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Sample records for corpus luteum presence

  1. Human corpus luteum: presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and binding characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyagari, R.R.; Khan-Dawood, F.S.

    1987-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptors are present in many reproductive tissues but have not been demonstrated in the human corpus luteum. To determine the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors and its binding characteristics, we carried out studies on the plasma cell membrane fraction of seven human corpora lutea (days 16 to 25) of the menstrual cycle. Specific epidermal growth factor receptors were present in human corpus luteum. Insulin, nerve growth factor, and human chorionic gonadotropin did not competitively displace epidermal growth factor binding. The optimal conditions for corpus luteum-epidermal growth factor receptor binding were found to be incubation for 2 hours at 4 degrees C with 500 micrograms plasma membrane protein and 140 femtomol /sup 125/I-epidermal growth factor per incubate. The number (mean +/- SEM) of epidermal growth factor binding sites was 12.34 +/- 2.99 X 10(-19) mol/micrograms protein; the dissociation constant was 2.26 +/- 0.56 X 10(-9) mol/L; the association constant was 0.59 +/- 0.12 X 10(9) L/mol. In two regressing corpora lutea obtained on days 2 and 3 of the menstrual cycle, there was no detectable specific epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity. Similarly no epidermal growth factor receptor binding activity could be detected in ovarian stromal tissue. Our findings demonstrate that specific receptors for epidermal growth factor are present in the human corpus luteum. The physiologic significance of epidermal growth factor receptors in human corpus luteum is unknown, but epidermal growth factor may be involved in intragonadal regulation of luteal function.

  2. The presence of corpus luteum may have a negative impact on in vitro developmental competency of bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Hajarian, Hadi; Shahsavari, Mohammad H; Karami-shabankareh, Hamed; Dashtizad, Mojtaba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of the presence or absence of corpus luteum (CL) on in vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were collected from slaughterhouse ovaries and divided according to the presence (CL(+) oocytes) or absence (CL(-) oocytes) of a CL in the ovary. Control oocytes (C group) were obtained from ovaries which were not selected toward the presence or absence of CL. All oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture. In experiment 2, the oocytes from the CL(+) and CL(-) ovaries were divided into grown (BCB(+)) and growing (BCB(-)) categories by means of the brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) test. The oocytes from all groups (CL(+)/BCB(+), CL(-)/BCB(+), CL(+)/BCB(-), CL(-)/BCB(-) and control oocytes) were subjected to in vitro embryo production. In experiment 1, the cleavage and blastocyst rates of CL(-) oocytes were higher than those of CL(+) oocytes (83.9% and 43% vs. 69.3% and 22.5%, respectively). In experiment 2, there was less BCB(+) oocytes (more competent oocytes) in the group of CL(+) oocytes than in the group of CL(-) oocytes. Furthermore, developmental competence of all CL(+) oocytes (CL(+)/BCB(+) and CL(+)/BCB(-)) was lower than that of all CL(-) oocytes (CL(-)/BCB(+) and CL(-)/BCB(-)). Thus, the presence of a corpus luteum in the ovary may have negative effects on developmental competence of ipsilateral oocytes. PMID:26952753

  3. Corpus luteum hemorrhage in women with bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Ron; Brenner, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Bleeding into the corpus luteum following ovulation rarely has clinical significance in healthy women, but may lead to life-threatening hemorrhage in women with congenital or acquired bleeding disorders. Women who are at an increased risk for corpus luteum hemorrhage (CLH) can be divided in two categories; first, those taking anticoagulants because of a thrombotic disorder; and second, women with congenital bleeding disorders. The management and prevention of CLH is still unsettled and the literature dealing with this problem is based on case reports only. This review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment options of an acute bleeding event and prevention modalities of CLH in women with bleeding disorders.

  4. Isolation of endothelial cells and pericytes from swine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Basini, G; Falasconi, I; Bussolati, S; Grolli, S; Ramoni, R; Grasselli, F

    2014-07-01

    From an angiogenesis perspective, the ovary offers a unique opportunity to study the physiological development of blood vessels. The first purpose of this work was to set up a protocol for the isolation of pig corpus luteum endothelial cells, which were characterized by both morphologic parameters and the expression of typical molecular markers; we also verified their ability to form capillary-like structures in a 3-dimensional matrix, their response to hypoxia and their migration in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The effectiveness of our isolation protocol was confirmed by the characteristic "cobblestone shape" of isolated cells at confluence as well as their expression of all the examined endothelial markers. Our data also showed a significant cell production of VEGF and nitric oxide. Isolated endothelial cells were also responsive to hypoxia by increasing the expression and production of VEGF and decreasing that of nitric oxide. In the angiogenesis bioassay, cells displayed the ability of forming capillary-like structures and also exhibited a significant migration in the scratch test. Our data suggest that the isolation of luteal endothelial cells represents a promising tool in experiments designed to clarify the biology of the angiogenic process. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that the isolated population comprises a subset of cells with a multidifferentiative capacity toward the chondrocytic and adipocytic phenotypes. These data suggest the presence of a perivascular or adventitial cell niche in the vascular wall of the corpus luteum populated with cells showing mesenchymal stem cell-like features, as already demonstrated for the adipose tissue and endometrium.

  5. The role of GPR1 signaling in mice corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Li; Ren, Li-Rong; Sun, Li-Feng; Huang, Chen; Xiao, Tian-Xia; Wang, Bao-Bei; Chen, Jie; Zabel, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Chemerin, a chemokine, plays important roles in immune responses, inflammation, adipogenesis, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our recent research has shown that chemerin has an inhibitory effect on hormone secretion from the testis and ovary. However, whether G protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), the active receptor for chemerin, regulates steroidogenesis and luteolysis in the corpus luteum is still unknown. In this study, we established a pregnant mare serum gonadotropin-human chorionic gonadotropin (PMSG-hCG) superovulation model, a prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) luteolysis model, and follicle and corpus luteum culture models to analyze the role of chemerin signaling through GPR1 in the synthesis and secretion of gonadal hormones during follicular/luteal development and luteolysis. Our results, for the first time, show that chemerin and GPR1 are both differentially expressed in the ovary over the course of the estrous cycle, with highest levels in estrus and metestrus. GPR1 has been localized to granulosa cells, cumulus cells, and the corpus luteum by immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro, we found that chemerin suppresses hCG-induced progesterone production in cultured follicle and corpus luteum and that this effect is attenuated significantly by anti-GPR1 MAB treatment. Furthermore, when the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway was blocked, the attenuating effect of GPR1 MAB was abrogated. Interestingly, PGF2α induces luteolysis through activation of caspase-3, leading to a reduction in progesterone secretion. Treatment with GPR1 MAB blocked the PGF2α effect on caspase-3 expression and progesterone secretion. This study indicates that chemerin/GPR1 signaling directly or indirectly regulates progesterone synthesis and secretion during the processes of follicular development, corpus luteum formation, and PGF2α-induced luteolysis. PMID:27149986

  6. Formation and early development of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B D; Gévry, N; Ruiz-Cortés, T; Coté, F; Downey, B R; Sirois, J

    2001-01-01

    Numerous corpora lutea form from the multiple follicles that ovulate during the oestrous cycle of pigs. Vascular elements invade the follicle from the theca compartment, first centripetally, and subsequently by lateral branching of centripetal veins and arteries. The vessels are the vehicle for dispersion of steroidogenic theca cells throughout the corpus luteum. Mitosis occurs in both the theca and granulosa layers before ovulation, and in luteal cells well into the luteal phase. Luteal cell proliferation undergoes gradual restriction as the corpus luteum matures, but the mechanisms of exit from the cell cycle are unknown. The extracellular ligands that direct luteinization and maintain the corpus luteum include LH, prolactin, insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). These ligands induce qualitative and quantitative changes in steroid output, with progesterone as the principal product. These changes upregulate the cholesterol synthetic pathways to increase substrate availability. The intracellular regulation of luteinization is complex. A model is presented in which LH stimulates arachidonic and lineoleic acid metabolism to produce ligands for the nuclear proteins of the peripheral peroxisome activator receptor family. These ligands have downstream effects on cell differentiation and exit from the cell cycle. Luteal function is maintained by interactions among ligands, cholesterol regulatory proteins and constitutively expressed and regulated transcription factors. PMID:11980202

  7. Macrophages regulate corpus luteum development during embryo implantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Care, Alison S.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Jasper, Melinda J.; Brown, Hannah M.; Ingman, Wendy V.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages are prominent in the uterus and ovary at conception. Here we utilize the Cd11b-Dtr mouse model of acute macrophage depletion to define the essential role of macrophages in early pregnancy. Macrophage depletion after conception caused embryo implantation arrest associated with diminished plasma progesterone and poor uterine receptivity. Implantation failure was alleviated by administration of bone marrow–derived CD11b+F4/80+ monocytes/macrophages. In the ovaries of macrophage-depleted mice, corpora lutea were profoundly abnormal, with elevated Ptgs2, Hif1a, and other inflammation and apoptosis genes and with diminished expression of steroidogenesis genes Star, Cyp11a1, and Hsd3b1. Infertility was rescued by exogenous progesterone, which confirmed that uterine refractoriness was fully attributable to the underlying luteal defect. In normally developing corpora lutea, macrophages were intimately juxtaposed with endothelial cells and expressed the proangiogenic marker TIE2. After macrophage depletion, substantial disruption of the luteal microvascular network occurred and was associated with altered ovarian expression of genes that encode vascular endothelial growth factors. These data indicate a critical role for macrophages in supporting the extensive vascular network required for corpus luteum integrity and production of progesterone essential for establishing pregnancy. Our findings raise the prospect that disruption of macrophage-endothelial cell interactions underpinning corpus luteum development contributes to infertility in women in whom luteal insufficiency is implicated. PMID:23867505

  8. Intraperitoneal haemorrhage from a ruptured corpus luteum. A cause of "acute abdomen" in women.

    PubMed

    Sivanesaratnam, V; Singh, A; Rachagan, S P; Raman, S

    1986-04-14

    During the 10-year period 1974-1983, 68 patients with intraperitoneal haemorrhage as a result of the rupture of a corpus luteum were managed at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Most of the patients were aged between 18 and 35 years. In 63% of the patients the rupture occurred between the 14th and the 35th day of the menstrual cycle, and 10 patients had intraperitoneal bleeding severe enough (450-1500 mL) to require blood transfusion. The condition is often confused with other surgical emergencies such as appendicitis and ectopic pregnancy. An increased awareness of the problem in women of reproductive age and the use of laparoscopy, when indicated, will allow a more conservative approach to be adopted for those patients with minimal bleeding. The performance of an appendicectomy in the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity did not appear to increase morbidity in those patients with a preoperative diagnosis of "appendicitis".

  9. Tumor necrosis factor production and accumulation of inflammatory cells in the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bagavandoss, P; Wiggins, R C; Kunkel, S L; Remick, D G; Keyes, P L

    1990-02-01

    The potential involvement of macrophages, T lymphocytes, and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in regression of the corpus luteum was investigated at different stages of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy by use of immunocytochemical methods and a TNF bioassay. Few macrophages (11 +/- 6 per high power field of 8-microns frozen sections of corpus luteum, Day 10 of pseudopregnancy) were observed until the very end of pseudopregnancy, when the number of macrophages increased greatly (176 +/- 42 per high power field, Day 19 of pseudopregnancy). Pregnancy, of 32 days duration, delayed large-scale macrophage accumulation until 3 days after parturition (154 +/- 30 per high power field). Low TNF activity (approximately 1.0 U/mg protein) was detected in incubations of luteal tissue at all stages; in response to lipopolysaccharide, TNF values in medium increased 10- to 30-fold at times of luteal regression and macrophage accumulation (1 day postpartum and Day 19 of pseudopregnancy). Class II-positive T lymphocytes were observed in luteal tissue, but unlike macrophages, the number of lymphocytes did not increase at the time of regression of the corpus luteum. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that involution of the corpus luteum is promoted through the interactions of inflammatory cells and action of TNF, although the action of TNF has not been determined in this luteal tissue. Through unknown mechanisms, pregnancy postpones the accumulation of macrophages in the corpus luteum, in association with the prolongation of luteal function until the time of parturition.

  10. Abnormal function of the corpus luteum in some ewes with phyto-oestrogenic infertility.

    PubMed

    Adams, N R; Hearnshaw, H; Oldham, C M

    1981-01-01

    Ewes with permanent phyto-estrogenic infertility show oestrus less regularly than normal ewes, and the present study examines the extent to which this results from abnormal ovarian function. Forty-nine affected ewes and 53 controls were run with rams fitted with marking crayons and harnesses, and crayon marks were recorded and laparoscopy performed at weekly intervals for 3 weeks. Fewer affected ewes showed oestrus accompanied by ovulation (28 v. 49, P less than 0.001), and four of these affected ewes had a second ovulation during the experiment. More of the ovulations observed in affected ewes were unaccompanied by behavioural oestrus than in controls (8 out of 38 v. 2 out of 50; P less than 0.05). Six affected ewes had no corpus luteum or oestrus, and five of these had adhesions over the genitalia. Hydrops uteri in five other affected ewes was accompanied by prolonged maintenance of the corpus luteum. Some other abnormalities were also observed. In a second study, plasma progesterone concentrations were measured twice daily in 12 affected ewes which were run with rams. Five ewes had oestrous cycles of abnormal duration (two of more than 23 days, two of 21 days, and one of 11 days), and these were accompanied by plasma progesterone patterns different from those of the ewes with an oestrous cycle duration of 16-18 days. It is concluded that the irregular oestrous cycles in affected ewes are due mainly to abnormal life span and progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, which in turn largely result from changes in the uterus. PMID:7196218

  11. Biochemical and endocrine aspects of oxytocin production by the mammalian corpus luteum

    PubMed Central

    Stormshak, Fredrick

    2003-01-01

    A review of the current state of knowledge of oxytocin production by the preovulatory follicle and corpus luteum is presented. Corpora lutea of a number of mammalian species have been found to synthesize oxytocin. However, the synthesis and secretion of this nanopeptide by the corpus luteum of the ruminant has been most extensively studied because of the potential role of this peptide in facilitating luteal regression. While much information exists relative to various biochemical and endocrine factors that impact on oxytocin gene expression, this aspect about luteal synthesis of this peptide hormone remains enigmatic. Prostaglandin F-2α (PGF-2α) has been shown to be a primary endogenous hormone responsible for triggering luteal secretion of oxytocin. Details are provided regarding the PGF-2α-induced intracellular signal transduction pathway that ultimately results in exocytosis of luteal oxytocin. Evidence is also presented for potential autocrine/paracrine actions of oxytocin in regulating progesterone production by luteal and granulosa cells. Concluding remarks highlight aspects about luteal oxytocin production that require further research. PMID:14613532

  12. Differential regulation of apoptosis in the corpus luteum of pregnancy and newly formed corpus luteum after parturition in rats.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Shuji; Sugino, Norihiro; Esato, Kikue; Karube-Harada, Ayako; Sakata, Aki; Nakamura, Yasuhiko; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Kato, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Apoptosis contributes to luteal regression in many species. In the postpartum rat, there are two different types of corpora lutea (CL) in the ovary: CL of pregnancy (CLP) and newly formed CL (NCL). To investigate the regulation of apoptosis in the two different types of CL during luteal regression, apoptosis and caspase-3 activity were examined in the CL obtained on Days 7, 15, and 21 of pregnancy and Days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 postpartum. Furthermore, the effect of lactation on apoptosis in the CL was examined in two groups of postpartum rats: lactating rats that nurse more than 10 pups, and nonlactating rats that nurse no pups. Apoptotic cells were detected after Day 21 of pregnancy. In the CLP, remarkable increases in the number of apoptotic cells on Days 5 and 9 postpartum were observed in nonlactating rats (P < 0.01), but not in lactating rats. Changes in caspase-3 activity in the CLP were not consistent with those in number of apoptotic cells. In the NCL, an increase in apoptosis was found only on Day 5 postpartum in nonlactating rats (P < 0.01), but not in lactating rats. Changes in caspase-3 activity in the NCL were consistent with those in number of apoptotic cells. In conclusion, apoptosis is, at least in part, involved in luteal regression after parturition, and lactation appears to inhibit apoptosis. This study also suggests the presence of a caspase-3-independent mechanism for apoptosis in CLP regression in the rat.

  13. Hepatic steroid inactivating enzymes, hepatic portal blood flow, and corpus luteum blood perfusion in lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In ruminants, a decrease in pregnancy rates may be due to decreased concentrations of progesterone (P4). It is important to note that both production from the corpus luteum and/or hepatic steroid inactivation impacts peripheral concentrations of P4. Cattle with an elevated dry matter intake have inc...

  14. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  15. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-07-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  16. Massive hemoperitoneum due to a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jeong, So-Young

    2015-01-01

    Congenital afibrinogenemia/hypofibrinogenemia is a rare inherited hematologic disorder in which a patient lacks or has insufficient level of fibrinogen, the blood coagulation factor I. The incidence of this uncommon disease is 1 to 2 per 1 million individuals. Hence, massive hemoperitoneum caused by ovulation in a woman with congenital afibrogenemia is also a very rare clinical condition. Massive hemoperitoneum usually presents as acute abdominal pain with potential findings of peritonitis including abdominal distention, hypotension and tachycardia with critical consequences. We performed emergent endoscopic surgery for hemoperitoneum caused by a ruptured corpus luteum cyst in a patient with congenital hypofibrinogenemia. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first case report of such treatment in Korea. PMID:26430672

  17. Ultrasound confirmation of ovulation in mares: a normal corpus luteum or a haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle?

    PubMed

    Cuervo-Arango, J; Newcombe, J R

    2013-02-01

    The most common pathological anovulatory condition that occurs spontaneously during the breeding season in the mare is the haemorrhagic anovulatory follicle (HAF). A relatively high proportion of mares, soon after ovulation, develop a corpus haemorrhagicum (CH) with a central lacuna. This type of corpora lutea may resemble an HAF, which may complicate the accurate diagnosis of ovulation. The main objective of this study was to compare the ultrasound data of mares examined frequently with HAFs and CHs to elucidate whether it is possible to distinguish them from each other. A total of 135 ovulating mares were classified according to the morphology of the corpus luteum (CL) in mares with: a solid CL, a CH with small or with large central cavities. Ultrasound characteristics of the development of 11 HAF and 13 CHs with a large central cavity were compared. The pre-ovulatory follicular diameter of ovulatory mares was significantly correlated with the diameter of CH with large central cavities. The percentage of mares with post-ovulatory areas eligible to be mistaken with a CH was <25%. Although a predictive diagnosis of an HAF/CH can be made on the basis of several ultrasonographic endpoints, the only parameter that allows a definitive diagnosis is the thickness of the luteal border. This is <3 mm in HAFs in contrast to >5 mm in CHs. However, this only applies when the unidentified structure has non-organized contents.

  18. Repeated intrauterine infusions of lipopolysaccharide alter gene expression and lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Lingemann, B; Wellnitz, O; Hankele, A K; Schmicke, M; Ulbrich, S E; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation of the uterus is associated with disturbed ovarian function and reduced reproductive performance in dairy cows. To investigate the influence of endometritis on the bovine corpus luteum, 8 heifers received intrauterine infusions with either phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; 9mL) or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3µg/kg of body weight diluted in 9mL of PBS) at 6-h intervals from 12h before and until 9d after ovulation during 2 cycles in a random order (ovulation=d 1). An untreated cycle was examined before and after PBS and LPS cycles, and the mean values from both untreated cycles were used as control. In all cycles, blood sampling and ultrasonography of the ovaries were performed on d 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, and then every 2d until ovulation. Endometrial cells were collected for cytology and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 0, 6, and 9, and on d 0 and 6, respectively, and luteal tissue was collected for quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR on d 6 and 9. Both, PBS and LPS infusions induced subclinical endometritis, which was accompanied by increased endometrial mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL8, and tumor necrosis factor α. Additionally, LPS challenge induced premature luteolysis, which was characterized by increased plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolite, decreased plasma progesterone concentrations, and reduced luteal size and blood flow compared with the control. The luteal mRNA expression of the LPS receptor TLR4, PGE synthase, and the apoptosis-related factor CASP3 were higher, and those of steroidogenic factors STAR and HSD3B, the PGF receptor, and the angiogenic factor VEGFA121 were lower after LPS challenge compared with the control. In conclusion, repeated intrauterine LPS infusions during the first 9d of the estrous cycle alter gene expression and shorten the lifespan of the bovine corpus luteum. PMID:27179870

  19. DNA Methylation and Histone Modifications Are Associated with Repression of the Inhibin α Promoter in the Rat Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Meldi, Kristen M.; Gaconnet, Georgia A.

    2012-01-01

    The transition from follicle to corpus luteum after ovulation is associated with profound morphological and functional changes and is accompanied by corresponding changes in gene expression. The gene encoding the α subunit of the dimeric reproductive hormone inhibin is maximally expressed in the granulosa cells of the preovulatory follicle, is rapidly repressed by the ovulatory LH surge, and is expressed at only very low levels in the corpus luteum. Although previous studies have identified transient repressors of inhibin α gene transcription, little is known about how this repression is maintained in the corpus luteum. This study examines the role of epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation and histone modification, in silencing of inhibin α gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing reveals that methylation of the inhibin α proximal promoter is low in preovulatory and ovulatory follicles but is elevated in the corpus luteum. Increased methylation during luteinization is observed within the cAMP response element in the promoter, and EMSA demonstrate that methylation of this site inhibits cAMP response element binding protein binding in vitro. Chromatin immunoprecipitation reveals that repressive histone marks H3K9 and H3K27 trimethylation are increased on the inhibin α promoter in primary luteal cells, whereas the activation mark H3K4 trimethylation is decreased. The changes in histone modification precede the alterations in DNA methylation, suggesting that they facilitate the recruitment of DNA methyltransferases. We show that the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is present in the ovary and in luteal cells when the inhibin α promoter becomes methylated and observe recruitment of DNMT3a to the inhibin promoter during luteinization. PMID:22865368

  20. Effect of a prostaglandin F2α analogue on the cyclic corpus luteum during its refractory period in cows

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to examine the response of the cyclic corpus luteum of cows to the administration of a prostaglandin F2α analogue (PGF) during the transition of refractoriness to responsiveness by investigating ultrasonographic changes in the corpus luteum and changes in plasma progesterone concentration in cows following the administration of PGF 3 and 5 days after ovulation. Results All cows that responded to PGF given on day 5 ovulated on day 9. In the cows that did not respond on day 5, the luteal cross-sectional area stagnated after treatment, whereas the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. In the cows that received PGF on day 3 of the oestrous cycle, the luteal cross-sectional area and the plasma progesterone concentration continued to increase. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the transition of the bovine corpus luteum from refractoriness to responsiveness to PGF occurs during day 5 of the oestrous cycle because in 5 of 8 cows given PGF on day 5, early luteal regression was evident during the examination 24 hours after PGF administration. PMID:23151276

  1. Formation and regression of the corpus luteum of the American alligator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; You-Xiang, Q.; Cox, M.C.; Matter, J.H.; Gross, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    Luteal morphology of the American alligator is unique when compared to other reptiles but is similar to that of its phylogenetic relatives, the birds. The theca is extensively hypertrophied, but the granulosa never fills the cavity formed following the ovulation of the ovum. The formation of the corpus luteum (CL) is correlated with elevated plasma progesterone concentrations, which decline dramatically after oviposition with the onset of luteolysis. Unlike those of most other reptiles, the central luteal cell mass is composed of two cell types; one presumably is derived from the granulosa, whereas the other is from the theca interna. Both cell types are present throughout gravidity but only one cell type is seen during mid to late luteolysis. A significant decline in luteal volume occurs following oviposition and continues throughout the post-oviposition period. The fastest decline in luteal volume occurs in the month immediately after oviposition; this rate then slows. Luteolysis appears to continue for a year or more following oviposition, as distinct structures of luteal origin can still be identified in animals 9 months after oviposition. The size of persistent CL can be used to determine whether a given female oviposited during the previous nesting season. Females with CL having volumes greater than 0.2 cm2 or CL diameters greater than 0.4 cm were active the previous season. 

  2. Evidence that the subunit structure of gonadotropin receptor is preserved during regression of rat corpus luteum

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.; Menon, K.N.J.

    1986-05-29

    The level of hCG/LH receptor has been shown to undergo marked changes during the life span of rat corpus luteum. To evaluate whether these fluctuations are due to changes in the receptor subunit structure or receptor protein content, the /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity and the receptor subunit structure were determined during different time periods of pseudopregnancy. The maximum /sup 125/I-hCG binding activity was observed on day 7, after which it decreased by 20 and 45% on day 11 and day 14, respectively. The Scatchard analysis of /sup 125/I-hCG binding data showed that the decrease in binding activity was caused by a change in the number of binding sites rather than a change in the binding affinity. The LH/hCG receptor in ovarian membranes obtained on days 7, 11 and 14 were characterized by the method of affinity cross-linking. All four subunits of the LH/hCG receptor were detected in the ovarian membranes at all stages while the intensity decreased parallel to a decrease in hCG binding from day 7 to day 14.

  3. Prolactin in maintenance of the corpus luteum of early pseudopregnancy in the golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Harris, K H; Murphy, B D

    1981-08-01

    The role of prolactin in the maintenance of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy was studied in the golden hamster. Nine groups of seven to fourteen animals each received 1 mg bromocriptine at 11.00 h on days 1, 2 or 3 of pseudopregnancy (three groups for each day). On each day of treatment with bromocriptine, one group of hamsters was injected with bovine prolactin 4 h before bromocriptine, and one group received prolactin 4 h before bromocriptine for three consecutive days following treatment with bromocriptine. One group received bromocriptine only. These nine groups were compared with a control group of animals given 0.85% saline instead of bromocriptine and prolactin. Peripheral blood samples were taken from all hamsters at 11.00 h on days 3, 4, 5 and 6 of pseudopregnancy and plasma levels of progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Luteolysis, indicated by a decline in progesterone level by 24 or 48 h after treatment with bromocriptine, occurred in all hamsters given bromocriptine alone, whether it was administered on day 1, 2 or 3. Pretreatment with a single dose of prolactin did not mitigate the bromocriptine-induced fall in progesterone. In the majority of cases, pretreatment with prolactin plus daily doses of prolactin maintained the progesterone at levels not different from saline-treated hamsters. These data suggest that prolactin is a necessary luteotrophin during early pseudopregnancy without which luteolysis ensues.

  4. Status of autophagy, lysosome activity and apoptosis during corpus luteum regression in cattle

    PubMed Central

    ABOELENAIN, Mansour; KAWAHARA, Manabu; BALBOULA, Ahmed Zaky; MONTASSER, Abd El-monem; ZAABEL, Samy Mowaed; OKUDA, Kiyoshi; TAKAHASHI, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Corpus luteum (CL) regression is required during the estrous cycle. During CL regression, luteal cells stop producing progesterone and are degraded by apoptosis. However, the detailed mechanism of CL regression in cattle has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate autophagy, lysosome activity, and apoptosis during CL regression in cattle. The expression of autophagy-related genes (LC3α, LC3β, Atg3, and Atg7) and the protein LC3-II was significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. In addition, autophagy activity was significantly increased in the late CL. Moreover, gene expression of the autophagy inhibitor mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was significantly lower in the late CL than in the mid CL. Lysosome activation and expression of cathepsin-related genes (CTSB, CTSD, and CTSZ) showed significant increases in the late CL and were associated with an increase in cathepsin B protein. In addition, mRNA expression and activity of caspase 3 (CASP3), an apoptotic enzyme, were significantly higher in the late CL than in the mid CL. These results suggest simultaneous upregulation of autophagy-related factors, lysosomal enzymes and apoptotic mediators, which are involved in regression of the bovine CL. PMID:25819401

  5. Corpus luteum function and pregnancy outcome in buffaloes during the transition period from breeding to non-breeding season.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Pacelli, C; Prandi, A; Gasparrini, B; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2010-12-01

    The aim in this study was to investigate corpus luteum function and embryonic loss in buffaloes mated by artificial inseminations (AI) during the transitional period from breeding to non-breeding season. The study was carried out using 288 multiparous Italian Mediterranean Buffalo cows at 110 ± 4 days in milk. The buffaloes were mated by AI after synchronization of ovulation by the Ovsynch-TAI protocol 25 days after AI buffaloes underwent trans-rectal ultrasonography to assess embryonic development. Pregnancy diagnosis was confirmed on Days 45 and 70 after AI by rectal palpation. Buffaloes pregnant on Day 25 but not on Day 45 were considered to have undergone late embryonic mortality (LEM), whilst buffaloes pregnant on Day 45 but not on Day 70 were considered to have undergone foetal mortality (FM). Corpus luteum size and blood flow were determined by real-time B-mode/colour-Doppler on day 10 after AI in 122 buffaloes. The resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at the time. Milk samples were collected on Days 10, 20 and 25 after AI in all inseminated buffaloes for the assay of whey P4 concentrations. Data were analysed by anova. Pregnancy rate on Day 25 after AI was 48.6% (140/288) and declined to 35.4% (102/288) and 30.6% (88/288) by Day 45 and Day 70 respectively. The incidences of LEM and FM were respectively 27.1% (38/140) and 13.7% (14/102). Pregnant buffaloes had greater (p < 0.01) whey concentrations of P4 from Day 20 onwards than buffaloes which showed LEM, whilst P4 in buffaloes that showed FM did not differ from the other two groups on Day 10 and Day 20. Corpus luteum blood flow on Day 10 after AI showed higher RI (p < 0.05) and PI (p = 0.07) values in buffaloes that subsequently were not pregnant on Day 25 compared with pregnant buffaloes. Buffaloes that were not pregnant on Day 45 also had a higher (p = 0.02) RI value on Day 10 than pregnant buffaloes, whilst PI values on Day 10 did not differ for the two

  6. Bovine corpus luteum regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T R; Randel, R D; Peterson, L A

    1987-05-01

    Two trials evaluated bovine corpus luteum (CL) regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol (AP), a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue. Expression of at least one estrous cycle (16 to 26 d) and a palpable mid-cycle CL were required prior to random assignment of females to receive 0, .38, .75, 1.50 or 2.25 mg AP/100 kg body weight. Alfaprostol was evaluated in Brahman cows and heifers that were treated on d 11 to 13 (trial 1) and in Simmental X Brahman-Hereford (crossbred) heifers that were treated on d 8 to 10 or d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle (trial 2). In trial 1, Brahman heifers appeared to require a higher AP dose (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and expression of estrus than Brahman cows. Alfaprostol treatment (greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight) induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in Brahman cows and heifers. In trial 2, crossbred heifers that received AP on d 8 to 10 appeared to require a higher dose of AP (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and estrus than heifers that received AP on d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle. Alfaprostol treatment greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight on d 8 to 10 and d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in crossbred heifers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3583939

  7. Glucose transporter 1 expression accompanies hypoxia sensing in the cyclic canine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Papa, Paula de Carvalho; Sousa, Liza Margareth Medeiros de Carvalho; Silva, Renata dos Santos; de Fátima, Luciana Alves; da Fonseca, Vanessa Uemura; do Amaral, Vanessa Coutinho; Hoffmann, Bernd; Alves-Wagner, Ana Bárbara; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel

    2014-01-01

    The canine corpus luteum (CL) functions as a source of progesterone (P4) and 17β-oestradiol (E2); however, the transport of energy substrates to maintain its high hormonal output has not yet been characterised. This study involved the localisation and temporal distribution of the facilitative glucose transporter 1 and the quantification of the corresponding protein (GLUT1) and gene (SLC2A1) expression. Some GLUT1/SLC2A1 regulatory proteins, such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2); mRNAs, such as HIF1A, FGF2 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA); and VEGFA receptors 1 and 2 (FLT1 and KDR) were also analysed from days 10 to 70 after ovulation. Additionally, plasma P4 and E2 levels were assessed via chemiluminescence. Moreover, the canine KDR sequence has been cloned, thereby enabling subsequent semi-quantitative PCR analysis. Our results demonstrate time-dependent variations in the expression profile of SLC2A1 during dioestrus, which were accompanied by highly correlated changes (0.84

  8. Expression and regulation of progestin membrane receptors in the rat corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zailong; Stocco, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Despite evidence strongly supporting progesterone's autocrine actions in the rat corpus luteum (CL), classical progesterone receptors (PR) have not been detected in this gland. Alternatively, in several other systems, progestins have been reported to activate nongenomic pathways via putative progestin membrane receptors (PMRs). The aim of this investigation was to determine whether rat CL membranes bind progestins and contain PMR homologs and whether these proteins are expressed during CL development in a manner that parallels luteal function. We found that luteal cell membranes specifically bind progesterone. Low levels of progesterone and 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone decreased binding of [(3)H]progesterone, whereas androstenedione, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and pregnenolone were less potent. Other steroids, including corticosterone, mifepristone, and estradiol, were ineffective. We found that the rat CL expresses five genes previously postulated to encode for putative PMRs: PMRalpha, PMRbeta, PMRgamma, PR membrane component 1 (PRMC1), and Rda288. Pmralpha, Pmrgamma, and Prmc1 transcripts rose steadily during pregnancy whereas Pmrbeta and Rda288 remained constant. Just before parturition, concomitant with falling progesterone levels, Pmralpha, Pmrbeta, and Prmc1 decreased. Luteal PMRalpha and PRMC1 protein levels were lower in samples taken at the end of pregnancy compared with midpregnancy samples. Ergocriptine, which inhibits the secretion of prolactin, the primary luteotrophic hormone in the rat CL, reduced Pmralpha, Pmrbeta, and Prmc1 expression significantly. Ergocriptine effects were prevented by coadministration of prolactin. These findings provide evidence for the expression and regulation of putative membrane-bound progestin-binding proteins in the rat CL, a tissue that does not express detectable levels of nuclear progesterone receptors. PMID:16123161

  9. Early pregnancy modulates survival and apoptosis pathways in the corpus luteum in sheep.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeHoon; Banu, Sakhila K; McCracken, John A; Arosh, Joe A

    2016-03-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine gland. Functional and structural demise of the CL allows a new estrous cycle. On the other hand, survival of CL and its secretion of progesterone are required for the establishment of pregnancy. Survival or apoptosis of the luteal cells is precisely controlled by interactions between survival and apoptosis pathways. Regulation of these cell signaling components during natural luteolysis and establishment of pregnancy is largely unknown in ruminants. The objective of the present study was to determine the regulation of survival and apoptosis signaling protein machinery in the CL on days 12, 14, and 16 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy in sheep. Results indicate that: i) expressions of p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, β-catenin, NFκB -p65, -p50, -p52, p-Src, p-β -arrestin, p-GSK3β, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), and p-CREB proteins are suppressed during natural luteolysis; in contrast, their expressions are sustained or increased during establishment of pregnancy; ii) expressions of cleaved caspase-3, apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), c-Fos, c-Jun, and EGR-1 proteins are increased during natural luteolysis; in contrast, their expressions are decreased during establishment of pregnancy; and iii) expressions of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bad, and Bax proteins are not modulated during natural luteolysis while expressions of Bcl2 and Bcl-XL proteins are increased during establishment of pregnancy in sheep. These proteomic changes are evident in both large and small luteal cells. These results together indicate that regression of the CL during natural luteolysis or survival of the CL during establishment of pregnancy is precisely controlled by distinct programmed suppression or activation of intraluteal cell survival and apoptosis pathways in sheep/ruminants. PMID:26585285

  10. Lipopolysaccharide enhances apoptosis of corpus luteum in isolated perfused bovine ovaries in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Möller, B; Kradolfer, D; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M; Miyamoto, A; Ulbrich, S E; Bollwein, H

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin of Gram-negative bacteria, has detrimental effects on the structure and function of bovine corpus luteum (CL) in vivo. The objective was to investigate whether these effects were mediated directly by LPS or via LPS-induced release of PGF2α. Bovine ovaries with a mid-cycle CL were collected immediately after slaughter and isolated perfused for 240 min. After 60 min of equilibration, LPS (0.5 μg/ml) was added to the medium of five ovaries, whereas an additional six ovaries were not treated with LPS (control). After 210 min of perfusion, all ovaries were treated with 500 iu of hCG. In the effluent perfusate, concentrations of progesterone (P4) and PGF2α were measured every 10 and 30 min, respectively. Punch biopsies of the CL were collected every 60 min and used for RT-qPCR to evaluate mRNA expression of receptors for LPS (TLR2, -4) and LH (LHCGR); the cytokine TNFA; steroidogenic (STAR, HSD3B), angiogenic (VEGFA121, FGF2), and vasoactive (EDN1) factors; and factors of prostaglandin synthesis (PGES, PGFS, PTGFR) and apoptosis (CASP3, -8, -9). Treatment with LPS abolished the hCG-induced increase in P4 (P≤0.05); however, there was a tendency (P=0.10) for increased release of PGF2α at 70 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, mRNA abundance of TLR2, TNFA, CASP3, CASP8, PGES, PGFS, and VEGFA121 increased (P≤0.05) after LPS treatment, whereas all other factors remained unchanged (P>0.05). In conclusion, reduced P4 responsiveness to hCG in LPS-treated ovaries in vitro was not due to reduced steroidogenesis, but was attributed to enhanced apoptosis. However, an impact of luteal PGF2α could not be excluded. PMID:26483517

  11. Progesterone promotes survival of the rat corpus luteum in the absence of cognate receptors.

    PubMed

    Goyeneche, Alicia A; Deis, Ricardo P; Gibori, Geula; Telleria, Carlos M

    2003-01-01

    Progesterone production by the corpus luteum (CL) is essential for preparation of the endometrium for implantation and for the maintenance of gestation. Progesterone modulates its own production and opposes functional luteal regression induced by exogenous agents, such as prostaglandin F(2alpha). In the present study, we evaluated whether progesterone is also capable of interfering with the process of structural luteal regression, which is characterized by a decrease in weight and size of the gland because of programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis). We have found that a low number of luteal cells undergo apoptosis throughout gestation. On the day of parturition, but following the initial decline in endogenous progesterone production, a small increase in the number of luteal cells undergoing cell death was observed. This increase in apoptotic cells continued postpartum, reaching dramatic levels by Day 4 postpartum, and was accompanied by a marked decrease in average luteal weight. We have established that the exogenous administration of progesterone significantly reduces the decline in luteal weight observed during structural luteal regression postpartum. This effect was associated with a decrease in the number of cells undergoing apoptosis and with enhanced circulating levels of androstenedione. Furthermore, in vivo administration of progesterone delayed the occurrence of DNA fragmentation in postpartum CL incubated in serum-free conditions. Finally, we have shown that neither the CL of gestation nor the newly formed CL after postpartum ovulation express the classic progesterone-receptor mRNA. In summary, the present results support a protective action of progesterone on the function and survival of the CL through inhibition of apoptosis and stimulation of androstenedione production. Furthermore, this effect is carried out in the absence of classic progesterone receptors.

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptotic pathway is involved in corpus luteum regression in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Pei, Xiuying; Wang, Yanrong

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2α. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6α, eIF2α, IRE1α, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1α/XBP1s and eIF2α was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway.

  13. Quantitative light microscopic analysis of corpus luteum growth during pseudopregnancy in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Dharmarajan, A M; Mastroyannis, C; Yoshimura, Y; Atlas, S J; Wallach, E E; Zirkin, B R

    1988-05-01

    We employed stereological methods at the light-microscope level to examine the mechanism by which corpora lutea (CL) grow during the course of pseudopregnancy in the rabbit. Corpus luteum volume per ovary, the absolute volume of luteal cells per CL, individual luteal cell volume, the number of luteal and endothelial cells per CL, and capillary surface area per CL were examined in rabbits at Days 1, 4, 7, 11, and 18 of pseudopregnancy. Total CL volume increased from 3.7 +/- 0.1 microliter to 30.3 +/- 0.5 microliter over Days 1 to 11 and thereafter decreased to 15.2 +/- 1.1 microliter by Day 18. Stereological analyses showed that the increases in CL volume from Day 1 to Day 11 were due primarily to increases in the volume of individual luteal cells (from 2.6 +/- 0.2 pl on Day 1 to 23.5 +/- 1.7 pl on Day 11, 1 pl = (10 mu)3; r = 0.96), and that the decrease in CL volume after Day 11 resulted largely from a decrease in luteal cell volume (to 12.8 +/- 1.5 pl). In contrast, no change was seen in the number of luteal cells per CL (range 9.1 x 10(5)-12.5 x 10(5)). These data show that CL growth and subsequent regression during pseudopregnancy result primarily from changes in the volume of individual luteal cells, and not from changes in the number of luteal cells. These data support the hypothesis that modulation of progesterone production during pseudopregnancy is due to changes in individual luteal cell volume and not to changes in cell number.

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Apoptotic Pathway Is Involved in Corpus Luteum Regression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanzhou; Sun, Miao; Shan, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Xiaomin; Ma, Huiming; Ma, Wenzhi; Wang, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), which is a novel pathway of regulating cellular apoptosis and the function of ERS during corpus luteum (CL) regression, is explored. Early-luteal stage (day 2), mid-luteal stage (day 7), and late-luteal stage (day 14 and 20) were induced, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was detected by a terminal 2′-deoxyuridine 5′-triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The apoptotic cells were increased with the regression of CL, especially during the late-luteal stage. The ERS markers glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), activating transcription factor 6α (ATF6α), eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α), caspase 12, and apoptosis marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, in agreement with the results of the TUNEL assay; the expression levels of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased during the process of CL regression. Luteal cells were isolated and cultured in vitro, and the apoptosis of luteal cells was induced by prostaglandin F2α. The ERS was attenuated by the ERS inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid, and the apoptotic rate was analyzed by flow cytometry. The ERS markers Grp78, CHOP, XBP1s, ATF6α, eIF2α, IRE1α, caspase 12, and apoptotic execute marker caspase 3 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence, and the results suggested that the expression of CHOP, caspase 12, and caspase 3 were increased, and there was increased apoptosis of luteal cells. But the expression of IRE1α/XBP1s and eIF2α was not detected. Taken together, the ERS is involved in the CL regression of rats through the CHOP and caspase 12 pathway. PMID:25332219

  15. Bovine corpus luteum regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol.

    PubMed

    Hansen, T R; Randel, R D; Peterson, L A

    1987-05-01

    Two trials evaluated bovine corpus luteum (CL) regression and estrous response following treatment with alfaprostol (AP), a prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue. Expression of at least one estrous cycle (16 to 26 d) and a palpable mid-cycle CL were required prior to random assignment of females to receive 0, .38, .75, 1.50 or 2.25 mg AP/100 kg body weight. Alfaprostol was evaluated in Brahman cows and heifers that were treated on d 11 to 13 (trial 1) and in Simmental X Brahman-Hereford (crossbred) heifers that were treated on d 8 to 10 or d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle (trial 2). In trial 1, Brahman heifers appeared to require a higher AP dose (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and expression of estrus than Brahman cows. Alfaprostol treatment (greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight) induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in Brahman cows and heifers. In trial 2, crossbred heifers that received AP on d 8 to 10 appeared to require a higher dose of AP (greater than .38 mg/100 kg body weight) to elicit luteolysis and estrus than heifers that received AP on d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle. Alfaprostol treatment greater than or equal to .75 mg/100 kg body weight on d 8 to 10 and d 11 to 13 of the estrous cycle induced (P less than .0001) luteolysis followed by estrus in crossbred heifers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Mathematical analysis of a model for the growth of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Prokopiou, Sotiris A; Byrne, Helen M; Jeffrey, Mike R; Robinson, Robert S; Mann, George E; Owen, Markus R

    2014-12-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an ovarian tissue that grows in the wound space created by follicular rupture. It produces the progesterone needed in the uterus to maintain pregnancy. Rapid growth of the CL and progesterone transport to the uterus require angiogenesis, the creation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones, a process which is regulated by proteins that include fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In this paper we develop a system of time-dependent ordinary differential equations to model CL growth. The dependent variables represent FGF2, endothelial cells (ECs), luteal cells, and stromal cells (like pericytes), by assuming that the CL volume is a continuum of the three cell types. We assume that if the CL volume exceeds that of the ovulated follicle, then growth is inhibited. This threshold volume partitions the system dynamics into two regimes, so that the model may be classified as a Filippov (piecewise smooth) system. We show that normal CL growth requires an appropriate balance between the growth rates of luteal and stromal cells. We investigate how angiogenesis influences CL growth by considering how the system dynamics depend on the dimensionless EC proliferation rate, ρ₅. We find that weak (low ρ₅) or strong (high ρ₅) angiogenesis leads to 'pathological' CL growth, since the loss of CL constituents compromises progesterone production or delivery. However, for intermediate values of ρ₅, normal CL growth is predicted. The implications of these results for cow fertility are also discussed. For example, inadequate angiogenesis has been linked to infertility in dairy cows.

  17. Molecular regulation of progesterone secretion by the human corpus luteum throughout the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Devoto, Luigi; Vega, Margarita; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Carvallo, Pilar; Palomino, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    The present study examines the expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) within the human corpus luteum (CL) in conjunction with other molecules that regulate the apoptotic process of the CL. Our results indicate that the primary 1.6 kb StAR transcript occurs in greater abundance in early and mid-luteal phase compared with late luteal phase CL. Mature StAR protein (30 kDa) was present in lower amounts within late CL compared with early and mid-luteal phase. The pre-protein (37 kDa), which has been considered the active isoform to favor cholesterol translocation and subsequently steroid hormone synthesis, was also detected in lower amount in late CL. Several molecules, including pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species, steroids and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), have been linked as pro-apoptotic regulatory agents. Moreover, many of these molecules diminish progesterone synthesis in human cultured luteal cells. Interestingly, these molecules preferentially decrease progesterone biosynthesis in mid and late luteal cells in culture. These data suggest that the inhibitory effect of these molecules, as well as the amount of apoptotic cells in the CL are age dependent. The number of luteal apoptotic cells, as well as luteal cells stained positive for iNOS, increased from early to late CL. To examine the effects of hCG on StAR expression and apoptosis, we used two models-(1) in vivo hCG administration during the late luteal phase; and (2) in vitro incubation of explants of late CL with hCG. hCG increased both the level of StAR expression and the level of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 within the late CL. We conclude that mRNA and protein expression of StAR and bcl-2 are important target elements for hCG during the CL rescue. PMID:12062818

  18. Evidence for a potential role of neuropeptide Y in ovine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Keator, C S; Custer, E E; Hoagland, T A; Schreiber, D T; Mah, K; Lawson, A M; Slayden, O D; McCracken, J A

    2010-02-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurohormone that is typically associated with food intake, but it has also been reported to affect the production of progesterone from luteal tissue in vitro. However, NPY has not been previously immunolocalized in the ovine ovary or in the corpus luteum (CL) of any species, and the effects of this neurohormone on luteal function in vivo are not known. Thus, we performed fluorescent immunohistochemistry (IHC) to localize NPY in the ovine ovary and used avidin-biotin immunocytochemistry (ICC) to further define the intracellular localization within follicles and the CL. We then infused NPY directly into the arterial supply of the autotransplanted ovaries of sheep to determine the in vivo effect of exogenous NPY on ovarian blood flow and on the luteal secretion rate of progesterone and oxytocin. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the NPY antigen was localized to cells within the follicles and CL, in the nerve fibers of the ovarian stroma, and in the vessels of the ovarian hilus. In the follicle, the NPY antigen was localized to nerves and vessels within the theca interna layer, and strong staining was observed in the granulosal cells of antral follicles. In the CL, NPY was localized in large luteal cells and in the vascular pericytes and/or endothelial cells of blood vessels, found dispersed throughout the gland and within the luteal capsule. In vivo incremental infusions of NPY at 1, 10, 100, and 1,000 ng/min, each for a 30-min period, into the arterial supply of the transplanted ovary of sheep bearing a CL 11 d of age increased (P< or =0.05) ovarian blood flow. The intra-arterial infusions of NPY also increased (P< or =0.05) in a dose-dependent manner the secretion rate of oxytocin, which was positively correlated (P< or =0.05) with the observed increase in ovarian blood flow. The infusions of NPY had a minimal effect on the secretion rate of progesterone, and similar intra-arterial infusions of NPY into sheep with ovarian transplants

  19. Expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in the human corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Devoto, L; Kohen, P; Gonzalez, R R; Castro, O; Retamales, I; Vega, M; Carvallo, P; Christenson, L K; Strauss, J F

    2001-11-01

    The expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the human corpus luteum (CL) was examined throughout the luteal phase. The primary 1.6-kb StAR transcript was in greater abundance in early (3.1-fold) and mid (2.2-fold) luteal phase CL compared with late luteal phase CL. The larger StAR transcript (4.4 kb) was found in early and midluteal phase CL, but was not detected in late luteal phase specimens. Mature StAR protein (30 kDa) was present in lower amounts within late CL compared with early and midluteal phase CL. The StAR preprotein (37 kDa) was also detected in greater abundance in early and midluteal CL. Immunohistochemistry revealed that StAR staining was most prominent in thecal-lutein cells throughout the luteal phase. The intensity of the signal for StAR exhibited significant changes throughout the luteal phase, being most intense during the midluteal phase and least during the late luteal phase. Plasma progesterone concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.73 and r = 0.79) with luteal expression of the preprotein and mature StAR isoforms, respectively, throughout the luteal phase. To examine the LH dependency of StAR expression, the GnRH antagonist, Cetrorelix, was administered during the midluteal phase. Cetrorelix caused a decline in serum LH levels within 2 h, which, in turn, caused a pronounced decline in plasma progesterone within 6 h. The StAR 4.4-kb transcript was not detectable, and the 1.6-kb transcript was reduced by approximately 50% within 24 h of Cetrorelix treatment. The mature 30-kDa StAR protein level declined approximately 30% after Cetrorelix treatment. We conclude that 1) StAR mRNA and protein are highly expressed in early and midluteal phase CL; 2) StAR protein is present in both thecal-lutein and granulosa-lutein cells throughout the luteal phase; 3) StAR protein levels in the CL are highly correlated with plasma progesterone levels; 4) declining StAR mRNA and protein levels are characteristic of late luteal

  20. The corpus luteum periodicum in the bitch: histochemical and biochemical investigations during different phases of the cycle.

    PubMed

    Dreier, K H; Choi, H S; Hager, H

    1975-12-01

    The corpus luteum periodicum (c.l.p.) of the bitch was studied using enzyme histochemistry, clinical and biochemical methods. Assessment of variations of the serum progesterone level during different stages of the ovarian cycle and the study of enzymatic activity of the luteal tissue furnished informations on vitality and biosynthetic capacity of luteinizing cells: The period of functional activity of the c.l.p. nearly ceased about day 60 of the cycle (proestrus included) in the animals examined. In the light microscope the neo-synthesis of progesterone in the c.l.-tissue can be made visible by histochemical demonstration of the activity of Delta(5)-3 beta-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) only up to a progesterone level exceeding 6.7 ng/ml plasma. The data obtained contribute to our baseline knowledge of the mechanism involved in the etiology of pseudopregnancylike conditions in the bitch.

  1. Luteal responses to gonadotropin-releasing hormone during the luteal phase: relation to the age of corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Caruso, A; Lanzone, A; Fulghesu, A M; Mancuso, S

    1987-02-01

    The pituitary and luteal responsiveness of GnRH were studied in 20 normal women at different stages of the luteal phase (LP). Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 180 min before and 120 min after the iv injection of 25 micrograms GnRH. The studies were performed in the early LP (ELP; days 2-3 of LP; n = 5), mid-LP (MLP: days 4-8 of LP; n = 11), late LP (LLP; days 9-12 of LP; n = 13), and premenstrual phase (PMP; days 13-14 of LP; n = 3). Plasma LH, FSH, progesterone (P), and estradiol (E) levels were assayed by RIA. The data were analyzed as integrated secretory area before (ISAb) and after GnRH stimulation (ISAs) and in terms of their percent increase with respect to the basal value. In all studies, GnRH elicited increases in plasma LH and FSH (P less than 0.001). On the other hand, in the ELP, GnRH did not alter steroid ISAs compared to their ISAb, while significant increases in plasma P and E levels were found in the MLP (P, P less than 0.01; E, P less than 0.02) and LLP (P and E, P less than 0.01). In the PMP, two women had no increase in steroid secretion; in the remainder of the subjects, both P and E ISAs markedly increased. This different pattern was not related to basal steroid levels. All women who had a blunted steroid response in the ELP or PMP had a normal secretory response of both P and E when studied at the other LP stages of the same cycle. Furthermore, there was a positive linear correlation between plasma P and E for the ISAb and ISAs values, while the secretory patterns of gonadotropins and steroids were not related to each other. In conclusion, the corpus luteum is able to respond to GnRH to GnRH at a well identified period of the LP. This pattern indicates variable dependence of the corpus luteum on the functional activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

  2. Influence of season on corpus luteum structure and function and AI outcome in the Italian Mediterranean buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, S; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Rossi, P; Russo, M; Zicarelli, L; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2012-11-01

    The aim was to ascertain whether relationships between corpus luteum (CL) vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes were consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season in a Mediterranean environment. Stage of the estrous cycle in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes was synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed AI program and buffaloes were mated by AI in both the breeding season (N = 131) and transition period (N = 125). Detailed investigation of CL structure and function was undertaken in 39 buffaloes at each of the respective times using realtime B-mode/color-Doppler ultrasonography on Days 10 and 20 after AI. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined by RIA in all buffaloes. Pregnancy rate on Day 45 after AI was greater (P < 0.05) during the breeding season (58.0%) than the transitional period (45.6%) and this was primarily the result of a lower (P < 0.05) late embryonic mortality during the breeding season (7.3%) compared with the transition period (23%). Circulating concentrations of P4 on Days 10 and 20 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (4.6 ± 0.3 and 3.4 ± 0.2, respectively) than during the transition period (1.6 ± 0.12 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively), and this was independent of reproductive status as there was no interaction between pregnancy and season. Corpus luteum time average medium velocity at Day 10 after AI was greater (P < 0.01) during the breeding season (19.3 ± 1.5) than in the transitional period (8.3 ± 0.7). There were positive correlations in pregnant buffaloes between CL time average medium velocity and P4 concentrations on Day 10 (r = 0.722; P < 0.01) and Day 20 (r = 0.446; P < 0.01) after AI. The findings were interpreted to indicate that relationships between CL vascularization, CL function, and pregnancy outcome in AI in buffaloes are consistent across the breeding season and transition period to the nonbreeding season. The distinction

  3. Androgen deficiency during mid- and late pregnancy alters progesterone production and metabolism in the porcine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Grzesiak, Malgorzata; Knapczyk-Stwora, Katarzyna; Ciereszko, Renata E; Golas, Aniela; Wieciech, Iwona; Slomczynska, Maria

    2014-06-01

    We determined whether androgen deficiency induced by flutamide treatment during mid- and late pregnancy affects the functions of the porcine corpus luteum (CL). Pregnant gilts were injected with flutamide between days 43 and 49 (gestation day [GD] 50F), days 83 and 89 (GD90F), or days 101 and 107 (GD108F) of gestation. Antiandrogen treatment increased the luteal progesterone concentration in the GD50F group and decreased progesterone content in the GD90F and GD108F groups. Luteal levels of side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (CYP11A1) mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated in the GD90F and GD108F groups as compared with the respective controls. The 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase (HSD3B) mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced only in the GD108F group as compared with the control. Decreased luteal 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C1) mRNA and protein levels were observed in the GD50F group. Thus, androgen deficiency during pregnancy in pigs led to CL dysfunction that is marked by decreased progesterone production. Furthermore, exposure to flutamide during late pregnancy downregulated steroidogenic enzymes (CYP11A1 and HSD3B) in pigs. We conclude that androgens are important regulators of CL function during pregnancy.

