NOEs only from A and U residues. Each subspectrum has less overlap than the NOESY of an unlabeled sample; the editing strategy allows each resonance to be identified by residue type (A, C, G, or U).

  7. Regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis in fetal rat type II alveolar epithelial cells by microRNA-26a.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Yang; Qiu, Jie; Kan, Qin; Liang, Hong-Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Zhou, Xiao-Guang

    2014-09-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a unique developmentally regulated, phospholipid-rich lipoprotein, is synthesized by the type II epithelial cells (AECII) of the pulmonary alveolus, where it is stored in organelles termed lamellar bodies. The synthesis of pulmonary surfactant is under multifactorial control and is regulated by a number of hormones and factors, including glucocorticoids, prolactin, insulin, growth factors, estrogens, androgens, thyroid hormones, and catecholamines acting through beta-adrenergic receptors, and cAMP. While there is increasing evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of almost every cellular and physiological process, the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of pulmonary surfactant synthesis remains unknown. miRNA-26a (miR-26a) has been predicted to target SMAD1, one of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor downstream signaling proteins that plays a key role in differentiation of lung epithelial cells during lung development. In this study, we explored the regulation role of miR-26a in the synthesis of pulmonary surfactant. An adenoviral miR-26a overexpression vector was constructed and introduced into primary cultured fetal AECII. GFP fluorescence was observed to determinate the transfection efficiency and miR-26a levels were measured by RT-PCR. MTT was performed to analyze AECII viability. qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein level of SMAD1 and surfactant-associated proteins. The results showed that miR-26a in fetal AECII was overexpressed after the transfection, and that the overexpression of miR-26a inhibited pulmonary surfactant synthesis in AECII. There was no significant change in cell proliferation. Our results further showed that overexpression of miR-26a reduced the SMAD1 expression both in mRNA and protein level in fetal AECII. These findings indicate that miR-26a regulates surfactant synthesis in fetal AECII through SMAD1.

  8. Molecular characterization of RNA and protein synthesis during a one-step growth curve of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in ovine (SFT-R) cells.

    PubMed

    Mishra, N; Mathapati, B S; Rajukumar, K; Nema, R K; Behera, S P; Dubey, S C

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) multiplication and synthesis of BVDV specific RNA and proteins in ovine cells (SFT-R) during a one-step growth curve. The virus titre and RNA level were determined by focus-forming assay and real time RT-PCR. The RNA synthesis was detected by Northern blot while synthesis of E2 and NS3 proteins was assayed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that synthesis of viral RNA is initiated at 4h, NS3 and E2 proteins are detectable at 6-7h and the replication cycle is complete at 10-12h. Additionally, we provide evidence that NS2-3 protein was cleaved in ovine cells early during infection and in proliferated leukocytes of acutely infected sheep. This study showed that synthesis of BVDV RNA and proteins in ovine cells occurs at similar times as found in bovine cells.

  9. Genes coding for metal induced synthesis of RNA sequences are differentially amplified and regulated in mammalian cells. [CHO cells

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.; Hildebrand, C.E.; Griffith, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three variant cell lines were isolated which survive cadmium (Cd/sup + +/) concentrations 10 to 200 fold greater than that which kills parental Chinese hamster cells (line CHO). Cadmium treatment of the variants induces the synthesis of a highly abundant poly A/sup +/ RNA class which directs the synthesis of metallothionein in a cell-free translation system. Hybridization of cDNA complementary to these inducible, highly abundant RNA sequences (cDNA/sub a/) with RNA from variant cells showed that: (1) the induced abundant class has a total complexity of approx. 2000 NT; (2) CD/sup + +/ induction increases the cellular concentration of these sequences approx. 2000 fold above preinduction levels in each of the variants; and (3) most, if not all, of these sequences are expressed constitutively in uninduced cells. Cadmium induction of sensitive CHO cells increases the cellular concentration of only a subset of the sequences inducible in resistant cells and then only to a level 100 fold higher than in uninduced cells. Only approx. 50% of the sequences are constitutively expressed at measurable levels in uninduced CHO cells. Hybridization of cDNA/sub a/ with genomic DNA from the three resistant variants showed that genes coding for the induction of specific RNA sequences are amplified approx. 10 fold in Cd/sup r/20F4 cells, approx. 4 fold in Cd/sup r/30F9 cells, and unamplified in Cd/sup r/2C10 cells relative to CHO. While sensitive CHO cells can tolerate only 0.2 ..mu..M Cd/sup + +/, Cd/sup r/30F9, Cd/sup r/20F4, and Cd/sup r/2C10 cells are resistant to 40 ..mu..M, 26 ..mu..M, and 2 ..mu..M Cd/sup + +/ respectively. Thus, gene amplification alone cannot be responsible for the observed resistance of the variant cell lines.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of modified nucleotides in the 970 hairpin loop of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Abeydeera, N. Dinuka

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of the 6-O-DPC-2-N-methylguanosine (m2G) nucleoside and the corresponding 5′-O-DMT-2′-O-TOM-protected 6-O-DPC-2-N-methylguanosine phosphoramidite is reported [DPC, diphenyl carbamoyl; DMT, 4, 4′-dimethoxytrityl; TOM, [(triisopropylsilyl)oxy]methyl]. The availability of the phosphoramidite allows for syntheses of hairpin RNAs with site-selective incorporation of 2-N-methylguanosine modification. Four 18-nt hairpin RNA analogues representing the 970-loop region (helix 31 or h31; U960–A975) of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA were synthesized with and without modifications in the loop region. Subsequently, stabilities and conformations of the singly and doubly modified RNAs were examined and compared with the corresponding unmodified RNA. Thermodynamic parameters and circular dichroism spectra are presented for the four helix 31 RNA analogues. Surprisingly, methylations in the loop region of helix 31 slightly destabilize the hairpin, which may have subtle effects on ribosome function. The hairpin construct is suitable for future ligand-binding experiments. PMID:19628400

  11. The tRNA methyltransferase Dnmt2 is required for accurate polypeptide synthesis during haematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Tuorto, Francesca; Herbst, Friederike; Alerasool, Nader; Bender, Sebastian; Popp, Oliver; Federico, Giuseppina; Reitter, Sonja; Liebers, Reinhard; Stoecklin, Georg; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; Dittmar, Gunnar; Glimm, Hanno; Lyko, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Dnmt2 enzyme utilizes the catalytic mechanism of eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases to methylate several tRNAs at cytosine 38. Dnmt2 mutant mice, flies, and plants were reported to be viable and fertile, and the biological function of Dnmt2 has remained elusive. Here, we show that endochondral ossification is delayed in newborn Dnmt2-deficient mice, which is accompanied by a reduction of the haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell population and a cell-autonomous defect in their differentiation. RNA bisulfite sequencing revealed that Dnmt2 methylates C38 of tRNA AspGTC, GlyGCC, and ValAAC, thus preventing tRNA fragmentation. Proteomic analyses from primary bone marrow cells uncovered systematic differences in protein expression that are due to specific codon mistranslation by tRNAs lacking Dnmt2-dependent methylation. Our observations demonstrate that Dnmt2 plays an important role in haematopoiesis and define a novel function of C38 tRNA methylation in the discrimination of near-cognate codons, thereby ensuring accurate polypeptide synthesis. PMID:26271101

  12. A comparison of RNA with DNA in template-directed synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zielinski, M.; Kozlov, I. A.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Nonenzymatic template-directed copying of RNA sequences rich in cytidylic acid using nucleoside 5'-(2-methylimidazol-1-yl phosphates) as substrates is substantially more efficient than the copying of corresponding DNA sequences. However, many sequences cannot be copied, and the prospect of replication in this system is remote, even for RNA. Surprisingly, wobble-pairing leads to much more efficient incorporation of G opposite U on RNA templates than of G opposite T on DNA templates.

  13. Interactome Analysis of the Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus RNA Polymerase Complex Identifies Protein Chaperones as Important Cofactors That Promote L-Protein Stability and RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Munday, Diane C.; Wu, Weining; Smith, Nikki; Fix, Jenna; Noton, Sarah Louise; Galloux, Marie; Touzelet, Olivier; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Dawson, Jenna M.; Aljabr, Waleed; Easton, Andrew J.; Rameix-Welti, Marie-Anne; de Oliveira, Andressa Peres; Simabuco, Fernando M.; Ventura, Armando M.; Hughes, David J.; Barr, John N.; Fearns, Rachel; Digard, Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) core viral RNA polymerase comprises the large polymerase protein (L) and its cofactor, the phosphoprotein (P), which associate with the viral ribonucleoprotein complex to replicate the genome and, together with the M2-1 protein, transcribe viral mRNAs. While cellular proteins have long been proposed to be involved in the synthesis of HRSV RNA by associating with the polymerase complex, their characterization has been hindered by the difficulty of purifying the viral polymerase from mammalian cell culture. In this study, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged L- and P-protein expression was coupled with high-affinity anti-GFP antibody-based immunoprecipitation and quantitative proteomics to identify cellular proteins that interacted with either the L- or the P-proteins when expressed as part of a biologically active viral RNP. Several core groups of cellular proteins were identified that interacted with each viral protein including, in both cases, protein chaperones. Ablation of chaperone activity by using small-molecule inhibitors confirmed previously reported studies which suggested that this class of proteins acted as positive viral factors. Inhibition of HSP90 chaperone function in the current study showed that HSP90 is critical for L-protein function and stability, whether in the presence or absence of the P-protein. Inhibition studies suggested that HSP70 also disrupts virus biology and might help the polymerase remodel the nucleocapsid to allow RNA synthesis to occur efficiently. This indicated a proviral role for protein chaperones in HRSV replication and demonstrates that the function of cellular proteins can be targeted as potential therapeutics to disrupt virus replication. IMPORTANCE Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) represents a major health care and economic burden, being the main cause of severe respiratory infections in infants worldwide. No vaccine or effective therapy is

  14. The murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 from persistently infected murine cells exhibits an extended host range.

    PubMed Central

    Schickli, J H; Zelus, B D; Wentworth, D E; Sawicki, S G; Holmes, K V

    1997-01-01

    In murine 17 Cl 1 cells persistently infected with murine coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (MHV-A59), expression of the virus receptor glycoprotein MHVR was markedly reduced (S. G. Sawicki, J. H. Lu, and K. V. Holmes, J. Virol. 69:5535-5543, 1995). Virus isolated from passage 600 of the persistently infected cells made smaller plaques on 17 Cl 1 cells than did MHV-A59. Unlike the parental MHV-A59, this variant virus also infected the BHK-21 (BHK) line of hamster cells. Virus plaque purified on BHK cells (MHV/BHK) grew more slowly in murine cells than did MHV-A59, and the rate of viral RNA synthesis was lower and the development of the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein was slower than those of MHV-A59. MHV/BHK was 100-fold more resistant to neutralization with the purified soluble recombinant MHV receptor glycoprotein (sMHVR) than was MHV-A59. Pretreatment of 17 Cl 1 cells with anti-MHVR monoclonal antibody CC1 protected the cells from infection with MHV-A59 but only partially protected them from infection with MHV/BHK. Thus, although MHV/BHK could still utilize MHVR as a receptor, its interactions with the receptor were significantly different from those of MHV-A59. To determine whether a hemagglutinin esterase (HE) glycoprotein that could bind the virions to 9-O-acetylated neuraminic acid moieties on the cell surface was expressed by MHV/BHK, an in situ esterase assay was used. No expression of HE activity was detected in 17 Cl 1 cells infected with MHV/BHK, suggesting that this virus, like MHV-A59, bound to cell membranes via its S glycoprotein. MHV/BHK was able to infect cell lines from many mammalian species, including murine (17 Cl 1), hamster (BHK), feline (Fcwf), bovine (MDBK), rat (RIE), monkey (Vero), and human (L132 and HeLa) cell lines. MHV/BHK could not infect dog kidney (MDCK I) or swine testis (ST) cell lines. Thus, in persistently infected murine cell lines that express very low levels of virus receptor MHVR and which also have and may

  15. Increase in cell viability by polyamines through stimulation of the synthesis of ppGpp regulatory protein and ω protein of RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Terui, Yusuke; Akiyama, Mariko; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Kaneyoshi; Ishihama, Akira; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2012-02-01

    It is known that polyamines increase cell growth through stimulation of the synthesis of several kinds of proteins encoded by the so-called "polyamine modulon". We recently reported that polyamines also increase cell viability at the stationary phase of cell growth through stimulation of the synthesis of ribosome modulation factor, a component of the polyamine modulon. Accordingly, we looked for other proteins involved in cell viability whose synthesis is stimulated by polyamines. It was found that the synthesis of ppGpp regulatory protein (SpoT) and ω protein of RNA polymerase (RpoZ) was stimulated by polyamines at the level of translation. Stimulation of the synthesis of SpoT and RpoZ by polyamines was due to an inefficient initiation codon UUG in spoT mRNA and an unusual location of a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence in rpoZ mRNA. Accordingly, the spoT and rpoZ genes are components of the polyamine modulon involved in cell viability. Reduced cell viability caused by polyamine deficiency was prevented by modified spoT and rpoZ genes whose synthesis was not influenced by polyamines. Under these conditions, the level of ppGpp increased in parallel with increase of SpoT protein. The results indicate that polyamine stimulation of synthesis of SpoT and RpoZ plays important roles for cell viability through stimulation of ppGpp synthesis by SpoT and modulation of RNA synthesis by ppGpp-RpoZ complex.

  16. Efficacy of various disinfectants against SARS coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Rabenau, H F; Kampf, G; Cinatl, J; Doerr, H W

    2005-10-01

    The recent severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in Asia and Northern America led to broad use of various types of disinfectant in order to control the public spread of the highly contagious virus. However, only limited data were available to demonstrate their efficacy against SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). We therefore investigated eight disinfectants for their activity against SARS-CoV according to prEN 14476. Four hand rubs were tested at 30s (Sterillium, based on 45% iso-propanol, 30% n-propanol and 0.2% mecetronium etilsulphate; Sterillium Rub, based on 80% ethanol; Sterillium Gel, based on 85% ethanol; Sterillium Virugard, based on 95% ethanol). Three surface disinfectants were investigated at 0.5% for 30 min and 60 min (Mikrobac forte, based on benzalkonium chloride and laurylamine; Kohrsolin FF, based on benzalkonium chloride, glutaraldehyde and didecyldimonium chloride; Dismozon pur, based on magnesium monoperphthalate), and one instrument disinfectant was investigated at 4% for 15 min, 3% for 30 min and 2% for 60 min [Korsolex basic, based on glutaraldehyde and (ethylenedioxy)dimethanol]. Three types of organic load were used: 0.3% albumin, 10% fetal calf serum, and 0.3% albumin with 0.3% sheep erythrocytes. Virus titres were determined by a quantitative test (endpoint titration) in 96-well microtitre plates. With all tested preparations, SARS-CoV was inactivated to below the limit of detection (reduction factor mostly > or =4), regardless of the type of organic load. In summary, SARS-CoV can be inactivated quite easily with many commonly used disinfectants.

  17. Identification of functionally important negatively charged residues in the carboxy end of mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 nucleocapsid protein.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandhya; Bednar, Valerie; Blount, Andrew; Hogue, Brenda G

    2006-05-01

    The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is a multifunctional viral gene product that encapsidates the RNA genome and also plays some as yet not fully defined role in viral RNA replication and/or transcription. A number of conserved negatively charged amino acids are located within domain III in the carboxy end of all coronavirus N proteins. Previous studies suggested that the negatively charged residues are involved in virus assembly by mediating interaction between the membrane (M) protein carboxy tail and nucleocapsids. To determine the importance of these negatively charged residues, a series of alanine and other charged-residue substitutions were introduced in place of those in the N gene within a mouse hepatitis coronavirus A59 infectious clone. Aspartic acid residues 440 and 441 were identified as functionally important. Viruses could not be isolated when both residues were replaced by positively charged amino acids. When either amino acid was replaced by a positively charged residue or both were changed to alanine, viruses were recovered that contained second-site changes within N, but not in the M or envelope protein. The compensatory role of the new changes was confirmed by the construction of new viruses. A few viruses were recovered that retained the D441-to-arginine change and no compensatory changes. These viruses exhibited a small-plaque phenotype and produced significantly less virus. Overall, results from our analysis of a large panel of plaque-purified recovered viruses indicate that the negatively charged residues at positions 440 and 441 are key residues that appear to be involved in virus assembly. PMID:16611893

  18. Detection of four human coronaviruses in respiratory infections in children: a one-year study in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Samuel R; Robinson, Christine C; Holmes, Kathryn V

    2009-09-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of death in children worldwide. Studies on the epidemiology and clinical associations of the four human non-SARS human coronaviruses (HCoVs) using sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of HCoV infections worldwide. Pediatric respiratory specimens (1,683) submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory over a 1-year period (December 2004-November 2005) that were negative for seven respiratory viruses by conventional methods were tested for RNA of four HCoVs using sensitive RT-PCR assays. Coronavirus RNAs were detected in 84 (5.0%) specimens: HCoV-NL63 in 37 specimens, HCoV-OC43 in 34, HCoV-229E in 11, and HCoV-HKU1 in 2. The majority of HCoV infections occurred during winter months, and over 62% were in previously healthy children. Twenty-six (41%) coronavirus positive patients had evidence of a lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), 17 (26%) presented with vomiting and/or diarrhea, and 5 (8%) presented with meningoencephalitis or seizures. Respiratory specimens from one immunocompromised patient were persistently positive for HCoV-229E RNA for 3 months. HCoV-NL63-positive patients were nearly twice as likely to be hospitalized (P = 0.02) and to have a LRTI (P = 0.04) than HCoV-OC43-positive patients. HCoVs are associated with a small, but significant number (at least 2.4% of total samples submitted), of both upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses in children in Colorado. Our data raise the possibility that HCoV may play a role in gastrointestinal and CNS disease. Additional studies are needed to investigate the potential roles of HCoVs in these diseases.