  4. Changes in the proteome of functional and regressing corpus luteum during pregnancy and lactation in the rat.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Martínez-Galisteo, Emilia; Gaytán, Francisco; Bárcena, José Antonio; Sánchez-Criado, José Eugenio

    2008-07-01

    The corpus luteum (CL) is an exquisitely regulated transitory endocrine gland necessary for the onset and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. Most of the data on the mechanisms of CL differentiation at the molecular level come from genomic studies, but direct protein data are scarce. Here we have undertaken a differential expression proteomic approach to identify, in an unbiased way, those proteins whose levels change significantly in the rat CL as it evolves from functionality during pregnancy to regression after parturition. Moreover, we have compared the regressing CL with the newly formed functional CL that coexist during lactation under the same endocrine environment. We have defined a "proteomic signature" of CL functionality, which is constituted by a set of 24 proteins with a few differences between pregnancy and lactation. Most of these markers are new and are involved in microtubule assembly, retinoic acid transport, and Raf kinase signaling cascade; 10 are enzymes that define a ketogenic metabolic landscape, demonstrating, for the first time, the prevalence of de novo cholesterol synthesis in luteal cells. The "proteomic signature of regression," on the other hand, is composed of nine proteins, one of which is 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and two, ferritin and gamma-actin, are new. The discovery of unpredictable new actors in the differentiation process of CL reported here will contribute to new hypotheses that explain the complex female reproductive function at the protein level. It will also open new doors to research on each identified protein by relating them to cellular differentiation.

  5. Corpus luteum derived copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase serves as a luteinizing hormone-release inhibiting factor in sheep.

    PubMed

    Al-Gubory, Kaïs H; Huet, Jean-Claude; Pernollet, Jean-Claude; Martal, Jacques; Locatelli, Alain

    2003-01-31

    In the present study, we report the purification and characterization of a polypeptide from the sheep corpus luteum of pregnancy with a potent luteinizing hormone-release inhibiting factor (LH-RIF) bioactivity that stained as a single band in SDS-PAGE with an apparent molecular mass of 16000 Da. The amino acid sequences obtained after sequence analysis of peptides derived from the trypsin digestion of LH-RIF were subjected to a protein data bank search and were found to be identical with regions of sheep copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD). The measured mass of LH-RIF (15604.2+/-1.9 Da) was found to be similar to the theoretical mass of sheep Cu,Zn-SOD (15603.5 Da), with a disulfide bond and N acetylated alanine at the N-terminus. The inhibitory action of Cu,Zn-SOD on pulsatile LH secretion would suggest that this antioxidant may play an important role, either independently or in concert with some neurotransmitters, in the neuroendocrine regulation of sheep female reproductive function.

  6. /sup 125/I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for /sup 125/I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for /sup 125/I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific /sup 125/I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors.

  7. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Possible action of vasohibin-1 as an inhibitor in the regulation of vascularization of the bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Shirasuna, Koumei; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Nitta, Akane; Nibuno, Sayo; Sasahara, Kiemi; Shimizu, Takashi; Bollwein, Heinrich; Miyamoto, Akio

    2012-04-01

    The development of the corpus luteum (CL), which secretes large amounts of progesterone to establish pregnancy, is accompanied by active angiogenesis, vascularization, and lymphangiogenesis. Negative feedback regulation is a critical physiological mechanism. Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) was recently discovered as a novel endothelium-derived negative feedback regulator of vascularization. We therefore investigated the expression of VASH1 in the bovine CL. Expression of VASH1 mRNA and protein was predominantly localized to luteal endothelial cells (LECs). VASH1 expression in the CL was constant through the early to late luteal phases and decreased during CL regression relating with the action of luteolytic prostaglandin F(2)(α) in vivo. To investigate the role of VASH1, we determined whether VASH1 treatment affects angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis using LECs and lymphatic endothelial cells (LyECs) in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) stimulated the expression of VASH1 in LECs but not in LyECs, and VASH1 completely blocked VEGFA-induced formation of capillary-like tube structures of LECs and LyECs in vitro. In summary, VASH1 is predominantly located on LECs in the bovine CL and inhibits the angiogenic and lymphangiogenic actions of VEGFA. Bovine CL therefore has a VEGFA-VASH1 system that may be involved in regulation of luteal function, especially in the development of the CL. The results indicate that VASH1 has the potential to act as a negative feedback regulator of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in the CL in cows.

  9. Expressions of VEGF and its receptors in rat corpus luteum during interferon alpha administration in early and pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Celik-Ozenci, Ciler; Akkoyunlu, Gokhan; Korgun, Emin Turkay; Savas, Burhan; Demir, Ramazan

    2004-04-01

    It is accepted that angiogenesis plays an important role in the development of the corpus luteum (CL) and is probably necessary for normal lutein cell function. A number of drugs currently being tested in clinical trials as possible angiogenesis inhibitors were not originally developed with the intention of suppressing tumor angiogenesis. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) is one of the notable examples of such 'accidental angiogenesis inhibitors' and daily administration of IFN-alpha is known to suppress tumor growth, tumor vascularization, and down-regulation of various growth factors. We investigated the effects of IFN-alpha treatment on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and its receptors KDR and Flt-1, and CD34 in CL during the first week of pseudopregnancy and pregnancy in hormonally induced rat ovaries by immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques. Basal body temperatures of the drug-treated rats, as an indicator of treatment effect, were determined daily and were increased significantly when compared to controls (38.03 +/- 0.18 vs. 36.6 +/- 0.1 degrees C), respectively. The effect of IFN-alpha treatment was minimal when the entire week was evaluated, however, the expression of VEGF decreased at 3rd, 5th, and 7th days of both pregnancy and pseudopregnancy, when compared to the 1st day, whereas there was not a such alteration in the untreated rats regarding these days. The daily subcutaneous administrations of 672.500 U IFN-alpha2b had minimal effects on the expressions of VEGF, and its two receptors KDR and Flt-1 in either pregnant or pseudopregnant corpora lutea utilizing HSCORE.

  10. Joint MiRNA/mRNA expression profiling reveals changes consistent with development of dysfunctional corpus luteum after weight gain.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Andrew P; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C; May, Margaret C; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu; Appt, Susan E; Polotsky, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7-9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  11. Joint MiRNA/mRNA Expression Profiling Reveals Changes Consistent with Development of Dysfunctional Corpus Luteum after Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew P.; Jones, Kenneth; Kechris, Katerina; Chosich, Justin; Montague, Michael; Warren, Wesley C.; May, Margaret C.; Al-Safi, Zain; Kuokkanen, Satu

    2015-01-01

    Obese women exhibit decreased fertility, high miscarriage rates and dysfunctional corpus luteum (CL), but molecular mechanisms are poorly defined. We hypothesized that weight gain induces alterations in CL gene expression. RNA sequencing was used to identify changes in the CL transcriptome in the vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) during weight gain. 10 months of high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFHF) resulted in a 20% weight gain for HFHF animals vs. 2% for controls (p = 0.03) and a 66% increase in percent fat mass for HFHF group. Ovulation was confirmed at baseline and after intervention in all animals. CL were collected on luteal day 7–9 based on follicular phase estradiol peak. 432 mRNAs and 9 miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to HFHF diet. Specifically, miR-28, miR-26, and let-7b previously shown to inhibit sex steroid production in human granulosa cells, were up-regulated. Using integrated miRNA and gene expression analysis, we demonstrated changes in 52 coordinately regulated mRNA targets corresponding to opposite changes in miRNA. Specifically, 2 targets of miR-28 and 10 targets of miR-26 were down-regulated, including genes linked to follicular development, steroidogenesis, granulosa cell proliferation and survival. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of dietary-induced responses of the ovulating ovary to developing adiposity. The observed HFHF diet-induced changes were consistent with development of a dysfunctional CL and provide new mechanistic insights for decreased sex steroid production characteristic of obese women. MiRNAs may represent novel biomarkers of obesity-related subfertility and potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:26258540

  12. Dynamics of Immune Cell Types Within the Macaque Corpus Luteum During the Menstrual Cycle: Role of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cecily V; Xu, Fuhua; Molskness, Theodore A; Stouffer, Richard L; Hennebold, Jon D

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to characterize the immune cell types within the primate corpus luteum (CL). Luteal tissue was collected from rhesus females at discrete intervals during the luteal phase of the natural menstrual cycle. Dispersed cells were incubated with fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for the immune cell surface proteins CD11b (neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages), CD14 (monocytes/macrophages), CD16 (natural killer [NK] cells), CD20 (B-lymphocytes), and CD3epsilon (T-lymphocytes) for analysis by flow cytometry. Numbers of CD11b-positive (CD11b(+)) and CD14(+) cells increased significantly 3 to 4 days after serum progesterone (P4) concentrations declined below 0.3 ng/ml. CD16(+) cells were the most abundant immune cell type in CL during the mid and mid-late luteal phases and were 3-fold increased 3 to 4 days after serum P4 decreased to baseline levels. CD3epsilon(+) cells tended to increase 3 to 4 days after P4 decline. To determine whether immune cells were upregulated by the loss of luteotropic (LH) support or through loss of LH-dependent steroid milieu, monkeys were assigned to 4 groups: control (no treatment), the GnRH antagonist Antide, Antide plus synthetic progestin (R5020), or Antide plus the estrogen receptor agonists diarylpropionitrile (DPN)/propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT) during the mid-late luteal phase. Antide treatment increased the numbers of CD11b(+) and CD14(+) cells, whereas progestin, but not estrogen, replacement suppressed the numbers of CD11b(+), CD14(+), and CD16(+) cells. Neither Antide nor steroid replacement altered numbers of CD3epsilon(+) cells. These data suggest that increased numbers of innate immune cells in primate CL after P4 synthesis declines play a role in onset of structural regression of primate CL.

  13. Corpus luteum function and embryonic mortality in buffaloes treated with a GnRH agonist, hCG and progesterone.

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Di Palo, R; Neglia, G; Vecchio, D; Gasparrini, B; Prandi, A; Galiero, G; D'Occhio, M J

    2007-05-01

    The effect of treatment with a GnRH agonist, hCG or progesterone (P(4)) on corpus luteum function and embryonic mortality was investigated in buffaloes inseminated during mid-winter. Italian Mediterranean buffaloes (n=309) were synchronized using the Ovsynch with timed-AI program and mated by AI at 16 h (Day 0) and 40 h after the second injection of GnRH. On Day 5, buffaloes were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (no treatment, n=69), GnRH agonist (buserelin acetate, 12.6 microg, n=73), hCG (1500 IU, n=75) and P(4) (PRID without E(2) for 10 days, n=77). Progesterone (pg/ml) was determined in milk whey on Days 5, 10, 15 and 20 and pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken on Day 26 by ultrasound and Day 40 by rectal palpation. Treatment with buserelin and hCG increased (p<0.05) P(4) on Day 15 compared with controls (456+/-27, 451+/-24 and 346+/-28 pg/ml, respectively). Buffaloes treated with a PRID had intermediate P(4) concentrations (380+/-23 pg/ml). Embryonic mortality between Days 26 and 40 (22.9%) and pregnancies at Day 40 (48.9%) did not differ between treatments. A higher (p<0.01) P(4) concentration was found on Day 20 in pregnant animals compared with non-pregnant and embryonic mortality buffaloes, which did not differ. In summary, buserelin and hCG increased P(4) concentrations on Day 15 but this was not associated with a reduced incidence of embryonic mortality in buffaloes during mid-winter. PMID:17403533

  14. Systematic Determination of Differential Gene Expression in the Primate Corpus Luteum during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bogan, Randy L.; Murphy, Melinda J.; Stouffer, Richard L.; Hennebold, Jon D.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and cellular processes required for development, function, and regression of the primate corpus luteum (CL) are poorly defined. We hypothesized that there are dynamic changes in gene expression occurring during the CL life span, which represent proteins and pathways critical to its regulation. Therefore, a genomic approach was utilized to systematically identify differentially expressed genes in the rhesus macaque CL during the luteal phase of natural menstrual cycles. CL were collected between d 3–5 (early stage), d 7–8 (mid), d 10–12 (mid-late), d 14–16 (late), or d 18–19 (very-late) after the midcycle LH surge. From the early through very-late stages, 3234 transcripts were differentially expressed, with 879 occurring from the early through late stages that encompass the processes of luteinization, maintenance, and functional regression. To characterize gene changes most relevant to these processes, ontology analysis was performed using the list of 879 differentially expressed transcripts. Four main groups of related genes were identified with relevance to luteal physiology including: 1) immune function; 2) hormone and growth factor signaling; 3) steroidogenesis; and 4) prostaglandin biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling. A subset of genes representing each of the four major categories was selected for validation of microarray results by quantitative real-time PCR. Results in mRNA levels were similar between the two methodologies for 17 of 18 genes. Additionally, protein levels for three genes were determined by Western blot analysis to parallel mRNA levels. This database will facilitate the identification of many novel or previously underappreciated pathways that regulate the structure and function of the primate CL. PMID:18258683

  15. The corpus luteum of the domestic cat: histologic classification and intraluteal hormone profile.

    PubMed

    Amelkina, Olga; Braun, Beate C; Dehnhard, Martin; Jewgenow, Katarina

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to histologically stage and characterize the structural life span of the CL in the domestic cat. Moreover, the intraluteal levels of progesterone and estrogens were determined throughout the pregnant and nonpregnant (pseudopregnant, PP) luteal phases. On the basis of observed histomorphology of CL, the following stages were identified: CL formation (preimplantation period, PP1), development/maintenance (Days 10-36 of pregnancy, PP2), early regression (Days 38 and 39 of pregnancy, PP3), late regression (Day 48 of pregnancy, PP4), and corpus albicans. The main cellular markers included luteal cell shape, the type and degree of vacuolation, nucleus condition, and the ratio of nonsteroidogenic to luteal cells. Intraluteal levels of progesterone and estrogens differed significantly throughout stages of pseudopregnancy (P < 0.01, progesterone; P < 0.0001, estrogens). The progesterone level in PP2 was higher compared with PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.05). The estrogen level in PP1 was higher compared with PP2 (P < 0.05), PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.005), as well as in PP2 compared with PP3 and PP4 (P < 0.005). The staging of the domestic cat luteal phase established here provides a basis for further research on feline luteotropic and luteolytic factors. These data will contribute to comparative studies in felids.

  16. Expression of vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor by human granulosa and theca lutein cells. Role in corpus luteum development.

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, B. R.; Brown, L. F.; Manseau, E. J.; Senger, D. R.; Dvorak, H. F.

    1995-01-01

    Vascular permeability factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (VPF/VEGF) is a cytokine that is overexpressed in many tumors, in healing wounds, and in rheumatoid arthritis. VPF/VEGF is thought to induce angiogenesis and accompanying connective tissue stroma in two ways: 1), by increasing microvascular permeability, thereby modifying the extracellular matrix and 2), as an endothelial cell mitogen. VPF/VEGF has been reported in animal corpora lutea and we investigated the possibility that it might be present in human ovaries and have a role in corpus luteum formation. We here report that VPF/VEGF mRNA and protein are expressed by human ovarian granulosa and theca cells late in follicle development and, subsequent to ovulation, by granulosa and theca lutein cells. Therefore, VPF/VEGF is ideally positioned to provoke the increased permeability of thecal blood vessels that occurs shortly before ovulation. VPF/VEGF likely also contributes to the angiogenesis and connective tissue stroma generation that accompany corpus luteum/corpus albicans formation. Finally, VPF/VEGF was overexpressed in the hyperthecotic ovarian stroma of Stein-Leventhal syndrome in which it may also have a pathophysiological role. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7531945

  17. Early development and function of the corpus luteum and relationship to pregnancy in the buffalo.

    PubMed

    Neglia, Gianluca; Restucci, Brunella; Russo, Marco; Vecchio, Domenico; Gasparrini, Bianca; Prandi, Alberto; Di Palo, Rossella; D'Occhio, Michael J; Campanile, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    A detailed study on the structure and function of the CL in the Day-5 to Day-10 window of development, and relationship to the likelihood of pregnancy, was undertaken in Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. In experiment 1, buffaloes underwent synchronization of estrus and fixed-time artificial insemination (n = 23). Features of the CL were measured from Days 5 to 10 after fixed-time artificial insemination, and pregnancy was confirmed on Day 70. Buffaloes that established a pregnancy (n = 14) had a larger CL area (1.31 ± 0.1 vs. 1.09 ± 0.1 cm(2); P < 0.01) and greater progesterone (P4) concentrations (1.90 ± 0.1 vs. 1.48 ± 0.1 ng/mL; P < 0.01) during Days 5 to 10 compared with nonpregnant buffaloes. In the same period, blood flow measured as time average medium velocity tended to be greater (P = 0.059) in buffaloes that were subsequently pregnant versus nonpregnant buffaloes (10.8 ± 0.8 vs. 8.4 ± 0.9). There was a relationship (R(2) = 0.136; P < 0.05) between CL area, P4, and time average medium velocity from Days 5 to 10. Logistic regression analysis showed that P4 concentration on Day 10 had a significant influence on pregnancy (odds ratio, 19.337; P < 0.01). In experiment 2, highly vascularized CLs (HVCLs, n = 3) and lowly vascularized CLs (LVCLs, n = 3) on Day 5 were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and then subjected to histologic investigation. Blood flow was greater in HVCLs than in LVCLs. Highly vascularized CLs showed intense staining for factor VIII and had many small, irregular-shaped blood vessels, whereas LVCLs had low factor VIII staining and relatively few large, regular-shaped vessels. Luteal cell expression of vascular EGF was greater for HVCLs compared with LVCLs. The study has shown that greater development and function of the CL from as early as Day 5 is related to an increased likelihood of pregnancy in the buffalo. Corpus lutea that show early development at Day 5 have greater expression of

  18. PPAR ligand association with prostaglandin F2α and E2 synthesis in the pig corpus luteum-An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kurzynska, A; Chojnowska, K; Bogacki, M; Bogacka, I

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated the involvement of PPARs in prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2α production in the corpus luteum (CL) of pigs on days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle or pregnancy. The tissue explants were incubated for 6h in the presence of PPARα, PPARβ, PPARγ ligands. The concentration of PGs in the incubation media was determined by radioimmunoassay, while mRNA abundance of PG synthetases (PGES and PGFS) was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. It was found that L-165,045 and rosiglitazone stimulated PGES synthesis on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle, whereas all factors that were assessed did not affect PGE2 release. The PGFS mRNA abundance in the CL did not change in the presence of PPAR ligands during the assessment periods. However, PPARβ agonist inhibited PGF2α secretion on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle and on days 14-16 of pregnancy. Interestingly, PPAR antagonists, MK 886, GW 9662 or T0070907 decreased PGF2α release by the slices on days 10-12 of the estrous cycle. It is concluded that the CL has a different susceptibility (greatest during mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle) to the PPAR ligands, which is related to the physiological status of animal. The inhibition of PGF2α release and augmentation of PGES mRNA concentration during mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle might suggest luteotropic properties of PPAR ligands. PMID:27477116

  19. Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to the Structure and Function of the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Gabriela Pacheco; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Papa, Paula de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that stimulatory and superovulatory treatments, using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), modulate the expression of genes related to insulin, cellular modelling and angiogenesis signaling pathways in the bovine corpus luteum (CL). Therefore, we investigated: 1—the effect of these treatments on circulating insulin and somatomedin C concentrations and on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1 and IGFR1, as well as other insulin signaling molecules; 2—the effects of eCG on gene and protein expression of INSR, IGF1, GLUT4 and NFKB1A in bovine luteal cells; and 3—the effect of stimulatory and superovulatory treatments on gene and protein expression of ANG, ANGPT1, NOS2, ADM, PRSS2, MMP9 and PLAU. Serum insulin did not differ among groups (P = 0.96). However, serum somatomedin C levels were higher in both stimulated and superovulated groups compared to the control (P = 0.01). In stimulated cows, lower expression of INSR mRNA and higher expression of NFKB1A mRNA and IGF1 protein were observed. In superovulated cows, lower INSR mRNA expression, but higher INSR protein expression and higher IGF1, IGFR1 and NFKB1A gene and protein expression were observed. Expression of angiogenesis and cellular modelling pathway-related factors were as follows: ANGPT1 and PLAU protein expression were higher and MMP9 gene and protein expression were lower in stimulated animals. In superovulated cows, ANGPT1 mRNA expression was higher and ANG mRNA expression was lower. PRSS2 gene and protein expression were lower in both stimulated and superovulated animals related to the control. In vitro, eCG stimulated luteal cells P4 production as well as INSR and GLUT4 protein expression. In summary, our results suggest that superovulatory treatment induced ovarian proliferative changes accompanied by increased expression of genes providing the CL more energy substrate, whereas stimulatory treatment increased lipogenic activity, angiogenesis and plasticity of the extracellular

  20. Corpus luteum development and function and relationship to pregnancy during the breeding season in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Gasparrini, B; Russo, M; Pacelli, C; Prandi, A; D'Occhio, M J; Campanile, G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain corpus luteum (CL) development and function in buffaloes synchronized and mated by artificial insemination (AI) during the breeding season. Italian Mediterranean buffalo cows (n = 43) at 86.5 ± 2.7 days postpartum were synchronized by the Ovsynch-TAI Program and inseminated using frozen thawed semen at 20 and 44 h after the second injection of GnRH. The CL dimensions (diameter and area) and blood flow were examined on Days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 after AI by realtime B-mode/colour-Doppler ultrasonography. The resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) and time average medium velocity (TAMV) were recorded at each time, together with CL dimensions. Blood samples were taken on the days of ultrasonography for progesterone (P4) assay by RIA. Data were grouped into pregnant or non-pregnant and retrospectively analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and correlation analyses. Dimensions of the CL on Days 10, 20, and 25 after AI were greater (P < 0.01) in buffaloes pregnant on Day 45 (n = 18) compared with non-pregnant buffaloes (n = 25). The former buffaloes also showed a greater (P < 0.01) rate of CL growth between Days 5 and 10 after AI. Blood flow to the CL on Day 10 after AI showed a higher TAMV (P < 0.01) and lower RI (P < 0.05) in pregnant buffaloes compared with non-pregnant buffaloes. Negative correlations were observed on Day 10 after AI between CL diameter and RI (r = -0.61; P < 0.01) and PI (r = -0.60; P < 0.01); P4 concentrations and RI (r = -0.46; P < 0.02); and RI and pregnancy (r = 0.45; P < 0.02). Positive correlations were observed between pregnancy and CL size (r = 0.54; P < 0.01), ΔCL diameter between Days 5 and 10 (r = 0.52; P < 0.01), ΔCL area between Days 5 and 10 (r = 0.48; P < 0.015), and ΔP4 between Days 5 and 10 (r = 0.50; P < 0.01). Based on these findings it is concluded that the period between Day 5 and 10 is very important for CL growth and crucial in evaluating pregnancy. Accordingly, the assessment of CL

  1. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  2. Ultrasound monitoring of blood flow and echotexture of the corpus luteum and uterus during early pregnancy of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Scully, S; Evans, A C O; Carter, F; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to characterize changes in the ultrasound characteristics of the CL and uterus in pregnant, inseminated nonpregnant, and cyclic beef heifers and to correlate findings with systemic progesterone (P4) concentrations with the intention of identifying possible markers for early identification of pregnancy. Heifers were randomly selected for artificial insemination after estrus synchronization. Ultrasound examinations of the CL and uterus were carried out by transrectal ultrasonography using a high-resolution ultrasound scanner equipped with a 12 MHz linear array probe on Days 7, 11, 14, 16, and 18 after artificial insemination (Day 0; i.e., estrus). Cross-sectional B-mode images of the CL were captured for calculation of CL tissue area and echotexture. Images of the CL and associated blood flow were captured and stored for analysis of luteal blood flow area and ratio. Longitudinal B-mode images of the uterine horns were captured just beyond the bifurcation of the uterine horns and stored for analysis of contrast and homogeneity (MaZda v4.6; Technical University of Lodz, Institute of Electronics, Poland). A total of three images were captured for each structure of interest. Serum concentrations of P4 were determined from blood samples collected at each ultrasound examination. After pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasound, heifers were retrospectively allocated as being pregnant (embryonic heartbeat on Day 28; n = 14) or nonpregnant (interestrous interval 18-21 days; n = 8) and their data were compared with noninseminated cyclic heifers (n = 10). Corpus luteum tissue area did not appear to change between pregnant, nonpregnant, or cyclic control groups between Days 7 and 18 (P > 0.05). No significant differences in CL echotexture characteristics were found between groups at any time point. There were no significant differences between pregnant, nonpregnant, and cyclic control groups for CL blood flow area (P > 0.05). However, CL blood flow ratio

  3. Effects of synchronization treatments on ovarian follicular dynamics, corpus luteum growth, and circulating steroid hormone concentrations in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, M M; Crowe, M A; Diskin, M G; Butler, S T

    2012-02-01

    Lactating dairy cows (n=57) ≥45 d postpartum at first service were enrolled in a randomized complete block design study to evaluate treatments to synchronize estrus and ovulation. At 10 d before artificial insemination (AI), animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) d -10 GnRH (GnRH1; 10 μg of buserelin, i.m.) and controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR, 1.38 g of progesterone (P4)]; d -3 PGF(2α) (PGF; 25 mg of dinoprost, i.m.); d -2 CIDR out; and AI at observed estrus (CIDR_OBS); (2) same as CIDR_OBS, but GnRH (GnRH2) 36 h after CIDR out and timed AI (TAI) 18 h later (CIDR_TAI); or (3) same as CIDR_TAI, but no CIDR (Ovsynch). Transrectal ultrasound was used to assess follicle size before ovulation and on d 4, 8, and 15 after the presumptive day of estrus (d 0) to measure the corpus luteum (CL). Blood samples were collected to determine concentrations of estradiol (E2; d -10, -9, -3, -2, -1, and 0) and P4 (d -10, -9, -2, -1, 0, 1, 4, 6, 8, 11, and 15). No treatment differences were observed in either circulating concentrations of P4 or the ovulatory response to GnRH1 at the onset of synchronization treatments. Circulating concentrations of P4 were greater for CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI compared with Ovsynch at 24 h after CIDR insertion (5.34 and 4.98 vs. 1.75 ng/mL) and immediately before CIDR removal (1.65 and 1.48 vs. 0.40 ng/mL). Peak circulating concentrations of E2 were greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (3.85 vs. 2.39 pg/mL), but CIDR_TAI (2.82 pg/mL) did not differ from either CIDR_OBS or Ovsynch. The interval from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 did not differ between CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch (52.1 vs. 49.8 h). Both CIDR_TAI and Ovsynch, however, had shorter intervals from PGF injection to peak circulating E2 concentrations compared with CIDR_OBS (67.8 h). The diameter of the dominant follicle before ovulation was greater for CIDR_OBS compared with Ovsynch (18.5 vs. 16.0 mm) but CIDR_TAI (17.1 mm) did not differ from either of

  4. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo. Efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support.

    PubMed

    Simon, J A; Danforth, D R; Hutchison, J S; Hodgen, G D

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  5. Characterization of recombinant DNA derived-human luteinizing hormone in vitro and in vivo: efficacy in ovulation induction and corpus luteum support

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.A.; Danforth, D.R.; Hutchison, J.S.; Hodgen, G.D.

    1988-06-10

    The present data are the first, to the authors knowledge, to demonstrate the production feasibility of a commercially available medication of pure human luteinizing hormone from recombinant DNA technology (rechLH). The rechLH preparation achieved ovulation induction and corpus luteum support in the primate menstrual cycle. The observations described herein indicate the opportunity for significant improvement in the treatment of infertile women and men who require gonadal stimulation. Recombinant DNA-derived gonadotropin products, rechLH in this case, will have several therapeutic advantages compared with current medications extracted from urine. These advantages include (1) better reliability of an available supply of hormone and (2) improved treatment flexibility in determining the optimal dose ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone or avoidance of the long-acting effects of human chorionic gonadotropin, as the needs of individual patients may dictate.

  6. Differentially Expressed Genes in Endometrium and Corpus Luteum of Holstein Cows Selected for High and Low Fertility Are Enriched for Sequence Variants Associated with Fertility.

    PubMed

    Moore, Stephen G; Pryce, Jennie E; Hayes, Ben J; Chamberlain, Amanda J; Kemper, Kathryn E; Berry, Donagh P; McCabe, Matt; Cormican, Paul; Lonergan, Pat; Fair, Trudee; Butler, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of fertility in humans and livestock, there has been little success dissecting the genetic basis of fertility. Our hypothesis was that genes differentially expressed in the endometrium and corpus luteum on Day 13 of the estrous cycle between cows with either good or poor genetic merit for fertility would be enriched for genetic variants associated with fertility. We combined a unique genetic model of fertility (cattle that have been selected for high and low fertility and show substantial difference in fertility) with gene expression data from these cattle and genome-wide association study (GWAS) results in ∼20,000 cattle to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions and sequence variants associated with genetic variation in fertility. Two hundred and forty-five QTL regions and 17 sequence variants associated primarily with prostaglandin F2alpha, steroidogenesis, mRNA processing, energy status, and immune-related processes were identified. Ninety-three of the QTL regions were validated by two independent GWAS, with signals for fertility detected primarily on chromosomes 18, 5, 7, 8, and 29. Plausible causative mutations were identified, including one missense variant significantly associated with fertility and predicted to affect the protein function of EIF4EBP3. The results of this study enhance our understanding of 1) the contribution of the endometrium and corpus luteum transcriptome to phenotypic fertility differences and 2) the genetic architecture of fertility in dairy cattle. Including these variants in predictions of genomic breeding values may improve the rate of genetic gain for this critical trait.

  7. Control of corpus luteum function in the pregnant rabbit: role of the placenta ("placental luteotropin") in regulating responsiveness of corpora lutea to estrogen.

    PubMed

    Gadsby, J E; Keyes, P L

    1984-08-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the interaction between estrogen and "placental luteotropin," the two luteotropins thought to be required for corpus luteum maintenance in the pregnant rabbit. Experiment 1 was designed to determine whether estrogen alone was luteotropic in the absence of "placental luteotropin." Pregnant rabbits were assigned to the following groups: Group A, sham hysterectomy; Group B, hysterectomy; Group C, hysterectomy plus estradiol on Day 20; and Group D, hysterectomy plus estradiol on Day 22. "Placental luteotropin" was removed on Day 21 of pregnancy by hysterectomy and estrogen was administered via an estradiol-filled Silastic implant which was placed s.c. before (Day 20, Group C) or after (Day 22, Group D) hysterectomy. Daily blood samples were taken for radioimmunoassay of serum progesterone and estradiol concentrations. Corpus luteum weights were measured at autopsy on Day 27. Hysterectomy caused serum progesterone concentrations to fall rapidly from 13 +/- 1 ng/ml on Day 21 to 2 +/- 1 ng/ml on Day 23, and to 1 ng/ml or less on Days 24-27. In sham hysterectomized rabbits (Group A), pregnancy was maintained and serum progesterone concentrations remained elevated at 9-15 ng/ml throughout (Days 20-27). Estradiol treatment (Groups C and D) did not prevent or reverse luteal regression induced by hysterectomy and serum progesterone concentrations declined in a similar fashion to Group B. Serum estradiol concentrations were 4-8 pg/ml in all groups and did not vary substantially with stage of pregnancy or treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6466753

  8. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the corpus luteum during oestrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Das, G K; Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Singh, G; Bag, S; Sharma, G T; Berisha, B; Schams, D; Sarkar, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to document the expression and localization of VEGF system comprising of VEGF isoforms (VEGF 120, VEGF 164 and VEGF 188) and their receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in buffalo corpus luteum (CL) obtained from different stages of the oestrous cycle. Real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), Western blot and immunohistochemistry were applied to investigate mRNA expression, protein expression and localization of examined factors. In general, all the components of VEGF system (the VEGF isoforms and their receptors) were found in the water buffalo CL during the oestrous cycle. The mRNA as well as protein expression of VEGF system was highest during the early and mid-luteal phase, which later steadily decreased (p < 0.05) after day 10 to reach the lowest level in regressed CL. As demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, VEGF protein was localized predominantly in luteal cells; however, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were localized in luteal cells as well as in endothelial cells. In conclusion, the dynamics of expression and localization of VEGF system in buffalo corpora lutea during the luteal phase were demonstrated in this study, indicating the possible role of VEGF system in the regulation of luteal angiogenesis and proliferation of luteal as well as endothelial cells through their non-angiogenic function.

  9. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers.

  10. The induction of a secondary corpus luteum on day 12 post-ovulation can delay the time of luteolysis in high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, M; Legendre, A-C; Driancourt, M-A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-12-01

    Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high-producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two-wave (3/11) and three-wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p < 0.01). Cows that formed a CL2 after hCG had higher mean plasma P4 concentrations on Day 14 (+4.5 ng/ml) and Day 18 (+3.0 ng/ml) compared with cows without CL2 (p < 0.05). The structural regression of CL2 begun approximately 8 days after that of the CL1, and the median time at which the first drop in circulating P4 levels occurred was later in cows that formed a CL2 than in those that did not (Day 26 vs Day 18; p < 0.01). Thus, the induction of a CL2 by hCG on Day 12 might reduce the risk of premature luteolysis in high-producing dairy cows after insemination.

  11. Short communication: Development of the first follicular wave dominant follicle on the ovary ipsilateral to the corpus luteum is associated with decreased conception rate in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Miura, R; Haneda, S; Kayano, M; Matsui, M

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of the locations of the first-wave dominant follicle (DF) and corpus luteum (CL) on fertility. In total, 350 artificial insemination (AI) procedures were conducted (lactating dairy cows: n=238, dairy heifers: n=112). Ovulation was confirmed 24 h after AI. The locations of the first-wave DF and CL were examined 5 to 9d after AI using rectal palpation or transrectal ultrasonography. Lactating dairy cows and dairy heifers were divided into 2 groups: (1) the ipsilateral group (IG), in which the DF was ipsilateral to the CL; and (2) the contralateral group (CG), in which the DF was contralateral to the CL. Pregnancy was diagnosed using transrectal ultrasonography 40d after AI. Conception rates were 54.0% in all cattle: 48.9% in lactating dairy cows, and 58.9% in dairy heifers. The incidence of the first-wave DF location did not differ between IG and CG (all cattle: 184 vs. 166; lactating cows: 129 vs. 109; heifers: 55 vs. 57 for IG vs. CG). Conception rates were lower in IG than in CG (all cattle: 40.2 vs. 69.3%; lactating dairy cows: 38.0 vs. 67.0%; dairy heifers: 45.5 vs. 73.7%, for IG vs. CG). Conception rate was not affected by season or live weight in heifers and lactating cows. In addition, days in milk at AI, milk production, body condition score, and parity did not affect conception in lactating cows. In summary, development of the first-wave DF in the ovary ipsilateral to the CL was associated with reduced conception rates in both lactating cows and heifers. PMID:25465564

  12. In vitro assessment of progesterone and prostaglandin e(2) production by the corpus luteum in cattle following pharmacological synchronization of estrus.

    PubMed

    Skarzynski, Dariusz Jan; Siemieniuch, Marta Jolanta; Pilawski, Wojciech; Woclawek Potocka, Izabela; Bah, Mamadou Moussa; Majewska, Magdalena; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Jan

    2009-04-01

    We studied the secretory function of the corpus luteum (CL) in cows following different estrus synchronization protocols. Estrus was synchronized using one (n=4) or two injections (n=5) of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha); dinoprost), two injections of different analogues of PGF(2alpha) (aPGF(2alpha)), luprostiol (n=5) and cloprostenol (n=5), at eleven-day intervals, a gestagen implant (norgestomet, n=5, for 10 days) or norgestomet together with a subsequent dinoprost injection on the day of implant removal (n=5). CL samples were collected by ovariectomy on Day 7-8 of the estrous cycle. Luteal strips were stimulated with LH (100 ng/ml) or prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2), 10(-6)M) for 24 h in culture media. The progesterone (P(4)) and PGE(2) concentrations in the media were measured by enzyme immunoassay. In the control CL (spontaneous estrus; n=5), LH and PGE(2) stimulated P(4) and PGE(2) (P<0.001). The effects of both factors on P(4) were reduced in the CL following dinoprost- and cloprostenol-synchronized estrus (P<0.05) and were absent in the luprostiol-synchronized CL (P>0.05). In the norgestomet-synchronized CL, the stimulatory effects of LH and PGE(2) were higher compared with the CL synchronized by aPGF(2alpha) (P<0.05). Pharmacological manipulation of the estrous cycle using aPGF(2alpha) may cause lower P(4) secretion. Estrus synchronization inhibited CL sensitivity to luteotropic factors. Therefore, attention should be focused on the estrous synchronization method in both in vivo and in vitro studies of CL functions in cattle.

  13. VEGF system expression in different stages of estrous cycle in the corpus luteum of non-treated and superovulated water buffalo.

    PubMed

    Papa, P C; Moura, C E B; Artoni, L P; Fátima, L A; Campos, D B; Marques, J E B; Baruselli, P S; Binelli, M; Pfarrer, C; Leiser, R

    2007-11-01

    Water buffaloes are easily adaptable animals, whose raising and economical exploitation have been growing in the last three decades all over the world. Hyperstimulation of ovarian function in this species is a common technique aiming to improve reproductive performance. Superovulatory treatment affects corpus luteum (CL) function, which is highly correlated to angiogenic process. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the temporal protein and mRNA expression of VEGF and its receptors in the CL of non-treated and superovulated buffaloes. For that purpose blood samples and CL from 36 healthy (30 untreated, groups 1-5, and 6 superovulated, group 6) non-pregnant buffaloes were collected and the samples were divided into 6 groups according to the age of CL. Plasma samples were submitted to RIA to measure progesterone concentration and CL were subjected to immunohistochemistry and real time PCR for VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1) and KDR (kinase insert domain containing region). The VEGF system protein and mRNA expression during CL life span of untreated animals showed a specific time-dependent profile, although protein did not always reflect mRNA concentrations. VEGF expression in luteal cells was high correlated to plasma progesterone levels. Superovulated CL showed a significant increase of the VEGF-system protein and a significant decrease of mRNA expression compared to untreated animals in the same stage of the oestrous cycle. We conclude that VEGF, Flt-1 and KDR protein and mRNA expression in buffalo CL is dependent of estrous cycle stage and superovulatory treatment is able to increase the translation rate of this system.

  14. The induction of a secondary corpus luteum on day 12 post-ovulation can delay the time of luteolysis in high-producing Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, M; Legendre, A-C; Driancourt, M-A; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2014-12-01

    Luteolysis before the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy is one cause of low fertility in high-producing dairy cows. The objective of this study was to assess whether induction of a secondary corpus luteum (CL) late in the luteal phase would delay the time of luteolysis. Twenty high-producing Holstein cows were synchronized to ovulation (Day 0) with the Ovsynch protocol and received hCG (1500 IU im) on Day 12. Corpora lutea formation (as evaluated by ultrasonography) and plasma P4 concentrations were monitored from Days 4 to 36. hCG treatment induced the formation of one secondary CL (CL2) in 11 of 20 cows (55%) from the dominant follicle (mean diameter: 14.2 ± 0.9 mm) of two-wave (3/11) and three-wave (8/11) cycles. The maximal diameter of the CL2 (23.3 ± 1.9 mm) was reached approximately 6 days after hCG treatment and was correlated with its structural lifespan (p < 0.01). Cows that formed a CL2 after hCG had higher mean plasma P4 concentrations on Day 14 (+4.5 ng/ml) and Day 18 (+3.0 ng/ml) compared with cows without CL2 (p < 0.05). The structural regression of CL2 begun approximately 8 days after that of the CL1, and the median time at which the first drop in circulating P4 levels occurred was later in cows that formed a CL2 than in those that did not (Day 26 vs Day 18; p < 0.01). Thus, the induction of a CL2 by hCG on Day 12 might reduce the risk of premature luteolysis in high-producing dairy cows after insemination. PMID:25219366

  15. Effect of Decreasing Intraluteal Progesterone on Sensitivity of the Early Porcine Corpus Luteum to the Luteolytic Actions of Prostaglandin F2alpha1

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Francisco J.; Luo, Wenxiang; Wiltbank, Milo C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF) causes luteolysis of the pig corpus luteum (CL) only after Day 12 of the estrous cycle. Recent evidence indicates that progesterone (P4) may protect the CL from cell death. The present study tested the hypothesis that acute inhibition of P4 by treatment with epostane (EPO; 3betaHSD inhibitor) in CL lacking luteolytic capacity (Day 9 CL) will allow PGF to induce responses associated with luteolysis. Multiple PGF-induced responses were evaluated, including genes involved in production of PGF and estradiol-17beta, apoptosis (caspase 3), and transcription (FOSB). These responses are associated with PGF-induced luteolysis and do not normally occur in CL lacking luteolytic capacity. Animals on Day 7 after estrus were divided into four groups: 1) control (C), 2) PGF, 3) EPO, and 4) PGF plus EPO (PGF+EPO). Treatment with EPO (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was given every 12 h for 36 h. Treatment with PGF (25 mg) or vehicle was given at 38 h, and CL were collected from all animals at 48 h. Some CL from each animal were frozen in liquid nitrogen for mRNA and protein analysis. Remaining CL were incubated in media for 2 h for determination of P4 and PGF production. EPO dramatically decreased production of P4 by luteal tissue (ng/mg tissue) by 90% and 95% in EPO and PGF+EPO groups, respectively, compared to C (P < 0.01). Low production of PGF by luteal tissue was found in C, PGF, and EPO groups; however, treatment with PGF+EPO dramatically increased (782%) luteal PGF production. Similar to intraluteal PGF production, increased mRNA for cyclooxygenase 2 (PTGS2) and phospholipase A2 (group IB; PLA2G1B) was found in the PGF+EPO, but not in the EPO or PGF, group. Aromatase (CYP19A1) mRNA was not induced by PGF or EPO; however, PGF+EPO caused a more than 40-fold increase in CYP19A1 mRNA (P < 0.01). CASP3 mRNA was increased (P < 0.01) by EPO (3.4-fold) and by PGF (2.7-fold) but was most dramatically increased by PGF+EPO (5.3-fold), whereas caspase activity was only

  16. Cloning of a buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor: changes in its expression and concentration in the buffalo cow corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Verma-Kumar, Shalu; Srinivas, S V; Muraly, P; Yadav, Vijay K; Medhamurthy, R

    2004-06-01

    Acting primarily through its specific G protein-coupled receptor termed FPr, prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) induces regression of the corpus luteum (CL) at the end of a non-fertile oestrous cycle. This study was aimed at cloning a full-length cDNA for FPr and determining its expression and protein concentrations during different stages of CL development in the water buffalo. Serum progesterone and StAR expression were determined to establish temporal relationships between indices of steroidogenesis and changes in FPr expression at different stages of CL development. In contrast to the dairy cow, the stage IV CL (day 20 of the oestrous cycle) did not appear to be functionally regressed in the buffalo. Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding the buffalo FPr yielded a full length 2193 bp FPr cDNA containing a single open reading frame encoding a 362 amino acid protein with seven putative membrane-spanning domains. The deduced buffalo FPr amino acid sequence possesses a high degree of identity with the other mammalian homologues. Steady state concentration of buffalo FPr transcript increased (P > 0.05) from stage I to stage II/III, and declined at 18 h post PGF(2alpha) injection. The FPr concentration expressed as fmol/microg of plasma membrane protein showed an increase (P > 0.05) from stage I (1.98 +/- 0.10), through stage II/III (2.42 +/- 0.48) to stage IV (2.77 +/- 0.18). High affinity FPr was observed in stage I (K(d) 4.86 nmol) and stage II/III (K(d) 6.28 nmol) while low affinity FPr (K(d) 19.44 nmol) was observed in stage IV. In conclusion, we have cloned a full length FPr cDNA from buffalo cow CL and observed that FPr mRNA expression, receptor number and affinity did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) within the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle.

  17. The control of progesterone secretion during the estrous cycle and early pseudopregnancy in the rat: prolactin, gonadotropin and steroid levels associated with rescue of the corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, M S; Freeman, M E; Neill, J D

    1975-01-01

    The hormonal factors associated with converting a corpus luteum of estrous cycle into a corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy were studied by measuring LH and FSH prolactin, estradiol and progesterone levels in decapitated rats during the 4-day estrous cycle and a comparable time of pseudopregnancy (lights on 0600-0800 hr.). During the estrous cycle, prolactin, LH and FSH remained low and unchanging except on the afternoon of proestrus, when typical proestrous surges were observed. In contrast, estradiol levels began to increase on D-1, from baseline values of 7 pg/ml to approximately 15-20 pg/ml. These levels were maintained until the afternoon of D-2 when estradiol further increased to reach peak levels of 40-50 pg/ml by 0900 hr on proestrus. Estradiol then declined in relation to the increase in LH secreation and had returned to baseline by estrus. Progesterone secretion by the corpora lutea of the cycle also increased on the afternoon of D-1 and reached a maximum value of 25-30 ng/ml early on the morning of D-2. At this time, a precipitious fall in progesterone occurred, returning to baseline values of 5-1- ng/ml by 0700 on D-2 signifying the regression of the corpora lutea of the cycle. Progesterone remained low thereafter until the afternoon of proestrus when levels increased in response to the proestrus when levels increased in response to the proestrous surge of LH. Following cervical stimulation at 1900 hr on proestrus, no differences were noted, with respect to the estrous cycle, in LH, FSH or estradiol secreation through the afternoon of D-2. Surprisingly, progesterone levels did not differ in the cycle and pseudopregnancy until the early morning of D-29 instead of progesterone levels falling to baseline as they had during the cycle, the corpora lutea of pseudopregnancy were rescused, progesterone increasing dramatically to reach levels of 45-50 ng/ml by 1700 hr on that same day. The only difference in hormone secretion that was noted which could account for

  18. Comparison between lactating and non-lactating dairy cows on follicular growth and corpus luteum development, and endocrine patterns of ovarian steroids and luteinizing hormone in the estrous cycles.

    PubMed

    Endo, Natsumi; Nagai, Kiyosuke; Tanaka, Tomomi; Kamomae, Hideo

    2012-10-01

    The dynamics of ovarian follicle, corpus luteum (CL), and peripheral plasma ovarian steroids were compared between lactating and non-lactating cows, and a possible association of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion with the dynamics was examined. Lactating (n=5) and non-lactating (n=5) cows were monitored daily for follicle and CL throughout two consecutive estrous cycles (Day 0: day of ovulation). Blood samples were collected daily and at 15 min intervals for 8h on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, and 14 of the second cycle. Lactating cows had larger CL (25.4 ± 1.8mm vs. 23.5 ± 1.5mm, P<0.01) and greater progesterone concentrations (4.6 ± 1.0ng/ml vs. 3.9 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P<0.01) during mid-luteal phase compared with non-lactating cows. Maximal diameters of the first wave dominant follicle (17.2 ± 1.8mm vs. 15.5 ± 0.8mm) and the ovulatory follicle (17.9 ± 1.2mm vs. 15.2 ± 0.8mm) were greater (P<0.05) in lactating cows than in non-lactating cows during the estrous cycles with two follicular waves, but no significant differences were detected between the groups during the estrous cycles with three follicular waves. Plasma estradiol concentrations did not differ between the groups throughout the experiment. Lactating cows had more LH pulses from Days 2 to 14 than non-lactating cows. These results imply that differences in ovarian dynamics may exist between lactating and non-lactating cows, for which the increased number of LH pulses observed in lactating cows may have responsibility.

  19. Profiles of circulating steroid hormones, gonadotropins, immunoreactive inhibin and prolactin during pregnancy in goats and immunolocalization of inhibin subunits, steroidogenic enzymes and prolactin in the corpus luteum and placenta.

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Sosa, Gamal A; Abou El-Roos, Mahmoud E A; Abdel-Ghaffar, Alaa E; Li, Jun Y; Manabe, Noboru; El Azab, Abd El Salam I; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    The current study was performed to follow up the circulating hormonal changes and to correlate the findings with the physiological activity of the corpus luteum (CL) and placenta during pregnancy in goats. Blood samples were collected weekly from five goats during pregnancy for measuring steroid and protein hormones. A gradual increase was observed in immunoreactive (ir-) inhibin, with maximal levels at the 17th week. The plasma concentrations of estradiol and prolactin (PRL) showed nearly similar patterns during pregnancy, where they declined to basal levels during the first 4 weeks post-breeding and then increased significantly, with the maximal concentration during late pregnancy. The plasma FSH and LH concentrations were maintained at basal levels throughout the gestation period. The plasma progesterone concentration abruptly increased in the first week post-breeding and remained at high values throughout the pregnancy period. Immunohistochemical localization of inhibin alpha, beta(A), beta(B) and steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase, 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), cytochrome 17alpha-hydroxylase P450 and cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 in the cyclic and pregnant goat CL revealed positive immunoreactivity without affinity differences between the luteal and pregnancy stages. The placental syncytiotrophoblasts also showed positive staining, except for inhibin beta(A) and 3betaHSD. The giant binucleate cells of the placenta showed positive immunoreactions to PRL. These results suggest that the high concentrations of ir-inhibin, estradiol and PRL during late pregnancy are of placental origin and that the placenta may have a vital role in the maintenance of pregnancy, regulation of mammary growth and preparation for kidding and lactation in goats.

  20. Differential gene expression in the bovine corpus luteum during transition from early phase to midphase and its potential role in acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to prostaglandin F2 alpha.

    PubMed

    Goravanahally, Madhusudan P; Salem, Mohamed; Yao, Jianbo; Inskeep, E Keith; Flores, Jorge A

    2009-05-01

    Prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF(2alpha)) brings about regression of the bovine corpus luteum (CL). This luteolytic property of PGF(2alpha) is used in beef and dairy cattle to synchronize estrus. A limitation of this protocol is insensitivity of the early CL to luteolytic actions of PGF(2alpha). The mechanisms underlying this differential luteal sensitivity are poorly understood. The developing CL has a maximum number of PGF(2alpha) receptors; therefore, differences in signaling events may be responsible for luteal insensitivity. Hence, differential gene expression at two developmental stages of CL, Day 4 (D-4) and D-10 after estrus, might account for differences in signal transduction pathways associated with luteal sensitivity. This possibility was examined in these studies. Microarray analysis (n = 3 cows per stage) identified 167 genes that were differentially expressed (P < 0.05). These were categorized into genes involved in protein biosynthesis and modification (18.5%), transcription regulation and DNA biosynthesis (18.5%), miscellaneous (17.0%), cell signaling (12.0%), steroidogenesis and metabolism (10.2%), extracellular matrix and cytoskeletal proteins (9.5%), unknown functions (6.0%), protein degradation (5.3%), and antioxidant property (3.0%). Real-time PCR confirmed the differential expression of nine selected genes, including tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygense activation protein zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and regulator of G protein signaling 2 24-kDa (RGS2), observed in microarray. Furthermore, the in vivo effect of exogenous PGF(2alpha) (n = 3 cows per stage) on selected genes that were found to be differentially expressed during this developmental transition was examined. PGF(2alpha) increased the expression of a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) beta polypeptide 1 (GNB1) in D-4 CL and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2 beta (CAMKK2) in D-10 CL. Therefore, GNB1, CAMKK2, YWHAZ, and RGS2 are candidate genes that may

  1. Prostaglandin F2α Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Transforming Growth Factor B1 Via Induction of the Early Growth Response 1 Gene (EGR1) in the Bovine Corpus Luteum

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaoying; Arvisais, Edward W.; Jiang, Chao; Chen, Dong-bao; Roy, Shyamal K.; Pate, Joy L.; Hansen, Thomas R.; Rueda, Bo R.; Davis, John S.

    2008-01-01

    In most mammals, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) is believed to be a trigger that induces the regression of the corpus luteum (CL), whereby progesterone synthesis is inhibited, the luteal structure involutes, and the reproductive cycle resumes. Studies have shown that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) protein can induce the expression of proapoptotic proteins, suggesting that EGR1 may play a role in luteal regression. Our hypothesis is that EGR1 mediates the actions of PGF2α by inducing the expression of TGF β1 (TGFB1), a key tissue remodeling protein. The levels of EGR1 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in the bovine CL during PGF2α-induced luteolysis in vivo and in PGF2α-treated luteal cells in vitro. Using chemical and genetic approaches, the RAF/MAPK kinase (MEK) 1/ERK pathway was identified as a proximal signaling event required for the induction of EGR1 in PGF2α-treated cells. Treatment with PGF2α increased the expression of TGFB1 mRNA and protein as well as the binding of EGR1 protein to TGFB1 promoter in bovine luteal cells. The effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 expression was mimicked by a protein kinase C (PKC)/RAF/MEK1/ERK activator or adenoviral-mediated expression of EGR1. The stimulatory effect of PGF2α on TGFB1 mRNA and TGFB1 protein secretion was inhibited by blockade of MEK1/ERK signaling and by adenoviral-mediated expression of NAB2, an EGR1 binding protein that inhibits EGR1 transcriptional activity. Treatment of luteal cells with TGFB1 reduced progesterone secretion, implicating TGFB1 in luteal regression. These studies demonstrate that PGF2α stimulates the expression of EGR1 and TGFB1 in the CL. We suggest that EGR1 plays a role in the expression of genes whose cognate proteins coordinate luteal regression. PMID:17916653

  2. Expression of the full-length and alternatively spliced equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin receptor mRNAs in the primary corpus luteum and fetal gonads during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Saint-Dizier, Marie; Chopineau, Maryse; Dupont, Joëlle; Combarnous, Yves

    2004-08-01

    The full-length equine luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin (LH/CG) receptor (eLH/CG-RA) cDNA and two alternatively spliced isoforms (eLH/CG-RB,C) were isolated from luteal tissue and characterized using a combination of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The 680-amino acid full sequence of eLH/CG-RA displayed 87-92% homology with other mammalian LH/CG-Rs. The eLH/CG-RB and eLH/CG-RC cDNA isoforms were truncated from the 3'-end of exon X: eLH/CG-RB spliced out of frame into the last exon whereas eLH/CG-RC contained an in-frame stop codon within a divergent sequence. Consequently, both eLH/CG-RB and eLH/CG-RC cDNA isoforms encoded putative proteins without transmembrane and intracellular domains. In order to study the responsiveness of the primary corpus luteum (CL) and fetal gonads to eCG, the expression of eLH/CG-R mRNAs was examined by RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis during early and mid-pregnancy. All three eLH/CG-R cDNA isoforms (eLH/CG-RA,B,C) were expressed from day 14 to day 83 of pregnancy in the primary CL and from day 44 to day 222 in fetal gonads. Interestingly, the primary CL at days 89 and 151 expressed only truncated eLH/CG-R cDNA isoforms. The relative values of Northern hybridized major 7, 5.7, 3.9 and 1.8 kb eLH/CG-R mRNA transcripts tended to decrease in the primary CL whereas the unique major 1.8 kb eLH/CG-R mRNA was steadily expressed in fetal gonads during pregnancy. These results show that the expression of eLH/CG-R mRNAs occurs in the fetal gonads before ceasing in the primary CL and suggest that eCG may be involved in the gradual transition from a luteal to a feto-placental output of steroids during equine pregnancy. PMID:15280561

  3. Efficacy of PGF(2alpha) to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows (Bubalus bubalis) is dependent upon plasma progesterone concentration, corpus luteum size and ovarian follicular status before treatment.

    PubMed

    Brito, L F C; Satrapa, R; Marson, E P; Kastelic, J P

    2002-09-16

    This study was conducted to identify factors affecting PGF(2alpha) efficacy to synchronize estrus in water buffalo cows. After detection of a corpus luteum (CL) by rectal palpation, cows were treated (im) with dinoprost (12.5, 25 or 50mg) or D(+) cloprostenol (75, 150 or 300 microg) in a total of 66 treatments. Blood samples were collected 0, 24 and 48 h after treatment and ultrasound examinations and observations for estrus were performed daily to the day of ovulation or to 6 days after treatment. No PGF(2alpha) dose-response pattern was observed and overall rates of luteal regression (progesterone <1.0 ng/ml at 48 h), estrus, no detected behavioral estrus with ovulation occurring, and ovulation were 71.2, 36.4, 19.7 and 54.5%, respectively. To analyze plasma progesterone concentrations and ovarian dynamics, cows were divided in three groups according to their response to treatment. Cows that failed to have ovulations from a follicle after treatment (Group A, n = 30) had (P < 0.05) a lower plasma progesterone concentration (2.98 ng/ml) and smaller CL area (CLA; 187.3 mm(2)) before treatment as compared with cows that had an ovulation from a follicle (4.43 ng/ml and 223.7 mm(2), respectively; Groups B and C, n = 36). In cows that failed to ovulate, plasma progesterone concentration decreased in the first 24 h, but did not decline further and was >1.0 ng/ml 48 h after treatment. Moreover, no significant change in CLA after treatment was detected, indicating that treatment induced only partial luteolysis. In cows that ovulated, plasma progesterone concentration and CLA decreased continuously from treatment to ovulation (consistent with complete luteolysis). Threshold values of 2.8 ng/ml for plasma progesterone concentration and 189 mm(2) for CLA were identified as the best predictors of ovulation before treatment (83.3 and 80.6% sensitivity and 58.6 and 65.5% specificity, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values around 71%). When the origin of the

  4. A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations.

  5. Expression and localization of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and its two receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine corpus luteum and utero-placental compartments during pregnancy and at normal and induced parturition.

    PubMed

    Gram, Aykut; Hoffmann, Bernd; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-11-01

    VEGFA is one of the most potent known inducers of angiogenesis. However, the function of angiogenic factors in the canine corpus luteum (CL) of pregnancy and in the pregnant uterus and placenta has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, here we investigated the expression and localization of VEGFA and its receptors (VEGFR1/FLT1 and VEGFR2/FLK1/KDR) in the canine CL and utero-placental compartments (ut-pl) throughout pregnancy until prepartum luteolysis. Antigestagen-mediated effects on expression of VEGF system in ut-pl were elucidated in mid-pregnant dogs. While displaying high individual variation, the luteal VEGFA was elevated during pre-implantation and post-implantation, followed by a decrease during mid-gestation, which was more pronounced at the mRNA level, and showed constant expression afterwards. Within the uterus, it increased following implantation and during mid-gestation in ut-pl compartments, but was downregulated at prepartum luteolysis. Luteal VEGFR1 expression resembled that of VEGFA; VEGFR2 remained unaffected throughout pregnancy. In ut-pl compartments, both receptors increased gradually towards mid-gestation; a prepartum decrease was observed for VEGFR1. Antigestagen-treatment resulted in decreased expression of ut-pl VEGFR1. In the CL, VEGFA stained in luteal cells. Uterine signals of VEGFA and its two receptors were observed in epithelial and vascular compartments, and in myometrium. In placental labyrinth, additionally, trophoblast stained positively. Luteal VEGFR1 was localized to the luteal cells and tunica media of blood vessels, whereas VEGFR2 stained only in capillary endothelial cells. The upregulation of luteal and the ut-pl VEGF system during early gestational stages supports the increased vascularization rate during this time. The diminishing effects of the prepartum endocrine milieu on VEGFA function seem to be more pronounced in the ut-pl units.

  6. Treatment of chronic anovulation and corpus luteum deficiency with epimestrol.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Prieto, J; Martinez, M R; Pesenti, B; Villalobos, A S; Clavijo, M G

    1981-01-01

    Ten patients presenting with anovulatory syndrome (AS, 4 patients), inadequate luteal phase (ILP, 3 patients) and short luteal phase (SLP, 3 patients) were treated with epimestrol for 29 cycles in total. The initial treatment was always 10 mg/day for 10 days followed by a modification of the daily dose and/or length of treatment needed. Ovulation was induced in all 4 AS patients with an adequate luteal phase (ALP) in 3 of them. In all other patients (with ILP and SLP) an ALP was induced; 2 of them became pregnant. No side-effects were reported.

  7. Presence of sensory nerve corpuscles in the human corpus and cervix uteri during pregnancy and labor as revealed by immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Tingaker, Berith K; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Forsgren, Sture

    2006-01-01

    Background The uterus is exposed to changes such as enlargement and distension during pregnancy and labor. In these processes and in the process of cervical ripening, proprioceptive information is likely to be of great importance. Therefore, we wanted to study the possible existence of sensory nerve corpuscles in uterine corpus and cervix during pregnancy and labor. Studies on this aspect have not previously been perfomed. Methods Biopsies were taken from the upper edge of the hysterotomy during caesarean section at term (n = 8), in labor (n = 5) and from the corresponding area in the non-pregnant uterus after hysterectomy (n = 7). Cervical biopsies were obtained transvaginally from the anterior cervical lip. Serial cryostat sections were prepared for immunohistochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against nerve growth factor receptor p75, protein gene product 9.5 and S-100. Results Structures with the characteristics of sensory nerve corpuscles were observed in several specimens after staining for p75, PGP 9.5 and S-100. They were observed in specimens of the non-pregnant corpus and cervix and also in specimens of the pregnant cervix before onset of labor. However, they were absent in all specimens during labor. Conclusion Sensory corpuscles have here for the first time been detected in the human corpus and cervix uteri. Studies on the importance of the corpuscles in relation to the protective reflex actions that occur in the uterus during pregnancy should be performed in the future. PMID:16938139

  8. Steroid hormones, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems during rescue of the corpus luteum in pigs.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Kaczmarek, M M; Kaczynski, P; Ziecik, A J

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the transition of the corpora lutea (CL) from acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity to rescue of luteal function: i) the expression of 38 factors associated with steroids, prostanoids, and angiogenic systems and ii) concentrations of the main hormones responsible for maintenance of CL function in cyclic and pregnant pigs were examined. Additionally, the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 and F2 α on luteal function during the estrous cycle and pregnancy was evaluated in vitro. Significantly up-regulated gene expression was revealed in CL collected on day 14 of the estrous cycle (CYP19A1, ESR2, PTGS2, HIF1A, and EDN1) and on days 12-14 of pregnancy (SCARB1, PGRMC1, STAR, HSD3B1, NR5A1, PTGFR, PTGER4, and VEGFA). Elevated concentrations of estradiol-17β and PGE2 occurred in CL on days 12 and 14 of pregnancy respectively, while an increased intraluteal PGF2 α content was noted on day 14 of the estrous cycle. Both PGs increased the synthesis of progesterone by cultured luteal slices obtained on day 14 of pregnancy, in contrast to the action of PGF2 α on the corresponding day of the estrous cycle. PGE2 stimulated cAMP production via PTGER2 and PTGER4, while PGF2 α elevated the content of CREB in cultured luteal slices from CL of pregnant pigs. In silico analysis showed that infiltration of lymphocytes and apoptosis of microvascular endothelium were activated in CL on day 12 of the estrous cycle vs pregnancy. Summarizing, an abundance of E2 and PGE2 during pregnancy regulates specific pathways responsible for steroidogenesis, the prostanoid signaling system and angiogenesis during rescue from luteolysis in porcine CL.

  9. Activation of Gq/11 in the mouse corpus luteum is required for parturition.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Rachel; Waite, Courtney; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Mice with a deletion of Gα(q/11) in granulosa cells were previously shown to be subfertile. They also have a reduced ovulatory response due to a deficiency in the ability of the activated LH receptor to fully induce the granulosa cell progesterone receptor. Because this conditional deletion of Gα(q/11) will interfere with the actions of any G protein-coupled receptor that activates G(q/11) in granulosa or luteal cells, we sought to determine whether the actions of other hormones that contribute to fertility were also impaired. We focused our attention on prostaglandin F2 (PGF2)α, because this hormone is known to activate phospholipase C (a prominent Gα(q/11) effector) in luteal cells and because the action of PGF2α on luteal cells is the first step in the murine parturition pathway. Our data show that the conditional deletion of Gα(q/11) from granulosa cells prevents the ability of PGF2α to induce Akr1c18 in luteal cells. Akr1c18 codes for 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that inactivates progesterone. The PGF2α-mediated induction of this enzyme towards the end of pregnancy increases the inactivation of progesterone and precipitates parturition in mice. Thus, the conditional deletion of Gαq/11 from granulosa/luteal cells prevents the progesterone withdrawal that occurs at the end of pregnancy and impairs parturition. This novel molecular defect contributes to the subfertile phenotype of the mice with a deletion of Gα(q/11) from granulosa cells.

  10. Endocrine disruptors and human corpus luteum: in vitro effects of phenols on luteal cells function.

    PubMed

    Romani, Federica; Tropea, Anna; Scarinci, Elisa; Dello Russo, Cinzia; Lisi, Lucia; Catino, Stefania; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are well known to impair fertility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (p-NP) on human luteal function in vitro. In particular, in luteal cells isolated from 21 human corpora lutea progesterone, prostaglandin (PG) F2α, PGE2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) release, as well as VEGF expression were evaluated. BPA and p-NP negatively affected both luteal steroidogenesis and luteotrophic/ luteolytic factors balance, without influencing VEGF mRNA expression. Actually, BPA and p-NP impaired human luteal cells function in vitro, underlining the already suggested correlation between phenols and reproductive failure.

  11. Production of prostaglandins in placentae and corpus luteum in pregnant hinds of red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, A J; Szczepańska, A; Bogdaszewski, M; Nadolski, P; Malż, P; Giżejewski, Z

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are synthesized from arachidonic acid by prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2) and specific terminal PG synthases such as PGES and PGFS. The role of PGs in the reproductive processes of domestic ruminants is well recognized, whereas in cervidae, it is almost unknown, although it is noteworthy because some species of this family are valued in meat production and trophies. The aim of this study was to determine an effective marker of pregnancy and investigate the production and secretion of PGs in placenta and CL tissue in pregnancy. In the preliminary experiment, the levels of progesterone and 17-β estradiol (RIA; N = 14 divided into seven pregnant and seven nonpregnant hinds) were measured in the peripheral blood. In the main experiment, a comparison of messenger RNA (real-time polymerase chain reaction) and protein expression (Western blotting) of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS, the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGF2α in the placentae and CL in pregnant hinds (aged 3-4 years, ca. 100 days of pregnancy, N = 6). In pregnant hinds, the level of progesterone in the blood was higher than that in nonpregnant hinds (P < 0.05), whereas the level of E2 was similar in all animals (P > 0.05). The highest messenger RNA expression of PTGS2, PGES, and PGFS was observed in the placentae than in the CL (P < 0.05). The protein expression of PTGS2 and PGES was elevated in the placentae compared with the CL (P < 0.05). The PGE2 output was the highest in cotyledonary tissue (P < 0.05). Pregnancy development in hinds around 100 days is regulated by arachidonic acid metabolites, especially PGE2 produced by the placentae, which production increases in pregnancy. Further studies are required to unravel the mechanisms involved in the regulation of PG and biosynthetic enzymes in uteroplacental and ovarian tissues during pregnancy in red deer females. PMID:26553568

  12. Change in responsiveness of rabbit corpus luteum to prostaglandin F-2 alpha during pregnancy and pseudopregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marcinkiewicz, J L; Moy, E S; Bahr, J M

    1992-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) may have a role in luteolysis in rabbits. Rabbits (4-6/group) were given a single injection of saline, or 100, 500 or 2500 micrograms PGF-2 alpha (i.m.) on Day 7, 9, 12 or 15 of pregnancy or pseudopregnancy. Daily blood samples were taken via the marginal ear vein before and for 3 days after the PGF-2 alpha injection. Concentrations of serum progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay in pseudopregnant rabbits. There were no significant differences between PGF-2 alpha-treated and control rabbits on Days 7 or 9. On Day 12 of pseudopregnancy, progesterone concentration was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in treated than in control rabbits, the effect being dose dependent. On Day 15 of pseudopregnancy, it was not possible to distinguish between controls and treated groups because luteolysis occurred in all rabbits. In contrast, on Days 7 and 9 of pregnancy, the concentration of progesterone in treated groups was lower than in the control groups (P less than 0.05), the effect being dose dependent. This difference was maintained throughout the sampling period and resulted in termination of pregnancy. By Day 12 of pregnancy, the response to PGF-2 alpha was transient, with a significant decline in progesterone for only 2 days, followed by a return to control concentrations and normal delivery of litters. On Day 15 of pregnancy, no treatment with PGF-2 alpha significantly altered progesterone concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Luteal regression vs. prepartum luteolysis: regulatory mechanisms governing canine corpus luteum function.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2014-04-01

    Canine reproductive physiology exhibits several unusual features. Among the most interesting of these are the lack of an acute luteolytic mechanism, coinciding with the apparent luteal independency of a uterine luteolysin in absence of pregnancy, contrasting with the acute prepartum luteolysis observed in pregnant animals. These features indicate the existence of mechanisms different from those in other species for regulating the extended luteal regression observed in non-pregnant dogs, and the actively regulated termination of luteal function observed prepartum as a prerequisite for parturition. Nevertheless, the supply of progesterone (P4) depends on corpora lutea (CL) as its primary source in both conditions, resulting in P4 levels that are similar in pregnant and non-pregnant bitches during almost the entire luteal life span prior to the prepartum luteolysis. Consequently, the duration of the prolonged luteal phase in non-pregnant bitches frequently exceeds that of pregnant ones, which is a peculiarity when compared with other domestic animal species. Both LH and prolactin (PRL) are endocrine luteotrophic factors in the dog, the latter being the predominant one. In spite of increased availability of these hormones, luteal regression/luteolysis still takes place. Recently, possible mechanisms regulating the expression and function of PRL receptor have been implicated in the local, i.e., intraluteal regulation of PRL bioavailability and thus its steroidogenic potential. Similar mechanisms may relate to the luteal LH receptor. Most recently, evidence has been provided for an autocrine/paracrine role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as a luteotrophic factor in the canine CL acting at the level of steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR)-protein mediated supply of steroidogenic substrate, without having a significant impact on the enzymatic activity of the respective steroidogenic enzymes, 3β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (3βHSD, HSD3B2) and cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, CYP11A1). Together with the strongly time-dependent expression of prostaglandin transporter, luteal prostaglandins seem to be involved more in the process of luteal formation than in termination of CL function in the dog. The possible roles of other factors such as vasoactive compounds, growth factors or cytokines have not been extensively studied but should not be neglected. PMID:24856467

  14. Corpus Christi, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This near vertical view of the south Texas coast shows the city of Corpus Christi (28.0N, 97.0W) and Corpus Christi Bay. Mustang Island and the Gulf of Mexico are seen in the Southeast corner of the view. The Nueces River flows into the bay from the west. The light toned squiggly lines in Corpus Christi Bay are mud trails caused by shrimp boats dragging their nets along the shallow bottom of the bay.

  15. Bilingual Corpus Callosum Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Porter E., III.; Kennedy, Teresa J.; Armstrong, Terry A.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals…

  16. Bilingual corpus callosum variability.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Porter E; Kennedy, Teresa J; Armstrong, Terry A

    2004-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to produce midsagittal images of the corpus callosum of 19 right-handed adult male and female subjects. The preliminary findings of this study indicate that significant adaptation in the anterior midbody of the corpus callosum has occurred to accommodate multiple language capacity in bilingual individuals compared to monolingual individuals. The main interpretation of this finding is that the precentral gyrus is involved in bilingual faculty adaptation assuming a role consistent with the somatotopical input to areas dedicated to the mouth, and input to association tracts connecting the premotor and supplementary motor cortices. This paper discusses possible implications to neuroscientists, second language educators, and their students.

  17. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  18. Incidence of spontaneous ovulation and development of the corpus luteum in non-mated dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Jutka; Wernery, Ulrich

    2005-07-15

    The occurrence of spontaneous ovulation in dromedaries was examined in two separate studies including 20 non-lactating, barren and 12 lactating dromedaries, respectively. Lactating camels were milked twice a day with an automatic bucket milking machine. Ovarian activity was monitored by repeated ultrasonography. Blood samples for progesterone were collected daily or two to three times a week. To compare CL development after spontaneous and induced ovulations, ovulation was induced by a GnRH analogue in eight lactating dromedaries. Spontaneous ovulation was observed in one non-lactating camel (1 of 20 camels, 5%; 1 of 70 follicular waves, 1.4%), whereas, spontaneous ovulation was detected more frequently in lactating dromedaries (5 of 12 camels, 41.7%; 13 of 91 follicular waves, 14.3%). In one lactating camel, spontaneous ovulation occurred repeatedly for nine times. There was a significant effect of type of ovulation (spontaneous versus induced, P < 0.05) and day (P < 0.001) on serum progesterone concentration. Mean serum progesterone levels and total progesterone production (AUC) were higher after induced ovulation. Luteal diameter and serum progesterone concentration were positively correlated (r = 0.71, P < 0.001), but there was a significant difference between morphological and functional development of the CL. In dromedaries, morphological development starts earlier, morphological regression starts later and last longer than functional development and regression of the CL. Compared to induced ovulation, functional development of the CL after spontaneous ovulation might be altered but the morphological development is not affected.

  19. Effect of environmental pollutants on oxytocin synthesis and secretion from corpus luteum and on contractions of uterus from pregnant cows

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H.; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-09-15

    Chloro-organic compounds are persistent environmental pollutants and affect many reproductive processes. Oxytocin (OT) synthesized in luteal cells is a local regulator of ovarian activity and uterine contractions. Therefore the effect of xenobiotics on the OT prohormone synthesis, secretion of OT and progesterone (P4) from luteal cells and on myometrial contractions during early pregnancy in cows was investigated. Luteal cells and myometrial strips from a cow at early pregnancy were treated with polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB 77), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) (1 or 10 ng/ml). The mRNA expression of neurophysin-I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl-glycine-{alpha}-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA) and concentration of OT and P4 were determined by RT-PCR and EIA, respectively. Moreover, the effect of xenobiotics given with P4 (12 ng/ml) on the basal and OT (10{sup -7} M) stimulated contractions of myometrial strips was studied. Xenobiotics increased (P < 0.05) OT secretion but DDE only stimulated P4 secretion. The ratio of P4 to OT in culture medium was decreased by all xenobiotics during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. All xenobiotics, except HCH, increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of NP-I/OT during all stages of pregnancy and all treatments decreased (P < 0.05) expression of mRNA for PGA during 9-12 weeks of pregnancy. Myometrial strips were relaxed (P < 0.01) after pre-incubation with P4, while each of the xenobiotics jointly with P4 increased (P < 0.01) myometrial contractions. In conclusion, the xenobiotics used increased both expression of mRNA for genes involved in OT synthesis and secretion of OT from luteal cells. This decreases the ratio of P4 to OT and presumably, in this manner, the chloro-organic compounds can influence uterine contractions and enhance risk of abortions in pregnant females.

  20. Morphological changes in the trophoblast, uterus and corpus luteum during delayed implantation and implantation in the western spotted skunk.

    PubMed

    Sinha, A A; Mead, R A

    1976-03-01

    Morphological interactions of tropholbast and uterus from stages of preimplantation and implantation were studied in 14 western spotted skunks. In addition, the granulosa lutein cells and plasma progesterone levels were studied. In animals several days from implantation the height of epithelial cells decreased, but began to increase in animals approaching implantation. During the preimplantation period a few leucocytes infiltrated the epithelium, but in animals just prior to implantation many leucocytes infiltrated the epithelium.

  1. Progesterone supplementation after ovulation: effects on corpus luteum function and on fertility of dairy cows subjected to AI or ET.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Pedro L J; Nascimento, Anibal B; Pontes, Guilherme C S; Fernandes, Gabriela O; Melo, Leonardo F; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    Three experiments were done to evaluate the effects of progesterone (P4) supplementation starting during metestrus on formation of the CL and on fertility of lactating dairy cows subjected to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) or embryo transfer (ET). In experiment 1, 42 Holstein cows were randomly allocated to untreated (Control) or to receive an intravaginal implant containing 1.9 g of P4 from Day 3 to 20 after FTAI (controlled internal drug release [CIDR]). Blood samples were collected on Days 3, 4, 7, 11, 14, 17, 20, and 21 after FTAI to evaluate the effect of CIDR supplementation on plasma concentration of P4 using radioimmunoassay. Ultrasound scans were performed at Days 4, 7, 11, 14, and 20 to evaluate CL volume. In experiment 2, the effect on CIDR supplementation on fertility was evaluated in 668 Holstein and crossbred dairy cows that were subjected to FTAI and allocated randomly to untreated (AI-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 3 to 17 (AI-CIDR) after FTAI. In experiment 3, 360 Holstein cows were treated with PGF and after heat detection (Day 0), they were allocated to untreated (ET-Control) or to receive a CIDR from Day 4 ± 1 to 8 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-4) or a CIDR from 4 ± 1 to 18 ± 1 (ET-CIDR-14). In vitro-produced embryos were transferred on Day 8 ± 1. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by ultrasound. In experiment 1, there was interaction between treatment and day in relation to plasma P4 on Days 4 and 7 due to CIDR supplementation. Independent of treatment, pregnant cows had higher plasma P4 from Day 14 to 21 than nonpregnant cows (P ≤ 0.05). Supplementation with CIDR did not alter CL development. In experiment 2, there was no effect of supplementation of P4 on pregnancy per AI on Day 32 (32.0% vs. 31.8%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively) or pregnancy loss (15.6% vs. 17.6%, for AI-Control and AI-CIDR, respectively). In experiment 3, P4 supplementation compromised pregnancy per ET (P/ET) on Day 32 in both supplemented groups (39.7% vs. 21.3% vs. 15.2%, for ET-Control, ET-CIDR-4, and ET-CIDR-14, respectively), with no effect on pregnancy loss. Therefore, although CIDR insertion on Day 3 after FTAI did not affect CL function and increased circulating P4, it did not increase pregnancy per AI in lactating dairy cows submitted to FTAI. Moreover, P4 supplementation decreased pregnancy per ET in lactating recipient cows.

  2. Habeas Corpus and "Enemy Combatants"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereira, Carolyn; Chavkin, Nisan

    2008-01-01

    The writ of habeas corpus has been a critical tool for balancing the rights of individuals with the government's responsibility to protect the nation's welfare. In this article, the authors discuss the writ of habeas corpus and how it affects the federal government and hundreds of prisoners who are held as enemy combatants. Elementary, middle, and…

  3. [Corpus Hermeticum in history].

    PubMed

    Bugaj, R

    2001-01-01

    The originator and founder of hermetism was the mythical Hermes Trismegistos, a deity of the syncretic Hellenistic religion that came into being through the identification of the Greek god Hermes with the Egyptian god Thot. In later Hellenistsic times various hermetic writers considered Hermes Trismegistos to have been a historical personage, a king, prophet and philosopher (physician), as well as author of many widely disseminated writings that made up the so-called Corpus Hermeticum (eighteen separate treatises from the 2nd-4th centuries AD) and the so-called Emerald Table (Tabula Smaragdina). The Corpus Hermeticum is a collection of treatises of a philosophical, religious, theological as well as theosophical nature. The collection played an important role in the development of the philosophy of alchemy and hermetism, and formed the basis for an alchemist philosophy of nature. There are currently two views among scholars on the origins of hermetism. According to one, hermetism derived directly from Egypt, while according to the other it orginated in Greece. In the years 1945-46 a number of hermetic texts forming part of the now famous gnostic "library" were discovered in Nag-Hammadi (Chenosboskion) in Upper Egypt. The Coptic texts from Nag-Hammadi date from the middle of the 4th century AD, and according to experts are translations from the Greek. Some authors (R. Reitzenstein and T. Zieliński) have suggested that along with the appearance in Egypt of the Hermetic Books, attributed to Hermes Trismegistos, there also appeared a new god in Egypt, Poimandres, and a new religion was established, hermetism, which competed for influence with Christianity. The present article discusses the main of the hermetic treatises, including Poimandres, which contains an account of the creation of the world. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of hermetism as a religion and stresses that in spite of this decline the doctrine managed to survive in the form of

  4. Universum Inference and Corpus Homogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Carl; Lynch, Gerard; Janssen, Jerom

    Universum Inference is re-interpreted for assessment of corpus homogeneity in computational stylometry. Recent stylometric research quantifies strength of characterization within dramatic works by assessing the homogeneity of corpora associated with dramatic personas. A methodological advance is suggested to mitigate the potential for the assessment of homogeneity to be achieved by chance. Baseline comparison analysis is constructed for contributions to debates by nonfictional participants: the corpus analyzed consists of transcripts of US Presidential and Vice-Presidential debates from the 2000 election cycle. The corpus is also analyzed in translation to Italian, Spanish and Portuguese. Adding randomized categories makes assessments of homogeneity more conservative.

  5. The Use of Corpus Examples for Language Comprehension and Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana

    2014-01-01

    One of the many new features of English language learners' dictionaries derived from the technological developments that have taken place over recent decades is the presence of corpus-based examples to illustrate the use of words in context. However, empirical studies have generally not been able to produce conclusive evidence about their…

  6. Oculomotor-corpus callosum dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Acers, T E; Blackwell, C

    1982-01-01

    An infant with congenital bilateral ophthalmoplegia with levator and pupillary sparing is presented. The eyes are fixed in a divergent position with no apparent motility. The baby is otherwise clinically normal and is developing in a normal fashion except for delayed growth pattern. Visual attention is present and he fixates with either eye. Computed tomography demonstrates an associated dysplasia of the corpus callosum and an abnormal ventricular system. Neuroendocrine studies performed at one year of age demonstrate subnormal levels of growth hormone. It is postulated that this represents an embryodysgenesis involving the developing mesencephalic tegmentum (oculomotor nuclei) and the diencephalic lamina reuniens (corpus callosum). It is the first reported case of congenital ophthalmoplegia with corpus callosum dysplasia. The "embryodysgenic" relationship with other forebrain-ocular anomalies has been alluded to and remains speculative. PMID:7182958

  7. Corpus-based Customization for an Ontology

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-14

    CCAT scans a corpus of text for terms, and computes lexical similarity between corpus terms and taxonomy terms. Based on a set of metrics and a learning algorithm, the system inserts corpus terms into the taxonomy. Conversely, terms from the taxonomy are disambiguated based on the text in the corpus. Unused terms are discarded, and infrequently used senses of terms are collapsed to make the taxonomy more manageable.

  8. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post...

  9. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier may file a writ of habeas corpus to challenge his continued custody (usually in a post...

  10. Developing an International Corpus of Creative English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Peter John

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes an International Corpus of Creative English (ICCE) as a worldwide corpus particularly suitable for implementation in countries which have tertiary institutions with well-defined populations of students possessing similar cultural and/or linguistic backgrounds. The ICCE is contextualized as a world Englishes corpus with…

  11. Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence for the presence of mature steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the cytoplasm of human luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter D; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2005-10-20

    The distribution of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) inside thecal and granulosa-lutein cells of human corpus luteum (CL) was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. We found greater levels of StAR immunolabeling in steroidogenic cells from early- and mid-than in late luteal phase CL and lower levels in cells from women treated with a GnRH antagonist in the mid-luteal phase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed significant levels of StAR antigen in the mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of luteal cells. The 30 kDa mature StAR protein was present in both mitochondria and cytosol (post-mitochondrial) fractions from homogenates of CL at different ages, whereas cytochrome c and mitochondrial HSP70 were detected only in the mitochondrial fraction. Therefore, we hypothesized that either appreciable processing of StAR 37 kDa pre-protein occurs outside the mitochondria, or mature StAR protein is selectively released into the cytoplasm after mitochondrial processing. The presence of mature StAR in the cytoplasm is consonant with the notion that StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane to effect sterol import, and that StAR may interact with other cytoplasmic proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, including hormone sensitive lipase. PMID:16162390

  12. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Habeas Corpus. 516.20 Section 516.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.20 Habeas Corpus. (a) General. A soldier...

  13. Enriching Language Learning through a Multimedia Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerley, Katherine; Coccetta, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Until recently, use has been made almost exclusively of text-based concordancers in the analysis of spoken corpora. This article discusses research being carried out on Padua University's Multimedia English Corpus (Padova MEC) using the multimodal concordancer "MCA "("Multimodal Corpus Authoring System," Baldry, 2005). This highly innovative…

  14. Corpus Callosum Volume and Neurocognition in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2009-01-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to…

  15. Corpus-Based Investigations of Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Douglas; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines a representative text corpus to gain insights into language structure and use and to open new areas of linguistic inquiry. Various illustrations are presented that provide a glimpse into the value of corpus-based investigations for increasing one's understanding of language use and imparting insights important for designing effective…

  16. Network Analysis with the Enron Email Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, J. S.; Sarkis, G.; URC, P. .

    2015-01-01

    We use the Enron email corpus to study relationships in a network by applying six different measures of centrality. Our results came out of an in-semester undergraduate research seminar. The Enron corpus is well suited to statistical analyses at all levels of undergraduate education. Through this article's focus on centrality, students can explore…

  17. Corpus Callosum MR Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsayed, A.; Coenen, F.; Jiang, C.; García-Fiñana, M.; Sluming, V.

    An approach to classifying Magnetic Resonance (MR) image data is described. The specific application is the classification of MRI scan data according to the nature of the corpus callosum, however the approach has more general applicability. A variation of the “spectral segmentation with multi-scale graph decomposition” mechanism is introduced. The result of the segmentation is stored in a quad-tree data structure to which a weighted variation (also developed by the authors) of the gSpan algorithm is applied to identify frequent sub-trees. As a result the images are expressed as a set frequent sub-trees. There may be a great many of these and thus a decision tree based feature reduction technique is applied before classification takes place. The results show that the proposed approach performs both efficiently and effectively, obtaining a classification accuracy of over 95% in the case of the given application.

  18. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    PubMed Central

    Clementi, Marisa A; Deis, Ricardo P; Telleria, Carlos M

    2004-01-01

    Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL), which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP), in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL), is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i) to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD), involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii) to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14). Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP+D), PSP was extended to 18 ± 2.2 days (n = 8). In PSP + D rats, serum progesterone and PRL levels, and luteal 3betaHSD activities were higher than in pseudopregnant rats on day 11. Decidualization also prevented the increase in luteal 20alphaHSD activities observed on day 11 of PSP. Administration of the dopaminergic agonist CB154 in PSP + D rats on day 10 of PSP induced a decline in both serum PRL and progesterone on day 11 of PSP, values that were not different from that of pseudopregnant controls. Conclusions We have established that during the final period of PSP a decline in progesterone biosynthesis occurs before the increase in progesterone catabolism. We have also shown that decidualization in pseudopregnant rats extends the life of the CL by prolonging the production of pituitary PRL, and by maintaining high 3betaHSD and low 20alphaHSD activities within the CL leading to sustained production of progesterone. PMID:15140254

  19. Effects of diets containing free gossypol on follicular development, embryo recovery and corpus luteum function in Brangus heifers treated with bFSH.

    PubMed

    Randel, R D; Willard, S T; Wyse, S J; French, L N

    1996-04-01

    Thirty 2 yr old Brangus heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: Control, 0 g of free gossypol (FG) per head per day (FGHD) from corn and soybean meal (SBM); 5 g of FGHD from cottonseed meal (CSM); and 15 g of FGHD from whole cottonseed (WCS). Blood samples were collected weekly for serum progesterone (P(4)) and later quantified by RIA. Whole blood was collected on Days 1, 28, 42, 56 and 70 for erythrocyte fragility (EF) analysis. Following 65 d on dietary treatments and estrus detection, the heifers received bovine-FSH (bFSH) once daily on Days 10, 11 and 12 postestrus, and PGF(2alpha) on Day 12 postestrus. Fifteen of the thirty heifers were randomly selected, and 12 h following PGF(2alpha), the ovaries were removed and follicular diameters, ovarian weight and stromal weights were recorded. Follicular fluid was analyzed for steroid content by RIA. The remaining fifteen heifers were artificially inseminated. Embryos were recovered non-surgically on Day 7 postestrus and graded, and the recovery efficiencies were calculated. Following embryo collection, both ovaries were removed, the number of CLs was recorded, and CL P(4) content was determined by RIA. By Day 42 of treatment, heifers receiving CSM had elevated (P < 0.04) EF compared with the Controls, and remained elevated above that of Controls throughout the study. At Day 70, the CSM heifers tended to have higher (P < 0.07) EF than the WCS group, which in turn tended to be higher (P < 0.06) than the Controls. The Control and CSM heifers gained weight during the 70 d treatment period, while heifers consuming WCS lost weight (P < 0.05). Ovarian and stromal weights did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatment groups. Heifers receiving CSM had fewer (P < 0.05) follicles > 5 mm than WCS or Control heifers. Follicular fluid weights and steroid content did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments. Both CL weight and the number of CLs per heifer were similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. Heifers receiving CSM or WCS had a higher (P < 0.003) CL P(4) content per gram of CL tissue than the Controls. Progesterone content per CL was greater in WCS heifers (P < 0.003) than in CSM heifers, while both the CSM and WCS heifers had a higher CL P(4) content than the Control heifers. Weekly and Day 7 postestrus serum concentrations of P(4) were similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. The number of embryos recovered, number of degenerated embryos, embryo grades and recovery efficiencies were not affected (P > 0.10) by dietary treatments. To standardize heifers relative to the number of degenerated embryos, the percentage of degenerated embryos recovered was calculated and tended to be greater (P < 0.06) in heifers consuming CSM than in either the Control or WCS groups. While most ovarian, follicular and embryo characteristics were not affected by dietary free gossypol, these results suggest that differences in the availability of free gossypol and/or dietary components between CSM and WCS may influence weight gain, CL P(4) content and embryo viability. PMID:16727852

  20. The effect of repeated administrations of llama ovulation-inducing factor (OIF/NGF) during the peri-ovulatory period on corpus luteum development and function in llamas.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A; Ulloa-Leal, C; Silva, M; Norambuena, C; Adams, G P; Guerra, M; Ratto, M H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that repeated administrations of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period (pre-ovulatory, ovulatory, early post-ovulatory), will enhance the luteotrophic effect in llamas. Female llamas were examined daily by transrectal ultrasonography in B- and Doppler-mode using a scanner equipped with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer to monitor ovarian follicle and luteal dynamics. When a growing follicle ≥7mm was detected, llamas were assigned randomly to one of the three groups and given 1mg of purified OIF/NGF im (intramuscular) (a) pre-ovulation (single dose; n=12), (b) pre-ovulation and at the time of ovulation (2 doses, n=10), or (c) pre-ovulation, at the time of ovulation, and 24h after ovulation (3 doses, n=10). The pre-ovulatory follicle diameter at the time of treatment, ovulation rate and the first day of CL detection did not differ (P=0.3) among groups. However, maximum CL diameter was greatest (P=0.003) in llamas in the 2-dose group, and smallest in the 3-dose group. Accordingly, the 2 dose-group had the largest day-to-day profile for CL diameter (P<0.01), area of CL vascularization (<0.01), and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.01) compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the luteal response to 3-doses of OIF/NGF during the peri-ovulatory period was not different from a single dose. In conclusion, OIF/NGF isolated from llama seminal plasma is luteotrophic and the effect on CL size and function is affected by the number and timing of treatments during the peri-ovulatory period.

  1. Metritis Following Parturition: Serum Progesterone and 17β-Oestradiol Levels. The Significance of the Corpus luteum and the Advisability of using a Luteolytic Agent as a Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guay, P.; Lamothe, P.

    1980-01-01

    A group of 22 postpartum Holstein Friesian cows showing abnormal uterus were divided into two groups and treated with a) PGF2α or b) diethylstilboestrol and oxytocin. Most blood P4 values were under 0.5 ng/mL whereas E2 blood level was higher than in normal cycling cows. The report emphasizes the need for a careful clinical examination in order to apply the proper therapy. PMID:7189134

  2. Medroxyprogesterone in Treating Patients With Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma of the Uterine Corpus

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-17

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage I Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Uterine Corpus Cancer

  3. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology.

  4. Corpus callosum volume and neurocognition in autism

    PubMed Central

    Keary, Christopher J.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2011-01-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to interhemispheric functioning. Participants with autism displayed reductions in total corpus callosum volume and in several of its subdivisions. Relationships were also observed between volumetric alterations and performance on several cognitive tests including the Tower of Hanoi test. These findings provide further evidence for volumetric alterations in the corpus callosum in autism, but warrant additional studies examining the relationship of this structure and specific measures of interhemispheric connectivity. PMID:19165587

  5. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Attorney's Office immediately upon learning that a petition for writ of habeas corpus has been filed. All... guidance from Litigation Division. (e) Foreign court orders. A foreign court should not inquire into...

  6. 32 CFR 516.20 - Habeas Corpus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Attorney's Office immediately upon learning that a petition for writ of habeas corpus has been filed. All... guidance from Litigation Division. (e) Foreign court orders. A foreign court should not inquire into...

  7. Corpus callosum volume and neurocognition in autism.

    PubMed

    Keary, Christopher J; Minshew, Nancy J; Bansal, Rahul; Goradia, Dhruman; Fedorov, Serguei; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2009-06-01

    The corpus callosum has recently been considered as an index of interhemispheric connectivity. This study applied a novel volumetric method to examine the size of the corpus callosum in 32 individuals with autism and 34 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls and to investigate the relationship between this structure and cognitive measures linked to interhemispheric functioning. Participants with autism displayed reductions in total corpus callosum volume and in several of its subdivisions. Relationships were also observed between volumetric alterations and performance on several cognitive tests including the Tower of Hanoi test. These findings provide further evidence for anatomical alterations in the corpus callosum in autism, but warrant additional studies examining the relationship of this structure and specific measures of interhemispheric connectivity. PMID:19165587

  8. [Medicine and astrology in Arnau's corpus].

    PubMed

    Giralt, Sebastià

    2006-01-01

    The role of astrology in Arnau de Vilanova's medical work is revisited with special attention to the problems of authorship posed by the astrological writings of Arnau's corpus and to their hypothetical chronology. PMID:17214132

  9. Learner-Corpus Interaction: A Locus of Microgenesis in Corpus-Assisted L2 Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kwanghyun

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which learners interact with a corpus system and microgenetic development emerges from the interaction. The corpus system described in this paper is capable of retrieving highly relevant textual examples tailored to individual needs. Data were collected from an undergraduate ESL composition course in North…

  10. Agenesis of the corpus callosum and autism: a comprehensive comparison.

    PubMed

    Paul, Lynn K; Corsello, Christina; Kennedy, Daniel P; Adolphs, Ralph

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum, with its ∼200 million axons, remains enigmatic in its contribution to cognition and behaviour. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a congenital condition in which the corpus callosum fails to develop; such individuals exhibit localized deficits in non-literal language comprehension, humour, theory of mind and social reasoning. These findings together with parent reports suggest that behavioural and cognitive impairments in subjects with callosal agenesis may overlap with the profile of autism spectrum disorders, particularly with respect to impairments in social interaction and communication. To provide a comprehensive test of this hypothesis, we directly compared a group of 26 adults with callosal agenesis to a group of 28 adults with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder but no neurological abnormality. All participants had full-scale intelligence quotient scores >78 and groups were matched on age, handedness, and gender ratio. Using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule together with current clinical presentation to assess autistic symptomatology, we found that 8/26 (about a third) of agenesis subjects presented with autism. However, more formal diagnosis additionally involving recollective parent-report measures regarding childhood behaviour showed that only 3/22 met complete formal criteria for an autism spectrum disorder (parent reports were unavailable for four subjects). We found no relationship between intelligence quotient and autism symptomatology in callosal agenesis, nor evidence that the presence of any residual corpus callosum differentiated those who exhibited current autism spectrum symptoms from those who did not. Relative to the autism spectrum comparison group, parent ratings of childhood behaviour indicated children with agenesis were less likely to meet diagnostic criteria for autism, even for those who met autism spectrum criteria as adults, and even though there was no group difference in parent report of current

  11. [The endothelium of the corpus cavernosum].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; Benjelloun, S

    1994-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that the endothelium of corpus cavernosum plays an important role in the physiology of erection. Endothelial cells synthesize and release constricting and relaxing factors. These factors are essentially represented by endothelin and nitric oxide. Endothelin is a peptide generated by endothelial cells with potent vasoconstrictor properties. This peptide provokes more sustained constriction of corpus cavernosum smooth muscles than noradrenaline. This effect suggested that endothelin may play a role in the regulation of tone in penile vascular and cavernous tissues in man. In addition, recent experimental studies showed an important role of nitric oxide for cavernous smooth muscle relaxation. This factor may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. The characteristics of these substances are reviewed. PMID:7822706

  12. Bayesian stratified sampling to assess corpus utility

    SciTech Connect

    Hochberg, J.; Scovel, C.; Thomas, T.; Hall, S.

    1998-12-01

    This paper describes a method for asking statistical questions about a large text corpus. The authors exemplify the method by addressing the question, ``What percentage of Federal Register documents are real documents, of possible interest to a text researcher or analyst?`` They estimate an answer to this question by evaluating 200 documents selected from a corpus of 45,820 Federal Register documents. Bayesian analysis and stratified sampling are used to reduce the sampling uncertainty of the estimate from over 3,100 documents to fewer than 1,000. A possible application of the method is to establish baseline statistics used to estimate recall rates for information retrieval systems.

  13. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired social functioning is a common symptom of individuals with developmental disruptions in callosal connectivity. Among these developmental conditions, agenesis of the corpus callosum provides the most extreme and clearly identifiable example of callosal disconnection. To date, deficits in nonliteral language comprehension, humor, theory of mind, and social reasoning have been documented in agenesis of the corpus callosum. Here, we examined a basic social ability as yet not investigated in this population: recognition of facial emotion and its association with social gaze. Methods Nine individuals with callosal agenesis and nine matched controls completed four tasks involving emotional faces: emotion recognition from upright and inverted faces, gender recognition, and passive viewing. Eye-tracking data were collected concurrently on all four tasks and analyzed according to designated facial regions of interest. Results Individuals with callosal agenesis exhibited impairments in recognizing emotions from upright faces, in particular lower accuracy for fear and anger, and these impairments were directly associated with diminished attention to the eye region. The callosal agenesis group exhibited greater consistency in emotion recognition across conditions (upright vs. inverted), with poorest performance for fear identification in both conditions. The callosal agenesis group also had atypical facial scanning (lower fractional dwell time in the eye region) during gender naming and passive viewing of faces, but they did not differ from controls on gender naming performance. The pattern of results did not differ when taking into account full-scale intelligence quotient or presence of autism spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Agenesis of the corpus callosum results in a pattern of atypical facial scanning characterized by diminished attention to the eyes. This pattern suggests that reduced callosal connectivity may contribute to the development and

  14. The Need for a Speech Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Dermot F.; McDonnell, Ciaran; Meinardi, Marti; Richardson, Bunny

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the ongoing construction of a speech corpus for use by applied linguists and advanced EFL/ESL students. In the first part, sections 1-4, the need for improvements in the teaching of listening skills and pronunciation practice for EFL/ESL students is noted. It is argued that the use of authentic native-to-native speech is…

  15. Neural net simulation of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Anninos, P A; Cook, N D

    1988-02-01

    The effects of simulated anatomical and physiological parameters were investigated in a "neural net" model, where two neural nets corresponding to two small patches of cerebral cortex were connected by a simulated "corpus callosum." The isolated neural nets have previously been shown to exhibit oscillatory activity similar to the raw EEG. By connecting the nets with fibers which have a specified percentage of inhibition and a specified percentage of homotopicity, the effects of such parameters on the cyclic activity of the nets were studied. It was found that, regardless of the inhibitory-excitatory nature of the simulated corpus callosum, the cyclic activity established in one hemisphere is more readily transferred to the contralateral hemisphere, the greater the percentage of homotopic callosal fibers. Learning was more rapid when the effect of the corpus callosum was primarily excitatory, but learning also took place over inhibitory or mixed callosal tracts. The simulation does not therefore resolve the issue of the predominant physiological effect of the corpus callosum, but does indicate that, given the assumptions of the simulation, "learning" can occur regardless of the percentage of excitatory or inhibitory fibers. It is noteworthy that homotopicity was more important for learning across an inhibitory tract than across an excitatory tract.

  16. Inflation Metaphor in the TIME Magazine Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Chunyu; Liu, Huijie

    2016-01-01

    A historical perspective on economy metaphor can shed new lights on economic thoughts. Based on the TIME Magazine Corpus (TMC), this paper investigates inflation metaphor over 83 years and compares findings against the economic data over the relatively corresponding period. The results show how inflation, an abstract concept and a normal economic…

  17. Integrating Corpus Consultation in Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela

    2005-01-01

    Alongside developments in language research, the potential of corpora as a resource in language learning and teaching has been evident to researchers and teachers since the late 1960s. Despite publications which emphasise the benefits of corpus consultation for language learners (Bernardini, 2002; Kennedy & Miceli, 2001), there is little evidence…

  18. Using a Corpus in a 300-Level Spanish Grammar Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the use and effectiveness of a large corpus--the Corpus del Español (Davies, 2002)--in a 300-level Spanish grammar university course. Students conducted hands-on corpus searches with the goal of finding concordances containing particular types of collocations (combinations of words that tend to co-occur) and tokens (any…

  19. Can a Graded Reader Corpus Provide "Authentic" Input?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    In addition to their intended purpose, graded reader texts can be made into a corpus appropriate for use with lower-level learners. Here I consider using such a corpus for data-driven learning (DDL), to make this approach more accessible to intermediate level students. However, how far does grading the corpus in this way compromise the…

  20. EFL Students' Perceptions of Corpus-Tools as Writing References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Shu-Li

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have suggested the potentials of corpus tools in vocabulary learning. However, there are still some concerns. Corpus tools might be too complicated to use; example sentences retrieved from corpus tools might be too difficult to understand; processing large number of sample sentences could be challenging and time-consuming;…

  1. Corpus Callosum Area in Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigge, Molly B. D.; Lange, Nicholas; Bigler, Erin D.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Neeley, E. Shannon; Abildskov, Tracy J.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cooperrider, Jason R.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Alexander, Andrew L.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated findings of abnormal corpus callosum structure in autism, the developmental trajectories of corpus callosum growth in the disorder have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined corpus callosum size from a developmental perspective across a 30-year age range in a large cross-sectional sample of individuals with autism…

  2. Concept annotation in the CRAFT corpus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Manually annotated corpora are critical for the training and evaluation of automated methods to identify concepts in biomedical text. Results This paper presents the concept annotations of the Colorado Richly Annotated Full-Text (CRAFT) Corpus, a collection of 97 full-length, open-access biomedical journal articles that have been annotated both semantically and syntactically to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural-language-processing (NLP) community. CRAFT identifies all mentions of nearly all concepts from nine prominent biomedical ontologies and terminologies: the Cell Type Ontology, the Chemical Entities of Biological Interest ontology, the NCBI Taxonomy, the Protein Ontology, the Sequence Ontology, the entries of the Entrez Gene database, and the three subontologies of the Gene Ontology. The first public release includes the annotations for 67 of the 97 articles, reserving two sets of 15 articles for future text-mining competitions (after which these too will be released). Concept annotations were created based on a single set of guidelines, which has enabled us to achieve consistently high interannotator agreement. Conclusions As the initial 67-article release contains more than 560,000 tokens (and the full set more than 790,000 tokens), our corpus is among the largest gold-standard annotated biomedical corpora. Unlike most others, the journal articles that comprise the corpus are drawn from diverse biomedical disciplines and are marked up in their entirety. Additionally, with a concept-annotation count of nearly 100,000 in the 67-article subset (and more than 140,000 in the full collection), the scale of conceptual markup is also among the largest of comparable corpora. The concept annotations of the CRAFT Corpus have the potential to significantly advance biomedical text mining by providing a high-quality gold standard for NLP systems. The corpus, annotation guidelines, and other associated resources are freely available at http

  3. 76 FR 18395 - Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show, Oso Bay, Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show..., Texas in support of the 2011 Naval Air Station Corpus Christi Air Show. This temporary safety zone is... necessary to ensure the safety of participants and spectators in the Naval Air Station Corpus Christi...

  4. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor,; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  5. Quantitative assessment of corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Pardoe, Heath R; Mandelstam, Simone A; Hiess, Rebecca Kucharsky; Kuzniecky, Ruben I; Jackson, Graeme D

    2015-01-01

    We investigated systematic differences in corpus callosum morphology in periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH). Differences in corpus callosum mid-sagittal area and subregional area changes were measured using an automated software-based method. Heterotopic gray matter deposits were automatically labeled and compared with corpus callosum changes. The spatial pattern of corpus callosum changes were interpreted in the context of the characteristic anterior-posterior development of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals. Individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia were imaged at the Melbourne Brain Center or as part of the multi-site Epilepsy Phenome Genome project. Whole brain T1 weighted MRI was acquired in cases (n=48) and controls (n=663). The corpus callosum was segmented on the mid-sagittal plane using the software "yuki". Heterotopic gray matter and intracranial brain volume was measured using Freesurfer. Differences in corpus callosum area and subregional areas were assessed, as well as the relationship between corpus callosum area and heterotopic GM volume. The anterior-posterior distribution of corpus callosum changes and heterotopic GM nodules were quantified using a novel metric and compared with each other. Corpus callosum area was reduced by 14% in PVNH (p=1.59×10(-9)). The magnitude of the effect was least in the genu (7% reduction) and greatest in the isthmus and splenium (26% reduction). Individuals with higher heterotopic GM volume had a smaller corpus callosum. Heterotopic GM volume was highest in posterior brain regions, however there was no linear relationship between the anterior-posterior position of corpus callosum changes and PVNH nodules. Reduced corpus callosum area is strongly associated with PVNH, and is probably associated with abnormal brain development in this neurological disorder. The primarily posterior corpus callosum changes may inform our understanding of the etiology of PVNH. Our results suggest that

  6. Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Haixia; Zhang, Lin; Cao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yuanjing; Liu, Yixin

    2014-01-01

    Mesonephric carcinomas are rare in the female genital tract and usually are found in sites where embryonic remnants of wolffian ducts are usually detected, such as the uterine cervix, broad ligament, mesosalpinx and exceptionally rarely in the uterine corpus. To date, only four cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in the uterine corpus have been described in literature. Here we report two cases of mesonephric carcinomas arising in a deep intramural location of the uterine corpus in a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old woman in Chinese populations. It is believed to be the first report in China. Both cases presented with a little postmenopausal bleeding. Before hospitalized, uterine curettages were programmed for both cases. The pathology reports were mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. On gross examination, the tumors of both cases were confined to the myometrium. Microscopic examination found both tumors of these two cases were adenocarcinomas mixed with spindle cell component. The most primary histologic patterns of the mesonephric adenocarcinomas were tubular glands that varied in size and were lined by one to several layers of columnar cells. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed positive with CD10, calretinin, vimentin, cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA); but expressions of ER and PR were completely negative. The peculiar location of mesonephric carcinoma of the uterine corpus may be misinterpreted as other histological type neoplasms. Awareness of this rare phenomenon and immunostaining for markers of mesonephric carcinoma can prevent from making a false diagnosis. PMID:25400789

  7. Developing a corpus of spoken language variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmichael, Lesley; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia Beckford

    2003-10-01

    We are developing a novel, searchable corpus as a research tool for investigating phonetic and phonological phenomena across various speech styles. Five speech styles have been well studied independently in previous work: reduced (casual), careful (hyperarticulated), citation (reading), Lombard effect (speech in noise), and ``motherese'' (child-directed speech). Few studies to date have collected a wide range of styles from a single set of speakers, and fewer yet have provided publicly available corpora. The pilot corpus includes recordings of (1) a set of speakers participating in a variety of tasks designed to elicit the five speech styles, and (2) casual peer conversations and wordlists to illustrate regional vowels. The data include high-quality recordings and time-aligned transcriptions linked to text files that can be queried. Initial measures drawn from the database provide comparison across speech styles along the following acoustic dimensions: MLU (changes in unit duration); relative intra-speaker intensity changes (mean and dynamic range); and intra-speaker pitch values (minimum, maximum, mean, range). The corpus design will allow for a variety of analyses requiring control of demographic and style factors, including hyperarticulation variety, disfluencies, intonation, discourse analysis, and detailed spectral measures.