  19. Coronavirus infection, ER stress, apoptosis and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fung, To S.; Liu, Ding X.

    2014-01-01

    The replication of coronavirus, a family of important animal and human pathogens, is closely associated with the cellular membrane compartments, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Coronavirus infection of cultured cells was previously shown to cause ER stress and induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), a process that aims to restore the ER homeostasis by global translation shutdown and increasing the ER folding capacity. However, under prolonged ER stress, UPR can also induce apoptotic cell death. Accumulating evidence from recent studies has shown that induction of ER stress and UPR may constitute a major aspect of coronavirus–host interaction. Activation of the three branches of UPR modulates a wide variety of signaling pathways, such as mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immune response. ER stress and UPR activation may therefore contribute significantly to the viral replication and pathogenesis during coronavirus infection. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on coronavirus-induced ER stress and UPR activation, with emphasis on their cross-talking to apoptotic signaling. PMID:24987391

  20. Coinfection of pigs with Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus and Bordetella bronchisphica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coinfection with two or more pathogens is a common occurrence in respiratory diseases of most species. The manner in which multiple pathogens interact is not always straightforward, however. Bordetella bronchiseptica and porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) are respiratory pathogens of pigs whos...

  1. Persistence of Antibodies against Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Iblan, Ibrahim; Rha, Brian; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Haddadin, Aktham; Al Nsour, Mohannad; Alsanouri, Tarek; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Harcourt, Jennifer; Miao, Congrong; Tamin, Azaibi; Gerber, Susan I.; Haynes, Lia M.; Al Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa

    2016-01-01

    To determine how long antibodies against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus persist, we measured long-term antibody responses among persons serologically positive or indeterminate after a 2012 outbreak in Jordan. Antibodies, including neutralizing antibodies, were detectable in 6 (86%) of 7 persons for at least 34 months after the outbreak. PMID:27332149

  2. Engineering Coronaviruses to Evaluate Emergence and Pathogenic Potential.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-06-01

    A recent study provides a platform for generating infectious coronavirus genomes using sequence data, examining their capabilities of replicating in human cells and causing diseases in animal models, and evaluating therapeutics and vaccines. Similar approaches could be used to assess the potential of human emergence and pathogenicity for other viruses. PMID:27095615

  3. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection is inhibited by griffithsin.

    PubMed

    Millet, Jean K; Séron, Karin; Labitt, Rachael N; Danneels, Adeline; Palmer, Kenneth E; Whittaker, Gary R; Dubuisson, Jean; Belouzard, Sandrine

    2016-09-01

    Highly pathogenic human coronaviruses associated with a severe respiratory syndrome, including Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), have recently emerged. The MERS-CoV epidemic started in 2012 and is still ongoing, with a mortality rate of approximately 35%. No vaccine is available against MERS-CoV and therapeutic options for MERS-CoV infections are limited to palliative and supportive care. A search for specific antiviral treatments is urgently needed. Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses, with the spike proteins present on their surface responsible for virus entry into the target cell. Lectins are attractive anti-coronavirus candidates because of the highly glycosylated nature of the spike protein. We tested the antiviral effect of griffithsin (GRFT), a lectin isolated from the red marine alga Griffithsia sp. against MERS-CoV infection. Our results demonstrate that while displaying no significant cytotoxicity, griffithsin is a potent inhibitor of MERS-CoV infection. Griffithsin also inhibits entry into host cells of particles pseudotyped with the MERS-CoV spike protein, suggesting that griffithsin inhibits spike protein function during entry. Spike proteins have a dual function during entry, they mediate binding to the host cell surface and also the fusion of the viral envelope with host cell membrane. Time course experiments show that griffithsin inhibits MERS-CoV infection at the binding step. In conclusion, we identify griffithsin as a potent inhibitor of MERS-CoV infection at the entry step. PMID:27424494

  4. SncRNA715 Inhibits Schwann Cell Myelin Basic Protein Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christina; Hochhaus, Nina M.; Fontana, Xavier; Luhmann, Heiko J.; White, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Myelin basic proteins (MBP) are major constituents of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS Mbp translation occurs locally at the axon-glial contact site in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Recently we identified the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as a key inhibitor of Mbp translation during transport in oligodendrocytes. Mbp mRNA localization in Schwann cells has been observed, but has not been investigated in much detail. Here we could confirm translational repression of Mbp mRNA in Schwann cells. We show that sncRNA715 is expressed and its levels correlate inversely with MBP in cultured Schwann cells and in the sciatic nerve in vivo. Furthermore we could reduce MBP protein levels in cultured Schwann cells by increasing the levels of the inhibitory sncRNA715. Our findings suggest similarities in sncRNA715-mediated translational repression of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. PMID:26317513

  5. Effect of epinephrine and serotonin on hepatic poly(A)/sup +/ RNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.K.; Bhadra, R.; Datta, A.G.

    1985-06-17

    In vivo administration of epinephrine or serotonin has been shown to stimulate the incorporation of /sup 14/C-orotic acid into Poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. However, only epinephrine and not serotonin could stimulate DNA dependent RNA polymerase activity of isolated hepatic nuclei in in vitro experiments. 21 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  6. SncRNA715 Inhibits Schwann Cell Myelin Basic Protein Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christina; Hochhaus, Nina M; Fontana, Xavier; Luhmann, Heiko J; White, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Myelin basic proteins (MBP) are major constituents of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS Mbp translation occurs locally at the axon-glial contact site in a neuronal activity-dependent manner. Recently we identified the small non-coding RNA 715 (sncRNA715) as a key inhibitor of Mbp translation during transport in oligodendrocytes. Mbp mRNA localization in Schwann cells has been observed, but has not been investigated in much detail. Here we could confirm translational repression of Mbp mRNA in Schwann cells. We show that sncRNA715 is expressed and its levels correlate inversely with MBP in cultured Schwann cells and in the sciatic nerve in vivo. Furthermore we could reduce MBP protein levels in cultured Schwann cells by increasing the levels of the inhibitory sncRNA715. Our findings suggest similarities in sncRNA715-mediated translational repression of Mbp mRNA in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells.

  7. Design and synthesis of caged fluorescent nucleotides and application to live-cell RNA imaging.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Shuji; Kubota, Takeshi; Wang, Dan Ohtan; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Tadashi; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2011-12-16

    A binary photocontrolled nucleic acid probe that contains a nucleotide modified with one photolabile nitrobenzyl unit and two hybridization-sensitive thiazole orange units has been designed for area-specific fluorescence imaging of RNA in a cell. The synthesized probe emitted very weak fluorescence regardless of the presence of the complementary RNA, whereas it showed hybridization-sensitive fluorescence emission at 532 nm after photoirradiation at 360 or 405 nm for uncaging. Fluorescence suppression of the caged probe was attributed to a decrease in the duplex-formation ability. Caged fluorescent nucleotides with other emission wavelengths (622 and 724 nm) were also synthesized in this study; they were uncaged by 360 nm irradiation, and emitted fluorescence in the presence of the complementary RNA. Such probes were applied to area-specific RNA imaging in a cell. Only probes in the defined irradiation area were activated by uncaging irradiation, and subnuclear mRNA diffusion in a living cell was monitored.

  8. In vitro inhibition of feline coronavirus replication by small interfering RNAs.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Phillip; Sheehy, Paul A; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2011-06-01

    Infection with virulent biotypes of feline coronavirus (FCoV) can result in the development of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a typically fatal immune mediated disease for which there is currently no effective antiviral treatment. In this study we demonstrate the ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit the replication of virulent FCoV strain FIPV WSU 79-1146 in an immortalised feline cell line. A panel of eight synthetic siRNAs targeting four different regions of the FCoV genome were tested for antiviral effects. Efficacy was determined by qRT-PCR of intracellular viral genomic and messenger RNA, TCID50 infectivity assay of extracellular virus, and direct IFA for viral protein expression. All siRNAs demonstrated an inhibitory effect on viral replication in vitro. The two most effective siRNAs, targeting the untranslated 5' leader sequence (L2) and the nucleocapsid gene (N1), resulted in a >95% reduction in extracellular viral titre. Further characterisation of these two siRNAs demonstrated their efficacy when used at low concentrations and in cells challenged with high viral loads. Taken together these findings provide important information for the potential therapeutic application of RNAi in treating FIP.

  9. Predicted class-I aminoacyl tRNA synthetase-like proteins in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies point to a great diversity of non-ribosomal peptide synthesis systems with major roles in amino acid and co-factor biosynthesis, secondary metabolism, and post-translational modifications of proteins by peptide tags. The least studied of these systems are those utilizing tRNAs or aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AAtRS) in non-ribosomal peptide ligation. Results Here we describe novel examples of AAtRS related proteins that are likely to be involved in the synthesis of widely distributed peptide-derived metabolites. Using sensitive sequence profile methods we show that the cyclodipeptide synthases (CDPSs) are members of the HUP class of Rossmannoid domains and are likely to be highly derived versions of the class-I AAtRS catalytic domains. We also identify the first eukaryotic CDPSs in fungi and in animals; they might be involved in immune response in the latter organisms. We also identify a paralogous version of the methionyl-tRNA synthetase, which is widespread in bacteria, and present evidence using contextual information that it might function independently of protein synthesis as a peptide ligase in the formation of a peptide- derived secondary metabolite. This metabolite is likely to be heavily modified through multiple reactions catalyzed by a metal-binding cupin domain and a lysine N6 monooxygenase that are strictly associated with this paralogous methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MtRS). We further identify an analogous system wherein the MtRS has been replaced by more typical peptide ligases with the ATP-grasp or modular condensation-domains. Conclusions The prevalence of these predicted biosynthetic pathways in phylogenetically distant, pathogenic or symbiotic bacteria suggests that metabolites synthesized by them might participate in interactions with the host. More generally, these findings point to a complete spectrum of recruitment of AAtRS to various non-ribosomal biosynthetic pathways, ranging from the conventional AAtRS, through

  10. Cell-free synthesis of mouse mammary tumor virus Pr77 from virion and intracellular mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, H H; Dickson, C

    1979-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MuMTV) was purified from two cell lines (GR and Mm5MT/c1), and the genomic RNA was isolated and translated in vitro in cell-free systems derived from mouse L cells and rabbit reticulocytes. The major translation product in both systems was a protein with the molecular weight 77,000. Several other products were also detected, among them a 110,000-dalton and in minor amounts a 160,000-dalton protein. All three polypeptides were specifically immunoprecipitated by antiserum raised against the major core protein of MuMTV (p27), but they were not precipitated by antiserum against the virion glycoprotein gp52. Analysis of the in vitro products by tryptic peptide mapping established their relationship to the virion non-glycosylated structural proteins. The 77,000-dalton polypeptide was found to be similar, if not identical, to an analogous precursor isolated from MuMTV-producing cells. Peptide mapping of the 110,000-dalton protein shows that it contains all of the methionine-labeled peptides found in the 77,000-dalton protein plus some additional peptides. We conclude that the products synthesized in vitro from the genomic MuMTV RNA are related to the non-glycosylated virion structural proteins. Polyadenylic acid-containing RNA from MuMTV-producing cells also directed the synthesis of the 77,000-dalton polypeptide in the L-cell system. If this RNA preparation was first fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation the 77,000-dalton protein appeared to be synthesized from mRNA with a sedimentation coefficient between 25 and 35S. Images PMID:221668

  11. A site on the influenza A virus NS1 protein mediates both inhibition of PKR activation and temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji-Young; Li, Shoudong; Sen, Ganes C; Krug, Robert M

    2007-06-20

    It is not known how influenza A viruses, important human pathogens, counter PKR activation, a crucial host antiviral response. Here we elucidate this mechanism. We show that the direct binding of PKR to the NS1 protein in vitro that results in inhibition of PKR activation requires the NS1 123-127 amino acid sequence. To establish whether such direct binding of PKR to the NS1 protein is responsible for inhibiting PKR activation in infected cells, we generated recombinant influenza A/Udorn/72 viruses expressing NS1 proteins in which amino acids 123/124 or 126/127 are changed to alanines. In cells infected with these mutant viruses, PKR is activated, eIF-2alpha is phosphorylated and viral protein synthesis is inhibited, indicating that direct binding of PKR to the 123-127 sequence of the NS1 protein is necessary and sufficient to block PKR activation in influenza A virus-infected cells. Unexpectedly, the 123/124 mutant virus is not attenuated because reduced viral protein synthesis is offset by enhanced viral RNA synthesis at very early times of infection. These early viral RNAs include those synthesized predominantly at later times during wild-type virus infection, demonstrating that wild-type temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis is absent in 123/124 virus-infected cells. Enhanced early viral RNA synthesis after 123/124 virus infection also occurs in mouse PKR-/- cells, demonstrating that PKR activation and deregulation of the time course of viral RNA synthesis are not coupled. These results indicate that the 123/124 site of the NS1A protein most likely functionally interacts with the viral polymerase to mediate temporal regulation of viral RNA synthesis. This interaction would occur in the nucleus, whereas PKR would bind to NS1A proteins in the cytoplasm prior to their import into the nucleus.

  12. Mutation of genes controlling mRNA metabolism and protein synthesis predisposes to neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Francesca; Anderson, Jihan; McCaig, Colin; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Müller, Berndt

    2015-12-01

    Brain development is a tightly controlled process that depends upon differentiation and function of neurons to allow for the formation of functional neural networks. Mutation of genes encoding structural proteins is well recognized as causal for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Recent studies have shown that aberrant gene expression can also lead to disorders of neural development. Here we summarize recent evidence implicating in the aetiology of NDDs mutation of factors acting at the level of mRNA splicing, mRNA nuclear export, translation and mRNA degradation. This highlights the importance of these fundamental processes for human health and affords new strategies and targets for therapeutic intervention.

  13. [The effects of actinomycin D on the brain RNA synthesis and on the passive avoidance latency in the goldfish (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ohi, S

    1975-10-01

    (a) Intracranial injection of actinomycin D (2 mug/10 mul/fish) inhibited about 70% of the goldfish brain RNA synthesis from 3 hours to 4 days later. (b) The goldfish injected actinomycin D intracranially was given the passive avoidance training. Intraday-acquisition (short-term memory) was not blocked but interday-retention (long-term memory) was markedly blocked. It might suggest that the brain RNA synthesis is not related to short-term memory but is necessary for long-term memory.

  14. A Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus isolated from wild peafowls is pathogenic to chickens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Zhang, Gui-Hong; Jiang, Jing-Wei; Fu, Jia-Dong; Ren, Tao; Cao, Wei-Sheng; Xin, Chao-An; Liao, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2007-12-01

    Coronavirus infection was investigated in apparently healthy wild peafowls in Guangdong province of China in 2003, while severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) broke out there. No SARS-like coronavirus had been isolated but a novel avian coronavirus strain, Peafowl/GD/KQ6/2003 (KQ6), was identified. Sequence analysis revealed that KQ6 was an avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a member of coronavirus in group 3. The genome sequence of KQ6 had extremely high degree of identity with that of a Massachusetts prototype IBV M41. KQ6 was pathogenic to chickens but non-pathogenic to peafowls under experimental conditions. Seventeen out of fifty-four (31.48%) peafowl serum samples were tested positive for specific antibodies against IBV. Present results indicate that the peafowl isolate KQ6 is a Massachusetts prototype like coronavirus strain which undergoes few genetic changes and peafowl might have acted as a natural reservoir of IBV for very long time.

  15. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated. PMID:24283132

  16. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens.