  8. Corpus Christi, Nueces, and Aransas Bays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Lawrence R.; Spear, Kathryn A.; Eleonor Taylor; Thatcher, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay and Nueces Bay comprise the middle estuarine portion of Texas’ Coastal Bend region (Figure 1; Burgan and Engle, 2006). Aransas Bay is part of the upper estuarine portion of the region. These bays make up part of the Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, one of the many estuarine areas in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s National Estuary Program (Holt, 1998). The Coastal Bend region is sub-humid and sub-tropical. Summers are long, hot, and humid, and winters are short and mild. The landscape around the estuaries is dominated by row crops, pastures, and brushy rangeland (Handley and others, 2007). The Nueces River, along with other smaller rivers and creeks, provides freshwater inflow—along with essential nutrients and sediment— into Nueces Bay, which feeds into Corpus Christi Bay (Holt, 1998). Freshwater inflow into the Aransas Bay comes from Mission River, Aransas River, and Copano Creek. The region is relatively dry otherwise and prone to droughts. Corpus Christi receives an average of 76.2 cm (30 in) of rain annually; evaporation usually exceeds 177.8 cm (70 in) (Holt, 1998; Handley and others, 2007). The San Antonio-Nueces Coastal Basin drains into Aransas Bay. The Nueces River basin covers 43,253 km2 (16,700 miles2 ), from northwest of San Antonio, flowing southeast to where it drains into Nueces and Corpus Christi Bays (Holt, 1998). The Nueces-Rio Grande basin covers approximately 18,648 1 U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center, 700 Cajundome Blvd., Lafayette, LA 70506 2 Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Unit 5869, Corpus Christi, Texas 78412 2 km2 (7,200 miles2 ) and flows partially into Corpus Christi Bay (as well as the upper Laguna Madre). The inflow from Nueces River has declined by approximately 20 percent over the past several decades, partly due to construction of lakes and reservoirs, particularly Lake Corpus Christi

  9. The Hebrew CHILDES corpus: transcription and morphological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Aviad; MacWhinney, Brian; Nir, Bracha

    2014-01-01

    We present a corpus of transcribed spoken Hebrew that reflects spoken interactions between children and adults. The corpus is an integral part of the CHILDES database, which distributes similar corpora for over 25 languages. We introduce a dedicated transcription scheme for the spoken Hebrew data that is sensitive to both the phonology and the standard orthography of the language. We also introduce a morphological analyzer that was specifically developed for this corpus. The analyzer adequately covers the entire corpus, producing detailed correct analyses for all tokens. Evaluation on a new corpus reveals high coverage as well. Finally, we describe a morphological disambiguation module that selects the correct analysis of each token in context. The result is a high-quality morphologically-annotated CHILDES corpus of Hebrew, along with a set of tools that can be applied to new corpora. PMID:25419199

  10. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum and Generalized Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ilik, Faik; Bilgilisoy, Ugur T

    2015-07-01

    The corpus callosum is the main band of interhemispheric axonal fibers in the human brain. Corpus callosum agenesis has widely varying symptoms, mainly associated with epilepsy, cognitive failure, and different neuropsychiatric disorders. Our case of corpus callosum agenesis includes eyelid myoclonia with absences. In the literature, there is no reported case of this combination. We report this case because it is rare, and relevant for the understanding of interhemispheric communications, based on our electrophysiological findings.

  11. 5-HT4 receptors in isolated human corpus cavernosum?

    PubMed

    Hayes, E S; Adaikan, P G; Ratnam, S S; Ng, S C

    1999-08-01

    The novel serotonin subtype-4 (5-HT4) receptor agonist, SC53116 (SC), produced a limited relaxation of noradrenaline (NA) pre-contracted human corpus cavernosum (CC) smooth muscle in vitro. This effect was not significantly attenuated by the 5-HT4 antagonist SDZ250557 (SDZ). In the presence of (+/-) pindolol (1 microM) and methysergide (1 microM), employed to mask 5-HT1 and beta-adrenergic, and 5-HT2 receptors respectively, SC failed to relax NA pre-contracted CC strips to a greater extent than saline. Functional cAMP dependent relaxation pathways were demonstrated by a significant reduction in NA induced tone by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and isopropylnoradrenaline (IPNA), the action of the latter compound was effectively eliminated in the presence of (+/-) pindolol. Relaxation of NA induced tone caused by the nitric oxide donor nitro-glycerine (NTG) was significant and similar in the absence and presence of the 5-HT and beta-adrenergic antagonists. The results of this present study indicate that human corporal smooth muscle does not contain 5-HT4 receptors and that, although compounds like SC act to relax non-vascular smooth muscle via cAMP dependent mechanisms, 5-HT4 receptor agonists may be expected to be of limited utility in triggering cAMP dependent relaxation responses in human CC.

  12. Selective gene expression by rat gastric corpus epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, M.; Stengel, A.; Sachs, G.

    2011-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is divided into several segments that have distinct functional properties, largely absorptive. The gastric corpus is the only segment thought of as largely secretory. Microarray hybridization of the gastric corpus mucosal epithelial cells was used to compare gene expression with other segments of the columnar GI tract followed by statistical data subtraction to identify genes selectively expressed by the rat gastric corpus mucosa. This provides a means of identifying less obvious specific functions of the corpus in addition to its secretion-related genes. For example, important properties found by this GI tract comparative transcriptome reflect the energy demand of acid secretion, a role in lipid metabolism, the large variety of resident neuroendocrine cells, responses to damaging agents and transcription factors defining differentiation of its epithelium. In terms of overlap of gastric corpus genes with the rest of the GI tract, the distal small bowel appears to express many of the gastric corpus genes in contrast to proximal small and large bowel. This differential map of gene expression by the gastric corpus epithelium will allow a more detailed description of major properties of the gastric corpus and may lead to the discovery of gastric corpus cell differentiation genes and those mis-regulated in gastric carcinomas. PMID:21177383

  13. Corpus-Assisted Creative Writing: Introducing Intermediate Italian Learners to a Corpus as a Reference Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Claire; Miceli, Tiziana

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on the exploitation of corpora for language learning, the learners are viewed as researchers, who formulate and test their own hypotheses about language use. Having identified difficulties encountered in corpus investigations by our intermediate-level students of Italian in a previous study, we have designed a…

  14. Light-controlled relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum using NOBL-1, a novel nitric oxide releaser

    PubMed Central

    Hotta, Yuji; Ieda, Naoya; Fukamoto, Ayako; Kataoka, Tomoya; Kawade, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Hidehiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether relaxation of the rat penile corpus cavernosum could be controlled with NOBL-1, a novel, light-controllable nitric oxide (NO) releaser. Materials and Methods Fifteen-week-old male Wistar-ST rats were used. The penile corpus cavernosum was prepared and used in an isometric tension study. After noradrenaline (10-5 M) achieved precontraction, the penile corpus cavernosum was irradiated by light (470–500 nm) with and without NOBL-1 (10-6 M). In addition, we noted rats' responses to light with vardenafil (10-6 M), a phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) inhibitor. Next, responses to light in the presence of a guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one) (10-5 M), were measured. All measurements were performed in pretreated L-NAME (10-4 M) conditions to inhibit endogenous NO production. Results Corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, was unchanged by light irradiation in the absence of NOBL-1. However, in the presence of NOBL-1, corpus cavernosal smooth muscle, precontracted with noradrenaline, relaxed in response to light irradiation. After blue light irradiation ceased, tension returned. In addition, the light response was obviously enhanced in the presence of a PDE-5 inhibitor. Conclusions This study showed that rat corpus cavernosal smooth muscle relaxation can be light-controlled using NOBL-1, a novel, light sensitive NO releaser. Though further in vivo studies are needed to investigate possible usefulness, NOBL-1 may be prove to be a useful tool for erectile dysfunction therapy, specifically in the field of penile rehabilitation. PMID:27195321

  15. Use of "Google Scholar" in Corpus-Driven EAP Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brezina, Vaclav

    2012-01-01

    This primarily methodological article makes a proposition for linguistic exploration of textual resources available through the "Google Scholar" search engine. These resources ("Google Scholar virtual corpus") are significantly larger than any existing corpus of academic writing. "Google Scholar", however, was not designed for linguistic searches…

  16. Designing a Corpus for Translation and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardini, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Describes a million-word corpus for English-Italian translation students. Outlines the design, which makes multiple types of comparisons possible among originals and translations and illustrates how to use the corpus to teach sociocultural insights, discourse-structuring expressions, and lexical patterns. (Author/VWL)

  17. Corpus-Supported Academic Writing: How Can Technology Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitez, Madalina; Rapp, Christian; Kruse, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Phraseology has long been used in L2 teaching of academic writing, and corpus linguistics has played a major role in the compilation and assessment of academic phrases. However, there are only a few interactive academic writing tools in which corpus methodology is implemented in a real-time design to support formulation processes. In this paper,…

  18. Corpus-Based Learning of Cantonese for Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John; Wong, Tak-Sum

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports our experience in using a parallel corpus to teach Cantonese, a variety of Chinese spoken in Hong Kong, as a second language. The parallel corpus consists of pairs of word-aligned sentences in Cantonese and Mandarin Chinese, drawn from television programs in Hong Kong (Lee, 2011). We evaluated our pedagogical approach with…

  19. Educational Implications for Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Shirley A.

    This case study evaluates the case of a 20-year-old young Australian adult born with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the area of the brain uniting the hemispheres. Deficits commonly associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum are mental retardation, motor involvement, seizure activity, and lateral transfer difficulties. The report: (1)…

  20. Developing Corpus-Based Materials to Teach Pragmatic Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Mossman, Sabrina; Vellenga, Heidi E.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how to develop teaching materials for pragmatics based on authentic language by using a spoken corpus. The authors show how to use the corpus in conjunction with textbooks to identify pragmatic routines for speech acts and how to extract appropriate language samples and adapt them for classroom use. They demonstrate how to…

  1. Codeswitching, Borrowing and Mixing in a Corpus of Xhosa English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Vivian

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses selected aspects of the codeswitching behaviour in a spoken corpus of the English of 326 people, all of them mother-tongue speakers of Xhosa (a local African language in South Africa), and all of whom would see themselves as Xhosa/English bilinguals. The corpus comprises approximately 550,000 transcribed words of spontaneous,…

  2. Corpus callosum involvement and postoperative outcomes of patients with gliomas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ko-Ting; Wu, Tai-Wei Erich; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Hsu, Yung-Hsin; Hsu, Peng-Wei; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lin, Tzu-Kang; Chang, Chen-Nen; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Pai, Ping-Ching; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Pin-Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Corpus callosum involvement is associated with poorer survival in high grade glioma (HGG), but the prognostic value in low grade glioma (LGG) is unclear. To determine the prognostic impact of corpus callosum involvement on progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in HGG and LGG, the records of 233 glioma patients treated from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to identify corpus callosum involvement. Age, sex, preoperative Karnofsky performance scale, postoperative Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score and extent of resection (EOR) were evaluated with respect to PFS and OS. The incidence of corpus callosum involvement was similar among HGG (14 %) and LGG (14.5 %). Univariate analysis revealed that PFS and OS were significantly shorter in both WHO grade II and grade IV glioma with corpus callosum involvement (both, p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that grade II glioma with corpus callosum involvement have shorter PFS (p = 0.03), while EOR, instead of corpus callosum involvement (p = 0.16), was an independent factor associated with PFS in grade IV glioma (p < 0.05). Corpus callosum involvement was no longer significantly associated with OS after adjusting age, gender, EOR, preoperative and postoperative performance status (p = 0.16, 0.17 and 0.56 in grade II, III and IV gliomas, respectively). Corpus callosum involvement happened in both LGG and HGG, and is associated with lower EOR and higher postoperative ECOG score both in LGG and HGG. Corpus callosum involvement tends to be an independent prognostic factor for PFS in LGG, but not for OS in LGG or in HGG.

  3. Insights from a Learner Corpus as Opposed to a Native Corpus about Cohesive Devices in an Academic Writing Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on the insights from an EFL learner corpora (a total of 151 essays and 49,690 words) generated from essays collected over the years in a Turkish state university from freshmen students enrolling in the Advanced Writing course. The comparison of cohesive devices in the non-native corpus (NNC) with those in a native corpus (NC)…

  4. 77 FR 34034 - Corpus Christi Liquefaction, LLC; Cheniere Corpus Christi Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ....; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the planned Corpus Christi LNG Terminal and... (LNG) export and import terminal, and a natural gas transmission pipeline in Nueces and San...

  5. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  6. Corpus Linguistics and the Design of a Response Message

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, E.

    2002-01-01

    Most research related to SETI, the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, is focussed on techniques for detection of possible incoming signals from extra-terrestrial intelligent sources (e.g. Turnbull et al. 1999), and algorithms for analysis of these signals to identify intelligent language-like characteristics (e.g. Elliott and Atwell 1999, 2000). However, another issue for research and debate is the nature of our response, should a signal arrive and be detected. The design of potentially the most significant communicative act in history should not be decided solely by astrophysicists; the Corpus Linguistics research community has a contribution to make to what is essentially a Corpus design and implementation project. (Vakoch 1998) advocated that the message constructed to transmit to extraterrestrials should include a broad, representative collection of perspectives rather than a single viewpoint or genre; this should strike a chord with Corpus Linguists for whom a central principle is that a corpus must be "balanced" to be representative (Meyer 2001). One idea favoured by SETI researchers is to transmit an encyclopaedia summarising human knowledge, such as the Encyclopaedia Britannica, to give ET communicators an overview and "training set" key to analysis of subsequent messages. Furthermore, this should be sent in several versions in parallel: the text; page-images, to include illustrations left out of the text-file and perhaps some sort of abstract linguistic representation of the text, using a functional or logic language (Ollongren 1999, Freudenthal 1960). The idea of "enriching" the message corpus with annotations at several levels should also strike a chord with Corpus Linguists who have long known that Natural language exhibits highly complex multi-layering sequencing, structural and functional patterns, as difficult to model as sequences and structures found in more traditional physical and biological sciences. Some corpora have been annotated with

  7. The tolerance of feline corpus and cauda spermatozoa to cryostress.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Johannisson, Anders; Axnér, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation can be used to avoid the total loss of genetic material in threatened species. Spermatozoa from the corpus, as from the cauda, are motile and can undergo capacitation. Thus, they can potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. However, cryopreservation of spermatozoa has a direct detrimental effect on sperm quality. The aim of this study was to compare the chromatin stability and the survival rate of spermatozoa from the corpus and cauda epididymis after cryopreservation. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and cryopreserved from the corpus and cauda of 12 domestic cats. Sperm motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and DNA integrity were evaluated before and after freezing thawing. The average total number of spermatozoa collected from the corpus was lower (10.2 × 10(6) ± 7.4) than that from the cauda epididymis (24.9 × 10(6) ± 14.4; P = 0.005). The percentage of spermatozoa with intact DNA did not differ significantly whether it was collected from the corpus or cauda regions and did not decrease after freezing thawing in either region. However, motility of spermatozoa from both regions was affected by the freezing thawing process with a significant decline in motility after thaw compared with fresh spermatozoa. A significant difference in the percentage of motile sperm between the corpus and cauda was observed after the freezing thawing process (P < 0.001). Although sperm motility was lower in postthaw spermatozoa from the corpus epididymidis than from the cauda, the rate of the reduction did not differ between regions. This study indicates that the cryopreservation process does not have a negative effect on chromatin stability of feline epididymal spermatozoa. Spermatozoa from the corpus region have a similar freezability as spermatozoa from the cauda region. Therefore, preservation of spermatozoa from the corpus and the cauda epididymidis might be of value in preserving

  8. Automatic recognition of corpus callosum from sagittal brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Unser, Michael A.; Ketter, Terence A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose a new method to find the corpus callosum from sagittal brain MR images automatically. First, we calculate the statistical characteristics of the corpus callosum and obtain shape information. The recognition algorithm consists of two stages: extracting regions satisfying the statistical characteristics (gray level distribtuions) of the corpus callosum, and finding a region matching the shape information. An innovative feature of the algorithm is that we adaptively relax the statistical requirement until we find a region matching the shape information. In order to match the shape information, we propose a new directed window region growing algorithm instead of using conventional contour matching. Experiments show promising results.

  9. A corpus of noise-induced word misperceptions for Spanish.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Máté Attila; García Lecumberri, María Luisa; Tang, Yan; Cooke, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Word misperceptions are valuable in designing and evaluating detailed computational models of speech perception, especially when a number of listeners agree on the misperceived word. The current paper describes the elicitation of a corpus of Spanish word misperceptions induced by different types of noise. Stimuli were presented using an adaptive procedure designed to promote the rapid discovery of misperceptions. The final corpus contains 3235 misperceptions along with speech and masker waveforms, permitting further experimental and modeling studies into the origin of each misperception. The corpus is available online as an open resource.

  10. Clinical manifestations in children and adolescents with corpus callosum abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Margari, Lucia; Palumbi, Roberto; Campa, Maria Gloria; Operto, Francesca Felicia; Buttiglione, Maura; Craig, Francesco; Matricardi, Sara; Verrotti, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Corpus callosum abnormality (CCA) outcomes are quite unpredictable and variable, from asymptomatic forms to mild or severe neurodevelopment disorders. The aim of this study was to examine clinical outcomes in CCA patients. The study included 61 children and adolescents in whom brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans showed CCA, isolated or associated to other central nervous system lesions. All patients underwent anamnesis, physical and neurological examination, routine laboratory tests, electroencephalogram (EEG), and MRI scans. In all participants, the intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined. We divided the participants into two subgroups: the first subgroup included patients with an isolated CCA, and the second subgroup included patients with CCA associated with extra-callosal brain lesions (complex CCA). We found that CCA were associated with elevated frequency to intellectual disability (ID), other neurodevelopment disorders, epilepsy, and isolated EEG anomalies. Mild ID (p = 0.003) was more frequent in the isolated subgroup, while epilepsy (p = 0.036) and pre-perinatal risk factors (p = 0.023) were more frequent in the complex CCA subgroup. Although the role of the CC in the interhemispheric communication is known, neurological and neurodevelopment outcomes of CCA are extremely variable and unpredictable. The presence of extra-callosal brain anomalies is one of the major prognostic factor, and probably, they have an important impact on the clinical outcome.

  11. Functional topography of the corpus callosum investigated by DTI and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Fabri, Mara; Pierpaoli, Chiara; Barbaresi, Paolo; Polonara, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    This short review examines the most recent functional studies of the topographic organization of the human corpus callosum, the main interhemispheric commissure. After a brief description of its anatomy, development, microstructure, and function, it examines and discusses the latest findings obtained using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography (DTT) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), three recently developed imaging techniques that have significantly expanded and refined our knowledge of the commissure. While DTI and DTT have been providing insights into its microstructure, integrity and level of myelination, fMRI has been the key technique in documenting the activation of white matter fibers, particularly in the corpus callosum. By combining DTT and fMRI it has been possible to describe the trajectory of the callosal fibers interconnecting the primary olfactory, gustatory, motor, somatic sensory, auditory and visual cortices at sites where the activation elicited by peripheral stimulation was detected by fMRI. These studies have demonstrated the presence of callosal fiber tracts that cross the commissure at the level of the genu, body, and splenium, at sites showing fMRI activation. Altogether such findings lend further support to the notion that the corpus callosum displays a functional topographic organization that can be explored with fMRI. PMID:25550994

  12. Anatomy of corpus callosum in prenatally malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Ricardo; Morgan, Carlos; Pérez, Hernán; Hernández, Alejandro; Aboitiz, Francisco; Soto-Moyano, Rubén; Gil, Julio; Ortiz, Alexis; Flores, Osvaldo; Gimeno, Miguel; Laborda, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    The effect of prenatal malnutrition on the anatomy of the corpus callosum was assessed in adult rats (45-52 days old). In the prenatally malnourished animals we observed a significant reduction of the corpus callosum total area, partial areas, and perimeter, as compared with normal animals. In addition, the splenium of corpus callosum (posterior fifth) showed a significant decrease of fiber diameters in the myelinated fibers without changing density. There was also a significant decrease in diameter and a significant increase in density of unmyelinated fibers. Measurements of perimeter's fractal dimensions from sagittal sections of the brain and corpus callosum did not show significant differences between malnourished and control animals. These findings indicate that cortico-cortical connections are vulnerable to the prenatal malnutrition, and suggest this may affect interhemispheric conduction velocity, particularly in visual connections (splenium).

  13. Paediatric Virology in the Hippocratic Corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mammas, Ioannis N.; Spandidos, Demetrios A.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. ‘Herpes’, a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word ‘ἕρπειν’, meaning ‘to creep’ or ‘crawl’, is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood. Cases of children with exanthema ‘resembling mosquito bites’ are presented in reference to varicella or smallpox infection. A variety of upper and lower respiratory tract viral infections are described with impressive accuracy, including rhinitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, bronchiolitis and bronchitis. The ‘cough of Perinthos’ epidemic, an influenza-like outbreak in the 5th century B.C., is also recorded and several cases complicated with pneumonia or fatal outcomes are discussed. Hippocrates, moreover, describes conjunctivitis, otitis, lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, febrile convulsions, gastroenteritis, hepatitis, poliomyelitis and skin warts, along with proposed treatment directions. Almost 2,400 years later, Hippocrates' systematic approach and methodical innovations can inspire paediatric trainees and future Paediatric Virology subspecialists. PMID:27446241

  14. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics study

    PubMed Central

    Budgell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to analyze the curriculum of one chiropractic college in order to discover if there were any implicit consensus definitions of the term subluxation. Methods: Using the software WordSmith Tools, the corpus of an undergraduate chiropractic curriculum was analyzed by reviewing collocated terms and through discourse analysis of text blocks containing words based on the root ‘sublux.’ Results: It was possible to identify 3 distinct concepts which were each referred to as ‘subluxation:’ i) an acute or instantaneous injurious event; ii) a clinical syndrome which manifested post-injury; iii) a physical lesion, i.e. an anatomical or physiological derangement which in most instances acted as a pain generator. Conclusions: In fact, coherent implicit definitions of subluxation exist and may enjoy broad but subconscious acceptance. However, confusion likely arises from failure to distinguish which concept an author or speaker is referring to when they employ the term subluxation. PMID:27385839

  15. Corpus callosum: normal imaging appearance, variants and pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Battal, B; Kocaoglu, M; Akgun, V; Bulakbasi, N; Tayfun, C

    2010-12-01

    Various types of lesions can occur within the corpus callosum (CC) which is a white matter tract communicating corresponding regions of the cerebral hemispheres. Magnetic resonance imaging is the modality of choice for the evaluation of the CC. In addition, diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging can provide additional information about the CC. The aim of this study is to illustrate the imaging features of the corpus callosum and its pathologies. PMID:21199431

  16. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L; Piantadosi, Steven T; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis.

  17. Neuronal fiber composition of the corpus callosum within some odontocetes.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Mandy J; Ridgway, Sam H

    2008-07-01

    Odontocetes (toothed whales) evolved from terrestrial mammals approximately 55 million years ago and have since remained on a unique evolutionary trajectory. This study used formalin-fixed tissue and light microscopy to quantify the size and number of fibers along the corpus callosum of the bottlenose dolphin (n = 8). Two other species, the Amazon River dolphin (n = 1) and the killer whale (n = 1), were included for comparison. A large amount of variation in the shape and area of the corpus callosum was observed. The odontocete corpus callosum is a heterogeneous structure with variation in fiber size and density along the length of the corpus callosum in all specimens examined. Using the species with the largest sample size, the bottlenose dolphin, comparisons by sex and age (sexually mature verses immature) were made for the area of the corpus callosum, five subregions, and fiber densities. Although no sex differences were detected, age appeared to affect the size, shape, and fiber composition of the bottlenose dolphin corpus callosum. PMID:18493931

  18. A Corpus Investigation of Syntactic Embedding in Pirahã

    PubMed Central

    Futrell, Richard; Stearns, Laura; Everett, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    The Pirahã language has been at the center of recent debates in linguistics, in large part because it is claimed not to exhibit recursion, a purported universal of human language. Here, we present an analysis of a novel corpus of natural Pirahã speech that was originally collected by Dan Everett and Steve Sheldon. We make the corpus freely available for further research. In the corpus, Pirahã sentences have been shallowly parsed and given morpheme-aligned English translations. We use the corpus to investigate the formal complexity of Pirahã syntax by searching for evidence of syntactic embedding. In particular, we search for sentences which could be analyzed as containing center-embedding, sentential complements, adverbials, complementizers, embedded possessors, conjunction or disjunction. We do not find unambiguous evidence for recursive embedding of sentences or noun phrases in the corpus. We find that the corpus is plausibly consistent with an analysis of Pirahã as a regular language, although this is not the only plausible analysis. PMID:26934636

  19. How does the corpus callosum mediate interhemispheric transfer? A review.

    PubMed

    van der Knaap, Lisette J; van der Ham, Ineke J M

    2011-09-30

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure in the human brain, connecting cortical regions of both hemispheres. Complete and partial callosotomies or callosal lesion studies have granted more insight into the function of the corpus callosum, namely the facilitation of communication between the cerebral hemispheres. How the corpus callosum mediates this information transfer is still a topic of debate. Some pose that the corpus callosum maintains independent processing between the two hemispheres, whereas others say that the corpus callosum shares information between hemispheres. These theories of inhibition and excitation are further explored by reviewing recent behavioural studies and morphological findings to gain more information about callosal function. Additional information regarding callosal function in relation to altered morphology and dysfunction in disorders is reviewed to add to the discussion of callosal involvement in interhemispheric transfer. Both the excitatory and inhibitory theories seem likely candidates to describe callosal function, however evidence also exists for both functions within the same corpus callosum. For future research it would be beneficial to investigate the functional role of the callosal sub regions to get a better understanding of function and use more appropriate experimental methods to determine functional connectivity when looking at interhemispheric transfer.

  20. Contrast radiographic study of venous drainage of the corpus cavernosum and the corpus spongiosum of the cat penis.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Ali Akbar; Gilanpour, Hassan; Veshkini, Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the drainage routes of the corpus cvernosum penis and the corpus spongiosum penis in the cat using contrast cavernosography. Five male cats, 1.5-2.5 years old, weighing between 4.5 and 5.5 kg were investigated. The cats were anesthetized and the root and the proximal part of the penis were exposed by an incision on the perineum reaching the scrotum. Each cat was radiographed in lateral and dorsal recumbency before and during injection of contrast medium into the erectile bodies. The corpus spongiosum penis was injected at the bulb of the penis and the corpus cavernosum penis at the root. Injection of contrast media into the cavernous bodies showed that both the external and internal iliac veins drain the erectile bodies into the caudal vena cava. Drainage from the corpus spongiosum penis was from the bulb for the proximal part and from the glans for the distal part. The corpus cavernosum penis was drained only proximally, from the crura. There was a network of veins above the pelvic symphysis and the drainage of erectile bodies where through various routes into the internal and external iliac veins.

  1. Neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels encoded by mRNA from the adult corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Matute, C; Miledi, R

    1993-04-15

    The presence of mRNAs encoding neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-gated channels in the adult human and bovine corpus callosum was investigated using Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes injected with mRNA extracted from the corpus callosum expressed functional receptors to glutamate, acetylcholine, and serotonin, and also voltage-operated Ca2+ channels, all with similar properties in the two species studied. Acetylcholine and serotonin elicited oscillatory Cl- currents due to activation of the inositol phosphate-Ca2+ receptor-channel coupling system. Glutamate and its analogs N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), kainate, quisqualate, and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) induced smooth currents. The non-NMDA responses showed a strong inward rectification at positive potentials and were potently blocked by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, as observed for the AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors GLUR1 and GLUR3. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments showed that GLUR1 and GLUR3 mRNAs are present in corpus callosum cells that were labeled with antiserum to glial fibrillary acid protein and that, in primary cell cultures, had the morphology of type 2 astrocytes. These results indicate that glial cells in the adult corpus callosum possess mRNA encoding functional neurotransmitter receptors and Ca2+ channels. These molecules may provide a mechanism for glial-neuronal interactions. PMID:7682696

  2. Prosody meets syntax: the role of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Sammler, Daniela; Kotz, Sonja A; Eckstein, Korinna; Ott, Derek V M; Friederici, Angela D

    2010-09-01

    Contemporary neural models of auditory language comprehension proposed that the two hemispheres are differently specialized in the processing of segmental and suprasegmental features of language. While segmental processing of syntactic and lexical semantic information is predominantly assigned to the left hemisphere, the right hemisphere is thought to have a primacy for the processing of suprasegmental prosodic information such as accentuation and boundary marking. A dynamic interplay between the hemispheres is assumed to allow for the timely coordination of both information types. The present event-related potential study investigated whether the anterior and/or posterior portion of the corpus callosum provide the crucial brain basis for the online interaction of syntactic and prosodic information. Patients with lesions in the anterior two-thirds of the corpus callosum connecting orbital and frontal structures, or the posterior third of the corpus callosum connecting temporal, parietal and occipital areas, as well as matched healthy controls, were tested in a paradigm that crossed syntactic and prosodic manipulations. An anterior negativity elicited by a mismatch between syntactically predicted phrase structure and prosodic intonation was analysed as a marker for syntax-prosody interaction. Healthy controls and patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum showed this anterior negativity demonstrating an intact interplay between syntax and prosody. No such effect was found in patients with lesions in the posterior corpus callosum, although they exhibited intact, prosody-independent syntactic processing comparable with healthy controls and patients with lesions in the anterior corpus callosum. These data support the interplay between the speech processing streams in the left and right hemispheres via the posterior portion of the corpus callosum, building the brain basis for the coordination and integration of local syntactic and prosodic features during

  3. Expression of factors associated with apoptosis in the porcine corpus luteum throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy: their possible involvement in acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Przygrodzka, E; Witek, K J; Kaczmarek, M M; Andronowska, A; Ziecik, A J

    2015-03-01

    The studies on the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity have been focused mainly on molecular changes induced in the luteal tissue after treatment with exogenous PGF2α or on physiological changes occurring during the estrous cycle. The comparison of changes leading to the acquisition of luteolytic sensitivity after Day 12 of the estrous cycle and corresponding days of pregnancy has not been investigated in the pig. The present study was undertaken to evaluate (1) apoptosis measured as the proportions of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and viable cells; (2) expression of factors involved in the extrinsic (TNFA/TNFα, TNFRSF1A/TNFR1, TNFRSF1B/TNFR2, FAS/Fas, and FASLG/FasL) and intrinsic (CASP3/Casp3, TP53/p-53, BAX/Bax, and BCL2/Bcl-2) apoptotic pathways, with two components of the activating protein-1 complex, i.e., FOS/Fos and JUN/Jun and IFNG/IFNγ; and (3) concentrations of luteal and blood plasma progesterone (P4) throughout the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) were collected postmortem on Days 8, 10, 12, and 14 of the estrous cycle and the corresponding days of pregnancy. The luteal tissue was subjected to RNA and/or protein isolation and disaggregation of CL cells followed by flow cytometry analysis aimed to determine apoptotic changes. Luteal and blood plasma P4 concentrations decreased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). A significant increase in the number of early apoptotic cells and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed on Day 14 of the estrous cycle (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Increase (P < 0.05) of TNFA messenger RNA (mRNA) level coincided with that of IFNG on Day 12 of the estrous cycle but not on the corresponding day of pregnancy. The content of FAS mRNA and protein increased on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus pregnancy (P < 0.05). The mRNA expression of CASP3, BCL-2 and BAX was unchanged in cyclic and pregnant CL, while level of TP53 increased (P < 0.05) on Day 12 of the estrous cycle versus Day 8. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA increased (P < 0.05) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle versus the remaining days. The level of FOS and JUN mRNA was significantly higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) on Day 14 of the estrous cycle than that on the corresponding day of pregnancy. In summary, the simultaneous increase of TNFA and IFNG transcript in cyclic CL suggests the crucial role of both cytokines in sensitization of porcine CL to further luteolytic action of PGF2α. The upregulated expression of FAS, FOS, and JUN mRNA in the late luteal phase in cyclic CL can indicate their involvement in structural luteolysis. The increased viability of luteal cells and elevated P4 concentrations in pregnant CL confirm the protective role of luteal P4 against apoptosis.

  4. Induction of chemokines and prostaglandin synthesis pathways in luteinized human granulosa cells: potential role of luteotropin withdrawal and prostaglandin F2α in regression of the human corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wenxiang; Salih, Sana M; Bormann, Charles L; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2015-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants (forskolin or hCG) on expression of chemokines and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) in luteinized human granulosa cells. Human granulosa cells were collected from 12 women undergoing oocyte retrieval and were luteinized in vitro with forskolin or hCG. In first experiment, granulosa-lutein cells were treated with PGF2α, the primary luteolytic hormone in most species. In second experiment, granulosa cells that had been luteinized for 8 d had luteotropins withdrawn for 1, 2, or 3 d. Treatment with PGF2α induced mRNA for chemokine (c-x-c motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) and CXC ligand 8 (CXCL8; also known as interleukin-8) in granulosa cells luteinized for 8 d but not in cells that were only luteinized for 2 d. Similarly, luteinization of human granulosa cells for 8 d with forskolin or hCG followed by withdrawal of luteotropic stimulants, not only decreased P4 production, but also increased mRNA concentrations for CXCL8, CXCL-2 (after forskolin withdrawal), and PTGS2. These results provide evidence for two key steps in differentiation of luteolytic capability in human granulosa cells. During 8 d of luteinization, granulosa cells acquire the ability to respond to luteolytic factors, such as PGF2α, with induction of genes involved in immune function and PG synthesis. Finally, a decline in luteotropic stimuli triggers similar pathways leading to induction of PTGS2 and possibly intraluteal PGF2α production, chemokine expression, leukocyte infiltration and activation, and ultimately luteal regression. PMID:26679166

  5. Sheep and goats: separating cervix and corpus uteri from imprecisely coded uterine cancer deaths, for studies of geographical and temporal variations in mortality.

    PubMed

    Loos, A H; Bray, F; McCarron, P; Weiderpass, E; Hakama, M; Parkin, D M

    2004-12-01

    Analysing time trends in mortality from cancers of the cervix and corpus uteri using routine data sources (such as the World Health Organisation mortality database) involves two major problems: deaths certified as "uterus, unspecified site", and the presence of a combined category comprising unspecified and corpus uteri cancer deaths. To avoid misleading interpretations, the unspecified and the misclassified data must be incorporated into the analysis to produce rates that allow meaningful comparisons between populations and over time. Reallocation methods based on age- and time-specific distributions of cervix and corpus uteri cancer are applied to the unspecified deaths, while for those in the combined category, the age- and time-specific distributions of unspecified and corpus uteri cancer are considered. Adjustments of the general strategies for reallocation were developed to take into account the different quality of the data. Results from eight European countries with different degrees of coding precision are presented. The reallocation methods bring the cervix and corpus uteri mortality trends more in line with the trends for countries with more precise data while keeping the country-specific characteristics. In addition, the methods ensured the availability of time trends for corpus uteri cancer in women age 50 years and older, which were completely missing without reallocation. We propose generally applicable reallocation methods that allow valid time trend analysis of cervix and corpus uteri cancer mortality using datasets of varying precision. Our results show that any sensible analysis of time trends must involve procedures for correcting for unspecified and misclassified uterine cancer deaths. The modified data are available at .

  6. The Corpus Callosum and Forensic Issues-An Overview.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    The corpus callosum is a large central white matter tract that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres. It permits placental mammals to have a more sophisticated interhemispheric integration of sensory cortices and allows communication between cortical and subcortical neurons. Search of the literature and the pathology archives at The University of Adelaide was undertaken to identify lesions and injuries within the corpus callosum that may have forensic significance. These include developmental/congenital lesions with agenesis/dysgenesis, vascular malformations, and lipomas; inherited syndromes such as neurofibromatosis; and acquired lesions involving trauma, neoplasia, demyelination, vascular conditions, infections, fat embolism, aging/dementia, and the effects of toxins. The finding of lesions within the corpus callosum should initiate careful examination of the adjacent brain and other organ systems for related phenomena as this may shed some light on the nature of the underlying condition, and also help to determine whether there are any forensic implications.

  7. Primary human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Chuan Aaron, Foo Song; Dawn, Chong Q. Q.; Kenneth, Chang T. E.; Hoe, Ng Wai; Yen, Soh Shui; Chee Kian, Tham

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary intracranial germinomas are a rare subset of intracranial tumors derived from mis-incorporated germ cells within the folding neural plate during embryogenesis. Though known to arise from midline structures in the central nervous system (CNS), occurrence within the corpus callosum is exceedingly rare. Case Description: We present a rare case of secreting primary intracranial germinoma with extensive intraventricular metastasis presenting as a multi-cystic butterfly lesion in the genu of the corpus callosum in a young boy. Conclusion: Intracranial germ cell tumors must be considered for any multi-cystic lesion arising from midline structures in the CNS in the preadult population. PMID:24233184

  8. A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth K; Lahey, Mybeth; Ernestus, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An audio and video corpus of speech addressed to 28 11-month-olds is described. The corpus allows comparisons between adult speech directed toward infants, familiar adults, and unfamiliar adult addressees as well as of caregivers' word teaching strategies across word classes. Summary data show that infant-directed speech differed more from speech to unfamiliar than familiar adults, that word teaching strategies for nominals versus verbs and adjectives differed, that mothers mostly addressed infants with multi-word utterances, and that infants' vocabulary size was unrelated to speech rate, but correlated positively with predominance of continuous caregiver speech (not of isolated words) in the input.

  9. Agenesis of corpus callosum and frontotemporal dementia: a casual finding?

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Spadaro, Letteria; Marra, Angela; Balletta, Tina; Cammaroto, Simona; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-06-01

    Agenesis of corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital malformation characterized by total or partial absence of corpus callosum with a good neuropsychological profile. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the third most common cause of cortical dementia, and it is characterized by alterations in personality and social relationship, often associated with deficits in attention, abstraction, planning, and problem solving. Herein, we report a case of a 73-year-old woman presenting with FTD associated with primary AgCC. The possible "causal or casual" relationship between these 2 different conditions should be investigated in large prospective studies.

  10. Corpus-based identification and refinement of semantic classes.

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, A.; Zweigenbaum, P.; Bouaud, J.; Habert, B.

    1997-01-01

    Medical Language Processing (MLP), especially in specific domains, requires fine-grained semantic lexica. We examine whether robust natural language processing tools used on a representative corpus of a domain help in building and refining a semantic categorization. We test this hypothesis with ZELLIG, a corpus analysis tool. The first clusters we obtain are consistent with a model of the domain, as found in the SNOMED nomenclature. They correspond to coarse-grained semantic categories, but isolate as well lexical idiosyncrasies belonging to the clinical sub-language. Moreover, they help categorize additional words. PMID:9357693

  11. Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Chronically Treated and Stimulant Naive ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnoebelen, Sarah; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Pliszka, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of chronic stimulant treatment on corpus callosum (CC) size in children with ADHD using volumetric and area measurements. Previously published research indicated possible medication effects on specific areas of the CC. Method: Measurements of the CC from anatomical MRIs were obtained from children aged 9-16 in…

  12. Corpus Linguistics, Network Analysis and Co-Occurrence Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Keith; Botella, Ana

    2009-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken in order to design a methodology for the reticular representation of knowledge of a specific discourse community. To achieve this goal, a representative corpus of the scientific production of the members of this discourse community (Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, UPV) was created. This article…

  13. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  14. Perspectives on Dichotic Listening and the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musiek, Frank E.; Weihing, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The present review summarizes historic and recent research which has investigated the role of the corpus callosum in dichotic processing within the context of audiology. Examination of performance by certain clinical groups, including split brain patients, multiple sclerosis cases, and other types of neurological lesions is included. Maturational,…

  15. Agenesis of the corpus callosum. An autopsy study in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Debora; Shapira, Daniel; Ben Sira, Liat; Malinger, Gustavo; Lev, Dorit; Cioca, Andreea; Sharony, Reuven; Lerman Sagie, Tally

    2016-02-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is currently diagnosed prenatally with ultrasound and MRI. While the diagnostic aspects of callosal defects are widely addressed, anatomo-histological data from fetal autopsies are sparse. Callosal defects were present in 50 fetal autopsies. Four distinct groups of complete, partial, hypoplastic, and mixed defects were determined by the gross and histologic details of the corpus callosum. These details helped to rule out other midline defects such as holoprosencephaly. Additional autopsy findings enabled specific diagnoses and suggested etiopathogeneses. Hypoplastic and mixed defects were associated with more abnormalities of the cerebral hemispheres and internal organs. The four groups did not differ according to gender, external dysmorphism, or cerebellar and brainstem anomalies. Defects were classified as syndromic (68 %), encephaloclastic (8 %), undetermined (14 %), or isolated (10 %) based on the autopsy findings. Isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum was diagnosed in only 10 % of the cases in this series, compared to higher numbers diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and MRI. Therefore, the autopsy, through its detailed, careful evaluation of external, as well as gross and histological internal features, can elucidate the etiopathogenesis of agenesis of the corpus callosum and suggest specific diagnoses which cannot be ascertained by prenatal imaging. PMID:26573426

  16. Autism Traits in Individuals with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n =…

  17. The Dependency Structure of Coordinate Phrases: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temperley, David

    2005-01-01

    Hudson (1990) proposes that each conjunct in a coordinate phrase forms dependency relations with heads or dependents outside the coordinate phrase (the "multi-head" view). This proposal is tested through corpus analysis of Wall Street Journal text. For right-branching constituents (such as direct-object NPs), a short-long preference for conjunct…

  18. Agenesis of the corpus callosum. An autopsy study in fetuses.

    PubMed

    Kidron, Debora; Shapira, Daniel; Ben Sira, Liat; Malinger, Gustavo; Lev, Dorit; Cioca, Andreea; Sharony, Reuven; Lerman Sagie, Tally

    2016-02-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is currently diagnosed prenatally with ultrasound and MRI. While the diagnostic aspects of callosal defects are widely addressed, anatomo-histological data from fetal autopsies are sparse. Callosal defects were present in 50 fetal autopsies. Four distinct groups of complete, partial, hypoplastic, and mixed defects were determined by the gross and histologic details of the corpus callosum. These details helped to rule out other midline defects such as holoprosencephaly. Additional autopsy findings enabled specific diagnoses and suggested etiopathogeneses. Hypoplastic and mixed defects were associated with more abnormalities of the cerebral hemispheres and internal organs. The four groups did not differ according to gender, external dysmorphism, or cerebellar and brainstem anomalies. Defects were classified as syndromic (68 %), encephaloclastic (8 %), undetermined (14 %), or isolated (10 %) based on the autopsy findings. Isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum was diagnosed in only 10 % of the cases in this series, compared to higher numbers diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonography and MRI. Therefore, the autopsy, through its detailed, careful evaluation of external, as well as gross and histological internal features, can elucidate the etiopathogenesis of agenesis of the corpus callosum and suggest specific diagnoses which cannot be ascertained by prenatal imaging.

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Ansary, Althaf; Manjunatha, C M; Ibhanesebhor, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Colpocephaly is a rare abnormality of the brain, described as persistence of primitive foetal configuration of lateral ventricles. It has been found in association with several abnormalities of the brain. Herein we report a case of colpocephaly with absent corpus callosum, confirmed antenatally with foetal MRI following diagnostic suspicion based on absent septum pellucidum at prenatal sonography.

  20. Commissurotomy of the Corpus Callosum and the Remedial Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Elaine

    Testimony presented at a congressional hearing on illiteracy (March 1986) indicated that good readers use their myelinated corpus callosum fibers (which connect the left and right hemispheres of the brain) at millisecond speeds to coordinate the two brain hemispheres. Students taught using the whole-word recognition method (also called the…

  1. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  2. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  3. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  4. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  5. 38 CFR 3.263 - Corpus of estate; net worth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amounts received as compensation under the Victims of Crime Act of 1984 unless the total amount of... losses suffered as a result of the crime. (Authority: 42 U.S.C. 10602(c)) (i) Medicare Prescription Drug... the corpus of estate of a parent where dependency is a factor under § 3.250, and the net worth of...

  6. Corpus Consultation and Advanced Learners' Writing Skills in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Angela; O'Sullivan, Ide

    2004-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment of language learning and teaching, electronic literacies have an increasingly important role to play. While much research on new literacies focuses on the World Wide Web, the aim in this study is to investigate the importance of corpus consultation as a new type of literacy which is of particular relevance in…

  7. Corpus Callosum Differences Associated with Persistent Stuttering in Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Ai Leen; Kraft, Shelly Jo; Olivero, William; Ambrose, Nicoline G.; Sharma, Harish; Chang, Soo-Eun; Loucks, Torrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have implicated anatomical differences in speech-relevant brain regions of adults who stutter (AWS) compared to normally fluent adults (NFA). The present study focused on the region of the corpus callosum (CC) which is involved in interhemispheric processing between the left and right cerebral hemispheres. Two-dimensional…

  8. Corpus Callosum Morphometrics in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boger-Megiddo, Inbal; Shaw, Dennis W. W.; Friedman, Seth D.; Sparks, Bobbi F.; Artru, Alan A.; Giedd, Jay N.; Dawson, Geraldine; Dager, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed digital corpus callosum cross sectional areas in 3-4 year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to typically developing (TD) and developmentally delayed (DD) children. Though not different in absolute size compared to TD, ASD callosums were disproportionately small adjusted for increased ASD cerebral volume. ASD…

  9. Corpus Planning for the Southern Peruvian Quechua Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1997-01-01

    The discussion of corpus planning for the Southern Quechua language variety of Peru examines issues of graphization, standardization, modernization, and renovation of Quechua in the face of increasing domination by the Spanish language. The efforts of three major groups of linguists and other scholars working on language planning in Peru, and the…

  10. You Should Have the Body: Understanding Habeas Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landman, James

    2008-01-01

    English legal commentator William Blackstone described the writ of habeas corpus as a second Magna Carta, and Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall called it the "great writ." It has been part of the Anglo-American common law tradition since the Middle Ages. In the United States, it has been a source of tension between state and federal…

  11. A Multidimensional Analysis of a Written L2 Spanish Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asencion-Delaney, Yuly; Collentine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The present study adds to our understanding of how learners employ lexical and grammatical phenomena to communicate in writing in different types of interlanguage discourse. A multidimensional (factor) analysis of a corpus of L2 Spanish writing (202,241 words) generated by second- and third-year, university-level learners was performed. The…

  12. An integrated pharmacokinetics ontology and corpus for text mining

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Drug pharmacokinetics parameters, drug interaction parameters, and pharmacogenetics data have been unevenly collected in different databases and published extensively in the literature. Without appropriate pharmacokinetics ontology and a well annotated pharmacokinetics corpus, it will be difficult to develop text mining tools for pharmacokinetics data collection from the literature and pharmacokinetics data integration from multiple databases. Description A comprehensive pharmacokinetics ontology was constructed. It can annotate all aspects of in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. It covers all drug metabolism and transportation enzymes. Using our pharmacokinetics ontology, a PK-corpus was constructed to present four classes of pharmacokinetics abstracts: in vivo pharmacokinetics studies, in vivo pharmacogenetic studies, in vivo drug interaction studies, and in vitro drug interaction studies. A novel hierarchical three level annotation scheme was proposed and implemented to tag key terms, drug interaction sentences, and drug interaction pairs. The utility of the pharmacokinetics ontology was demonstrated by annotating three pharmacokinetics studies; and the utility of the PK-corpus was demonstrated by a drug interaction extraction text mining analysis. Conclusions The pharmacokinetics ontology annotates both in vitro pharmacokinetics experiments and in vivo pharmacokinetics studies. The PK-corpus is a highly valuable resource for the text mining of pharmacokinetics parameters and drug interactions. PMID:23374886

  13. Corpus-Based Research and Pedagogy in EAP: From Lexis to Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    This plenary paper showcases current corpus-based research on written academic English, illustrating the tight links that exist between corpus research and pedagogic applications. I first explicate Sinclair's concept of the "lexical approach", which underpins much corpus research and pedagogy. I then discuss studies which focus on…

  14. Separating Fact and Fiction: The Real Story of Corpus Use in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates uses of corpora in language learning ("data-driven learning") through analysis of a 600K-word corpus of empirical research papers in the field. The corpus can tell us much--the authors and the countries the studies are conducted in, the types of publication, and so on. The corpus investigation itself starts with…

  15. Computer-assisted Lemmatisation of a Cornish Text Corpus for Lexicographical Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon

    2002-01-01

    This project sets out to discover and develop techniques for the lemmatisation of a historical corpus of the Cornish language in order that a lemmatised dictionary macrostructure can be generated from the corpus. The system should be capable of uniquely identifying every lexical item that is attested in the corpus. A survey of published and…

  16. Integrating Corpus Work into Secondary Education: From Data-Driven Learning to Needs-Driven Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an empirical case study conducted to investigate the overall conditions and challenges of integrating corpus materials and corpus-based learning activities into English-language classes at a secondary school in Germany. Starting from the observation that in spite of the large amount of research into corpus-based language…

  17. Motivating College Students' Learning English for Specific Purposes Courses through Corpus Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Lin-Fang

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how to motivate technical college students to learn English for specific purposes (ESP) courses through corpus building and enhance their language proficiency during the coursework for their majors. This study explores corpus building skills, how to simplify ESP courses by corpus building for English as second…

  18. The Contribution of the Corpus Callosum to Language Lateralization

    PubMed Central

    Hinkley, Leighton B.N.; Marco, Elysa J.; Brown, Ethan G.; Bukshpun, Polina; Gold, Jacquelyn; Hill, Susanna; Findlay, Anne M.; Jeremy, Rita J.; Wakahiro, Mari L.; Barkovich, A. James; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    The development of hemispheric lateralization for language is poorly understood. In one hypothesis, early asymmetric gene expression assigns language to the left hemisphere. In an alternate view, language is represented a priori in both hemispheres and lateralization emerges via cross-hemispheric communication through the corpus callosum. To address this second hypothesis, we capitalized on the high temporal and spatial resolution of magnetoencephalographic imaging to measure cortical activity during language processing, speech preparation, and speech execution in 25 participants with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and 21 matched neurotypical individuals. In contrast to strongly lateralized left hemisphere activations for language in neurotypical controls, participants with complete or partial AgCC exhibited bilateral hemispheric activations in both auditory or visually driven language tasks, with complete AgCC participants showing significantly more right hemisphere activations than controls or than individuals with partial AgCC. In AgCC individuals, language laterality positively correlated with verbal IQ. These findings suggest that the corpus callosum helps to drive language lateralization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The role that corpus callosum development has on the hemispheric specialization of language is poorly understood. Here, we used magnetoencephalographic imaging during linguistic tests (verb generation, picture naming) to test for hemispheric dominance in patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and found reduced laterality (i.e., greater likelihood of bilaterality or right hemisphere dominance) in this cohort compared with controls, especially in patients with complete agenesis. Laterality was positively correlated with behavioral measures of verbal intelligence. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that the callosum aids in functional specialization throughout neural development and that the loss of this mechanism

  19. Using Google as a Super Corpus to Drive Written Language Learning: A Comparison with the British National Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sha, Guoquan

    2010-01-01

    Data-driven learning (DDL), or corpus-based language learning, involves the learner in an exploratory task to discover appropriate expressions or collocates regarding his writing. However, the problematic units of meaning in each learner's writing are so diverse that conventional corpora often prove futile. The search engine Google with the…

  20. Formulaic Language and Collocations in German Essays: From Corpus-Driven Data to Corpus-Based Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummes, Cedric; Ensslin, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    Whereas there exists a plethora of research on collocations and formulaic language in English, this article contributes towards a somewhat less developed area: the understanding and teaching of formulaic language in German as a foreign language. It analyses formulaic sequences and collocations in German writing (corpus-driven) and provides modern…

  1. Effect of a novel BKCa opener on BKCa currents and contractility of the rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, K I; Large, R J; Bradley, E; Hollywood, M A; Sergeant, G P; McHale, N G; Thornbury, K D

    2016-02-15

    Large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BKCa) channels are thought to play a key role in the regulation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscle (CCSM) excitability. Few BKCa channel openers have been accepted for clinical development. The effect of the novel BKCa channel opener GoSlo-SR5-130 on electrical activity in isolated rabbit CCSM cells and mechanical activity in strips of rabbit CCSM was examined. Single-channel currents were observed in inside-out patches. These channels were sensitive to Ca(2+), blocked by penitrem A, and had a conductance of 291 ± 20 pS (n = 7). In the presence of GoSlo-SR5-130, the number of open BKCa channels increased. Using voltage-ramp protocols, GoSlo-SR5-130 caused currents to activate at more negative potentials in a concentration-dependent manner, shifting the half-maximal activation voltage potential to the left on the voltage axis. Therefore, BKCa channels were open within the physiological range of membrane potentials in the presence of GoSlo-SR5-130. GoSlo-SR5-130 also resulted in an increase in the activity of spontaneous transient outward currents in myocytes isolated from CCSM, and this effect was reversed by iberiotoxin. In current-clamp mode, GoSlo-SR5-130 hyperpolarized the cell membrane. Isometric tension recording of strips of rabbit corpus cavernosum showed that GoSlo-SR5-130 inhibited spontaneous contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was reversed in the presence of iberiotoxin, suggesting that GoSlo-SR5-130 exerts its effect through BKCa channels. These findings suggest that GoSlo-SR5-130 is an effective tool for the study of BKCa channels and that these channels can modulate CCSM activity and are possible targets for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. PMID:26659726

  2. Frequency of Basic English Grammatical Structures: A Corpus Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roland, Douglas; Dick, Frederic; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Many recent models of language comprehension have stressed the role of distributional frequencies in determining the relative accessibility or ease of processing associated with a particular lexical item or sentence structure. However, there exist relatively few comprehensive analyses of structural frequencies, and little consideration has been given to the appropriateness of using any particular set of corpus frequencies in modeling human language. We provide a comprehensive set of structural frequencies for a variety of written and spoken corpora, focusing on structures that have played a critical role in debates on normal psycholinguistics, aphasia, and child language acquisition, and compare our results with those from several recent papers to illustrate the implications and limitations of using corpus data in psycholinguistic research. PMID:19668599

  3. Implicit causality bias in English: a corpus of 300 verbs.

    PubMed

    Ferstl, Evelyn C; Garnham, Alan; Manouilidou, Christina

    2011-03-01

    This study provides implicit verb causality norms for a corpus of 305 English verbs. A web-based sentence completion study was conducted, with 96 respondents completing fragments such as "John liked Mary because..." The resulting bias scores are provided as supplementary material in the Psychonomic Society Archive, where we also present lexical and semantic verb features, such as the frequency, semantic class and emotional valence. Our results replicate those of previous studies with much smaller numbers of verbs and respondents. Novel effects of gender and its interaction with verb valence illustrate the type of issues that can be investigated using stable norms for a large number of verbs. The corpus will facilitate future studies in a range of areas, including psycholinguistics and social psychology.

  4. Autism traits in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Yolanda C.; Hinkley, Leighton B. N.; Bukshpun, Polina; Strominger, Zoe A.; Wakahiro, Mari L. J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Jeremy, Rita J.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Marco, Elysa J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have numerous etiologies, including structural brain malformations such as agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We sought to directly measure the occurrence of autism traits in a cohort of individuals with AgCC and to investigate the neural underpinnings of this association. We screened a large AgCC cohort (n = 106) with the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and found that 45% of children, 35% of adolescents, and 18% of adults exceeded the predetermined autism-screening cut-off. Interestingly, performance on the AQ’s imagination domain was inversely correlated with magnetoencephalography measures of resting-state functional connectivity in the right superior temporal gyrus. Individuals with AgCC should be screened for ASD and disorders of the corpus callosum should be considered in autism diagnostic evaluations as well. PMID:23054201

  5. Cortical thickness in adults with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Beaulé, Vincent; Tremblay, Sara; Lafleur, Louis-Philippe; Tremblay, Sébastien; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepage, Jean-François; Théoret, Hugo

    2015-10-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital malformation that can occur in isolation or in association with other neurological conditions. Although the behavioral manifestations associated with AgCC have been widely studied, the effects of complete absence of the corpus callosum (CC) on cerebral cortex anatomy are still not completely understood. In this study, cortical thickness in adults with complete AgCC was compared to a group of healthy controls. Results showed highly variable patterns of cortical thickness in AgCC individuals, with few areas showing significant and consistent alterations including primary visual cortex, primary somatosensory cortex and primary motor cortex. These results suggest relatively limited effects of AgCC on cortical morphology, which are mostly restricted to primary sensory and motor areas.

  6. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  7. Anterior commissure versus corpus callosum: A quantitative comparison across mammals.

    PubMed

    Ashwell, Ken W S

    2016-04-01

    Mammals rely on two major pathways to transfer information between the two hemispheres of the brain: the anterior commissure and the corpus callosum. Metatheria and monotremes rely exclusively on the anterior commissure for interhemispheric transfer between the isocortices and olfactory allocortices of each side, whereas Eutheria use a combination of the anterior commissure and an additional pathway exclusive to Eutheria, the corpus callosum. Midline cross-sectional area of the anterior commissure and corpus callosum were measured in a range of mammals from all three infraclasses and plotted against brain volume to determine how midline anterior commissure area and its size relative to the corpus callosum vary with brain size and taxon. In Metatheria, the square root of anterior commissure area rises in almost direct proportion with the cube root of brain volume (i.e. the ratio of the two is relatively constant), whereas among Eutheria the ratio of the square root of anterior commissure area to the cube root of brain volume declines slightly with increasing brain size. The total of isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissure area rises more rapidly with increasing brain volume among Eutheria than among Metatheria. This means that the midline isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area of metatherians with large brains (about 70 ml) is only about 50% of that among eutherians with similarly sized brains. On the other hand, isocortical and olfactory allocortical commissural area is similar in Metatheria and Eutheria at brain volumes around 1 ml. Among the Eutheria, some groups make less use of the anterior commissure pathway than do others: soricomorphs, rodents and cetaceans have smaller anterior commissures for their brain size than do afrosoricids, erinaceomorphs and proboscideans. The findings suggest that use of the anterior commissural route for isocortical commissural connections may have placed limitations on interhemispheric transfer of

  8. [Wine and women: an overlooked passage in the Hippocratic corpus].

    PubMed

    Villard, L

    1997-01-01

    A passage taken from the Hippocratic Corpus states that at the beginning of pregnancy women say that they do not like the taste of wine. This passage should be added to evidence about wine drinking by women in Classical Greece. It shows that, contrary to previous opinion, women drank wine when they were in good health and corresponds with the notion that it was often prescribed by physicians in order to cure illness.

  9. Thickness profile generation for the corpus callosum using Laplace's equation.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Christopher L; Wood, Amanda G; Chen, Jian; Barton, Sarah; Reutens, David C; Pantelis, Christos; Velakoulis, Dennis; Walterfang, Mark

    2011-12-01

    The corpus callosum facilitates communication between the cerebral hemispheres. Morphological abnormalities of the corpus callosum have been identified in numerous psychiatric and neurological disorders. To quantitatively analyze the thickness profile of the corpus callosum, we adapted an automatic thickness measurement method, which was originally used on magnetic resonance (MR) images of the cerebral cortex (Hutton et al. [2008]: NeuroImage 40:1701-10; Jones et al. [2002]: Hum Brain Mapp 11:12-32; Schmitt and Böhme [2002]: NeuroImage 16:1103-9; Yezzi and Prince [2003]: IEEE Trans Med Imaging 22:1332-9), to MR images of the corpus callosum. The thickness model was derived by computing a solution to Laplace's equation evaluated on callosal voxels. The streamlines from this solution form non-overlapping, cross-sectional contours the lengths of which are modeled as the callosal thickness. Apart from the semi-automated segmentation and endpoint selection procedures, the method is fully automated, robust, and reproducible. We compared the Laplace method with the orthogonal projection technique previously published (Walterfang et al. [2009a]: Psych Res Neuroimaging 173:77-82; Walterfang et al. [2008a]: Br J Psychiatry 192:429-34; Walterfang et al. [2008b]: Schizophr Res 103:1-10) on a cohort of 296 subjects, composed of 86 patients with chronic schizophrenia (CSZ), 110 individuals with first-episode psychosis, 100 individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR; 27 of whom later developed psychosis, UHR-P, and 73 who did not, UHR-NP), and 55 control subjects (CTL). We report similar patterns of statistically significant differences in regional callosal thickness with respect to the comparisons CSZ vs. CTL, UHR vs. CTL, UHR-P vs. UHR-NP, and UHR vs. CTL.

  10. Annotated Chemical Patent Corpus: A Gold Standard for Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Akhondi, Saber A.; Klenner, Alexander G.; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K.; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A. R. P.; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A.; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  11. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  12. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    PubMed

    Akhondi, Saber A; Klenner, Alexander G; Tyrchan, Christian; Manchala, Anil K; Boppana, Kiran; Lowe, Daniel; Zimmermann, Marc; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Sayle, Roger; Kors, Jan A; Muresan, Sorel

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org. PMID:25268232

  13. [The pathways of glucose catabolism in Tenebrio molitor: the effects of fasting and the injection of the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex].

    PubMed

    Gourdoux, L

    1975-01-01

    In the adult of Tenebrio molitor (Coleopterous) the pentose cycle is greatly used for the glucose degradation: starvation or injection of corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex alter this metabolic orientation : the pentose pathway is decreased and the glucose itself is less utilized.

  14. Comparing English Vocabulary in a Spoken Learner Corpus with a Native Speaker Corpus: Pedagogical Implications Arising from an Empirical Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirato, Junko; Stapleton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Insights from corpus linguistics have come to be seen as having a significant impact in second language pedagogy. Learner corpora, or collections of texts spoken or written by non-native speakers (NNS) of a language, are now being used for the purposes of enhancing language teaching. Specifically, by comparing the corpus of NNS with native…

  15. [The pathways of glucose catabolism in Tenebrio molitor: the effects of fasting and the injection of the corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex].

    PubMed

    Gourdoux, L

    1975-01-01

    In the adult of Tenebrio molitor (Coleopterous) the pentose cycle is greatly used for the glucose degradation: starvation or injection of corpus cardiacum-corpus allatum complex alter this metabolic orientation : the pentose pathway is decreased and the glucose itself is less utilized. PMID:129268

  16. Recent Developments in Corpus Linguistics and Corpus-Based Research/Department of Linguistics and Modern Language Studies at the Hong Kong Institute of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Corpus linguistics has transformed the landscape of empirical research on languages in recent decades. The proliferation of corpus technology has enabled researchers worldwide to conduct research in their own geographical locations with few hindrances. It has become increasingly commonplace for researchers to compile their own corpora for specific…

  17. Lipoma of corpus callosum associated with dysraphic lesions and trisomy 13

    SciTech Connect

    Wainwright, H.; Bowen, R.; Radcliffe, M.

    1995-05-22

    We report on a further case of corpus callosal lipoma and frontal cranial defects. Most cases in the literature of corpus callosal lipoma in association with {open_quotes}dysraphic{close_quotes} lesions have been frontal in location. Malformation of the corpus callosum is said to be associated with 50% of these lipomas. Trisomy 13 was confirmed by the 13q14 cosmid probe on paraffin-embedded liver tissue. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Corpus analysis and automatic detection of emotion-including keywords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; He, Xiangqing; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-01

    Emotion words play a vital role in many sentiment analysis tasks. Previous research uses sentiment dictionary to detect the subjectivity or polarity of words. In this paper, we dive into Emotion-Inducing Keywords (EIK), which refers to the words in use that convey emotion. We first analyze an emotion corpus to explore the pragmatic aspects of EIK. Then we design an effective framework for automatically detecting EIK in sentences by utilizing linguistic features and context information. Our system outperforms traditional dictionary-based methods dramatically in increasing Precision, Recall and F1-score.

  19. Celsus and the Hippocratic Corpus: the originality of a 'plagiarist".

    PubMed

    Pardon, Muriel

    2005-01-01

    A study of all the passages connected to lippitudo and ophthalmia--Latin compilers used these two terms to refer to one and the same eye disease--shows that while Celsus claims to be a follower of Hippocrates, he does not mention some of the explanations which appear in his main sources. He both clarifies and completes the prescriptions of the 'Father of Medicine'. It can therefore be said that the De Medicina is a descendant of the Hippocratic Corpus in the same way as La Fontaine's Fables are a descendant of Aesop's. PMID:17144085

  20. Corpus callosum thickness in children: an MR pattern-recognition approach on the midsagittal image.

    PubMed

    Andronikou, Savvas; Pillay, Tanyia; Gabuza, Lungile; Mahomed, Nasreen; Naidoo, Jaishree; Hlabangana, Linda Tebogo; du Plessis, Vicci; Prabhu, Sanjay P

    2015-02-01

    Thickening of the corpus callosum is an important feature of development, whereas thinning of the corpus callosum can be the result of a number of diseases that affect development or cause destruction of the corpus callosum. Corpus callosum thickness reflects the volume of the hemispheres and responds to changes through direct effects or through Wallerian degeneration. It is therefore not only important to evaluate the morphology of the corpus callosum for congenital anomalies but also to evaluate the thickness of specific components or the whole corpus callosum in association with other findings. The goal of this pictorial review is raise awareness that the thickness of the corpus callosum can be a useful feature of pathology in pediatric central nervous system disease and must be considered in the context of the stage of development of a child. Thinning of the corpus callosum can be primary or secondary, and generalized or focal. Primary thinning is caused by abnormal or failed myelination related to the hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathies, metabolic disorders affecting white matter, and microcephaly. Secondary thinning of the corpus callosum can be caused by diffuse injury such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, dysmyelinating conditions and demyelinating conditions. Focal disturbance of formation or focal injury also causes localized thinning, e.g., callosal dysgenesis, metabolic disorders with localized effects, hypoglycemia, white matter injury of prematurity, HIV-related atrophy, infarction and vasculitis, trauma and toxins. The corpus callosum might be too thick because of a primary disorder in which the corpus callosum finding is essential to diagnosis; abnormal thickening can also be secondary to inflammation, infection and trauma.

  1. The history of nephrology in the Talmudic corpus.

    PubMed

    Dvorjetski, Estée

    2002-07-01

    The kidneys, the bladder and nephrology in general were discussed in the Talmudic literature from their anatomical, pathological and philological aspects. The Sages' deliberations were based on the Biblical texts. The characteristic phraseology of the scriptures uses the kidneys as symbols of the human emotions, contrary to the heart, which is regarded as the location of wisdom. The kidney is considered to be the individual's seat of their deepest desires--perhaps because it is an "internal" organ, well hidden, surrounded by a capsule and by a layer of perinephric fat. The Talmudic corpus considers the kidneys to be the origin of secret counsels--"the kidneys advise". An injury to the kidneys is used symbolically as an example of a cruel and serious injury. The sages were concerned with nephrological problems such as a diseased kidney of small size, fluid and pus in the kidney, injuries, perforations and more. Fascinating advice is given regarding micturition, its timing, characteristics and significance. The Halakhah is concerned with the kidneys during the examination of an animal after slaughter for the fitness for its ritual consumption. The paper presents various nephrological diseases from the Talmudic corpus. Among them are, for example, "Tzemirtha"--urolithiasis; "Hydrakon"--hydronephrosis; "Suskhinta"--urinary retention; "Tzinit"--podagra, gout, and "Yerakon"--icterus. A survey of some Talmudic personalities will exemplify the existence of these conditions.

  2. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Roger L; Paul, Lynn K; Brown, Warren S

    2014-07-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders׳ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  3. Verbal learning and memory in agenesis of the corpus callosum

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Roger L.; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of interhemispheric interactions in the encoding, retention, and retrieval of verbal memory can be clarified by assessing individuals with complete or partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), but who have normal intelligence. This study assessed verbal learning and memory in AgCC using the California Verbal Learning Test—Second Edition (CVLT-II). Twenty-six individuals with AgCC were compared to 24 matched controls on CVLT-II measures, as well as Donders’ four CVLT-II factors (i.e., Attention Span, Learning Efficiency, Delayed Memory, and Inaccurate Memory). Individuals with AgCC performed significantly below healthy controls on the Delayed Memory factor, confirmed by significant deficits in short and long delayed free recall and cued recall. They also performed less well in original learning. Deficient performance by individuals with AgCC during learning trials, as well as deficits in all forms of delayed memory, suggest that the corpus callosum facilitates interhemispheric elaboration and encoding of verbal information. PMID:24933663

  4. Organising white matter in a brain without corpus callosum fibres.

    PubMed

    Bénézit, Audrey; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Monzalvo, Karla; Germanaud, David; Duclap, Delphine; Guevara, Pamela; Mangin, Jean-François; Poupon, Cyril; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Dubois, Jessica

    2015-02-01

    Isolated corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD) is a congenital malformation which occurs during early development of the brain. In this study, we aimed to identify and describe its consequences beyond the lack of callosal fibres, on the morphology, microstructure and asymmetries of the main white matter bundles with diffusion imaging and fibre tractography. Seven children aged between 9 and 13 years old and seven age- and gender-matched control children were studied. First, we focused on bundles within the mesial region of the cerebral hemispheres: the corpus callosum, Probst bundles and cingulum which were selected using a conventional region-based approach. We demonstrated that the Probst bundles have a wider connectivity than the previously described rostrocaudal direction, and a microstructure rather distinct from the cingulum but relatively close to callosal remnant fibres. A sigmoid bundle was found in two partial ageneses. Second, the corticospinal tract, thalamic radiations and association bundles were extracted automatically via an atlas of adult white matter bundles to overcome bias resulting from a priori knowledge of the bundles' anatomical morphology and trajectory. Despite the lack of callosal fibres and the colpocephaly observed in CCD, all major white matter bundles were identified with a relatively normal morphology, and preserved microstructure (i.e. fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity) and asymmetries. Consequently the bundles' organisation seems well conserved in brains with CCD. These results await further investigations with functional imaging before apprehending the cognition variability in children with isolated dysgenesis.

  5. A computerized approach for morphological analysis of the corpus callosum

    SciTech Connect

    Davatzikos, C.; Vaillant, M.; Letovsky, S.; Bryan, R.N.; Prince, J.L.; Resnick, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    A new technique for analyzing the morphology of the corpus callosum is presented, and it is applied to a group of elderly subjects. The proposed approach normalizes subject data into the Talairach space using an elastic deformation transformation. The properties of this transformation are used as a quantitative description of the callosal shape with respect to the Talairach atlas, which is treated as a standard. In particular, a deformation function measures the enlargement/shrinkage associated with this elastic deformation. Intersubject comparisons are made by comparing deformation functions. This technique was applied to eight male and eight female subjects. Based on the average deformation functions of each group, the posterior region of the female corpus callosum was found to be larger than its corresponding region in the males. The average callosal shape of each group was also found, demonstrating visually the callosal shape differences between the two groups in this sample. The proposed methodology utilizes the full resolution of the data, rather than relying on global descriptions such as area measurements. The application of this methodology to an elderly group indicated sex-related differences in the callosal shape and size. 29 refs., 16 figs.

  6. Using Edit Distance to Analyse Errors in a Natural Language to Logic Translation Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker-Plummer, Dave; Dale, Robert; Cox, Richard; Romanczuk, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system, where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic. Of the 2.3 million translation instances in the corpus, 286,000 (approximately 12%) are categorized as being in error. We want to understand the nature of…

  7. An Evaluation of an Online Bilingual Corpus for the Self-Learning of Legal English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, May; Xunfeng, Xu

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a bilingual corpus of legal and documentary texts in English and Chinese and reports a study that sought to evaluate the usefulness of the corpus in the self-learning of legal English. Subjects were Chinese students doing a degree in translation at a university in Hong Kong, where English common law is still used since the handover of…

  8. Textual, Genre and Social Features of Spoken Grammar: A Corpus-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Llantada, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a corpus-based approach to teaching and learning spoken grammar for English for Academic Purposes with reference to Bhatia's (2002) multi-perspective model for discourse analysis: a textual perspective, a genre perspective and a social perspective. From a textual perspective, corpus-informed instruction helps students identify…

  9. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  10. Productive Vocabulary Knowledge and Evaluation of ESL Writing in Corpus-Based Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Daehyeon

    2010-01-01

    Since Sinclair (1991) concretized the possibilities of processing and analyzing large quantities of text data through corpus linguistic techniques, the applications of corpus linguistic approaches employing authentic language data and empirical evidence have been widely accepted in language teaching and research. As the applications of corpus…

  11. A Corpus-Based Discourse Analysis of the Vision and Mission Statements of Universities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efe, Ibrahim; Ozer, Omer

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from a corpus-assisted discourse analysis of mission and vision statements of 105 state and 66 private/foundation universities in Turkey. The paper combines a corpus-based approach with critical discourse analysis to interpret the data in relation to its institutional as well as socio-political context. It argues…

  12. The Use of Corpus Concordancing for Second Language Learners' Self Error-Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Hui-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Corpus concordancing has been utilized in second language (L2) writing classrooms for a few decades. Some studies have shown that this application is helpful, to a certain degree, to learners' writing process. However, how corpus concordancing is utilized for nonnative speakers' (NNSs) self error-correction in writing, especially the…

  13. A Quantitative Corpus-Based Approach to English Spatial Particles: Conceptual Symmetry and Its Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Alvin Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate how conceptual symmetry plays a role in the use of spatial particles in English and to further examine its pedagogical implications via a corpus-based evaluation of the course books in senior high schools in Taiwan. More specifically, we adopt a quantitative corpus-based approach to investigate whether bipolar…

  14. Verb-Noun Collocations in Second Language Writing: A Corpus Analysis of Learners' English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Batia; Waldman, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English verb-noun collocations in the writing of native speakers of Hebrew at three proficiency levels. For this purpose, we compiled a learner corpus that consists of about 300,000 words of argumentative and descriptive essays. For comparison purposes, we selected LOCNESS, a corpus of young adult native…

  15. A Corpus-Based Study on English Prepositions of Place, "In" and "On"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arjan, Asmeza; Abdullah, Noor Hayati; Roslim, Norwati

    2013-01-01

    This corpus-based study examined the usage, mastery and developmental pattern (Norwati, 2004) of English prepositions of place, "in" and "on" across three different academic levels namely Form 4, Form 5 and College students. The Malaysian Corpus of Students Argumentative Writing (MCSAW) was used as the source of data in…

  16. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  17. Capturing L2 Accuracy Developmental Patterns: Insights from an Error-Tagged EFL Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thewissen, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The present article addresses the issue of second language accuracy developmental trajectories and shows how they can be captured via an error-tagged version of an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learner corpus. The data used in this study were extracted from the International Corpus of Learner English (Granger et al., 2009) and consist of a…

  18. Language with Character: A Stratified Corpus Comparison of Individual Differences in E-Mail Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Jon; Gill, Alastair J.

    2006-01-01

    To what extent does the wording and syntactic form of people's writing reflect their personalities? Using a bottom-up stratified corpus comparison, rather than the top-down content analysis techniques that have been used before, we examine a corpus of e-mail messages elicited from individuals of known personality, as measured by the Eysenck…

  19. Formulaic Language in Native and Second Language Speakers: Psycholinguistics, Corpus Linguistics, and TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick C.; Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Maynard, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Natural language makes considerable use of recurrent formulaic patterns of words. This article triangulates the construct of "formula" from corpus linguistic, psycholinguistic, and educational perspectives. It describes the corpus linguistic extraction of pedagogically useful formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing. It determines…

  20. English Collocation Learning through Corpus Data: On-Line Concordance and Statistical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Hiroshi; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Morren, Brian; Ugawa, Yoshihiro; Kaneko, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We developed an English Collocations On Demand system offering on-line corpus and concordance information to help Japanese researchers acquire a better command of English collocation patterns. The Life Science Dictionary Corpus consists of approximately 90,000,000 words collected from life science related research papers published in academic…

  1. Interface Conditions on Postverbal Subjects: A Corpus Study of L2 English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Cristobal; Mendikoetxea, Amaya

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates how syntactic knowledge interfaces with other cognitive systems by analysing the production of postverbal subjects, V(erb)-S(ubject) order, in an L1 Spanish-L2 English corpus and a comparable English native corpus. VS order in both native and L2 English is shown to be constrained by properties operating at three interfaces:…

  2. A Corpus-Based Approach to Online Materials Development for Writing Research Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching-Fen; Kuo, Chih-Hua

    2011-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the possible applications of corpora to both linguistic research and pedagogy. This study takes a corpus-based, genre-analytic approach to discipline-specific materials development. Combining corpus analysis with genre analysis makes it possible to develop teaching materials that are not only authentic but…

  3. Linking Adverbials in First-Year Korean University EFL Learners' Writing: A Corpus-Informed Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Myung-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the frequency and usage patterns of linking adverbials in Korean students' essay writing in comparison with native English writing. The learner corpus used in the present study is composed of 105 essays that were produced by first-year university students in Korea. The control corpus was taken from the American LOCNESS…

  4. An Empirical Study on Corpus-Driven English Vocabulary Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkai, Jiao

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the autonomous English vocabulary learning in corpus-based contexts. Language teaching practice is becoming more learner-centered in the field of language teaching, learner autonomy has been an ongoing concern of foreign language educators in china. As an assistant tool in language learning, corpus makes an easy and quick…

  5. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  6. "Multicystic dysplastic kidney (Potter type II syndrome) and agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC) in two consecutive pregnancies: a possible teratogenic effect of electromagnetic exposure in utero".

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Azzoni, Daniela; Ventura, Alessandro; Ambrosetti, Fabrizio; De Felice, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is found in about 5 per 1,000 births and it is due to maldevelopment or, secondary, to destructive lesions. Multicystic dysplastic kidneys is a consequence of either developmental failure of the mesonephric blastema to form nephrons or to early urinary obstruction due to urethral or ureteric atresia and can be found in about 1 per 1,000 live births. A case of fetal multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (Potter type II syndrome) and complete agenesis of the corpus callosum demonstrated by the presence of Probst bundles associated with colpocephaly occurring in the same mother in her two consecutive pregnancies is reported. Data regarding possible teratogenetic effect due to electromagnetic exposure in utero have also been investigated and raised suspicionus as a potential risk factor. In cases of suspected second trimester ultrasound diagnosis of agenesis of corpus callosum (ACC), the following clinical management should be recommended: fetal karyotype; a second level scan with differentiation between underlying conditions such as hydrocephalus and holoprosencephaly; antenatal MRI to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of possible associated neuronal migration (when possible); and direct demonstration of the presence of the Probst bundles to neurohistology.

  7. Automated segmentation of the corpus callosum in midsagittal brain magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Huh, Shin; Ketter, Terence A.; Unser, Michael A.

    2000-04-01

    We propose a new algorithm to find the corpus callosum automatically from midsagittal brain MR (magnetic resonance) images using the statistical characteristics and shape information of the corpus callosum. We first extract regions satisfying the statistical characteristics (gray level distributions) of the corpus callosum that have relatively high intensity values. Then we try to find a region matching the shape information of the corpus callosum. In order to match the shape information, we propose a new directed window region growing algorithm instead of using conventional contour matching. An innovative feature of the algorithm is that we adaptively relax the statistical requirement until we find a region matching the shape information. After the initial segmentation, a directed border path pruning algorithm is proposed in order to remove some undesired artifacts, especially on the top of the corpus callosum. The proposed algorithm was applied to over 120 images and provided promising results.

  8. Lesions of the corpus callosum and other commissural fibers: diffusion tensor studies.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Christopher G; Cauley, Keith A

    2014-10-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract in the brain, connecting the 2 hemispheres. The functions of the corpus callosum are many and varied, and lesions frequently cause only subtle clinical findings. The range of diseases that can affect the corpus callosum is vast and includes all potential white matter disease. The distribution of lesions in the corpus callosum is disease specific in only a few entities such as Susac syndrome and Marchiafava-Bignami disease. Group studies have found significant differences of diffusivity metrics in the corpus callosum in preterm infants, patients suffering seizure activity, and patients with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Given the challenges that multiple orientation of fibers within the callosum presents, advanced postprocessing methods may be required to reveal ultrastructural disease.

  9. Building an efficient curation workflow for the Arabidopsis literature corpus.

    PubMed

    Li, Donghui; Berardini, Tanya Z; Muller, Robert J; Huala, Eva

    2012-01-01

    TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) is the model organism database (MOD) for Arabidopsis thaliana, a model plant with a literature corpus of about 39 000 articles in PubMed, with over 4300 new articles added in 2011. We have developed a literature curation workflow incorporating both automated and manual elements to cope with this flood of new research articles. The current workflow can be divided into two phases: article selection and curation. Structured controlled vocabularies, such as the Gene Ontology and Plant Ontology are used to capture free text information in the literature as succinct ontology-based annotations suitable for the application of computational analysis methods. We also describe our curation platform and the use of text mining tools in our workflow. Database URL: www.arabidopsis.org PMID:23221298

  10. Associated brain abnormalities in patients with corpus callosum anomalies.

    PubMed

    Tekgül, H; Dizdarer, G; Yalman, O; Sener, N; Yünten, N; Tütüncüoğlu, S

    1999-01-01

    Forty-nine patients with corpus callosum (CC) anomalies were evaluated in terms of the clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. CC anomalies were classified as CC agenesis: 6 (12%), CC hypogenesis: 5 (10%), and CC hypoplasia: 38 (78%). In the CC hypoplasia group the mean value of the genu thickness of the CC was 0.29 +/- 0.1 cm, which was less than the normal value of the age-matched normal children (normal range: 0.6-1.2 cm). The associated brain abnormalities were in five distinct groups: gray matter abnormalities, white matter abnormalities, midline brain structure defects, cortical atrophy, and encephalomalacia. There was no uniformity for the clinical spectrum of CC anomalies. Microcephaly, developmental delay and seizures were the prominent findings in patients. The clinical features were more severe in cases with associated brain anomalies.

  11. The Emergence of Texture: An Analysis of the Functions of the Nominal Demonstratives in English Interlanguage Corpus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Uses the concept of "emergent texture" to analyze the corpus behavior of the four nominal demonstratives--"this,""that,""these," an "those"--in an interlanguage corpus created at Yonsei University in Korea in 1999. Investigates a corpus of 109 single paragraphs. The concept of markedness is emphasized as a way of mediating the debate over the…

  12. The Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English: Communicative Efficiency across Conversational Dyads with Varying Language Alignment Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Engen, Kristin J.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Baker, Rachel E.; Choi, Arim; Kim, Midam; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Wildcat Corpus of native- and foreign-accented English, a corpus containing scripted and spontaneous speech recordings from 24 native speakers of American English and 52 non-native speakers of English. The core element of this corpus is a set of spontaneous speech recordings, for which a new method of…

  13. A method for determining the number of documents needed for a gold standard corpus.

    PubMed

    Juckett, David

    2012-06-01

    The unstructured narratives in medicine have been increasingly targeted for content extraction using the techniques of natural language processing (NLP). In most cases, these efforts are facilitated by creating a manually annotated set of narratives containing the ground truth; commonly referred to as a gold standard corpus. This corpus is used for modeling, fine-tuning, and testing NLP software as well as providing the basis for training in machine learning. Determining the number of annotated documents (size) for this corpus is important, but rarely described; rather, the factors of cost and time appear to dominate decision-making about corpus size. In this report, a method is outlined to determine gold standard size based on the capture probabilities for the unique words within a target corpus. To demonstrate this method, a corpus of dictation letters from the Michigan Pain Consultant (MPC) clinics for pain management are described and analyzed. A well-formed working corpus of 10,000 dictations was first constructed to provide a representative subset of the total, with no more than one dictation letter per patient. Each dictation was divided into words and common words were removed. The Poisson function was used to determine probabilities of word capture within samples taken from the working corpus, and then integrated over word length to give a single capture probability as a function of sample size. For these MPC dictations, a sample size of 500 documents is predicted to give a capture probability of approximately 0.95. Continuing the demonstration of sample selection, a provisional gold standard corpus of 500 documents was selected and examined for its similarity to the MPC structured coding and demographic data available for each patient. It is shown that a representative sample, of justifiable size, can be selected for use as a gold standard.

  14. The catalogue of the Ripley Corpus: alchemical writings attributed to George Ripley (d. ca. 1490).

    PubMed

    Rampling, Jennifer M

    2010-07-01

    The period 1471 to 1700 saw the accretion of a large corpus of alchemical works associated with the famous English alchemist George Ripley, Canon of Bridlington (d. ca. 1490). Evaluation of Ripley's alchemy is hampered by uncertainty over the composition of the corpus, the dating and provenance of individual texts, and the difficulty of separating genuine from spurious attributions. The Catalogue of the Ripley Corpus (CRC) provides a first step in ordering these diverse materials: a descriptive catalogue of approximately forty-five alchemical treatises, recipes and poems attributed to Ripley, with an index of all known manuscript copies. PMID:20973441

  15. Corpus cavernosum abscess from a blind-ending urethra after urinary diversion surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kumabe, Ayako; Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Yamamoto, Yu; Kajii, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    Corpus cavernosum abscesses are rarely seen in the clinical setting. We report the case of an early diagnosis of corpus cavernosum abscess due to a blind-ending urethra in a 60-year-old man without known risk factors and who was successfully treated by antibiotic therapy alone. In this case, the blind-ending urethra after urinary diversion surgery was considered a risk factor of the abscess formation. If the physician notes that the patient has fever of uncertain cause after urinary diversion surgery, he/she should examine the penis and perineum in consideration of the possibility of corpus cavernosum abscess. PMID:23616331

  16. Corpus luteal contribution to maternal pregnancy physiology and outcomes in assisted reproductive technologies.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Kirk P; Baker, Valerie L

    2013-01-15

    Investigations in the rat model of pregnancy indicate an important role for the corpus luteal (CL) hormone relaxin in the maternal circulatory and osmoregulatory changes in pregnancy, which are epitomized by profound vasodilation and modest hypoosmolality, respectively. In a pilot study of infertile women who became pregnant through donor eggs, in vitro fertilization, and embryo transfer, the gestational rise in glomerular filtration and fall in plasma osmolality were markedly subdued. Because these women were infertile, they lacked a CL and circulating relaxin (and possibly other vasoactive CL hormones). Based on these findings in pregnant rats and women, we hypothesize that infertile women conceiving through donor eggs will have overall subdued circulatory changes (e.g., attenuated reduction in systemic vascular resistance and subdued increase in cardiac output) particularly during early pregnancy when CL hormones predominate before the full development and maturation of the placenta. In contrast, infertile women conceiving by autologous eggs retrieved after ovarian stimulation and fresh embryo transfer may have a relatively hyperdynamic circulation due to the presence of many CL (up to 20 or more) and higher circulating levels of vasodilatory ovarian hormones such as relaxin. Emerging evidence suggests that women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) have increased risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia and small for gestational-age babies. This increased risk may be partly caused by the maternal milieu, which is not physiological in ART pregnancies due to the abnormal status of the CL.

  17. An intraoral thermoregulatory organ in the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), the corpus cavernosum maxillaris.

    PubMed

    Ford, Thomas J; Werth, Alexander J; George, J Craig

    2013-04-01

    The novel observation of a palatal retial organ in the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) is reported, with characterization of its form and function. This bulbous ridge of highly vascularized tissue, here designated the corpus cavernosum maxillaris, runs along the center of the hard palate, expanding cranially to form two large lobes that terminate under the tip of the rostral palate, with another enlarged node at the caudal terminus. Gross anatomical and microscopic observation of tissue sections discloses a web-like internal mass with a large blood volume. Histological examination reveals large numbers of blood vessels and vascular as well as extravascular spaces resembling a blood-filled, erectile sponge. These spaces, as well as accompanying blood vessels, extend to the base of the epithelium. We contend that this organ provides a thermoregulatory adaptation by which bowhead whales (1) control heat loss by transferring internal, metabolically generated body heat to cold seawater and (2) protect the brain from hyperthermia. We postulate that this organ may play additional roles in baleen growth and in detecting prey, and that its ability to dissipate heat might maintain proper operating temperature for palatal mechanoreceptors or chemoreceptors to detect the presence and density of intraoral prey.

  18. Mechanosensitive enteric neurons in the guinea pig gastric corpus

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Schemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    For long it was believed that a particular population of enteric neurons, referred to as intrinsic primary afferent neuron (IPAN)s, encodes mechanical stimulation. We recently proposed a new concept suggesting that there are in addition mechanosensitive enteric neurons (MEN) that are multifunctional. Based on firing pattern MEN behaved as rapidly, slowly, or ultra-slowly adapting RAMEN, SAMEN, or USAMEN, respectively. We aimed to validate this concept in the myenteric plexus of the gastric corpus, a region where IPANs were not identified and existence of enteric sensory neurons was even questioned. The gastric corpus is characterized by a particularly dense extrinsic sensory innervation. Neuronal activity was recorded with voltage sensitive dye imaging after deformation of ganglia by compression (intraganglionic volume injection or von Fry hair) or tension (ganglionic stretch). We demonstrated that 27% of the gastric neurons were MEN and responded to intraganglionic volume injection. Of these 73% were RAMEN, 25% SAMEN, and 2% USAMEN with a firing frequency of 1.7 (1.1/2.2), 5.1 (2.2/7.7), and of 5.4 (5.0/15.5) Hz, respectively. The responses were reproducible and stronger with increased stimulus strength. Even after adaptation another deformation evoked spike discharge again suggesting a resetting mode of the mechanoreceptors. All MEN received fast synaptic input. Fifty five percent of all MEN were cholinergic and 45% nitrergic. Responses in some MEN significantly decreased after perfusion of TTX, low Ca++/high Mg++ Krebs solution, capsaicin induced nerve defunctionalization and capsazepine indicating the involvement of TRPV1 expressing extrinsic mechanosensitive nerves. Half of gastric MEN responded to intraganglionic volume injection as well as to ganglionic stretch and 23% responded to stretch only. Tension-sensitive MEN were to a large proportion USAMEN (44%). In summary, we demonstrated for the first time compression and tension-sensitive MEN in the stomach

  19. 33 CFR 165.809 - Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zones; Port of Port Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX. 165... Lavaca-Point Comfort, Point Comfort, TX and Port of Corpus Christi Inner Harbor, Corpus Christi, TX....

  20. EFFECTS OF CORPUS CHRISTI BAY SEDIMENTS ON SURVIVAL, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION OF THE MYSID, MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study described here examined effects on mortality, growth, reproduction, and behavior of Americamysis bahi exposed under extended static conditions to bedded sediments from Corpus Christi Bay.

  1. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  2. Data modelling in corpus linguistics: how low may we go?

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Marjolein H; Nanetti, Luca; de Deyn, Peter P

    2014-06-01

    Corpus linguistics allows researchers to process millions of words. However, the more words we analyse, i.e., the more data we acquire, the more urgent the call for correct data interpretation becomes. In recent years, a number of studies saw the light attempting to profile some prolific authors' linguistic decline, linking this decline to pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease (AD). However, in line with the nature of the (literary) work that was analysed, numbers alone do not suffice to 'tell the story'. The one and only objective of using statistical methods for the analysis of research data is to tell a story--what happened, when, and how. In the present study we describe a computerised but individualised approach to linguistic analysis--we propose a unifying approach, with firm grounds in Information Theory, that, independently from the specific parameter being investigated, guarantees to produce a robust model of the temporal dynamics of an author's linguistic richness over his or her lifetime. We applied this methodology to six renowned authors with an active writing life of four decades or more: Iris Murdoch, Gerard Reve, Hugo Claus, Agatha Christie, P.D. James, and Harry Mulisch. The first three were diagnosed with probable Alzheimer Disease, confirmed post-mortem for Iris Murdoch; this same condition was hypothesized for Agatha Christie. Our analysis reveals different evolutive patterns of lexical richness, in turn plausibly correlated with the authors' different conditions.

  3. Effect of avanafil on rat and human corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Gur, S; Sikka, S C; Pankey, E A; Lasker, G F; Chandra, S; Kadowitz, P J; Hellstrom, W J G

    2015-10-01

    We compared the activity of a new phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5i) avanafil with sildenafil and tadalafil in human and rat corpus cavernosum (CC) tissues. The effect of avanafil with several inhibitors and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was evaluated on CC after pre-contraction with phenylephrine. With the PDE5i, sildenafil and tadalafil, concentration-response curves were obtained and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were measured in tissues. Avanafil induced relaxation with maximum response of 74 ± 5% in human CC. This response was attenuated by NOS inhibitor and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor. Avanafil potentiated relaxation responses to acetylcholine and EFS in human CC and enhanced SNP-induced relaxation and showed 3-fold increase in cGMP levels. When compared with sildenafil, avanafil and tadalafil were effective at lower concentrations in human CC. In addition, Sprague-Dawley rats underwent in vivo intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) measurements. Avanafil increased ICP/MAP that was enhanced by SNP and cavernous nerve (CN) stimulation in rat CC tissues. Also avanafil showed maximum relaxation response of 83 ± 7% in rat CC with 3-fold increase in cGMP concentration. Taken together, these results of our in vivo and in vitro studies in human and rat suggest that avanafil promotes the CC relaxation and penile erection via NO-cGMP pathway.

  4. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation for standardized MR brain scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qing; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    Magnetic Resonance (MR) brain scanning is often planned manually with the goal of aligning the imaging plane with key anatomic landmarks. The planning is time-consuming and subject to inter- and intra- operator variability. An automatic and standardized planning of brain scans is highly useful for clinical applications, and for maximum utility should work on patients of all ages. In this study, we propose a method for fully automatic planning that utilizes the landmarks from two orthogonal images to define the geometry of the third scanning plane. The corpus callosum (CC) is segmented in sagittal images by an active shape model (ASM), and the result is further improved by weighting the boundary movement with confidence scores and incorporating region based refinement. Based on the extracted contour of the CC, several important landmarks are located and then combined with landmarks from the coronal or transverse plane to define the geometry of the third plane. Our automatic method is tested on 54 MR images from 24 patients and 3 healthy volunteers, with ages ranging from 4 months to 70 years old. The average accuracy with respect to two manually labeled points on the CC is 3.54 mm and 4.19 mm, and differed by an average of 2.48 degrees from the orientation of the line connecting them, demonstrating that our method is sufficiently accurate for clinical use.

  5. Viscoelasticity of brain corpus callosum in biaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labus, Kevin M.; Puttlitz, Christian M.

    2016-11-01

    Computational models of the brain rely on accurate constitutive relationships to model the viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. Current viscoelastic models have been derived from experiments conducted in a single direction at a time and therefore lack information on the effects of multiaxial loading. It is also unclear if the time-dependent behavior of brain tissue is dependent on either strain magnitude or the direction of loading when subjected to tensile stresses. Therefore, biaxial stress relaxation and cyclic experiments were conducted on corpus callosum tissue isolated from fresh ovine brains. Results demonstrated the relaxation behavior to be independent of strain magnitude, and a quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model was able to accurately fit the experimental data. Also, an isotropic reduced relaxation tensor was sufficient to model the stress-relaxation in both the axonal and transverse directions. The QLV model was fitted to the averaged stress relaxation tests at five strain magnitudes while using the measured strain history from the experiments. The resulting model was able to accurately predict the stresses from cyclic tests at two strain magnitudes. In addition to deriving a constitutive model from the averaged experimental data, each specimen was fitted separately and the resulting distributions of the model parameters were reported and used in a probabilistic analysis to determine the probability distribution of model predictions and the sensitivity of the model to the variance of the parameters. These results can be used to improve the viscoelastic constitutive models used in computational studies of the brain.

  6. Division of Labor in Vocabulary Structure: Insights From Corpus Analyses.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic

    2016-07-01

    Psychologists have used experimental methods to study language for more than a century. However, only with the recent availability of large-scale linguistic databases has a more complete picture begun to emerge of how language is actually used, and what information is available as input to language acquisition. Analyses of such "big data" have resulted in reappraisals of key assumptions about the nature of language. As an example, we focus on corpus-based research that has shed new light on the arbitrariness of the sign: the longstanding assumption that the relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning is arbitrary. The results reveal a systematic relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning, which is stronger for early acquired words. Moreover, the analyses further uncover a systematic relationship between words and their lexical categories-nouns and verbs sound differently from each other-affecting how we learn new words and use them in sentences. Together, these results point to a division of labor between arbitrariness and systematicity in sound-meaning mappings. We conclude by arguing in favor of including "big data" analyses into the language scientist's methodological toolbox. PMID:26399384

  7. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum.

    PubMed

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Clark, Kristi A; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  8. Acute infarction of corpus callosum due to transient obstructive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kaymakamzade, Bahar; Eker, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the corpus callosum (CC) is not a well-known feature in patients with acute hydrocephalus. Herein, we describe a case with acute CC infarction due to another rare entity; transient obstructive hydrocephalus. A 66-year-old male was admitted with sudden onset right-sided hemiparesia. CT demonstrated a hematoma on the left basal ganglia with extension to all ventricles. The following day, the patient's neurological status progressed to coma and developed bilateral pyramidal signs. MRI demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus and acute diffuse infarction accompanied by elevation of the CC. On the same day there was improvement in his neurological status with significant decrease in ventricular size and complete resolution of the clot in the third ventricle. The mechanism of signal abnormalities is probably related with the neural compression of the CC against the falx. Presumably, the clot causing obstruction in the third ventricle dissolved or decayed by the help of fibrinolytic activity of CSF, which was raised after IVH and caused spontaneous improvement of hydrocephalus. Bilateral neurological symptoms suggest diffuse axonal damage and normalization of the intracranial pressure should be performed on the early onset of clinical detorioration in order to prevent axonal injury. PMID:27375144

  9. Acute infarction of corpus callosum due to transient obstructive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kaymakamzade, Bahar; Eker, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the corpus callosum (CC) is not a well-known feature in patients with acute hydrocephalus. Herein, we describe a case with acute CC infarction due to another rare entity; transient obstructive hydrocephalus. A 66-year-old male was admitted with sudden onset right-sided hemiparesia. CT demonstrated a hematoma on the left basal ganglia with extension to all ventricles. The following day, the patient's neurological status progressed to coma and developed bilateral pyramidal signs. MRI demonstrated obstructive hydrocephalus and acute diffuse infarction accompanied by elevation of the CC. On the same day there was improvement in his neurological status with significant decrease in ventricular size and complete resolution of the clot in the third ventricle. The mechanism of signal abnormalities is probably related with the neural compression of the CC against the falx. Presumably, the clot causing obstruction in the third ventricle dissolved or decayed by the help of fibrinolytic activity of CSF, which was raised after IVH and caused spontaneous improvement of hydrocephalus. Bilateral neurological symptoms suggest diffuse axonal damage and normalization of the intracranial pressure should be performed on the early onset of clinical detorioration in order to prevent axonal injury.

  10. MRI evaluation of pathologies affecting the corpus callosum: A pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Aamish Z; Joshi, Priscilla C; Kelkar, Abhimanyu B; Mahajan, Mangal S; Ghawate, Amit S

    2013-10-01

    The corpus callosum is a midline cerebral structure and has a unique embryological development pattern. In this article, we describe the pathophysiology and present imaging findings of various typical/atypical conditions affecting the corpus callosum. Since many of these pathologies have characteristic appearances on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their therapeutic approaches are poles apart, ranging from medical to surgical, the neuroradiologist should be well aware of them.

  11. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/. PMID:25810773

  12. Occurrence of bilaterally independent epileptic spasms after a corpus callosotomy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Fumika; Toda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makio; Baba, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with intractable West syndrome whose epileptic spasms (ESs) were initially bilaterally synchronous, as is typical; after a complete corpus callosotomy, however, bilaterally independent ESs originated in either hemisphere. Activity of probable cortical origin associated with ESs was detected by observing ictal gamma oscillations. Brain MRI revealed no structural abnormality before surgery. This case suggests that ESs with a hemispheric origin may appear generalized because of synchronizing effects in the corpus callosum in some patients.

  13. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles.

    PubMed

    Krallinger, Martin; Rabal, Obdulia; Leitner, Florian; Vazquez, Miguel; Salgado, David; Lu, Zhiyong; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Yanan; Ji, Donghong; Lowe, Daniel M; Sayle, Roger A; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rak, Rafal; Huber, Torsten; Rocktäschel, Tim; Matos, Sérgio; Campos, David; Tang, Buzhou; Xu, Hua; Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Ryu, Keun Ho; Ramanan, S V; Nathan, Senthil; Žitnik, Slavko; Bajec, Marko; Weber, Lutz; Irmer, Matthias; Akhondi, Saber A; Kors, Jan A; Xu, Shuo; An, Xin; Sikdar, Utpal Kumar; Ekbal, Asif; Yoshioka, Masaharu; Dieb, Thaer M; Choi, Miji; Verspoor, Karin; Khabsa, Madian; Giles, C Lee; Liu, Hongfang; Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Lamurias, Andre; Couto, Francisco M; Dai, Hong-Jie; Tsai, Richard Tzong-Han; Ata, Caglar; Can, Tolga; Usié, Anabel; Alves, Rui; Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; Oyarzabal, Julen; Valencia, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/.

  14. The CHEMDNER corpus of chemicals and drugs and its annotation principles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The automatic extraction of chemical information from text requires the recognition of chemical entity mentions as one of its key steps. When developing supervised named entity recognition (NER) systems, the availability of a large, manually annotated text corpus is desirable. Furthermore, large corpora permit the robust evaluation and comparison of different approaches that detect chemicals in documents. We present the CHEMDNER corpus, a collection of 10,000 PubMed abstracts that contain a total of 84,355 chemical entity mentions labeled manually by expert chemistry literature curators, following annotation guidelines specifically defined for this task. The abstracts of the CHEMDNER corpus were selected to be representative for all major chemical disciplines. Each of the chemical entity mentions was manually labeled according to its structure-associated chemical entity mention (SACEM) class: abbreviation, family, formula, identifier, multiple, systematic and trivial. The difficulty and consistency of tagging chemicals in text was measured using an agreement study between annotators, obtaining a percentage agreement of 91. For a subset of the CHEMDNER corpus (the test set of 3,000 abstracts) we provide not only the Gold Standard manual annotations, but also mentions automatically detected by the 26 teams that participated in the BioCreative IV CHEMDNER chemical mention recognition task. In addition, we release the CHEMDNER silver standard corpus of automatically extracted mentions from 17,000 randomly selected PubMed abstracts. A version of the CHEMDNER corpus in the BioC format has been generated as well. We propose a standard for required minimum information about entity annotations for the construction of domain specific corpora on chemical and drug entities. The CHEMDNER corpus and annotation guidelines are available at: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/biocreative-iv/chemdner-corpus/ PMID:25810773

  15. Oligodendrocyte Lineage and Subventricular Zone Response to Traumatic Axonal Injury in the Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Genevieve M.; Mierzwa, Amanda J.; Kijpaisalratana, Naruchorn; Tang, *Haiying; Wang, Yong; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Selwyn, Reed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury frequently causes traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in white matter tracts. Experimental TAI in the corpus callosum of adult mice was used to examine the effects on oligodendrocyte lineage cells and myelin in conjunction with neuroimaging. The injury targeted the corpus callosum over the subventricular zone, a source of neural stem/progenitor cells. Traumatic axonal injury was produced in the rostral body of the corpus callosum by impact onto the skull at the bregma. During the first week after injury, magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging showed that axial diffusivity decreased in the corpus callosum and that corresponding regions exhibited significant axon damage accompanied by hypertrophic microglia and reactive astrocytes. Oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation increased in the subventricular zone and corpus callosum. Oligodendrocytes in the corpus callosum shifted toward upregulation of myelin gene transcription. Plp/CreERT:R26IAP reporter mice showed normal reporter labeling of myelin sheaths 0 to 2 days after injury but labeling was increased between 2 and 7 days after injury. Electron microscopy revealed axon degeneration, demyelination, and redundant myelin figures. These findings expand the cell types and responses to white matter injuries that inform diffusion tensor imaging evaluation and identify pivotal white matter changes after TAI that may affect axon vulnerability vs. recovery after brain injury. PMID:24226267

  16. Biomechanics of cross-sectional size and shape in the hominoid mandibular corpus.

    PubMed

    Daegling, D J

    1989-09-01

    Mandibular cross sections of Pan, Pongo, Gorilla, Homo, and two fossil specimens of Paranthropus were examined by computed tomography (CT) to determine the biomechanical properties of the hominoid mandibular corpus. Images obtained by CT reveal that while the fossil hominids do not differ significantly from extant hominoids in the relative contribution of compact bone to total subperiosteal area, the shape of the Paranthropus corpora indicates that the mechanical design of the robust australopithecine mandible is fundamentally distinct from that of modern hominoids in terms of its ability to resist transverse bending and torsion. It is also apparent that, among the modern hominoids, interspecific and sexual differences in corpus shape are not significant from a biomechanical perspective. While ellipse models have been used previously to describe the size, shape, and subsequent biomechanical properties of the corpus, the present study shows that such models do not predict the biomechanical properties of corpus cross-sectional geometry in an accurate or reliable manner. The traditional "robusticity" index of the mandibular corpus is of limited utility for biomechanical interpretations. The relationship of compact bone distribution in the corpus to dimensions such as mandibular length and arch width may provide a more functionally meaningful definition of mandibular robusticity. PMID:2508480

  17. Transcriptome signatures in Helicobacter pylori-infected mucosa identifies acidic mammalian chitinase loss as a corpus atrophy marker

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The majority of gastric cancer cases are believed to be caused by chronic infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, and atrophic corpus gastritis is a predisposing condition to gastric cancer development. We aimed to increase understanding of the molecular details of atrophy by performing a global transcriptome analysis of stomach tissue. Methods Biopsies from patients with different stages of H. pylori infection were taken from both the antrum and corpus mucosa and analyzed on microarrays. The stages included patients without current H. pylori infection, H. pylori-infected without corpus atrophy and patients with current or past H. pylori-infection with corpus-predominant atrophic gastritis. Results Using clustering and integrated analysis, we found firm evidence for antralization of the corpus mucosa of atrophy patients. This antralization harbored gain of gastrin expression, as well as loss of expression of corpus-related genes, such as genes associated with acid production, energy metabolism and blood clotting. The analyses provided detailed molecular evidence for simultaneous intestinal metaplasia (IM) and spasmolytic polypeptide expressing metaplasia (SPEM) in atrophic corpus tissue. Finally, acidic mammalian chitinase, a chitin-degrading enzyme produced by chief cells, was shown to be strongly down-regulated in corpus atrophy. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis revealed several gene groups which are related to development of corpus atrophy, some of which were increased also in H. pylori-infected non-atrophic patients. Furthermore, loss of acidic chitinase expression is a promising marker for corpus atrophy. PMID:24119614

  18. A Combined Corpus and Systemic-Functional Analysis of the Problem-Solution Pattern in a Student and Professional Corpus of Technical Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2003-01-01

    Reports on research describing similarities and differences between expert and novice writing in the problem-solution pattern, a frequent rhetorical pattern of technical academic writing. A corpus of undergraduate student writing and one containing professional writing consisted of 80 and 60 recommendation reports, respectively, with each corpus…

  19. Proverb comprehension in individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Rehmel, Jamie L; Brown, Warren S; Paul, Lynn K

    2016-09-01

    Comprehension of non-literal language involves multiple neural systems likely involving callosal connections. We describe proverb comprehension impairments in individuals with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) and normal-range general intelligence. Experiment 1 compared Gorham Proverb Test (Gorham, 1956) performance in 19 adults with AgCC and 33 neurotypical control participants of similar age, sex, and intelligence. Experiment 2 used the Proverbs subtest of the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS, 2001) to compare 19 adults with AgCC and 17 control participants with similar age, sex, and intelligence. Gorham Proverbs performance was impaired in the AgCC group for both the free-response and multiple-choice tasks. On the D-KEFS proverbs test, the AgCC group performed significantly worse on the free-response task (and all derivative scores) despite normal levels of performance on the multiple-choice task. Covarying verbal intelligence did not alter these outcomes. However, covarying a measure of non-literal language comprehension considerably reduced group differences in proverb comprehension on the Gorham test, but had little effect on the D-KEFS group differences. The difference between groups seemed to be greatest when participants had to generate their own interpretation (free response), or in the multiple choice format when the test included many proverbs that were likely to be less familiar. Taken together, the results of this study clearly show that proverb comprehension is diminished in individuals with AgCC compared to their peers. PMID:27448531

  20. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900 s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution.

  1. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution.