    PubMed

    Awe, Olusegun O; Ali, Ahmed; Elaish, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Murgia, Maria; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Saif, Yehia M; Lee, Chang-Won

    2013-09-01

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates the possible involvement of TCoV in egg-production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV pathogenesis in turkey hens and its effect on reproductive performance. In the present study, we assessed the possible effect of TCoV on the reproductive performance of experimentally infected turkey hens. In two separate trials, 29- to 30-wk-old turkey hens in peak egg production were either mock-infected or inoculated orally with TCoV (Indiana strain). Cloacal swabs and intestinal and reproductive tissues were collected and standard reverse-transcription PCR was conducted to detect TCoV RNA. In the cloacal swabs, TCoV was detected consistently at 3, 5, 7, and 12 days postinoculation (DPI) with higher rates of detection after 5 DPI (> 90%). All intestinal samples were also positive for TCoV at 7 DPI, and microscopic lesions consisting of severe enteritis with villous atrophy were observed in the duodenum and jejunum of TCoV-infected hens. In one of the trials TCoV was detected from the oviduct of two birds at 7 DPI; however, no or mild microscopic lesions were present. In both experimental trials an average of 28%-29% drop in egg production was observed in TCoV-infected turkey hens between 4 and 7 DPI. In a separate trial we also confirmed that TCoV can efficiently transmit from infected to contact control hens. Our results show that TCoV infection can affect the reproductive performance in turkey hens, causing a transient drop in egg production. This drop in egg production most likely occurred as consequence of the severe enteritis produced by the TCoV. However, the potential replication of TCoV in the oviduct and its effect on pathogenesis should be considered and further investigated.

  17. Axonal mRNA localization and local protein synthesis in nervous system assembly, maintenance and repair

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hosung; Yoon, Byung C.; Holt, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    mRNAs can be targeted to specific neuronal subcellular domains, which enables rapid changes in the local proteome through local translation. This mRNA-based mechanism links extrinsic signals to spatially restricted cellular responses and can mediate stimulus-driven adaptive responses such as dendritic plasticity. Local mRNA translation also occurs in growing axons where it can mediate directional responses to guidance signals. Recent profiling studies have revealed that both growing and mature axons possess surprisingly complex and dynamic transcriptomes, thereby suggesting that axonal mRNA localization is highly regulated and has a role in a broad range of processes, a view that is increasingly being supported by new experimental evidence. Here, we review current knowledge on the roles and regulatory mechanisms of axonal mRNA translation and discuss emerging links to axon guidance, survival, regeneration and neurological disorders. PMID:22498899

  18. Wheat DNA Primase (RNA Primer Synthesis in Vitro, Structural Studies by Photochemical Cross-Linking, and Modulation of Primase Activity by DNA Polymerases).

    PubMed Central

    Laquel, P.; Litvak, S.; Castroviejo, M.

    1994-01-01

    DNA primase synthesizes short RNA primers used by DNA polymerases to initiate DNA synthesis. Two proteins of approximately 60 and 50 kD were recognized by specific antibodies raised against yeast primase subunits, suggesting a high degree of analogy between wheat and yeast primase subunits. Gel-filtration chromatography of wheat primase showed two active forms of 60 and 110 to 120 kD. Ultraviolet-induced cross-linking with radioactive oligothymidilate revealed a highly labeled protein of 60 kD. After limited trypsin digestion of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) primase, a major band of 48 kD and two minor bands of 38 and 17 kD were observed. In the absence of DNA polymerases, the purified primase synthesizes long RNA products. The size of the RNA product synthesized by wheat primase is considerably reduced by the presence of DNA polymerases, suggesting a modulatory effect of the association between these two enzymes. Lowering the primase concentration in the assay also favored short RNA primer synthesis. Several properties of the wheat DNA primase using oligoadenylate [oligo(rA)]-primed or unprimed polythymidilate templates were studied. The ability of wheat primase, without DNA polymerases, to elongate an oligo(rA) primer to long RNA products depends on the primer size, temperature, and the divalent cation concentration. Thus, Mn2+ ions led to long RNA products in a very wide range of concentrations, whereas with Mg2+ long products were observed around 15 mM. We studied the ability of purified wheat DNA polymerases to initiate DNA synthesis from an RNA primer: wheat DNA polymerase A showed the highest activity, followed by DNA polymerases B and CII, whereas DNA polymerase CI was unable to initiate DNA synthesis from an RNA primer. Results are discussed in terms of understanding the role of these polymerases in DNA replication in plants. PMID:12232187

  19. Stochastic theory of protein synthesis and polysome: ribosome profile on a single mRNA transcript.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajeet K; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2011-11-21

    The process of polymerizing a protein by a ribosome, using a messenger RNA (mRNA) as the corresponding template, is called translation. Ribosome may be regarded as a molecular motor for which the mRNA template serves also as the track. Often several ribosomes may translate the same (mRNA) simultaneously. The ribosomes bound simultaneously to a single mRNA transcript are the members of a polyribosome (or, simply, polysome). Experimentally measured polysome profile gives the distribution of polysome sizes. Recently a breakthrough in determining the instantaneous positions of the ribosomes on a given mRNA track has been achieved and the technique is called ribosome profiling (Ingolia et al., 2009; Guo et al., 2010). Motivated by the success of these techniques, we have studied the spatio-temporal organization of ribosomes by extending a theoretical model that we have reported elsewhere (Sharma and Chowdhury, 2011). This extended version of our model incorporates not only (i) mechano-chemical cycle of individual ribomes, and (ii) their steric interactions, but also (iii) the effects of (a) kinetic proofreading, (b) translational infidelity, (c) ribosome recycling, and (d) sequence inhomogeneities. The theoretical framework developed here will serve in guiding further experiments and in analyzing the data to gain deep insight into various kinetic processes involved in translation.

  20. Double-Stranded RNA as an Inhibitor of Protein Synthesis and as a Substrate for a Nuclease in Extracts of Krebs II Ascites Cells

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Hugh D.; Mathews, Michael B.

    1973-01-01

    Concentrations of double-stranded RNA above about 0.1 μg/ml inhibit translation of encephalo-myocarditis viral RNA and mouse globin messenger RNA in extracts of Krebs II ascites cells. Protein synthesis initially proceeds at the control rate, then abruptly shuts off in a manner similar to that observed in reticulocyte lysates [Hunt, T. & Ehrenfeld, E. (1971) Nature New Biol. 230, 91-94]. Substantially higher concentrations of double-stranded RNA are required to give this effect in ascites extracts. Subcellular fractions of Krebs II ascites cells contain a nucleolytic activity capable of digesting several natural and synthetic double-stranded RNAs. This nuclease is most active under conditions of protein synthesis, and part of the activity remains associated with ribosomes upon sedimentation. It is probably because of digestion of double-stranded RNA by this nuclease that higher concentrations of double-stranded RNA are required for inhibition of protein synthesis in Krebs cell extracts than in reticulocyte lysates. PMID:4346034

  1. Polyamine stimulation of eEF1A synthesis based on the unusual position of a complementary sequence to 18S rRNA in eEF1A mRNA.

    PubMed

    Terui, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Akihiko; Yoshida, Taketo; Kasahara, Takuma; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Higashi, Kyohei; Igarashi, Kazuei; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2015-02-01

    It is thought that Shine-Dalgarno-like sequences, which exhibit complementarity to the nucleotide sequences at the 3'-end of 18S rRNA, are not present in eukaryotic mRNAs. However, complementary sequences consisting of more than 5 nucleotides to the 3'-end of 18S rRNA, i.e., a CR sequence, are present at -17 to -32 upstream from the initiation codon AUG in 18 mRNAs involved in protein synthesis except eEF1A mRNA. Thus, effects of the CR sequence in mRNAs and polyamines on protein synthesis were examined using control and polyamine-reduced FM3A and NIH3T3 cells. Polyamines did not stimulate protein synthesis encoded by 18 mRNAs possessing a normal CR sequence. When the CR sequence was deleted, protein synthetic activities decreased to less than 70% of intact mRNAs. In eEF1A mRNA, the CR sequence was located at -33 to -39 upstream from the initiation codon AUG, and polyamines stimulated eEF1A synthesis about threefold. When the CR sequence was shifted to -22 to -28 upstream from the AUG, eEF1A synthesis increased in polyamine-reduced cells and the degree of polyamine stimulation decreased greatly. The results indicate that the CR sequence exists in many eukaryotic mRNAs, and the location of a CR sequence in mRNAs influences polyamine stimulation of protein synthesis.

  2. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru.

  3. Crystal structure of mouse coronavirus receptor-binding domain complexed with its murine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Guiqing; Sun, Dawei; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Qian, Zhaohui; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Li, Fang

    2011-09-28

    Coronaviruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to recognize different receptors for their cross-species transmission and host-range expansion. Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) uses the N-terminal domain (NTD) of its spike protein as its receptor-binding domain. Here we present the crystal structure of MHV NTD complexed with its receptor murine carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1a (mCEACAM1a). Unexpectedly, MHV NTD contains a core structure that has the same {beta}-sandwich fold as human galectins (S-lectins) and additional structural motifs that bind to the N-terminal Ig-like domain of mCEACAM1a. Despite its galectin fold, MHV NTD does not bind sugars, but instead binds mCEACAM1a through exclusive protein-protein interactions. Critical contacts at the interface have been confirmed by mutagenesis, providing a structural basis for viral and host specificities of coronavirus/CEACAM1 interactions. Sugar-binding assays reveal that galectin-like NTDs of some coronaviruses such as human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus bind sugars. Structural analysis and mutagenesis localize the sugar-binding site in coronavirus NTDs to be above the {beta}-sandwich core. We propose that coronavirus NTDs originated from a host galectin and retained sugar-binding functions in some contemporary coronaviruses, but evolved new structural features in MHV for mCEACAM1a binding.

  4. Human Coronavirus-Associated Influenza-Like Illness in the Community Setting in Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Malecki, Monika; Tinoco, Yeny; Ortiz, Ernesto; Guezala, M Claudia; Romero, Candice; Estela, Abel; Breña, Patricia; Morales, Maria-Luisa; Reaves, Erik J; Gomez, Jorge; Uyeki, Timothy M; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Bausch, Daniel G; Schildgen, Verena; Schildgen, Oliver; Montgomery, Joel M

    2015-11-01

    We present findings describing the epidemiology of non-severe acute respiratory syndrome human coronavirus-associated influenza-like illness from a population-based active follow-up study in four different regions of Peru. In 2010, the prevalence of infections by human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, NL63, or HKU1 was 6.4% in participants with influenza-like illness who tested negative for influenza viruses. Ten of 11 human coronavirus infections were identified in the fall-winter season. Human coronaviruses are present in different regions of Peru and are relatively frequently associated with influenza-like illness in Peru. PMID:26324726

  5. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Jonathan; Bissett, John; Pahlavani, Mohammadhadi; Mooney, Brent; Buchwaldt, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α), RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2), ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS) region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt). A PCR-probe (39F/R) amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1-5 minisatellites with 1-12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported. PMID:26340001

  6. IGS Minisatellites Useful for Race Differentiation in Colletotrichum lentis and a Likely Site of Small RNA Synthesis Affecting Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Durkin, Jonathan; Bissett, John; Pahlavani, Mohammadhadi; Mooney, Brent; Buchwaldt, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Colletotrichum lentis is a fungal pathogen of lentil in Canada but rarely reported elsewhere. Two races, Ct0 and Ct1, have been identified using differential lines. Our objective was to develop a PCR-probe differentiating these races. Sequences of the translation elongation factor 1α (tef1α), RNA polymerase II subunit B2 (rpb2), ATP citrate lyase subunit A (acla), and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were monomorphic, while the intergenic spacer (IGS) region showed length polymorphisms at two minisatellites of 23 and 39 nucleotides (nt). A PCR-probe (39F/R) amplifying the 39 nt minisatellite was developed which subsequently revealed 1–5 minisatellites with 1–12 repeats in C. lentis. The probe differentiated race Ct1 isolates having 7, 9 or 7+9 repeats from race Ct0 having primarily 2 or 4 repeats, occasionally 5, 6, or 8, but never 7 or 9 repeats. These isolates were collected between 1991 and 1999. In a 2012 survey isolates with 2 and 4 repeats increased from 34% to 67%, while isolated with 7 or 9 repeats decreased from 40 to 4%, likely because Ct1 resistant lentil varieties had been grown. The 39 nt repeat was identified in C. gloeosporioides, C. trifolii, Ascochyta lentis, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, the 39F/R PCR probe is not species specific, but can differentiate isolates based on repeat number. The 23 nt minisatellite in C. lentis exists as three length variants with ten sequence variations differentiating race Ct0 having 14 or 19 repeats from race Ct1 having 17 repeats, except for one isolate. RNA-translation of 23 nt repeats forms hairpins and has the appropriate length to suggest that IGS could be a site of small RNA synthesis, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. Small RNA from fungal plant pathogens able to silence genes either in the host or pathogen thereby aiding infection have been reported. PMID:26340001

  7. Enzymatic synthesis and RNA interference of nucleosides incorporating stable isotopes into a base moiety.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Akihiko; Shiraishi, Mitsuya; Terado, Nanae; Tanabe, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Kenji

    2015-10-15

    Thymidine phosphorylase was used to catalyze the conversion of thymidine (or methyluridine) and uracil incorporating stable isotopes to deoxyuridine (or uridine) with the uracil base incorporating the stable isotope. These base-exchange reactions proceeded with high conversion rates (75-96%), and the isolated yields were also good (64-87%). The masses of all synthetic compounds incorporating stable isotopes were identical to the theoretical molecular weights via EIMS. (13)C NMR spectra showed spin-spin coupling between (13)C and (15)N in the synthetic compounds, and the signals were split, further proving incorporation of the isotopes into the compounds. The RNA interference effects of this siRNA with uridine incorporating stable isotopes were also investigated. A 25mer siRNA had a strong knockdown effect on the MARCKS protein. The insertion position and number of uridine moieties incorporating stable isotopes introduced into the siRNA had no influence on the silencing of the target protein. This incorporation of stable isotopes into RNA and DNA has the potential to function as a chemically benign tracer in cells.

  8. Murine Coronavirus Delays Expression of a Subset of Interferon-Stimulated Genes▿

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Kristine M.; Elliott, Ruth; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Weiss, Susan R.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the type I interferon (IFN-I) system in limiting coronavirus replication and dissemination has been unequivocally demonstrated by rapid lethality following infection of mice lacking the alpha/beta IFN (IFN-α/β) receptor with mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a murine coronavirus. Interestingly, MHV has a cell-type-dependent ability to resist the antiviral effects of IFN-α/β. In primary bone-marrow-derived macrophages and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, MHV replication was significantly reduced by the IFN-α/β-induced antiviral state, whereas IFN treatment of cell lines (L2 and 293T) has only minor effects on replication (K. M. Rose and S. R. Weiss, Viruses 1:689-712, 2009). Replication of other RNA viruses, including Theiler's murine encephalitis virus (TMEV), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Sindbis virus, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and Sendai virus (SeV), was significantly inhibited in L2 cells treated with IFN-α/β, and MHV had the ability to rescue only SeV replication. We present evidence that MHV infection can delay interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) induction mediated by both SeV and IFN-β but only when MHV infection precedes SeV or IFN-β exposure. Curiously, we observed no block in the well-defined IFN-β signaling pathway that leads to STAT1-STAT2 phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus in cultures infected with MHV. This observation suggests that MHV must inhibit an alternative IFN-induced pathway that is essential for early induction of ISGs. The ability of MHV to delay SeV-mediated ISG production may partially involve limiting the ability of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) to function as a transcription factor. Transcription from an IRF-3-responsive promoter was partially inhibited by MHV; however, IRF-3 was transported to the nucleus and bound DNA in MHV-infected cells superinfected with SeV. PMID:20357099

  9. Coronavirus Cell Entry Occurs through the Endo-/Lysosomal Pathway in a Proteolysis-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Burkard, Christine; Verheije, Monique H.; Wicht, Oliver; van Kasteren, Sander I.; van Kuppeveld, Frank J.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Pelkmans, Lucas; Rottier, Peter J. M.; Bosch, Berend Jan; de Haan, Cornelis A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Enveloped viruses need to fuse with a host cell membrane in order to deliver their genome into the host cell. While some viruses fuse with the plasma membrane, many viruses are endocytosed prior to fusion. Specific cues in the endosomal microenvironment induce conformational changes in the viral fusion proteins leading to viral and host membrane fusion. In the present study we investigated the entry of coronaviruses (CoVs). Using siRNA gene silencing, we found that proteins known to be important for late endosomal maturation and endosome-lysosome fusion profoundly promote infection of cells with mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV). Using recombinant MHVs expressing reporter genes as well as a novel, replication-independent fusion assay we confirmed the importance of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and demonstrated that trafficking of MHV to lysosomes is required for fusion and productive entry to occur. Nevertheless, MHV was shown to be less sensitive to perturbation of endosomal pH than vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus, which fuse in early and late endosomes, respectively. Our results indicate that entry of MHV depends on proteolytic processing of its fusion protein S by lysosomal proteases. Fusion of MHV was severely inhibited by a pan-lysosomal protease inhibitor, while trafficking of MHV to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases was no longer required when a furin cleavage site was introduced in the S protein immediately upstream of the fusion peptide. Also entry of feline CoV was shown to depend on trafficking to lysosomes and processing by lysosomal proteases. In contrast, MERS-CoV, which contains a minimal furin cleavage site just upstream of the fusion peptide, was negatively affected by inhibition of furin, but not of lysosomal proteases. We conclude that a proteolytic cleavage site in the CoV S protein directly upstream of the fusion peptide is an essential determinant of the intracellular site of fusion. PMID:25375324