    PubMed

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the "true" popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900 s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800-2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  2. Characterizing the Google Books Corpus: Strong Limits to Inferences of Socio-Cultural and Linguistic Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Pechenick, Eitan Adam; Danforth, Christopher M.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2015-01-01

    It is tempting to treat frequency trends from the Google Books data sets as indicators of the “true” popularity of various words and phrases. Doing so allows us to draw quantitatively strong conclusions about the evolution of cultural perception of a given topic, such as time or gender. However, the Google Books corpus suffers from a number of limitations which make it an obscure mask of cultural popularity. A primary issue is that the corpus is in effect a library, containing one of each book. A single, prolific author is thereby able to noticeably insert new phrases into the Google Books lexicon, whether the author is widely read or not. With this understood, the Google Books corpus remains an important data set to be considered more lexicon-like than text-like. Here, we show that a distinct problematic feature arises from the inclusion of scientific texts, which have become an increasingly substantive portion of the corpus throughout the 1900s. The result is a surge of phrases typical to academic articles but less common in general, such as references to time in the form of citations. We use information theoretic methods to highlight these dynamics by examining and comparing major contributions via a divergence measure of English data sets between decades in the period 1800–2000. We find that only the English Fiction data set from the second version of the corpus is not heavily affected by professional texts. Overall, our findings call into question the vast majority of existing claims drawn from the Google Books corpus, and point to the need to fully characterize the dynamics of the corpus before using these data sets to draw broad conclusions about cultural and linguistic evolution. PMID:26445406

  3. Chiropractic and Spinal Manipulation Therapy on Twitter: Case Study Examining the Presence of Critiques and Debates

    PubMed Central

    Marcon, Alessandro R; Klostermann, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Background Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is a popular though controversial practice. The debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT are only partially evident in popular discourse. Objective This study aims to investigate the presence of critiques and debates surrounding efficacy and risk of SMT on the social media platform Twitter. The study examines whether there is presence of debate and whether critical information is being widely disseminated. Methods An initial corpus of 31,339 tweets was compiled through Twitter’s Search Application Programming Interface using the query terms “chiropractic,” “chiropractor,” and “spinal manipulation therapy.” Tweets were collected for the month of December 2015. Post removal of tweets made by bots and spam, the corpus totaled 20,695 tweets, of which a sample (n=1267) was analyzed for skeptical or critical tweets. Additional criteria were also assessed. Results There were 34 tweets explicitly containing skepticism or critique of SMT, representing 2.68% of the sample (n=1267). As such, there is a presence of 2.68% of tweets in the total corpus, 95% CI 0-6.58% displaying explicitly skeptical or critical perspectives of SMT. In addition, there are numerous tweets highlighting the health benefits of SMT for health issues such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), immune system, and blood pressure that receive scant critical attention. The presence of tweets in the corpus highlighting the risks of “stroke” and “vertebral artery dissection” is also minute (0.1%). Conclusions In the abundance of tweets substantiating and promoting chiropractic and SMT as sound health practices and valuable business endeavors, the debates surrounding the efficacy and risks of SMT on Twitter are almost completely absent. Although there are some critical voices of SMT proving to be influential, issues persist regarding how widely this information is being disseminated. PMID:27637456

  4. Effects of sex chromosome dosage on corpus callosum morphology in supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Supernumerary sex chromosome aneuploidies (sSCA) are characterized by the presence of one or more additional sex chromosomes in an individual’s karyotype; they affect around 1 in 400 individuals. Although there is high variability, each sSCA subtype has a characteristic set of cognitive and physical phenotypes. Here, we investigated the differences in the morphometry of the human corpus callosum (CC) between sex-matched controls 46,XY (N =99), 46,XX (N =93), and six unique sSCA karyotypes: 47,XYY (N =29), 47,XXY (N =58), 48,XXYY (N =20), 47,XXX (N =30), 48,XXXY (N =5), and 49,XXXXY (N =6). Methods We investigated CC morphometry using local and global area, local curvature of the CC boundary, and between-landmark distance analysis (BLDA). We hypothesized that CC morphometry would vary differentially along a proposed spectrum of Y:X chromosome ratio with supernumerary Y karyotypes having the largest CC areas and supernumerary X karyotypes having significantly smaller CC areas. To investigate this, we defined an sSCA spectrum based on a descending Y:X karyotype ratio: 47,XYY, 46,XY, 48,XXYY, 47,XXY, 48,XXXY, 49,XXXXY, 46,XX, 47,XXX. We similarly explored the effects of both X and Y chromosome numbers within sex. Results of shape-based metrics were analyzed using permutation tests consisting of 5,000 iterations. Results Several subregional areas, local curvature, and BLDs differed between groups. Moderate associations were found between area and curvature in relation to the spectrum and X and Y chromosome counts. BLD was strongly associated with X chromosome count in both male and female groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that X- and Y-linked genes have differential effects on CC morphometry. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare CC morphometry across these extremely rare groups. PMID:25780557

  5. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach. PMID:9374701

  6. Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine from corpus of guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Shichijo, K; Sakurai-Yamashita, Y; Sekine, I; Taniyama, K

    1997-11-01

    Neuronal release of endogenous dopamine was identified in mucosa-free preparations (muscle layer including intramural plexus) from guinea pig stomach corpus by measuring tissue dopamine content and dopamine release and by immunohistochemical methods using a dopamine antiserum. Dopamine content in mucosa-free preparations of guinea pig gastric corpus was one-tenth of norepinephrine content. Electrical transmural stimulation of mucosa-free preparations of gastric corpus increased the release of endogenous dopamine in a frequency-dependent (3-20 Hz) manner. The stimulated release of dopamine was prevented by either removal of external Ca2+ or treatment with tetrodotoxin. Dopamine-immunopositive nerve fibers surrounding choline acetyltransferase-immunopositive ganglion cells were seen in the myenteric plexus of whole mount preparations of gastric corpus even after bilateral transection of the splanchnic nerve proximal to the junction with the vagal nerve (section of nerves between the celiac ganglion and stomach). Domperidone and sulpiride potentiated the stimulated release of acetylcholine and reversed the dopamine-induced inhibition of acetylcholine release from mucosa-free preparations. These results indicate that dopamine is physiologically released from neurons and from possible dopaminergic nerve terminals and regulates cholinergic neuronal activity in the corpus of guinea pig stomach.

  7. Characterization of the corpus callosum in very preterm and full-term infants utilizing MRI

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deanne K.; Inder, Terrie E.; Faggian, Nathan; Johnston, Leigh; Warfield, Simon K.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.

    2011-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest white matter tract, important for interhemispheric communication. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare corpus callosum size, shape and diffusion characteristics in 106 very preterm infants and 22 full-term infants. Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained at term equivalent. The corpus callosum was segmented, cross-sectional areas were calculated, and shape was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, mean, axial and radial diffusivity measures were obtained from within the corpus callosum, with additional probabilistic tractography analysis. Very preterm infants had significantly reduced callosal cross sectional area compared with term infants (p=0.004), particularly for the mid-body and posterior sub-regions. Very preterm callosi were more circular (p=0.01). Fractional anisotropy was lower (p=0.007) and mean (p=0.006) and radial (p=0.001) diffusivity values were higher in very preterm infants’ callosi, particularly at the anterior and posterior ends. The volume of tracts originating from the corpus callosum was reduced in very preterm infants (p=0.001), particularly for anterior mid-body (p=0.01) and isthmus tracts (p=0.04). This study characterizes callosal size, shape and diffusion in typically developing infants at term equivalent age, and reports macro- and micro-structural abnormalities as a result of prematurity. PMID:21168519

  8. A cascade of morphogenic signaling initiated by the meninges controls corpus callosum formation.

    PubMed

    Choe, Youngshik; Siegenthaler, Julie A; Pleasure, Samuel J

    2012-02-23

    The corpus callosum is the most prominent commissural connection between the cortical hemispheres, and numerous neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with callosal agenesis. By using mice either with meningeal overgrowth or selective loss of meninges, we have identified a cascade of morphogenic signals initiated by the meninges that regulates corpus callosum development. The meninges produce BMP7, an inhibitor of callosal axon outgrowth. This activity is overcome by the induction of expression of Wnt3 by the callosal pathfinding neurons, which antagonize the inhibitory effects of BMP7. Wnt3 expression in the cingulate callosal pathfinding axons is developmentally regulated by another BMP family member, GDF5, which is produced by the adjacent Cajal-Retzius neurons and turns on before outgrowth of the callosal axons. The effects of GDF5 are in turn under the control of a soluble GDF5 inhibitor, Dan, made by the meninges. Thus, the meninges and medial neocortex use a cascade of signals to regulate corpus callosum development.

  9. Alien hand syndrome following corpus callosum infarction: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Li, Bing; Chu, Wenzheng; Sun, Xuwen; Sun, Chunjuan

    2016-01-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is characterized by involuntary and autonomous activity of the affected limbs, and consists of the frontal, callosal and posterior AHS variants. The callosal subtype, resulting from damage to the corpus callosum, frequently features intermanual conflict. However, infarction of the corpus callosum is rare due to abundant blood supply. The present study reported a case of AHS (callosal subtype, in the right hand) caused by callosal infarction. Infarction of the left corpus callosum was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography examinations revealed multiple lesions in the feeding arteries. Subsequent to antiplatelet therapy for 2 weeks following admission, the patient gradually recovered. Furthermore, the current study reviewed 31 previously reported cases of AHS following callosal infarction in the literature.

  10. Alien hand syndrome following corpus callosum infarction: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoyu; Li, Bing; Chu, Wenzheng; Sun, Xuwen; Sun, Chunjuan

    2016-01-01

    Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is characterized by involuntary and autonomous activity of the affected limbs, and consists of the frontal, callosal and posterior AHS variants. The callosal subtype, resulting from damage to the corpus callosum, frequently features intermanual conflict. However, infarction of the corpus callosum is rare due to abundant blood supply. The present study reported a case of AHS (callosal subtype, in the right hand) caused by callosal infarction. Infarction of the left corpus callosum was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography examinations revealed multiple lesions in the feeding arteries. Subsequent to antiplatelet therapy for 2 weeks following admission, the patient gradually recovered. Furthermore, the current study reviewed 31 previously reported cases of AHS following callosal infarction in the literature. PMID:27698701

  11. Trends in cancer incidence in female breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri, and ovary in India.

    PubMed

    Yeole, Balkrishna B

    2008-01-01

    Trends in breast, cervix uteri, corpus uteri and ovarian cancers in six population based cancer registries (Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Bhopal, and Barshi) were evaluated over a period of the last two decades. For studying trends we used a model that fits this data is the logarithm of Y=ABx which represents a Linear Regression model. This approach showed a decreasing trend for cancer of the cervix and increasing trends for cancers of breast, ovary and corpus uteri throughout the entire period of observation in most of the registries. The four cancers, breast, cervix, corpus uteri and ovary, constitute more than 50% of total cancers in women. As all these cancers are increasing, to understand their etiology in depth, analytic epidemiology studies should be planned in a near future on a priority basis.

  12. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. Methods To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Results Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. Conclusions PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our

  13. Reversible cerebral periventricular white matter changes with corpus callosum involvement in acute toluene-poisoning.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liu, Chi-Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Substance poisoning, such as toluene intoxication, has seldom been reported in the relevant literature. The documented cerebral neuroimaging has mostly described reversible symmetrical white matter changes in both the cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres. This paper presents 2 patients with toluene poisoning, whose brain magnetic resonance imaging studies showed a similar picture that included extra involvement over the corpus callosum; however, such corpus callosum involvement has never been mentioned and is quite rare in the literature. We discussed the underlying neuropathological pathways in this article. Hopefully, these cases will provide first-line clinicians with some valuable information with regard to toluene intoxication and clinical neuroimaging presentations.

  14. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  15. An Investigation of Language Teachers' Explorations of the Use of Corpus Tools in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, John David

    2013-01-01

    Despite claims that the use of corpus tools can have a major impact in language classrooms (e.g., Conrad, 2000, 2004; Davies, 2004; O'Keefe, McCarthy, & Carter, 2007; Sinclair, 2004b; Tsui, 2004), many language teachers express apparent apathy or even resistance towards adding corpus tools to their repertoire (Cortes, 2013b). This study…

  16. 76 FR 55909 - CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... district and political sub- division of the State of Texas.'' Complainant alleges that it ``has been... CITGO Refining and Chemicals Company L.P. v. Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas... ``Complainant,'' against the Port of Corpus Christi Authority of Nueces County, Texas (PCCA)...

  17. Sketching Muslims: A Corpus Driven Analysis of Representations around the Word "Muslim" in the British Press 1998-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Paul; Gabrielatos, Costas; McEnery, Tony

    2013-01-01

    This article uses methods from corpus linguistics and critical discourse analysis to examine patterns of representation around the word "Muslim" in a 143 million word corpus of British newspaper articles published between 1998 and 2009. Using the analysis tool Sketch Engine, an analysis of noun collocates of "Muslim" found that the following…

  18. Corpus Callosum Area and Brain Volume in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Quantitative Analysis of Structural MRI from the ABIDE Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucharsky Hiess, R.; Alter, R.; Sojoudi, S.; Ardekani, B. A.; Kuzniecky, R.; Pardoe, H. R.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial…

  19. Variation in Citational Practice in a Corpus of Student Biology Papers: From Parenthetical Plonking to Intertextual Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swales, John M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a corpus-based study of a key aspect of academic writing in one discipline (biology) by final-year undergraduates and first-, second-, and third-year graduate students. The papers come from the Michigan Corpus of Upper-level Student Papers, a freely available electronic database. The principal aim of the study is to examine the extent of…

  20. The Most Frequently-Used Multi-Word Constructions in Academic Written English: A Multi-Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dilin

    2012-01-01

    Using the academic writing sub-corpora of the Corpus of Contemporary American English and the British National Corpus as data and building on previous research, this study strives to identify the most frequently-used multi-word constructions (MWCs) of various types (e.g., idioms, lexical bundles, and phrasal/prepositional verbs) in general…

  1. Enhancing a Process-Oriented Approach to Literacy and Language Learning: The Role of Corpus Consultation Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Ide

    2007-01-01

    Corpora and concordancing have become much more widely available as researchers recognise that they can significantly enrich the language learning environment. There is still, however, a strong resistance towards corpus use by teachers and learners (Romer, 2006:122). An understanding of the implications and relevance of corpus use for pedagogy may…

  2. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of Syntactic Complexity Measures as Indices of College-Level ESL Writers' Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xiaofei

    2011-01-01

    This article reports results of a corpus-based evaluation of 14 syntactic complexity measures as objective indices of college-level English as a second language (ESL) writers' language development. I analyzed large-scale ESL writing data from the Written English Corpus of Chinese Learners (Wen, Wang, & Liang, 2005) using a computational system…

  3. [Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome with corpus callosum agenesis, PTCH1 mutation and absence of basal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mazzuoccolo, Luis D; Martínez, María Florencia; Muchnik, Carolina; Azurmendi, Pablo J; Stengel, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) or Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly due to PTCH1 gene mutations, that comprises a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. The presence of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) is a cardinal sign in NBCCS, therefore cases in which BCCs are absent entails a delay in the diagnosis.We present a 14 years old boy with a clinical diagnosis of NBCCS by the presence of odontogenic cysts, hypertelorism, macrocephaly, and corpus callosum agenesia, but with absence of skin lesions. His 43 years old mother has NBCCS diagnosis and no history of BCCs. For a deeper study, PTCH1 mutation screening from peripheral blood samples were performed by both bidirectional sequencing and multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) techniques. The proband and his mother carry 25 pb duplication in exon 10 (c.1375dupl25bp) that causes a reading frameshift with a premature stop codon. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that this mutation results in a truncated protein shorter than normal. Our results suggest that complete clinical and genealogical studies accompanied by genetic analysis are essential in the early detection of the NBCCS cases such the one presented here. PMID:25188659

  4. Academic Lexis and Disciplinary Practice: Corpus Evidence for Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken; Tse, Polly

    2009-01-01

    The presence of unfamiliar words and expressions in academic texts is a serious obstacle to students reading in a second language. EAP has responded to this challenge by taking the view that there is a common core of academic vocabulary which is frequent across an academic register. This paper briefly considers this view by examining the range,…

  5. Presence Service in IMS

    PubMed Central

    Petras, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the presence service, which is located in the IP multimedia subsystem. This service allows making many applications for different groups of people. The paper describes differences between a network without the service and with the service. The biggest change is an increased number of transmitted messages. The presence uses some part of the IP multimedia subsystem control layer, which is shown in communication between the user and the server. The paper deals with the number of generated messages depending on the behaviour of the users. This is described by a mathematical model using discrete Markov chains. PMID:23970836

  6. Mandibular corpus bone strain in goats and alpacas: implications for understanding the biomechanics of mandibular form in selenodont artiodactyls.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan H; Vinyard, Christopher J; Wall, Christine E; Hylander, William L

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify the functional and biomechanical relationship between jaw morphology and in vivo masticatory loading in selenodont artiodactyls. We compare in vivo strains from the mandibular corpus of goats and alpacas to predicted strain patterns derived from biomechanical models for mandibular corpus loading during mastication. Peak shear strains in both species average 600-700 microepsilon on the working side and approximately 450 microepsilon on the balancing side. Maximum principal tension in goats and alpacas is directed at approximately 30 degrees dorsocaudally relative to the long axis of the corpus on the working side and approximately perpendicular to the long axis on the balancing side. Strain patterns in both species indicate primarily torsion of the working-side corpus about the long axis and parasagittal bending and/or lateral transverse bending of the balancing-side corpus. Interpretation of the strain patterns is consistent with comparative biomechanical analyses of jaw morphology suggesting that in goats, the balancing-side mandibular corpus is parasagittally bent whereas in alpacas it experiences lateral transverse bending. However, in light of higher working-side corpus strains, biomechanical explanations of mandibular form also need to consider that torsion influences relative corpus size and shape. Furthermore, the complex combination of loads that occur along the selenodont artiodactyl mandibular corpus during the power stroke has two implications. First, added clarification of these loading patterns requires in vivo approaches for elucidating biomechanical links between mandibular corpus morphology and masticatory loading. Second, morphometric approaches may be limited in their ability to accurately infer masticatory loading regimes of selenodont artiodactyl jaws.

  7. Corpus Study of Tense, Aspect, and Modality in Diglossic Speech in Cairene Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshref, Ola Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Morpho-syntactic features of Modern Standard Arabic mix intricately with those of Egyptian Colloquial Arabic in ordinary speech. I study the lexical, phonological and syntactic features of verb phrase morphemes and constituents in different tenses, aspects, moods. A corpus of over 3000 phrases was collected from religious, political/economic and…

  8. Two Different Faces of Cavafy in English: A Corpus-Assisted Approach to Translational Stylistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantopoulos, Iraklis

    2012-01-01

    A translator is seen to leave a personal mark on the text through their stylistic choices and the patterns formed by these choices. This article comprises a case study that uses a specialized comparative corpus containing translations of C.P. Cavafy's canon in order to explore the distinctive stylistic features of Rae Dalven and of Edmund…

  9. Analyzing Idioms and Their Frequency in Three Advanced ILI Textbooks: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Sepideh; Rajabpoor, Aboozar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying and quantifying the idioms used in three ILI "Advanced" level textbooks based on three different English corpora; MICASE, BNC and the Brown Corpus, and comparing the frequencies of the idioms across the three corpora. The first step of the study involved searching the books to find multi-word…

  10. 76 FR 49285 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Cabaniss NOLF, Corpus Christi, TX (76 FR 31821, Docket No. FAA-2010-1171). Subsequent to publication, an... published in the Federal Register June 2, 2010 (76 FR 31821), (FR Doc. 2011-13559), are corrected as follows... the geographic coordinates in the regulatory text of a final rule that was published in the...

  11. 76 FR 31821 - Amendment of Class D Airspace; Corpus Christi, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... amends Class D airspace within the Corpus Christi, TX, area by updating the geographic coordinates...

  12. A Text Corpus Approach to an Analysis of the Shared Use of Core Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Sievert, MaryEllen; Reid, John C.; Rice, Frances Ellis; Gigantelli, James W.; Schiffman, Jade S.; Shelton, Mark E.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the shared use of core Ophthalmology terms in the domains of Ophthalmology, Family Practice and Radiology. Core terms were searched for in a text corpus of 38,695 MEDLINE abstracts covering 1970-1999 from journals representing the three domains. Findings indicated core Ophthalmology terms were used significantly more by Ophthalmology…

  13. A Pedagogic Corpus Analysis: Modal Auxiliary Verbs in Malaysian English Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Laleh; Mukundan, Jayakaran

    2011-01-01

    Using corpus approach, over the past two decades, a growing number of researchers started to blame textbooks for neglecting important information on the use of grammatical structures in real language use and provided ample information about the mismatch between language used in textbooks and real language in use. Likewise, the prescribed Malaysian…

  14. A Two-Year Longitudinal MRI Study of the Corpus Callosum in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature has identified size reductions of the corpus callosum (CC) in autism. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have reported on the growth of CC volumes in youth with autism. Volumes of the total CC and its sub-divisions were obtained from 23 male children with autism and 23 age- and gender-matched controls at…

  15. Expressions of Gratitude in Corpus and DCT Data: Vocabulary, Formulaic Sequences, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schauer, Gila A.; Adolphs, Svenja

    2006-01-01

    Our study explores the similarities and differences between a discourse completion task (DCT) and corpus data and discusses potential implications for using the two in a pedagogic context. The DCT has traditionally been used as an instrument for the study of interlanguage pragmatics while both spoken and written corpora have mainly been used to…

  16. Corpus callosum size and diffusion tensor anisotropy in adolescents and adults with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Balevich, Emily C; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Wang, Eugene; Newmark, Randall E; Bloom, Rachel; Schneiderman, Jason S; Aronowitz, Jonathan; Tang, Cheuk Y; Chu, King-Wai; Byne, William; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Hazlett, Erin A

    2015-03-30

    The corpus callosum has been implicated as a region of dysfunctional connectivity in schizophrenia, but the association between age and callosal pathology is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) were performed on adults (n=34) and adolescents (n=17) with schizophrenia and adult (n=33) and adolescent (n=15) age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The corpus callosum was manually traced on each participant׳s MRI, and the DTI scan was co-registered to the MRI. The corpus callosum was divided into five anteroposterior segments. Area and anisotropy were calculated for each segment. Both patient groups demonstrated reduced callosal anisotropy; however, the adolescents exhibited reductions mostly in anterior regions while the reductions were more prominent in posterior regions of the adults. The adolescent patients showed greater decreases in absolute area as compared with the adult patients, particularly in the anterior segments. However, the adults showed greater reductions when area was considered relative to whole brain white matter volume. Our results suggest that the initial stages of the illness are characterized by deficiencies in frontal connections, and the chronic phase is characterized by deficits in the posterior corpus callosum; or, alternatively, adolescent-onset schizophrenia may represent a different or more severe form of the illness.

  17. Listen, Listen, Listen and Listen: Building a Comprehension Corpus and Making It Comprehensible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mordaunt, Owen G.; Olson, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    Listening comprehension input is necessary for language learning and acculturation. One approach to developing listening comprehension skills is through exposure to massive amounts of naturally occurring spoken language input. But exposure to this input is not enough; learners also need to make the comprehension corpus meaningful to their learning…

  18. Task Dependency Effects of Collaboration in Learners' Corpus Consultation: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative learning has attracted attention as pedagogic mediation to assist learners' corpus consultation, but some studies have pointed to negative aspects of collaboration. Based on the two sides of collaboration in language learning, this study presents a qualitative investigation of different effects of collaboration depending on task…

  19. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of the Common European Framework Vocabulary for French Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusseling, Francoise

    2012-01-01

    The CEFR French profiles have been widely used to teach and evaluate language instruction over the past decade. The profiles were specifications of vocabulary that have been largely untested from a corpus-based, empirical perspective. The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the CEFR profiles by comparing their content with two sizable…

  20. Exploiting a Corpus of Business Letters from a Phraseological, Functional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    This paper illustrates how a freely available online corpus has been exploited in a module on teaching business letters covering the following four speech acts (functions) commonly found in business letters: invitations, requests, complaints and refusals. It is proposed that different strategies are required for teaching potentially…

  1. A Study of Composition/Correction System with Corpus Retrieval Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Song; Liu, Peng; Urano, Yoshiyori

    2013-01-01

    Practice and research in the composition education that is using computer and network have been more and more active. Through online composition system, a large amount of written texts produced by students and teachers can be collected. This kind of information is called a learner corpus, which is important in second language education because the…

  2. The Impact of Corpus-Based Collocation Instruction on Iranian EFL Learners' Collocation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashouri, Shabnam; Arjmandi, Masoume; Rahimi, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, studies of EFL/ESL vocabulary acquisition have identified the significance of collocations in language learning. Due to the fact that collocations have been regarded as one of the major concerns of both EFL teachers and learners for many years, the present study attempts to shed light on the impact of corpus-based…

  3. A Corpus Analysis of Vocabulary Coverage and Vocabulary Learning Opportunities within a Children's Story Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading for second language learners have been widely documented over the past few decades. However, few studies, if any, have used a corpus analysis approach to analyze the vocabulary coverage within a single-author story series, its repetition of vocabulary, and the incidental and intentional vocabulary learning opportunities therein.…

  4. Tag Questions across Irish English and British English: A Corpus Analysis of Form and Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Anne; Pandarova, Irina; Muderack, Karoline

    2015-01-01

    The present study, situated in the area of variational pragmatics, contrasts tag question (TQ) use in Ireland and Great Britain using spoken data from the Irish and British components of the International Corpus of English (ICE). Analysis is on the formal and functional level and also investigates form-functional relationships. Findings reveal…

  5. Capturing the Dynamics of Second Language Development via Learner Corpus Research: A Very Long Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasko, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    This introductory paper highlights the promising potential of learner corpora to facilitate investigations of the developmental processes underlying L2 learning. It offers a critical discussion of the aspects in which the disciplines of learner corpus (LC) research and SLA would benefit from closer interdisciplinary engagement and introduces the…

  6. The Effect of Corpus-Based Activities on Verb-Noun Collocations in EFL Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ucar, Serpil; Yükselir, Ceyhun

    2015-01-01

    This current study sought to reveal the impacts of corpus-based activities on verb-noun collocation learning in EFL classes. This study was carried out on two groups--experimental and control groups- each of which consists of 15 students. The students were preparatory class students at School of Foreign Languages, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University.…

  7. "Wireless": Some Facts and Figures from a Corpus-Driven Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizzo, Camino Rea

    2009-01-01

    "Wireless" is the word selected to illustrate a model of analysis designed to determine the specialized character of a lexical unit. "Wireless" belongs to the repertoire of specialized vocabulary automatically extracted from a corpus of telecommunication engineering English (TEC). This paper describes the procedure followed in the analysis which…

  8. [How the Feast of Corpus Christi at the psychiatric hospital of Sarthe became a historical event].

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Can the historian, passionate about archives, build a historical narrative based mainly on the memories of nurses? Could the caregivers, who are themselves players in the history of psychiatry write it? When the former hears the individual accounts of the latter, history is written. The history of the Feast of Corpus Christi at the psychiatric hospital of Le Mans.

  9. On the Application of Corpus of Contemporary American English in Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusu, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The development of corpus linguistics has laid theoretical foundation and provided technical support for breaking the bottleneck in traditional vocabulary instruction in China. Corpora allow access to authentic data and show frequency patterns of words and grammar construction. Such patterns can be used to improve language materials or to directly…

  10. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of Metaphors in a Business English Textbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorczynska Sznajder, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the selection of metaphors in a published business English textbook using findings from a specialised corpus of written business English. While most scholars agree that metaphors should be included in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) syllabuses as a potentially problematic area in successful language learning, it is…

  11. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  12. 40 CFR 81.136 - Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corpus Christi-Victoria Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.136 Section 81.136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... County, Jackson County, Jim Wells County, Kenedy County, Kleberg County, Lavaca County, Live Oak...

  13. A unified approach for development of Urdu Corpus for OCR and demographic purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Prakash; Nain, Neeta; Ahmed, Mushtaq

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the development of an Urdu handwritten text image Corpus and application of Corpus linguistics in the field of OCR and information retrieval from handwritten document. Compared to other language scripts, Urdu script is little bit complicated for data entry. To enter a single character it requires a combination of multiple keys entry. Here, a mixed approach is proposed and demonstrated for building Urdu Corpus for OCR and Demographic data collection. Demographic part of database could be used to train a system to fetch the data automatically, which will be helpful to simplify existing manual data-processing task involved in the field of data collection such as input forms like Passport, Ration Card, Voting Card, AADHAR, Driving licence, Indian Railway Reservation, Census data etc. This would increase the participation of Urdu language community in understanding and taking benefit of the Government schemes. To make availability and applicability of database in a vast area of corpus linguistics, we propose a methodology for data collection, mark-up, digital transcription, and XML metadata information for benchmarking.

  14. IMPACT OF STORM-WATER OUTFALLS ON SEDIMENT QUALITY IN CORPUS CHRISTI BAY, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the quality of sediments and extent of contaminant impacts, a Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) study was conducted at 36 sites in the Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, USA, system. Fifteen of the 36 sites were located near storm-water outfalls, but 13 other sites (i.e., industr...

  15. The indusium griseum and the longitudinal striae of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Fathalla, Hussein; Cusimano, Michael D; Tschabitscher, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    In the eighteenth century, Lancisi described the indusium griseum (IG) and the longitudinal striae (LS) of the corpus callosum. The IG is a thin neuronal lamina above the corpus callosum, covered on each side of the midline by the medial and lateral LS. The medial LS (nerves of Lancisi) and lateral LS are two pairs of myelinated fiber bands found in the gray matter of the IG on the dorsal aspect of the corpus callosum. Embryologically, the IG and LS are dorsal remnants of the archicortex of the hippocampus and fornix and thus they are considered components of the limbic system. Recent studies using immunohistochemistry reported that acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine and GABA neurons innervate the IG. Newer imaging techniques, such as high field MRI and diffusion tensor imaging, provide new tools for studying these structures, whose true function remains still unclear. The present paper reviews the history of the discovery of the IG and LS of the corpus callosum, with a holistic overview on these interesting structures from the anatomical, embryological, neurochemical, radiological and clinical perspective.

  16. The Brain Connection: The Corpus Callosum is Larger in Left-Handers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witelson, Sandra F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the neurobiological basis for functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres, indicating that the size of the corpus callosum is correlated with the neurophysiological measure of hand preference. In postmortem examinations of 42 subjects there were no sex differences, but mixed-handers had significantly larger total areas of the…

  17. Social and Behavioral Problems of Children with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badaruddin, Denise H.; Andrews, Glena L.; Bolte, Sven; Schilmoeller, Kathryn J.; Schilmoeller, Gary; Paul, Lynn K.; Brown, Warren S.

    2007-01-01

    Archival data from a survey of parent observations was used to determine the prevalence of social and behavioral problems in children with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Parent observations were surveyed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) for 61 children with ACC who were selected from the archive based on criteria of motor…

  18. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum: Assessment and Remediation of School-Related Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Antonio, E.

    The paper examines three cases of children born with brain damage (absence of corpus callosum). Common problems (attentional, cognitive, visuo-motor, and motor deficits) are noted, and the impact of secondary emotional involvement is considered. Intervention approaches with two of the children are described as inconsistent and inadequate, while…

  19. Tractography of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) corpus callosum using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Platas-Neri, Diana; Hidalgo-Tobón, Silvia; de Celis Alonso, Benito; da Celis Alonso, Benito; de León, Fernando Chico-Ponce; Muñoz-Delgado, Jairo; Phillips, Kimberley A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the organization, connectivity and microstructure of the corpus callosum of the spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi). Non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging were obtained from three subjects using a 3T Philips scanner. We hypothesized that the arrangement of fibers in spider monkeys would be similar to that observed in other non-human primates. A repeated measure (n = 3) of fractional anisotropy values was obtained of each subject and for each callosal subdivision. Measurements of the diffusion properties of corpus callosum fibers exhibited a similar pattern to those reported in the literature for humans and chimpanzees. No statistical difference was reached when comparing this parameter between the different CC regions (p = 0.066). The highest fractional anisotropy values corresponded to regions projecting from the corpus callosum to the posterior cortical association areas, premotor and supplementary motor cortices. The lowest fractional anisotropy corresponded to projections to motor and sensory cortical areas. Analyses indicated that approximately 57% of the fibers projects to the frontal cortex and 43% to the post-central cortex. While this study had a small sample size, the results provided important information concerning the organization of the corpus callosum in spider monkeys.

  20. A 23-Year Review of Communication Development in an Individual with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickles, Judith L.; Schilmoeller, Gary L.; Schilmoeller, Kathryn J.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-three years of observation and testing of the communication skills of a male with agenesis of the corpus callosum and normal IQ revealed initial weakness in language. Difficulties with fluent speech persisted into young adulthood. With intensive intervention, communication and academic skills developed and the participant completed high…

  1. Corpus Callosum Morphology in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Morphometric Analysis of MRI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynd, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed that, compared to nondisabled controls, the seven children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had a smaller corpus callosum. Results suggest that subtle differences may exist in the brains of these children and that deviations in normal corticogenesis may underlie the…

  2. Corpus Callosum Size is Linked to Dichotic Deafness and Hemisphericity, Not Sex or Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Bruce E.; Rafto, Stein E.

    2006-01-01

    Individuals differ in the number of corpus callosum (CC) nerve fibers interconnecting their cerebral hemispheres by about threefold. Early reports suggested that males had smaller CCs than females. This was often interpreted to support the concept that the male brain is more "lateralized" or "specialized," thus accounting for presumed male…

  3. Psychological Correlates of Handedness and Corpus Callosum Asymmetry in Autism: The Left Hemisphere Dysfunction Theory Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, Dorothea L.; Chura, Lindsay R.; Holt, Rosemary J.; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Spencer, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Rightward cerebral lateralization has been suggested to be involved in the neuropathology of autism spectrum conditions. We investigated functional and neuroanatomical asymmetry, in terms of handedness and corpus callosum measurements in male adolescents with autism, their unaffected siblings and controls, and their associations with executive…

  4. Factors associated with birth defects in the region of Corpus Christi, Texas

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the Birth Defects Epidemiology & Surveillance Branch of the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) has documented a high prevalence of certain birth defects in the Corpus Christi, TX region. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate associations...

  5. Reduced White Matter Connectivity in the Corpus Callosum of Children with Tourette Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plessen, Kerstin J.; Gruner, Renate; Lundervold, Arvid; Hirsch, Jochen G.; Xu, Dongrong; Bansal, Ravi; Hammar, Asa; Lundervold, Astri J.; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Lie, Stein Atle; Gass, Achim; Peterson, Bradley S.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    Background: Brain imaging studies have revealed anatomical anomalies in the brains of individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS). Prefrontal regions have been found to be larger and the corpus callosum (CC) area smaller in children and young adults with TS compared with healthy control subjects, and these anatomical features have been understood to…

  6. Quantitative Analysis of the Shape of the Corpus Callosum in Patients with Autism and Comparison Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Elnakib, Ahmed; Switala, Andrew E.; Williams, Emily L.; Williams, Diane L.; Minshew, Nancy J.; Conturo, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest that the corpus callosum in patients with autism is reduced in size. This study attempts to elucidate the nature of this morphometric abnormality by analyzing the shape of this structure in 17 high-functioning patients with autism and an equal number of comparison participants matched for age, sex, IQ, and handedness. The…

  7. Cognitive Genre Structures in Methods Sections of Research Articles: A Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Ian

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a corpus investigation of the Methods sections of research-reporting articles in academic journals. In published pedagogic materials, Swales and Feak [Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (1994). Academic writing for graduate students. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; Swales, J. M., & Feak, C. (2000). English in today's research…

  8. How Can We Use Corpus Wordlists for Language Learning? Interfaces between Computer Corpora and Expert Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Bruncak, Radovan

    2015-01-01

    With the advances in technology, wordlists retrieved from computer corpora have become increasingly popular in recent years. The lexical items in those wordlists are usually selected, according to a set of robust frequency and dispersion criteria, from large corpora of authentic and naturally occurring language. Corpus wordlists are of great value…

  9. Putting the CEFR to Good Use: Designing Grammars Based on Learner-Corpus Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This lecture considers what reference and pedagogical grammars and grammar teaching materials for L2 learners should ideally include, based on corpus evidence from both native-speaker and learner corpora. I demonstrate how learner corpora can be used to track the emergence of grammatical features, from the elementary level to advanced, how…

  10. Lexical Bundles in Discourse Structure: A Corpus-Based Study of Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csomay, Eniko

    2013-01-01

    The present study applies corpus-based methods to document the distributional patterns of previously reported lexical bundle functions as they relate to discourse structure. Specifically, 84 lexical bundles and their discourse functions (Biber "et al." 2004a) were tracked in 1,176 discourse units extracted from the initial phases of 196 university…

  11. The Genre of Instructor Feedback in Doctoral Programs: A Corpus Linguistic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Kelley Jo; Henry, Patricia; Vinella, Michael; Wells, Steve; Shaw, Melanie; Miller, James

    2015-01-01

    Providing transparent written feedback to doctoral students is essential to the learning process and preparation for the capstone. The purpose of this study was to conduct a qualitative exploration of faculty feedback on benchmark written assignments across multiple, online doctoral programs. The Corpus for this analysis included 236 doctoral…

  12. Specific Syntactic Complexity: Developmental Profiling of Individuals Based on an Annotated Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2013-01-01

    This study tracks the development of syntactic complexity in the writing of two beginning German as a second language learners with English as a first language over four semesters of collegiate language study by using developmental profiling techniques applied to an annotated learner corpus. The focus of the investigation is on individual…

  13. Linguistic Markers of Stance in Early and Advanced Academic Writing: A Corpus-Based Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aull, Laura L.; Lancaster, Zak

    2014-01-01

    This article uses corpus methods to examine linguistic expressions of stance in over 4,000 argumentative essays written by incoming first-year university students in comparison with the writing of upper-level undergraduate students and published academics. The findings reveal linguistic stance markers shared across the first-year essays despite…

  14. Stylizing Genderlect Online for Social Action: A Corpus Analysis of "BIC Cristal for Her" Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of stylization and illustrates its usefulness for studying online discourse by examining how writers have employed it in order to parody sexist products such as BIC Cristal for Her, using genderlect in order to introduce dissonance into and reframe patriarchal discourse. A corpus analysis of 671 reviews, written…

  15. Agenesis of the corpus callosum associated with paroxysmal hypothermia: Shapiro's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Segeren, C M; Polderman, K H; Lips, P

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous recurrent hypothermia and hyperhidrosis associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum was first described by Shapiro and Plum in 1967. Since then, several cases with similar symptoms (now known as Shapiro's syndrome or spontaneous periodic hypothermia) have been described. We report another case of this syndrome in a 21-year-old-man, and discuss possible pathogenetic mechanisms and therapeutic approaches. PMID:9038041

  16. Integrating Corpus-Based CALL Programs in Teaching English through Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Tim F.; Hsingchin, Lee; Lixun, Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents particular pedagogical applications of a number of corpus-based CALL (computer assisted language learning) programs such as "CONTEXTS" and "CLOZE," "MATCHUP" and "BILINGUAL SENTENCE SHUFFLER," in the teaching of English through children's literature. An elective course in Taiwan for school students aged 17-18, based on a…

  17. [Bilateral fracture of the corpus cavernosum with complete rupture of the urethra].

    PubMed

    Hafiani, M; Bennani, S; Debbagh, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1995-01-01

    About a case of complete rupture of the urethra associated to bilateral fracture of the corpus cavernosa following manipulation of the penis in erection, we stress the interest of an early surgical treatment, which permits a precise lesional diagnosis and an immediate reparation of the lesions. It is even the best warrant of a correct functional recovery. PMID:8558044

  18. Issues Related to the Construction of a Purpose-Built Domain-Specific Word Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa; Pfister, H. Peter; Peterson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of semantic collections in order to identify and analyse domain knowledge. This paper describes some technical issues to consider when contemplating research which incorporates small-to-medium domain-specific word sets. The purpose of the corpus construction described was to provide an external word collection…

  19. NCBI Disease Corpus: A Resource for Disease Name Recognition and Concept Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Rezarta Islamaj; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Information encoded in natural language in biomedical literature publications is only useful if efficient and reliable ways of accessing and analyzing that information are available. Natural language processing and text mining tools are therefore essential for extracting valuable information, however, the development of powerful, highly effective tools to automatically detect central biomedical concepts such as diseases is conditional on the availability of annotated corpora. This paper presents the disease name and concept annotations of the NCBI disease corpus, a collection of 793 PubMed abstracts fully annotated at the mention and concept level to serve as a research resource for the biomedical natural language processing community. Each PubMed abstract was manually annotated by two annotators with disease mentions and their corresponding concepts in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®) or Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM®). Manual curation was performed using PubTator, which allowed the use of pre-annotations as a pre-step to manual annotations. Fourteen annotators were randomly paired and differing annotations were discussed for reaching a consensus in two annotation phases. In this setting, a high inter-annotator agreement was observed. Finally, all results were checked against annotations of the rest of the corpus to assure corpus-wide consistency. The public release of the NCBI disease corpus contains 6,892 disease mentions, which are mapped to 790 unique disease concepts. Of these, 88% link to a MeSH identifier, while the rest contain an OMIM identifier. We were able to link 91% of the mentions to a single disease concept, while the rest are described as a combination of concepts. In order to help researchers use the corpus to design and test disease identification methods, we have prepared the corpus as training, testing and development sets. To demonstrate its utility, we conducted a benchmarking experiment where we compared three different

  20. Cognitive impairments associated with corpus callosum infarction: a ten cases study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaoqin; Du, Xiangnan; Song, Haiqing; Zhang, Qian; Jia, Jianping; Xiao, Tianyi; Wu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cognitive impairment is associated with corpus callosum infarctions. Ten corpus callosum infarction patients were enrolled in this study. Their emotions, cognitive and language abilities, memory, comprehensive perception were assessed using the Chinese version of following measures: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), World Health Organization-University of California-Los Angeles Auditory Verbal Learning Test (WHO-UCLA AVLT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span subtest and so on. The same measurements were performed on healthy control participants as contrast for analysis. Infarction most frequently occurred in the body and/or splenium of the corpus callosum. The scores of the most cognitive tests in the corpus callosum infarction patients were significantly worse than those of the control participants (P<0.05). Except for the naming ability, the patients showed significantly poorer performance at the overall level of MMSE than the controls did (P<0.05). Consistently, the results of MoCA suggested a significant reduction in visuospatial abilities of execution, orientation, attention, calculation, delayed memory, language, and repetition capabilities in the patients with respect to the control (P<0.05). In addition, the scores in the case group were significantly worse than those in the control group in the auditory word learning test, digital span and Rey complex figure test (P<0.05). Corpus callosum infarction can cause cognitive dysfunction, which poses obstacles to memory in the acute phase, accompanied by different degrees of decline in visuospatial abilities, attention and calculating abilities. PMID:26885171

  1. Cognitive impairments associated with corpus callosum infarction: a ten cases study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqin; Du, Xiangnan; Song, Haiqing; Zhang, Qian; Jia, Jianping; Xiao, Tianyi; Wu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cognitive impairment is associated with corpus callosum infarctions. Ten corpus callosum infarction patients were enrolled in this study. Their emotions, cognitive and language abilities, memory, comprehensive perception were assessed using the Chinese version of following measures: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), World Health Organization-University of California-Los Angeles Auditory Verbal Learning Test (WHO-UCLA AVLT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span subtest and so on. The same measurements were performed on healthy control participants as contrast for analysis. Infarction most frequently occurred in the body and/or splenium of the corpus callosum. The scores of the most cognitive tests in the corpus callosum infarction patients were significantly worse than those of the control participants (P<0.05). Except for the naming ability, the patients showed significantly poorer performance at the overall level of MMSE than the controls did (P<0.05). Consistently, the results of MoCA suggested a significant reduction in visuospatial abilities of execution, orientation, attention, calculation, delayed memory, language, and repetition capabilities in the patients with respect to the control (P<0.05). In addition, the scores in the case group were significantly worse than those in the control group in the auditory word learning test, digital span and Rey complex figure test (P<0.05). Corpus callosum infarction can cause cognitive dysfunction, which poses obstacles to memory in the acute phase, accompanied by different degrees of decline in visuospatial abilities, attention and calculating abilities.

  2. Cognitive impairments associated with corpus callosum infarction: a ten cases study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoqin; Du, Xiangnan; Song, Haiqing; Zhang, Qian; Jia, Jianping; Xiao, Tianyi; Wu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the cognitive impairment is associated with corpus callosum infarctions. Ten corpus callosum infarction patients were enrolled in this study. Their emotions, cognitive and language abilities, memory, comprehensive perception were assessed using the Chinese version of following measures: Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), World Health Organization-University of California-Los Angeles Auditory Verbal Learning Test (WHO-UCLA AVLT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Digit Span subtest and so on. The same measurements were performed on healthy control participants as contrast for analysis. Infarction most frequently occurred in the body and/or splenium of the corpus callosum. The scores of the most cognitive tests in the corpus callosum infarction patients were significantly worse than those of the control participants (P<0.05). Except for the naming ability, the patients showed significantly poorer performance at the overall level of MMSE than the controls did (P<0.05). Consistently, the results of MoCA suggested a significant reduction in visuospatial abilities of execution, orientation, attention, calculation, delayed memory, language, and repetition capabilities in the patients with respect to the control (P<0.05). In addition, the scores in the case group were significantly worse than those in the control group in the auditory word learning test, digital span and Rey complex figure test (P<0.05). Corpus callosum infarction can cause cognitive dysfunction, which poses obstacles to memory in the acute phase, accompanied by different degrees of decline in visuospatial abilities, attention and calculating abilities. PMID:26885171

  3. Can luteal regression be reversed?

    PubMed Central

    Telleria, Carlos M

    2006-01-01

    The corpus luteum is an endocrine gland whose limited lifespan is hormonally programmed. This debate article summarizes findings of our research group that challenge the principle that the end of function of the corpus luteum or luteal regression, once triggered, cannot be reversed. Overturning luteal regression by pharmacological manipulations may be of critical significance in designing strategies to improve fertility efficacy. PMID:17074090

  4. Presence at a distance.

    PubMed

    Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays in the context of the cyberculture, computer-mediated inter-subjective relationships are part of our everyday lives, in both the professional and personal spheres, and for all age groups. In the clinical field, many applications have been developed to facilitate the exchange of informations and mediate the relationship between patient and therapist. In psychology, more or less immersive technologies are used, to encourage the feeling of presence among the users, and to trigger certain psychological processes. In our research, we have explored the remote clinical interview through videoconferencing, with the development and utilisation of the iPSY platform, totally focused on this objective. In this context, we have considered the notion of intersubjectivity, despite the physical absence. This research is leading us today to envision the notions of distance and presence, and possibly to redefine them. Thus, can we still oppose physical distance to psychological distance? Can we still affirm that the physical absence does not permit a psychological co-presence in certain interactions, like this observed in video interviews? The results show that the psychological processes, activated in this context, are similar to those observed in "traditional" clinical consults between the patient and the therapist. However, certain specifics have led us to consider the concept of distance, here influenced by the framework, and to observe its effects. This distance could possibly constitute a therapeutic lever for some patients, notably for those who have difficulties establishing the right psychological distance in their relationships with others. According to these results, can "distance" still be opposed to "presence", or could it be re-defined? This also opens up questions on the more general concept of digital relationships, and the definition of their specificities. PMID:26799909

  5. The Mare Model to Study the Effects of Ovarian Dynamics on Preantral Follicle Features.

    PubMed

    Alves, Kele A; Alves, Benner G; Gastal, Gustavo D A; de Tarso, Saulo G S; Gastal, Melba O; Figueiredo, José R; Gambarini, Maria L; Gastal, Eduardo L

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tissue collected by biopsy procedures allows the performance of many studies with clinical applications in the field of female fertility preservation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive phase (anestrous vs. diestrous) and ovarian structures (antral follicles and corpus luteum) on the quality, class distribution, number, and density of preantral follicles, and stromal cell density. Ovarian fragments were harvested by biopsy pick-up procedures from mares and submitted to histological analysis. The mean preantral follicle and ovarian stromal cell densities were greater in the diestrous phase and a positive correlation of stromal cell density with the number and density of preantral follicles was observed. The mean area (mm2) of ovarian structures increased in the diestrous phase and had positive correlations with number of preantral follicles, follicle density, and stromal cell density. Biopsy fragments collected from ovaries containing an active corpus luteum had a higher follicle density, stromal cell density, and proportion of normal preantral follicles. In conclusion, our results showed: (1) the diestrous phase influenced positively the preantral follicle quality, class distribution, and follicle and stromal cell densities; (2) the area of ovarian structures was positively correlated with the follicle and stromal cell densities; and (3) the presence of an active corpus luteum had a positive effect on the quality of preantral follicles, and follicle and stromal densities. Therefore, herein we demonstrate that the presence of key ovarian structures favors the harvest of ovarian fragments containing an appropriate number of healthy preantral follicles. PMID:26900687

  6. The Mare Model to Study the Effects of Ovarian Dynamics on Preantral Follicle Features

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Kele A.; Alves, Benner G.; Gastal, Gustavo D. A.; de Tarso, Saulo G. S.; Gastal, Melba O.; Figueiredo, José R.; Gambarini, Maria L.; Gastal, Eduardo L.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian tissue collected by biopsy procedures allows the performance of many studies with clinical applications in the field of female fertility preservation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of reproductive phase (anestrous vs. diestrous) and ovarian structures (antral follicles and corpus luteum) on the quality, class distribution, number, and density of preantral follicles, and stromal cell density. Ovarian fragments were harvested by biopsy pick-up procedures from mares and submitted to histological analysis. The mean preantral follicle and ovarian stromal cell densities were greater in the diestrous phase and a positive correlation of stromal cell density with the number and density of preantral follicles was observed. The mean area (mm2) of ovarian structures increased in the diestrous phase and had positive correlations with number of preantral follicles, follicle density, and stromal cell density. Biopsy fragments collected from ovaries containing an active corpus luteum had a higher follicle density, stromal cell density, and proportion of normal preantral follicles. In conclusion, our results showed: (1) the diestrous phase influenced positively the preantral follicle quality, class distribution, and follicle and stromal cell densities; (2) the area of ovarian structures was positively correlated with the follicle and stromal cell densities; and (3) the presence of an active corpus luteum had a positive effect on the quality of preantral follicles, and follicle and stromal densities. Therefore, herein we demonstrate that the presence of key ovarian structures favors the harvest of ovarian fragments containing an appropriate number of healthy preantral follicles. PMID:26900687

  7. Effects in vitro and in vivo by apomorphine in the rat corpus cavernosum

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kenshi; Yoshida, Masaki; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Hedlund, Petter

    2005-01-01

    The study was performed to clarify if apomorphine at the level of the rat corpus cavernosum can produce erectile responses or interfere with nerve-induced penile erection. Apomorphine (10−9–10−4 M) exhibited a 10-fold higher potency to relax phenylephrine (Phe)- than endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced contractions. Relaxant effects of apomorphine in Phe-activated corpus cavernosum did not change tissue levels of cyclic nucleotides, and were unaffected by inhibition of the synthesis of nitric oxide, or by inhibition of the soluble guanylate cyclase. Relaxations by apomorphine of ET-1-contracted rat corpus cavernosum were not influenced by α2-adrenoceptor blockade (yohimbine, 10−7 M), or by the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (10−6 M). Clozapine (10−6 M), a proposed dopamine D2-like receptor antagonist, partly reduced apomorphine-induced relaxations, and significantly altered the −log IC50 value for apomorphine. Nerve-induced contractions of the rat corpus cavernosum were attenuated by apomorphine in a concentration-dependent and biphasic manner. Yohimbine (10−7 M) abolished the biphasic concentration–response pattern. SCH 23390 (10−6 M) attenuated the inhibitory effects of apomorphine on contractions, and significantly altered the −log IC50 value for the compound. In anesthetized rats (50 mg kg−1 pentobarbital sodium, 10 mg kg−1 ketamine), intracavernous apomorphine (100, 300, or 1000 nmol) did not have effects on basal cavernous pressure under resting conditions, and did not affect filling or emptying rates, or peak pressures of the rat corpus cavernosum during submaximal activation of the cavernous nerve. In awake rats, apomorphine produced a maximal number of erections at 300 nmol kg−1. In the rat isolated corpus cavernosum, pre- and postjunctional effects of apomorphine appear to involve dopamine D1- and D2-like receptors, as well as α-adrenoceptors. At relevant systemic doses of apomorphine

  8. Expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor system in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and the effect of insulin-like growth factor I on production of vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone in luteal cells cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, S; Panda, R P; Chouhan, V S; Yadav, V P; Hyder, I; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Khan, F A; Sharma, G T; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system at different stages of buffalo CL and the role of IGF-I in stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and progesterone (P4) production in cultured luteal cells. The mRNA expression of IGF system, VEGF, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450scc, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Protein expression of IGF was demonstrated by Western blot and localization by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone and VEGF production was assayed using RIA and ELISA. A relatively high mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in early, mid- and late luteal phases with immunoreactivity mostly restricted to cytoplasm of large luteal cells indicates their autocrine role, whereas very weak immunoreactivity in endothelial cells during the mid-luteal phase indicates their paracrine role. Insulin-like growth factor receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, were restricted to large luteal cells with high mRNA and protein expressions in the mid-luteal phase. The significantly higher expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -3, -5, and -6 in the early or mid-luteal phase suggested their stimulatory role, whereas that of IGFBP-2 and -4 in mid-, late, and regressive luteal stages implied their inhibitory role. The mRNA expressions of key steroidogenic factors and VEGF were significantly higher (P < 0.05) when the culture medium was supplemented with 100 ng/mL of IGF-I for 72 hours. Moreover, IGF-I at a dose of 100 ng/mL increased P4 and VEGF production (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that IGF family members via their autocrine and paracrine effect play significant roles in promoting angiogenesis through the production of VEGF in luteal cells and steroid synthesis through the production of key steroidogenic factors.

  9. Deriving disyllabic word variants from a Chinese conversational speech corpus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Fen; Tseng, Shu-Chuan; Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the quasi-categorical reduced forms of disyllabic words produced in Chinese conversational speech, a frequency-based selection procedure of typical pronunciation by disyllabic word type and reduction degree is proposed in this paper. This variant-selection algorithm utilizes techniques of free phone recognition and phonetic similarity score calculation to account for Chinese syllable structure. Four reduction types are suggested by considering the presence of a within-word syllable boundary: Citation form-like reduction, marginal segment deletion, nuclei merger, and syllable merger. The results show that the most frequent reduction types for disyllabic words in Chinese conversation are citation form-like reduction and syllable merger. In particular, high-frequency disyllabic words preferentially take the extreme syllable-merger form. As shown in the analysis, segmental reduction in Chinese disyllabic words is morphology-dependent. It is also related to the prosodic position at which a disyllabic word is produced as well as the temporal quality of the word. Finally, in the automatic speech recognition experiments, the performance was improved by adding a small number of variants selected by the algorithm to the pronunciation dictionary of the system.

  10. Deriving disyllabic word variants from a Chinese conversational speech corpus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Fen; Tseng, Shu-Chuan; Jang, Jyh-Shing Roger

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the quasi-categorical reduced forms of disyllabic words produced in Chinese conversational speech, a frequency-based selection procedure of typical pronunciation by disyllabic word type and reduction degree is proposed in this paper. This variant-selection algorithm utilizes techniques of free phone recognition and phonetic similarity score calculation to account for Chinese syllable structure. Four reduction types are suggested by considering the presence of a within-word syllable boundary: Citation form-like reduction, marginal segment deletion, nuclei merger, and syllable merger. The results show that the most frequent reduction types for disyllabic words in Chinese conversation are citation form-like reduction and syllable merger. In particular, high-frequency disyllabic words preferentially take the extreme syllable-merger form. As shown in the analysis, segmental reduction in Chinese disyllabic words is morphology-dependent. It is also related to the prosodic position at which a disyllabic word is produced as well as the temporal quality of the word. Finally, in the automatic speech recognition experiments, the performance was improved by adding a small number of variants selected by the algorithm to the pronunciation dictionary of the system. PMID:27475155

  11. Contralateral targeting of the corpus callosum in normal and pathological brain function.

    PubMed

    Fenlon, Laura R; Richards, Linda J

    2015-05-01

    The corpus callosum connects the two cortical hemispheres of the mammalian brain and is susceptible to structural defects during development, which often result in significant neuropsychological dysfunction. To date, such individuals have been studied primarily with regards to the integrity of the callosal tract at the midline. However, the mechanisms regulating the contralateral targeting of the corpus callosum, after midline crossing has occurred, are less well understood. Recent evidence suggests that defects in contralateral targeting can occur in isolation from midline-tract malformations, and may have significant functional implications. We propose that contralateral targeting is a crucially important and relatively under-investigated event in callosal development, and that defects in this process may constitute an undiagnosed phenotype in several neurological disorders.