  10. Coronavirus Nsp10, a Critical Co-factor for Activation of Multiple Replicative Enzymes*

    PubMed Central

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Lugari, Adrien; Posthuma, Clara C.; Zevenhoven, Jessika C.; Bernard, Stéphanie; Betzi, Stéphane; Imbert, Isabelle; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Lécine, Patrick; Pfefferle, Susanne; Drosten, Christian; Snijder, Eric J.; Decroly, Etienne; Morelli, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-synthesizing machinery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is composed of 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1–16) encoded by ORF1a/1b. The 148-amino acid nsp10 subunit contains two zinc fingers and is known to interact with both nsp14 and nsp16, stimulating their respective 3′-5′ exoribonuclease and 2′-O-methyltransferase activities. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, in cellulo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer experiments, and in vitro pulldown assays, we have now identified the key residues on the nsp10 surface that interact with nsp14. The functional consequences of mutations introduced at these positions were first evaluated biochemically by monitoring nsp14 exoribonuclease activity. Disruption of the nsp10-nsp14 interaction abrogated the nsp10-driven activation of the nsp14 exoribonuclease. We further showed that the nsp10 surface interacting with nsp14 overlaps with the surface involved in the nsp10-mediated activation of nsp16 2′-O-methyltransferase activity, suggesting that nsp10 is a major regulator of SARS-CoV replicase function. In line with this notion, reverse genetics experiments supported an essential role of the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 in SARS-CoV replication, as several mutations that abolished the interaction in vitro yielded a replication-negative viral phenotype. In contrast, mutants in which the nsp10-nsp16 interaction was disturbed proved to be crippled but viable. These experiments imply that the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 and nsp16 and possibly other subunits of the viral replication complex may be a target for the development of antiviral compounds against pathogenic coronaviruses. PMID:25074927

  11. Coronavirus Nsp10, a critical co-factor for activation of multiple replicative enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Lugari, Adrien; Posthuma, Clara C; Zevenhoven, Jessika C; Bernard, Stéphanie; Betzi, Stéphane; Imbert, Isabelle; Canard, Bruno; Guillemot, Jean-Claude; Lécine, Patrick; Pfefferle, Susanne; Drosten, Christian; Snijder, Eric J; Decroly, Etienne; Morelli, Xavier

    2014-09-12

    The RNA-synthesizing machinery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is composed of 16 non-structural proteins (nsp1-16) encoded by ORF1a/1b. The 148-amino acid nsp10 subunit contains two zinc fingers and is known to interact with both nsp14 and nsp16, stimulating their respective 3'-5' exoribonuclease and 2'-O-methyltransferase activities. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, in cellulo bioluminescence resonance energy transfer experiments, and in vitro pulldown assays, we have now identified the key residues on the nsp10 surface that interact with nsp14. The functional consequences of mutations introduced at these positions were first evaluated biochemically by monitoring nsp14 exoribonuclease activity. Disruption of the nsp10-nsp14 interaction abrogated the nsp10-driven activation of the nsp14 exoribonuclease. We further showed that the nsp10 surface interacting with nsp14 overlaps with the surface involved in the nsp10-mediated activation of nsp16 2'-O-methyltransferase activity, suggesting that nsp10 is a major regulator of SARS-CoV replicase function. In line with this notion, reverse genetics experiments supported an essential role of the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 in SARS-CoV replication, as several mutations that abolished the interaction in vitro yielded a replication-negative viral phenotype. In contrast, mutants in which the nsp10-nsp16 interaction was disturbed proved to be crippled but viable. These experiments imply that the nsp10 surface that interacts with nsp14 and nsp16 and possibly other subunits of the viral replication complex may be a target for the development of antiviral compounds against pathogenic coronaviruses. PMID:25074927

  12. The 11S rat seminal vesicle mRNA directs the in vitro synthesis of two precursors of the major secretory protein IV.

    PubMed Central

    Metafora, S; Guardiola, J; Paonessa, G; Abrescia, P

    1984-01-01

    The 11s mRNA extracted from the rat seminal vesicles directs the synthesis of two different precursors of the major secretory protein RSV-IV. These two precursors are not interconvertible and seemingly originate from different translational events. Sucrose gradients, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and positive hybridization translation experiments do not allow the separation of the two putatively different mRNAs. It is concluded that the two RSV-IV precursors either derive from two extremely similar, but physically not separable mRNA species, or from two different modes of translation of the same mRNA molecule. Images PMID:6701092

  13. Synthesis of influenza virus polypeptides in cells resistant to alpha-amanitin: evidence for the involvement of cellular RNA polymerase II in virus replication.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, R A; Choppin, P W

    1977-01-01

    Influenza virus polypeptides were not synthesized in wild-type CHO-S-infected cells in the presence of alpha-amanitin, but were synthesized in CHO-Amal cells, a mutant cell line whose DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II is specifically resistant to this drug, indicating that this cellular enzyme is involved in influenza virus replication. The results of experiments designed to detect viral polypeptides synthesized from primary transcripts suggest that the synthesis of a cellular RNA species by RNA polymerase II is required for primary transcription of the influenza virus genome. Images PMID:561196

  14. CORONAVIRUS VIRULENCE GENES WITH MAIN FOCUS ON SARS-CoV ENVELOPE GENE

    PubMed Central

    DeDiego, Marta L.; Nieto-Torres, Jose L.; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M.; Regla-Nava, Jose A.; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Usera, Fernando; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-01-01

    models and in humans. The modification or deletion of different motifs within E protein, including the transmembrane domain that harbors an ion channel activity, small sequences within the middle region of the carboxy-terminus of E protein, and its most carboxy-terminal end, which contains a PDZ domain-binding motif (PBM) is sufficient to attenuate the virus. Interestingly, a comprehensive collection of SARS-CoVs in which these motifs have been modified elicited full and long-term protection even in old mice, making those deletion mutants promising vaccine candidates. These data indicate that despite its small size, E protein drastically influences the replication of CoVs and their pathogenicity. Although E protein is not essential for CoV genome replication or subgenomic mRNA synthesis, it affects virus morphogenesis, budding, assembly, intracellular trafficking, and virulence. In fact, E protein is responsible in a significant proportion of the inflammasome activation and the associated inflammation elicited by SARS-CoV in the lung parenchyma. This exacerbated inflammation causes edema accumulation leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and, frequently, to the death of infected animal models or human patients. PMID:25093995

  15. Modulatory effect of rRNA synthesis and ppUL83 nucleolar compartmentalization on human cytomegalovirus gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Arcangeletti, Maria-Cristina; Rodighiero, Isabella; De Conto, Flora; Gatti, Rita; Orlandini, Guido; Ferraglia, Francesca; Motta, Federica; Covan, Silvia; Razin, Sergey V; Dettori, Giuseppe; Chezzi, Carlo

    2009-10-01

    The nucleolus is a nuclear domain involved in the biogenesis of ribosomes, as well as in many other important cellular regulatory activities, such as cell cycle control and mRNA processing. Many viruses, including herpesviruses, are known to exploit the nucleolar compartment during their replication cycle. In a previous study, we demonstrated the preferential targeting and accumulation of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL83 phosphoprotein (pp65) to the nucleolar compartment and, in particular, to the nucleolar matrix of lytically infected fibroblasts; such targeting was already evident at very early times after infection. Here we have investigated the possible effects of rRNA synthesis inhibition upon the development of HCMV lytic infection, by using either actinomycin D or cisplatin at low concentrations, that are known to selectively inhibit RNA polymerase I activity, whilst leaving RNA polymerase II function unaffected. Following the inhibition of rRNA synthesis by either of the agents used, we observed a significant redistribution of nucleolar proteins within the nucleoplasm and a simultaneous depletion of viral pp65 from the nucleolus; this effect was highly evident in both unextracted cells and in nuclear matrices in situ. Of particular interest, even a brief suppression of rRNA synthesis resulted in a very strong inhibition of the progression of HCMV infection, as was concluded from the absence of accumulation of HCMV major immediate-early proteins within the nucleus of infected cells. These data suggest that a functional relationship might exist between rRNA synthesis, pp65 localization to the nucleolar matrix and the normal development of HCMV lytic infection. PMID:19585527

  16. Replicative RNA synthesis and nucleocapsid assembly in vesicular stomatitis virus-infected permeable cells.

    PubMed Central

    Condra, J H; Lazzarini, R A

    1980-01-01

    A permeable-cell system has been developed to study the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus. When vesicular stomatitis virus-infected BHK cells were permeabilized by lysolecithin treatment, they incorporated nucleoside triphosphates into RNA and amino acids into proteins at nearly normal rates. The viral mRNA's synthesized appeared normal in polarity, size distribution, and polyadenylation, and all five viral proteins were synthesized. Replication of the viral genome proceeded, and full-length RNA strands were synthesized in amounts and polarities resembling those found in intact cells. These full-length RNAs associated with viral N proteins to form RNase-resistant nucleocapsids of normal buoyant density. Permeable cells appear to represent ideal hosts for studying vesicular stomatitis virus replication since they closely mimic in vivo conditions while retaining much of the experimental flexibility of current in vitro systems. Images PMID:6257927

  17. Problem-Solving Test: RNA and Protein Synthesis in Bacteriophage-Infected "E. coli" Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    The classic experiment presented in this problem-solving test was designed to identify the template molecules of translation by analyzing the synthesis of phage proteins in "Escherichia coli" cells infected with bacteriophage T4. The work described in this test led to one of the most seminal discoveries of early molecular biology: it dealt a…

  18. Systematic, genome-wide identification of host genes affecting replication of a positive-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Kushner, David B; Lindenbach, Brett D; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z; Noueiry, Amine O; Paul, Scott M; Ahlquist, Paul

    2003-12-23

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are the largest virus class and include many pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a representative positive-strand RNA virus whose RNA replication, gene expression, and encapsidation have been reproduced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By using traditional yeast genetics, host genes have been identified that function in controlling BMV translation, selecting BMV RNAs as replication templates, activating the replication complex, maintaining a lipid composition required for membrane-associated RNA replication, and other steps. To more globally and systematically identify such host factors, we used engineered BMV derivatives to assay viral RNA replication in each strain of an ordered, genome-wide set of yeast single-gene deletion mutants. Each deletion strain was transformed to express BMV replicase proteins and a BMV RNA replication template with the capsid gene replaced by a luciferase reporter. Luciferase expression, which is dependent on viral RNA replication and RNA-dependent mRNA synthesis, was measured in intact yeast cells. Approximately 4500 yeast deletion strains ( approximately 80% of yeast genes) were screened in duplicate and selected strains analyzed further. This functional genomics approach revealed nearly 100 genes whose absence inhibited or stimulated BMV RNA replication and/or gene expression by 3- to >25-fold. Several of these genes were shown previously to function in BMV replication, validating the approach. Newly identified genes include some in RNA, protein, or membrane modification pathways and genes of unknown function. The results further illuminate virus and cell pathways. Further refinement of virus screening likely will reveal contributions from additional host genes.

  19. Synthesis and radiolabeling of chelator-RNA aptamer bioconjugates with copper-64 for targeted molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Rockey, William M; Huang, Ling; Kloepping, Kyle C; Baumhover, Nicholas J; Giangrande, Paloma H; Schultz, Michael K

    2011-07-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) aptamers with high affinity and specificity for cancer-specific cell-surface antigens are promising reagents for targeted molecular imaging of cancer using positron emission tomography (PET). For this application, aptamers must be conjugated to chelators capable of coordinating PET-radionuclides (e.g., copper-64, (64)Cu) to enable radiolabeling for in vivo imaging of tumors. This study investigates the choice of chelator and radiolabeling parameters such as pH and temperature for the development of (64)Cu-labeled RNA-based targeted agents for PET imaging. The characterization and optimization of labeling conditions are described for four chelator-aptamer complexes. Three commercially available bifunctional macrocyclic chelators (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid mono N-hydroxysuccinimide [DOTA-NHS]; S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid [p-SCN-Bn-NOTA]; and p-SCN-Bn-3,6,9,15-tetraazabicyclo [9.3.1]pentadeca-1(15),11,13-triene-3,6,9-triacetic acid [p-SCN-Bn-PCTA]), as well as the polyamino-macrocyclic diAmSar (3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6] icosane-1,8-diamine) were conjugated to A10-3.2, a RNA aptamer which has been shown to bind specifically to a prostate cancer-specific cell-surface antigen (PSMA). Although a commercial bifunctional version of diAmSar was not available, RNA conjugation with this chelator was achieved in a two-step reaction by the addition of a disuccinimidyl suberate linker. Radiolabeling parameters (e.g., pH, temperature, and time) for each chelator-RNA conjugate were assessed in order to optimize specific activity and RNA stability. Furthermore, the radiolabeled chelator-coupled RNA aptamers were evaluated for binding specificity to their target antigen. In summary, key parameters were established for optimal radiolabeling of RNA aptamers for eventual PET imaging with (64)Cu.

  20. Increased rDNA synthesis in germinated conidia of Neurospora crassa is caused by RNA primer molecules found in its culture medium

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, S.K.; Beljanski, M.

    1984-01-01

    Purine rich small primer RNA molecules (10-15 nucleotides) were isolated from growth medium of germinated (3 hr sprout) conidia of N. crassa. These RNA-primer molecules strongly stimulated in vitro DNA synthesis in N. crassa 74A wild type, as well as in DNAs from mice spleen and lung, and quail testis. These increases of in vitro DNA synthesis was dependent on the concentration of these RNA primer molecules. In contrast, such molecules were not found in 1 or 10 hour sprouts, nor in the culture medium of mycelia (24 hr). These RNA-primer molecules could be hydrolyzed by T1 RNAse but not by pancreatic RNase. Dutta et al. reported increased (250) copies of rRNA genes in germinated conidia (3 hr sprouts) compared to 100 copies of rRNA genes in mycelial cells grown for 24 hours. These observations suggest excessive transcription of rDNAs in the germinated conidial cells which undergo cleavages by nucleates after 3-4 hours of cell growth. Some degradation products were excreted into the culture medium and acted as RNA-primers.

  1. Homochiral Selectivity in RNA Synthesis: Montmorillonite-catalyzed Quaternary Reactions of D, L-Purine with D, L- Pyrimidine Nucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Aldersley, Michael F.; Ferris, James P.

    2011-06-01

    Selective adsorption of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on the platelets of montmorillonite demonstrates an important reaction pathway for the origin of homochirality in RNA synthesis. Our earlier studies have shown that the individual reactions of D, L-ImpA or D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite catalyst produced oligomers which were only partially inhibited by the incorporation of both D- and L-enantiomers. Homochirality in these reactions was largely due to the formation of cyclic dimers that cannot elongate. We investigated the quaternary reactions of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite. The chain length of these oligomers increased from 9-mer to 11-mer as observed by HPLC, with a concominant increase in the yield of linear dimers and higher oligomers in the reactions involving D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU as compared to the similar reactions carried out with D-enantiomers only. The formation of cyclic dimers of U was completely inhibited in the quaternary reactions. The yield of cyclic dimers of A was reduced from 60% to 10% within the dimer fraction. 12 linear dimers and 3 cyclic dimers were isolated and characterized from the quaternary reaction. The homochirality and regioselectivity of dimers were 64.1% and 71.7%, respectively. Their sequence selectivity was shown by the formation of purine-pyrimidine (54-59%) linkages, followed by purine-purine (29-32%) linkages and pyrimidine-pyrimidine (9-13%) linkages. Of the 16 trimers detected, 10 were homochiral with an overall homochirality of 73-76%. In view of the greater homochirality, sequence- and regio- selectivity, the quaternary reactions on montmorillonite demonstrate an unexpectedly favorable route for the prebiotic synthesis of homochiral RNA compared with the separate reactions of enantiomeric activated mononucleotides.

  2. Trafficking motifs in the SARS-coronavirus nucleocapsid protein

    SciTech Connect

    You, Jae-Hwan; Reed, Mark L.; Hiscox, Julian A. . E-mail: j.a.hiscox@leeds.ac.uk

    2007-07-13

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is involved in virus replication and modulation of cell processes. In this latter respect control may in part be achieved through the sub-cellular localisation of the protein. N protein predominately localises in the cytoplasm (the site of virus replication and assembly) but also in the nucleus/nucleolus. Using a combination of live-cell and confocal microscopy coupled to mutagenesis we identified a cryptic nucleolar localisation signal in the central part of the N protein. In addition, based on structural comparison to the avian coronavirus N protein, a nuclear export signal was identified in the C-terminal region of the protein.