  12. Shape analysis of corpus callosum in phenylketonuria using a new 3D correspondence algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing; Christ, Shawn E.; Karsch, Kevin; Peck, Dawn; Duan, Ye

    2010-03-01

    Statistical shape analysis of brain structures has gained increasing interest from neuroimaging community because it can precisely locate shape differences between healthy and pathological structures. The most difficult and crucial problem is establishing shape correspondence among individual 3D shapes. This paper proposes a new algorithm for 3D shape correspondence. A set of landmarks are sampled on a template shape, and initial correspondence is established between the template and the target shape based on the similarity of locations and normal directions. The landmarks on the target are then refined by iterative thin plate spline. The algorithm is simple and fast, and no spherical mapping is needed. We apply our method to the statistical shape analysis of the corpus callosum (CC) in phenylketonuria (PKU), and significant local shape differences between the patients and the controls are found in the most anterior and posterior aspects of the corpus callosum.

  13. Supporting English-medium pedagogy through an online corpus of science and engineering lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunioshi, Nílson; Noguchi, Judy; Tojo, Kazuko; Hayashi, Hiroko

    2016-05-01

    As English-medium instruction (EMI) spreads around the world, university teachers and students who are non-native speakers of English (NNS) need to put much effort into the delivery or reception of content. Construction of scientific meaning in the process of learning is already complex when instruction is delivered in the first language of the teachers and students, and may become even more challenging in a second language, because science education depends greatly on language. In order to identify important pedagogical functions that teachers use to deliver content and to present different ways to realise each function, a corpus of lectures related to science and engineering courses was created and analysed. NNS teachers and students in science and engineering involved in EMI higher education can obtain insights for delivering and listening to lectures from the Online Corpus of Academic Lectures (OnCAL).

  14. Non-surgical treatment of massive traumatic corpus callosum hematoma after blunt head injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, A; Elgamal, E; Elsayed, A A; Wasserberg, J; Kuncz, A

    2016-01-01

    Massive hematoma of the corpus callosum caused by blunt head trauma is an extremely rare lesion. Most frequent traumatic lesions involve the corpus callosum are diffuse axonal injuries. They might be associated with small hemorrhagic foci in the hemispheric and brain stem white matter, intraventricular hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, traumatic lesions of the septum pellucidum and fornix. Many cases of corpus callosum injury present with permanent disconnection syndrome. We present a case of a 32-year-old female suffered blunt head trauma resulted in massive corpus callosum hematoma which was managed non-surgically. The patient initially had a reduced conscious level and symptoms of disconnection syndrome, and significant recovery was observed at 6 months follow up. PMID:27375150

  15. 78 FR 44523 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 122 Under Alternative Site Framework; Corpus Christi, Texas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ...; Whereas, notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (78 FR 13015-13016, 02/26/2013..., Kleberg and Bee Counties, Texas, within and adjacent to the Corpus Christi Customs and Border...

  16. Corpus callosum area and brain volume in autism spectrum disorder: quantitative analysis of structural MRI from the ABIDE database.

    PubMed

    Kucharsky Hiess, R; Alter, R; Sojoudi, S; Ardekani, B A; Kuzniecky, R; Pardoe, H R

    2015-10-01

    Reduced corpus callosum area and increased brain volume are two commonly reported findings in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated these two correlates in ASD and healthy controls using T1-weighted MRI scans from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE). Automated methods were used to segment the corpus callosum and intracranial region. No difference in the corpus callosum area was found between ASD participants and healthy controls (ASD 598.53 ± 109 mm(2); control 596.82 ± 102 mm(2); p = 0.76). The ASD participants had increased intracranial volume (ASD 1,508,596 ± 170,505 mm(3); control 1,482,732 ± 150,873.5 mm(3); p = 0.042). No evidence was found for overall ASD differences in the corpus callosum subregions.

  17. Non-surgical treatment of massive traumatic corpus callosum hematoma after blunt head injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, A; Elgamal, E; Elsayed, A A; Wasserberg, J; Kuncz, A

    2016-01-01

    Massive hematoma of the corpus callosum caused by blunt head trauma is an extremely rare lesion. Most frequent traumatic lesions involve the corpus callosum are diffuse axonal injuries. They might be associated with small hemorrhagic foci in the hemispheric and brain stem white matter, intraventricular hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, traumatic lesions of the septum pellucidum and fornix. Many cases of corpus callosum injury present with permanent disconnection syndrome. We present a case of a 32-year-old female suffered blunt head trauma resulted in massive corpus callosum hematoma which was managed non-surgically. The patient initially had a reduced conscious level and symptoms of disconnection syndrome, and significant recovery was observed at 6 months follow up.

  18. Electrical activity of corpus cavernosum in vasculogenic and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Atahan, O; Kayigil, O; Metin, A

    1997-12-01

    We aimed to compare the electrical activity of corpus cavernosum before and after intracavernous papaverine injection and to determine the blood lipid profile in vascular and non-vascular erectile dysfunction, and also to assess whether vascular pathology and abnormal blood lipid levels impair cavernosal smooth-muscle relaxation. We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in peripheral and cavernosal blood in 39 patients with erectile dysfunction. Electromyography of the corpus cavernosum was performed before and after an intracavernous injection with 60 mg of papaverine in all patients. Thirty-nine impotent patients have been divided into two groups: vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) and non-vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (NVED), according to colour Doppler ultrasonic flowmetry, dynamic infusion cavernosometry and the pressure difference between the brachial arterial systolic pressure and cavernosal arterial systolic pressure measurements. Biochemical values and amplitude changes were compared in both groups. The TC level was higher in both peripheral and cavernosal samples of the VED group than in the NVED group (p = 0.000), with no differences between peripheral and cavernosal blood levels within the same groups (p > 0.05). There were no significant changes in TG and HDL levels in any of the groups (p > 0.05). The mean amplitude differences before and after papaverine injection (delta A) were found to be 2.05 +/- 0.78 microV in the VED group and 4.68 +/- 2.53 microV in the NVED group, showing that the relaxation response to papaverine was more significant in the NVED than in the VED group (p = 0.003). The moderate decreases in the amplitude of electrical activity of corpus cavernosum and the higher TC levels found in the VED group can be accepted as the parameters of impairment in the relaxation of corpus cavernosum, showing the role of hypercholesterolaemia and vascular pathologies in erectile

  19. CoMAGC: a corpus with multi-faceted annotations of gene-cancer relations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to access the large amount of information in biomedical literature about genes implicated in various cancers both efficiently and accurately, the aid of text mining (TM) systems is invaluable. Current TM systems do target either gene-cancer relations or biological processes involving genes and cancers, but the former type produces information not comprehensive enough to explain how a gene affects a cancer, and the latter does not provide a concise summary of gene-cancer relations. Results In this paper, we present a corpus for the development of TM systems that are specifically targeting gene-cancer relations but are still able to capture complex information in biomedical sentences. We describe CoMAGC, a corpus with multi-faceted annotations of gene-cancer relations. In CoMAGC, a piece of annotation is composed of four semantically orthogonal concepts that together express 1) how a gene changes, 2) how a cancer changes and 3) the causality between the gene and the cancer. The multi-faceted annotations are shown to have high inter-annotator agreement. In addition, we show that the annotations in CoMAGC allow us to infer the prospective roles of genes in cancers and to classify the genes into three classes according to the inferred roles. We encode the mapping between multi-faceted annotations and gene classes into 10 inference rules. The inference rules produce results with high accuracy as measured against human annotations. CoMAGC consists of 821 sentences on prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Currently, we deal with changes in gene expression levels among other types of gene changes. The corpus is available at http://biopathway.org/CoMAGCunder the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0). Conclusions The corpus will be an important resource for the development of advanced TM systems on gene-cancer relations. PMID:24225062

  20. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life

    PubMed Central

    Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D.; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A.; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N.; Elison, Jed T.; Dager, Stephen R.; Estes, Annette M.; Hazlett, Heather C.; Schultz, Robert T.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology. PMID:25937563

  1. BioCreative V CDR task corpus: a resource for chemical disease relation extraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao; Sun, Yueping; Johnson, Robin J.; Sciaky, Daniela; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Davis, Allan Peter; Mattingly, Carolyn J.; Wiegers, Thomas C.; Lu, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Community-run, formal evaluations and manually annotated text corpora are critically important for advancing biomedical text-mining research. Recently in BioCreative V, a new challenge was organized for the tasks of disease named entity recognition (DNER) and chemical-induced disease (CID) relation extraction. Given the nature of both tasks, a test collection is required to contain both disease/chemical annotations and relation annotations in the same set of articles. Despite previous efforts in biomedical corpus construction, none was found to be sufficient for the task. Thus, we developed our own corpus called BC5CDR during the challenge by inviting a team of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexers for disease/chemical entity annotation and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) curators for CID relation annotation. To ensure high annotation quality and productivity, detailed annotation guidelines and automatic annotation tools were provided. The resulting BC5CDR corpus consists of 1500 PubMed articles with 4409 annotated chemicals, 5818 diseases and 3116 chemical-disease interactions. Each entity annotation includes both the mention text spans and normalized concept identifiers, using MeSH as the controlled vocabulary. To ensure accuracy, the entities were first captured independently by two annotators followed by a consensus annotation: The average inter-annotator agreement (IAA) scores were 87.49% and 96.05% for the disease and chemicals, respectively, in the test set according to the Jaccard similarity coefficient. Our corpus was successfully used for the BioCreative V challenge tasks and should serve as a valuable resource for the text-mining research community. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/tasks/biocreative-v/track-3-cdr/ PMID:27161011

  2. Diffusion Tensor Imaging, White Matter lesions, the Corpus Callosum and Gait in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Bhadelia, Refeeque A.; Price, Lori Lyn; Tedesco, Kurtis L.; Scott, Tammy; Qiu, Wei Qiao; Patz, Samuel; Folstein, Marshal; Rosenberg, Irwin; Caplan, Louis R.; Bergethon, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose Gait impairment is common in the elderly, especially those with stroke and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on conventional brain MRI. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is more sensitive to white matter damage than conventional MRI. The relationship between DTI measures and gait has not been previously evaluated. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between the integrity of white matter in the corpus callosum as determined by DTI and quantitative measures of gait in the elderly. Methods One hundred seventy-three participants of a community-dwelling elderly cohort had neurological and neuropsychological examinations and brain MRI. Gait function was measured by Tinetti gait (0-12), balance (0-16) and total (0-28) scores. DTI assessed Fractional Anisotropy in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum. Conventional MRI was used to evaluate for brain infarcts and WMH volume. Results Participants with abnormal gait had low fractional anisotropy in the genu of the corpus callosum but not the splenium. Multiple regressions analyses showed an independent association between these genu abnormalities and all three Tinetti scores (p <0.001). This association remained significant after adding MRI infarcts and WMH volume to the analysis. Conclusions The independent association between quantitative measures of gait function and DTI findings shows that white matter integrity in the genu of corpus callosum is an important marker of gait in the elderly. DTI analyses of white matter tracts in brain and spinal cord may improve knowledge about the pathophysiology of gait impairment and help target clinical interventions. PMID:19797696

  3. Altered corpus callosum morphology associated with autism over the first 2 years of life.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Jason J; Gerig, Guido; Lewis, John D; Soda, Takahiro; Styner, Martin A; Vachet, Clement; Botteron, Kelly N; Elison, Jed T; Dager, Stephen R; Estes, Annette M; Hazlett, Heather C; Schultz, Robert T; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Piven, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Numerous brain imaging studies indicate that the corpus callosum is smaller in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. However, there are no published studies examining the morphological development of this connective pathway in infants at-risk for the disorder. Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 270 infants at high familial risk for autism spectrum disorder and 108 low-risk controls at 6, 12 and 24 months of age, with 83% of infants contributing two or more data points. Fifty-seven children met criteria for ASD based on clinical-best estimate diagnosis at age 2 years. Corpora callosa were measured for area, length and thickness by automated segmentation. We found significantly increased corpus callosum area and thickness in children with autism spectrum disorder starting at 6 months of age. These differences were particularly robust in the anterior corpus callosum at the 6 and 12 month time points. Regression analysis indicated that radial diffusivity in this region, measured by diffusion tensor imaging, inversely predicted thickness. Measures of area and thickness in the first year of life were correlated with repetitive behaviours at age 2 years. In contrast to work from older children and adults, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may be larger in infants who go on to develop autism spectrum disorder. This result was apparent with or without adjustment for total brain volume. Although we did not see a significant interaction between group and age, cross-sectional data indicated that area and thickness differences diminish by age 2 years. Regression data incorporating diffusion tensor imaging suggest that microstructural properties of callosal white matter, which includes myelination and axon composition, may explain group differences in morphology.

  4. A de novo mutation in PRICKLE1 in fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum and polymicrogyria.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Alexander G; Sherr, Elliott H

    2015-01-01

    Homozygous recessive mutations in the PRICKLE1 gene were originally reported in three consanguineous families with myoclonic epilepsy. Subsequently, several studies have identified neurological abnormalities in animal models with both heterozygous and homozygous mutations in PRICKLE1 orthologues, including epilepsy in flies and in mice with heterozygous PRICKLE1 mutations. We describe a fetus with a novel de novo mutation in PRICKLE1 associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

  5. Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy 3 is associated with agenesis and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Jang, Michelle S; Roldan, Ashley N; Frausto, Ricardo F; Aldave, Anthony J

    2014-07-01

    Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a dominantly inherited disorder of the corneal endothelium that has been associated with mutations in the zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 gene (ZEB1) gene in approximately one-third of affected families. While the corneal dystrophies have traditionally been considered isolated disorders of the corneal endothelium, we have recently identified two cases of maldevelopment of the corpus callosum in unrelated individuals with PPCD. The proband of the first family was diagnosed shortly after birth with agenesis of the corpus callosum and several other developmental abnormalities. Karyotype, FISH and whole genome copy number variant analyses were normal. She was subsequently diagnosed with PPCD, prompting screening of the ZEB1 gene, which identified a novel deletion (c.449delG; p.(Gly150Alafs*36)) present in the heterozygous state that was not identified in either unaffected parent. The proband of the second family was diagnosed several months after birth with thinning of the corpus callosum and PPCD. Whole genome copy number variant analysis revealed a 1.79 Mb duplication of 17q12 in the proband and her father and brother, neither of whom had PPCD. ZEB1 sequencing identified a novel deletion (c.1913-1914delCA; p.(Ser638Cysfs*5)) present in the heterozygous state, which was also identified in the proband's affected mother. Thus, we report the first two cases of the association of PPCD with a developmental abnormality of the brain, in this case maldevelopment of the corpus callosum.

  6. BC4GO: a full-text corpus for the BioCreative IV GO task

    PubMed Central

    Van Auken, Kimberly; Schaeffer, Mary L.; McQuilton, Peter; Laulederkind, Stanley J. F.; Li, Donghui; Wang, Shur-Jen; Hayman, G. Thomas; Tweedie, Susan; Arighi, Cecilia N.; Done, James; Müller, Hans-Michael; Sternberg, Paul W.; Mao, Yuqing; Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Lu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Gene function curation via Gene Ontology (GO) annotation is a common task among Model Organism Database groups. Owing to its manual nature, this task is considered one of the bottlenecks in literature curation. There have been many previous attempts at automatic identification of GO terms and supporting information from full text. However, few systems have delivered an accuracy that is comparable with humans. One recognized challenge in developing such systems is the lack of marked sentence-level evidence text that provides the basis for making GO annotations. We aim to create a corpus that includes the GO evidence text along with the three core elements of GO annotations: (i) a gene or gene product, (ii) a GO term and (iii) a GO evidence code. To ensure our results are consistent with real-life GO data, we recruited eight professional GO curators and asked them to follow their routine GO annotation protocols. Our annotators marked up more than 5000 text passages in 200 articles for 1356 distinct GO terms. For evidence sentence selection, the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) results are 9.3% (strict) and 42.7% (relaxed) in F1-measures. For GO term selection, the IAAs are 47% (strict) and 62.9% (hierarchical). Our corpus analysis further shows that abstracts contain ∼10% of relevant evidence sentences and 30% distinct GO terms, while the Results/Experiment section has nearly 60% relevant sentences and >70% GO terms. Further, of those evidence sentences found in abstracts, less than one-third contain enough experimental detail to fulfill the three core criteria of a GO annotation. This result demonstrates the need of using full-text articles for text mining GO annotations. Through its use at the BioCreative IV GO (BC4GO) task, we expect our corpus to become a valuable resource for the BioNLP research community. Database URL: http://www.biocreative.org/resources/corpora/bc-iv-go-task-corpus/. PMID:25070993

  7. Righting errors in writing errors: the Wing and Baddeley (1980) spelling error corpus revisited.

    PubMed

    Wing, Alan M; Baddeley, Alan D

    2009-03-01

    We present a new analysis of our previously published corpus of handwriting errors (slips) using the proportional allocation algorithm of Machtynger and Shallice (2009). As previously, the proportion of slips is greater in the middle of the word than at the ends, however, in contrast to before, the proportion is greater at the end than at the beginning of the word. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis of memory effects in a graphemic output buffer.

  8. Hydrodynamic characterization of Corpus Christi Bay through modeling and observation.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad S; Bonner, James S; Edge, Billy L; Page, Cheryl A

    2014-11-01

    Christi Bay is a relatively flat, shallow, wind-driven system with an average depth of 3-4 m and a mean tidal range of 0.3 m. It is completely mixed most of the time, and as a result, depth-averaged models have, historically, been applied for hydrodynamic characterization supporting regulatory decisions on Texas coastal management. The bay is highly stratified during transitory periods of the summer with low wind conditions. This has important implications on sediment transport, nutrient cycling, and water quality-related issues, including hypoxia which is a key water quality concern for the bay. Detailed hydrodynamic characterization of the bay during the summer months included analysis of simulation results of 2-D hydrodynamic model and high-frequency (HF) in situ observations. The HF radar system resolved surface currents, whereas an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measured current at different depths of the water column. The developed model successfully captured water surface elevation variation at the mouth of the bay (i.e., onshore boundary of the Gulf of Mexico) and at times within the bay. However, large discrepancies exist between model-computed depth-averaged water currents and observed surface currents. These discrepancies suggested the presence of a vertical gradient in the current structure which was further substantiated by the observed bi-directional current movement within the water column. In addition, observed vertical density gradients proved that the water column was stratified. Under this condition, the bottom layer became hypoxic due to inadequate mixing with the aerated surface water. Understanding the disparities between observations and model predictions provides critical insights about hydrodynamics and physical processes controlling water quality. PMID:25096643

  9. Developmental changes in the corpus callosum from infancy to early adulthood: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka-Arakawa, Megumi M; Matsui, Mie; Tanaka, Chiaki; Uematsu, Akiko; Uda, Satoshi; Miura, Kayoko; Sakai, Tomoko; Noguchi, Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has reported on the development trajectory of the corpus callosum morphology. However, there have been only a few studies that have included data on infants. The goal of the present study was to examine the morphology of the corpus callosum in healthy participants of both sexes, from infancy to early adulthood. We sought to characterize normal development of the corpus callosum and possible sex differences in development. We performed a morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of 114 healthy individuals, aged 1 month to 25 years old, measuring the size of the corpus callosum. The corpus callosum was segmented into seven subareas of the rostrum, genu, rostral body, anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus and splenium. Locally weighted regression analysis (LOESS) indicated significant non-linear age-related changes regardless of sex, particularly during the first few years of life. After this increase, curve slopes gradually became flat during adolescence and adulthood in both sexes. Age of local maximum for each subarea of the corpus callosum differed across the sexes. Ratios of total corpus callosum and genu, posterior midbody, as well as splenium to the whole brain were significantly higher in females compared with males. The present results demonstrate that the developmental trajectory of the corpus callosum during early life in healthy individuals is non-linear and dynamic. This pattern resembles that found for the cerebral cortex, further suggesting that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. In addition, developmental trajectories and changes in growth do show some sex differences.

  10. In vitro fertilization using frozen-thawed feline epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions.

    PubMed

    Kunkitti, Panisara; Axnér, Eva; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva

    2016-10-01

    Epididymal sperm preservation offers a potential for rescuing genetic material from endangered or valuable animals after injury or death. Spermatozoa from corpus, as well as from cauda, have the capability to be motile and to undergo capacitation and can thus potentially be preserved for assisted reproductive technologies. In the present study, feline frozen-thawed epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda regions were investigated for their ability to fertilize homologous oocytes and further embryo development in vitro. Epididymal spermatozoa from corpus and cauda of seven cats were cryopreserved and used for IVF. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (n = 419) were obtained from female cats after routine spaying. Frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa showed similar properties of acrosome integrity, membrane integrity, and chromatin integrity as frozen-thawed spermatozoa from cauda except corpus spermatozoa showed lower motility (P < 0.05). The fertilizing capacity of frozen-thawed corpus epididymal spermatozoa was confirmed by similar number of embryos developing to the two- and four-cell stages compared with sperm from cauda (32.03% vs. 33.33%). However, oocytes fertilized with corpus spermatozoa had lower potential to develop to the blastocyst stage (6.79%) and had lower cell numbers compared to oocytes fertilized with cauda spermatozoa (14.08%). In conclusion, spermatozoa from corpus epididymis had a similar capability to fertilize homologous oocytes in vitro as sperm from cauda but resulted in fewer embryos developing to the blastocyst stage compared to spermatozoa from the cauda. PMID:27242180

  11. Clinical, genetic and imaging findings identify new causes for corpus callosum development syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Timothy J.; Sherr, Elliott H.; Barkovich, A. James

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest fibre tract in the brain, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, and thereby facilitating the integration of motor and sensory information from the two sides of the body as well as influencing higher cognition associated with executive function, social interaction and language. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a common brain malformation that can occur either in isolation or in association with congenital syndromes. Understanding the causes of this condition will help improve our knowledge of the critical brain developmental mechanisms required for wiring the brain and provide potential avenues for therapies for callosal agenesis or related neurodevelopmental disorders. Improved genetic studies combined with mouse models and neuroimaging have rapidly expanded the diverse collection of copy number variations and single gene mutations associated with callosal agenesis. At the same time, advances in our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved in corpus callosum formation have provided insights into the possible causes of these disorders. This review provides the first comprehensive classification of the clinical and genetic features of syndromes associated with callosal agenesis, and provides a genetic and developmental framework for the interpretation of future research that will guide the next advances in the field. PMID:24477430

  12. MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 genotype is related to corpus callosum volume in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Patel, Veena S; Kelly, Sinead; Wright, Carrie; Gupta, Cota Navin; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Bustillo, Juan R; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Cannon, Dara M; McDonald, Colm; Donohoe, Gary; Calhoun, Vince D; Turner, Jessica A

    2015-08-18

    Genome-wide association studies implicate the MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 (MIR137HGrv) within the host gene for microRNA-137 as a potential regulator of schizophrenia susceptibility. We examined the influence of MIR137HGrv genotype on 17 subcortical and callosal volumes in a large sample of individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls (n=841). Although the volumes were overall reduced relative to healthy controls, for individuals with schizophrenia the homozygous MIR137HGrv risk genotype was associated with attenuated reduction of mid-posterior corpus callosum volume (p=0.001), along with trend-level effects in the adjacent central and posterior corpus callosum. These findings are unique in the literature and remain robust after analysis in ethnically homogenous and single-scanner subsets of the larger sample. Thus, our study suggests that the mechanisms whereby MIR137HGrv works to increase schizophrenia risk are not those that generate the corpus callosum volume reductions commonly found in the disorder.

  13. Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum Due to Defective Glial Wedge Formation in Lhx2 Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Gregory A; Hirokawa, Karla E; Chuang, Tony M; Urbina, Cecilia; Patel, Fenil; Fong, Jeanette; Funatsu, Nobuo; Monuki, Edwin S

    2015-09-01

    Establishment of the corpus callosum involves coordination between callosal projection neurons and multiple midline structures, including the glial wedge (GW) rostrally and hippocampal commissure caudally. GW defects have been associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). Here we show that conditional Lhx2 inactivation in cortical radial glia using Emx1-Cre or Nestin-Cre drivers results in ACC. The ACC phenotype was characterized by aberrant ventrally projecting callosal axons rather than Probst bundles, and was 100% penetrant on 2 different mouse strain backgrounds. Lhx2 inactivation in postmitotic cortical neurons using Nex-Cre mice did not result in ACC, suggesting that the mutant phenotype was not autonomous to the callosal projection neurons. Instead, ACC was associated with an absent hippocampal commissure and a markedly reduced to absent GW. Expression studies demonstrated strong Lhx2 expression in the normal GW and in its radial glial progenitors, with absence of Lhx2 resulting in normal Emx1 and Sox2 expression, but premature exit from the cell cycle based on EdU-Ki67 double labeling. These studies define essential roles for Lhx2 in GW, hippocampal commissure, and corpus callosum formation, and suggest that defects in radial GW progenitors can give rise to ACC.

  14. Clinical, genetic and imaging findings identify new causes for corpus callosum development syndromes.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Timothy J; Sherr, Elliott H; Barkovich, A James; Richards, Linda J

    2014-06-01

    The corpus callosum is the largest fibre tract in the brain, connecting the two cerebral hemispheres, and thereby facilitating the integration of motor and sensory information from the two sides of the body as well as influencing higher cognition associated with executive function, social interaction and language. Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a common brain malformation that can occur either in isolation or in association with congenital syndromes. Understanding the causes of this condition will help improve our knowledge of the critical brain developmental mechanisms required for wiring the brain and provide potential avenues for therapies for callosal agenesis or related neurodevelopmental disorders. Improved genetic studies combined with mouse models and neuroimaging have rapidly expanded the diverse collection of copy number variations and single gene mutations associated with callosal agenesis. At the same time, advances in our understanding of the developmental mechanisms involved in corpus callosum formation have provided insights into the possible causes of these disorders. This review provides the first comprehensive classification of the clinical and genetic features of syndromes associated with callosal agenesis, and provides a genetic and developmental framework for the interpretation of future research that will guide the next advances in the field.

  15. Pediatric neurofunctional intervention in agenesis of the corpus callosum: a case report☆

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sheila Cristina da Silva; Queiroz, Ana Paula Adriano; Niza, Nathália Tiepo; da Costa, Letícia Miranda Resende; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a clinical report pre- and post-neurofunctional intervention in a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum. Case description: Preterm infant with corpus callosum agenesis and hypoplasia of the cerebellum vermis and lateral ventricles, who, at the age of two years, started the proposed intervention. Functional performance tests were used such as the neurofunctional evaluation, the Gross Motor Function Measure and the Gross Motor Function Classification System. In the initial evaluation, absence of equilibrium reactions, postural transfers, deficits in manual and trunk control were observed. The intervention was conducted with a focus on function, prioritizing postural control and guidance of the family to continue care in the home environment. After the intervention, there was an improvement of body reactions, postural control and movement acquisition of hands and limbs. The intervention also showed improvement in functional performance. Comments: Postural control and transfers of positions were benefited by the neurofunction intervention in this case of agenesis of the corpus callosum. The approach based on function with activities that involve muscle strengthening and balance reactions training, influenced the acquisition of a more selective motor behavior. PMID:25479858

  16. MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 genotype is related to corpus callosum volume in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Veena S.; Kelly, Sinead; Wright, Carrie; Gupta, Cota Navin; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora; Ehrlich, Stefan; Wang, Lei; Bustillo, Juan R.; Morris, Derek; Corvin, Aiden; Cannon, Dara M.; McDonald, Colm; Donohoe, Gary; Calhoun, Vince D.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies implicate the MIR137HG risk variant rs1625579 (MIR137HGrv) within the host gene for microRNA-137 as a potential regulator of schizophrenia susceptibility. We examined the influence of MIR137HGrv genotype on 17 subcortical and callosal volumes in a large sample of individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls (n=841). Although the volumes were overall reduced relative to healthy controls, for individuals with schizophrenia the homozygous MIR137HGrv risk genotype was associated with attenuated reduction of mid-posterior corpus callosum volume (p=0.001), along with trend-level effects in the adjacent central and posterior corpus callosum. These findings are unique in the literature and remain robust after analysis in ethnically homogenous and single-scanner subsets of the larger sample. Thus, our study suggests that the mechanisms whereby MIR137HGrv works to increase schizophrenia risk are not those that generate the corpus callosum volume reductions commonly found in the disorder. PMID:26123324

  17. Atypical slow waves generated in gastric corpus provide dominant pacemaker activity in guinea pig stomach.

    PubMed

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Garcia-Londoño, A Pilar; Hirst, G David S; Edwards, Frank R

    2005-12-01

    When intracellular recordings were made from the circular layer of the intact muscular wall of the isolated guinea pig gastric corpus, an ongoing regular high frequency discharge of slow waves was detected even though this region lacked myenteric interstitial cells. When slow waves were recorded from preparations consisting of both the antrum and the corpus, slow waves of identical frequency, but with different shapes, were generated in the two regions. Corporal slow waves could be distinguished from antral slow waves by their time courses and amplitudes. Corporal slow waves, like antral slow waves, were abolished by buffering the internal concentration of calcium ions, [Ca2+]i, to low levels, or by caffeine, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate or the chloride channel blocker DIDS. Corporal preparations demonstrated an ongoing discharge of unitary potentials, as has been found in all other tissues containing interstitial cells. The experiments show that the corpus provides the dominant pacemaker activity which entrains activity in other regions of the stomach and it is suggested that this activity is generated by corporal intramuscular interstitial cells.

  18. Preoperative CT-based nomogram for predicting overall survival in women with non-endometrioid carcinomas of the uterine corpus

    PubMed Central

    Lakhman, Yulia; Yakar, Derya; Goldman, Debra A.; Katz, Seth S.; Vargas, Hebert A.; Miccò, Maura; Zheng, Junting; Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Soslow, Robert A.; Hricak, Hedvig; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Sala, Evis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To develop a preoperative CT-based nomogram for predicting overall survival (OS) in patients with non-endometrioid carcinomas of the uterine corpus. Methods Waiving informed consent, the institutional review board approved this HIPAA-compliant, retrospective study of 193 women with histopathologically proven uterine papillary serous carcinomas (UPSC), uterine clear cell carcinomas (UCCC), and uterine carcinosarcomas (UCS) who underwent primary surgical resection between May 1998 and December 2011, and had a preoperative CT ≤ 6 weeks before surgery. All CT scans were reviewed for local or/and regional tumor extent, presence of pelvic or/and paraaortic adenopathy, and presence of distant metastases. Univariate survival analysis was performed using log-rank test and Cox regression. Variables shown significant by the univariate analysis were evaluated with the multivariable Cox regression analysis and the results were used to create a nomogram for predicting OS. The predictive accuracy of the nomogram was assessed with the concordance probability index (c-index) and a 3-year calibration plot. Results Mean patient age was 67.2 years (range: 49.0–85.9); histology included UPSC (n=116), UCCC (n=27), and UCS (n=50). Median follow-up was 38.1 months (0.9–168.5 months). At multivariate analysis, patient age, ascites, and omental implants on CT were significant adverse predictors of OS and were used to build the nomogram. Concordance index for the nomogram was 0.640±0.028. Conclusion We developed a nomogram with a good concordance probability at predicting OS based on readily available pretreatment clinical and imaging characteristics. This preoperative nomogram has the potential to improve initial treatment planning and patient counseling. PMID:25549782

  19. Hominid mandibular corpus shape variation and its utility for recognizing species diversity within fossil Homo

    PubMed Central

    Lague, Michael R; Collard, Nicole J; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard A

    2008-01-01

    Mandibular corpora are well represented in the hominin fossil record, yet few studies have rigorously assessed the utility of mandibular corpus morphology for species recognition, particularly with respect to the linear dimensions that are most commonly available. In this study, we explored the extent to which commonly preserved mandibular corpus morphology can be used to: (i) discriminate among extant hominid taxa and (ii) support species designations among fossil specimens assigned to the genus Homo. In the first part of the study, discriminant analysis was used to test for significant differences in mandibular corpus shape at different taxonomic levels (genus, species and subspecies) among extant hominid taxa (i.e. Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo). In the second part of the study, we examined shape variation among fossil mandibles assigned to Homo(including H. habilis sensu stricto, H. rudolfensis, early African H. erectus/H. ergaster, late African H. erectus, Asian H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens). A novel randomization procedure designed for small samples (and using group ‘distinctness values’) was used to determine whether shape variation among the fossils is consistent with conventional taxonomy (or alternatively, whether a priori taxonomic groupings are completely random with respect to mandibular morphology). The randomization of ‘distinctness values’ was also used on the extant samples to assess the ability of the test to recognize known taxa. The discriminant analysis results demonstrated that, even for a relatively modest set of traditional mandibular corpus measurements, we can detect significant differences among extant hominids at the genus and species levels, and, in some cases, also at the subspecies level. Although the randomization of ‘distinctness values’ test is more conservative than discriminant analysis (based on comparisons with extant specimens), we were able to detect at least four distinct groups

  20. Place Presence, Social Presence, Co-Presence, and Satisfaction in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulu, Saniye Tugba

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among three types of presences, including place presence, social presence, and co-presence in virtual worlds and their relationship with satisfaction and immersive tendencies of students. Students' scores on a subjective questionnaire were analyzed. The results indicated that there was a significant…

  1. Agenesis and Dysgenesis of the Corpus Callosum: Clinical, Genetic and Neuroimaging Findings in a Series of 41 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Schell-Apacik, Chayim Can; Wagner, Kristina; Bihler, Moritz; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Heinrich, Uwe; Klopocki, Eva; Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Muenke, Maximilian; von Voss, Hubertus

    2009-01-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is among the most frequent human brain malformations with an incidence of 0.5–70 in 10,000. It is a heterogeneous condition, for which several different genetic causes are known, for example, ACC as part of monogenic syndromes or complex chromosomal rearrangements. We systematically evaluated the data of 172 patients with documented corpus callosum abnormalities in the records, and 23 patients with chromosomal rearrangements known to be associated with corpus callosum changes. All available neuroimaging data, including CT and MRI, were re-evaluated following a standardized protocol. Whenever feasible chromosome and subtelomere analyses as well as molecular genetic testing were performed in patients with disorders of the corpus callosum in order to identify a genetic diagnosis. Our results showed that 41 patients with complete absence (agenesis of the corpus callosum—ACC) or partial absence (dysgenesis of the corpus callosum—DCC) were identified. Out of these 28 had ACC, 13 had DCC. In 11 of the 28 patients with ACC, the following diagnoses could be established: Mowat–Wilson syndrome (n = 2), Walker–Warburg syndrome (n = 1), oro-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (n = 1), and chromosomal rearrangements (n = 7), including a patient with an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation, which led to the disruption and a predicted loss of function in the FOXG1B gene. The cause of the ACC in 17 patients remained unclear. In 2 of the 13 patients with DCC, unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements could be detected (n = 2), while the cause of DCC in 11 patients remained unclear. In our series of cases a variety of genetic causes of disorders of the corpus callosum were identified with cytogenetic anomalies representing the most common underlying etiology. PMID:18792984

  2. Geometry of the Paleo-Nueces River Incised-Valley, Corpus Christi Bay, Texas as it Relates to Quaternary Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugrin, L.; Gulick, S. S.; Goff, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    CHIRP subbottom seismic data were collected on the 2009 and 2011 Marine Geophysics Field courses at the University of Texas at Austin within the Corpus Christi Bay along the central Texas coast in order to study the geometry of the ancestral Nueces River incised valley and its evolution over Quaternary sea level history. Since the late Pleistocene, the Nueces River valley experienced a gradual infill due to sea level rise, interrupted by two major flooding events that represent periods of rapid sediment influx. These flooding events are recognizable based on abrupt changes in seismic facies. Discontinuous, chaotic fluvial lag deposits present underneath a fairly continuous, stratified, sub-horizontal estuarine coastal plain facies mark what is interpreted to be the Pleistocene/Holocene unconformity. Above the P/H boundary, oyster reefs thrive within the estuary until capped by a strong reflector, marking the second flooding surface that allowed enough incoming sediment to discontinue oyster reef growth. The estuarine deposits within the paleo-Nueces river valley exhibit a landward migration as the Holocene transgression proceeded. As infill continued, the bay-head delta prograded seaward and the flood-tidal delta extended progressively further up the estuary until the central estuarine basin was capped. The earlier flooding events provide strong reflectors that can be linked to the draining of Lake Agassiz around 8.2 k.a.. This event flooded the Gulf of Mexico with freshwater, and interrupted the estuarine infilling of the Nueces paleo-channel. Cores from previous studies have found at least two species of oyster reefs in Corpus Christi Bay: euryhaline species Crassostrea virginica, and Ostrea equestris, a species known to thrive in higher salinity waters. The presence of both species at the flooding boundary suggests the sudden pulse of freshwater mixed with higher salinity oceanic water. The second flooding surface is interpreted to be associated with an increase

  3. Automatic corpus callosum segmentation using a deformable active Fourier contour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachet, Clement; Yvernault, Benjamin; Bhatt, Kshamta; Smith, Rachel G.; Gerig, Guido; Cody Hazlett, Heather; Styner, Martin

    2012-03-01

    The corpus callosum (CC) is a structure of interest in many neuroimaging studies of neuro-developmental pathology such as autism. It plays an integral role in relaying sensory, motor and cognitive information from homologous regions in both hemispheres. We have developed a framework that allows automatic segmentation of the corpus callosum and its lobar subdivisions. Our approach employs constrained elastic deformation of flexible Fourier contour model, and is an extension of Szekely's 2D Fourier descriptor based Active Shape Model. The shape and appearance model, derived from a large mixed population of 150+ subjects, is described with complex Fourier descriptors in a principal component shape space. Using MNI space aligned T1w MRI data, the CC segmentation is initialized on the mid-sagittal plane using the tissue segmentation. A multi-step optimization strategy, with two constrained steps and a final unconstrained step, is then applied. If needed, interactive segmentation can be performed via contour repulsion points. Lobar connectivity based parcellation of the corpus callosum can finally be computed via the use of a probabilistic CC subdivision model. Our analysis framework has been integrated in an open-source, end-to-end application called CCSeg both with a command line and Qt-based graphical user interface (available on NITRC). A study has been performed to quantify the reliability of the semi-automatic segmentation on a small pediatric dataset. Using 5 subjects randomly segmented 3 times by two experts, the intra-class correlation coefficient showed a superb reliability (0.99). CCSeg is currently applied to a large longitudinal pediatric study of brain development in autism.

  4. Effects of prenatal irradiation on the development of cerebral cortex and corpus callosum of the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, S.L.; Lent, R.

    1987-10-08

    Defects of the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum of mice subjected prenatally to gamma irradiation were evaluated as a function of dose and of embryonic age at irradiation. Pregnant mice were exposed to a gamma source at 16, 17, and 19 days of gestation (E16, E17, and E19, respectively), with total doses of 2 Gy and 3 Gy, in order to produce brain defects on their progeny. At 60 postnatal days, the brains of the offspring were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively and compared with those of nonirradiated animals. Mice irradiated at E16 were all acallosal. Those that were exposed to 2 Gy displayed an aberrant longitudinal bundle typical of other acallosals, but this was not the case in those irradiated with 3 Gy. The corpus callosum of animals irradiated at E17 with 3 Gy was pronouncedly hypotrophic, but milder effects were observed in the other groups. Quantitative analysis confirmed a dependence of callosal midsagittal area upon dose and age at irradiation, and, in addition, indicated an interaction between these variables. The neocortex of irradiated animals was hypotrophic: layers II-III were much more affected than layer V, and this was more affected than layer VI. Quantitative analysis indicated that this effect also depended on dose and age at irradiation and that it was due to a loss of cortical neurons. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the number of neurons within layers II-III, and V and the midsagittal area of the corpus callosum. Ectopic neurons were found in the white matter and in layer I of animals irradiated at E16 and E17, indicating that fetal exposure to ionizing radiation interfered with the migration of cortical neuroblasts.

  5. Structural Organization of the Corpus Callosum Predicts Attentional Shifts after Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Glyn W.; Sotiropoulos, Stamatios N.; Kennard, Christopher; Cazzoli, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied over the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in healthy participants has been shown to trigger a significant rightward shift in the spatial allocation of visual attention, temporarily mimicking spatial deficits observed in neglect. In contrast, rTMS applied over the left PPC triggers a weaker or null attentional shift. However, large interindividual differences in responses to rTMS have been reported. Studies measuring changes in brain activation suggest that the effects of rTMS may depend on both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric interactions between cortical loci controlling visual attention. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structural organization of human white matter pathways subserving visual attention, as assessed by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and tractography, could explain interindividual differences in the effects of rTMS. Most participants showed a rightward shift in the allocation of spatial attention after rTMS over the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), but the size of this effect varied largely across participants. Conversely, rTMS over the left IPS resulted in strikingly opposed individual responses, with some participants responding with rightward and some with leftward attentional shifts. We demonstrate that microstructural and macrostructural variability within the corpus callosum, consistent with differential effects on cross-hemispheric interactions, predicts both the extent and the direction of the response to rTMS. Together, our findings suggest that the corpus callosum may have a dual inhibitory and excitatory function in maintaining the interhemispheric dynamics that underlie the allocation of spatial attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) controls allocation of attention across left versus right visual fields. Damage to this area results in neglect, characterized by a lack of spatial awareness of the side of space

  6. Estimated sediment deposition in Lake Corpus Christi, Texas, 1972-85

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leibbrand, Norman F.

    1987-01-01

    Some difference was found in comparison of the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (Water Resources Division) study and the McCaughan and Etheridge Consulting Engineers study. Total sediment outflow from Lake Corpus Christi was estimated at 177 acre-feet (dry) by the Geological Survey and 1,070 acre-feet (dry) by McCaughan and Etheridge Consulting Engineers. This difference may be due to construction of a new dam, completed in 1958, that is higher and inundated the old dam.

  7. Severe psychiatric disturbance and abnormalities of the corpus callosum: review and case series.

    PubMed Central

    David, A S; Wacharasindhu, A; Lishman, W A

    1993-01-01

    The association between developmental defects of the corpus callosum and major psychiatric disturbance is discussed with a review of published cases. Seven new cases are presented, of which four had clear psychotic symptoms, two receiving a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Of the remainder, one had a developmental disorder affecting social interaction and speech which could be classed as Asperger's syndrome, one had a personality disorder with depressive and conversion symptoms, and the last was an adolescent boy with severe behavioural problems. The difficulties in determining the precise relevance of the callosal anomalies to these clinical manifestations are discussed especially since the prevalence of such anomalies in the population is uncertain. Images PMID:8429328

  8. [Traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum. 25 case reports and literature review].

    PubMed

    Bennani, S; el Mrini, M; Méziane, F; Benjelloun, S

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a series of twenty-five cases of traumatic rupture of the corpus cavernosum and a review of literature, the characteristics of this rare affection are reviewed. This injury typically occurs in young adults. The most frequent mechanism is rough manipulation of the erect penis. Urethral injury is associated in 10 per cent of patients. The characteristic history and physical findings usually yield the diagnosis. The preferred form of management is early surgical repair of the tunical defect, by distal circumferential incision. Post-operative complications are rare (8 per cent). The treatment of associated urethral injuries and late complications resulting from untreated rupture is reviewed. PMID:1489171

  9. Corpus alienum on hard palate - An unusual "misdiagnosis" of foreign body: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Nitesh; Singh, Neerja; Singh, Subash; Agarwal, Naina; Gupta, Narendra Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Corpus alienum or foreign body on hard palate is a rare presentation and often associated with a scare secondary to misdiagnosis. The potential dangers of respiratory obstruction, mucosal tear, nasopharyngeal inflammation and gastro-intestinal bleeding make these non-invasive foreign bodies, life threatening. A case report of a three year old girl with a 2.5cm×2cm plastic sticker lodged on hard palate for four months and misdiagnosed as salivary gland tumor has been reported along with a literature review. PMID:26545792

  10. Maturation of Corpus Callosum Anterior Midbody Is Associated with Neonatal Motor Function in Eight Preterm-Born Infants

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Preethi; Pannek, Kerstin; D'Acunto, M. Giulia; Guzzetta, Andrea; Rose, Stephen E.; Colditz, Paul B.; Finnigan, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Background. The etiology of motor impairments in preterm infants is multifactorial and incompletely understood. Whether corpus callosum development is related to impaired motor function is unclear. Potential associations between motor-related measures and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the corpus callosum in preterm infants were explored. Methods. Eight very preterm infants (gestational age of 28–32 weeks) underwent the Hammersmith neonatal neurological examination and DTI assessments at gestational age of 42 weeks. The total Hammersmith score and a motor-specific score (sum of Hammersmith motor subcategories) were calculated. Six corpus callosum regions of interest were defined on the mid-sagittal DTI slice—genu, rostral body, anterior midbody, posterior midbody, isthmus, and splenium. The fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of these regions were computed, and correlations between these and Hammersmith measures were sought. Results. Anterior midbody FA measures correlated positively with total Hammersmith (rho = 0.929, P = 0.001) and motor-specific scores (rho = 0.857, P = 0.007). Total Hammersmith scores also negatively correlated with anterior midbody MD measures (rho = −0.714, P = 0.047). Discussion. These results suggest the integrity of corpus callosum axons, particularly anterior midbody axons, is important in mediating neurological functions. Greater callosal maturation was associated with greater motor function. Corpus callosum DTI may prove to be a valuable screening or prognostic marker. PMID:23509639

  11. Endogenous testosterone concentration, mental rotation, and size of the corpus callosum in a sample of young Hungarian women.

    PubMed

    Karádi, Kázmér; Kállai, János; Kövér, Ferenc; Nemes, János; Makány, Tamás; Nagy, Ferenc

    2006-04-01

    In the present study brain laterality, hemispheric communication, and mental rotation performance were examined. A sample of 33 women were tested for a possible linear relationship of testosterone level and mental rotation with structural background of the brain. Subjects with a smaller splenial area of corpus callosum tended to have lower levels of testosterone (r =.37, p<.05). However, there were no significant differences in mean scores of mental rotation of object and hand between groups with high and low levels of testosterone. There was a significant difference in relative size of the 6th area (slice) of the corpus callosum between groups with good and poor scores on mental rotation of an object and also in relative size of the 4th and 5th slices of the corpus callosum between groups on mental rotation of the hand. The good and poor scorers' show different relations with the measures of the corpus. The mental rotation of hand was associated with the parietal areas of the corpus callosum, while the mental rotation of object was associated only with the occipital area. These observations suggest that higher testosterone levels may be associated with a larger splenial area, which represents an important connection between the parieto-occipitocortical areas involved in activation of mental images. Further srudy is encouraged.

  12. Msh2 deficiency leads to dysmyelination of the corpus callosum, impaired locomotion, and altered sensory function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Devaraju, Prakash; Janke, Laura J.; Fan, Yiping; Frase, Sharon; Eddins, Donnie; Peters, Jennifer L.; Kim, Jieun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Evans, William E.

    2016-01-01

    A feature in patients with constitutional DNA-mismatch repair deficiency is agenesis of the corpus callosum, the cause of which has not been established. Here we report a previously unrecognized consequence of deficiency in MSH2, a protein known primarily for its function in correcting nucleotide mismatches or insertions and deletions in duplex DNA caused by errors in DNA replication or recombination. We documented that Msh2 deficiency causes dysmyelination of the axonal projections in the corpus callosum. Evoked action potentials in the myelinated corpus callosum projections of Msh2-null mice were smaller than wild-type mice, whereas unmyelinated axons showed no difference. Msh2-null mice were also impaired in locomotive activity and had an abnormal response to heat. These findings reveal a novel pathogenic consequence of MSH2 deficiency, providing a new mechanistic hint to previously recognized neurological disorders in patients with inherited DNA-mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:27476972

  13. Msh2 deficiency leads to dysmyelination of the corpus callosum, impaired locomotion, and altered sensory function in mice.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Devaraju, Prakash; Janke, Laura J; Fan, Yiping; Frase, Sharon; Eddins, Donnie; Peters, Jennifer L; Kim, Jieun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Zakharenko, Stanislav S; Evans, William E

    2016-08-01

    A feature in patients with constitutional DNA-mismatch repair deficiency is agenesis of the corpus callosum, the cause of which has not been established. Here we report a previously unrecognized consequence of deficiency in MSH2, a protein known primarily for its function in correcting nucleotide mismatches or insertions and deletions in duplex DNA caused by errors in DNA replication or recombination. We documented that Msh2 deficiency causes dysmyelination of the axonal projections in the corpus callosum. Evoked action potentials in the myelinated corpus callosum projections of Msh2-null mice were smaller than wild-type mice, whereas unmyelinated axons showed no difference. Msh2-null mice were also impaired in locomotive activity and had an abnormal response to heat. These findings reveal a novel pathogenic consequence of MSH2 deficiency, providing a new mechanistic hint to previously recognized neurological disorders in patients with inherited DNA-mismatch repair deficiency.

  14. DARPA TIMIT acoustic-phonetic continous speech corpus CD-ROM. NIST speech disc 1-1.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofolo, J. S.; Lamel, L. F.; Fisher, W. M.; Fiscus, J. G.; Pallett, D. S.

    1993-02-01

    The Texas Instruments/Massachusetts Institute of Technology (TIMIT) corpus of read speech has been designed to provide speech data for the acquisition of acoustic-phonetic knowledge and for the development and evaluation of automatic speech recognition systems. TIMIT contains speech from 630 speakers representing 8 major dialect divisions of American English, each speaking 10 phonetically-rich sentences. The TIMIT corpus includes time-aligned orthographic, phonetic, and word transcriptions, as well as speech waveform data for each spoken sentence. The release of TIMIT contains several improvements over the Prototype CD-ROM released in December, 1988: (1) full 630-speaker corpus, (2) checked and corrected transcriptions, (3) word-alignment transcriptions, (4) NIST SPHERE-headered waveform files and header manipulation software, (5) phonemic dictionary, (6) new test and training subsets balanced for dialectal and phonetic coverage, and (7) more extensive documentation.

  15. Presence: concept, determinants, and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IJsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Ridder, Huib; Freeman, Jonathan; Avons, Steve E.

    2000-06-01

    The concept of presence, i.e. the sensation of 'being there' in a mediated environment, has received substantial attention from the virtual reality community, and is becoming increasingly relevant both to broadcasters and display developers. Although research into presence is still at an early stage of development, there is a consensus that presence has multiple determinants. To identify and test which parameters affect presence, a reliable, robust and valid means of measuring presence is required. In this paper, we describe the categories of factors thought to have an impact on presence. Furthermore, we present an overview of various approaches taken to measuring presence, which can be divided into two general categories: subjective measures and objective corroborative measures. Since presence is a subjective experience, the most direct way of assessment is through users' subjective report. This approach has serious limitations however, and should be used judiciously. Objective measures, such as postural, physiological or social responses to media, can be used to corroborate subjective measures, thereby overcoming some of their limitations. At present, the most promising direction for presence measurement is to develop and use an aggregate measure of presence that is comprised of both subjective and objective components, tailored to the specific medium under study.

  16. Knowledge-Driven Event Extraction in Russian: Corpus-Based Linguistic Resources

    PubMed Central

    Solovyev, Valery; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Automatic event extraction form text is an important step in knowledge acquisition and knowledge base population. Manual work in development of extraction system is indispensable either in corpus annotation or in vocabularies and pattern creation for a knowledge-based system. Recent works have been focused on adaptation of existing system (for extraction from English texts) to new domains. Event extraction in other languages was not studied due to the lack of resources and algorithms necessary for natural language processing. In this paper we define a set of linguistic resources that are necessary in development of a knowledge-based event extraction system in Russian: a vocabulary of subordination models, a vocabulary of event triggers, and a vocabulary of Frame Elements that are basic building blocks for semantic patterns. We propose a set of methods for creation of such vocabularies in Russian and other languages using Google Books NGram Corpus. The methods are evaluated in development of event extraction system for Russian. PMID:26955386

  17. Knowledge-Driven Event Extraction in Russian: Corpus-Based Linguistic Resources.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, Valery; Ivanov, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Automatic event extraction form text is an important step in knowledge acquisition and knowledge base population. Manual work in development of extraction system is indispensable either in corpus annotation or in vocabularies and pattern creation for a knowledge-based system. Recent works have been focused on adaptation of existing system (for extraction from English texts) to new domains. Event extraction in other languages was not studied due to the lack of resources and algorithms necessary for natural language processing. In this paper we define a set of linguistic resources that are necessary in development of a knowledge-based event extraction system in Russian: a vocabulary of subordination models, a vocabulary of event triggers, and a vocabulary of Frame Elements that are basic building blocks for semantic patterns. We propose a set of methods for creation of such vocabularies in Russian and other languages using Google Books NGram Corpus. The methods are evaluated in development of event extraction system for Russian. PMID:26955386

  18. Shape analysis of corpus callosum in autism subtype using planar conformal mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing; Duan, Ye; Yin, Xiaotian; Gu, Xianfeng; Karsch, Kevin; Miles, Judith

    2009-02-01

    A number of studies have documented that autism has a neurobiological basis, but the anatomical extent of these neurobiological abnormalities is largely unknown. In this study, we aimed at analyzing highly localized shape abnormalities of the corpus callosum in a homogeneous group of autism children. Thirty patients with essential autism and twenty-four controls participated in this study. 2D contours of the corpus callosum were extracted from MR images by a semiautomatic segmentation method, and the 3D model was constructed by stacking the contours. The resulting 3D model had two openings at the ends, thus a new conformal parameterization for high genus surfaces was applied in our shape analysis work, which mapped each surface onto a planar domain. Surface matching among different individual meshes was achieved by re-triangulating each mesh according to a template surface. Statistical shape analysis was used to compare the 3D shapes point by point between patients with autism and their controls. The results revealed significant abnormalities in the anterior most and anterior body in essential autism group.

  19. Prediction of fatique crack growth under flight-simulation loading with the modified CORPUS model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padmadinata, U. H.; Schijve, J.