  3. Light-regulated protein and mRNA synthesis in root caps of maize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, L. J.; Piechulla, B.; Sun, P. S.

    1988-01-01

    Illumination of maize roots initiates changes in mRNA levels and in the activities of proteins within the root cap. Using Northern analysis we showed a 5-6 fold increase in the levels of three specific mRNAs and a 14-fold increase in plastid mRNA. This increase is rapid, occurring within 30 minutes of illumination. With prolonged periods of darkness following illumination, messages return to levels observed in dark, control caps. For two species of mRNA illumination results in a reduction in message levels. Light-stimulated increases in the levels of specific mRNAs are proportionally greater than are increases in the activities of corresponding proteins. We suggest that the light-stimulated increase in protein activity in root caps may be preceded by and occur as a consequence of enhanced levels of mRNA. Our work suggests that photomorphogenesis in roots could involve changes in the levels of a wide variety of mRNAs within the root cap.

  4. Synthesis of an arrayed sgRNA library targeting the human genome

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Tobias; Schmid-Burgk, Jonathan L.; Hornung, Veit

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in conjunction with CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) can be employed to introduce double stand breaks into mammalian genomes at user-defined loci. The endonuclease activity of the Cas complex can be targeted to a specific genomic region using a single guide RNA (sgRNA). We developed a ligation-independent cloning (LIC) assembly method for efficient and bias-free generation of large sgRNA libraries. Using this system, we performed an iterative shotgun cloning approach to generate an arrayed sgRNA library that targets one critical exon of almost every protein-coding human gene. An orthogonal mixing and deconvolution approach was used to obtain 19,506 unique sequence-validated sgRNAs (91.4% coverage). As tested in HEK 293T cells, constructs of this library have a median genome editing activity of 54.6% and employing sgRNAs of this library to generate knockout cells was successful for 19 out of 19 genes tested. PMID:26446710

  5. Receptor usage and cell entry of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Tang, Jian; Ma, Yuanmei; Liang, Xueya; Yang, Yang; Peng, Guiqing; Qi, Qianqian; Jiang, Shibo; Li, Jianrong; Du, Lanying; Li, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) has significantly damaged America's pork industry. Here we investigate the receptor usage and cell entry of PEDV. PEDV recognizes protein receptor aminopeptidase N from pig and human and sugar coreceptor N-acetylneuraminic acid. Moreover, PEDV infects cells from pig, human, monkey, and bat. These results support the idea of bats as an evolutionary origin for PEDV, implicate PEDV as a potential threat to other species, and suggest antiviral strategies to control its spread. PMID:25787280

  6. Coronavirus phylogeny based on triplets of nucleic acids bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Bo; Liu, Yanshu; Li, Renfa; Zhu, Wen

    2006-04-01

    We considered the fully overlapping triplets of nucleotide bases and proposed a 2D graphical representation of protein sequences consisting of 20 amino acids and a stop code. Based on this 2D graphical representation, we outlined a new approach to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of coronaviruses by constructing a covariance matrix. The evolutionary distances are obtained through measuring the differences among the two-dimensional curves.

  7. Effect of insulin on human skeletal muscle mitochondrial ATP production, protein synthesis, and mRNA transcripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, Craig S.; Short, Kevin R.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Schimke, Jill M.; Sreekumaran Nair, K.

    2003-06-01

    Mitochondria are the primary site of skeletal muscle fuel metabolism and ATP production. Although insulin is a major regulator of fuel metabolism, its effect on mitochondrial ATP production is not known. Here we report increases in vastus lateralis muscle mitochondrial ATP production capacity (32-42%) in healthy humans (P < 0.01) i.v. infused with insulin (1.5 milliunits/kg of fat-free mass per min) while clamping glucose, amino acids, glucagon, and growth hormone. Increased ATP production occurred in association with increased mRNA levels from both mitochondrial (NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV) and nuclear [cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit IV] genes (164-180%) encoding mitochondrial proteins (P < 0.05). In addition, muscle mitochondrial protein synthesis, and COX and citrate synthase enzyme activities were increased by insulin (P < 0.05). Further studies demonstrated no effect of low to high insulin levels on muscle mitochondrial ATP production for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas matched nondiabetic controls increased 16-26% (P < 0.02) when four different substrate combinations were used. In conclusion, insulin stimulates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle along with synthesis of gene transcripts and mitochondrial protein in human subjects. Skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients has a reduced capacity to increase ATP production with high insulin levels. cytochrome c oxidase | NADH dehydrogenase subunit IV | amino acids | citrate synthase

  8. Interaction of amatoxins with plant cells and RNA polymerases II: selection of amanitin-resistant cell lines and synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Little, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments directed toward deriving basic information regarding plant RNA polymerase II is presented. The experiments described relate to the potential of isolating RNA polymerase II mutants in plants, using carrot cell cultures as models. Additionally, the synthesis of amanitin-based affinity ligands to immobilize isolated plant RNA polymerase II and associated transcriptional complexes is described. RNA polymerase II activities have been isolated from suspension cultures of carrot and compared to other plant RNA polymerases II with respect to subunit analysis and inhibition with ..cap alpha..-amanitin. RNA polymerase II purified by polymin P absorption, DE52, phosphocellulose, and RNA-agarose chromatography is shown to copurify with proteins of 175 (and 200), 135, 70, 43, 28, 22, and 17 kdaltons apparent molecular weights. Conditions for accurate determination of amanitin inhibition of the enzyme are established using /sup 3/H-amanitin and are presented for the first time for plant RNA polymerase II; RNA polymerase II from these cultures is shown to be inhibited by 50% at 3-5 nM by ..cap alpha..-amanitin, a value 10-50 times lower than previously reported.

  9. Cold stress-induced protein Rbm3 binds 60S ribosomal subunits, alters microRNA levels, and enhances global protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dresios, John; Aschrafi, Armaz; Owens, Geoffrey C; Vanderklish, Peter W; Edelman, Gerald M; Mauro, Vincent P

    2005-02-01

    The expression of Rbm3, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, is enhanced under conditions of mild hypothermia, and Rbm3 has been postulated to facilitate protein synthesis at colder temperatures. To investigate this possibility, Rbm3 was overexpressed as a c-Myc fusion protein in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Cells expressing this fusion protein showed a 3-fold increase in protein synthesis at both 37 degrees C and 32 degrees C compared with control cells. Although polysome profiles of cells expressing the fusion protein and control cells were similar, several differences were noted, suggesting that Rbm3 might enhance the association of 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits at 32 degrees C. Studies to assess a direct interaction of Rbm3 with ribosomes showed that a fraction of Rbm3 was associated with 60S ribosomal subunits in an RNA-independent manner. It appeared unlikely that this association could explain the global enhancement of protein synthesis, however, because cells expressing the Rbm3 fusion protein showed no substantial increase in the size of their monosome and polysome peaks, suggesting that similar numbers of mRNAs were being translated at approximately the same rates. In contrast, a complex that sedimented between the top of the gradient and 40S subunits was less abundant in cells expressing recombinant Rbm3. Further analysis showed that the RNA component of this fraction was microRNA. We discuss the possibility that Rbm3 expression alters global protein synthesis by affecting microRNA levels and suggest that both Rbm3 and microRNAs are part of a homeostatic mechanism that regulates global levels of protein synthesis under normal and cold-stress conditions.

  10. Prefusion structure of a human coronavirus spike protein

    PubMed Central

    Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Cottrell, Christopher A.; Wang, Nianshuang; Pallesen, Jesper; Yassine, Hadi M.; Turner, Hannah L.; Corbett, Kizzmekia S.; Graham, Barney S.; McLellan, Jason S.; Ward, Andrew B.

    2016-01-01

    HKU1 is a human betacoronavirus that causes mild yet prevalent respiratory disease1 and is related to the zoonotic SARS2 and MERS3 betacoronaviruses that have high fatality rates and pandemic potential. Cell tropism and host range is determined in part by the coronavirus spike (S) protein4, which binds cellular receptors and mediates membrane fusion. As the largest known class I fusion protein, its size and extensive glycosylation have hindered structural studies of the full ectodomain, thus preventing a molecular understanding of its function and limiting development of effective interventions. Here we present the 4.0 Å resolution structure of the trimeric HKU1 S protein determined using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. In the prefusion conformation, the receptor-binding subunits, S1, rest atop the fusion-mediating subunits, S2, preventing their conformational rearrangement. Surprisingly, the S1 C-terminal domains are interdigitated and form extensive quaternary interactions that occlude surfaces known to bind protein receptors in other coronaviruses. These features, along with the location of the two protease sites known to be important for coronavirus entry, provide a structural basis to support a model of membrane fusion mediated by progressive S protein destabilization through receptor binding and proteolytic cleavage. Additionally, these studies should serve as a foundation for the structure-based design of betacoronavirus vaccine immunogens. PMID:26935699

  11. The Nucleocapsid Protein of Human Coronavirus NL63

    PubMed Central

    Zuwała, Kaja; Golda, Anna; Kabala, Wojciech; Burmistrz, Michał; Zdzalik, Michal; Nowak, Paulina; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Zarebski, Mirosław; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Florek, Dominik; Zeglen, Sławomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV. PMID:25700263

  12. The nucleocapsid protein of human coronavirus NL63.

    PubMed

    Zuwała, Kaja; Golda, Anna; Kabala, Wojciech; Burmistrz, Michał; Zdzalik, Michal; Nowak, Paulina; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Zarebski, Mirosław; Dobrucki, Jerzy; Florek, Dominik; Zeglen, Sławomir; Wojarski, Jacek; Potempa, Jan; Dubin, Grzegorz; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) NL63 was first described in 2004 and is associated with respiratory tract disease of varying severity. At the genetic and structural level, HCoV-NL63 is similar to other members of the Coronavirinae subfamily, especially human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E). Detailed analysis, however, reveals several unique features of the pathogen. The coronaviral nucleocapsid protein is abundantly present in infected cells. It is a multi-domain, multi-functional protein important for viral replication and a number of cellular processes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein. Biochemical analyses revealed that the protein shares characteristics with homologous proteins encoded in other coronaviral genomes, with the N-terminal domain responsible for nucleic acid binding and the C-terminal domain involved in protein oligomerization. Surprisingly, analysis of the subcellular localization of the N protein of HCoV-NL63 revealed that, differently than homologous proteins from other coronaviral species except for SARS-CoV, it is not present in the nucleus of infected or transfected cells. Furthermore, no significant alteration in cell cycle progression in cells expressing the protein was observed. This is in stark contrast with results obtained for other coronaviruses, except for the SARS-CoV.

  13. Role of sialic acids in feline enteric coronavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Acar, Delphine D; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-09-01

    To initiate infections, many coronaviruses use sialic acids, either as receptor determinants or as attachment factors helping the virus find its receptor underneath the heavily glycosylated mucus layer. In the present study, the role of sialic acids in serotype I feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infections was studied in feline intestinal epithelial cell cultures. Treatment of cells with neuraminidase (NA) enhanced infection efficiency, showing that terminal sialic acid residues on the cell surface were not receptor determinants and even hampered efficient virus-receptor engagement. Knowing that NA treatment of coronaviruses can unmask viral sialic acid binding activity, replication of untreated and NA-treated viruses was compared, showing that NA treatment of the virus enhanced infectivity in untreated cells, but was detrimental in NA-treated cells. By using sialylated compounds as competitive inhibitors, it was demonstrated that sialyllactose (2,6-α-linked over 2,3-α-linked) notably reduced infectivity of NA-treated viruses, whereas bovine submaxillary mucin inhibited both treated and untreated viruses. In desialylated cells, however, viruses were less prone to competitive inhibition with sialylated compounds. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that FECV had a sialic acid binding capacity, which was partially masked by virus-associated sialic acids, and that attachment to sialylated compounds could facilitate enterocyte infections. However, sialic acid binding was not a prerequisite for the initiation of infection and virus-receptor engagement was even more efficient after desialylation of cells, indicating that FECV requires sialidases for efficient enterocyte infections.

  14. Evidence for RNA synthesis in the intergenic region between enhancer and promoter and its inhibition by insulators in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Kretova, Olga V; Moiseeva, Evgenia D; Sosin, Dmitri V

    2009-01-01

    Uncovering the nature of communication between enhancers, promoters and insulators is important for understanding the fundamental mechanisms that ensure appropriate gene expression levels. Here we describe an approach employing transient expression of genetic luciferase reporter gene constructs with quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transcription between an enhancer and Hsp70 promoter. We tested genetic constructs containing gypsy and/or Fab7 insulators in different orientations, and an enhancer from copia LTR-retroelement [(enh)copia]. A single gypsy or Fab7 insulator inserted between the promoter and enhancer in any polarity reduced enhancer action. A pair of insulators flanking the gene in any orientation exhibited increased insulation activity. We detected promoter-independent synthesis of non-coding RNA in the intergenic region of the constructs, which was induced by the enhancer in both directions and repressed by a single insulator or a pair of insulators. These results highlight the involvement of RNA-tracking mechanisms in the communications between enhancers and promoters, which are inhibited by insulators.

  15. MicroRNA-24 can control triacylglycerol synthesis in goat mammary epithelial cells by targeting the fatty acid synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Luo, J; Chen, Z; Cao, W T; Xu, H F; Gou, D M; Zhu, J J

    2015-12-01

    In nonruminants it has been demonstrated that microRNA-24 (miR-24) is involved in preadipocyte differentiation, hepatic lipid, and plasma triacylglycerol synthesis. However, its role in ruminant mammary gland remains unclear. In this study we measured miR-24 expression in goat mammary gland tissue at 4 different stages of lactation and observed that it had highest expression at peak lactation when compared with the dry period. Overexpression or downregulation of miR-24 in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) strongly affected fatty acid profiles; in particular, miR-24 enhanced unsaturated fatty acid concentration. Additional effects of miR-24 included changes in triacylglycerol content and the expression of fatty acid synthase, sterol regulatory element binding transcription protein 1, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase mitochondrial, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that fatty acid synthase is a target of miR-24. Taken together, these results not only highlight the physiological importance of miR-24 in fatty acid metabolism in GMEC, but also laid the foundation for further research on regulatory mechanisms among miR-24 and other microRNA expressed in GMEC. PMID:26476938

  16. Preclinical activity of 8-chloroadenosine with mantle cell lymphoma: Roles of energy depletion and inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dennison, Jennifer B.; Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Gandhi, Varsha

    2009-01-01

    8-Chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado), an RNA-directed nucleoside analog, is currently being evaluated in phase I clinical trials for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In the current study, the efficacy of 8-Cl-Ado was evaluated using mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines: Granta 519, JeKo, Mino, and SP-53. After continuous exposure to 10 μM 8-Cl-Ado for 24 h, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and PARP cleavage were detected in 3 of 4 cell lines. Reduced ATP levels (30 to 60% reduction) and concurrent 8-Cl-ATP accumulation were highly associated with cell death (P < 0.01). The intracellular 8-Cl-ATP concentrations were also highly correlated with inhibition of global transcription (50 to 90%, r2 = 0.90, P < 0.01). However, the inhibition of transcription only accounted for 30 to 40% of cell death as determined by equivalent inhibition with actinomycin D. Likewise, short-lived mRNAs, those encoding cyclin D1 and Mcl-1, were not consistently reduced after treatment. Unique to MCL as compared to other hematological malignancies, 8-Cl-Ado inhibited the rates of DNA synthesis and selectively depleted dATP pools (50 to 80%). We conclude that the DNA and RNA directed actions of 8-Cl-Ado in combination with depleted energetics may promote cell death and inhibit growth of MCL cell lines. PMID:19709085

  17. The transition from noncoded to coded protein synthesis: did coding mRNAs arise from stability-enhancing binding partners to tRNA?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the origin of protein synthesis has been notoriously difficult. We have taken as a starting premise Wolf and Koonin's view that "evolution of the translation system is envisaged to occur in a compartmentalized ensemble of replicating, co-selected RNA segments, i.e., in an RNA world containing ribozymes with versatile activities". Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that coded protein synthesis arose from a noncoded process in an RNA world as a natural consequence of the accumulation of a range of early tRNAs and their serendipitous RNA binding partners. We propose that, initially, RNA molecules with 3' CCA termini that could be aminoacylated by ribozymes, together with an ancestral peptidyl transferase ribozyme, produced small peptides with random or repetitive sequences. Our concept is that the first tRNA arose in this context from the ligation of two RNA hairpins and could be similarly aminoacylated at its 3' end to become a substrate for peptidyl transfer catalyzed by the ancestral ribozyme. Within this RNA world we hypothesize that proto-mRNAs appeared first simply as serendipitous binding partners, forming complementary base pair interactions with the anticodon loops of tRNA pairs. Initially this may have enhanced stability of the paired tRNA molecules so they were held together in close proximity, better positioning the 3' CCA termini for peptidyl transfer and enhancing the rate of peptide synthesis. If there were a selective advantage for the ensemble through the peptide products synthesized, it would provide a natural pathway for the evolution of a coding system with the expansion of a cohort of different tRNAs and their binding partners. The whole process could have occurred quite unremarkably for such a profound acquisition. Testing the hypothesis It should be possible to test the different parts of our model using the isolated contemporary 50S ribosomal subunit initially, and then with RNAs transcribed in vitro together

  18. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus and Discovery of a Recombinant Swine Enteric Coronavirus, Italy.

    PubMed

    Boniotti, M Beatrice; Papetti, Alice; Lavazza, Antonio; Alborali, Giovanni; Sozzi, Enrica; Chiapponi, Chiara; Faccini, Silvia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Cordioli, Paolo; Marthaler, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has been detected sporadically in Italy since the 1990s. We report the phylogenetic relationship of swine enteric coronaviruses collected in Italy during 2007-2014 and identify a drastic shift in PEDV strain variability and a new swine enteric coronavirus generated by recombination of transmissible gastroenteritis virus and PEDV.

  19. The human PAF complex coordinates transcription with events downstream of RNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Mandal, Subhrangsu S.; Pham, Anh-Dung; Zheng, Yong; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Batra, Surinder K.; Tempst, Paul; Reinberg, Danny

    2005-01-01

    The yeast PAF (yPAF) complex interacts with RNA polymerase II and coordinates the setting of histone marks associated with active transcription. We report the isolation and functional characterization of the human PAF (hPAF) complex. hPAF shares four subunits with yPAF (hCtr9, hPaf1, hLeo1, and hCdc73), but contains a novel higher eukaryotic-specific subunit, hSki8. RNAi against hSki8 or hCtr9 reduces the cellular levels of other hPAF subunits and of mono- and trimethylated H3-Lys 4 and dimethylated H3-Lys 79. The hSki8 subunit is also a component of the human SKI (hSKI) complex. Yeast SKI complex is cytoplasmic and together with Exosome mediates 3′–5′ mRNA degradation. However, hSKI complex localizes to both nucleus and cytoplasm. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that hPAF and hSKI complexes interact, and ChIP experiments demonstrated that hSKI associates with transcriptionally active genes dependent on the presence of hPAF. Thus, in addition to coordinating events during transcription (initiation, promoter clearance, and elongation), hPAF also coordinates events in RNA quality control. PMID:16024656

  20. THE INTRACELLULAR CARGO RECEPTOR ERGIC-53 IS REQUIRED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF INFECTIOUS ARENAVIRUS, CORONAVIRUS, AND FILOVIRUS PARTICLES

    PubMed Central

    Klaus, Joseph; Eisenhauer, Philip; Russo, Joanne; Mason, Anne; Do, Danh; King, Benjamin; Taatjes, Douglas; Cornillez-Ty, Cromwell; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Thali, Markus; Zheng, Chunlei; Liao, Lujian; Yates, John R.; Zhang, Bin; Ballif, Bryan A.; Botten, Jason

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Arenaviruses and hantaviruses cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans. Little is known regarding host proteins required for their propagation. We identified human proteins that interact with the glycoproteins (GPs) of a prototypic arenavirus and hantavirus and show that the lectin ERGIC-53 - a cargo receptor required for cellular glycoprotein trafficking within the early exocytic pathway - associates with arenavirus, hantavirus, coronavirus, orthomyxovirus, and filovirus GPs. ERGIC-53 binds to arenavirus GPs through a lectin-independent mechanism, traffics to arenavirus budding sites, and is incorporated into arenavirus particles. ERGIC-53 is required for arenavirus, coronavirus, and filovirus propagation; in its absence, GP-containing virus particles form, but are noninfectious due, in part, to their inability to attach to host cells. Thus, we have identified a class of pathogen-derived ERGIC-53 ligands, a lectin-independent basis for their association with ERGIC-53, and a role for ERGIC-53 in the propagation of several highly pathogenic RNA virus families. PMID:24237698

  1. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats

    PubMed Central

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide. PMID:26633467

  2. Alphacoronaviruses Detected in French Bats Are Phylogeographically Linked to Coronaviruses of European Bats.

    PubMed

    Goffard, Anne; Demanche, Christine; Arthur, Laurent; Pinçon, Claire; Michaux, Johan; Dubuisson, Jean

    2015-12-02

    Bats are a reservoir for a diverse range of viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs). To determine the presence of CoVs in French bats, fecal samples were collected between July and August of 2014 from four bat species in seven different locations around the city of Bourges in France. We present for the first time the presence of alpha-CoVs in French Pipistrellus pipistrellus bat species with an estimated prevalence of 4.2%. Based on the analysis of a fragment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, phylogenetic analyses show that alpha-CoVs sequences detected in French bats are closely related to other European bat alpha-CoVs. Phylogeographic analyses of RdRp sequences show that several CoVs strains circulate in European bats: (i) old strains detected that have probably diverged a long time ago and are detected in different bat subspecies; (ii) strains detected in Myotis and Pipistrellus bat species that have more recently diverged. Our findings support previous observations describing the complexity of the detected CoVs in bats worldwide.

  3. Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Ortego, Javier; Ceriani, Juan E.; Patino, Cristina; Plana, Juan; Enjuanes, Luis

    2007-11-25

    A recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (rTGEV) in which E gene was deleted (rTGEV-{delta}E) has been engineered. This deletion mutant only grows in cells expressing E protein (E{sup +} cells) indicating that E was an essential gene for TGEV replication. Electron microscopy studies of rTGEV-{delta}E infected BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells showed that only immature intracellular virions were assembled. These virions were non-infectious and not secreted to the extracellular medium in BHK-pAPN-E{sup -} cells. RNA and protein composition analysis by RNase-gold and immunoelectron microscopy showed that rTGEV-{delta}E virions contained RNA and also all the structural TGEV proteins, except the deleted E protein. Nevertheless, full virion maturation was blocked. Studies of the rTGEV-{delta}E subcellular localization by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy in infected E{sup -} cells showed that in the absence of E protein virus trafficking was arrested in the intermediate compartment. Therefore, the absence of E protein in TGEV resulted in two actions, a blockade of virus trafficking in the membranes of the secretory pathway, and prevention of full virus maturation.

  4. Enhancement of RNA Synthesis in Avian Liver Cell Cultures by a 5β-Steroid Metabolite During Induction of δ-Aminolevulinate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Incefy, Genevieve S.; Kappas, Attallah

    1974-01-01

    The porphyrin-heme pathway is controlled in the liver at the level of the mitochondrial enzyme δ-aminolevulinate synthase (EC 2.3.1.37), a protein inducible in cultured avian hepatocytes by a variety of chemicals including certain 5β-metabolites of steroid hormones. The great sensitivity of the induction process to inhibition by agents known to block transcriptional activity of genetic material suggests that some control mechanism may be operating at this level to regulate the formation of the enzyme. We report here enhancement of nuclear RNA synthesis and of Mn2+-(NH4)2SO4-stimulated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) activities by the 5β-steroid metabolite, 3α-hydroxy-5β-androstan-17-one (etiocholanolone), in cultured avian hepatocytes during induction of the enzyme. These changes were demonstrated in the G1 phase of the hepatocyte cell cycle at a time when DNA synthesis is constant. Our findings support the view that one of the early steps in the process of induction of δ-aminolevulinate synthase by steroid metabolites requires new RNA synthesis, very probably messenger RNA, suggesting a 5β-steroid transcriptional control mechanism for induction of this protein. Images PMID:4526207

  5. MicL, a new σE-dependent sRNA, combats envelope stress by repressing synthesis of Lpp, the major outer membrane lipoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Monica S.; Updegrove, Taylor B.; Gogol, Emily B.; Shabalina, Svetlana A.; Gross, Carol A.; Storz, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    In enteric bacteria, the transcription factor σE maintains membrane homeostasis by inducing synthesis of proteins involved in membrane repair and two small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that down-regulate synthesis of abundant membrane porins. Here, we describe the discovery of a third σE-dependent sRNA, MicL (mRNA-interfering complementary RNA regulator of Lpp), transcribed from a promoter located within the coding sequence of the cutC gene. MicL is synthesized as a 308-nucleotide (nt) primary transcript that is processed to an 80-nt form. Both forms possess features typical of Hfq-binding sRNAs but surprisingly target only a single mRNA, which encodes the outer membrane lipoprotein Lpp, the most abundant protein of the cell. We show that the copper sensitivity phenotype previously ascribed to inactivation of the cutC gene is actually derived from the loss of MicL and elevated Lpp levels. This observation raises the possibility that other phenotypes currently attributed to protein defects are due to deficiencies in unappreciated regulatory RNAs. We also report that σE activity is sensitive to Lpp abundance and that MicL and Lpp comprise a new σE regulatory loop that opposes membrane stress. Together MicA, RybB, and MicL allow σE to repress the synthesis of all abundant outer membrane proteins in response to stress. PMID:25030700

  6. Fluctuations in protein synthesis from a single RNA template: Stochastic kinetics of ribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garai, Ashok; Chowdhury, Debashish; Ramakrishnan, T. V.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins are polymerized by cyclic machines called ribosomes, which use their messenger RNA (mRNA) track also as the corresponding template, and the process is called translation. We explore, in depth and detail, the stochastic nature of the translation. We compute various distributions associated with the translation process; one of them—namely, the dwell time distribution—has been measured in recent single-ribosome experiments. The form of the distribution, which fits best with our simulation data, is consistent with that extracted from the experimental data. For our computations, we use a model that captures both the mechanochemistry of each individual ribosome and their steric interactions. We also demonstrate the effects of the sequence inhomogeneities of real genes on the fluctuations and noise in translation. Finally, inspired by recent advances in the experimental techniques of manipulating single ribosomes, we make theoretical predictions on the force-velocity relation for individual ribosomes. In principle, all our predictions can be tested by carrying out in vitro experiments.

  7. Inhibition of the synthesis of a cytochrome-c-oxidase subunit isoform by antisense RNA.

    PubMed

    Sandonà, D; Bisson, R

    1994-02-01

    To investigate the role of subunit VIIe, an oxygen-regulated subunit isoform of Dictyostelium discoideum cytochrome-c oxidase, the full-length cDNA was inserted into an expression vector under the control of an actin promoter in the sense and antisense orientation. The DNA constructs were used for stable transformation of the slime mold amoebae. In most of the 28 antisense clones tested, the concentration of cytochrome-c oxidase was lowered compared to the wild type, while no significant changes were found in the sense mutants. Antisense RNA was abundantly expressed, leading to a drastic reduction of the steady-state level of the endogenous subunit VIIe mRNA, which was decreased up to 20-30% the level observed in parent cells. In these transformants, the amount of the target polypeptide and cytochrome c oxidase was 40-50% and 60-70% of control, respectively. A similar decrease was found in the level of the remaining nuclear and mitochondrial subunits. Unexpectedly, these changes affected neither basal nor uncoupled cell respiration suggesting an increase of the enzyme specific activity. Hypoxia completely relieved the cytochrome-c-oxidase deficit. These results indicate that subunit VII is needed for an efficient assembly of the protein complex and provide evidence for its involvement in the modulation of the enzyme activity. PMID:8112318

  8. Non-enzymatic template-directed synthesis on RNA random copolymers - Poly(C, U) templates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joyce, G. F.; Inoue, T.; Orgel, L. E.

    1984-01-01

    Random copolymer templates containing cytosine and uracil in ratios of 3:1 and 1:1 are used to explore the optimum conditions for efficient synthesis of guanine and adenine-containing oligonucleotides. The experimental procedure is described, including the preparation of mononucleoside 5'-phospho-2-methylimidazolides and random copolymers, the template-directed oligomerization, the removal and reintroduction of mononucleotides in interrupted reactions, the determination of oligomerization efficiency, the alkaline and enzymatic hydrolysis of reaction products, and the column chromatography. Results are presented and discussed for the dependence of adenine incorporation on the formation of short oligo(G)s, optimization of incorporation efficiencies by adjusting monomer concentrations, the characterization of oligomeric product distribution, and the regiospecificity of adenine incorporation. The prebiotic significance of the results is assessed.

  9. Coordinated Regulation of Extracellular Matrix Synthesis by the MicroRNA-29 Family in the Trabecular Meshwork

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Guadalupe; Oh, Dong-Jin; Kang, Min Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. The microRNA-29 (miR-29) family has emerged, in various tissues, as a key modulator of extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. In this study, the authors investigate the role of the miR-29 family in the regulation of ECM synthesis in the trabecular meshwork (TM) under basal and TGF-β2 stimulatory conditions. Methods. Human TM cells were incubated with 2.5 ng/mL activated, recombinant human TGF-β2 for 24, 48, and 72 hours. A specific pharmacologic inhibitor was used to block SMAD3 function in the context of TGF-β2 stimulation. Changes in the expression of the miR-29 family were assessed by real-time PCR. The effect of miR-29 molecules and inhibitors on ECM levels was determined by immunoblot analysis. Results. All three members of the miR-29 family were expressed in cultured TM cells. Although the incubation of TM cells with TGF-β2 induced miR-29a and suppressed miR-29b levels, no significant effect was observed on miR-29c expression. Additional studies revealed that SMAD3 modulates miR-29b expression under basal and TGF-β2 conditions. Subsequent gain- and loss-of-function experiments demonstrated that the miR-29 family functions as a critical suppressor of various ECM proteins under basal and TGF-β2 stimulatory conditions. Conclusions. The findings derived from this study identify the miR-29 family as a critical regulator of ECM expression in the TM and suggest that its modulation by TGF-β2 may be important in controlling ECM synthesis. Together, these data provide further insight into the complex regulatory mechanisms mediating TGF-β2 signaling and ECM production in the TM. PMID:21330653

  10. The Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Stimulates NS5B During In Vitro RNA Synthesis in a Template Specific Manner

    PubMed Central

    Quezada, Elizabeth M; Kane, Caroline M

    2009-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B protein contains the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity that catalyzes the synthesis of the viral genome with other host and viral factors. NS5A is an HCV-encoded protein previously shown to localize to the replisome and be necessary for viral replication. However, its role in replication has not been defined. Using an in vitro biochemical assay, we detected a stimulatory effect of NS5A on the NS5B replication reaction with minimal natural templates. NS5A stimulates replication by NS5B on two templates derived from the 3’ end of the RNA genome (4 fold ± 1.3 fold). A pre-incubation step with the two proteins prior to the replication reaction and substoichiometric levels of NS5A are required for detecting stimulation. With a template derived from the 3’end complementary to the RNA genome (the negative strand) no stimulation was observed. Furthermore, with a synthetic template that allows studying different phases of replication, NS5A stimulates NS5B during elongation. These findings suggest that NS5A stimulates NS5B during synthesis of the complementary (i.e., negative) strand of the RNA genome. PMID:19590581

  11. Trans-acting small interfering RNA4: key to nutraceutical synthesis in 1 grape development?

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    The facility and versatility of microRNAs (miRNAs) to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of eukaryotic genomes. In this opinion article I propose that trans-acting small interfering RNA gene 4 (TAS4) evolution may be important for biosynthesis of polyphenolics, arbuscular symbiosis, and bacterial pathogen etiologies. Expression-based and phylogenetic evidence shows that TAS4 targets two novel grape (Vitis vinifera L.) MYB transcription factors (VvMYBA6, VvMYBA7) that spawn phased siRNAs and likely function in nutraceutical bioflavonoid biosynthesis and fruit development. Characterization of the molecular mechanisms of TAS4 control of plant development and integration into biotic and abiotic stress- and nutrient signaling regulatory networks has applicability to molecular breeding and development of strategies for engineering healthier foods. PMID:23993483

  12. Rickettsia prowazekii transports UMP and GMP, but not CMP, as building blocks for RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Winkler, H H; Daugherty, R; Hu, F

    1999-05-01

    Rickettsia prowazekii, the etiological agent of epidemic typhus, is an obligate intracellular bacterium and is apparently unable to synthesize ribonucleotides de novo. Here, we show that as an alternative, isolated, purified R. prowazekii organisms transported exogenous uridyl- and guanylribonucleotides and incorporated these labeled precursors into their RNA in a rifampin-sensitive manner. Transport systems for nucleotides, which we have shown previously and show here are present in rickettsiae, have never been reported in free-living bacteria, and the usual nucleobase and nucleoside transport systems are absent in rickettsiae. There was a clear preference for the monophosphate form of ribonucleotides as the transported substrate. In contrast, rickettsiae did not transport cytidylribonucleotides. The source of rickettsial CTP appears to be the transport of UMP followed by its phosphorylation and the amination of intrarickettsial UTP to CTP by CTP synthetase. A complete schema of nucleotide metabolism in rickettsiae is presented that is based on a combination of biochemical, physiological, and genetic information. PMID:10322027

  13. Simple synthesis of carbon-11 labeled styryl dyes as new potential PET RNA-specific, living cell imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Gao, Mingzhang; Miller, Kathy D; Sledge, George W; Hutchins, Gary D; Zheng, Qi-Huang

    2009-05-01

    A new type of styryl dyes have been developed as RNA-specific, live cell imaging probes for fluorescent microscopy technology to study nuclear structure and function. This study was designed to develop carbon-11 labeled styryl dyes as new probes for biomedical imaging technique positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of RNA in living cells. Precursors (E)-2-(2-(1-(triisopropylsilyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)vinyl)quinoline (2), (E)-2-(2,4,6-trimethoxystyryl)quinoline (3) and (E)-4-(2-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)vinyl)-N,N-diemthylaniline (4), and standards styryl dyes E36 (6), E144 (7) and F22 (9) were synthesized in multiple steps with moderate to high chemical yields. Precursor 2 was labeled by [(11)C]CH(3)OTf, trapped on a cation-exchange CM Sep-Pak cartridge following a quick deprotecting reaction by addition of (n-Bu)(4)NF in THF, and isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification to provide target tracer [(11)C]E36 ([(11)C]6) in 40-50% radiochemical yields, decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB), based on [(11)C]CO(2). The target tracers [(11)C]E144 ([(11)C]7) and [(11)C]F22 ([(11)C]9) were prepared by N-[(11)C]methylation of the precursors 3 and 4, respectively, using [(11)C]CH(3)OTf and isolated by SPE method in 50-70% radiochemical yields at EOB. The specific activity of the target tracers [(11)C]6, [(11)C]7 and [(11)C]9 was in a range of 74-111GBq/mumol at the end of synthesis (EOS).