    1994-01-01

    The CORPUS (Computation Of Retarded Propagation Under Spectrum loading) crack growth prediction model for variable-amplitude loading, as introduced by De Koning, was based on crack closure. It includes a multiple-overload effect and a transition from plane strain to plane stress. In the modified CORPUS model an underload affected zone (ULZ) is introduced, which is significant for flight-simulation loading in view of the once per flight compressive ground load. The ULZ is associated with reversed plastic deformation induced by the underloads after crack closure has already occurred. Predictions of the crack growth fatigue life are presented for a large variety of flight-simulation test series on 2024-T3 sheet specimens in order to reveal the effects of a number of variables: the design stress level, the gust spectrum severity, the truncation level (clipping), omission of small cycles, and the ground stress level. Tests with different load sequences are also included. The trends of the effects induced by the variables are correctly predicted. The quantitative agreement between the predictions and the test results is also satisfactory.

  20. Angiography of the corpus cavernosum penis in the pony stallion during erection and quiescence.

    PubMed

    Bartels, J E; Beckett, S D; Brown, B G

    1984-07-01

    Serial arteriography was used to determine the vascular pattern and blood flow in the penis of the pony stallion. Ponies were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and catheters were surgically introduced into the internal pudendal and obturator arteries. The vascular anatomy was visualized by angiography via image-intensified fluoroscopy and was recorded on 70-mm film at 3 frames/s or by direct radiography. Blood flow into the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) was limited during quiescence because the blood was immediately shunted into the venous system. After vasodilation with mild stimulation from an electroejaculator, there was increased filling of the CCP and corpus spongiosum penis. Contrast medium injected into the internal pudendal artery entered the bulb of the penis during peak erection, but medium injected into the obturator artery could not enter the crus penis during peak erection. The contrast medium stopped in the obturator artery at the edge of the ischiocavernous muscles due to the occlusion of the deep arteries of the penis by contraction of these muscles. When contrast medium was injected directly into the CCP near the glans to outline the body of the penis, there was no evidence of venous outlets along the body.

  1. Ontophyletics of the nervous system: development of the corpus callosum and evolution of axon tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, M J; Lasek, R J; Silver, J

    1983-01-01

    The evolution of nervous systems has included significant changes in the axon tracts of the central nervous system. These evolutionary changes required changes in axonal growth in embryos. During development, many axons reach their targets by following guidance cues that are organized as pathways in the embryonic substrate, and the overall pattern of the major axon tracts in the adult can be traced back to the fundamental pattern of such substrate pathways. Embryological and comparative anatomical studies suggest that most axon tracts, such as the anterior commissure, have evolved by the modified use of preexisting substrate pathways. On the other hand, recent developmental studies suggest that a few entirely new substrate pathways have arisen during evolution; these apparently provided opportunities for the formation of completely new axon tracts. The corpus callosum, which is found only in placental mammals, may be such a truly new axon tract. We propose that the evolution of the corpus callosum is founded on the emergence of a new preaxonal substrate pathway, the "glial sling," which bridges the two halves of the embryonic forebrain only in placental mammals. Images PMID:6577462

  2. Early-life stress, corpus callosum development, hippocampal volumetrics, and anxious behavior in male nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Jackowski, Andrea; Perera, Tarique D; Abdallah, Chadi G; Garrido, Griselda; Tang, Cheuk Y; Martinez, Jose; Mathew, Sanjay J; Gorman, Jack M; Rosenblum, Leonard A; Smith, Eric L P; Dwork, Andrew J; Shungu, Dikoma C; Kaffman, Arie; Gelernter, Joel; Coplan, Jeremy D; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-04-30

    Male bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata) were subjected to the variable foraging demand (VFD) early stress paradigm as infants, MRI scans were completed an average of 4 years later, and behavioral assessments of anxiety and ex-vivo corpus callosum (CC) measurements were made when animals were fully matured. VFD rearing was associated with smaller CC size, CC measurements were found to correlate with fearful behavior in adulthood, and ex-vivo CC assessments showed high consistency with earlier MRI measures. Region of interest (ROI) hippocampus and whole brain voxel-based morphometry assessments were also completed and VFD rearing was associated with reduced hippocampus and inferior and middle temporal gyri volumes. The animals were also characterized according to serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR), and the effect of genotype on imaging parameters was explored. The current findings highlight the importance of future research to better understand the effects of stress on brain development in multiple regions, including the corpus callosum, hippocampus, and other regions involved in emotion processing. Nonhuman primates provide a powerful model to unravel the mechanisms by which early stress and genetic makeup interact to produce long-term changes in brain development, stress reactivity, and risk for psychiatric disorders.

  3. Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides with relaxant effects on the smooth muscle of Guinea pig corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Hnatyszyn, O; Moscatelli, V; Rondina, R; Costa, M; Arranz, C; Balaszczuk, A; Coussio, J; Ferraro, G

    2004-01-01

    Ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. (Asteraceae) showed a significant, dose dependent, relaxant effect on the smooth muscle of corpus cavernosum strips, obtained from Guinea pig (65.5 +/- 4.1% of relaxation at the dose of 25.0 mg/ml). Bioassay guided fractionation of this extract furnished two flavonoids, quercetin and quercetin 3-methyl ether, with important vasorelaxing effects on the corpus cavernosum strips (79.8 +/- 8.4 and 66.0 +/- 4.8% of relaxation respectively at the dose of 0.075 mg/ml). Two methyl derivatives of quercetin obtained by synthesis, quercetin 3,7,3',4'-tetramethylether and quercetin 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethylether, showed similar relaxant effects at the dose of 0.075 mg/ml (86.4 +/- 8.5 and 67.31 +/- 1.4% of relaxation respectively). The results show that the ethanol extract of A. satureioides and the assayed compounds exhibit significant vasorelaxing properties. Additionally, it is shown that the number of methyl groups in the quercetin nucleus has no significant influence on the effectiveness of these compounds.

  4. When voices get emotional: a corpus of nonverbal vocalizations for research on emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Lima, César F; Castro, São Luís; Scott, Sophie K

    2013-12-01

    Nonverbal vocal expressions, such as laughter, sobbing, and screams, are an important source of emotional information in social interactions. However, the investigation of how we process these vocal cues entered the research agenda only recently. Here, we introduce a new corpus of nonverbal vocalizations, which we recorded and submitted to perceptual and acoustic validation. It consists of 121 sounds expressing four positive emotions (achievement/triumph, amusement, sensual pleasure, and relief) and four negative ones (anger, disgust, fear, and sadness), produced by two female and two male speakers. For perceptual validation, a forced choice task was used (n = 20), and ratings were collected for the eight emotions, valence, arousal, and authenticity (n = 20). We provide these data, detailed for each vocalization, for use by the research community. High recognition accuracy was found for all emotions (86 %, on average), and the sounds were reliably rated as communicating the intended expressions. The vocalizations were measured for acoustic cues related to temporal aspects, intensity, fundamental frequency (f0), and voice quality. These cues alone provide sufficient information to discriminate between emotion categories, as indicated by statistical classification procedures; they are also predictors of listeners' emotion ratings, as indicated by multiple regression analyses. This set of stimuli seems a valuable addition to currently available expression corpora for research on emotion processing. It is suitable for behavioral and neuroscience research and might as well be used in clinical settings for the assessment of neurological and psychiatric patients. The corpus can be downloaded from Supplementary Materials.

  5. A familial 7q36.3 duplication associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Wong, Keith; Moldrich, Randal; Hunter, Matthew; Edwards, Matthew; Finlay, David; O'Donnell, Sheridan; MacDougall, Tom; Bain, Nicole; Kamien, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    Small chromosomal duplications involving 7q36.3 have rarely been reported. This clinical report describes four individuals from a three-generation family with agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) and a 0.73 Mb duplication of 7q36.3 detected by array CGH. The 7q36.3 duplication involves two genes: RNA Binding Motif Protein 33 (RBM33) and Sonic Hedgehog (SHH). Most affected family members had mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning, macrocephaly, a broad forehead, and widely spaced eyes. Two individuals had a Chiari type I malformation. This is the first family reported with ACC associated with a small duplication of these genes. While we cannot establish causation for the relationship between any single gene and the ACC in this family, there is a role for SHH in the formation of the corpus callosum through correct patterning and assembly of the commissural plate, and these data concur with vertebrate studies showing that a gain of SHH expands the facial primordium.

  6. Corpus callosum analysis using MDL-based sequential models of shape and appearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmann, Mikkel B.; Davies, Rhodri H.; Ryberg, Charlotte

    2004-05-01

    This paper describes a method for automatically analysing and segmenting the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance images of the brain based on the widely used Active Appearance Models (AAMs) by Cootes et al. Extensions of the original method, which are designed to improve this specific case are proposed, but all remain applicable to other domain problems. The well-known multi-resolution AAM optimisation is extended to include sequential relaxations on texture resolution, model coverage and model parameter constraints. Fully unsupervised analysis is obtained by exploiting model parameter convergence limits and a maximum likelihood estimate of shape and pose. Further, the important problem of modelling object neighbourhood is addressed. Finally, we describe how correspondence across images is achieved by selecting the minimum description length (MDL) landmarks from a set of training boundaries using the recently proposed method of Davies et al. This MDL-approach ensures a unique parameterisation of corpus callosum contour variation, which is crucial for neurological studies that compare reference areas such as rostrum, splenium, et cetera. We present quantitative and qualitative results that show that the method produces accurate, robust and rapid segmentations in a cross sectional study of 17 subjects, establishing its feasibility as a fully automated clinical tool for analysis and segmentation.

  7. MKS1 mutations cause Joubert syndrome with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Bader, Ingrid; Decker, E; Mayr, J A; Lunzer, V; Koch, J; Boltshauser, E; Sperl, W; Pietsch, P; Ertl-Wagner, B; Bolz, H; Bergmann, C; Rittinger, O

    2016-08-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by episodic hyperpnea and apnea, hypotonia, ataxia, cognitive impairment and ocular motor apraxia. The "molar tooth sign" is pathognomonic of this condition. Mutations in the MKS1 gene are a major cause of Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), the most common form of syndromic neural tube defects, frequently resulting in perinatal lethality. We present the phenotype and genotype of a child with severe JS and agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). In our patient, a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach revealed the following two variants of the MKS1 gene: first, a novel missense variant [ c.240G > T (p.Trp80Cys)], which affects a residue that is evolutionarily highly conserved in mammals and ciliates; second, a 29 bp deletion in intron 15 [c.1408-35_1408-7del29], a founder mutation, which in a homozygous state constitutes the major cause of MKS in Finland. We review the MKS1-variants in all of the eleven JS patients reported to date and compare these patients to our case. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with Joubert syndrome and agenesis of the corpus callosum where a potentially causal genotype is provided.

  8. Maps showing textural characteristics of benthic sediments in the Corpus Christi Bay estuarine system, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shideler, Gerald L.; Stelting, Charles E.; McGowen, Joseph H.

    1981-01-01

    Corpus Christi Bay is a heavily used estuary on the south Texas coast in the northwest Gulf of Mexico (fig. 1).  The Bay is stressed by diverse activities which could substantially affect its ecosystem.  Such activities include shipping, resource production (oil, gas, and construction aggregate), commercial and sport fishing, and recreation.  Shipping activities alone have had a substantial impact on the bay.  For example, the past maintenance of navigation channels has required extensive dredging and spoil disposal within the estuarine system.  Numerous subaqueous spoil disposal sites and subaerial spoil banks are present throughout the bay (fig. 1), and the selection of future spoil disposal sites is becoming a critical local problem.  As activities in the bay increase, the need for effective environmental management becomes increasingly important, and effective management necessitates a good understanding of the bay's physical characteristics.  The objective of this study is to provide detailed information about the textural composition of bottom sediments within the estuarine system, information which could be used in making environmental-management decisions.  Visual descriptions of bottom sediments in Corpus Christi Bay and adjacent areas have been presented by McGowen and Morton (1979).  Additionally, a study of the textures of sediments on the Inner Continental Shelf adjacent to the bay has been presented by Shideler and Berryhill (1977).

  9. Behavioral correlates of corpus callosum size: Anatomical/behavioral relationships vary across sex/handedness groups

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Chiarello, Christine; Towler, Stephen; Halderman, Laura K.; Otto, Ronald; Leonard, Christiana M.

    2009-01-01

    There are substantial individual differences in the size and shape of the corpus callosum and such differences are thought to relate to behavioral lateralization. We report findings from a large scale investigation of relationships between brain anatomy and behavioral asymmetry on a battery of visual word recognition tasks. A sample of 200 individuals was divided into groups on the basis of sex and consistency of handedness. We investigated differences between sex/handedness groups in callosal area and relationships between callosal area and behavioral predictors. Sex/handedness groups did not show systematic differences in callosal area or behavioral asymmetry. However, the groups differed in the relationships between area of the corpus callosum and behavioral asymmetry. Among consistent-handed males, callosal area was negatively related to behavioral laterality. Among mixed-handed males and consistent-handed females, behavioral laterality was not predictive of callosal area. The most robust relationship was observed in mixed-handed females, in whom behavioral asymmetry was positively related to callosal area. Our study demonstrates the importance of considering brain/behavior relationships within sub-populations, as relationships between behavioral asymmetry and callosal anatomy varied across subject groups. PMID:19383501

  10. An Improved Greedy Search Algorithm for the Development of a Phonetically Rich Speech Corpus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin-Song; Nakamura, Satoshi

    An efficient way to develop large scale speech corpora is to collect phonetically rich ones that have high coverage of phonetic contextual units. The sentence set, usually called as the minimum set, should have small text size in order to reduce the collection cost. It can be selected by a greedy search algorithm from a large mother text corpus. With the inclusion of more and more phonetic contextual effects, the number of different phonetic contextual units increased dramatically, making the search not a trivial issue. In order to improve the search efficiency, we previously proposed a so-called least-to-most-ordered greedy search based on the conventional algorithms. This paper evaluated these algorithms in order to show their different characteristics. The experimental results showed that the least-to-most-ordered methods successfully achieved smaller objective sets at significantly less computation time, when compared with the conventional ones. This algorithm has already been applied to the development a number of speech corpora, including a large scale phonetically rich Chinese speech corpus ATRPTH which played an important role in developing our multi-language translation system.

  11. Processing Conventional Conceptual Metaphors in Persian: A Corpus-Based Psycholinguistic Study.

    PubMed

    Golshaie, Ramin; Golfam, Arsalan

    2015-10-01

    Research on the psycholinguistic processing of conceptual metaphors has produced contrasting results in recent years. There have also been criticisms that in experimental studies of metaphor processing, linguistic stimuli are mostly intuition-based and not designed objectively based on the original language use data. To address these issues, we studied the processing of conventional metaphoric expressions in Persian language using corpus data. A reading time experiment was designed to test whether conventional metaphoric expressions activated conceptual metaphors. A corpus of 50 million word tokens was used to study the conventional patterns of metaphoric expressions usages and construct experimental items. Fifty five Persian speakers read a set of scenarios containing non-conventional metaphor, conventional metaphor and non-metaphor expressions on computer and the reading times of the following novel target sentence in each condition were recorded by DMDX stimulus presenter program. Comparing mean reading times using one-way ANOVA revealed that reading target sentence after conventional metaphor scenarios had been significantly faster than non-metaphor scenarios, but slower than non-conventional scenarios. The results show that conventionality has a weakening effect on the strength of metaphoric expressions to activate conceptual metaphors.

  12. MKS1 mutations cause Joubert syndrome with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Bader, Ingrid; Decker, E; Mayr, J A; Lunzer, V; Koch, J; Boltshauser, E; Sperl, W; Pietsch, P; Ertl-Wagner, B; Bolz, H; Bergmann, C; Rittinger, O

    2016-08-01

    Joubert syndrome (JS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by episodic hyperpnea and apnea, hypotonia, ataxia, cognitive impairment and ocular motor apraxia. The "molar tooth sign" is pathognomonic of this condition. Mutations in the MKS1 gene are a major cause of Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS), the most common form of syndromic neural tube defects, frequently resulting in perinatal lethality. We present the phenotype and genotype of a child with severe JS and agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). In our patient, a next generation sequencing (NGS) approach revealed the following two variants of the MKS1 gene: first, a novel missense variant [ c.240G > T (p.Trp80Cys)], which affects a residue that is evolutionarily highly conserved in mammals and ciliates; second, a 29 bp deletion in intron 15 [c.1408-35_1408-7del29], a founder mutation, which in a homozygous state constitutes the major cause of MKS in Finland. We review the MKS1-variants in all of the eleven JS patients reported to date and compare these patients to our case. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with Joubert syndrome and agenesis of the corpus callosum where a potentially causal genotype is provided. PMID:27377014

  13. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Peter; Staudacher, Nina M.; Schachtner, Joerg; Berger, Maria E.; Schillfahrt, Florian; Hauser, Verena; Mueller, Raphael; Skradski, Viktor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA). PMID:27022393

  14. Impaired Levels of Gangliosides in the Corpus Callosum of Huntington Disease Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Di Pardo, Alba; Amico, Enrico; Maglione, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Huntington Disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by broad types of cellular and molecular dysfunctions that may affect both neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations. Among all the molecular mechanisms underlying the complex pathogenesis of the disease, alteration of sphingolipids has been identified as one of the most important determinants in the last years. In the present study, besides the purpose of further confirming the evidence of perturbed metabolism of gangliosides GM1, GD1a, and GT1b the most abundant cerebral glycosphingolipids, in the striatal and cortical tissues of HD transgenic mice, we aimed to test the hypothesis that abnormal levels of these lipids may be found also in the corpus callosum white matter, a ganglioside-enriched brain region described being dysfunctional early in the disease. Semi-quantitative analysis of GM1, GD1a, and GT1b content indicated that ganglioside metabolism is a common feature in two different HD animal models (YAC128 and R6/2 mice) and importantly, demonstrated that levels of these gangliosides were significantly reduced in the corpus callosum white matter of both models starting from the early stages of the disease. Besides corroborating the evidence of aberrant ganglioside metabolism in HD, here, we found out for the first time, that ganglioside dysfunction is an early event in HD models and it may potentially represent a critical molecular change influencing the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:27766070

  15. A multilingual gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition: the Mantra GSC

    PubMed Central

    Clematide, Simon; Akhondi, Saber A; van Mulligen, Erik M; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Objective To create a multilingual gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition. Materials and methods We selected text units from different parallel corpora (Medline abstract titles, drug labels, biomedical patent claims) in English, French, German, Spanish, and Dutch. Three annotators per language independently annotated the biomedical concepts, based on a subset of the Unified Medical Language System and covering a wide range of semantic groups. To reduce the annotation workload, automatically generated preannotations were provided. Individual annotations were automatically harmonized and then adjudicated, and cross-language consistency checks were carried out to arrive at the final annotations. Results The number of final annotations was 5530. Inter-annotator agreement scores indicate good agreement (median F-score 0.79), and are similar to those between individual annotators and the gold standard. The automatically generated harmonized annotation set for each language performed equally well as the best annotator for that language. Discussion The use of automatic preannotations, harmonized annotations, and parallel corpora helped to keep the manual annotation efforts manageable. The inter-annotator agreement scores provide a reference standard for gauging the performance of automatic annotation techniques. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first gold-standard corpus for biomedical concept recognition in languages other than English. Other distinguishing features are the wide variety of semantic groups that are being covered, and the diversity of text genres that were annotated. PMID:25948699

  16. Corpus callosum size is highly heritable in humans, and may reflect distinct genetic influences on ventral and rostral regions.

    PubMed

    Woldehawariat, Girma; Martinez, Pedro E; Hauser, Peter; Hoover, David M; Drevets, Wayne W C; McMahon, Francis J

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical differences in the corpus callosum have been found in various psychiatric disorders, but data on the genetic contributions to these differences have been limited. The current study used morphometric MRI data to assess the heritability of corpus callosum size and the genetic correlations among anatomical sub-regions of the corpus callosum among individuals with and without mood disorders. The corpus callosum (CC) was manually segmented at the mid-sagittal plane in 42 women (healthy, n = 14; major depressive disorder, n = 15; bipolar disorder, n = 13) and their 86 child or adolescent offspring. Four anatomical sub-regions (CC-genu, CC2, CC3 and CC-splenium) and total CC were measured and analyzed. Heritability and genetic correlations were estimated using a variance components method, with adjustment for age, sex, diagnosis, and diagnosis x age, where appropriate. Significant heritability was found for several CC sub-regions (P<0.01), with estimated values ranging from 48% (splenium) to 67% (total CC). There were strong and significant genetic correlations among most sub regions. Correlations between the genu and mid-body, between the genu and total corpus callosum, and between anterior and mid body were all >90%, but no significant genetic correlations were detected between ventral and rostral regions in this sample. Genetic factors play an important role in corpus callosum size among individuals. Distinct genetic factors seem to be involved in caudal and rostral regions, consistent with the divergent functional specialization of these brain areas. PMID:24968245

  17. Comparison of the involvement protein kinase C in agonist-induced contractions in mouse aorta and corpus cavernosum

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Liming; Teixeira, Cleber E; Webb, R. Clinton; Leite, Romulo

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction. However, the role of PKC in erectile function is poorly understood. This study investigated whether PKC mediates agonist-induced contractions in mouse penile tissue (corpora cavernosa). We also compared the effects of PKC activators and inhibitors on contractile responses in mouse corpus cavernosum with those in mouse aorta. Aortic rings and corpus cavernosal strips from C57BL/6J mice was isolated, mounted in the organ bath for isometric tension recording. Our data showed that a PKCα/β selective inhibitor, Gö6976 (10 µM), inhibited phenylephrine and 9,11-dideoxy-11α,9α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F2α (U46619, a thromboxane mimetic)-induced contractions in mouse aorta, reducing the maximum contraction from 123 ± 2% of KCl-induced maximum contraction to 7 ± 2% and 13 ± 1%, respectively. A non-selective PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine (30 µM), also significantly reduced phenylephrine-and U46619-induced maximum contractions in mouse aorta. However, Gö6976 and chelerythrine had no significant effects on phenylephrine-and U46619-induced contractions in corpus cavernosum. Furthermore, a PKC activator, phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate (0.1 µM), significantly increased contractions in aorta (208 ± 14% of KCl-induced maximum contraction) but failed to cause contractions in corpus cavernosum at 1 and 10 µM. Western blot analysis data suggested that protein expression of PKC was similar in aorta and corpus cavernosum. Taken together, our data indicate that PKC does not have a significant role in agonist-induced contractions in mouse corpus cavernosum, whereas it mediates the contractile response to agonists in the aorta. PMID:18614166

  18. Action Unit Models of Facial Expression of Emotion in the Presence of Speech

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Miraj; Cooper, David G.; Cao, Houwei; Gur, Ruben C.; Nenkova, Ani; Verma, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    Automatic recognition of emotion using facial expressions in the presence of speech poses a unique challenge because talking reveals clues for the affective state of the speaker but distorts the canonical expression of emotion on the face. We introduce a corpus of acted emotion expression where speech is either present (talking) or absent (silent). The corpus is uniquely suited for analysis of the interplay between the two conditions. We use a multimodal decision level fusion classifier to combine models of emotion from talking and silent faces as well as from audio to recognize five basic emotions: anger, disgust, fear, happy and sad. Our results strongly indicate that emotion prediction in the presence of speech from action unit facial features is less accurate when the person is talking. Modeling talking and silent expressions separately and fusing the two models greatly improves accuracy of prediction in the talking setting. The advantages are most pronounced when silent and talking face models are fused with predictions from audio features. In this multi-modal prediction both the combination of modalities and the separate models of talking and silent facial expression of emotion contribute to the improvement. PMID:25525561

  19. Mandibular corpus strain in primates: further evidence for a functional link between symphyseal fusion and jaw-adductor muscle force.

    PubMed

    Hylander, W L; Ravosa, M J; Ross, C F; Johnson, K R

    1998-11-01

    Previous work indicates that compared to adult thick-tailed galagos, adult long-tailed macaques have much more bone strain on the balancing-side mandibular corpus during unilateral isometric molar biting (Hylander [1979a] J. Morphol. 159:253-296). Recently we have confirmed in these same two species the presence of similar differences in bone-strain patterns during forceful mastication. Moreover, we have also recorded mandibular bone strain patterns in adult owl monkeys, which are slightly smaller than the galago subjects. The owl monkey data indicate the presence of a strain pattern very similar to that recorded for macaques, and quite unlike that recorded for galagos. We interpret these bone-strain pattern differences to be importantly related to differences in balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force recruitment patterns. That is, compared to galagos, macaques and owl monkeys recruit relatively more balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force during forceful mastication. Unlike an earlier study (Hylander [1979b] J. Morphol. 160:223-240), we are unable to estimate the actual amount of working-side muscle force relative to balancing-side muscle force (i.e., the W/B muscle force ratio) in these species because we have no reliable estimate of magnitude, direction, and precise location of the bite force during mastication. A comparison of the mastication data with the earlier data recorded during isometric molar biting, however, supports the hypothesis that the two anthropoids have a small W/B jaw-adductor muscle force ratio in comparison to thick-tailed galagos. These data also support the hypothesis that increased recruitment of balancing-side jaw-adductor muscle force in anthropoids is functionally linked to the evolution of symphyseal fusion or strengthening. Moreover, these data refute the hypothesis that the recruitment pattern differences between macaques and thick-tailed galagos are due to allometric factors. Finally, although the evolution of symphyseal fusion

  20. A Corpus Based Study on the Use of Preposition of Time "On" and "At" in Argumentative Essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Darina Lokeman; Ali, Juliana; Anthony, Norin Norain Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a corpus-based investigation on English prepositions of time presented in the argumentative essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian secondary students in the MCSAW corpus. The aims were to find out the distribution patterns and the common errors in the use of preposition of time, "on" and "at". This corpus…

  1. Detecting the presence of microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, Judd R. (Inventor); Stoner, Glenn E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms in a sample is determined by culturing microorganisms in a growth medium which is in contact with a measuring electrode and a reference electrode and detecting a change in potential between the electrodes caused by the presence of the microorganisms in the medium with a high impedance potentiometer.

  2. Towards a Computable Data Corpus of Temporal Correlations between Drug Administration and Lab Value Changes

    PubMed Central

    Newe, Axel; Wimmer, Stefan; Neubert, Antje; Becker, Linda; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Ganslandt, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The analysis of electronic health records for an automated detection of adverse drug reactions is an approach to solve the problems that arise from traditional methods like spontaneous reporting or manual chart review. Algorithms addressing this task should be modeled on the criteria for a standardized case causality assessment defined by the World Health Organization. One of these criteria is the temporal relationship between drug intake and the occurrence of a reaction or a laboratory test abnormality. Appropriate data that would allow for developing or validating related algorithms is not publicly available, though. Methods In order to provide such data, retrospective routine data of drug administrations and temporally corresponding laboratory observations from a university clinic were extracted, transformed and evaluated by experts in terms of a reasonable time relationship between drug administration and lab value alteration. Result The result is a data corpus of 400 episodes of normalized laboratory parameter values in temporal context with drug administrations. Each episode has been manually classified whether it contains data that might indicate a temporal correlation between the drug administration and the change of the lab value course, whether such a change is not observable or whether a decision between those two options is not possible due to the data. In addition, each episode has been assigned a concordance value which indicates how difficult it is to assess. This is the first open data corpus of a computable ground truth of temporal correlations between drug administration and lab value alterations. Discussion The main purpose of this data corpus is the provision of data for further research and the provision of a ground truth which allows for comparing the outcome of other assessments of this data with the outcome of assessments made by human experts. It can serve as a contribution towards systematic, computerized ADR detection in

  3. Metaphor, Metonymy, and Their Interaction in the Production of Semantic Approximations by Monolingual Children: A Corpus Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Hernández, Lorena; Duvignau, Karine

    2016-01-01

    The present study looks into the largely unexplored territory of the cognitive underpinnings of semantic approximations in child language. The analysis of a corpus of 233 semantic approximations produced by 101 monolingual French-speaking children from 1;8 to 4;2 years of age leads to a classification of a significant number of them as instances…

  4. Corpus of High School Academic Texts (COHAT): Data-Driven, Computer Assisted Discovery in Learning Academic English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohát, Róbert; Rödlingová, Beata; Horáková, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Corpus of High School Academic Texts (COHAT), currently of 150,000+ words, aims to make academic language instruction a more data-driven and student-centered discovery learning as a special type of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL), emphasizing students' critical thinking and metacognition. Since 2013, high school English as an additional…

  5. Reflections on the Grammatical Category of "Before" "After" and "Since" Introducing Non-Finite "-ing" Clauses: A Corpus Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingshun

    2016-01-01

    English language learners may be confused in identifying the grammatical category of such conjunctive expressions as "before," "after" and "since" introducing non-finite "-ing" clauses. In this article, we will conduct a corpus-based investigation of hypotactic conjunctions and conjunctive prepositions…

  6. A Corpus-Based Lexical Study on Frequency and Distribution of Coxhead's Awl Word Families in Medical Research Articles (RAs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…

  7. A Corpus-Aided Approach in EFL Instruction: A Case Study of Chinese EFL Learners' Use of the Infinitive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    English language corpora, containing the widest possible range of varieties of English, provide empirical date concerning language usage, helping to redefine the notion of "standard" to which language learners should aspire. This paper takes as its theoretical framework an approach to corpus-aided discovery learning in which the central…

  8. Corpus Callosum Size, Reaction Time Speed and Variability in Mild Cognitive Disorders and in a Normative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anstey, Kaarin J.; Mack, Holly A.; Christensen, Helen; Li, Shu-Chen; Reglade-Meslin, Chantal; Maller, Jerome; Kumar, Rajeev; Dear, Keith; Easteal, Simon; Sachdev, Perminder

    2007-01-01

    Intra-individual variability in reaction time increases with age and with neurological disorders, but the neural correlates of this increased variability remain uncertain. We hypothesized that both faster mean reaction time (RT) and less intra-individual RT variability would be associated with larger corpus callosum (CC) size in older adults, and…

  9. Text mining for neuroanatomy using WhiteText with an updated corpus and a new web application

    PubMed Central

    French, Leon; Liu, Po; Marais, Olivia; Koreman, Tianna; Tseng, Lucia; Lai, Artemis; Pavlidis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    We describe the WhiteText project, and its progress towards automatically extracting statements of neuroanatomical connectivity from text. We review progress to date on the three main steps of the project: recognition of brain region mentions, standardization of brain region mentions to neuroanatomical nomenclature, and connectivity statement extraction. We further describe a new version of our manually curated corpus that adds 2,111 connectivity statements from 1,828 additional abstracts. Cross-validation classification within the new corpus replicates results on our original corpus, recalling 67% of connectivity statements at 51% precision. The resulting merged corpus provides 5,208 connectivity statements that can be used to seed species-specific connectivity matrices and to better train automated techniques. Finally, we present a new web application that allows fast interactive browsing of the over 70,000 sentences indexed by the system, as a tool for accessing the data and assisting in further curation. Software and data are freely available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/WhiteText/. PMID:26052282

  10. A Corpus-Based EAP Course for NNS Doctoral Students: Moving from Available Specialized Corpora to Self-Compiled Corpora

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, David; Swales, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of an experimental, innovative course in corpus-informed EAP for doctoral students. Participants were given access to specialized corpora of academic writing and speaking, instructed in the tools of the trade (web- and PC-based concordancers) and gradually inducted into the skills needed to best exploit the data…

  11. How a Corpus-Based Study of the Factors which Influence Collocation Can Help in the Teaching of Business English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Crayton

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I use two case studies to show how corpus linguistics can be used to help in the teaching of business English. Senior managers in global companies often find themselves having to do their job in a foreign language. Given that language is one of the key tools of management, the senior managers are normally very keen to develop a…

  12. Hedges Used in Business Emails: A Corpus Study on the Language Strategy of International Business Communication Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Siwei; Wang, Xuefei

    2014-01-01

    Based on a corpus of 296 authentic business emails produced in computer-mediated business communication from 7 Chinese international trade enterprises, this paper addresses the language strategy applied in CMC (Computer-mediated Communication) by examining the use of hedges. With the emergence of internet, a wider range of hedges are applied…

  13. Transcription and Annotation of a Japanese Accented Spoken Corpus of L2 Spanish for the Development of CAPT Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carranza, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the process of transcribing and annotating spontaneous non-native speech with the aim of compiling a training corpus for the development of Computer Assisted Pronunciation Training (CAPT) applications, enhanced with Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) technology. To better adapt ASR technology to CAPT tools, the recognition…

  14. Epistemological and Interpersonal Stance in a Data Description Task: Findings from a Discipline-Specific Learner Corpus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the stance options used by writers responding to a data description task in the discipline of Statistics. Based on a small learner corpus, it uses inductive qualitative content analysis to explore both the content propositions that students included in their writing, and the ways in which they expressed evaluative stance…

  15. Polysemous Verbs and Modality in Native and Non-Native Argumentative Writing: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Danica; Verdaguer, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    The present study is a corpus-based analysis of a selection of polysemous lexical verbs used to express modality in student argumentative writing. Twenty-three lexical verbs were searched for in three 100,000-word corpora of argumentative essays written in English by American, Filipino and Spanish university students. Concordance lines were…

  16. Assessing English Learners' Knowledge of Semantic Prosody through a Corpus-Driven Design of Semantic Prosody Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadian, Moussa; Yazdani, Hooshang; Darabi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a corpus-driven measure as a method to assess EFL learners' knowledge of semantic prosody. Semantic prosody here is defined as the tendency of some words to occur in a certain semantic environment. For example, the verb "cause" is associated with unpleasant things--death, problem and the like. Subjects were 60…

  17. The subventricular zone continues to generate corpus callosum and rostral migratory stream astroglia in normal adult mice.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jiho; Orosco, Lori; Guo, Fuzheng; Chung, Seung-Hyuk; Bannerman, Peter; Mills Ko, Emily; Zarbalis, Kostas; Deng, Wenbin; Pleasure, David

    2015-03-01

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the CNS, and have many essential functions, including maintenance of blood-brain barrier integrity, and CNS water, ion, and glutamate homeostasis. Mammalian astrogliogenesis has generally been considered to be completed soon after birth, and to be reactivated in later life only under pathological circumstances. Here, by using genetic fate-mapping, we demonstrate that new corpus callosum astrocytes are continuously generated from nestin(+) subventricular zone (SVZ) neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in normal adult mice. These nestin fate-mapped corpus callosum astrocytes are uniformly postmitotic, express glutamate receptors, and form aquaporin-4(+) perivascular endfeet. The entry of new astrocytes from the SVZ into the corpus callosum appears to be balanced by astroglial apoptosis, because overall numbers of corpus callosum astrocytes remain constant during normal adulthood. Nestin fate-mapped astrocytes also flow anteriorly from the SVZ in association with the rostral migratory stream, but do not penetrate into the deeper layers of the olfactory bulb. Production of new astrocytes from nestin(+) NPCs is absent in the normal adult cortex, striatum, and spinal cord. Our study is the first to demonstrate ongoing SVZ astrogliogenesis in the normal adult mammalian forebrain.

  18. [STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CORPUS CALLOSUM IN AFTER-DEATH STATE COMPARED TO INTRA-VITAM MRI IMAGES].

    PubMed

    Boiagina, O

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary results suggest that the corpus callosum is composed of a certain number of stringy formations visualized on macroscopic and microscopic level that we proposed to call commissural funiculi. They are treated as subcallous units of the first order. The purpose of this research is to find out the form of the above-mentioned corpus callosum formations as being displayed on its sagittal profile as well as the extent to which they are displayed. The material used was male and female cerebrum of mature age people, who died for reasons not related to the pathology of the central nervous system. Cerebrum extracted from the skull after being washed was exposed to a two week fixation in 10% formalin solution. The sagittal plane slicer was used for brain dissection. Photo fixation of the medial surface of hemispheres was implemented with a digital camera. It was found out that the sagittal cut of the corpus callosum can be represented as a formation having segmental structure principle. Also, according to our observations, the trunk of the corpus callosum has distinct morphological features of bilateral asymmetry.

  19. Chiari type 1 malformation, corpus callosum agenesis and patent craniopharyngeal canal in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tijssen, Maud Pm; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry Agm

    2016-10-01

    We describe the neuroimaging findings of an 11-year-old boy who presented with mild occipital headache and precocious puberty. This child was found to have a combination of various midline anomalies including a Chiari type 1 malformation, corpus callosum agenesis and patent craniopharyngeal canal with adjacent intracranial dermoid cyst.

  20. "Notice the Similarities between the Two Sets …": Imperative Usage in a Corpus of Upper-Level Student Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neiderhiser, Justine A.; Kelley, Patrick; Kennedy, Kohlee M.; Swales, John M.; Vergaro, Carla

    2016-01-01

    The sparse literature on the use of imperatives in research papers suggests that they are relatively common in a small number of disciplines, but rare, if used at all, in others. The present study addresses the use of imperatives in a corpus of upper-level A-graded student papers from 16 disciplines. A total of 822 papers collected within the past…

  1. A Corpus-Based System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion for Spanish Learners in Taiwan: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hui-Chuan; Chu, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Cheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Compared with English learners, Spanish learners have fewer resources for automatic error detection and revision and following the current integrative Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL), we combined corpus-based approach and CALL to create the System of Error Detection and Revision Suggestion (SEDRS) for learning Spanish. Through…

  2. Role of the nitric oxide pathway and the endocannabinoid system in neurogenic relaxation of corpus cavernosum from biliary cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, M; Sadeghipour, H; Shafaroodi, H; Nezami, B G; Gholipour, T; Hajrasouliha, A R; Tavakoli, S; Nobakht, M; Moore, K P; Mani, A R; Dehpour, A R

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Relaxation of corpus cavernosum, which is mediated by nitric oxide (NO) released from non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) neurotransmission, is critical for inducing penile erection and can be affected by many pathophysiological conditions. However, the peripheral effect of liver cirrhosis on erectile function is as yet unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of biliary cirrhosis on NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum and the possible roles of endocannabinoid and nitric oxide systems in this model. Experimental approach: Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation. Controls underwent sham operation. Four weeks later, strips of corpus cavernosum were mounted in a standard organ bath and NANC-mediated relaxations were obtained by applying electrical field stimulation. Key results: The NANC-mediated relaxation was enhanced in corporal strips from cirrhotic animals. Anandamide potentiated the relaxations in both groups. Either AM251 (CB1 antagonist) or capsazepine (vanilloid VR1 antagonist), but not AM630 (CB2 antagonist), prevented the enhanced relaxations of cirrhotic strips. Either the non-selective NOS inhibitor L-NAME or the selective neuronal NOS inhibitor L-NPA inhibited relaxations in both groups, but cirrhotic groups were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of these agents. Relaxations to sodium nitroprusside (NO donor) were similar in tissues from the two groups. Conclusions and implications: Cirrhosis potentiates the neurogenic relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum probably via the NO pathway and involving cannabinoid CB1 and vanilloid VR1 receptors. PMID:17486141

  3. [STRUCTURE OF HUMAN CORPUS CALLOSUM IN AFTER-DEATH STATE COMPARED TO INTRA-VITAM MRI IMAGES].

    PubMed

    Boiagina, O

    2016-05-01

    Our preliminary results suggest that the corpus callosum is composed of a certain number of stringy formations visualized on macroscopic and microscopic level that we proposed to call commissural funiculi. They are treated as subcallous units of the first order. The purpose of this research is to find out the form of the above-mentioned corpus callosum formations as being displayed on its sagittal profile as well as the extent to which they are displayed. The material used was male and female cerebrum of mature age people, who died for reasons not related to the pathology of the central nervous system. Cerebrum extracted from the skull after being washed was exposed to a two week fixation in 10% formalin solution. The sagittal plane slicer was used for brain dissection. Photo fixation of the medial surface of hemispheres was implemented with a digital camera. It was found out that the sagittal cut of the corpus callosum can be represented as a formation having segmental structure principle. Also, according to our observations, the trunk of the corpus callosum has distinct morphological features of bilateral asymmetry. PMID:27348174

  4. The Polysemy of an "Empty" Prefix: A Corpus-Based Cognitive Semantic Analysis of the Russian Verbal Prefix po-

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Nicholas Lance

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a structured semantic account of the polysemous Russian verbal prefix "po-" within the theoretical framework of cognitive linguistics and using corpus linguistic methods. While scholarly consensus identifies five meanings for "po-" and an additional meaning in conjunction with the suffix--"yva"--, the relationships among…

  5. A Corpus-Based Analysis of Discourse Anaphora in English and Korean: A Neo-Gricean Pragmatic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sok-Hun

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores discourse anaphora in English and Korean by using a neo-Gricean pragmatic approach with corpus-based data. Very little study of Korean discourse anaphora has yet taken place at the inter-sentential level, except works looking at zero anaphor and a logophoric reflexive pronoun "caki" "self." This…

  6. A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Past Tense Auxiliary "Be" in Argumentative Essays of Malaysian ESL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manokaran, Janaki; Ramalingam, Chithra; Adriana, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This research is a corpus-based study of secondary and college ESL Malaysian learner's written work by identifying and classifying the types of errors in the Past Tense Auxiliary "Be". This research studied the past tense auxiliary "be", types of past tense auxiliary "be" errors and frequency of past tense auxiliary…

  7. The Incidence and Effects on Coherence of Marked Themes in Interlanguage Texts: A Corpus-Based Enquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Christopher F.; Christopher, Elsie R.; Mei, Jaquelin Lam Kam

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on how Chinese writers of academic texts in English have a tendency to place topic-fronting devices and logical connectors in sentence-initial position when introducing new information. A corpus of academic writing by Chinese subjects was tagged o detect occurrences of the above. (Author/VWL)

  8. Correlation between Corpus Callosum Sub-Segmental Area and Cognitive Processes in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Martha Beatriz; Concha, Luis; González-Santos, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Juan Jose; Barrios, Fernando Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between structural characteristics (area) and microstructure (apparent diffusion coefficient; ADC) of the corpus callosum (CC) in 57 healthy children aged 7.0 to 9.1 years, with diverse cognitive and academic abilities as well as executive functions evaluated with a neuropsychological battery for children. The CC was manually delineated and sub-segmented into six regions, and their ADC and area were measured. There were no significant differences between genders in the callosal region area or in ADC. The CC area and ADC, mainly of anterior regions, correlated with different cognitive abilities for each gender. Our results suggest that the relationship between cognitive abilities and CC characteristics is different between girls and boys and between the anterior and posterior regions of the CC. Furthermore, these findings strenghten the idea that regardless of the different interhemispheric connectivity schemes per gender, the results of cognitive tasks are very similar for girls and boys throughout childhood. PMID:25170897

  9. William P. van Wagenen and the first corpus callosotomies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Marlon S; Linskey, Mark E; Binder, Devin K

    2008-03-01

    As a trainee of Dr. Harvey Cushing, cofounder and first president of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, and founder of a prestigious international academic fellowship, Dr. William P. van Wagenen is an important figure in the history of neurological surgery. Perhaps less well known or appreciated is his seminal role as the first neurosurgeon to attempt, study, and publish results of the corpus callosotomy procedure for patients with epilepsy, and his collaboration with Andrew J. Akelaitis, which led to the description of some features of "split-brain" patients 2 decades before similar work in the 1960s eventually resulted in a Nobel Prize for Roger W. Sperry in 1981. These contributions firmly establish William P. van Wagenen as one of the founding pioneers in the surgical treatment of patients with epilepsy. PMID:18312112

  10. Harmonic cues for speech segmentation: a cross-linguistic corpus study on child-directed speech.

    PubMed

    Ketrez, F Nihan

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies on the role of vowel harmony in word segmentation are based on artificial languages where harmonic cues reliably signal word boundaries. In this corpus study run on the data available at CHILDES, we investigated whether natural languages provide a learner with reliable segmentation cues similar to the ones created artificially. We observed that in harmonic languages (child-directed speech to thirty-five Turkish and three Hungarian children), but not in non-harmonic ones (child-directed speech to one Farsi and four Polish children), harmonic vowel sequences are more likely to appear within words, and non-harmonic ones mostly appear across word boundaries, suggesting that natural harmonic languages provide a learner with regular cues that could potentially be used for word segmentation along with other cues.

  11. Corpus Callosum Pathology as a Potential Surrogate Marker of Cognitive Impairment in Diffuse Axonal Injury.

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Shiho; Ueda, Keita; Sugihara, Genichi; Yassin, Walid; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse axonal injury is a major form of traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological assessments and high-resolution structural MRI were conducted using T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. This study included 10 patients with diffuse axonal injury (all men, mean age 30.8±10.5 years) and 12 age- and sex-matched normal control participants. Patients with diffuse axonal injury had widespread volume reductions and lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum (CC) compared with controls. Furthermore, cognitive processing speed was associated with reductions in white matter volume and fractional anisotropy in the CC. These findings suggest that CC pathology may be a potential surrogate marker of the cognitive deficits in these patients. PMID:26569151

  12. William P. van Wagenen and the first corpus callosotomies for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Marlon S; Linskey, Mark E; Binder, Devin K

    2008-03-01

    As a trainee of Dr. Harvey Cushing, cofounder and first president of the American Association of Neurological Surgeons, and founder of a prestigious international academic fellowship, Dr. William P. van Wagenen is an important figure in the history of neurological surgery. Perhaps less well known or appreciated is his seminal role as the first neurosurgeon to attempt, study, and publish results of the corpus callosotomy procedure for patients with epilepsy, and his collaboration with Andrew J. Akelaitis, which led to the description of some features of "split-brain" patients 2 decades before similar work in the 1960s eventually resulted in a Nobel Prize for Roger W. Sperry in 1981. These contributions firmly establish William P. van Wagenen as one of the founding pioneers in the surgical treatment of patients with epilepsy.

  13. Grammar and lexicon in individuals with autism: a quantitative analysis of a large Italian corpus.

    PubMed

    Tuzzi, Arjuna

    2009-10-01

    Statistical and linguistic procedures were implemented to analyze a large corpus of texts written by 37 individuals with autism and 92 facilitators (without disabilities), producing written conversations by means of PCs. Such texts were compared and contrasted to identify the specific traits of the lexis of the group of individuals with autism and assess to what extent it differed from the lexis of the facilitators. The purpose of this research was to identify specific language features using statistical procedures to analyze contingency lexical tables that reported on the frequencies of words and grammatical categories in different subcorpora and among different writers. The results support the existence of lexis and distributional patterns of grammatical categories that are characteristic of the written production of individuals with autism and that are different from those of facilitators.

  14. The corpus callosum and empathy in adults with a history of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, E J; Allen, G M; Walshe, M; Allin, M; Murray, R; Rifkin, L; McGuire, P K; Nosarti, C

    2010-07-01

    Reduced posterior corpus callosum (CC) area has been consistently observed in children and adolescents born very preterm (VPT). CC structural differences are also observed in people diagnosed with empathy disorders. This study examined empathy in relation to CC size in VPT adults and controls. CC area was manually measured for 17 VPT adults and 9 controls. Participants completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980) and the Empathy Quotient (Baron-Cohen & Wheelwright, 2004). VPT adults had reduced posterior CC area in contrast to controls, and a positive linear trend was observed between posterior CC size and gestational age. No between-group empathy differences were observed, although self-reported personal distress in response to social situations was higher in VPT adults, and negatively associated with anterior CC area. We conclude that VPT adults have a smaller posterior CC, which is associated with gestational age, and elevated social distress, which may be mediated by anterior CC size.

  15. Abnormality of the corpus callosum in coalmine gas explosion-related posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Huabing; Lang, Xu; Zhuo, Chuanjun; Qin, Wen; Zhang, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal corpus callosum (CC) has been reported in childhood trauma-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the nature of white matter (WM) integrity alterations in the CC of young adult-onset PTSD patients is unknown. In this study, 14 victims of a coal mine gas explosion with PTSD and 23 matched coal miners without experiencing the coal mine explosion were enrolled. The differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) within 7 sub-regions of the CC were compared between the two groups. Compared to the controls, PTSD coal miners exhibited significantly reduced FA values in the anterior sub-regions of the CC (P < 0.05, Bonferroni-corrected), which mainly interconnect the bilateral frontal cortices. Our findings indicated that the anterior part of the CC was more severely impaired than the posterior part in young adult-onset PTSD, which suggested the patterns of CC impairment may depend on the developmental stage of the structure when the PTSD occurs.

  16. A two-year longitudinal MRI study of the corpus callosum in autism.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Minshew, Nancy J; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2012-11-01

    A growing body of literature has identified size reductions of the corpus callosum (CC) in autism. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have reported on the growth of CC volumes in youth with autism. Volumes of the total CC and its sub-divisions were obtained from 23 male children with autism and 23 age- and gender-matched controls at baseline and 2-year follow-up. Persistent reductions in total CC volume were observed in participants with autism relative to controls. Only the rostral body subdivision showed a normalization of size over time. Persistent reductions are consistent with the diagnostic stability and life-long impairment observed in many individuals with autism. Multi-modal imaging studies are needed to identify specific fiber tracks contributing to CC reductions.

  17. [Sports practice and body's limits in the Corpus Hippocraticum, Plato and Aristotle].

    PubMed

    García Romero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We deal with ancient Greek texts (above all texts of the Corpus Hippocraticum, Plato and Aristotle) where the training and, in general, the way of life of the professional athletes are blamed, because of several reasons: 1) They are harmful to the health, because health is the consequence of an adequate balance between the four major body humours and between feeding and physical exercises; instead, illness comes when this balance is broken, either for lack or, as in the case of the athletes, due to an excess. 2) Bodies that the professional practice of sport makes, are neither beautiful nor harmonious, but deformed because of the overdeveloped muscles and the overspecialized training. 3) Athletes' way of life and training aim at the development of the physical strength and neglect the development of intellectual and moral qualities.

  18. The influence of coastal wetlands on hurricane surge in Corpus Christi, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Irish, J. L.; Olivera, F.

    2010-12-01

    The State of Texas has historically faced hurricane-related damage episodes, with Ike being the most recent example. It is expected that, in the future, hurricanes will intensify due to climate change causing greater surges, while the attenuating effect of wetlands on storm surges will also be modified due to sea level rise changes in wetland vegetation type and spatial location. Numerical analysis of storm surges is an important instrument to predict and simulate flooding extent and magnitude in coastal areas. Most operational surge models account for the influence of wetlands and other vegetation by momentum loss due to friction at the bottom and by reduction of imposed wind stress. A coupled hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC) and wave model (SWAN) was employed, and wetlands were characterized using Manning’s n, surface canopy, and surface roughness. The wetlands parameters were developed from: 1) the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and 2001; 2) the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) 2001. The calibrated coupled model for two historical hurricanes, Bret and Beulah, was used to simulate the storm surge for each scenario. Preliminary results for the sensitivity analyses, for hurricane Bret, comparing the scenarios with parameters developed from NLCD and NWI datasets with four hypothetical scenarios considering very high and low Manning’s n and wind stress (surface canopy) values showed that, for areas inside Nueces Bay, the storm surge high could vary up to four times depending on the parameter selection, for areas inside Corpus Christi Bay, the storm surge high varied around three times and behind the barrier island the storm surge high variation was less than three times. This study is a first step for an evaluation of the impact that sea level rise, climate changed wetlands, wetlands restoration, land use change, and wetlands degradation have on hurricane related surge elevation and extent in the city of Corpus Christi.

  19. The role of K+ conductances in regulating membrane excitability in human gastric corpus smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Ko, Eun-ju; Ahn, Ki Duck; Kim, Sung

    2015-01-01

    Changes in resting membrane potential (RMP) regulate membrane excitability. K+ conductance(s) are one of the main factors in regulating RMP. The functional role of K+ conductances has not been studied the in human gastric corpus smooth muscles (HGCS). To examine the role of K+ channels in regulation of RMP in HGCS we employed microelectrode recordings, patch-clamp, and molecular approaches. Tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin did not affect the RMP, suggesting that BK channels are not involved in regulating RMP. Apamin, a selective small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel (SK) blocker, did not show a significant effect on the membrane excitability. 4-Aminopyridine, a Kv channel blocker, caused depolarization and increased the duration of slow wave potentials. 4-Aminopyridine also inhibited a delayed rectifying K+ current in isolated smooth muscle cells. End-product RT-PCR gel detected Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 in human gastric corpus muscles. Glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) blocker, did not induce depolarization, but nicorandil, a KATP opener, hyperpolarized HGCS, suggesting that KATP are expressed but not basally activated. Kir6.2 transcript, a pore-forming subunit of KATP was expressed in HGCS. A low concentration of Ba2+, a Kir blocker, induced strong depolarization. Interestingly, Ba2+-sensitive currents were minimally expressed in isolated smooth muscle cells under whole-cell patch configuration. KCNJ2 (Kir2.1) transcript was expressed in HGCS. Unique K+ conductances regulate the RMP in HGCS. Delayed and inwardly rectifying K+ channels are the main candidates in regulating membrane excitability in HGCS. With the development of cell dispersion techniques of interstitial cells, the cell-specific functional significance will require further analysis. PMID:25591864

  20. Disrupted developmental organization of the structural connectome in fetuses with corpus callosum agenesis.

    PubMed

    Jakab, András; Kasprian, Gregor; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde Maria; Mitter, Christian; Prayer, Daniela; Schöpf, Veronika; Langs, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a model disease for disrupted connectivity of the human brain, in which the pathological formation of interhemispheric fibers results in subtle to severe cognitive deficits. Postnatal studies suggest that the characteristic abnormal pathways in this pathology are compensatory structures that emerge via neural plasticity. We challenge this hypothesis and assume a globally different network organization of the structural interconnections already in the fetal acallosal brain. Twenty fetuses with isolated corpus callosum agenesis with or without associated malformations were enrolled and fiber connectivity among 90 brain regions was assessed using in utero diffusion tensor imaging and streamline tractography. Macroscopic scale connectomes were compared to 20 gestational age-matched normally developing fetuses with multiple granularity of network analysis. Gradually increasing connectivity strength and tract diffusion anisotropy during gestation were dominant in antero-posteriorly running paramedian and antero-laterally running aberrant pathways, and in short-range connections in the temporoparietal regions. In fetuses with associated abnormalities, more diffuse reduction of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connectivity was observed than in cases with isolated callosal agenesis. The global organization of anatomical networks consisted of less segregated nodes in acallosal brains, and hubs of dense connectivity, such as the thalamus and cingulate cortex, showed reduced network centrality. Acallosal fetal brains show a globally altered connectivity network structure compared to normals. Besides the previously described Probst and sigmoid bundles, we revealed a prenatally differently organized macroconnectome, dominated by increased connectivity. These findings provide evidence that abnormal pathways are already present during at early stages of fetal brain development in the majority of cerebral white matter. PMID:25725467