  14. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp involves differential expression of rRNA and molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Nardocci, Gino; Fernandez de la Reguera, Catalina; Simonet, Nicolas; Fumeron, Robinson; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA transcription, were evaluated during the seasonal acclimatization of the carp. First, the nucleotide sequences encoding the components forming the NoRC (ttf-I, tip5) and eNoSC (sirt1, nml, suv39h1), two chromatin remodeling complexes that silence rRNA synthesis, as well as the sequence of ubf1, a key regulator of rDNA transcription, were obtained. Subsequently the transcriptional regulation of the aforementioned molecules, and other key molecules involved in rRNA synthesis (mh2a1, mh2a2, h2a.z, h2a.z.7, nuc, p80), was assessed. The carp sequences for TTF-I, TIP5, SIRT1, NML, SUV39H1, and UBF1 showed a high conservation of domains and key amino acids in comparison with other fish and higher vertebrates. The mRNA contents in muscle for ttf-I, tip5, sirt1, nml, suv39h1, mh2a1, mh2a.z, and nuc were up-regulated during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the mRNA levels of mh2a2, ubf1, and p80 were down-regulated. Also, the contents of molecules involved in processing the rRNA (snoRNAs) and pRNA, a stabilizer of NoRC complex, were analyzed, finding that these non-coding RNAs were not affected by seasonal acclimatization. These results suggest that variations in the expression of rRNA and the molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis are contributing to the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp.

  15. Skeletal muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp involves differential expression of rRNA and molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Zuloaga, Rodrigo; Nardocci, Gino; Fernandez de la Reguera, Catalina; Simonet, Nicolas; Fumeron, Robinson; Valdes, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo; Alvarez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal biogenesis controls cellular growth in living organisms, with the rate-limiting step of this process being the transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Considering that epigenetic mechanisms allow an organism to respond to environmental changes, the expression in muscle of several molecules that regulate epigenetic rRNA synthesis, as well as rDNA transcription, were evaluated during the seasonal acclimatization of the carp. First, the nucleotide sequences encoding the components forming the NoRC (ttf-I, tip5) and eNoSC (sirt1, nml, suv39h1), two chromatin remodeling complexes that silence rRNA synthesis, as well as the sequence of ubf1, a key regulator of rDNA transcription, were obtained. Subsequently the transcriptional regulation of the aforementioned molecules, and other key molecules involved in rRNA synthesis (mh2a1, mh2a2, h2a.z, h2a.z.7, nuc, p80), was assessed. The carp sequences for TTF-I, TIP5, SIRT1, NML, SUV39H1, and UBF1 showed a high conservation of domains and key amino acids in comparison with other fish and higher vertebrates. The mRNA contents in muscle for ttf-I, tip5, sirt1, nml, suv39h1, mh2a1, mh2a.z, and nuc were up-regulated during winter in comparison with summer, whereas the mRNA levels of mh2a2, ubf1, and p80 were down-regulated. Also, the contents of molecules involved in processing the rRNA (snoRNAs) and pRNA, a stabilizer of NoRC complex, were analyzed, finding that these non-coding RNAs were not affected by seasonal acclimatization. These results suggest that variations in the expression of rRNA and the molecules that epigenetically regulate its synthesis are contributing to the muscle plasticity induced by seasonal acclimatization in carp. PMID:24769445

  16. Animal models of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    van Doremalen, Neeltje; Munster, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012 marked the second time that a new, highly pathogenic coronavirus has emerged in the human population in the 21st century. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Commonly used laboratory animal species such as Syrian hamsters, mice and ferrets are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, due to differences in the MERS-CoV receptor dipeptyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). The initially developed animal models comprise two nonhuman primate species, the rhesus macaque and the common marmoset. Rhesus macaques develop a mild to moderate respiratory disease upon inoculation, reminiscent of milder MERS cases, whereas marmosets develop a moderate to severe respiratory disease, recapitulating the severe disease observed in some patients. Dromedary camels, considered to be the reservoir for MERS-CoV, develop a mild upper respiratory tract infection with abundant viral shedding. Although normal mice are not susceptible to MERS-CoV, expression of the human DPP4 (hDPP4) overcomes the lack of susceptibility. Transgenic hDPP4 mice develop severe and lethal respiratory disease upon inoculation with MERS-CoV. These hDPP4 transgenic mice are potentially the ideal first line animal model for efficacy testing of therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures. Further characterization of identified countermeasures would ideally be performed in the common marmoset model, due to the more severe disease outcome. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on “From SARS to MERS: research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses.” PMID:26192750

  17. Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Baldwin, Heather J.; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Maganga, Gael Darren; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Leroy, Eric M.; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia; Poon, Leo L. M.; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3′ end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E. IMPORTANCE The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in

  18. Slowed transcription and rapid messenger RNA turnover contribute to a decline in synthesis of ovine trophoblast protein-1 during in vitro culture

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.R.; Cross, J.C.; Farin, C.E.; Imakawa, K.; Roberts, R.M. )

    1991-07-01

    Ovine trophoblast protein-1 (oTP-1) is produced in massive amounts by conceptuses during the Day-12-20-period of early pregnancy. The rate of production of oTP-1 declines during culture of conceptuses, however, suggesting a role for critical intrauterine factors for continued production. The present study was conducted to define the mechanism responsible for the in vitro decline in oTP-1 synthesis. Over 24 h culture, synthesis of oTP-1 was initially rapid but then declined such that there was little increase in either the protein or its antiviral activity after 12 h. By contrast, the release of total protein into the medium continued at an approximately linear rate for the entire 24-h period of culture. By using in situ hybridization to tissue sections and dot-blot analysis of tissue extracts with labeled cDNA probes, it was shown that the quantity of oTP-1 mRNA fell 3- to 5-fold during culture, whereas the amount of actin mRNA remained relatively constant. To determine whether this selective fall in levels of oTP-1 mRNA resulted from decreased transcription rate and/or high turnover rate of existing mRNA, conceptuses were either provided continuously with (3H)uridine for 24 h or labeled for 9 h and then exposed to medium enriched in unlabeled uridine and cytidine for a further 15 h. Specific incorporation of 3H into oTP-1 mRNA was assessed by hybridization to excess oTP-1 cDNA immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes. In the continuous labeling study, 3H in total RNA increased at an approximately linear rate for at least 18 h, whereas the content of 3H in oTP-1 mRNA peaked at 9 h and declined about 10-fold by 24 h.

  19. Hypoxia induces IGFBP3 in esophageal squamous cancer cells through HIF-1α-mediated mRNA transcription and continuous protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Naganuma, Seiji; Kagawa, Shingo; Ohashi, Shinya; Ahmadi, Azal; Subramanian, Harry; Chang, Sanders; Nakagawa, Kei J.; Ji, Xinjun; Liebhaber, Stephen A.; Klein-Szanto, Andres J.; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. We have investigated how the hypoxic tumor microenvironment in ESCC fosters the induction of IGFBP3. RNA interference experiments revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, but not HIF-2α, regulates IGFBP3 mRNA induction. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and transfection assays, HIF-1α was found to transactivate IGFBP3 through a novel hypoxia responsive element (HRE) located at 57 kb upstream from the transcription start site. Metabolic labeling experiments demonstrated hypoxia-mediated inhibition of global protein synthesis. 7-Methyl GTP-cap binding assays suggested that hypoxia suppresses cap-dependent translation. Experiments using pharmacological inhibitors for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) suggested that a relatively weak mTOR activity may be sufficient for cap-dependent translation of IGFBP3 under hypoxic conditions. Bicistronic RNA reporter transfection assays did not validate the possibility of an internal ribosome entry site as a potential mechanism for cap-independent translation for IGFBP3 mRNA. Finally, IGFBP3 mRNA was found enriched to the polysomes. In aggregate, our study establishes IGFBP3 as a direct HIF-1α target gene and that polysome enrichment of IGFBP3 mRNA may permit continuous translation under hypoxic conditions.—Natsuizaka, M., Naganuma, S., Kagawa, S., Ohashi, S., Ahmadi, A., Subramanian, H., Chang, S., Nakagawa, K. J., Ji, X., Liebhaber, S. A., Klein-Szanto, A. J., Nakagawa, H. Hypoxia induces IGFBP3 in esophageal squamous cancer cells through HIF-1α-mediated mRNA transcription and continuous protein synthesis. PMID:22415309

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Novel Zwitterionic Lipids for Drug and siRNA Delivery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Colin L.

    Lipid-based nanoparticles have long been used to deliver biologically active molecules such as drugs, proteins, peptides, DNA, and siRNA in vivo. Liposomes and lipoplexes alter the biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and cellular uptake of their encapsulated or associated cargo. This can increase drug efficacy while reducing toxicity, resulting in an increased therapeutic index and better clinical outcomes. Unlike small molecule drugs, which passively diffuse through lipid membranes, nucleic acids and proteins require an active, carrier mediated escape mechanism to reach their site of action. As such, the therapeutic application and drug properties dictate the required biophysical characteristics of the lipid nanoparticle. These carrier properties depend on the structure and biophysical characteristics of the lipids and other components used to formulate them. This dissertation presents a series of studies related to the development of novel synthetic lipids for use in drug delivery systems. First, we developed a novel class of zwitterionic lipids with head groups containing a cationic amine and anionic carboxylate and ester-linked oleic acid tails. These lipids exhibit structure-dependent, pH-responsive biophysical properties, and may be useful components for next-generation drug delivery systems. Second, we extended the idea of amine/carboxylate containing zwitterionic head groups and synthesized a series of acetate terminated diacyl lipids containing a quaternary amine. These lipids have an inverted headgroup orientation compared to naturally occurring zwitterionic lipids, and show interesting salt-dependent biophysical properties. Third, we synthesized and characterized a focused library of ionizable lysine-based lipids, which contain a lysine head group linked to a long-chain dialkylamine. A focused library was synthesized to determine the impact of hydrophobic fluidity, lipid net charge, and lipid pKa on the biophysical and siRNA transfection characteristics

  1. Plaque assay for titration of bovine enteric coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Vautherot, J F

    1981-10-01

    The plaquing ability of two isolates of bovine enteric coronavirus (BECV) was studied in HRT18 (human rectal adenocarcinoma) cell monolayers. Both isolates were able to induce plaque formation within 2 to 3 days; plaques appeared as round opalescent areas which remained colourless after neutral red or crystal violet staining. A good correlation was found between the titres as determined either by counting the plaques that were visible to the naked eye before and after neutral red staining, or by enumerating fluorescence or haemadsorption foci.

  2. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  3. DNA binding, cytotoxicity and inhibitory effect on RNA synthesis of two new 1-nitro-9-aminoacridine dimers.

    PubMed

    Markovits, J; Wilmańska, D; Lescot, E; Studzian, K; Szmigiero, L; Gniazdowski, M

    1989-01-01

    Two 1-nitro-9-aminoacridine dimers were prepared: one bearing a spermine flexible linking chain, compound 4, the other a rigid dipiperidine-type linker, compound 7. Both dimers elicited a higher affinity constant for DNA than the parent monomeric drug nitracrine 2. This affinity was several orders lower than what was found for other dimeric compounds having the same linkers and no nitro group on the acridine ring (3, 5, 6 and 8). Bisintercalation was evidenced for compound 4 by viscosimetric measurements. In the absence of dithiothreitol, an inhibitory effect of RNA synthesis in vitro was observed for all the tested compounds except 2 and 7. In the presence of dithiothreitol, 4 and 7 formed irreversible complexes with DNA of decreased template properties. The level of the dimers binding was lower than that of the parent compound 2. Cross-links were detected by means of hydroxylapatite chromatography in a complex of the dimer bearing a flexible linking chain, compound 4 with DNA, while the compound 7-DNA complex eluted in the single-stranded DNA region. The extent of cytotoxicity of the two 1-nitro-9-aminoacridine dimers against L1210 cultured cells was different. PMID:2472225

  4. Residues in human respiratory syncytial virus P protein that are essential for its activity on RNA viral synthesis.

    PubMed

    Asenjo, Ana; Mendieta, Jesús; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Villanueva, Nieves

    2008-03-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) P protein, 241 amino acid long, is a structural homotetrameric phosphoprotein. Viral transcription and replication processes are dependent on functional P protein interactions inside viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs). Binding capacity to RNPs proteins and transcription and replication complementation analyses, using inactive P protein variants, have identified residues essential for functional interactions with itself, L, N and M2-1 proteins. P protein may establish some of these interactions as monomer, but efficient viral transcription and replication requires P protein oligomerization through the central region of the molecule. A structurally stable three-dimensional model has been generated in silico for this region (residues 98-158). Our analysis has indicated that P protein residues L135, D139, E140 and L142 are involved in homotetramerization. Additionally, the residues D136, S156, T160 and E179 appear to be essential for P protein activity on viral RNA synthesis and very high turnover phosphorylation at S143, T160 and T210 could regulate it. Thus, compounds targeted to those of these residues, located in the modeled three-dimensional structure, could have specific anti-HRSV effect.

  5. Synthesis and antiviral activity of PB1 component of the influenza A RNA polymerase peptide fragments.

    PubMed

    Matusevich, O V; Egorov, V V; Gluzdikov, I A; Titov, M I; Zarubaev, V V; Shtro, A A; Slita, A V; Dukov, M I; Shurygina, A-P S; Smirnova, T D; Kudryavtsev, I V; Vasin, A V; Kiselev, O I

    2015-01-01

    This study is devoted to the antiviral activity of peptide fragments from the PB1 protein - a component of the influenza A RNA polymerase. The antiviral activity of the peptides synthesized was studied in MDCK cell cultures against the pandemic influenza strain A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) pdm09. We found that peptide fragments 6-13, 6-14, 26-30, 395-400, and 531-540 of the PB1 protein were capable of suppressing viral replication in cell culture. Terminal modifications i.e. N-acetylation and C-amidation increased the antiviral properties of the peptides significantly. Peptide PB1 (6-14) with both termini modified showed maximum antiviral activity, its inhibitory activity manifesting itself during the early stages of viral replication. It was also shown that the fluorescent-labeled analog of this peptide was able to penetrate into the cell. The broad range of virus-inhibiting activity of PB1 (6-14) peptide was confirmed using a panel of influenza A viruses of H1, H3 and H5 subtypes including those resistant to oseltamivir, the leading drug in anti-influenza therapy. Thus, short peptide fragments of the PB1 protein could serve as leads for future development of influenza prevention and/or treatment agents.

  6. Template-directed synthesis using the heterogeneous templates produced by montmorillonite catalysis. A possible bridge between the prebiotic and RNA worlds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ertem, G.; Ferris, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of oligoguanylates [oligo(G)s] is catalyzed by a template of oligocytidylates [oligo(C)s] containing 2',5'- and 3',5'-linked phosphodiester bonds with and without incorporated C5'ppC groupings. An oligo(C) template containing exclusively 2',5'-phosphodiester bonds also serves as a template for the synthesis of complementary oligo(G)s. The oligo(C) template was prepared by the condensation of the 5'-phosphorimidazolide of cytidine on montmorillonite clay. These studies establish that RNA oligomers prepared by mineral catalysis, or other routes on the primitive earth, did not have to be exclusively 3',5'-linked to catalyze template-directed synthesis, since oligo(C)s containing a variety of linkage isomers serve as templates for the formation of complementary oligo(G)s. These findings support the postulate that origin of the RNA world was initiated by the RNA oligomers produced by polymerization of activated monomers formed by prebiotic processes.

  7. MicroRNA-26a/b and their host genes synergistically regulate triacylglycerol synthesis by targeting the INSIG1 gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Tianying; Tian, Huibin; Ma, Yue; Xu, Huifen; Yao, Dawei; Loor, Juan J

    2016-05-01

    The microRNA-26 (miR-26) family is known to control adipogenesis in non-ruminants. The genomic loci of miR-26a and miR-26b have been localized in the introns of genes encoding for the proteins of the C-terminal domain RNA polymerase II polypeptide A small phosphatase (CTDSP) family. Insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) encodes a protein with a key role in the regulation of lipogenesis in rodent liver. In the present study, we investigated the synergistic function of the miR-26 family and their host genes in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Downregulation of miR-26a/b and their host genes in GMEC decreased the expression of genes relate to fatty acid synthesis (PPARG, LXRA, SREBF1, FASN, ACACA, GPAM, LPIN1, DGAT1 and SCD1), triacylglycerol accumulation and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed INSIG1 as a direct target of miR-26a/b. Furthermore, inhibition of the CTDSP family also downregulated the expression of INSIG1. Taken together, our findings highlight a functional association of miR-26a/b, their host genes and INSIG1, and provide new insights into the regulatory network controlling milk fat synthesis in GMEC. The data indicate that targeting this network via nutrition might be important for regulating milk fat synthesis in ruminants. PMID:27002347

  8. Thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase fusion proteins and their use in cDNA synthesis and next-generation RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sabine; Ghanem, Eman; Smith, Whitney; Sheeter, Dennis; Qin, Yidan; King, Olga; Polioudakis, Damon; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Swamy, Sajani; Kuersten, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2013-07-01

    Mobile group II introns encode reverse transcriptases (RTs) that function in intron mobility ("retrohoming") by a process that requires reverse transcription of a highly structured, 2-2.5-kb intron RNA with high processivity and fidelity. Although the latter properties are potentially useful for applications in cDNA synthesis and next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), group II intron RTs have been difficult to purify free of the intron RNA, and their utility as research tools has not been investigated systematically. Here, we developed general methods for the high-level expression and purification of group II intron-encoded RTs as fusion proteins with a rigidly linked, noncleavable solubility tag, and we applied them to group II intron RTs from bacterial thermophiles. We thus obtained thermostable group II intron RT fusion proteins that have higher processivity, fidelity, and thermostability than retroviral RTs, synthesize cDNAs at temperatures up to 81°C, and have significant advantages for qRT-PCR, capillary electrophoresis for RNA-structure mapping, and next-generation RNA sequencing. Further, we find that group II intron RTs differ from the retroviral enzymes in template switching with minimal base-pairing to the 3' ends of new RNA templates, making it possible to efficiently and seamlessly link adaptors containing PCR-primer binding sites to cDNA ends without an RNA ligase step. This novel template-switching activity enables facile and less biased cloning of nonpolyadenylated RNAs, such as miRNAs or protein-bound RNA fragments. Our findings demonstrate novel biochemical activities and inherent advantages of group II intron RTs for research, biotechnological, and diagnostic methods, with potentially wide applications. PMID:23697550

  9. Competitive fitness in coronaviruses is not correlated with size or number of double-membrane vesicles under reduced-temperature growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Mulla, Hawaa M N; Turrell, Lauren; Smith, Nicola M; Payne, Luke; Baliji, Surendranath; Züst, Roland; Thiel, Volker; Baker, Susan C; Siddell, Stuart G; Neuman, Benjamin W

    2014-01-01

    Positive-stranded viruses synthesize their RNA in membrane-bound organelles, but it is not clear how this benefits the virus or the host. For coronaviruses, these organelles take the form of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) interconnected by a convoluted membrane network. We used electron microscopy to identify murine coronaviruses with mutations in nsp3 and nsp14 that replicated normally while producing only half the normal amount of DMVs under low-temperature growth conditions. Viruses with mutations in nsp5 and nsp16 produced small DMVs but also replicated normally. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) confirmed that the most strongly affected of these, the nsp3 mutant, produced more viral RNA than wild-type virus. Competitive growth assays were carried out in both continuous and primary cells to better understand the contribution of DMVs to viral fitness. Surprisingly, several viruses that produced fewer or smaller DMVs showed a higher fitness than wild-type virus at the reduced temperature, suggesting that larger and more numerous DMVs do not necessarily confer a competitive advantage in primary or continuous cell culture. For the first time, this directly demonstrates that replication and organelle formation may be, at least in part, studied separately during infection with positive-stranded RNA virus. IMPORTANCE The viruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), poliomyelitis, and hepatitis C all replicate in double-membrane vesicles (DMVs). The big question about DMVs is why they exist in the first place. In this study, we looked at thousands of infected cells and identified two coronavirus mutants that made half as many organelles as normal and two others that made typical numbers but smaller organelles. Despite differences in DMV size and number, all four mutants replicated as efficiently as wild-type virus. To better understand the relative importance of replicative organelles, we carried out competitive fitness experiments. None

  10. A small non-coding RNA of the invasion gene island (SPI-1) represses outer membrane protein synthesis from the Salmonella core genome.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Verena; Sittka, Alexandra; Tomer, Raju; Tedin, Karsten; Brinkmann, Volker; Vogel, Jörg

    2007-12-01

    The Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-1) encodes approximately 35 proteins involved in assembly of a type III secretion system (T3SS) which endows Salmonella with the ability to invade eukaryotic cells. We have discovered a novel SPI-1 gene, invR, which expresses an abundant small non-coding RNA (sRNA). The invR gene, which we identified in a global search for new Salmonella sRNA genes, is activated by the major SPI-1 transcription factor, HilD, under conditions that favour host cell invasion. The RNA chaperone, Hfq, is essential for the in vivo stability of the approximately 80 nt InvR RNA. Hfq binds InvR with high affinity in vitro, and InvR co-immunoprecipitates with FLAG epitope-tagged Hfq in Salmonella extracts. Surprisingly, deletion/overexpression of invR revealed no phenotype in SPI-1 regulation. In contrast, we find that InvR represses the synthesis of the abundant OmpD porin encoded by the Salmonella core genome. As invR is conserved in the early branching Salmonella bongori, we speculate that porin repression by InvR may have aided successful establishment of the SPI-1 T3SS after horizontal acquisition in the Salmonella lineage. This study identifies the first regulatory RNA of an enterobacterial pathogenicity island, and new roles for Hfq and HilD in SPI-1 gene expression.

  11. Establishment of serological test to detect antibody against ferret coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    MINAMI, Shohei; TERADA, Yutaka; SHIMODA, Hiroshi; TAKIZAWA, Masaki; ONUMA, Mamoru; OTA, Akihiko; OTA, Yuichi; AKABANE, Yoshihito; TAMUKAI, Kenichi; WATANABE, Keiichiro; NAGANUMA, Yumiko; KANAGAWA, Eiichi; NAKAMURA, Kaneichi; OHASHI, Masanari; TAKAMI, Yoshinori; MIWA, Yasutsugu; TANOUE, Tomoaki; OHWAKI, Masao; OHTA, Jouji; UNE, Yumi; MAEDA, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Since there is no available serological methods to detect antibodies to ferret coronavirus (FRCoV), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant partial nucleocapsid (N) proteins of the ferret coronavirus (FRCoV) Yamaguchi-1 strain was developed to establish a serological method for detection of FRCoV infection. Many serum samples collected from ferrets recognized both a.a. 1–179 and a.a. 180–374 of the N protein, but two serum samples did not a.a. 180–374 of the N protein. This different reactivity was also confirmed by immunoblot analysis using the serum from the ferret.Therefore, the a.a. 1–179 of the N protein was used as an ELISA antigen. Serological test was carried out using sera or plasma of ferrets in Japan. Surprisingly, 89% ferrets in Japan had been infected with FRCoV. These results indicated that our established ELISA using a.a. 1–179 of the N protein is useful for detection of antibody to FRCoV for diagnosis and seroepidemiology of FRCoV infection. PMID:26935842

  12. Coronaviridae and SARS-associated coronavirus strain HSR1.

    PubMed

    Vicenzi, Elisa; Canducci, Filippo; Pinna, Debora; Mancini, Nicasio; Carletti, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Bordignon, Claudio; Poli, Guido; Clementi, Massimo

    2004-03-01

    During the recent severe acute respiratory (SARS) outbreak, the etiologic agent was identified as a new coronavirus (CoV). We have isolated a SARS-associated CoV (SARS-CoV) strain by injecting Vero cells with a sputum specimen from an Italian patient affected by a severe pneumonia; the patient traveled from Vietnam to Italy in March 2003. Ultrastructural analysis of infected Vero cells showed the virions within cell vesicles and around the cell membrane. The full-length viral genome sequence was similar to those derived from the Hong-Kong Hotel M isolate. By using both real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay and an infectivity plaque assay, we determined that approximately 360 viral genomes were required to generate a PFU. In addition, heparin (100 microg/mL) inhibited infection of Vero cells by 50%. Overall, the molecular and biologic characteristics of the strain HSR1 provide evidence that SARS-CoV forms a fourth genetic coronavirus group with distinct genomic and biologic features. PMID:15109406

  13. Coronaviridae and SARS-associated Coronavirus Strain HSR1

    PubMed Central

    Canducci, Filippo; Pinna, Debora; Mancini, Nicasio; Carletti, Silvia; Lazzarin, Adriano; Bordignon, Claudio; Poli, Guido; Clementi, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    During the recent severe acute respiratory (SARS) outbreak, the etiologic agent was identified as a new coronavirus (CoV). We have isolated a SARS-associated CoV (SARS-CoV) strain by injecting Vero cells with a sputum specimen from an Italian patient affected by a severe pneumonia; the patient traveled from Vietnam to Italy in March 2003. Ultrastructural analysis of infected Vero cells showed the virions within cell vesicles and around the cell membrane. The full-length viral genome sequence was similar to those derived from the Hong-Kong Hotel M isolate. By using both real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assay and an infectivity plaque assay, we determined that approximately 360 viral genomes were required to generate a PFU. In addition, heparin (100 μg/mL) inhibited infection of Vero cells by 50%. Overall, the molecular and biologic characteristics of the strain HSR1 provide evidence that SARS-CoV forms a fourth genetic coronavirus group with distinct genomic and biologic features. PMID:15109406

  14. Coronavirus envelope (E) protein remains at the site of assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatagopalan, Pavithra; Daskalova, Sasha M.; Lopez, Lisa A.; Dolezal, Kelly A.; Hogue, Brenda G.

    2015-04-15

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) assemble at endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) membranes and egress from cells in cargo vesicles. Only a few molecules of the envelope (E) protein are assembled into virions. The role of E in morphogenesis is not fully understood. The cellular localization and dynamics of mouse hepatitis CoV A59 (MHV) E protein were investigated to further understanding of its role during infection. E protein localized in the ERGIC and Golgi with the amino and carboxy termini in the lumen and cytoplasm, respectively. E protein does not traffic to the cell surface. MHV was genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag at the carboxy end of E. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) showed that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes. Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) confirmed the presence of E in Golgi cisternae. The results provide strong support that E proteins carry out their function(s) at the site of budding/assembly. - Highlights: • Mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV-CoV) E protein localizes in the ERGIC and Golgi. • MHV-CoV E does not transport to the cell surface. • MHV-CoV can be genetically engineered with a tetracysteine tag appended to E. • First FRAP and correlative light electron microscopy of a CoV E protein. • Live-cell imaging shows that E is mobile in ERGIC/Golgi membranes.

  15. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L.; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 minutes of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 minutes to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  16. Inactivation and safety testing of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mia; Mazur, Steven; Ork, Britini L; Postnikova, Elena; Hensley, Lisa E; Jahrling, Peter B; Johnson, Reed; Holbrook, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a recently emerged virus that has caused a number of human infections and deaths, primarily in the Middle East. The transmission of MERS-CoV to humans has been proposed to be as a result of contact with camels, but evidence of human-to-human transmission also exists. In order to work with MERS-CoV in a laboratory setting, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has determined that MERS-CoV should be handled at a biosafety level (BSL) 3 (BSL-3) biocontainment level. Many processes and procedures used to characterize MERS-CoV and to evaluate samples from MERS-CoV infected animals are more easily and efficiently completed at BSL-2 or lower containment. In order to complete experimental work at BSL-2, demonstration or proof of inactivation is required before removal of specimens from biocontainment laboratories. In the studies presented here, we evaluated typical means of inactivating viruses prior to handling specimens at a lower biocontainment level. We found that Trizol, AVL buffer and gamma irradiation were effective at inactivating MERS-CoV, that formaldehyde-based solutions required at least 30 min of contact time in a cell culture system while a mixture of methanol and acetone required 60 min to inactivate MERS-CoV. Together, these data provide a foundation for safely inactivating MERS-CoV, and potentially other coronaviruses, prior to removal from biocontainment facilities. PMID:26190637

  17. Demyelination determinants map to the spike glycoprotein gene of coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Das Sarma, J; Fu, L; Tsai, J C; Weiss, S R; Lavi, E

    2000-10-01

    Demyelination is the pathologic hallmark of the human immune-mediated neurologic disease multiple sclerosis, which may be triggered or exacerbated by viral infections. Several experimental animal models have been developed to study the mechanism of virus-induced demyelination, including coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) infection in mice. The envelope spike (S) glycoprotein of MHV contains determinants of properties essential for virus-host interactions. However, the molecular determinants of MHV-induced demyelination are still unknown. To investigate the mechanism of MHV-induced demyelination, we examined whether the S gene of MHV contains determinants of demyelination and whether demyelination is linked to viral persistence. Using targeted RNA recombination, we replaced the S gene of a demyelinating virus (MHV-A59) with the S gene of a closely related, nondemyelinating virus (MHV-2). Recombinant viruses containing an S gene derived from MHV-2 in an MHV-A59 background (Penn98-1 and Penn98-2) exhibited a persistence-positive, demyelination-negative phenotype. Thus, determinants of demyelination map to the S gene of MHV. Furthermore, viral persistence is insufficient to induce demyelination, although it may be a prerequisite for the development of demyelination.

  18. Coronaviruses and the human airway: a universal system for virus-host interaction studies.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Dijkman, Ronald

    2016-02-06

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are large RNA viruses that infect the human respiratory tract. The emergence of both Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Middle East Respiratory syndrome CoVs as well as the yearly circulation of four common CoVs highlights the importance of elucidating the different mechanisms employed by these viruses to evade the host immune response, determine their tropism and identify antiviral compounds. Various animal models have been established to investigate HCoV infection, including mice and non-human primates. To establish a link between the research conducted in animal models and humans, an organotypic human airway culture system, that recapitulates the human airway epithelium, has been developed. Currently, different cell culture systems are available to recapitulate the human airways, including the Air-Liquid Interface (ALI) human airway epithelium (HAE) model. Tracheobronchial HAE cultures recapitulate the primary entry point of human respiratory viruses while the alveolar model allows for elucidation of mechanisms involved in viral infection and pathogenesis in the alveoli. These organotypic human airway cultures represent a universal platform to study respiratory virus-host interaction by offering more detailed insights compared to cell lines. Additionally, the epidemic potential of this virus family highlights the need for both vaccines and antivirals. No commercial vaccine is available but various effective antivirals have been identified, some with potential for human treatment. These morphological airway cultures are also well suited for the identification of antivirals, evaluation of compound toxicity and viral inhibition.

  19. Transient dominant selection for the modification and generation of recombinant infectious bronchitis coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Keep, Sarah M; Bickerton, Erica; Britton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a reverse genetics system for the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in which a full-length cDNA corresponding to the IBV genome is inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a T7 promoter sequence. Vaccinia virus as a vector for the full-length IBV cDNA has the advantage that modifications can be introduced into the IBV cDNA using homologous recombination, a method frequently used to insert and delete sequences from the vaccinia virus genome. Here, we describe the use of transient dominant selection as a method for introducing modifications into the IBV cDNA; this has been successfully used for the substitution of specific nucleotides, deletion of genomic regions, and the exchange of complete genes. Infectious recombinant IBVs are generated in situ following the transfection of vaccinia virus DNA, containing the modified IBV cDNA, into cells infected with a recombinant fowlpox virus expressing T7 DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

  20. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tanya A.; Wang, Jieru; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker’s RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced b