Characteristic analysis on UAV-MIMO channel based on normalized correlation matrix.
Gao, Xi jun; Chen, Zi li; Hu, Yong Jiang
2014-01-01
Based on the three-dimensional GBSBCM (geometrically based double bounce cylinder model) channel model of MIMO for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the simple form of UAV space-time-frequency channel correlation function which includes the LOS, SPE, and DIF components is presented. By the methods of channel matrix decomposition and coefficient normalization, the analytic formula of UAV-MIMO normalized correlation matrix is deduced. This formula can be used directly to analyze the condition number of UAV-MIMO channel matrix, the channel capacity, and other characteristic parameters. The simulation results show that this channel correlation matrix can be applied to describe the changes of UAV-MIMO channel characteristics under different parameter settings comprehensively. This analysis method provides a theoretical basis for improving the transmission performance of UAV-MIMO channel. The development of MIMO technology shows practical application value in the field of UAV communication.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khallaf, Haitham S.; Garrido-Balsells, José M.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Sampei, Seiichi
2015-12-01
The performance of multiple-input multiple-output free space optical (MIMO-FSO) communication systems, that adopt multipulse pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived for both cases of uncorrelated and correlated channels. The effects of background noise, receiver shot-noise, and atmospheric turbulence are taken into consideration in our analysis. The random fluctuations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the widely used gamma-gamma statistical distribution. Uncorrelated MIMO channels are modeled by the α-μ distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function of the optical received irradiance is derived for the case of correlated MIMO channels. Using our analytical expressions, the degradation of the system performance with the increment of the correlation coefficients between MIMO channels is corroborated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Zhiping; Yan, Bing
2010-08-01
In multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) wireless systems, combining good channel codes(e.g., Non-binary Repeat Accumulate codes) with adaptive turbo equalization is a good option to get better performance and lower complexity under Spatial Correlated Frequency Selective(SCFS) Channel. The key of this method is after joint antennas MMSE detection (JAD/MMSE) based on interruption cancelling using soft information, considering the detection result as an output of a Gaussian equivalent flat fading channel, and performing maximum likelihood detection(ML) to get more correct estimated result. But the using of ML brings great complexity increase, which is not allowed. In this paper, a low complexity method called list sphere decoding is introduced and applied to replace the ML in order to simplify the adaptive iterative turbo equalization system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.
2015-09-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of compressive sensing (CS) recovery with a prior support and the prior support quality information available. Different from classical works which exploit prior support blindly, we shall propose novel CS recovery algorithms to exploit the prior support adaptively based on the quality information. We analyze the distortion bound of the recovered signal from the proposed algorithm and we show that a better quality prior support can lead to better CS recovery performance. We also show that the proposed algorithm would converge in $\\mathcal{O}\\left(\\log\\mbox{SNR}\\right)$ steps. To tolerate possible model mismatch, we further propose some robustness designs to combat incorrect prior support quality information. Finally, we apply the proposed framework to sparse channel estimation in massive MIMO systems with temporal correlation to further reduce the required pilot training overhead.
Channel capacity of next generation large scale MIMO systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alshammari, A.; Albdran, S.; Matin, M.
2016-09-01
Information rate that can be transferred over a given bandwidth is limited by the information theory. Capacity depends on many factors such as the signal to noise ratio (SNR), channel state information (CSI) and the spatial correlation in the propagation environment. It is very important to increase spectral efficiency in order to meet the growing demand for wireless services. Thus, Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) technology has been developed and applied in most of the wireless standards and it has been very successful in increasing capacity and reliability. As the demand is still increasing, attention now is shifting towards large scale multiple input multiple output (MIMO) which has a potential of bringing orders of magnitude of improvement in spectral and energy efficiency. It has been shown that users channels decorrelate after increasing the number of antennas. As a result, inter-user interference can be avoided since energy can be focused on precise directions. This paper investigates the limits of channel capacity for large scale MIMO. We study the relation between spectral efficiency and the number of antenna N. We use time division duplex (TDD) system in order to obtain CSI using training sequence in the uplink. The same CSI is used for the downlink because the channel is reciprocal. Spectral efficiency is measured for channel model that account for small scale fading while ignoring the effect of large scale fading. It is shown the spectral efficiency can be improved significantly when compared to single antenna systems in ideal circumstances.
Evolution Trends of Wireless MIMO Channel Modeling towards IMT-Advanced
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chong, Chia-Chin; Watanabe, Fujio; Kitao, Koshiro; Imai, Tetsuro; Inamura, Hiroshi
This paper describes an evolution and standardization trends of the wireless channel modeling activities towards IMT-Advanced. After a background survey on various channel modeling approaches is introduced, two well-known multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) channel models for cellular systems, namely, the 3GPP/3GPP2 Spatial Channel Model (SCM) and the IMT-Advanced MIMO Channel Model (IMT-Adv MCM) are compared, and their main similarities are pointed out. The performance of MIMO systems is greatly influenced by the spatial-temporal correlation properties of the underlying MIMO channels. Here, we investigate the spatial-temporal correlation characteristics of the 3GPP/3GPP2 SCM and the IMT-Adv MCM in term of their spatial multiplexing and spatial diversity gains. The main goals of this paper are to summarize the current state of the art, as well as to point out the gaps in the wireless channel modeling works, and thus hopefully to stimulate research in these areas.
Uplink channel estimation error for large scale MIMO system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albdran, Saleh; Alshammari, Ahmad; Matin, Mohammad
2016-09-01
The high demand on the wireless networks and the need for higher data rates are the motivation to develop new technologies. Recently, the idea of using large-scale MIMO systems has grabbed great attention from the researchers due to its high spectral and energy efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the UL channel estimation error using large number of antennas in the base station where the UL channel is based on predefined pilot signal. By making a comparison between the identified UL pilot signal and the received UL signal we can get the realization of the channel. We choose to deal with one cell scenario where the effect of inter-cell interference is eliminated for the sake of studying simple approach. While the number of antennas is very large in the base station side, we choose to have one antennal in the user terminal side. We choose to have two models to generate the channel covariance matrix includes one-ring model and exponential correlation model. Figures of channel estimation error are generated where the performance of the mean square error MSE per antenna is presented as a function signal to noise ratio SNR. The simulation results show that the higher the SNR the better the performance. Furthermore, the affect of the pilot length on the channel estimation error is studied where two different covariance models are used to see the impact of the two cases. In the two cases, the increase of the pilot length has improved the estimation accuracy.
Channel Acquisition for Massive MIMO-OFDM With Adjustable Phase Shift Pilots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
You, Li; Gao, Xiqi; Swindlehurst, A. Lee; Zhong, Wen
2016-03-01
We propose adjustable phase shift pilots (APSPs) for channel acquisition in wideband massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems employing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) to reduce the pilot overhead. Based on a physically motivated channel model, we first establish a relationship between channel space-frequency correlations and the channel power angle-delay spectrum in the massive antenna array regime, which reveals the channel sparsity in massive MIMO-OFDM. With this channel model, we then investigate channel acquisition, including channel estimation and channel prediction, for massive MIMO-OFDM with APSPs. We show that channel acquisition performance in terms of sum mean square error can be minimized if the user terminals' channel power distributions in the angle-delay domain can be made non-overlapping with proper phase shift scheduling. A simplified pilot phase shift scheduling algorithm is developed based on this optimal channel acquisition condition. The performance of APSPs is investigated for both one symbol and multiple symbol data models. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed APSP approach can provide substantial performance gains in terms of achievable spectral efficiency over the conventional phase shift orthogonal pilot approach in typical mobility scenarios.
Efficient Coordinated Recovery of Sparse Channels in Massive MIMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, Mudassir; Afify, Laila H.; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the problem of estimating sparse channels in massive MIMO-OFDM systems. Most wireless channels are sparse in nature with large delay spread. In addition, these channels as observed by multiple antennas in a neighborhood have approximately common support. The sparsity and common support properties are attractive when it comes to the efficient estimation of large number of channels in massive MIMO systems. Moreover, to avoid pilot contamination and to achieve better spectral efficiency, it is important to use a small number of pilots. We present a novel channel estimation approach which utilizes the sparsity and common support properties to estimate sparse channels and require a small number of pilots. Two algorithms based on this approach have been developed which perform Bayesian estimates of sparse channels even when the prior is non-Gaussian or unknown. Neighboring antennas share among each other their beliefs about the locations of active channel taps to perform estimation. The coordinated approach improves channel estimates and also reduces the required number of pilots. Further improvement is achieved by the data-aided version of the algorithm. Extensive simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithms.
Channel Equalization for Single Carrier MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications
2010-01-01
m(k, l) and ˜φn,m(k) are the lth complex fading coefficient and the phase drift of the time-varying subchannel between the nth transducer and the mth...for the two-transducer eight- hydrophone MIMO transmissions with BPSK and QPSK modulations, respectively. Obviously, all subchannels are sparse with two...transducer), its related channel energy is defined as the summation of all related subchannel energies. Then a simple ordering criterion is to compare the
Stable Transmission in the Time-Varying MIMO Broadcast Channel
2008-01-01
to analyze the capacity degradation caused by outdated CSI at the transmitter (CSIT) and receiver ( CSIR ). In an effort to reduce this sensitivity to...the MIMO broadcast channel with erroneous CSIT and CSIR are found in [12] using the duality between the broadcast and multiple-access channels (MAC...perfect CSIR , the error becomes deterministic at the receiver (i.e., the receiver is aware that CSIT is outdated), and therefore both [y j(n0,n) | H j(n
Spatially Common Sparsity Based Adaptive Channel Estimation and Feedback for FDD Massive MIMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhen; Dai, Linglong; Wang, Zhaocheng; Chen, Sheng
2015-12-01
This paper proposes a spatially common sparsity based adaptive channel estimation and feedback scheme for frequency division duplex based massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems, which adapts training overhead and pilot design to reliably estimate and feed back the downlink channel state information (CSI) with significantly reduced overhead. Specifically, a non-orthogonal downlink pilot design is first proposed, which is very different from standard orthogonal pilots. By exploiting the spatially common sparsity of massive MIMO channels, a compressive sensing (CS) based adaptive CSI acquisition scheme is proposed, where the consumed time slot overhead only adaptively depends on the sparsity level of the channels. Additionally, a distributed sparsity adaptive matching pursuit algorithm is proposed to jointly estimate the channels of multiple subcarriers. Furthermore, by exploiting the temporal channel correlation, a closed-loop channel tracking scheme is provided, which adaptively designs the non-orthogonal pilot according to the previous channel estimation to achieve an enhanced CSI acquisition. Finally, we generalize the results of the multiple-measurement-vectors case in CS and derive the Cramer-Rao lower bound of the proposed scheme, which enlightens us to design the non-orthogonal pilot signals for the improved performance. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms its counterparts, and it is capable of approaching the performance bound.
Inter-aperture correlation in MIMO free space optical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Özbilgin, Tuğba; Koca, Mutlu
2015-10-01
We present a unified framework for determining the inter-aperture separations in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) free space optical (FSO) systems such that the transmitter-receiver paths are resolvable. The analysis framework is also useful in determining the amount of spatial correlation for a given set of system configuration parameters and aperture separations. It is applicable to both point apertures and also apertures with larger diameters and can be used at both transmit and receive arrays. We show that the results obtained via theoretical derivations are in good agreement with those in the literature obtained via measurements or simulations. The theoretical calculations reveal that even under strong turbulence conditions and very long link distances, aperture separations at the order of a few tens of centimeters are sufficient to have resolvable paths with independent fading gains. Furthermore, the channel correlations increase relatively slowly with decreasing inter-aperture separations which are below these values. We also provide design guidelines to obtain resolvable paths for several commonly used system configurations.
Bidirectional MIMO Channel Tracking Based on PASTd and Performance Evaluation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ehrenberg, Livnat; Gannot (Eurasipmember), Sharon; Shayevitz, Ofer; Leshem, Amir; Zehavi, Ephraim
2010-12-01
We consider a bidirectional time division duplex (TDD) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication system with time-varying channel and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). A blind bidirectional channel tracking algorithm, based on the projection approximation subspace tracking (PAST) algorithm, is applied in both terminals. The resulting singular value decomposition (SVD) of the channel matrix is then used to approximately diagonalize the channel. The proposed method is applied to an orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-(OFDM-)MIMO setting with a typical indoor time-domain reflection model. The computational cost of the proposed algorithm, compared with other state-of-the-art algorithms, is relatively small. The Kalman filter is utilized for establishing a benchmark for the obtained performance of the proposed tracking algorithm. The performance degradation relative to a full channel state information (CSI) due to the application of the tracking algorithm is evaluated in terms of average effective rate and the outage probability and compared with alternative tracking algorithms. The obtained results are also compared with a benchmark obtained by the Kalman filter with known input signal and channel characteristics. It is shown that the expected degradation in performance of frequency-domain algorithms (which do not exploit the smooth frequency response of the channel) is only minor compared with time-domain algorithms in a range of reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The proposed bidirectional frequency-domain tracking algorithm, proposed in this paper, is shown to attain communication rates close to the benchmark and to outperform a competing algorithm. The paper is concluded by evaluating the proposed blind tracking method in terms of the outage probability and the symbol error rate (SER) versus. SNR for binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and 4-Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad Ansari, Ejaz; Rajatheva, Nandana
Although the topic of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) over different fading channels is well investigated, its closed form symbol error rate (SER) expressions and performance results employing orthogonal space time block codes (OSTBCs) over uncorrelated frequency-selective Nakagami-m fading channels are still not available. The closed form expressions are extremely useful for evaluating system's performance without carrying out time consuming simulations. Similarly, the performance results are also quite beneficial for determining the system's performance in the sense that many practical wireless standards extensively employ MIMO-OFDM systems in conjunction with M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) constellation. This paper thus, derives exact closed form expressions for the SER of M-ary Gray-coded one and two dimensional constellations when an OSTBC is employed and Nt transmit antennas are selected for transmission over frequency-selective Nakagami-m fading channels. For this purpose, first an exact closed-form of average SER expression of OSTBC based MIMO-OFDM system for M-ary phase shift keying (M-PSK) using traditional probability density function (PDF) approach is derived. We then compute exact closed form average SER expressions for M-ary pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM) and M-QAM schemes by utilizing this generalized result. These expressions are valid over both frequency-flat and frequency-selective Nakagami-m fading MIMO channels and can easily be evaluated without using any numerical integration methods. We also show that average SER of MIMO-OFDM system using OSTBC in case of frequency-selective Rayleigh fading channels remains independent to the number of taps, L of that fading channel and the performance of the same system for two-tap un-correlated Rayleigh and Nakagami-m fading channels is better than that of the correlated one. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulation of MIMO-OFDM system
A CORDIC based FFT processor for MIMO channel emulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiong, Yanwei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Ping
2013-03-01
With the advent of Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) systems, the system performance is highly dependent on the accurate representation of the channel condition that causes the wireless channel emulation to become increasingly important. The conventional Finite Impulse Response (FIR) based emulator has a high real-time but the complexity rapidly becomes impractical for larger array sizes. However, the frequency domain approach can avoid this problem and reduce the complexity for higher order arrays. The complexity comparison between in time domain and in frequency domain is made in this paper. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) as an important component of signal processing in frequency domain is briefly introduced and an FGPA system architecture based on CORDIC algorithm is proposed. The full design is implemented in Xilinx's Virtex-5.
Kumar, Ravi
2014-01-01
Semiblind channel estimation method provides the best trade-off in terms of bandwidth overhead, computational complexity and latency. The result after using multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems shows higher data rate and longer transmit range without any requirement for additional bandwidth or transmit power. This paper presents the detailed analysis of diversity coding techniques using MIMO antenna systems. Different space time block codes (STBCs) schemes have been explored and analyzed with the proposed higher code rate. STBCs with higher code rates have been simulated for different modulation schemes using MATLAB environment and the simulated results have been compared in the semiblind environment which shows the improvement even in highly correlated antenna arrays and is found very close to the condition when channel state information (CSI) is known to the channel. PMID:24688379
Kumar, Ravi; Saxena, Rajiv
2014-01-01
Semiblind channel estimation method provides the best trade-off in terms of bandwidth overhead, computational complexity and latency. The result after using multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems shows higher data rate and longer transmit range without any requirement for additional bandwidth or transmit power. This paper presents the detailed analysis of diversity coding techniques using MIMO antenna systems. Different space time block codes (STBCs) schemes have been explored and analyzed with the proposed higher code rate. STBCs with higher code rates have been simulated for different modulation schemes using MATLAB environment and the simulated results have been compared in the semiblind environment which shows the improvement even in highly correlated antenna arrays and is found very close to the condition when channel state information (CSI) is known to the channel.
Channel estimation based on quantized MMP for FDD massive MIMO downlink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yao-ting; Wang, Bing-he; Qu, Yi; Cai, Hua-jie
2016-10-01
In this paper, we consider channel estimation for Massive MIMO systems operating in frequency division duplexing mode. By exploiting the sparsity of propagation paths in Massive MIMO channel, we develop a compressed sensing(CS) based channel estimator which can reduce the pilot overhead. As compared with the conventional least squares (LS) and linear minimum mean square error(LMMSE) estimation, the proposed algorithm is based on the quantized multipath matching pursuit - MMP - reduced the pilot overhead and performs better than other CS algorithms. The simulation results demonstrate the advantage of the proposed algorithm over various existing methods including the LS, LMMSE, CoSaMP and conventional MMP estimators.
Modeling of multi-channel MIMO-VLC systems in the indoor environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowalczyk, Marcin
2016-09-01
The article presents a concept of simultaneous using multiple channels for data transmission (an approach MIMO- multiple input multiple output) in the visible light communication systems (VLC), which are considered here as their implementation inside buildings, in the aspect of their numerical modeling. There was presented both a mathematical description (a model) of such systems as well as obtained on this basis results in relation to the instances of MIMO-VLC system with two and four channels, respectively. The so-called non-imaging detectors were used at the receiver side . Obtained results allowed to gain a few valuable conclusions that were included in the last section of article.
Design and evaluation of an IDM-based MIMO FSO system over Gamma-Gamma turbulence channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Chenglei; Zhou, Xiaolin; Zheng, Xiaowei; Du, Jianhong
2011-12-01
In this paper, we design an interleave-division-multiplexing (IDM) based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optics (FSO) communication system. The system overcomes problems harassing conventional optical MIMO systems such as restrictions of antenna number and high complexity in receiver. An iterative on-off keying (OOK) modulated IDM MIMO detection algorithm is developed. Expression of an upper bound of frame-error-rate (FER) is derived. In addition, we evaluate the BER performance of the proposed optical MIMO scheme in various FSO scenarios. Simulations confirm that the proposed scheme can effectively increase the feasibility of FSO communications over Gamma-Gamma turbulence-induced fading channels.
Performance evaluation and channel modeling of MIMO free space optical communication system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Tianping; Lu, Yimin; Lu, Gang; Peng, Kai
2005-11-01
Free space optical communication systems represent one of the most promising approaches for addressing the emerging broadband access market, it can provide high bandwidth with no physical contact, but are hampered by signal fading effects due to particulate scattering caused by atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we propose a new channel model of MIMO free space optical communication system. The physics meaning of this model is very clear, and its format is very simple. Mathematic results show that MIMO is a very effective way for intensity fluctuation reduction induced by turbulence, thus reduce the bit-error-rate of the system.
A Chaos MIMO Transmission Scheme for Channel Coding and Physical-Layer Security
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okamoto, Eiji
In recent wireless communication systems, security is ensured mainly in the upper-layer techniques such as a password or a cryptography processing. However, security needs not be restricted to the upper-layer and the addition of physical-layer security also would yield a much more robust system. Therefore, in this paper, we exploit chaos communication and propose a chaos multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission scheme which achieves physical-layer security and additional channel-coding gain. A chaotic modulation symbol is multiplied to the data to be transmitted at each MIMO antenna to exploit the MIMO antenna diversity, and at the receiver, the joint MIMO detection and chaos decoding is done by maximum likelihood decoding (MLD). The conventional chaos modulation suffers from bit error rate (BER) performance degradation, while the coding gain is obtained in the proposed scheme by the chaos modulation in MIMO. We evaluate the performances of the proposed scheme by an analysis and computer simulations.
A Low-Complexity Transceiver Design in Sparse Multipath Massive MIMO Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yuehua; Wang, Peng; Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka
2016-10-01
In this letter, we develop a low-complexity transceiver design, referred to as semi-random beam pairing (SRBP), for sparse multipath massive MIMO channels. By exploring a sparse representation of the MIMO channel in the virtual angular domain, we generate a set of transmit-receive beam pairs in a semi-random way to support the simultaneous transmission of multiple data streams. These data streams can be easily separated at the receiver via a successive interference cancelation (SIC) technique, and the power allocation among them are optimized based on the classical waterfilling principle. The achieved degree of freedom (DoF) and capacity of the proposed approach are analyzed. Simulation results show that, compared to the conventional singular value decomposition (SVD)-based method, the proposed transceiver design can achieve near-optimal DoF and capacity with a significantly lower computational complexity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pottkotter, Andrew
Communication transmission between electronic devices is evolving at an ever faster pace. There are now more electronic handheld devices that we communicate with on a daily basis. The allotted bandwidth and speed for these devices are limited by hardware, software, handshaking capabilities between each electronic application. The demand for information at high data rates without the loss of reliability has evolved antenna technology and digital signal processing into more complex systems utilizing multiple processors and multiple antennas. This paper discusses the various techniques used to increase data speed, enhance channel capacity, and reliability of application specific devices with respect to the Multiple-Input-to-Multiple-Output (MIMO) based methods. MIMO based applications can improve the data speed, channel capacity, and reliability of the system with maximum limitations based on hardware, coding schemes, and handshaking abilities between devices.
Time-Frequency Based Channel Estimation for High-Mobility OFDM Systems-Part I: MIMO Case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Önen, Erol; Akan, Aydın; Chaparro, LuisF
2010-12-01
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems hold the potential to drastically improve the spectral efficiency and link reliability in future wireless communications systems. A particularly promising candidate for next-generation fixed and mobile wireless systems is the combination of MIMO technology with Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM has become the standard method because of its advantages over single carrier modulation schemes on multipath, frequency selective fading channels. Doppler frequency shifts are expected in fast-moving environments, causing the channel to vary in time, that degrades the performance of OFDM systems. In this paper, we present a time-varying channel modeling and estimation method based on the Discrete Evolutionary Transform to obtain a complete characterization of MIMO-OFDM channels. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared on different levels of channel noise and Doppler frequency shifts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hajjarian, Zeinab; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir
2010-01-01
Free Space Optical (FSO) communications is the only practical candidate for realizing universal network coverage between ground and airborne nodes, satellites, and even moon and other nearby planets. When atmosphere (be it the earth or Mars) is a part of the optical channel, attributes of scattering and turbulence bring about amplitude attenuation, and scintillation, as well as beam wander and phase aberrations at the receiving aperture. Phase screens are usually used in order to simulate the atmospheric fading channel and phase fluctuations. In this paper, different methods of generating phase screens are compared based on their accuracy and computational complexity, as in most computer simulations, a large ensemble of phase screens are required for averaging purposes. To combat the focal plane intensity fading, caused by amplitude and phase variations in the received wave-front, it is possible to replace the Single Input-Single Output (SISO) communications system with its Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) equivalent, which has the same total transmit power and receiving aperture area. Another alternative is to equip the receiver with a state of the art Adaptive Optics (AO) correction system. Using average Bit Error Rate (BER), as a performance metric, effectiveness of these two approaches are compared and it is shown that while a MIMO configuration outperforms a basic AO system capable of only tilt corrections, an ideal AO system, which is able to remove higher orders of Zernike modes can asymptotically perform as well as an equivalent MIMO configuration.
Analysis of a Near Field MIMO Wireless Channel Using 5.6 GHz Dipole Antennas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maricar, Mohamed Ismaeel; Gradoni, Gabriele; Greedy, Steve; Ivrlac, Michel T.; Nossek, Josef A.; Phang, Sendy; Creagh, Stephen C.; Tanner, Gregor; Thomas, David W. P.
2016-05-01
Understanding the impact of interference upon the performance of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) based device is of paramount importance in ensuring a design is both resilient and robust. In this work the effect of element-element interference in the creation of multiple channels of a wireless link approaching the near-field regime is studied. The elements of the 2-antenna transmit- and receive-arrays are chosen to be identical folded dipole antennas operating at 5.6 GHz. We find that two equally strong channels can be created even if the antennas interact at sub-wavelength distances, thus confirming previous theoretical predictions.
Achievable degrees of freedom of MIMO two-way relay interference channel with delayed CSIT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qingyun; Wu, Gang; Li, Shaoqian
2016-10-01
In this paper, assuming each node has delayed channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), we investigate the achievable degrees of freedom (DOF) of MIMO two-way relay interference channel in frequency division duplex (FDD) systems, where there are K user pairs (i.e., 2K users) and each user in a user pair exchanges messages with the other user in the same user pair simultaneously via an intermediate relay. We propose a two-stage transmission scheme and derive the closed-form expressions for its achievable DOF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tran, Gia Khanh; Dao, Nguyen Dung; Sakaguchi, Kei; Araki, Kiyomichi; Iwai, Hiroshi; Sakata, Tsutomu; Ogawa, Koichi
This paper illustrates a large-scale MIMO propagation channel measurement in a real life environment and evaluates throughput performance of various MIMO schemes in that environment. For that purpose, 4 × 4 MIMO transceivers and a novel spatial scanner are fabricated for wideband MIMO channel measurements in the 5GHz band. A total of more than 50, 000 spatial samples in an area of 150m2, which includes a bedroom, a Japanese room, a hallway, and the living and dining areas, are taken in a real residential home environment. Statistical properties of the propagation channel and throughput performance of various MIMO schemes are evaluated by using measured data. Propagation measurement results show large dynamic channel variations occurring in a real environment in which statistical properties of the channel, such as frequency correlation and spatial correlation are not stationary any more, and become functions of the SNR. Furthermore, evaluation of throughput shows that although MIMO schemes outperform the SISO system in most areas, open loop systems perform badly in the far areas with low SNR. Paying for the cost of CSI or partial CSI at Tx, closed loop and hybrid systems have superior performance compared to other schemes, especially in reasonable SNR areas ranging from 10dB to 30dB. Spatial correlation, which is common in Japanese wooden residences, is also found to be a dominant factor causing throughput degradation of the open loop MIMO schemes.
Power Scaling of Uplink Massive MIMO Systems With Arbitrary-Rank Channel Means
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Qi; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Zhu, Hongbo; Matthaiou, Michail
2014-10-01
This paper investigates the uplink achievable rates of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna systems in Ricean fading channels, using maximal-ratio combining (MRC) and zero-forcing (ZF) receivers, assuming perfect and imperfect channel state information (CSI). In contrast to previous relevant works, the fast fading MIMO channel matrix is assumed to have an arbitrary-rank deterministic component as well as a Rayleigh-distributed random component. We derive tractable expressions for the achievable uplink rate in the large-antenna limit, along with approximating results that hold for any finite number of antennas. Based on these analytical results, we obtain the scaling law that the users' transmit power should satisfy, while maintaining a desirable quality of service. In particular, it is found that regardless of the Ricean $K$-factor, in the case of perfect CSI, the approximations converge to the same constant value as the exact results, as the number of base station antennas, $M$, grows large, while the transmit power of each user can be scaled down proportionally to $1/M$. If CSI is estimated with uncertainty, the same result holds true but only when the Ricean $K$-factor is non-zero. Otherwise, if the channel experiences Rayleigh fading, we can only cut the transmit power of each user proportionally to $1/\\sqrt M$. In addition, we show that with an increasing Ricean $K$-factor, the uplink rates will converge to fixed values for both MRC and ZF receivers.
Bayes-Optimal Joint Channel-and-Data Estimation for Massive MIMO With Low-Precision ADCs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Chao-Kai; Wang, Chang-Jen; Jin, Shi; Wong, Kai-Kit; Ting, Pangan
2016-05-01
This paper considers a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) receiver with very low-precision analog-to-digital convertors (ADCs) with the goal of developing massive MIMO antenna systems that require minimal cost and power. Previous studies demonstrated that the training duration should be {\\em relatively long} to obtain acceptable channel state information. To address this requirement, we adopt a joint channel-and-data (JCD) estimation method based on Bayes-optimal inference. This method yields minimal mean square errors with respect to the channels and payload data. We develop a Bayes-optimal JCD estimator using a recent technique based on approximate message passing. We then present an analytical framework to study the theoretical performance of the estimator in the large-system limit. Simulation results confirm our analytical results, which allow the efficient evaluation of the performance of quantized massive MIMO systems and provide insights into effective system design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhao; Furukawa, Hiroshi
Vector Coding (VC) is a novel vector modulation scheme that partitions a SISO (Single-Input Single-Output) channel into orthogonal subchannels by singular value decomposition (SVD). Because the orthogonal transmissions enabled by VC cannot cope with inter block interference (IBI) that is inevitable in delay spread channels, this paper proposes an IBI cancelling demodulator which can remove IBI by an iterative technique. We also show that code elimination in which insignificant eigencodes with lowermost eigenvalues are intentionally removed from transmission vectors greatly reduces BER (Bit Error Rate). The VC which utilizes the IBI cancelling demodulator and code elimination to reduce BER is compared with the original VC in not only delay spread SISO channels but also delay spread MIMO (Multi-Input Multi-Output) channels while emphasis is placed on the MIMO cases. Simulation results show that, under a predetermined BER, the enhanced MIMO-VC can improve effective transmission rate than the natural extension of VC to delay spread MIMO channels.
Gui, Guan; Chen, Zhang-xin; Xu, Li; Wan, Qun; Huang, Jiyan; Adachi, Fumiyuki
2014-01-01
Channel estimation problem is one of the key technical issues in sparse frequency-selective fading multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) scheme. To estimate sparse MIMO channels, sparse invariable step-size normalized least mean square (ISS-NLMS) algorithms were applied to adaptive sparse channel estimation (ACSE). It is well known that step-size is a critical parameter which controls three aspects: algorithm stability, estimation performance, and computational cost. However, traditional methods are vulnerable to cause estimation performance loss because ISS cannot balance the three aspects simultaneously. In this paper, we propose two stable sparse variable step-size NLMS (VSS-NLMS) algorithms to improve the accuracy of MIMO channel estimators. First, ASCE is formulated in MIMO-OFDM systems. Second, different sparse penalties are introduced to VSS-NLMS algorithm for ASCE. In addition, difference between sparse ISS-NLMS algorithms and sparse VSS-NLMS ones is explained and their lower bounds are also derived. At last, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms for ASCE, several selected simulation results are shown to prove that the proposed sparse VSS-NLMS algorithms can achieve better estimation performance than the conventional methods via mean square error (MSE) and bit error rate (BER) metrics. PMID:25089286
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prabu, K.; Kumar, D. Sriram
2015-05-01
An optical wireless communication system is an alternative to radio frequency communication, but atmospheric turbulence induced fading and misalignment fading are the main impairments affecting an optical signal when propagating through the turbulence channel. The resultant of misalignment fading is the pointing errors, it degrades the bit error rate (BER) performance of the free space optics (FSO) system. In this paper, we study the BER performance of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) FSO system employing coherent binary polarization shift keying (BPOLSK) in gamma-gamma (G-G) channel with pointing errors. The BER performance of the BPOLSK based MIMO FSO system is compared with the single-input single-output (SISO) system. Also, the average BER performance of the systems is analyzed and compared with and without pointing errors. A novel closed form expressions of BER are derived for MIMO FSO system with maximal ratio combining (MRC) and equal gain combining (EGC) diversity techniques. The analytical results show that the pointing errors can severely degrade the performance of the system.
Outage performance of MIMO FSO links over strong turbulence and misalignment fading channels.
García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz
2011-07-04
Atmospheric turbulence produces fluctuations in the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam, which is known as atmospheric scintillation, severely degrading the performance over free-space optical (FSO) links. Additionally, since FSO systems are usually installed on high buildings, building sway causes vibrations in the transmitted beam, leading to an unsuitable alignment between transmitter and receiver and, hence, a greater deterioration in performance. In this paper, the outage probability as a performance measure for multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) FSO communication systems with intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors is analyzed. Novel closed-form expressions for the outage probability as well as their corresponding asymptotic expressions are presented when the irradiance of the transmitted optical beam is susceptible to either strong turbulence conditions, following a negative exponential distribution, and pointing error effects, following a misalignment fading model where the effect of beam width, detector size and jitter variance is considered. Obtained results show that the diversity order is independent of the pointing error when the equivalent beam radius at the receiver is at least twice the value of the pointing error displacement standard deviation at the receiver. Simulation results are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results. Additionally, since proper FSO transmission requires transmitters with accurate control of their beamwidth, asymptotic expressions here obtained for different diversity techniques are used to find the optimum beamwidth that minimizes the outage performance.
Effective capacity of MIMO free-space optical systems over gamma-gamma turbulence channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li; Wang, Weidong
2017-01-01
In this paper, we provide the capacity limits of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical communication (FSO) system in the presence of quality of service (QoS) requirements. Closed-form expression for the effective capacity of MIMO FSO system with equal gain combining (EGC) is derived. In order to provide insights into the impact of various system parameters, asymptotic expressions are further analyzed in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime. Special cases are provided according to the derived results at the same time. Numerical results are given to validate all the analytical results, and the influences of QoS requirements and MIMO configurations are also illustrated.
Pilot Beam Pattern Design for Channel Estimation in Massive MIMO Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noh, Song; Zoltowski, Michael D.; Sung, Youngchul; Love, David J.
2014-10-01
In this paper, the problem of pilot beam pattern design for channel estimation in massive multiple-input multiple-output systems with a large number of transmit antennas at the base station is considered, and a new algorithm for pilot beam pattern design for optimal channel estimation is proposed under the assumption that the channel is a stationary Gauss-Markov random process. The proposed algorithm designs the pilot beam pattern sequentially by exploiting the properties of Kalman filtering and the associated prediction error covariance matrices and also the channel statistics such as spatial and temporal channel correlation. The resulting design generates a sequentially-optimal sequence of pilot beam patterns with low complexity for a given set of system parameters. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
An ICA based MIMO-OFDM VLC scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Fangqing; Deng, Honggui; Xiao, Wei; Tao, Shaohua; Zhu, Kaicheng
2015-07-01
In this paper, we propose a novel ICA based MIMO-OFDM VLC scheme, where ICA is applied to convert the MIMO-OFDM channel into several SISO-OFDM channels to reduce computational complexity in channel estimation, without any spectral overhead. Besides, the FM is first investigated to further modulate the OFDM symbols to eliminate the correlation of the signals, so as to improve the separation performance of the ICA algorithm. In the 4×4MIMO-OFDM VLC simulation experiment, LOS path and NLOS paths are both considered, each transmitting signal at 100 Mb/s. Simulation results show that the BER of the proposed scheme reaches the 10-5 level at SNR=20 dB, which is a large improvement compared to the traditional schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rottenberg, Francois; Mestre, Xavier; Horlin, Francois; Louveaux, Jerome
2017-02-01
The design of linear precoders or decoders for multiuser (MU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) filterbank multicarrier (FBMC) modulations in the case of strong channel frequency selectivity is presented. The users and the base station (BS) communicate using space division multiple access (SDMA). The low complexity proposed solution is based on a single tap per-subcarrier precoding/decoding matrix at the base station (BS) in the downlink/uplink. As opposed to classical approaches that assume flat channel frequency selectivity at the subcarrier level, the BS does not make this assumption and takes into account the distortion caused by channel frequency selectivity. The expression of the FBMC asymptotic mean squared error (MSE) in the case of strong channel selectivity derived in earlier works is developed and extended. The linear precoders and decoders are found by optimizing the MSE formula under two design criteria, namely zero forcing (ZF) or minimum mean squared error (MMSE). Finally, simulation results demonstrate the performance of the optimized design. As long as the number of BS antennas is larger than the number of users, it is shown that those extra degrees of freedom can be used to compensate for the channel frequency selectivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahrens, Andreas; Sandmann, Andre; Bremer, Kort; Roth, Bernhard; Lochmann, Steffen
2015-09-01
In this paper multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing is investigated for fibre optic sensor applications. A (2 × 2) MIMO implementation is realized by using lower-order and higher-order mode groups of a graded-index (GI) multi-mode fibre (MMF) as separate transmission channels. A micro-bending pressure sensor changes these separate transmission characteristics and introduces additional crosstalk. By observing the weight-factors of the MIMO system the amount of load applied was determined. Experiments verified a good correlation between the change of the MIMO weight coefficients and the load applied to the sensor and thus verified that MIMO signal processing can beneficially be used for fibre optic sensor applications.
MIMO decorrelation for visible light communication based on angle optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Haiyong; Zhu, Yijun
2017-03-01
Recently, many researchers have used the normal vector tilting to solve the problems about low rate of multiplexing and channel strong correlation in Visible Light Communication Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (VLC-MIMO) system, but they all lack of the theoretical support. In this paper, we establish a channel model about 2×2 VLC-MIMO, then translate the communication problem about vector tilting optimal angle in a certain range into a mathematical problem about seeking the minimum value of function. Finally, we deduced the mathematic expressions about the optimal tilting angles of corresponding LEDs and PDs, and these expressions will provide a theoretical basis for the further study.
Teleportation-induced correlated quantum channels.
Caruso, F; Giovannetti, V; Palma, G M
2010-01-15
Quantum teleportation of an n-qubit state performed using as an entangled resource a general bipartite state of 2n qubits instead of n Bell states is equivalent to a correlated Pauli channel. This yields a new characterization of such channels in terms of many-body correlation functions of the teleporting media. It provides a relatively simple method for determining whether a correlated quantum channel is able to reliably convey quantum messages by studying the entanglement properties of the teleportation mediating system. Our model is then generalized to the continuous-variable case.
Remote sensing using MIMO systems
Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F; Nguyen, Hung D
2015-04-28
A technique for sensing a moving object within a physical environment using a MIMO communication link includes generating a channel matrix based upon channel state information of the MIMO communication link. The physical environment operates as a communication medium through which communication signals of the MIMO communication link propagate between a transmitter and a receiver. A spatial information variable is generated for the MIMO communication link based on the channel matrix. The spatial information variable includes spatial information about the moving object within the physical environment. A signature for the moving object is generated based on values of the spatial information variable accumulated over time. The moving object is identified based upon the signature.
Quantum Correlations Evolution Asymmetry in Quantum Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Meng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-03-01
It was demonstrated that the entanglement evolution of a specially designed quantum state in the bistochastic channel is asymmetric. In this work, we generalize the study of the quantum correlations, including entanglement and quantum discord, evolution asymmetry to various quantum channels. We found that the asymmetry of entanglement and quantum discord only occurs in some special quantum channels, and the behavior of the entanglement evolution may be quite different from the behavior of the quantum discord evolution. To quantum entanglement, in some channels it decreases monotonously with the increase of the quantum channel intensity. In some other channels, when we increase the intensity of the quantum channel, it decreases at first, then keeps zero for some time, and then rises up. To quantum discord, the evolution becomes more complex and you may find that it evolutes unsmoothly at some points. These results illustrate the strong dependence of the quantum correlations evolution on the property of the quantum channels. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61327901, 61490711, 61225025, 11474268, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. WK2470000018
Millimeter Wave MIMO Channel Estimation Using Overlapped Beam Patterns and Rate Adaptation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokshoorn, Matthew; Chen, He; Wang, Peng; Li, Yonghui; Vucetic, Branka
2017-02-01
This paper is concerned with the channel estimation problem in Millimeter wave (mmWave) wireless systems with large antenna arrays. By exploiting the inherent sparse nature of the mmWave channel, we first propose a fast channel estimation (FCE) algorithm based on a novel overlapped beam pattern design, which can increase the amount of information carried by each channel measurement and thus reduce the required channel estimation time compared to the existing non-overlapped designs. We develop a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to optimally extract the path information from the channel measurements. Then, we propose a novel rate-adaptive channel estimation (RACE) algorithm, which can dynamically adjust the number of channel measurements based on the expected probability of estimation error (PEE). The performance of both proposed algorithms is analyzed. For the FCE algorithm, an approximate closed-form expression for the PEE is derived. For the RACE algorithm, a lower bound for the minimum signal energy-to-noise ratio required for a given number of channel measurements is developed based on the Shannon-Hartley theorem. Simulation results show that the FCE algorithm significantly reduces the number of channel estimation measurements compared to the existing algorithms using non-overlapped beam patterns. By adopting the RACE algorithm, we can achieve up to a 6dB gain in signal energy-to-noise ratio for the same PEE compared to the existing algorithms.
Optimal DoF Region for the Asymmetric Two-Pair MIMO Two-Way Relay Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Kangqi; Tao, Meixia; Yuan, Xiaojun
2017-04-01
In this paper, we study the optimal degrees of freedom (DoF) region for the two-pair MIMO two-way relay channel (TWRC) with asymmetric antenna setting, where two pairs of users exchange information with the help of a common relay. Each user $i$ is equipped with $M_i$ antennas, for $i=1,2,3,4$, and the relay is equipped with $N$ antennas. First, we derive an outer bound of the DoF region by using the cut-set theorem and the genie-message approach. Then, we propose a new transmission scheme to achieve the outer bound of the DoF region. Due to the asymmetric data exchange, where the two users in each pair can communicate a different number of data streams, we not only need to form the network-coded symbols but also need to process the additional asymmetric data streams at the relay. This is realized through the joint design of relay compression matrix and source precoding matrices. After obtaining the optimal DoF region, we study the optimal sum DoF by solving a linear programming problem. From the optimal DoF region of this channel, we show that in the asymmetric antenna setting, some antennas at certain source nodes are redundant and cannot contribute to enlarge the DoF region. We also show that there is no loss of optimality in terms of the sum DoF by enforcing symmetric data exchange, where the two users in each pair are restricted to communicate the same number of data streams.
Maruta, Kazuki; Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Ohta, Atsushi; Arai, Takuto; Shirato, Yushi; Kurosaki, Satoshi; Iizuka, Masataka
2016-01-01
Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G). One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS) dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI) estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity. PMID:27399715
Maruta, Kazuki; Iwakuni, Tatsuhiko; Ohta, Atsushi; Arai, Takuto; Shirato, Yushi; Kurosaki, Satoshi; Iizuka, Masataka
2016-07-08
Drastic improvements in transmission rate and system capacity are required towards 5th generation mobile communications (5G). One promising approach, utilizing the millimeter wave band for its rich spectrum resources, suffers area coverage shortfalls due to its large propagation loss. Fortunately, massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) can offset this shortfall as well as offer high order spatial multiplexing gain. Multiuser MIMO is also effective in further enhancing system capacity by multiplexing spatially de-correlated users. However, the transmission performance of multiuser MIMO is strongly degraded by channel time variation, which causes inter-user interference since null steering must be performed at the transmitter. This paper first addresses the effectiveness of multiuser massive MIMO transmission that exploits the first eigenmode for each user. In Line-of-Sight (LoS) dominant channel environments, the first eigenmode is chiefly formed by the LoS component, which is highly correlated with user movement. Therefore, the first eigenmode provided by a large antenna array can improve the robustness against the channel time variation. In addition, we propose a simplified beamforming scheme based on high efficient channel state information (CSI) estimation that extracts the LoS component. We also show that this approximate beamforming can achieve throughput performance comparable to that of the rigorous first eigenmode transmission. Our proposed multiuser massive MIMO scheme can open the door for practical millimeter wave communication with enhanced system capacity.
Cho, Sunghyun; Choi, Ji-Woong; You, Cheolwoo
2013-01-01
Mobile wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), which consist of mobile sink or sensor nodes and use rich sensing information, require much faster and more reliable wireless links than static wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This paper proposes an adaptive multi-node (MN) multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) transmission to improve the transmission reliability and capacity of mobile sink nodes when they experience spatial correlation. Unlike conventional single-node (SN) MIMO transmission, the proposed scheme considers the use of transmission antennas from more than two sensor nodes. To find an optimal antenna set and a MIMO transmission scheme, a MN MIMO channel model is introduced first, followed by derivation of closed-form ergodic capacity expressions with different MIMO transmission schemes, such as space-time transmit diversity coding and spatial multiplexing. The capacity varies according to the antenna correlation and the path gain from multiple sensor nodes. Based on these statistical results, we propose an adaptive MIMO mode and antenna set switching algorithm that maximizes the ergodic capacity of mobile sink nodes. The ergodic capacity of the proposed scheme is compared with conventional SN MIMO schemes, where the gain increases as the antenna correlation and path gain ratio increase. PMID:24152920
Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.
2016-10-01
We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.
Massive MIMO for Wireless Sensing With a Coherent Multiple Access Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Feng; Chen, Jie; Swindlehurst, A. Lee; Lopez-Salcedo, Jose A.
2015-06-01
We consider the detection and estimation of a zero-mean Gaussian signal in a wireless sensor network with a coherent multiple access channel, when the fusion center (FC) is configured with a large number of antennas and the wireless channels between the sensor nodes and FC experience Rayleigh fading. For the detection problem, we study the Neyman-Pearson (NP) Detector and Energy Detector (ED), and find optimal values for the sensor transmission gains. For the NP detector which requires channel state information (CSI), we show that detection performance remains asymptotically constant with the number of FC antennas if the sensor transmit power decreases proportionally with the increase in the number of antennas. Performance bounds show that the benefit of multiple antennas at the FC disappears as the transmit power grows. The results of the NP detector are also generalized to the linear minimum mean squared error estimator. For the ED which does not require CSI, we derive optimal gains that maximize the deflection coefficient of the detector, and we show that a constant deflection can be asymptotically achieved if the sensor transmit power scales as the inverse square root of the number of FC antennas. Unlike the NP detector, for high sensor power the multi-antenna ED is observed to empirically have significantly better performance than the single-antenna implementation. A number of simulation results are included to validate the analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O.; Ahmadi, Vahid; Leitgeb, Erich
In this paper, we analyse the error performance of transmitter/receiver array free-space optical (FSO) communication system employing binary phase shift keying (BPSK) subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) in clear but turbulent atmospheric channel. Subcarrier modulation is employed to eliminate the need for adaptive threshold detector. Direct detection is employed at the receiver and each subcarrier is subsequently demodulated coherently. The effect of irradiance fading is mitigated with an array of lasers and photodetectors. The received signals are linearly combined using the optimal maximum ratio combining (MRC), the equal gain combining (EGC) and the selection combining (SelC). The bit error rate (BER) equations are derived considering additive white Gaussian noise and log normal intensity fluctuations. This work is part of the EU COST actions and EU projects.
MIMO Precoding for Networked Control Systems with Energy Harvesting Sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Songfu; Lau, Vincent K. N.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we consider a MIMO networked control system with an energy harvesting sensor, where an unstable MIMO dynamic system is connected to a controller via a MIMO fading channel. We focus on the energy harvesting and MIMO precoding design at the sensor so as to stabilize the unstable MIMO dynamic plant subject to the energy availability constraint at the sensor. Using the Lyapunov optimization approach, we propose a closed-form dynamic energy harvesting and dynamic MIMO precoding solution, which has an event-driven control structure. Furthermore, the MIMO precoding solution is shown to have an eigenvalue water-filling structure, where the water level depends on the state estimation covariance, energy queue and the channel state, and the sea bed level depends on the state estimation covariance. The proposed scheme is also compared with various baselines and we show that significant performance gains can be achieved.
Spatial variability of correlated color temperature of lightning channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimoji, Nobuaki; Aoyama, Ryoma; Hasegawa, Wataru
In this paper, we present the spatial variability of the correlated color temperature of lightning channel shown in a digital still image. In order to analyze the correlated color temperature, we calculated chromaticity coordinates of the lightning channels in the digital still image. From results, the spatial variation of the correlated color temperature of the lightning channel was confirmed. Moreover, the results suggest that the correlated color temperature and peak current of the lightning channels are related to each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Xiaoming; Cai, Yueming; Yang, Weiwei
2013-09-01
This paper focuses on the downlink dual-hop multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems that employ the maximal-ratio transmission and receive antenna selection scheme (MRT&RAS) for use in each hop. The system under consideration is equipped with arbitrary NS, NR, and ND antennas at the base station (BS), relay station (RS), and mobile station (MS), respectively. The system performance has been investigated over Nakagami-m fading in presence of independent but not necessarily identically distributed co-channel interferences (CCIs) at both the RS and MS. First, we derive an accurate closed-form approximate expression for the outage probability and a single-integral expression for the average symbol error rate (SER), respectively. Besides, to render direct insights into the combined effect of multiple-antenna and interference on the system performance, the asymptotic expressions for the outage probability and the average SER are also presented. Furthermore, we determine the optimal power allocation (OPA) by using the exact and asymptotic methods, respectively, such that the outage probability is minimized. Finally, numerical results validate the correctness of the derived expressions and show that OPA offers superior performance over uniform power allocation. Our analysis and results provide insights on investigating and optimizing the performance of the downlink MIMO relay transmission in practical interference-limited wireless networks.
GPUbased, Microsecond Latency, HectoChannel MIMO Feedback Control of Magnetically Confined Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rath, Nikolaus
Feedback control has become a crucial tool in the research on magnetic confinement of plasmas for achieving controlled nuclear fusion. This thesis presents a novel plasma feedback control system that, for the first time, employs a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for microsecond-latency, real-time control computations. This novel application area for GPU computing is opened up by a new system architecture that is optimized for low-latency computations on less than kilobyte sized data samples as they occur in typical plasma control algorithms. In contrast to traditional GPU computing approaches that target complex, high-throughput computations with massive amounts of data, the architecture presented in this thesis uses the GPU as the primary processing unit rather than as an auxiliary of the CPU, and data is transferred from A-D/D-A converters directly into GPU memory using peer-to-peer PCI Express transfers. The described design has been implemented in a new, GPU-based control system for the High-Beta Tokamak - Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) device. The system is built from commodity hardware and uses an NVIDIA GeForce GPU and D-TACQ A-D/D-A converters providing a total of 96 input and 64 output channels. The system is able to run with sampling periods down to 4 μs and latencies down to 8 μs. The GPU provides a total processing power of 1.5 x 1012 floating point operations per second. To illustrate the performance and versatility of both the general architecture and concrete implementation, a new control algorithm has been developed. The algorithm is designed for the control of multiple rotating magnetic perturbations in situations where the plasma equilibrium is not known exactly and features an adaptive system model: instead of requiring the rotation frequencies and growth rates embedded in the system model to be set a priori, the adaptive algorithm derives these parameters from the evolution of the perturbation amplitudes themselves. This results in non-linear control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takanashi, Masaki; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Ohgane, Takeo
Ultrawide-band impulse radio (UWB-IR) technology and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems have attracted interest regarding their use in next-generation high-speed radio communication. We have studied the use of MIMO ultrawide-band (MIMO-UWB) systems to enable higher-speed radio communication. We used frequency-domain equalization based on the minimum mean square error criterion (MMSE-FDE) to reduce intersymbol interference (ISI) and co-channel interference (CCI) in MIMO-UWB systems. Because UWB systems are expected to be used for short-range wireless communication, MIMO-UWB systems will usually operate in line-of-sight (LOS) environments and direct waves will be received at the receiver side. Direct waves have high power and cause high correlations between antennas in such environments. Thus, it is thought that direct waves will adversely affect the performance of spatial filtering and equalization techniques used to enhance signal detection. To examine the feasibility of MIMO-UWB systems, we conducted MIMO-UWB system propagation measurements in LOS environments. From the measurements, we found that the arrival time of direct waves from different transmitting antennas depends on the MIMO configuration. Because we can obtain high power from the direct waves, direct wave reception is critical for maximizing transmission performance. In this paper, we present our measurement results, and propose a way to improve performance using a method of transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) timing control. We evaluate the bit error rate (BER) performance for this form of timing control using measured channel data.
Ramesh, S; Seshasayanan, R
2016-01-01
In this study, a baseband OFDM-MIMO framework with channel timing and estimation synchronization is composed and executed utilizing the FPGA innovation. The framework is prototyped in light of the IEEE 802.11a standard and the signals transmitted and received utilizing a data transmission of 20 MHz. With the assistance of the QPSK tweak, the framework can accomplish a throughput of 24 Mbps. Besides, the LS formula is executed and the estimation of a frequency-specific fading channel is illustrated. For the rough estimation of timing, MNC plan is examined and actualized. Above all else, the whole framework is demonstrated in MATLAB and a drifting point model is set up. At that point, the altered point model is made with the assistance of Simulink and Xilinx's System Generator for DSP. In this way, the framework is incorporated and actualized inside of Xilinx's ISE tools and focused to Xilinx Virtex 5 board. In addition, an equipment co-simulation is contrived to decrease the preparing time while figuring the BER of the fixed point model. The work concentrates on above all else venture for further examination of planning creative channel estimation strategies towards applications in the fourth era (4G) mobile correspondence frameworks.
Transmission of Correlated Messages over Interference Channels with Strong Interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Suhan; Yoon, Eunchul; Moon, Hichan
Transmission of correlated messages over interference channels with strong interference is considered. As a result, an achievable rate region is presented. It is shown that if the messages are correlated, the achievable rate region can be larger than the capacity region given by Costa and El Gamal. As an example, the Gaussian interference channel is considered.
16 × 16 MIMO Testbed for MU-MIMO Downlink Transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimori, Kentaro; Kudo, Riichi; Honma, Naoki; Takatori, Yasushi; Mizoguchi, Masato
Multi-user multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) systems have attracted much attention as a technology that enhances the total system capacity by generating a virtual MIMO channel between a base station and multiple terminal stations. Extensive evaluations are still needed because there are many more system parameters in MU-MIMO than in single user (SU)-MIMO and the MU-MIMO performance in actual environments is still not well understood. This paper describes the features and effectiveness of a 16 × 16 MU-MIMO testbed in an actual indoor environment. Moreover, we propose a simple adaptive modulation scheme for MU-MIMO-OFDM transmission that employs a bit interleaver in the frequency and space domains. We evaluate the frequency efficiency by obtaining the bit error rate of this testbed in an actual indoor environment. We show that 16 × 4 × 4-user MU-MIMO transmission using the proposed modulation scheme achieves the frequency utilization of 870Mbps and 1Gbps (respective SNRs: 31 and 36dB) with a 20-MHz bandwidth.
Quantum channels with correlated noise and entanglement teleportation
Yeo Ye
2003-05-01
Motivated by the results of Macchiavello and Palma on entanglement-enhanced information transmission over a quantum channel with correlated noise, we demonstrate how the entanglement teleportation scheme of Lee and Kim gives rise to two uncorrelated generalized depolarizing channels. In an attempt to find a teleportation scheme that yields two correlated generalized depolarizing channels, we discover a teleportation scheme that allows one to learn about the entanglement in an entangled pure input state, without decreasing the amount of entanglement associated with it.
Removing correlations in signals transmitted over a quantum memory channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupo, Cosmo; Memarzadeh, Laleh; Mancini, Stefano
2012-01-01
We consider a model of a bosonic memory channel, which induces correlations among the transmitted signals. The application of suitable unitary transformations at the encoding and decoding stages allows the complete removal of correlations, thereby mapping the memory channel into a memoryless one. However, such transformations, being global over an arbitrarily large number of bosonic modes, are not realistically implementable. We then introduce a family of efficiently realizable transformations, which can be used to partially remove correlations among errors, and we quantify the reduction of the gap with memoryless channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yang; Bing-Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Ding
2016-05-01
Utilizing channel reciprocity, time reversal (TR) technique increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver with very low transmitter complexity in complex multipath environment. Present research works about TR multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication all focus on the system implementation and network building. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of antenna coupling on the capacity of wideband TR MIMO system, which is a realistic question in designing a practical communication system. It turns out that antenna coupling stabilizes the capacity in a small variation range with statistical wideband channel response. Meanwhile, antenna coupling only causes a slight detriment to the channel capacity in a wideband TR MIMO system. Comparatively, uncorrelated stochastic channels without coupling exhibit a wider range of random capacity distribution which greatly depends on the statistical channel. The conclusions drawn from information difference entropy theory provide a guideline for designing better high-performance wideband TR MIMO communication systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331007, 61361166008, and 61401065) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120185130001).
Ion channel noise can explain firing correlation in auditory nerves.
Moezzi, Bahar; Iannella, Nicolangelo; McDonnell, Mark D
2016-10-01
Neural spike trains are commonly characterized as a Poisson point process. However, the Poisson assumption is a poor model for spiking in auditory nerve fibres because it is known that interspike intervals display positive correlation over long time scales and negative correlation over shorter time scales. We have therefore developed a biophysical model based on the well-known Meddis model of the peripheral auditory system, to produce simulated auditory nerve fibre spiking statistics that more closely match the firing correlations observed in empirical data. We achieve this by introducing biophysically realistic ion channel noise to an inner hair cell membrane potential model that includes fractal fast potassium channels and deterministic slow potassium channels. We succeed in producing simulated spike train statistics that match empirically observed firing correlations. Our model thus replicates macro-scale stochastic spiking statistics in the auditory nerve fibres due to modeling stochasticity at the micro-scale of potassium channels.
The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels
Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-01-01
Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process. PMID:28134291
The dynamic behaviors of complementary correlations under decoherence channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Ming-Ming; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu
2017-01-01
Complementary correlations can reveal the genuine quantum correlations present in a composite quantum system. Here, we explore an effective method to identify the entangled Bell diagonal states by means of Pearson correlation, one of the complementary correlations. Then, we extend this method to expose the dynamic behavior of complementary correlations under various kinds of decoherence channels. The sudden death and revival of entanglement can be explained by the idea of Pearson correlation. The threshold that is used to identify entanglement is proposed. Furthermore, we put forward a new method to expound the underlying physical mechanisms for which classical and quantum correlations suffer a sudden change in the decoherence process.
Digital correlator for the portable channel prober measurement instrument
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peo, George E., Jr.
1987-12-01
This document describes a Digital Correlator for the Portable Channel Prober Measurement Instrument being developed by the Naval Research Laboratory for use in experiments designed to characterize high frequency (HF) radio channels. This Digital Correlator is a digital signal processor designed and constructed by Stow Computer, 111 old Bolton Road, Stow, MA 01775, (617/508) 897-6838. Two Digital Correlators are integrated into the existing Digital Pre-processor to make a Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer. The Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer will be located at the receiving site of the channel probing experiment and is situated between the coherent radio receiver and the microcomputer used for data recording and analysis. The Portable Wideband HF Channel Analyzer computes the delay power spectrum of the received waveform. The in-phase and quadrature outputs of the receiver are sampled and converted to digital values by the Analog to Digital Converter, integrated by the Integrator, and correlated with a stored replica of the transmitted waveform by two Digital Correlators. The resulting tap gains are then read by the system microcomputer using the microcomputer interface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmidt, Barnet Michael
An optimal performance monitoring metric for a hybrid free space optical and radio-frequency (RF) wireless network, the Outage Capacity Objective Function, is analytically developed and studied. Current and traditional methods of performance monitoring of both optical and RF wireless networks are centered on measurement of physical layer parameters, the most common being signal-to-noise ratio, error rate, Q factor, and eye diagrams, occasionally combined with link-layer measurements such as data throughput, retransmission rate, and/or lost packet rate. Network management systems frequently attempt to predict or forestall network failures by observing degradations of these parameters and to attempt mitigation (such as offloading traffic, increasing transmitter power, reducing the data rate, or combinations thereof) prior to the failure. These methods are limited by the frequent low sensitivity of the physical layer parameters to the atmospheric optical conditions (measured by optical signal-to-noise ratio) and the radio frequency fading channel conditions (measured by signal-to-interference ratio). As a result of low sensitivity, measurements of this type frequently are unable to predict impending failures sufficiently in advance for the network management system to take corrective action prior to the failure. We derive and apply an optimal measure of hybrid network performance based on the outage capacity of the hybrid optical and RF channel, the outage capacity objective function. The objective function provides high sensitivity and reliable failure prediction, and considers both the effects of atmospheric optical impairments on the performance of the free space optical segment as well as the effect of RF channel impairments on the radio frequency segment. The radio frequency segment analysis considers the three most common RF channel fading statistics: Rayleigh, Ricean, and Nakagami-m. The novel application of information theory to the underlying physics of the
An improved MIMO-SAR simulator strategy with ray tracing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Xingyu; Mo, Zijian; Wang, Zhonghai; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik
2016-05-01
High resolution and wide-swath imaging can be obtained by Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) with the state of the art technologies. The time division multiple access (TDMA) MIMO SAR mimics the motion of the antenna of SAR systems by switching the array channels to transmit the radar signals at different time slots. In this paper, we develop a simulation tool with ray tracing techniques to retrieve high resolution and accurate SAR images for development of MIMO SAR imaging methods. Without loss of generality, in the proposed simulator, we apply a TDMA MIMO SAR system with 13 transmitting antennas and 8 receiving antennas, where all transmitting antennas share a single transmitter and the receiving antennas share a single receiver. By comparing with the normal simulation MIMO SAR strategies, the simulation image using ray tracing results validate that the proposed method provides more accurate and higher resolution SAR images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Junil; Love, David J.; Bidigare, Patrick
2014-10-01
The concept of deploying a large number of antennas at the base station, often called massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), has drawn considerable interest because of its potential ability to revolutionize current wireless communication systems. Most literature on massive MIMO systems assumes time division duplexing (TDD), although frequency division duplexing (FDD) dominates current cellular systems. Due to the large number of transmit antennas at the base station, currently standardized approaches would require a large percentage of the precious downlink and uplink resources in FDD massive MIMO be used for training signal transmissions and channel state information (CSI) feedback. To reduce the overhead of the downlink training phase, we propose practical open-loop and closed-loop training frameworks in this paper. We assume the base station and the user share a common set of training signals in advance. In open-loop training, the base station transmits training signals in a round-robin manner, and the user successively estimates the current channel using long-term channel statistics such as temporal and spatial correlations and previous channel estimates. In closed-loop training, the user feeds back the best training signal to be sent in the future based on channel prediction and the previously received training signals. With a small amount of feedback from the user to the base station, closed-loop training offers better performance in the data communication phase, especially when the signal-to-noise ratio is low, the number of transmit antennas is large, or prior channel estimates are not accurate at the beginning of the communication setup, all of which would be mostly beneficial for massive MIMO systems.
Design of Massive-MIMO-NOMA With Limited Feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Zhiguo; Poor, H. Vincent
2016-05-01
In this letter, a low-feedback non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) scheme using massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission is proposed. In particular, the proposed scheme can decompose a massive-MIMO-NOMA system into multiple separated single-input single-output NOMA channels, and analytical results are developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme for two scenarios, with perfect user ordering and with one-bit feedback, respectively.
Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System
Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nagahashi, Takaharu; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsue, Hideaki; Uekado, Kunio; Namera, Takakazu; Fukui, Hiroshi; Nanamatsu, Satoshi
2015-01-01
The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system. PMID:26421311
Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System.
Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nagahashi, Takaharu; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsue, Hideaki; Uekado, Kunio; Namera, Takakazu; Fukui, Hiroshi; Nanamatsu, Satoshi
2015-01-01
The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system.
A correlation for nucleate flow boiling in small channels
Tran, T.N. |; Wambsganss, M.W.; Chyu, M.C.; France, D.M.
1997-08-01
Compact heat exchangers are becoming more attractive for applications in which energy conservation, space saving, and cost are important considerations. Applications exist in the process industries where phase-change heat transfer realizes more compact designs and improved performance compared to single-phase heat transfer. However, there have been only a few studies in the literature reporting on phase-change heat transfer and two-phase flow in compact heat exchangers, and validated design correlations are lacking. Recent data from experiments on flow boiling of refrigerants in small channels have led researchers to conclude that nucleation is the dominant heat transfer mechanism over a broad range of heat flux and wall superheats. Local heat transfer coefficients and overall two-phase pressure drops were measured for three different refrigerants with circular and non-circular channels in a range of pressures. This data base supports the nucleate boiling mechanism, and it was used to develop a new correlation for heat transfer in nucleate flow boiling. The correlation is based on the Rohsenow boiling model, introducing a confinement number defined by Kew and Cornwell. The new correlation predicts the experimental data for nucleate flow boiling of three refrigerants within {+-}15%.
LTE-advanced MIMO uplink for mobile system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhasson, Bader; Li, Xin; Bloul, Albe M.; Matin, M.
2010-08-01
By increasing multimedia communications, mobile communications are expected to reliably support high data rate transmissions. To provide higher peak rate at a better system efficiency, which is necessary to support broadband data services over Wireless links, we need to employ long term evolution Advanced (LTE-A) Multiple-input multiple-output MIMO uplink. The outline of this paper is to investigate and discuss the Long Term Evolution (LTE) for broadband wireless technologies and to discuss its functionality. We explore how LTE uses the inter-technology mobility to support a variety of access technology. This paper investigates the channel capacity and bit error rate of MIMO-OFDM system. In addition, it introduces various MIMO technologies employed in LTE and provide a brief overview on the MIMO technologies currently discussed in the LTE-Advanced forum.
A MIMO-OFDM Testbed for Wireless Local Area Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fàbregas, Albert Guilléni; Guillaud, Maxime; Slock, Dirk TM; Caire, Giuseppe; Gosse, Karine; Rouquette, Stéphanie; Dias, Alexandre Ribeiro; Bernardin, Philippe; Miet, Xavier; Conrat, Jean-Marc; Toutain, Yann; Peden, Alain; Li, Zaiqing
2006-12-01
We describe the design steps and final implementation of a MIMO OFDM prototype platform developed to enhance the performance of wireless LAN standards such as HiperLAN/2 and 802.11, using multiple transmit and multiple receive antennas. We first describe the channel measurement campaign used to characterize the indoor operational propagation environment, and analyze the influence of the channel on code design through a ray-tracing channel simulator. We also comment on some antenna and RF issues which are of importance for the final realization of the testbed. Multiple coding, decoding, and channel estimation strategies are discussed and their respective performance-complexity trade-offs are evaluated over the realistic channel obtained from the propagation studies. Finally, we present the design methodology, including cross-validation of the Matlab, C++, and VHDL components, and the final demonstrator architecture. We highlight the increased measured performance of the MIMO testbed over the single-antenna system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregorio, Fernando; Cousseau, Juan; Werner, Stefan; Riihonen, Taneli; Wichman, Risto
2011-12-01
The design of predistortion techniques for broadband multiple input multiple output-OFDM (MIMO-OFDM) systems raises several implementation challenges. First, the large bandwidth of the OFDM signal requires the introduction of memory effects in the PD model. In addition, it is usual to consider an imbalanced in-phase and quadrature (IQ) modulator to translate the predistorted baseband signal to RF. Furthermore, the coupling effects, which occur when the MIMO paths are implemented in the same reduced size chipset, cannot be avoided in MIMO transceivers structures. This study proposes a MIMO-PD system that linearizes the power amplifier response and compensates nonlinear crosstalk and IQ imbalance effects for each branch of the multiantenna system. Efficient recursive algorithms are presented to estimate the complete MIMO-PD coefficients. The algorithms avoid the high computational complexity in previous solutions based on least squares estimation. The performance of the proposed MIMO-PD structure is validated by simulations using a two-transmitter antenna MIMO system. Error vector magnitude and adjacent channel power ratio are evaluated showing significant improvement compared with conventional MIMO-PD systems.
Sievenpiper HIS and its influence on antenna correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hampel, S. K.; Schmitz, O.; Rolfes, I.
2008-05-01
⪉bel{sec:abstract} This paper deals with the influence of artificial magnetic conductors (AMC), so-called Sievenpiper High Impedance Surfaces (HIS), on the MIMO and Diversity performance of a planar linear-polarized 2×2 dipole array in the ISM-band at 2.45 GHz. The characteristic performance criteria such as envelope correlation coefficient, spectral efficiency, Mean Effective Gain (MEG) and Diversity gain of a coupled 2×2 dipole array are investigated. By means of full-wave electromagnetic analysis as well as Monte-Carlo simulations applying statistical channel models the characteristic antenna pattern just as the MIMO and Diversity analysis is performed, respectively. The obtained results show that the application of Sievenpiper High Impedance Surfaces to planar antenna arrays enables good MIMO and Diversity performance compared to ideal configurations in free-space while offering the design of low profile antennas with simultaneously enhanced characteristics.
2011-03-31
applications [1], [2], [3], [4]. [5]. [6]. [7]. [8]. [9]. [10]. [11]. [12]. Conventional phased array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and...intentionally left blank. 1. INTRODUCTION Conventional phased - array radars form a single coherent transmit beam and measure the backscattered response... steering vector for a SI MO array with nr"/? receiver phase centers located at positions xm + y„. This is how the MIMO virtual array arises. The waveforms
Massive MIMO-OFDM indoor visible light communication system downlink architecture design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lang, Tian; Li, Zening; Chen, Gang
2014-10-01
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique is now used in most new broadband communication system, and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is also utilized within current 4th generation (4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. With MIMO and OFDM combined, visible light communication (VLC) system's diversity gain is increase, yet system capacity for dispersive channels is also enhanced. Moreover, with the emerging massive MIMO-OFDM VLC system, there are significant advantages than smaller systems' such as channel hardening, further increasing of energy efficiency (EE) and spectral efficiency (SE) based on law of large number. This paper addresses one of the major technological challenges, system architecture design, which was solved by semispherical beehive structure (SBS) receiver and so that diversity gain can be identified and applied in Massive MIMO VLC system. Simulation results shows that the proposed design clearly presents a spatial diversity over conventional VLC systems.
Structural correlates of selectivity and inactivation in potassium channels
McCoy, Jason G.; Nimigean, Crina M.
2011-01-01
Potassium channels are involved in a tremendously diverse range of physiological applications requiring distinctly different functional properties. Not surprisingly, the amino acid sequences for these proteins are diverse as well, except for the region that has been ordained the “selectivity filter”. The goal of this review is to examine our current understanding of the role of the selectivity filter and regions adjacent to it in specifying selectivity as well as its role in gating/inactivation and possible mechanisms by which these processes are coupled. Our working hypothesis is that an amino acid network behind the filter modulates selectivity in channels with the same signature sequence while at the same time affecting channel inactivation properties. PMID:21958666
Gong, S.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.
2014-10-15
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established technique to study binding interactions or the diffusion of fluorescently labeled biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. Fast FCS experiments require parallel data acquisition and analysis which can be achieved by exploiting a multi-channel Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array and a corresponding multi-input correlator. This paper reports a 32-channel FPGA based correlator able to perform 32 auto/cross-correlations simultaneously over a lag-time ranging from 10 ns up to 150 ms. The correlator is included in a 32 × 1 SPAD array module, providing a compact and flexible instrument for high throughput FCS experiments. However, some inherent features of SPAD arrays, namely afterpulsing and optical crosstalk effects, may introduce distortions in the measurement of auto- and cross-correlation functions. We investigated these limitations to assess their impact on the module and evaluate possible workarounds.
Temporal, Simone; Desai, Mohati; Khorkova, Olga; Varghese, Gladis; Dai, Aihua; Schulz, David J; Golowasch, Jorge
2012-01-01
Neuronal identity depends on the regulated expression of numerous molecular components, especially ionic channels, which determine the electrical signature of a neuron. Such regulation depends on at least two key factors, activity itself and neuromodulatory input. Neuronal electrical activity can modify the expression of ionic currents in homeostatic or nonhomeostatic fashion. Neuromodulators typically modify activity by regulating the properties or expression levels of subsets of ionic channels. In the stomatogastric system of crustaceans, both types of regulation have been demonstrated. Furthermore, the regulation of the coordinated expression of ionic currents and the channels that carry these currents has been recently reported in diverse neuronal systems, with neuromodulators not only controlling the absolute levels of ionic current expression but also, over long periods of time, appearing to modify their correlated expression. We hypothesize that neuromodulators may regulate the correlated expression of ion channels at multiple levels and in a cell-type-dependent fashion. We report that in two identified neuronal types, three ionic currents are linearly correlated in a pairwise manner, suggesting their coexpression or direct interactions, under normal neuromodulatory conditions. In each cell, some currents remain correlated after neuromodulatory input is removed, whereas the correlations between the other pairs are either lost or altered. Interestingly, in each cell, a different suite of currents change their correlation. At the transcript level we observe distinct alterations in correlations between channel mRNA amounts, including one of the cell types lacking a correlation under normal neuromodulatory conditions and then gaining the correlation when neuromodulators are removed. Synaptic activity does not appear to contribute, with one possible exception, to the correlated expression of either ionic currents or of the transcripts that code for the respective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Min
2014-07-01
In this paper, the performance of beamforming (BF) for a dual-hop amplify-and-forward (AF) relay network, where the source and destination are each equipped with multiple antennas, is investigated. It is assumed that the source-relay and relay-destination channels experience mixed fading distributions, namely, correlated Nakagami-m/Rician and correlated Rician/Nakagami-m, respectively. By considering fixed-gain relaying, analytical expressions for outage probability (OP) and average symbol error rate (ASER) are derived in closed-form. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of our performance analysis, also illustrate the impact of channel correlation, fading severity, Rician factor and antenna configuration on the performance of the system. It is shown that the correlated Nakagami-m/Rician fading channel can achieve better performance than the correlated Rician/Nakagami-m fading channel with the increase of fading severity parameter, and the correlated Rician/Nakagami-m fading channel may outperform the correlated Nakagami-m/Rician fading channel by enlarging the Rician factor.
Time-Domain Receiver Design for MIMO Underwater Acoustic Communications
2008-09-01
is also estimated with LFM signal by measuring the span of the LFM correlation main ridge [20]. It’s shown that for all MIMO subchannels , most of the...Obviously, over the de- picted delay spread of 15 ms, each of the subchannels contains two CIR peaks located at 2 ms and 6 ms, respectively, and we chose 10
Generation and protection of steady-state quantum correlations due to quantum channels with memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, You-neng; Fang, Mao-fa; Wang, Guo-you; Zeng, Ke
2016-12-01
We have proposed a scheme of the generation and preservation of two-qubit steady-state quantum correlations through quantum channels where successive uses of the channels are correlated. Different types of noisy channels with memory, such as amplitude damping, phase damping, and depolarizing channels, have been taken into account. Some analytical or numerical results are presented. The effect of channels with memory on dynamics of quantum correlations has been discussed in detail. The results show that steady-state entanglement between two initial qubits whose initial states are prepared in a specific family states without entanglement subject to amplitude damping channel with memory can be generated. The entanglement creation is related to the memory coefficient of channel μ . The stronger the memory coefficient of channel μ is, the more the entanglement creation is, and the earlier the separable state becomes the entangled state. Besides, we compare the dynamics of entanglement with that of quantum discord when a two-qubit system is initially prepared in an entangled state. We show that entanglement dynamics suddenly disappears, while quantum discord dynamics displays only in the asymptotic limit. Furthermore, two-qubit quantum correlations can be preserved at a long time in the limit of μ → 1.
Evaluation of correlations of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in horizontal channels.
Zhou, Zhanru; Fang, Xiande; Li, Dingkun
2013-01-01
The calculation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels is required in a variety of applications, such as chemical process cooling systems, refrigeration, and air conditioning. A number of correlations for flow boiling heat transfer in channels have been proposed. This work evaluates the existing correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient with 1669 experimental data points of flow boiling heat transfer of R22 collected from 18 published papers. The top two correlations for R22 are those of Liu and Winterton (1991) and Fang (2013), with the mean absolute deviation of 32.7% and 32.8%, respectively. More studies should be carried out to develop better ones. Effects of channel dimension and vapor quality on heat transfer are analyzed, and the results provide valuable information for further research in the correlation of two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of R22 in channels.
A 1 GHz sample rate, 256-channel, 1-bit quantization, CMOS, digital correlator chip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Timoc, C.; Tran, T.; Wongso, J.
1992-01-01
This paper describes the development of a digital correlator chip with the following features: 1 Giga-sample/second; 256 channels; 1-bit quantization; 32-bit counters providing up to 4 seconds integration time at 1 GHz; and very low power dissipation per channel. The improvements in the performance-to-cost ratio of the digital correlator chip are achieved with a combination of systolic architecture, novel pipelined differential logic circuits, and standard 1.0 micron CMOS process.
Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication.
Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Youngil; Kim, Ki-Doo
2016-04-23
In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and we illustrate the significance of networking information such as distance, reference color (symbol), and multiplexing-diversity mode transitions. In addition, in the V2X scenario of multiple access, we may achieve the simultaneous multiple access communication without node interferences by dividing the communication area using image processing. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the superior SER performance of the visual-MIMO scheme compared with LED-PD communication and show the numerical result of the GCM based visual-MIMO channel capacity versus distance.
Color-Space-Based Visual-MIMO for V2X Communication †
Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Park, Youngil; Kim, Ki-Doo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the applicability of color-space-based, color-independent visual-MIMO for V2X. We aim to achieve a visual-MIMO scheme that can maintain the original color and brightness while performing seamless communication. We consider two scenarios of GCM based visual-MIMO for V2X. One is a multipath transmission using visual-MIMO networking and the other is multi-node V2X communication. In the scenario of multipath transmission, we analyze the channel capacity numerically and we illustrate the significance of networking information such as distance, reference color (symbol), and multiplexing-diversity mode transitions. In addition, in the V2X scenario of multiple access, we may achieve the simultaneous multiple access communication without node interferences by dividing the communication area using image processing. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the superior SER performance of the visual-MIMO scheme compared with LED-PD communication and show the numerical result of the GCM based visual-MIMO channel capacity versus distance. PMID:27120603
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoli; Zhang, Dongmei
2016-10-01
This paper investigates the spectral and energy efficiencies of a multi-pair two-way amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system over Ricean fading channels, where multiple user-pairs exchange information within pair through a relay with very large number of antennas, while each user equipped with a single antenna. Firstly, beamforming matrixe of zero-forcing reception/zero-forcing transmission (ZFR/ZFT) with imperfect channel state information (CSI) at the relay is given. Then, the unified asymptotic signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) expressions with imperfect CSI are obtained analytically. Finally, two power scaling schemes are proposed and the asymptotic spectral and energy efficiencies based on the proposed power scaling schemes are derived and verified by the Monte-Carlo simulations. Theoretical analyses and simulation results show that with imperfect CSI, if the number of relay antennas grows asymptotically large, we need cut down the transmit power of each user and relay to different proportion when the Ricean K-factor is non-zero and zero (Rayleigh fading) in order to maintain a desirable rate.
Time-correlation analysis of simulated water motion in flexible and rigid gramicidin channels.
Chiu, S W; Jakobsson, E; Subramaniam, S; McCammon, J A
1991-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations have been done on a system consisting of the polypeptide membrane channel former gramicidin, plus water molecules in the channel and caps of waters at the two ends of the channel. In the absence of explicit simulation of the surrounding membrane, the helical form of the channel was maintained by artificial restraints on the peptide motion. The characteristic time constant of the artificial restraint was varied to assess the effect of the restraints on the channel structure and water motions. Time-correlation analysis was done on the motions of individual channel waters and on the motions of the center of mass of the channel waters. It is found that individual water molecules confined in the channel execute higher frequency motions than bulk water, for all degrees of channel peptide restraint. The center-of-mass motion of the chain of channel waters (which is the motion that is critical for transmembrane transport, due to the mandatory single filing of water in the channel) does not exhibit these higher frequency motions. The mobility of the water chain is dramatically reduced by holding the channel rigid. Thus permeation through the channel is not like flow through a rigid pipe; rather permeation is facilitated by peptide motion. For the looser restraints we used, the mobility of the water chain was not very much affected by the degree of restraint. Depending on which set of experiments is considered, the computed mobility of our water chain in the flexible channel is four to twenty times too high to account for the experimentally measured resistance of the gramicidin channel to water flow. From this result it appears likely that the peptide motions of an actual gramicidin channel embedded in a lipid membrane may be more restrained than in our flexible channel model, and that these restraints may be a significant modulator of channel permeability. For the completely rigid channel model the "trapping" of the water molecules in
The Sum-Rate Capacity of Strong Interference Channels with Correlated Messages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, Suhan
The transmission of correlated messages over strong interference channels is examined. The result is the proposal of a single-letter characterization of the sum-rate capacity of strong interference channels with correlated messages. It is shown that if the messages are independent, the sum-rate capacity is equal to that of [1] obtained by Costa and El Gamal. However, it can be larger than that of [1] if the messages are correlated. It is also shown that, in terms of the sum-rate, the achievable rate region in [2] is indeed the sum-rate capacity.
Leakage-based precoding for MU-MIMO VLC systems under optical power constraint
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jiaxuan; Wang, Qi; Wang, Zhaocheng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we investigate a multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) system for indoor visible light communication (VLC), in which precoding is conducted under optical power constraint rather than electrical power constraint. Leakage-based precoding designed by maximizing signal-to-leakage-plus-noise ratio (SLNR) is adopted to suppress the multiuser interference under optical power constraint and power allocation is proposed to maximize the throughput of the system. Simulations demonstrate the performance gain of optimal power allocation and indicate that the leakage-based precoding scheme outperforms zero forcing counterpart when the channel is highly correlated and still works well when the number of transmitters is less than that of receivers.
Cystic fibrosis gene expression is not correlated with rectifying Cl sup minus channels
Ward, C.L.; Krouse, M.E.; Kopito, R.R.; Wine, J.J. ); Gruenert, D.C. )
1991-06-15
Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves a profound reduction of Cl{sup {minus}} permeability in several exocrine tissues. A distinctive, outwardly rectifying, depolarization-induced Cl{sup {minus}} channel (ORDIC channel) has been proposed to account for the Cl{sup {minus}} conductance that is defective in CF. The recently identified CF gene is predicted to code for a 1480-amino acid integral membrane protein termed the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The CFTR shares sequence similarity with a superfamily of ATP-binding membrane transport proteins such as P-glycoprotein and STE6, but it also has features consistent with an ion channel function. It has been proposed that the CFTR might be an ORDIC channel. To determine if CFTR and ORDIC channel expression are correlated, the authors surveyed various cell lines for natural variation in CFTR and ORDIC channel expression. In four human epithelial cell lines (T84, CaCo2, PANC-1, and 9HTEo-/S) that encompass the full observed range of CFTR mRNA levels and ORDIC channel density the authors found no correlation.
Hidden Markov modeling for single channel kinetics with filtering and correlated noise.
Qin, F; Auerbach, A; Sachs, F
2000-01-01
Hidden Markov modeling (HMM) can be applied to extract single channel kinetics at signal-to-noise ratios that are too low for conventional analysis. There are two general HMM approaches: traditional Baum's reestimation and direct optimization. The optimization approach has the advantage that it optimizes the rate constants directly. This allows setting constraints on the rate constants, fitting multiple data sets across different experimental conditions, and handling nonstationary channels where the starting probability of the channel depends on the unknown kinetics. We present here an extension of this approach that addresses the additional issues of low-pass filtering and correlated noise. The filtering is modeled using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter applied to the underlying signal, and the noise correlation is accounted for using an autoregressive (AR) process. In addition to correlated background noise, the algorithm allows for excess open channel noise that can be white or correlated. To maximize the efficiency of the algorithm, we derive the analytical derivatives of the likelihood function with respect to all unknown model parameters. The search of the likelihood space is performed using a variable metric method. Extension of the algorithm to data containing multiple channels is described. Examples are presented that demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the algorithm. Practical issues such as the selection of appropriate noise AR orders are also discussed through examples. PMID:11023898
Adaptive reconfigurable V-BLAST type equalizer for cognitive MIMO-OFDM radios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozden, Mehmet Tahir
2015-12-01
An adaptive channel shortening equalizer design for multiple input multiple output-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) radio receivers is considered in this presentation. The proposed receiver has desirable features for cognitive and software defined radio implementations. It consists of two sections: MIMO decision feedback equalizer (MIMO-DFE) and adaptive multiple Viterbi detection. In MIMO-DFE section, a complete modified Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization of multichannel input data is accomplished using sequential processing multichannel Givens lattice stages, so that a Vertical Bell Laboratories Layered Space Time (V-BLAST) type MIMO-DFE is realized at the front-end section of the channel shortening equalizer. Matrix operations, a major bottleneck for receiver operations, are accordingly avoided, and only scalar operations are used. A highly modular and regular radio receiver architecture that has a suitable structure for digital signal processing (DSP) chip and field programable gate array (FPGA) implementations, which are important for software defined radio realizations, is achieved. The MIMO-DFE section of the proposed receiver can also be reconfigured for spectrum sensing and positioning functions, which are important tasks for cognitive radio applications. In connection with adaptive multiple Viterbi detection section, a systolic array implementation for each channel is performed so that a receiver architecture with high computational concurrency is attained. The total computational complexity is given in terms of equalizer and desired response filter lengths, alphabet size, and number of antennas. The performance of the proposed receiver is presented for two-channel case by means of mean squared error (MSE) and probability of error evaluations, which are conducted for time-invariant and time-variant channel conditions, orthogonal and nonorthogonal transmissions, and two different modulation schemes.
Hierarchical Interference Mitigation for Massive MIMO Cellular Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, An; Lau, Vincent
2014-09-01
We propose a hierarchical interference mitigation scheme for massive MIMO cellular networks. The MIMO precoder at each base station (BS) is partitioned into an inner precoder and an outer precoder. The inner precoder controls the intra-cell interference and is adaptive to local channel state information (CSI) at each BS (CSIT). The outer precoder controls the inter-cell interference and is adaptive to channel statistics. Such hierarchical precoding structure reduces the number of pilot symbols required for CSI estimation in massive MIMO downlink and is robust to the backhaul latency. We study joint optimization of the outer precoders, the user selection, and the power allocation to maximize a general concave utility which has no closed-form expression. We first apply random matrix theory to obtain an approximated problem with closed-form objective. We show that the solution of the approximated problem is asymptotically optimal with respect to the original problem as the number of antennas per BS grows large. Then using the hidden convexity of the problem, we propose an iterative algorithm to find the optimal solution for the approximated problem. We also obtain a low complexity algorithm with provable convergence. Simulations show that the proposed design has significant gain over various state-of-the-art baselines.
2 × 2 MIMO radio-over-fiber system at 60 GHz employing frequency domain equalization.
Lin, Chun-Ting; Ng'oma, Anthony; Lee, Wei-Yuan; Wei, Chia-Chien; Wang, Chih-Yun; Lu, Tsung-Hung; Chen, Jyehong; Jiang, Wen-Jr; Ho, Chun-Hung
2012-01-02
This work experimentally demonstrates the efficacy of the 2 × 2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique for capacity improvement of a 60-GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF) system employing single-carrier modulation format. We employ frequency domain equalization (FDE) to estimate the channel response, including frequency response of the 60 GHz RoF system and the MIMO wireless channel. Using FDE and MIMO techniques, we experimentally demonstrate the doubling the of wireless data capacity of a 60 GHz RoF system to 27.15 Gb/s using 16-QAM modulation format, with transmission over 25 km of standard single-mode fiber and 3 m wireless distance.
Broadbeam for Massive MIMO Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Deli; Qian, Haifeng; Li, Geoffrey Ye
2016-05-01
Massive MIMO has been identified as one of the promising disruptive air interface techniques to address the huge capacity requirement demanded by 5G wireless communications. For practical deployment of such systems, the control message need to be broadcast to all users reliably in the cell using broadbeam. A broadbeam is expected to have the same radiated power in all directions to cover users in any place in a cell. In this paper, we will show that there is no perfect broadbeam. Therefore, we develop a method for generating broadbeam that can allow tiny fluctuations in radiated power. Overall, this can serve as an ingredient for practical deployment of the massive MIMO systems.
Avoiding disentanglement of multipartite entangled optical beams with a correlated noisy channel
Deng, Xiaowei; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde
2017-01-01
A quantum communication network can be constructed by distributing a multipartite entangled state to space-separated nodes. Entangled optical beams with highest flying speed and measurable brightness can be used as carriers to convey information in quantum communication networks. Losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy entanglement. The phenomenon of disentanglement will result in the complete failure of quantum communication. Here, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disentanglement and the entanglement revival of tripartite entangled optical beams used in a quantum network. We experimentally demonstrate that symmetric tripartite entangled optical beams are robust in pure lossy but noiseless channels. In a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disentanglement and the destroyed entanglement can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The presented results provide useful technical references for establishing quantum networks. PMID:28295024
Avoiding disentanglement of multipartite entangled optical beams with a correlated noisy channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiaowei; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde
2017-03-01
A quantum communication network can be constructed by distributing a multipartite entangled state to space-separated nodes. Entangled optical beams with highest flying speed and measurable brightness can be used as carriers to convey information in quantum communication networks. Losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy entanglement. The phenomenon of disentanglement will result in the complete failure of quantum communication. Here, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disentanglement and the entanglement revival of tripartite entangled optical beams used in a quantum network. We experimentally demonstrate that symmetric tripartite entangled optical beams are robust in pure lossy but noiseless channels. In a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disentanglement and the destroyed entanglement can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The presented results provide useful technical references for establishing quantum networks.
Optimal Data Transmission on MIMO OFDM Channels
2008-12-01
utilizing the Alamouti- based space-time block coding (STBC) technique. All cases are based on the IEEE 802.16-2004 standard with OFDM using different...Oscillator Based OFDM Transmitter, after [1]..................................................8 Figure 5. IDFT Based OFDM Transmitter, after [1...10 Figure 7. OFDM Signal Spectrum with Ten Sub-Carriers, after [2]...............................11 Figure 8. DFT Based OFDM Receiver
Distributed Compressive CSIT Estimation and Feedback for FDD Multi-User Massive MIMO Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rao, Xiongbin; Lau, Vincent K. N.
2014-06-01
To fully utilize the spatial multiplexing gains or array gains of massive MIMO, the channel state information must be obtained at the transmitter side (CSIT). However, conventional CSIT estimation approaches are not suitable for FDD massive MIMO systems because of the overwhelming training and feedback overhead. In this paper, we consider multi-user massive MIMO systems and deploy the compressive sensing (CS) technique to reduce the training as well as the feedback overhead in the CSIT estimation. The multi-user massive MIMO systems exhibits a hidden joint sparsity structure in the user channel matrices due to the shared local scatterers in the physical propagation environment. As such, instead of naively applying the conventional CS to the CSIT estimation, we propose a distributed compressive CSIT estimation scheme so that the compressed measurements are observed at the users locally, while the CSIT recovery is performed at the base station jointly. A joint orthogonal matching pursuit recovery algorithm is proposed to perform the CSIT recovery, with the capability of exploiting the hidden joint sparsity in the user channel matrices. We analyze the obtained CSIT quality in terms of the normalized mean absolute error, and through the closed-form expressions, we obtain simple insights into how the joint channel sparsity can be exploited to improve the CSIT recovery performance.
On the reliable decentralised stabilisation of n MIMO systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Befekadu, Getachew K.; Gupta, Vijay; Antsaklis, Panos J.
2014-08-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of reliable decentralised stabilisation for n multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems when some of the shared controllers among these systems are faulty, in the sense that they fail to operate properly due to subsystem (module) failures that may occur in actuators, sensors or controllers. Specifically, we present a design framework using a dilated linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) technique for deriving reliable stabilising state-feedback gains for all n MIMO systems; while a set of decentralised unknown disturbance observers (UDOs) that are shared by all n MIMO systems is used for extending the result to the output-feedback case. Moreover, a sufficient condition for the solvability of the set of decentralised UDOs is given in terms of a minimum-phase condition of each subsystem and a lower-bounding condition on the number of outputs of each channel. We also present a numerical example that illustrates the applicability of the proposed technique.
Gaussian capacity of the quantum bosonic memory channel with additive correlated Gaussian noise
Schaefer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.
2011-09-15
We present an algorithm for calculation of the Gaussian classical capacity of a quantum bosonic memory channel with additive Gaussian noise. The algorithm, restricted to Gaussian input states, is applicable to all channels with noise correlations obeying certain conditions and works in the full input energy domain, beyond previous treatments of this problem. As an illustration, we study the optimal input states and capacity of a quantum memory channel with Gauss-Markov noise [J. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 062313 (2009)]. We evaluate the enhancement of the transmission rate when using these optimal entangled input states by comparison with a product coherent-state encoding and find out that such a simple coherent-state encoding achieves not less than 90% of the capacity.
[TRP calcium channel and breast cancer: expression, role and correlation with clinical parameters].
Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima; Dhennin-Duthille, Isabelle; Gautier, Mathieu; Sevestre, Henri; Ahidouch, Ahmed
2012-06-01
Breast cancer (BC) has the highest incidence rate in women in industrialized countries. Statistically, it is estimated that one out of 10 women will develop BC during her life. Evidence is accumulating for the role of ion channels in the development of cancer. Most studied ion channels in BC are K(+) channels, which are involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cell migration, and Na(+) channels, which correlate with invasiveness. Emerging studies demonstrated the role of Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration. Recent findings demonstrated that the expression and/or activity of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are altered in several cancers. Among the TRP families, TRPC (canonical or classical), TRPM (melastatin) and TRPV (vanilloid) are related to malignant growth and cancer progression. Although these channels are frequently and abundantly expressed in many tumors, their specific expression, activity and roles in BC are still poorly understood. The expression of TRP channels has also been proposed as a tool for diagnosis, prognosis and/or therapeutic issues of several diseases. In cancer, TRPV6 and TRPM8 have been proposed as tumor progression markers of prostate cancer outcome and TRPC6 as a novel therapeutic target for esophageal carcinoma. Interestingly high levels of TRPC3 expression correlate with a favorable prognosis in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Our team has recently reported the expression and role of TRPC1, TRPC6, TRPM7, TRPM8 and TRPV6 in BC cell lines and primary cultures. We have also investigated TRP expression and their clinical significance in human breast adenocarcinoma and we suggest that TRP channels are new potential BC markers. Indeed TRPC1 and TRPM8 may be considered as good prognosis markers of well-differentiated tumors, TRPM7 as a proliferative marker of poorly differentiated tumors and TRPV6 as a prognosis marker of aggressive cancers. In this review, we summarize the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yi-Jun; Liang, Wang-Feng; Wang, Chao; Wang, Wen-Ya
2017-01-01
In this paper, space-collaborative constellations (SCCs) for indoor multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) visible light communication (VLC) systems are considered. Compared with traditional VLC MIMO techniques, such as repetition coding (RC), spatial modulation (SM) and spatial multiplexing (SMP), SCC achieves the minimum average optical power for a fixed minimum Euclidean distance. We have presented a unified SCC structure for 2×2 MIMO VLC systems and extended it to larger MIMO VLC systems with more transceivers. Specifically for 2×2 MIMO VLC, a fast decoding algorithm is developed with decoding complexity almost linear in terms of the square root of the cardinality of SCC, and the expressions of symbol error rate of SCC are presented. In addition, bit mappings similar to Gray mapping are proposed for SCC. Computer simulations are performed to verify the fast decoding algorithm and the performance of SCC, and the results demonstrate that the performance of SCC is better than those of RC, SM and SMP for indoor channels in general.
Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan
2016-06-01
Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.
Quantum-correlation breaking channels, broadcasting scenarios, and finite Markov chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korbicz, J. K.; Horodecki, P.; Horodecki, R.
2012-10-01
One of the classical results concerning quantum channels is the characterization of entanglement-breaking channels [M. Horodecki, P. W. Shor, and M. B. Ruskai, Rev. Math. Phys.RMPHEX0129-055X10.1142/S0129055X03001709 15, 629 (2003)]. We address the question whether there exists a similar characterization on the level of quantum correlations which may go beyond entanglement. The answer is fully affirmative in the case of breaking quantum correlations down to the, so-called, QC (quantum-classical) type, while it is no longer true in the CC (classical-classical) case. The corresponding channels turn out to be measurement maps. Our study also reveals an unexpected link between quantum state and local correlation broadcasting and finite Markov chains. We present a possibility of broadcasting via non von Neumann measurements, which relies on the Perron-Frobenius theorem. Surprisingly, this is not the typical generalized controlled-not (c-not) gate scenario appearing naturally in this context.
Ultra-compact 32-channel system for time-correlated single-photon counting measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonioli, S.; Cuccato, A.; Miari, L.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.
2013-05-01
Modern Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting applications require to detect spectral and temporal fluorescence data simultaneously and from different areas of the analyzed sample. These rising quests have led the development of multichannel systems able to perform high count rate and high performance analysis. In this work we describe a new 32-channel TCSPC system designed to be used in modern setups. The presented module consists of four independent 8-channel TCSPC boards, each of them including two 4-channel Time-Amplitude Converter arrays. These TAC arrays are built-in 0.35 μm Si-Ge BiCMOS technology and are characterized by low crosstalk, high resolution, high conversion rate and variable full-scale range. The 8-channel TCSPC board implements an 8-channel ADC to sample the TAC outputs, an FPGA to record and organize the measurement results and a USB 2.0 interface to enable real-time data transmission to and from an external PC. Experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system ensures high performance TCSPC measurements, in particular: high conversion rate (5 MHz), good time resolution (down to 30 psFWHM with the full scale range set to 11 ns) and low differential non-linearity (rms value lower than 0.15% of the time bin width). We design the module to be very compact and, thanks to the reduced dimensions of the 8-channel TCSPC board (95×40 mm), the whole system can be enclosed in a small aluminum case (160×125×30 mm).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khenouchi, H.; Smara, Y.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Buono, A.
2016-08-01
Sea oil pollution is a matter of great concern since it affects both the environment and human health. Recent studies demonstrated that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) polarimetry is able to provide additional information useful for environmental applications, i. e., oil spill observation. In this context, different approaches based on polarimetric SARs were developed. In this study, a dual-polarimetric feature, namely the modulus of the complex correlation coefficient between the co-polarized channels, is used to discriminate between sea oil spill and weak-damping look-alikes.The proposed approach relies on the fact that high correlation between co-polarized channels is expected over sea surface and weak-damping look- alikes due to the dominant Bragg scattering, while significantly lower correlation is expected over strong-damping oil spills since they are characterized by a no-Bragg scattering behaviour. Experimental results show that the modulus of the complex correlation between the co-polarized chan- nels can be successfully exploited for both the observation of sea oil slicks and their discrimination from weak-damping look-alikes.
Lindsay, Christopher D.; Green, Christopher; Bird, Mike; Jones, James T. A.; Riches, James R.; McKee, Katherine K.; Sandford, Mark S.; Wakefield, Debra A.; Timperley, Christopher M.
2015-01-01
We show that the physiological activity of solid aerosolized benzylidenemalononitriles (BMNs) including ‘tear gas’ (CS) in historic human volunteer trials correlates with activation of the human transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 ion channel (hTRPA1). This suggests that the irritation caused by the most potent of these compounds results from activation of this channel. We prepared 50 BMNs and measured their hTRPA1 agonist potencies. A mechanism of action consistent with their physiological activity, involving their dissolution in water on contaminated body surfaces, cell membrane penetration and reversible thiolation by a cysteine residue of hTRPA1, supported by data from nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with a model thiol, explains the structure–activity relationships. The correlation provides evidence that hTRPA1 is a receptor for irritants on nociceptive neurons involved in pain perception; thus, its activation in the eye, nose, mouth and skin would explain the symptoms of lachrymation, sneezing, coughing and stinging, respectively. The structure–activity results and the use of the BMNs as pharmacological tools in future by other researchers may contribute to a better understanding of the TRPA1 channel in humans (and other animals) and help facilitate the discovery of treatments for human diseases involving this receptor. PMID:26064575
A Minimized MIMO-UWB Antenna with High Isolation and Triple Band-Notched Functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kong, Yuanyuan; Li, Yingsong; Yu, Kai
2016-11-01
A compact high isolation MIMO-UWB antenna with triple frequency rejection bands is proposed for UWB communication applications. The proposed MIMO-UWB antenna consists of two identical UWB antennas and each antenna element has a semicircle ring shaped radiation patch fed by a bend microstrip feeding line for covering the UWB band, which operates from 2.85 GHz to 11.79 GHz with an impedance bandwidth of 122.1 %. By etching a L-shaped slot on the ground plane, and embedding an "anchor" shaped stub into the patch and integrating an open ring under the semicircle shaped radiation patch, three notch bands are realized to suppress WiMAX (3.3-3.6 GHz), WLAN(5.725-5.825 GHz) and uplink of X-band satellite (7.9-8.4 GHz) signals. The high isolation with S21<-20 dB in most UWB band is obtained by adding a protruded decoupling structure. The design procedure of the MIMO-UWB antenna is given in detail. The proposed MIMO-UWB antenna is simulated, fabricated and measured. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MIMO-UWB antenna has a stable gain, good impedance match, high isolation, low envelope correlation coefficient and good radiation pattern at the UWB operating band and it can provide three designated notch bands.
Polymer (PDMS-Fe3O4) magneto-dielectric substrate for a MIMO antenna array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alqadami, Abdulrahman Shueai Mohsen; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee
2016-01-01
This paper presents the design of a 2 × 4 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array fabricated on a nanocomposite magneto-dielectric polymer substrate. The 10-nm iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite is used as substrate to enhance the performance of a MIMO antenna array. The measured results showed up to 40.8 % enhancement in terms of bandwidth, 9.95 dB gain, and 57 % of radiation efficiency. Furthermore, it is found that the proposed magneto-dielectric (PDMS-Fe3O4) composite substrate provides excellent MIMO parameters such as correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mutual coupling. The prototype of the proposed antenna is transparent, flexible, lightweight, and resistant against dust and corrosion. Measured results indicate that the proposed antenna is suitable for WLAN and ultra-wideband biomedical applications within frequency range of 5.33-7.70 GHz.
Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.
2016-10-01
The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hidden sources of noise. Our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.
Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography
Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.
2016-10-10
The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hiddenmore » sources of noise. Lastly, our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.« less
Discrimination of correlated and entangling quantum channels with selective process tomography
Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis S.
2016-10-10
The accurate and reliable characterization of quantum dynamical processes underlies efforts to validate quantum technologies, where discrimination between competing models of observed behaviors inform efforts to fabricate and operate qubit devices. We present a protocol for quantum channel discrimination that leverages advances in direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) codes. We demonstrate that DCQD codes enable selective process tomography to improve discrimination between entangling and correlated quantum dynamics. Numerical simulations show selective process tomography requires only a few measurement configurations to achieve a low false alarm rate and that the DCQD encoding improves the resilience of the protocol to hidden sources of noise. Lastly, our results show that selective process tomography with DCQD codes is useful for efficiently distinguishing sources of correlated crosstalk from uncorrelated noise in current and future experimental platforms.
Correlations of Surface Deformation and 3D Flow Field in a Compliant Wall Turbulent Channel Flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jin; Zhang, Cao; Katz, Joseph
2015-11-01
This study focuses on the correlations between surface deformation and flow features, including velocity, vorticity and pressure, in a turbulent channel flow over a flat, compliant Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wall. The channel centerline velocity is 2.5 m/s, and the friction Reynolds number is 2.3x103. Analysis is based on simultaneous measurements of the time resolved 3D velocity and surface deformation using tomographic PIV and Mach-Zehnder Interferometry. The volumetric pressure distribution is calculated plane by plane by spatially integrating the material acceleration using virtual boundary, omni-directional method. Conditional sampling based on local high/low pressure and deformation events reveals the primary flow structures causing the deformation. High pressure peaks appear at the interface between sweep and ejection, whereas the negative deformations peaks (dent) appear upstream, under the sweeps. The persistent phase lag between flow and deformations are presumably caused by internal damping within the PDMS. Some of the low pressure peaks and strong ejections are located under the head of hairpin vortices, and accordingly, are associated with positive deformation (bump). Others bumps and dents are correlated with some spanwise offset large inclined quasi-streamwise vortices that are not necessarily associated with hairpins. Sponsored by ONR.
Multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves based on cross-correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, F.; Xia, J.; Xu, Z.; Hu, Y.
2015-12-01
Traditional active seismic survey can no longer be properly applied in highly populated urban areas due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. Passive seismic methods, however, have gained much more attention from the engineering geophysics community because of their environmental friendly and deeper investigation depth. Due to extracting signal from noise has never been as comfortable as that in active seismic survey, how to make it more efficiently and accurately has been emphasized. We propose a multi-channel analysis of passive surface waves (MAPW) based on long noise sequences cross-correlations to meet the demand for increasing investigation depth by acquiring surface-wave data at a relative low-frequency range (1 Hz ≤ f ≤ 10 Hz) in urban areas. We utilize seismic interferometry to produce common virtual source gathers from one-hour-long noise records and do dispersion measurements by using the classic passive multi-channel analysis of surface waves (PMASW). We used synthetic tests to demonstrate the advantages of MAPW for various noise distributions. Results show that our method has the superiority of maximizing the analysis accuracy. Finally, we used two field data applications to demonstrate the advantages of our MAPW over the classic PMASW on isolating azimuth of the predominant noise sources and the effectivity of combined survey of active multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and MAPW. We suggest, for the field operation using MAPW, that a parallel receiver line which is close to a main road or river, if any, with one or two hours noise observation will be an effective means for an unbiased dispersion image. Keywords: passive seismic method, MAPW, MASW, cross-correlation, directional noise source, spatial-aliasing effects, inversion
The correlated k-distribution technique as applied to the AVHRR channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kratz, David P.
1995-01-01
Correlated k-distributions have been created to account for the molecular absorption found in the spectral ranges of the five Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite channels. The production of the k-distributions was based upon an exponential-sum fitting of transmissions (ESFT) technique which was applied to reference line-by-line absorptance calculations. To account for the overlap of spectral features from different molecular species, the present routines made use of the multiplication transmissivity property which allows for considerable flexibility, especially when altering relative mixing ratios of the various molecular species. To determine the accuracy of the correlated k-distribution technique as compared to the line-by-line procedure, atmospheric flux and heating rate calculations were run for a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. For the atmospheric conditions taken into consideration, the correlated k-distribution technique has yielded results within about 0.5% for both the cases where the satellite spectral response functions were applied and where they were not. The correlated k-distribution's principal advantages is that it can be incorporated directly into multiple scattering routines that consider scattering as well as absorption by clouds and aerosol particles.
Adaptive CQI Update and Feedback for Codebook Based MU-MIMO in E-UTRA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jianchi; She, Xiaoming; Liu, Jingxiu; Chen, Lan
Codebook based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) precoding can significantly improve the system spectral efficiency with limited feedback and has been accepted as one of the most promising techniques for the Evolved UTRA (E-UTRA). Compared with single-user (SU) MIMO, multi-user (MU) MIMO can further improve the system spectral efficiency due to increased multi-user diversity gain. MU-MIMO is preferred for the case of a large number of users, when the total feedback overhead will become a problem. In order to reduce the feedback overhead, feedback of single channel quality indicator (CQI), e.g. rank 1 CQI, is required in E-UTRA currently. The main challenge is how to obtain CQIs of other ranks at Node B for rank adaptation with single CQI feedback. In this paper, an adaptive CQI update scheme at Node B based on statistical characteristics of CQI of various ranks is proposed. To further increase the accuracy of CQI at Node B for data transmission, an adaptive CQI feedback scheme is then proposed in which single CQI with the rank same as previously scheduled is fed back. Simulation results show that our proposed CQI update scheme can achieve 2.5-5% gain compared with the conventional method with fixed backoff. Moreover, with the proposed adaptive feedback scheme, 20-40% performance gain can be obtained and the performance can approach the upper bound.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lertwiram, Namzilp; Tran, Gia Khanh; Mizutani, Keiichi; Sakaguchi, Kei; Araki, Kiyomichi
Setting relays can address the shadowing problem between a transmitter (Tx) and a receiver (Rx). Moreover, the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technique has been introduced to improve wireless link capacity. The MIMO technique can be applied in relay network to enhance system performance. However, the efficiency of relaying schemes and relay placement have not been well investigated with experiment-based study. This paper provides a propagation measurement campaign of a MIMO two-hop relay network in 5GHz band in an L-shaped corridor environment with various relay locations. Furthermore, this paper proposes a Relay Placement Estimation (RPE) scheme to identify the optimum relay location, i.e. the point at which the network performance is highest. Analysis results of channel capacity show that relaying technique is beneficial over direct transmission in strong shadowing environment while it is ineffective in non-shadowing environment. In addition, the optimum relay location estimated with the RPE scheme also agrees with the location where the network achieves the highest performance as identified by network capacity. Finally, the capacity analysis shows that two-way MIMO relay employing network coding has the best performance while cooperative relaying scheme is not effective due to shadowing effect weakening the signal strength of the direct link.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohammed, H. A.; Sibley, M. J. N.; Mather, P. J.
2012-05-01
The merging of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) with Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) is a promising mobile air interface solution for next generation wireless local area networks (WLANs) and 4G mobile cellular wireless systems. This paper details the design of a highly robust and efficient OFDM-MIMO system to support permanent accessibility and higher data rates to users moving at high speeds, such as users travelling on trains. It has high relevance for next generation wireless local area networks (WLANs) and 4G mobile cellular wireless systems. The paper begins with a comprehensive literature review focused on both technologies. This is followed by the modelling of the OFDM-MIMO physical layer based on Simulink/Matlab that takes into consideration high vehicular mobility. Then the entire system is simulated and analysed under different encoding and channel estimation algorithms. The use of High Altitude Platform system (HAPs) technology is considered and analysed.
Temporal evolution of helix hydration in a light-gated ion channel correlates with ion conductance.
Lórenz-Fonfría, Víctor A; Bamann, Christian; Resler, Tom; Schlesinger, Ramona; Bamberg, Ernst; Heberle, Joachim
2015-10-27
The discovery of channelrhodopsins introduced a new class of light-gated ion channels, which when genetically encoded in host cells resulted in the development of optogenetics. Channelrhodopsin-2 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, CrChR2, is the most widely used optogenetic tool in neuroscience. To explore the connection between the gating mechanism and the influx and efflux of water molecules in CrChR2, we have integrated light-induced time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and electrophysiology. Cross-correlation analysis revealed that ion conductance tallies with peptide backbone amide I vibrational changes at 1,665(-) and 1,648(+) cm(-1). These two bands report on the hydration of transmembrane α-helices as concluded from vibrational coupling experiments. Lifetime distribution analysis shows that water influx proceeded in two temporally separated steps with time constants of 10 μs (30%) and 200 μs (70%), the latter phase concurrent with the start of ion conductance. Water efflux and the cessation of the ion conductance are synchronized as well, with a time constant of 10 ms. The temporal correlation between ion conductance and hydration of helices holds for fast (E123T) and slow (D156E) variants of CrChR2, strengthening its functional significance.
Azimuth sidelobe suppression technique for near-field MIMO radar imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yongze; Xu, Xiaojian
2015-10-01
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is getting more and more applications over the last decade. In near field imaging using a linear MIMO array, the azimuth sampling is non-uniform, resulting in spatially variant point spread function (PSF) over a large imaging zone. In this work, an azimuth sidelobe suppression technique is proposed where apodization or complex amplitude weighting is applied to the multiple channel data prior to image reconstruction. For best sidelobe suppression, the optimal channel weights wopt are obtained through mathematical optimization. The overall process mainly includes three steps. Firstly, the expression of PSF in azimuth is acquired by the azimuth focusing process; Secondly, based on the fact that, for an ideal PSF the maximum value of the mainlobe should be one and the values of sidelobes should be zeros, the problem of finding wopt is mathematically fomulated as an optimization problem; Lastly, by setting proper mainlobe width and sidelobe level, the optimal weights can be solved through convex optimization algorithm. Simulations of a MIMO radar system where channel amplitude-phase error and antenna elements position deviation exist are presented and the performance of the proposed technique is studied.
Ion-water and ion-polypeptide correlations in a gramicidin-like channel. A molecular dynamics study.
Jordan, P C
1990-01-01
This work describes a molecular dynamics study of ion-water and ion-polypeptide correlation in a model gramicidin-like channel (the polyglycine analogue) based upon interaction between polarizable, multipolar groups. The model suggests that the vicinity of the dimer junction and of the ethanolamine tail are regions of unusual flexibility. Cs+ binds weakly in the mouth of the channel: there it coordinates five water molecules and the #11CO group with which it interacts strongly and is ideally aligned. In the channel interior it is generally pentacoordinate; at the dimer junction, because of increased channel flexibility, it again becomes essentially hexacoordinate. The ion is also strongly coupled to the #13 CO but not to either #9 or #15, consistent with 13C NMR data. Water in the channel interior is strikingly different from bulk water; it has a much lower mean dipole moment. This correlates with our observation (which differs from that of previous studies) that water-water angular correlations do not persist within the channel, a result independent of ion occupancy or ionic polarity. In agreement with streaming potential measurements, there are seven single file water molecules associated with Cs+ permeation; one of these is always in direct contact with bulk water. At the mouth of an ion-free channel, there is a pattern of dipole moment alteration among the polar groups. Due to differential interaction with water, exo-carbonyls have unusually large dipole moments whereas those of the endo-carbonyls are low. The computed potential of mean force for CS+ translocation is qualitatively reasonable. However, it only exhibits a weakly articulated binding site and it does not quantitatively account for channel energetics. Correction for membrane polarization reduces, but does not eliminate, these problems. PMID:1705448
Cooperative MIMO technology in multiple hops wireless sensor networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Lina; Chen, Huajun; Gong, Jing
2017-03-01
The limited lifetime is one of the important factors restricted wireless sensor networks (WSNs), when possible, wireless nodes often operate with small batteries, while battery replacement is a very difficult and expensive. So the nodes must work long hours in the case of no battery replacement. Therefore, in WSNs, minimizing energy consumption is an important design consideration, at the same time, the transmission strategies of energy efficiency must be used for data forwarding. This paper, using cooperative multiple input multiple output(MIMO) technology combined with multiple hops technology, has put forward a new transmission model, i.e., the MIMO-MISO(multi-input multi-output)/MIMO-MIMO model. Simulation results demonstrate the proposed MIMO-MISO/MIMO-MIMO to minimize energy consumption of each node every node for multi-hop WSNs, to save a great deal of energy for a larger transmission distance, which makes the life of the entire network be extended.
Peltonen, Leena; Liljeroth, Peter; Heikkilä, Tiina; Kontturi, Kyösti; Hirvonen, Jouni
2003-08-01
A new modification of the channel flow dissolution method is introduced together with the theoretical basis to extract the solubility and mass transfer parameters from the dissolution experiments. Correlation of drug dissolution profiles in the channel flow apparatus was evaluated with respect to USP basket and intrinsic dissolution methods at pH 1.2 or 6.8. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was studied as a pure drug substance and as three simple tablet compositions with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and/or lactose as excipients. The channel flow measurements of 100% ASA tablets correlated well with the results of intrinsic dissolution tests. In the channel flow method as well as in the USP basket method the release of ASA was fastest from the tablet compositions containing lactose, while the slowest dissolution rate was observed with the composition containing MCC as the only excipient. As presumed, the dissolution rate of the weak acid was decreased as the pH of the medium was lowered, which was clearly confirmed also by the three dissolution methods. MCC forms matrix tablets and in the USP basket method the dissolution profiles followed square root of time kinetics indicating that diffusion was the rate-controlling step of ASA dissolution. Also the channel flow results indicated that the dissolution of ASA was controlled by mass transfer. The swelling behaviour of the tablets is different in the channel flow method as compared to the basket method: only one tablet surface is exposed to the dissolution medium in the channel flow system. The contact between the tablet surface and the dissolution medium is more similar between the channel flow and intrinsic dissolution methods.
Multi-channel poloidal correlation reflectometry on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qu, H.; Zhang, T.; Han, X.; Xiang, H. M.; Wen, F.; Geng, K. N.; Wang, Y. M.; Kong, D. F.; Cai, J. Q.; Huang, C. B.; Gao, Y.; Gao, X.; Zhang, S.
2016-11-01
A new multi-channel poloidal correlation reflectometry is developed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Eight dielectric resonator oscillators with frequencies of 12.5 GHz, 13.5 GHz, 14.5 GHz, 15 GHz, 15.5 GHz, 16 GHz, 17 GHz, and 18 GHz are used as sources. Signals from the sources are up-converted to V band using active quadruplers and then coupled together. The output waves are launched by one single antenna after passing through a 20 dB directional coupler which can provide the reference signal. Two poloidally separated antennae are installed to receive the reflected waves from plasma. The reference and reflected signals are down-converted by mixing with a quadrupled signal from a phase-locked source with a frequency of 14.2 GHz and the IF signals pass through the filter bank. The resulting signals from the mixers are detected by I/Q demodulators. The setup enables the measurement of density fluctuation at 8 (radial) × 2 (poloidal) spatial points. A coherent mode with an increasing velocity from 50 kHz to 100 kHz is observed by using the system. The mode is located in the steep gradient region of the pedestal.
Multi-channel poloidal correlation reflectometry on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.
Qu, H; Zhang, T; Han, X; Xiang, H M; Wen, F; Geng, K N; Wang, Y M; Kong, D F; Cai, J Q; Huang, C B; Gao, Y; Gao, X; Zhang, S
2016-11-01
A new multi-channel poloidal correlation reflectometry is developed at Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. Eight dielectric resonator oscillators with frequencies of 12.5 GHz, 13.5 GHz, 14.5 GHz, 15 GHz, 15.5 GHz, 16 GHz, 17 GHz, and 18 GHz are used as sources. Signals from the sources are up-converted to V band using active quadruplers and then coupled together. The output waves are launched by one single antenna after passing through a 20 dB directional coupler which can provide the reference signal. Two poloidally separated antennae are installed to receive the reflected waves from plasma. The reference and reflected signals are down-converted by mixing with a quadrupled signal from a phase-locked source with a frequency of 14.2 GHz and the IF signals pass through the filter bank. The resulting signals from the mixers are detected by I/Q demodulators. The setup enables the measurement of density fluctuation at 8 (radial) × 2 (poloidal) spatial points. A coherent mode with an increasing velocity from 50 kHz to 100 kHz is observed by using the system. The mode is located in the steep gradient region of the pedestal.
Doppler-Offset Waveforms for MIMO Radar
2010-01-01
Division Multiple Access, or FDMA . In the MIMO radar literature, the term FDMA is used, generically, to refer to sets of waveforms occupying different...frequencies at the same time. Mathematically, the lit" FDMA waveform can be written as: S" (I) = s (I) ej 2K I.’ 0 5, 1 5, T . for /I = I, ... ,N...noise) whenever i i’ j . Page 3 of 13 Pages On transmit, FDMA MIMO radars emit all N, frequency offset waveforms simultaneously. Then, each of the N
Robust adaptive beamforming for MIMO monopulse radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rowe, William; Ström, Marie; Li, Jian; Stoica, Petre
2013-05-01
Researchers have recently proposed a widely separated multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar using monopulse angle estimation techniques for target tracking. The widely separated antennas provide improved tracking performance by mitigating complex target radar cross-section fades and angle scintillation. An adaptive array is necessary in this paradigm because the direct path from any transmitter could act as a jammer at a receiver. When the target-free covariance matrix is not available, it is critical to include robustness into the adaptive beamformer weights. This work explores methods of robust adaptive monopulse beamforming techniques for MIMO tracking radar.
Resource Allocation Scheme in MIMO-OFDMA System for User's Different Data Throughput Requirements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sann Maw, Maung; Sasase, Iwao
In the subcarrier and power allocation schemes in Multi-Input Multi-Output and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (MIMO-OFDMA) systems, only equal fairness among users has been considered and no scheme for proportional data rate fairness has been considered. In this paper, a subcarrier, bit and power allocation scheme is proposed to maximize the total throughput under the constraints of total power and proportional data rate fairness among users. In the proposed scheme, joint subchannel allocation and adaptive bit loading is firstly performed by using singular value decomposition (SVD) of channel matrix under the constraint of users' data throughput requirements, and then adaptive power loading is applied. Simulation results show that effective performance of the system has been improved as well as each throughput is proportionally distributed among users in MIMO-OFDMA systems.
Evoked potential correlates of selective attention with multi-channel auditory inputs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwent, V. L.; Hillyard, S. A.
1975-01-01
Ten subjects were presented with random, rapid sequences of four auditory tones which were separated in pitch and apparent spatial position. The N1 component of the auditory vertex evoked potential (EP) measured relative to a baseline was observed to increase with attention. It was concluded that the N1 enhancement reflects a finely tuned selective attention to one stimulus channel among several concurrent, competing channels. This EP enhancement probably increases with increased information load on the subject.
MU-MIMO Pairing Algorithm Using Received Power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Jung-Seung; Baik, Doo-Kwon
In this letter, a new received power pairing scheduling (PPS) algorithm is proposed for Multi User Multiple Input and Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) systems. In contrast to existing algorithms that manage complex orthogonal factors, the PPS algorithm simply utilizes CINR to determine a MU-MIMO pair. Simulation results show that the PPS algorithm achieves up to 77% of MU-MIMO gain of determinant pairing scheduling (DPS) with low complexity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamajaya, Ketut; Umar, Efrizon; Sudjatmi, K. S.
2012-06-01
This study focused on natural convection heat transfer using a vertical rectangular sub-channel and water as the coolant fluid. To conduct this study has been made pipe heaters are equipped with thermocouples. Each heater is equipped with five thermocouples along the heating pipes. The diameter of each heater is 2.54 cm and 45 cm in length. The distance between the central heating and the pitch is 29.5 cm. Test equipment is equipped with a primary cooling system, a secondary cooling system and a heat exchanger. The purpose of this study is to obtain new empirical correlations equations of the vertical rectangular sub-channel, especially for the natural convection heat transfer within a bundle of vertical cylinders rectangular arrangement sub-channels. The empirical correlation equation can support the thermo-hydraulic analysis of research nuclear reactors that utilize cylindrical fuel rods, and also can be used in designing of baffle-free vertical shell and tube heat exchangers. The results of this study that the empirical correlation equations of natural convection heat transfer coefficients with rectangular arrangement is Nu = 6.3357 (Ra.Dh/x)0.0740.
Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization
2012-02-02
28-2012 Final Report 04/15/2009 - 11/30/2011 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization FA9550-09-1-0303 Alexander M...randomly placed sensors. MIMO radar, High-Resolution radar 19 Distributed MIMO Radar for Imaging and High Resolution Target Localization Air Force Office...configured with its antennas collocated [6] or distributed over an area [7, 8]. We refer to radio elements of a MIMO radar as nodes. Nodes may be equipped
Performance analysis of MIMO FSO systems with radial array beams and finite sized detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gökçe, Muhsin C.; Kamacıoǧlu, Canan; Uysal, Murat; Baykal, Yahya
2014-10-01
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems are employed in free space optical (FSO) links to mitigate the degrading effects of atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, we consider a MIMO FSO system with practical transmitter and receiver configurations that consists of a radial laser array with Gaussian beams and finite sized detectors. We formulate the average received intensity and the power scinitillation as a function of the receiver coordinates in the presence of weak atmospheric turbulence by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Then, integrations over the finite sized multiple detectors are performed and the effect of the receiver aperture averaging is quantified. We further derive an outage probability expression of this MIMO system in the presence of turbulence-induced fading channels. Using the derived expressions, we demonstrate the effect of several practical system parameters such as the ring radius, the number of array beamlets, the source size, the link length, structure constant and the receiver aperture radius on the system performance.
Hardware Impairments Aware Transceiver for Full-Duplex Massive MIMO Relaying
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Xiaochen; Zhang, Dongmei; Xu, Kui; Ma, Wenfeng; Xu, Youyun
2015-12-01
This paper studies the massive MIMO full-duplex relaying (MM-FDR), where multiple source-destination pairs communicate simultaneously with the help of a common full-duplex relay equipped with very large antenna arrays. Different from the traditional MM-FDR protocol, a general model where sources/destinations are allowed to equip with multiple antennas is considered. In contrast to the conventional MIMO system, massive MIMO must be built with low-cost components which are prone to hardware impairments. In this paper, the effect of hardware impairments is taken into consideration, and is modeled using transmit/receive distortion noises. We propose a low complexity hardware impairments aware transceiver scheme (named as HIA scheme) to mitigate the distortion noises by exploiting the statistical knowledge of channels and antenna arrays at sources and destinations. A joint degree of freedom and power optimization algorithm is presented to further optimize the spectral efficiency of HIA based MM-FDR. The results show that the HIA scheme can mitigate the "ceiling effect" appears in traditional MM-FDR protocol, if the numbers of antennas at sources and destinations can scale with that at the relay.
Haloui, Mounsif; Tremblay, Johanne; Seda, Ondrej; Koltsova, Svetlana V; Maksimov, Georgy V; Orlov, Sergei N; Hamet, Pavel
2013-10-01
Elevation of blood pressure with age is one of the hallmarks of hypertension in both males and females. This study examined transcriptomic profiles in the kidney of 12-, 40-, and 80-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats and 4 recombinant inbred strains in search for functional genetic elements supporting temporal dynamics of blood pressure elevation. We found that both in males and females of spontaneously hypertensive rats and hypertensive recombinant inbred strains age-dependent blood pressure increment was accompanied by 50% heightened expression of epithelial sodium channel β- and γ-subunits. Epithelial sodium channel subunit expression correlated positively with blood pressure but correlated negatively with renin expression. Increased epithelial sodium channel activity was observed in cultured epithelial cells isolated from the kidney medulla of 80-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats but not in age-matched normotensive Wistar Kyoto. This difference remained evident after 24-hour treatment with aldosterone. 22Na uptake in the perfused kidney medulla was increased whereas the urinary Na/K ratio was decreased in old spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with normotensive controls. The difference was eliminated by the administration of epithelial sodium channel inhibitor benzamil. Observations in recombinant inbred strains representing various mixtures of parental hypertensive and normotensive genomes suggest that Scnn1g and Scnn1b genes themselves are not implicated in heightened expression and that the increased expression is neither secondary nor required for a partial elevation of blood pressure in contrast to spontaneously hypertensive rats. We suggest that spontaneously hypertensive rats display an intact negative feed-back between renin-angiotensin-system and epithelial Na channel activity whose upregulated expression is supported by a yet unknown mechanism.
Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Wenchao; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jie; Sattar, Hamid; Zhao, Jinxin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen
2016-01-01
Selenium (Se) deficiency induces Ca2+ leak and calcification in mammal skeletal muscles; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, both Se-deficient chicken muscle models and selenoprotein W (SelW) gene knockdown myoblast and embryo models were used to study the mechanism. The results showed that Se deficiency-induced typical muscular injuries accompanied with Ca2+ leak and oxidative stress (P < 0.05) injured the ultrastructure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and mitochondria; decreased the levels of the Ca2+ channels, SERCA, SLC8A, CACNA1S, ORAI1, STIM1, TRPC1, and TRPC3 (P < 0.05); and increased the levels of Ca2+ channel PMCA (P < 0.05). Similarly, SelW knockdown also induced Ca2+ leak from the SR and cytoplasm; increased mitochondrial Ca2+ levels and oxidative stress; injured SR and mitochondrial ultrastructure; decreased levels of SLC8A, CACNA1S, ORA1, TRPC1, and TRPC3; and caused abnormal activities of Ca2+ channels in response to inhibitors in myoblasts and chicken embryos. Thus, both Se deficiency and SelW knockdown induced Ca2+ leak, oxidative stress, and Ca2+ channel reduction. In addition, Ca2+ levels and the expression of the Ca2+ channels, RyR1, SERCA, CACNA1S, TRPC1, and TRPC3 were recovered to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment compared with SelW knockdown cells. Thus, with regard to the decreased Ca2+ channels, SelW knockdown closely correlated Se deficiency with Ca2+ leak in muscles. The redox regulation role of SelW is crucial in Se deficiency-induced Ca2+ leak in muscles. PMID:27557522
Channel modeling for fifth generation cellular networks and wireless sensor networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torabi, Amir
In view of exponential growth in data traffic demand, the wireless communications industry has aimed to increase the capacity of existing networks by 1000 times over the next 20 years. A combination of extreme cell densification, more bandwidth, and higher spectral efficiency is needed to support the data traffic requirements for fifth generation (5G) cellular communications. In this research, the potential improvements achieved by using three major 5G enabling technologies (i.e., small cells, millimeter-wave spectrum, and massive MIMO) in rural and urban environments are investigated. This work develops SPM and KA-based ray models to investigate the impact of geometrical parameters on terrain-based multiuser MIMO channel characteristic. Moreover, a new directional 3D channel model is developed for urban millimeter-wave (mmW) small cells. Path-loss, spatial correlation, coverage distance, and coherence length are studied in urban areas. Exploiting physical optics (PO) and geometric optics (GO) solutions, closed form expressions are derived for spatial correlation. Achievable spatial diversity is evaluated using horizontal and vertical linear arrays as well as planar 2D arrays. In another study, a versatile near-ground field prediction model is proposed to facilitate accurate wireless sensor network (WSN) simulations. Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the effects of antenna height, frequency of operation, polarization, and terrain dielectric and roughness properties on WSNs performance.
Pilot Signal Design for Massive MIMO Systems: A Received Signal-To-Noise-Ratio-Based Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
So, Jungho; Kim, Donggun; Lee, Yuni; Sung, Youngchul
2015-05-01
In this paper, the pilot signal design for massive MIMO systems to maximize the training-based received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is considered under two channel models: block Gauss-Markov and block independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel models. First, it is shown that under the block Gauss-Markov channel model, the optimal pilot design problem reduces to a semi-definite programming (SDP) problem, which can be solved numerically by a standard convex optimization tool. Second, under the block i.i.d. channel model, an optimal solution is obtained in closed form. Numerical results show that the proposed method yields noticeably better performance than other existing pilot design methods in terms of received SNR.
Nasir, Jamal; Jamaluddin, Mohd. Haizal; Ahmad Khan, Aftab; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee; Leow, Chee Yen; Owais, Owais
2017-01-01
An L-shaped dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) for long term evolution (LTE) applications is proposed. The presented antenna can transmit and receive information independently using fundamental TE111 and higher order TE121 modes of the DRA. TE111 degenerate mode covers LTE band 2 (1.85–1.99 GHz), 3 (1.71–1.88 GHz), and 9 (1.7499–1.7849 GHz) at fr = 1.8 GHz whereas TE121 covers LTE band 7 (2.5–2.69 GHz) at fr = 2.6 GHz, respectively. An efficient design method has been used to reduce mutual coupling between ports by changing the effective permittivity values of DRA by introducing a cylindrical air-gap at an optimal position in the dielectric resonator. This air-gap along with matching strips at the corners of the dielectric resonator keeps the isolation at a value more than 17 dB at both the bands. The diversity performance has also been evaluated by calculating the envelope correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mean effective gain of the proposed design. MIMO performance has been evaluated by measuring the throughput of the proposed MIMO antenna. Experimental results successfully validate the presented design methodology in this work. PMID:28098807
Nasir, Jamal; Jamaluddin, Mohd Haizal; Ahmad Khan, Aftab; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee; Yen, Bruce Leow Chee; Owais, Owais
2017-01-13
An L-shaped dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) for long term evolution (LTE) applications is proposed. The presented antenna can transmit and receive information independently using fundamental TE111 and higher order TE121 modes of the DRA. TE111 degenerate mode covers LTE band 2 (1.85-1.99 GHz), 3 (1.71-1.88 GHz), and 9 (1.7499-1.7849 GHz) at fr = 1.8 GHz whereas TE121 covers LTE band 7 (2.5-2.69 GHz) at fr = 2.6 GHz, respectively. An efficient design method has been used to reduce mutual coupling between ports by changing the effective permittivity values of DRA by introducing a cylindrical air-gap at an optimal position in the dielectric resonator. This air-gap along with matching strips at the corners of the dielectric resonator keeps the isolation at a value more than 17 dB at both the bands. The diversity performance has also been evaluated by calculating the envelope correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mean effective gain of the proposed design. MIMO performance has been evaluated by measuring the throughput of the proposed MIMO antenna. Experimental results successfully validate the presented design methodology in this work.
On Modeling and Analysis of MIMO Wireless Mesh Networks with Triangular Overlay Topology
Cao, Zhanmao; Wu, Chase Q.; Zhang, Yuanping; ...
2015-01-01
Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) wireless mesh networks (WMNs) aim to provide the last-mile broadband wireless access to the Internet. Along with the algorithmic development for WMNs, some fundamental mathematical problems also emerge in various aspects such as routing, scheduling, and channel assignment, all of which require an effective mathematical model and rigorous analysis of network properties. In this paper, we propose to employ Cartesian product of graphs (CPG) as a multichannel modeling approach and explore a set of unique properties of triangular WMNs. In each layer of CPG with a single channel, we design a node coordinate scheme thatmore » retains the symmetric property of triangular meshes and develop a function for the assignment of node identity numbers based on their coordinates. We also derive a necessary-sufficient condition for interference-free links and combinatorial formulas to determine the number of the shortest paths for channel realization in triangular WMNs.« less
Majhi, Rakesh Kumar; Saha, Somdatta; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ghosh, Arijit; Swain, Nirlipta; Goswami, Luna; Mohapatra, Pratyush; Maity, Apratim; Kumar Sahoo, Vivek
2015-01-01
Transient Receptor Potential cation channel, subfamily Melastatin, member 8 (TRPM8) is involved in detection of cold temperature, different noxious compounds and in execution of thermo- as well as chemo-sensitive responses at cellular levels. Here we explored the molecular evolution of TRPM8 by analyzing sequences from various species. We elucidate that several regions of TRPM8 had different levels of selection pressure but the 4th–5th transmembrane regions remain highly conserved. Analysis of synteny suggests that since vertebrate origin, TRPM8 gene is linked with SPP2, a bone morphogen. TRPM8, especially the N-terminal region of it, seems to be highly variable in human population. We found 16,656 TRPM8 variants in 1092 human genomes with top variations being SNPs, insertions and deletions. A total of 692 missense mutations are also mapped to human TRPM8 protein of which 509 seem to be delateroiours in nature as supported by Polyphen V2, SIFT and Grantham deviation score. Using a highly specific antibody, we demonstrate that TRPM8 is expressed endogenously in the testis of rat and sperm cells of different vertebrates ranging from fish to higher mammals. We hypothesize that TRPM8 had emerged during vertebrate evolution (ca 450 MYA). We propose that expression of TRPM8 in sperm cell and its role in regulating sperm function are important factors that have guided its molecular evolution, and that these understandings may have medical importance. PMID:26500819
Outage-Optimal Transmission in Multiuser-MIMO Kronecker Channels
2010-03-01
appropriately, which can be done by dividing by the variance, giving the result. To simplify notation, define tl = ( vHl ΣTlvl) and rl = (uHl ΣRlul), l = 1...to solving the fol- lowing optimization problem: max vl vHl ΣTlvl (8) s.t. ||vl||2 = 1 This optimization problem has a well-known solution: vl is the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sung, C.; Peebles, W. A.; Wannberg, C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Nguyen, X.; Lantsov, R.; Bardóczi, L.
2016-11-01
A new eight-channel correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak to study both turbulent and coherent electron temperature fluctuations under various plasma conditions and locations. This unique system is designed to cover a broad range of operation space on DIII-D (1.6-2.1 T, detection frequency: 72-108 GHz) via four remotely selected local oscillators (80, 88, 96, and 104 GHz). Eight radial locations are measured simultaneously in a single discharge covering as much as half the minor radius. In this paper, we present design details of the quasi-optical system, the receiver, as well as representative data illustrating operation of the system.
Sung, C; Peebles, W A; Wannberg, C; Rhodes, T L; Nguyen, X; Lantsov, R; Bardóczi, L
2016-11-01
A new eight-channel correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak to study both turbulent and coherent electron temperature fluctuations under various plasma conditions and locations. This unique system is designed to cover a broad range of operation space on DIII-D (1.6-2.1 T, detection frequency: 72-108 GHz) via four remotely selected local oscillators (80, 88, 96, and 104 GHz). Eight radial locations are measured simultaneously in a single discharge covering as much as half the minor radius. In this paper, we present design details of the quasi-optical system, the receiver, as well as representative data illustrating operation of the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Malekmohammadi, Amin
2016-06-01
The performance of absolute added correlative coding (AACC) modulation format with direct detection has been numerically and analytically reported, targeting metro data center interconnects. Hereby, the focus lies on the performance of the bit error rate, noise contributions, spectral efficiency, and chromatic dispersion tolerance. The signal space model of AACC, where the average electrical and optical power expressions are derived for the first time, is also delineated. The proposed modulation format was also compared to other well-known signaling, such as on-off-keying (OOK) and four-level pulse-amplitude modulation, at the same bit rate in a directly modulated vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser-based transmission system. The comparison results show a clear advantage of AACC in achieving longer fiber delivery distance due to the higher dispersion tolerance.
Kamaraju, Kishore; Sukharev, Sergei
2008-10-07
Lipid bilayers provide a natural anisotropic environment for membrane proteins and can serve as apolar reservoirs for lipid-derived second messengers or lipophilic drugs. Partitioning of lipophilic agents changes the lateral pressure distribution in the bilayer, affecting integral proteins. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens) are amphipathic compounds widely used as food and cosmetics preservatives, but the mechanisms of their broad antibacterial action are unknown. Here we describe effects of ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens on the gating of the bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) and compare them with the surface activity and lateral pressure changes measured in lipid monolayers in the presence of these substances. Near the bilayer-monolayer equivalence pressure of 35 mN/m, ethyl, propyl, or butyl paraben present in the subphase at 1 mM increased the surface pressure of the monolayer by 5, 12.5, or 20%, respectively. No spontaneous activation of MscS channels was observed in patch-clamp experiments with parabens added from either the cytoplasmic or periplasmic side. Increasing concentrations of parabens on the cytoplasmic side of excised patches shifted activation curves of MscS toward higher tensions. A good correlation between the pressure increases in monolayers and shifts in activation midpoints in patch-clamp experiments suggested that the more hydrophobic parabens partition more strongly into the lipid and exert larger effects on channel gating through changes in lateral pressure. We show that cytoplasmically presented ethyl or butyl parabens both hasten the process of desensitization of MscS and influence inactivation differently. The higher rate of desensitization is likely due to increased lateral pressure in the cytoplasmic leaflet surrounding the gate. Neither of the parabens strongly affects the rate of recovery and does not seem to penetrate the TM2-TM3 interhelical clefts in MscS. We conclude that the bacterial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jisang
In this dissertation, we investigate MIMO stability margin inference of a large number of controllers using pre-established stability margins of a small number of nu-gap-wise adjacent controllers. The generalized stability margin and the nu-gap metric are inherently able to handle MIMO system analysis without the necessity of repeating multiple channel-by-channel SISO analyses. This research consists of three parts: (i) development of a decision support tool for inference of the stability margin, (ii) computational considerations for yielding the maximal stability margin with the minimal nu-gap metric in a less conservative manner, and (iii) experiment design for estimating the generalized stability margin with an assured error bound. A modern problem from aerospace control involves the certification of a large set of potential controllers with either a single plant or a fleet of potential plant systems, with both plants and controllers being MIMO and, for the moment, linear. Experiments on a limited number of controller/plant pairs should establish the stability and a certain level of margin of the complete set. We consider this certification problem for a set of controllers and provide algorithms for selecting an efficient subset for testing. This is done for a finite set of candidate controllers and, at least for SISO plants, for an infinite set. In doing this, the nu-gap metric will be the main tool. We provide a theorem restricting a radius of a ball in the parameter space so that the controller can guarantee a prescribed level of stability and performance if parameters of the controllers are contained in the ball. Computational examples are given, including one of certification of an aircraft engine controller. The overarching aim is to introduce truly MIMO margin calculations and to understand their efficacy in certifying stability over a set of controllers and in replacing legacy single-loop gain and phase margin calculations. We consider methods for the
Wang, Ruijia; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xing; Sun, Bing
2017-01-01
Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal. This sub-band signal corresponds to the transmission channel. Then, all of the sub-band signals are modulated with random initial phases and concurrently transmitted. The signal form is more complex and difficult to intercept. Next, the echoes of the sub-band signal are utilized to synthesize a wide band signal after preprocessing. The proposed method will increase the signal to interference ratio and peak amplitude ratio of the signal to resist retransmission deception jamming. Finally, well-focused SAR imagery is obtained using a conventional imaging method where the retransmission deception jamming strength is degraded and defocused. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:28075367
Wang, Ruijia; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xing; Sun, Bing
2017-01-09
Retransmission deception jamming seriously degrades the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) detection efficiency and can mislead SAR image interpretation by forming false targets. In order to suppress retransmission deception jamming, this paper proposes a novel multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) SAR structure range direction MIMO SAR, whose multiple channel antennas are vertical to the azimuth. First, based on the multiple channels of range direction MIMO SAR, the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) linear frequency modulation (LFM) signal was adopted as the transmission signal of each channel, which is defined as a sub-band signal. This sub-band signal corresponds to the transmission channel. Then, all of the sub-band signals are modulated with random initial phases and concurrently transmitted. The signal form is more complex and difficult to intercept. Next, the echoes of the sub-band signal are utilized to synthesize a wide band signal after preprocessing. The proposed method will increase the signal to interference ratio and peak amplitude ratio of the signal to resist retransmission deception jamming. Finally, well-focused SAR imagery is obtained using a conventional imaging method where the retransmission deception jamming strength is degraded and defocused. Simulations demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Multipath Propagation for Helicopter-to-Ground MIMO Links
2011-06-02
AFFTC-PA-11118 Multipath Propagation for Helicopter-to-Ground MIMO Links Michael Rice, Michael Jensen AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER...EDWARDS AFB, CA June 2, 2011 A F F T C m Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. AIR FORCE FLIGHT TEST CENTER...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Multipath Propagation for Helicopter-to-Ground MIMO Links 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM
Sanad, Mohamed; Hassan, Noha
2014-01-01
A dual resonant antenna configuration is developed for multistandard multifunction mobile handsets and portable computers. Only two wideband resonant antennas can cover most of the LTE spectrums in portable communication equipment. The bandwidth that can be covered by each antenna exceeds 70% without using any matching or tuning circuits, with efficiencies that reach 80%. Thus, a dual configuration of them is capable of covering up to 39 LTE (4G) bands besides the existing 2G and 3G bands. 2×2 MIMO configurations have been also developed for the two wideband antennas with a maximum isolation and a minimum correlation coefficient between the primary and the diversity antennas.
Sanad, Mohamed; Hassan, Noha
2014-01-01
A dual resonant antenna configuration is developed for multistandard multifunction mobile handsets and portable computers. Only two wideband resonant antennas can cover most of the LTE spectrums in portable communication equipment. The bandwidth that can be covered by each antenna exceeds 70% without using any matching or tuning circuits, with efficiencies that reach 80%. Thus, a dual configuration of them is capable of covering up to 39 LTE (4G) bands besides the existing 2G and 3G bands. 2 × 2 MIMO configurations have been also developed for the two wideband antennas with a maximum isolation and a minimum correlation coefficient between the primary and the diversity antennas. PMID:24558322
The architecture of blind equalizer for MIMO free space optical communication system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongwei; Huang, Yongmei
2016-10-01
The free space optical (FSO) communication system has attracted many researchers from different countries, owning to its advantages such as high security, high speed and anti-interference. Among all kinds of the channels of the FSO communication system, the atmosphere channel is very difficult to deal with for two typical disadvantages at least. The one is the scintillation of the optical carrier intensity caused by the atmosphere turbulence and the other is the multipath effect by the optical scattering. A lot of studies have shown that the MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technology can overcome the scintillation of the optical carrier through the atmosphere effectively. So the background of this paper is a MIMO system which includes multiple optical transmitting antennas and multiple optical receiving antennas. A number of particles such as hazes, water droplets and aerosols exit in the atmosphere widely. When optical carrier meets these particles, the scattering phenomenon is inevitable, which leads to the multipath effect. As a result, a optical pulse transmitted by the optical transmitter becomes wider, to some extent, when it gets to the optical receiver due to the multipath effect. If the information transmission rate is quite low, there is less relationship between the multipath effect and the bit error rate (BER) of the communication system. Once the information transmission rate increases to a high level, the multipath effect will produce the problem called inter symbol inference (ISI) seriously and the bit error rate will increase severely. In order to take the advantage of the FSO communication system, the inter symbol inference problem must be solved. So it is necessary to use the channel equalization technology. This paper aims at deciding a equalizer and designing suitable equalization algorithm for a MIMO free space optical communication system to overcome the serious problem of bit error rate. The reliability and the efficiency of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Chang-Jun
In MIMO systems, the channel identification is important to distinguish transmitted signals from multiple transmit antennas. One of the most typical channel identification schemes is to employ a code division multiplexing (CDM) based scheme in which a unique spreading code is assigned to distinguish both BS and MS antenna elements. However, by increasing the number of base stations and transmit antenna elements, large spreading codes and pilot symbols are required to distinguish the received power from all the connectable BS, as well as to identify all the CSI for the combination of transmitter and receiver antenna elements. Furthermore, the complexity of maximum likelihood detection (MLD) for implementation of MIMO is a considerable work. To reduce these problems, in this paper, we propose the parallel detection algorithm using multiple QR decompositions with permuted channel matrix (MQRD-PCM) with discrete pilot signal assignment and iterative channel identification for MIMO/OFDM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazoochi, M.; Pourmina, M. A.; Bakhshi, H.
2015-03-01
The core aim of this work is the maximization of the achievable data rate of the secondary user pairs (SU pairs), while ensuring the QoS of primary users (PUs). All users are assumed to be equipped with multiple antennas. It is assumed that when PUs are present, the direct communications between SU pairs introduces intolerable interference to PUs and thereby SUs transmit signal using the cooperation of other SUs and avoid transmitting in the direct channel. In brief, an adaptive cooperative strategy for multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) cognitive radio networks is proposed. At the presence of PUs, the issue of joint relay selection and power allocation in Underlay MIMO Cooperative Cognitive Radio Networks (U-MIMO-CCRN) is addressed. The optimal approach for determining the power allocation and the cooperating SU is proposed. Besides, the outage probability of the proposed communication protocol is further derived. Due to high complexity of the optimal approach, a low-complexity approach is further proposed and its performance is evaluated using simulations. The simulation results reveal that the performance loss due to the low-complexity approach is only about 14%, while the complexity is greatly reduced.
Hu, Cheng; Wang, Jingyang; Tian, Weiming; Zeng, Tao; Wang, Rui
2017-01-01
Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) radar provides much more flexibility than the traditional radar thanks to its ability to realize far more observation channels than the actual number of transmit and receive (T/R) elements. In designing the MIMO imaging radar arrays, the commonly used virtual array theory generally assumes that all elements are on the same line. However, due to the physical size of the antennas and coupling effect between T/R elements, a certain height difference between T/R arrays is essential, which will result in the defocusing of edge points of the scene. On the other hand, the virtual array theory implies far-field approximation. Therefore, with a MIMO array designed by this theory, there will exist inevitable high grating lobes in the imaging results of near-field edge points of the scene. To tackle these problems, this paper derives the relationship between target’s point spread function (PSF) and pattern of T/R arrays, by which the design criterion is presented for near-field imaging MIMO arrays. Firstly, the proper height between T/R arrays is designed to focus the near-field edge points well. Secondly, the far-field array is modified to suppress the grating lobes in the near-field area. Finally, the validity of the proposed methods is verified by two simulations and an experiment. PMID:28294996
Advanced Multiple In-Multiple Out (MIMO) Antenna Communications for Airborne Networks
2015-03-01
ADVANCED MULTIPLE IN-MULTIPLE OUT (MIMO) ANTENNA COMMUNICATIONS FOR AIRBORNE NETWORKS SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY MARCH 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT...TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2011 – SEP 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED MULTIPLE IN-MULTIPLE OUT (MIMO) ANTENNA ...MIMO system with over the air transmission. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Multiple In-Multiple Out (MIMO Antenna Communications, Airborne Networks, D-BLAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Hyunwook; Choi, Seungwon
In this paper, we present an algorithm for reducing the transmit normalization factor by perturbing the transmit signal in a Multi-User Multiple Input Multiple Output (MU-MIMO) system which uses the channel inverse matrix as its precoding matrix. A base station must normalize unnormalized transmit signals due to the limitation of the constant transmit power. This paper defines the norm of the unnormalized transmit signal as the transmit normalization factor used to normalize the transmit signal. Recalling that the transmit normalization factor consists of a combination of the singular values from the channel inverse matrix, we provide a codebook that successively reduces the coefficients of these singular values. Through computer simulations, the proposed algorithm is compared to sphere encoding in terms of the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the outage probability in a MU-MIMO signal environment. Sphere encoding is known to be an optimal solution amongst the perturbation methods that reduce the transmit normalization factor [1]. This work demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is has very good performance, comparable to that of sphere encoding, while its computational load is nearly 200 times less. Since the codebook in our algorithm depends only on the given channel, the difference in the computational complexity becomes even greater when the channel state is not changed, because the codebook can be reused. Furthermore, the codebook exhibits the characteristic of robustness to the maximum Doppler shift.
Time-reversal techniques for MISO and MIMO wireless communication systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouda, Ahmed E.; Teixeira, Fernando L.; Yavuz, Mehmet E.
2012-10-01
We consider the application of different time-reversal (TR) signal processing and beamforming techniques to multiple-input single-output (MISO) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. Conventional TR beamforming provides spatial focusing at the intended receiver; however, it does not yield perfect channel equalization. Time-reversed pilot can be normalized to provide perfect equalization at the expense of power level. This equalization is particularly important for high data rates where the bit error rate performance is dominated by internal noise due to intersymbol interference. To increase physical layer covertness, TR beamforming is combined with the multiple-signal-classification (MUSIC) technique to produce null fields at eavesdroppers. This technique is also applied to MIMO setups to eliminate interuser interference and hence increase system capacity. Differential TR is used to obtain and update pilot signals for passive moving receivers, i.e., those that cannot (or do not) transmit pilot signals. Time-reversed differential backscattered signal is able to provide satisfactory spatial and temporal focusing at the moving receiver.
New Closed-Form of the Largest Eigenvalue PDF for Max-SNR MIMO System Performances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letessier, Jonathan; Vrigneau, Baptiste; Rostaing, Philippe; Burel, Gilles
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) maximum-SNR (max-SNR) system employs the maximum ratio combiner (MRC) at the receiver side and the maximum ratio transmitter (MRT) at the transmitter side. Its performances highly depend on MIMO channel characteristics, which vary according to both the number of antennas and their distribution between the transmitter and receiver sides. By using the decomposition of the ordered Wishart distribution in the uncorrelated Rayleigh case, we derived a closed-form expression of the largest eigenvalue probability density function (PDF). The final result yields to an expression form of the PDF where polynomials are multiplied by exponentials; it is worth underlining that, though this form had been previously observed for given couples of antennas, to date no formally-written closed-form was available in the literature for an arbitrary couple. Then, this new expression permits one to quickly and easily get the well known largest eigenvalue PDF and use it to determine the binary error probability (BEP) of the max-SNR.
Space-Frequency Block Code with Matched Rotation for MIMO-OFDM System with Limited Feedback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Min; Abhayapala, Thushara D.; Jayalath, Dhammika; Smith, David; Athaudage, Chandra
2009-12-01
This paper presents a novel matched rotation precoding (MRP) scheme to design a rate one space-frequency block code (SFBC) and a multirate SFBC for MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback. The proposed rate one MRP and multirate MRP can always achieve full transmit diversity and optimal system performance for arbitrary number of antennas, subcarrier intervals, and subcarrier groupings, with limited channel knowledge required by the transmit antennas. The optimization process of the rate one MRP is simple and easily visualized so that the optimal rotation angle can be derived explicitly, or even intuitively for some cases. The multirate MRP has a complex optimization process, but it has a better spectral efficiency and provides a relatively smooth balance between system performance and transmission rate. Simulations show that the proposed SFBC with MRP can overcome the diversity loss for specific propagation scenarios, always improve the system performance, and demonstrate flexible performance with large performance gain. Therefore the proposed SFBCs with MRP demonstrate flexibility and feasibility so that it is more suitable for a practical MIMO-OFDM system with dynamic parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Couvillon, L. A., Jr.; Carl, C.; Goldstein, R. M.; Posner, E. C.; Green, R. R. (Inventor)
1973-01-01
A method and apparatus are described for synchronizing a received PCM communications signal without requiring a separate synchronizing channel. The technique provides digital correlation of the received signal with a reference signal, first with its unmodulated subcarrier and then with a bit sync code modulated subcarrier, where the code sequence length is equal in duration to each data bit.
2 × 2 MIMO OFDM/OQAM radio signals over an elliptical core few-mode fiber.
Mo, Qi; He, Jiale; Yu, Dawei; Deng, Lei; Fu, Songnian; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming
2016-10-01
We experimentally demonstrate a 4.46 Gb/s2×2 multi-input multi-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)/OQAM radio signal over a 2 km elliptical core 3-mode fiber, together with 0.4 m wireless transmission. Meanwhile, to cope with differential channel delay (DCD) among involved MIMO channels, we propose a time-offset crosstalk cancellation algorithm to extend the DCD tolerance from 10 to 60 ns without using a circle prefix (CP), leading to an 18.7% improvement of spectral efficiency. For the purpose of comparison, we also examine the transmission performance of CP-OFDM signals with different lengths of CPs, under the same system configuration. The proposed algorithm is also effective for the DCD compensation of a radio signal over a 2 km 7-core fiber. These results not only demonstrate the feasibility of space division multiplexing for RoF application but also validate that the elliptical core few-mode fiber can provide the same independent channels as the multicore fiber.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, S.-U.; Sikdar, D. N.; Suomi, V. E.
1974-01-01
Nimbus 4 data (11.5-micron) channel and ATS 3 digitized data were analyzed for three days during April and May 1970. Cloud-top temperature, as measured by the 11.5-micron channel of the satellite radiometer, shows a close negative correlation with cloud brightness measured by the ATS 3 satellite. This is especially true in well-developed cumulonimbus clouds. An estimate of cloud heights corresponding to cloud-top temperature was obtained by using radiosonde data and radar images, and the relationships between the cloud thickness and brightness counts were derived for the cumulonimbus clouds.
Reconfigurable architecture for MIMO systems based on CORDIC operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongzhi; Leray, Pierre; Palicot, Jacques
2006-09-01
The MIMO system is an attractive technology for wireless 3G/4G systems. In this article we propose the realization on FPGA of a MIMO 'V-BLAST Square Root' algorithm based on a variable number of CORDIC operators. The CORDIC operator is highly suitable for this implementation as it only relies on simple techniques of addition and vector offsets. This square root algorithm architecture is reconfigurable in order to adapt itself to different numbers of antennas and different data rates. The proposed architecture can achieve a data rate of 600 Mbit/s in a Virtex-II FPGA circuit from Xilinx for the MIMO system with QPSK modulation. To cite this article: H. Wang et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).
Wu, Jie; Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Zhan, Xi-Sheng; Yan, Huai-Cheng; Ge, Ming-Feng
2017-02-16
This paper investigates the optimal modified tracking performance of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) networked control systems (NCSs) with packet dropouts and bandwidth constraints. Some explicit expressions are obtained by using co-prime factorization and the spectral decomposition technique. The obtained results show that the optimal modified tracking performance is related to the intrinsic properties of a given plant such as non-minimum phase (NMP) zeros, unstable poles, and their directions. Furthermore, the modified factor, packet dropouts probability and bandwidth also impact the optimal modified tracking performance of the NCSs. The optimal modified tracking performance with channel input power constraint is obtained by searching through all stabilizing two-parameter compensator. Finally, some typical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
A Novel Nonlinear Precoding Detection Algorithm for VBLAST in MIMO-MC-CDMA Downlink System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Hongliang; Tao, Yong
Considering the error propagation effect and high complexity of the Vertical Bell Labs Layered Space Time (V-BLAST), a novel nonlinear ZF-THP algorithm for VBLAST in MIMO-MC-CDMA downlink system is proposed in this paper. QR decomposition is used for precoding matrix, the nonlinear Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding (THP) is used between the sub-carrier channels of MC-CDMA to eliminate interference from other signals at the transmitter, and can obtain frequency diversity gain and eliminate effectively the error propagation effect. At the receiver, zero forcing criterion is used, and the complexity of the receiver can be reduced. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is better than the traditional zero forcing algorithm and the linear precoding algorithm in the system BER.
Linear precoding based on polynomial expansion: reducing complexity in massive MIMO.
Mueller, Axel; Kammoun, Abla; Björnson, Emil; Debbah, Mérouane
Massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques have the potential to bring tremendous improvements in spectral efficiency to future communication systems. Counterintuitively, the practical issues of having uncertain channel knowledge, high propagation losses, and implementing optimal non-linear precoding are solved more or less automatically by enlarging system dimensions. However, the computational precoding complexity grows with the system dimensions. For example, the close-to-optimal and relatively "antenna-efficient" regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoding is very complicated to implement in practice, since it requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. Motivated by the high performance of RZF, we propose to replace the matrix inversion and multiplication by a truncated polynomial expansion (TPE), thereby obtaining the new TPE precoding scheme which is more suitable for real-time hardware implementation and significantly reduces the delay to the first transmitted symbol. The degree of the matrix polynomial can be adapted to the available hardware resources and enables smooth transition between simple maximum ratio transmission and more advanced RZF. By deriving new random matrix results, we obtain a deterministic expression for the asymptotic signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio (SINR) achieved by TPE precoding in massive MIMO systems. Furthermore, we provide a closed-form expression for the polynomial coefficients that maximizes this SINR. To maintain a fixed per-user rate loss as compared to RZF, the polynomial degree does not need to scale with the system, but it should be increased with the quality of the channel knowledge and the signal-to-noise ratio.
MIMO radar for through-wall target identification in single and two wall scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gebhardt, Evan T.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Broderick, Sean P.
2016-05-01
MIMO radar provides improvement over traditional phased array radars for through wall imaging. By transmitting independent waveforms from a transmit array to a receive array an effective virtual array is created. This array has improved degrees of freedom over phased arrays and mono-static MIMO systems. This virtual array allows us to achieve the same effective aperture length as a phased array with less elements because the virtual array can be described as the convolution of transmit and receive array positions. In addition, data from multiple walls of the same room can be used to collect target information. If two walls are perpendicular to each other and the geometry of transmit and receive arrays is known, then data can be processed independently of each other. Since the geometry of the arrays is known, a target scene can be created where the two data sets overlap. The overlapped scene can then be processed so that image artifacts that do not correlate between the data sets can be excised. The result gives improved target detection, reduction in false alarms, robustness to noise, and robustness against errors such as improperly aligned antennas.
Wu, Xiaokun; Han, Min; Ming, Dengming
2015-10-07
Membrane proteins play critically important roles in many cellular activities such as ions and small molecule transportation, signal recognition, and transduction. In order to fulfill their functions, these proteins must be placed in different membrane environments and a variety of protein-lipid interactions may affect the behavior of these proteins. One of the key effects of protein-lipid interactions is their ability to change the dynamics status of membrane proteins, thus adjusting their functions. Here, we present a multi-scaled normal mode analysis (mNMA) method to study the dynamics perturbation to the membrane proteins imposed by lipid bi-layer membrane fluctuations. In mNMA, channel proteins are simulated at all-atom level while the membrane is described with a coarse-grained model. mNMA calculations clearly show that channel gating motion can tightly couple with a variety of membrane deformations, including bending and twisting. We then examined bi-channel systems where two channels were separated with different distances. From mNMA calculations, we observed both positive and negative gating correlations between two neighboring channels, and the correlation has a maximum as the channel center-to-center distance is close to 2.5 times of their diameter. This distance is larger than recently found maximum attraction distance between two proteins embedded in membrane which is 1.5 times of the protein size, indicating that membrane fluctuation might impose collective motions among proteins within a larger area. The hybrid resolution feature in mNMA provides atomic dynamics information for key components in the system without costing much computer resource. We expect it to be a conventional simulation tool for ordinary laboratories to study the dynamics of very complicated biological assemblies. The source code is available upon request to the authors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiaokun; Han, Min; Ming, Dengming
2015-10-01
Membrane proteins play critically important roles in many cellular activities such as ions and small molecule transportation, signal recognition, and transduction. In order to fulfill their functions, these proteins must be placed in different membrane environments and a variety of protein-lipid interactions may affect the behavior of these proteins. One of the key effects of protein-lipid interactions is their ability to change the dynamics status of membrane proteins, thus adjusting their functions. Here, we present a multi-scaled normal mode analysis (mNMA) method to study the dynamics perturbation to the membrane proteins imposed by lipid bi-layer membrane fluctuations. In mNMA, channel proteins are simulated at all-atom level while the membrane is described with a coarse-grained model. mNMA calculations clearly show that channel gating motion can tightly couple with a variety of membrane deformations, including bending and twisting. We then examined bi-channel systems where two channels were separated with different distances. From mNMA calculations, we observed both positive and negative gating correlations between two neighboring channels, and the correlation has a maximum as the channel center-to-center distance is close to 2.5 times of their diameter. This distance is larger than recently found maximum attraction distance between two proteins embedded in membrane which is 1.5 times of the protein size, indicating that membrane fluctuation might impose collective motions among proteins within a larger area. The hybrid resolution feature in mNMA provides atomic dynamics information for key components in the system without costing much computer resource. We expect it to be a conventional simulation tool for ordinary laboratories to study the dynamics of very complicated biological assemblies. The source code is available upon request to the authors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derot, Jonathan; Schmitt, François Guillaume; Gentilhomme, Valérie; Morin, Pascal
2016-05-01
High-frequency temperature fluctuations recorded in the English Channel are compared using two long-term autonomous underwater monitoring stations at less than 20-min time resolution. Measurements were taken from 2005 to 2011 from two systems 460 km apart in the western and eastern parts of the English Channel. Spectral analysis reveals similar statistical behaviors, with approximate 5/3 spectra and several forcing frequencies in relation to tidal and daily cycles. A co-spectra study reveals a transition scale of 11 days. The influence of this scale is also visible though Time-Dependent Intrinsic Correlation analysis (TDIC)-a recently introduced cross-correlation analysis based on Empirical mode decomposition. This helps to spatialize high-frequency temporal records at a fixed location.
Haris, Parvez I.; Molle, Gérard; Duclohier, Hervé
2004-01-01
Alamethicin, a 20 residue-long peptaibol remains a favorite high voltage-dependent channel-forming peptide. However, the structural significance of its abundant noncoded residues (α-methylalanine or Aib) for its ion channel activity remains unknown, although a previous study showed that replacement of all Aib residues with leucines preserved the essential channel behavior except for much faster single-channel events. To correlate these functional properties with structural data, here we compare the secondary structures of an alamethicin derivative where all the eight Aibs were replaced by leucines and the native alamethicin. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of these peptides were recorded in methanol and in aqueous phospholipid membranes. Results obtained show a significant conformational change in alamethicin upon substitution of its Aib residues with Leu. The amide I band occurs at a lower frequency for the Leu-derivative indicating that its α-helices are involved in stronger hydrogen-bonding. In addition, the structure of the Leu-derivative is quite sensitive to membrane fluidity changes. The amide I band shifts to higher frequencies when the lipids are in the fluid phase. This indicates either a decreased solvation due to a more complete peptide insertion or a peptide stretching to match the full thickness of the bilayer. These results contribute to explain the fast single-channel kinetics displayed by the Leu-derivative. PMID:14695266
Gimenez, Sonia; Roger, Sandra; Baracca, Paolo; Martín-Sacristán, David; Monserrat, Jose F.; Braun, Volker; Halbauer, Hardy
2016-01-01
The use of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques for communication at millimeter-Wave (mmW) frequency bands has become a key enabler to meet the data rate demands of the upcoming fifth generation (5G) cellular systems. In particular, analog and hybrid beamforming solutions are receiving increasing attention as less expensive and more power efficient alternatives to fully digital precoding schemes. Despite their proven good performance in simple setups, their suitability for realistic cellular systems with many interfering base stations and users is still unclear. Furthermore, the performance of massive MIMO beamforming and precoding methods are in practice also affected by practical limitations and hardware constraints. In this sense, this paper assesses the performance of digital precoding and analog beamforming in an urban cellular system with an accurate mmW channel model under both ideal and realistic assumptions. The results show that analog beamforming can reach the performance of fully digital maximum ratio transmission under line of sight conditions and with a sufficient number of parallel radio-frequency (RF) chains, especially when the practical limitations of outdated channel information and per antenna power constraints are considered. This work also shows the impact of the phase shifter errors and combiner losses introduced by real phase shifter and combiner implementations over analog beamforming, where the former ones have minor impact on the performance, while the latter ones determine the optimum number of RF chains to be used in practice. PMID:27669241
Gimenez, Sonia; Roger, Sandra; Baracca, Paolo; Martín-Sacristán, David; Monserrat, Jose F; Braun, Volker; Halbauer, Hardy
2016-09-22
The use of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) techniques for communication at millimeter-Wave (mmW) frequency bands has become a key enabler to meet the data rate demands of the upcoming fifth generation (5G) cellular systems. In particular, analog and hybrid beamforming solutions are receiving increasing attention as less expensive and more power efficient alternatives to fully digital precoding schemes. Despite their proven good performance in simple setups, their suitability for realistic cellular systems with many interfering base stations and users is still unclear. Furthermore, the performance of massive MIMO beamforming and precoding methods are in practice also affected by practical limitations and hardware constraints. In this sense, this paper assesses the performance of digital precoding and analog beamforming in an urban cellular system with an accurate mmW channel model under both ideal and realistic assumptions. The results show that analog beamforming can reach the performance of fully digital maximum ratio transmission under line of sight conditions and with a sufficient number of parallel radio-frequency (RF) chains, especially when the practical limitations of outdated channel information and per antenna power constraints are considered. This work also shows the impact of the phase shifter errors and combiner losses introduced by real phase shifter and combiner implementations over analog beamforming, where the former ones have minor impact on the performance, while the latter ones determine the optimum number of RF chains to be used in practice.
Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Sanchez, Alicia; Radwan, Ahmed; Radwan, Islam; Voets, Thomas; Talavera, Karel
2013-11-01
It is often observed in intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments that the amplitudes of the Ca(2+) signals elicited by newly characterized TRP agonists do not correlate with the amplitudes of the responses evoked subsequently by a specific potent agonist. We investigated this rather controversial phenomenon by first testing whether it is inherent to the comparison of the effects of weak and strong stimuli. Using five well-characterized TRP channel agonists in commonly used heterologous expression systems we found that the correlation between the amplitudes of the Ca(2+) signals triggered by two sequentially applied stimuli is only high when both stimuli are strong. Using mathematical simulations of intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics we illustrate that the innate heterogeneity in expression and functional properties of Ca(2+) extrusion (e.g. plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase) and influx (TRP channels) pathways across a cellular population is a sufficient condition for low correlation between the amplitude of Ca(2+) signals elicited by weak and strong stimuli. Taken together, our data demonstrate that this phenomenon is an expected outcome of intracellular Ca(2+) imaging experiments that cannot be taken as evidence for lack of specificity of low-efficacy stimuli, or as an indicator of the need of other cellular components for channel stimulation.
MimoPro: a more efficient Web-based tool for epitope prediction using phage display libraries
2011-01-01
Background A B-cell epitope is a group of residues on the surface of an antigen which stimulates humoral responses. Locating these epitopes on antigens is important for the purpose of effective vaccine design. In recent years, mapping affinity-selected peptides screened from a random phage display library to the native epitope has become popular in epitope prediction. These peptides, also known as mimotopes, share the similar structure and function with the corresponding native epitopes. Great effort has been made in using this similarity between such mimotopes and native epitopes in prediction, which has resulted in better outcomes than statistics-based methods can. However, it cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in various circumstances. Results In this study, we propose a new method that maps a group of mimotopes back to a source antigen so as to locate the interacting epitope on the antigen. The core of this method is a searching algorithm that is incorporated with both dynamic programming (DP) and branch and bound (BB) optimization and operated on a series of overlapping patches on the surface of a protein. These patches are then transformed to a number of graphs using an adaptable distance threshold (ADT) regulated by an appropriate compactness factor (CF), a novel parameter proposed in this study. Compared with both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf, two leading graph-based search tools, on average from the results of 18 test cases, MimoPro, the Web-based implementation of our proposed method, performed better in sensitivity, precision, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) than both did in epitope prediction. In addition, MimoPro is significantly faster than both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf in processing. Conclusions Our search algorithm designed for processing well constructed graphs using an ADT regulated by CF is more sensitive and significantly faster than other graph-based approaches in epitope prediction. MimoPro is a viable alternative to both
User-scheduling algorithm for a MU-MIMO system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Haiyang; Choi, Jaeho
2015-12-01
A user-scheduling algorithm for MU-MIMO systems is presented in this paper. The algorithm is a codebook based precoding method which can be suitable for the IEEE 802.16m mobile broadband standard. The proposed algorithm can effectively improve the sum capacity and fairness among the users.
Efficient hierarchical list decoder for massive optical MIMO transmission.
Greenberg, Maxim; Nazarathy, Moshe; Orenstein, Meir
2008-01-21
We propose a novel MIMO scheme over multimode fiber, acting as a distributed random code generator fed by spatial codes, using silicon photonics in the transmitter and efficient list-based hierarchical submaximum-likelihood electronic detection in the receiver, providing an alternative to CWDM for implementation of ultra-high speed parallel transmission over short-range optical interconnects.
Wang, Jin-Yuan; Dai, Jianxin; Guan, Rui; Jia, Linqiong; Wang, Yongjin; Chen, Ming
2016-06-13
Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) technique is attractive for visible light communication (VLC), which exploits the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single channel to overcome the capacity limitation due to the small modulation bandwidth of the light emitting diode. This paper establishes a MIMO VLC system under the non-negativity, peak power and dimmable average power constraints. Assume that perfect channel state information at the transmitter is known, the MIMO channel is changed to parallel, non-interfering sub-channels by using the singular value decomposition (SVD). Based on the SVD, the lower bound on the channel capacity for MIMO VLC is derived by employing entropy power inequality and variational method. Moreover, by maximizing the derived lower bound on the capacity under the given constraints, the receiver deployment optimization problem is formulated. The problem is solved by employing the principle of particle swarm optimization. Numerical results verify the derived capacity bound and the proposed deployment optimization scheme.
Beltrán Molano, Martha Liliana; Pinilla Bonilla, Laura Bibiana; Beltrán Dussan, Eduardo Humberto; Vásquez Londoño, Carlos Alberto
2014-01-01
Background. Neural therapy and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are part of complementary and alternative medicine in western world. Both of them share characteristics in diagnosis and therapeutics in search of changes in tenderness, pain, and skin stiffness related to visceral disease, as well as therapeutic procedures with specific stimuli on the skin that generate local, segmental, or remote reactions. Head zones explain segmental viscerocutaneous relations in neural therapy; however, interference fields and remote reactions after infiltration of local anesthetic go beyond this segmental distribution. Methods. This descriptive research required review and analysis of texts of Henry Head and traditional Chinese medicine. Results. Anatomical and functional relationships were found between Head zones in body, and head and neck with 14 acupuncture channels and their points. Anatomical areas of strong correlations were found: Head zones of heart and lung with heart and pericardium channels; Head zones of genitals with bladder and kidney channels. Strong functional relations between all Head zones, channels, and acupoints were found when following the pattern of segmental dermatomes; 235 acupuncture points were found in concordance. PMID:25506384
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorshtein, Albert; Sadot, Dan; Dorman, Guy
2015-03-01
A novel MIMO equalization architecture optimized for baud rate clock recovery (BCR-MIMO) in coherent 112 Gbit/sec dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) metro systems is proposed. This architecture is designed to decouple between multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) equalization and clock recovery (CR) loops, avoiding the interaction between them. The decoupling between the two loops is achieved, while maintaining similar MIMO equalizer performance, as compared to the butterfly-structured equalizer.
Comtois, Philippe; Sakabe, Masao; Vigmond, Edward J; Munoz, Mauricio; Texier, Anne; Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Nattel, Stanley
2008-10-01
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained clinical arrhythmia and is a problem of growing proportions. Recent studies have increased interest in fast-unbinding Na(+) channel blockers like vernakalant (RSD1235) and ranolazine for AF therapy, but the mechanism of efficacy is poorly understood. To study how fast-unbinding I(Na) blockers affect AF, we developed realistic mathematical models of state-dependent Na(+) channel block, using a lidocaine model as a prototype, and studied the effects on simulated cholinergic AF in two- and three-dimensional atrial substrates. We then compared the results with in vivo effects of lidocaine on vagotonic AF in dogs. Lidocaine action was modeled with the Hondeghem-Katzung modulated-receptor theory and maximum affinity for activated Na(+) channels. Lidocaine produced frequency-dependent Na(+) channel blocking and conduction slowing effects and terminated AF in both two- and three-dimensional models with concentration-dependent efficacy (maximum approximately 89% at 60 microM). AF termination was not related to increases in wavelength, which tended to decrease with the drug, but rather to decreased source Na(+) current in the face of large ACh-sensitive K(+) current-related sinks, leading to the destabilization of primary generator rotors and a great reduction in wavebreak, which caused primary rotor annihilations in the absence of secondary rotors to resume generator activity. Lidocaine also reduced the variability and maximum values of the dominant frequency distribution during AF. Qualitatively similar results were obtained in vivo for lidocaine effects on vagal AF in dogs, with an efficacy of 86% at 2 mg/kg iv, as well as with simulations using the guarded-receptor model of lidocaine action. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which rapidly unbinding class I antiarrhythmic agents, a class including several novel compounds of considerable promise, terminate AF.
Jiménez-Garduño, Aura M; Mitkovski, Miso; Alexopoulos, Ioannis K; Sánchez, Araceli; Stühmer, Walter; Pardo, Luis A; Ortega, Alicia
2014-03-01
KV10.1 potassium channels are implicated in a variety of cellular processes including cell proliferation and tumour progression. Their expression in over 70% of human tumours makes them an attractive diagnostic and therapeutic target. Although their physiological role in the central nervous system is not yet fully understood, advances in their precise cell localization will contribute to the understanding of their interactions and function. We have determined the plasma membrane (PM) distribution of the KV10.1 protein in an enriched mouse brain PM fraction and its association with cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich domains. We show that the KV10.1 channel has two different populations in a 3:2 ratio, one associated to and another excluded from Detergent Resistant Membranes (DRMs). This distribution of KV10.1 in isolated PM is cholesterol- and cytoskeleton-dependent since alteration of those factors changes the relationship to 1:4. In transfected HEK-293 cells with a mutant unable to bind Ca(2+)/CaM to KV10.1 protein, Kv10.1 distribution in DRM/non-DRM is 1:4. Mean current density was doubled in the cholesterol-depleted cells, without any noticeable effects on other parameters. These results demonstrate that recruitment of the KV10.1 channel to the DRM fractions involves its functional regulation.
2011-09-30
channel interference mitigation for underwater acoustic MIMO-OFDM. 3) Turbo equalization for OFDM modulated physical layer network coding. 4) Blind CFO...Localization and tracking of underwater physical systems. 7) NAMS: A networked acoustic modem system for underwater applications . 8) OFDM receiver design in...3) Turbo Equalization for OFDM Modulated Physical Layer Network Coding. We have investigated a practical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
MIller, C.S.; Shumway, R.W.
1992-11-01
Modifications have been made to REIAP5 to account for flow and heat transfer in narrow channels between fuel plates such as found in the cores of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) reactors. These early models were supplied by Art Ruggles of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Don Fletcher of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and were adapted to and implemented into RELAP5 by Rich Riemke, Rex Shumway and Ken Katsma. The purpose of this report is to document the current status of these special models in the standard version of RELAP5/MOD3 and describe the quality assurance procedures.
MIMO communications within the HF band using compact antenna arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gunashekar, S. D.; Warrington, E. M.; Feeney, S. M.; Salous, S.; Abbasi, N. M.
2010-12-01
Measurements have been made over a 255 km radio path between Durham and Leicester in the UK in order to investigate the potential applicability of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques to communications within the HF band. This paper describes the results from experiments in which compact heterogeneous antenna arrays have been employed. The results of these experiments indicate that traditional spaced HF antenna arrays can be replaced by compact, active, heterogeneous arrays in order to achieve the required levels of decorrelation between the various antenna elements. An example case study is also presented which highlights the importance of the variable nature of the ionosphere in the context of HF-MIMO radio links.
Design and optimization of LTE 1800 MIMO antenna.
Wong, Huey Shin; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Kibria, Salehin
2014-01-01
A multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antenna that comprises a printed microstrip antenna and a printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna for LTE 1800 wireless application is presented. The printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna is fed by a 50 ohm coplanar waveguide (CPW). A novel T-shaped microstrip feedline printed on the other side of the PCB is used to excite the waveguide's outer shell. Isolation characteristics better than -15 dB can be obtained for the proposed MIMO antenna. The proposed antenna can operate in LTE 1800 (1710 MHz-1880 MHz). This antenna exhibits omnidirectional characteristics. The efficiency of the antenna is greater than 70% and has high gain of 2.18 dBi.
CR-Calculus and adaptive array theory applied to MIMO random vibration control tests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musella, U.; Manzato, S.; Peeters, B.; Guillaume, P.
2016-09-01
Performing Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) tests to reproduce the vibration environment in a user-defined number of control points of a unit under test is necessary in applications where a realistic environment replication has to be achieved. MIMO tests require vibration control strategies to calculate the required drive signal vector that gives an acceptable replication of the target. This target is a (complex) vector with magnitude and phase information at the control points for MIMO Sine Control tests while in MIMO Random Control tests, in the most general case, the target is a complete spectral density matrix. The idea behind this work is to tailor a MIMO random vibration control approach that can be generalized to other MIMO tests, e.g. MIMO Sine and MIMO Time Waveform Replication. In this work the approach is to use gradient-based procedures over the complex space, applying the so called CR-Calculus and the adaptive array theory. With this approach it is possible to better control the process performances allowing the step-by-step Jacobian Matrix update. The theoretical bases behind the work are followed by an application of the developed method to a two-exciter two-axis system and by performance comparisons with standard methods.
MIMO based 3D imaging system at 360 GHz
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herschel, R.; Nowok, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Lang, S. A.; Pohl, N.
2016-05-01
A MIMO radar imaging system at 360 GHz is presented as a part of the comprehensive approach of the European FP7 project TeraSCREEN, using multiple frequency bands for active and passive imaging. The MIMO system consists of 16 transmitter and 16 receiver antennas within one single array. Using a bandwidth of 30 GHz, a range resolution up to 5 mm is obtained. With the 16×16 MIMO system 256 different azimuth bins can be distinguished. Mechanical beam steering is used to measure 130 different elevation angles where the angular resolution is obtained by a focusing elliptical mirror. With this system a high resolution 3D image can be generated with 4 frames per second, each containing 16 million points. The principle of the system is presented starting from the functional structure, covering the hardware design and including the digital image generation. This is supported by simulated data and discussed using experimental results from a preliminary 90 GHz system underlining the feasibility of the approach.
MIMO nonlinear ultrasonic tomography by propagation and backpropagation method.
Dong, Chengdong; Jin, Yuanwei
2013-03-01
This paper develops a fast ultrasonic tomographic imaging method in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration using the propagation and backpropagation (PBP) method. By this method, ultrasonic excitation signals from multiple sources are transmitted simultaneously to probe the objects immersed in the medium. The scattering signals are recorded by multiple receivers. Utilizing the nonlinear ultrasonic wave propagation equation and the received time domain scattered signals, the objects are to be reconstructed iteratively in three steps. First, the propagation step calculates the predicted acoustic potential data at the receivers using an initial guess. Second, the difference signal between the predicted value and the measured data is calculated. Third, the backpropagation step computes updated acoustical potential data by backpropagating the difference signal to the same medium computationally. Unlike the conventional PBP method for tomographic imaging where each source takes turns to excite the acoustical field until all the sources are used, the developed MIMO-PBP method achieves faster image reconstruction by utilizing multiple source simultaneous excitation. Furthermore, we develop an orthogonal waveform signaling method using a waveform delay scheme to reduce the impact of speckle patterns in the reconstructed images. By numerical experiments we demonstrate that the proposed MIMO-PBP tomographic imaging method results in faster convergence and achieves superior imaging quality.
Thors, Björn; Thielens, Arno; Fridén, Jonas; Colombi, Davide; Törnevik, Christer; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout
2014-05-01
In this paper, different methods for practical numerical radio frequency exposure compliance assessments of radio base station products were investigated. Both multi-band base station antennas and antennas designed for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) transmission schemes were considered. For the multi-band case, various standardized assessment methods were evaluated in terms of resulting compliance distance with respect to the reference levels and basic restrictions of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Both single frequency and multiple frequency (cumulative) compliance distances were determined using numerical simulations for a mobile communication base station antenna transmitting in four frequency bands between 800 and 2600 MHz. The assessments were conducted in terms of root-mean-squared electromagnetic fields, whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) and peak 10 g averaged SAR. In general, assessments based on peak field strengths were found to be less computationally intensive, but lead to larger compliance distances than spatial averaging of electromagnetic fields used in combination with localized SAR assessments. For adult exposure, the results indicated that even shorter compliance distances were obtained by using assessments based on localized and whole-body SAR. Numerical simulations, using base station products employing MIMO transmission schemes, were performed as well and were in agreement with reference measurements. The applicability of various field combination methods for correlated exposure was investigated, and best estimate methods were proposed. Our results showed that field combining methods generally considered as conservative could be used to efficiently assess compliance boundary dimensions of single- and dual-polarized multicolumn base station antennas with only minor increases in compliance distances.
Li, Yanjun; Tang, Xiaoying; Xu, Zhi; Liu, Weifeng; Li, Jing
2016-03-01
Whether the temporal correlation between inter-leads Electroencephalogram (EEG) that located on the boundary between left and right brain hemispheres is associated with sleep stages or not is still unknown. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the role of correlation coefficients between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz for automatic classification of sleep stages. A total number of 39 EEG recordings (about 20 h each) were selected from the expanded sleep database in European data format for temporal correlation analysis. Original waveform of EEG was decomposed into sub-bands δ (1-4 Hz), θ (4-8 Hz), α (8-13 Hz) and β (13-30 Hz). The correlation coefficient between original EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz within frequency band 0.5-30 Hz was defined as r(EEG) and was calculated every 30 s, while that between the two leads EEG in sub-bands δ, θ, α and β were defined as r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β), respectively. Classification of wakefulness and sleep was processed by fixed threshold that derived from the probability density function of correlation coefficients. There was no correlation between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz during wakefulness (|r| < 0.1 for r(θ), r(α) and r(β), while 0.3 > r > 0.1 for r(EEG) and r(δ)), while low correlation existed during sleep (r ≈ -0.4 for r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β)). There were significant differences (analysis of variance, P < 0.001) for r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β) during sleep when in comparison with that during wakefulness, respectively. The accuracy for distinguishing states between wakefulness and sleep was 94.2, 93.4, 89.4, 85.2 and 91.4% in terms of r(EEG), r(δ), r(θ), r(α) and r(β), respectively. However, no correlation index between EEG leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz could distinguish all five types of wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N1 sleep, N2 sleep and N3 sleep. In conclusion, the temporal correlation between EEG bipolar leads Fpz-Cz and Pz-Oz are highly associated with sleep
Building antenna characteristics into multiple-input and multiple-output channel simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tat Hui, Hon; Wang, Xuan
2010-06-01
A one-stop computer simulation method for multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) channels including a full-wave characterisation of the antenna characteristics is introduced. Unlike previous channel simulation methods which use antenna radiation patterns, the effect of the antenna response on the MIMO performance in this method is directly built into channel simulation through numerical calculation. This enables the effects of the antenna gain, antenna radiation characteristics, antenna mutual coupling, antenna terminal load, antenna dimensions, etc, to be directly included into the channel response without any additional analytical supplementary procedure. This method starts simulation from the input ports of the transmitting antennas and traces the multipath signals all the way from the transmitting antennas to the signal voltages developed at the terminal ports of the receiving antennas in a one-step complete simulation. The validity and accuracy of this method are demonstrated by numerical examples.
Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying; Othman, M B; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Deming; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur
2012-02-13
We propose a spectral efficient radio over wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) system by combining optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple input multiple output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing techniques. In our experiment, a training-based zero forcing (ZF) channel estimation algorithm is designed to compensate the polarization rotation and wireless multipath fading. A 797 Mb/s net data rate QPSK-OFDM signal with error free (<1 × 10(5)) performance and a 1.59 Gb/s net data rate 16QAM-OFDM signal with BER performance of 1.2 × 10(2) are achieved after transmission of 22.8 km single mode fiber followed by 3 m and 1 m air distances, respectively.
Hoffmann, Jordan
2013-01-01
The effects of ion-ion and ion-wall correlations in nanochannels are explored, specifically how they influence voltage- and pressure-driven currents and pressure-to-voltage energy conversion. Cations of different diameters (0.15, 0.3, and 0.9 nm) and different valences (+1, +2, and +3) at concentrations ranging from 10–6 M to 1 M are considered in 50 nm- and 100 nm-wide nanoslits with wall surface charges ranging from 0 C/m2 to –0.3 C/m2. These parameters are typical of nanofluidic devices. Ion correlations have significant effects on device properties over large parts of this parameter space. These effects are the result of ion layering (oscillatory concentration profiles) for large monovalent cations and charge inversion (more cations in the first layer near the wall than necessary to neutralize the surface charge) for the multivalent cations. The ions were modeled as charged, hard spheres using density functional theory of fluids and current was computed with the Navier-Stokes equations with two different no-slip conditions. PMID:23286510
Modeling the Multiple-Antenna Wireless Channel Using Maximum Entropy Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillaud, M.; Debbah, M.; Moustakas, A. L.
2007-11-01
Analytical descriptions of the statistics of wireless channel models are desirable tools for communication systems engineering. When multiple antennas are available at the transmit and/or the receive side (the Multiple-Input Multiple-Output, or MIMO, case), the statistics of the matrix H representing the gains between the antennas of a transmit and a receive antenna array, and in particular the correlation between its coefficients, are known to be of paramount importance for the design of such systems. However these characteristics depend on the operating environment, since the electromagnetic propagation paths are dictated by the surroundings of the antenna arrays, and little knowledge about these is available at the time of system design. An approach using the Maximum Entropy principle to derive probability density functions for the channel matrix, based on various degrees of knowledge about the environment, is presented. The general idea is to apply the maximum entropy principle to obtain the distribution of each parameter of interest (e.g. correlation), and then to marginalize them out to obtain the full channel distribution. It was shown in previous works, using sophisticated integrals from statistical physics, that by using the full spatial correlation matrix E{vec(H)vec(H)H} as the intermediate modeling parameter, this method can yield surprisingly concise channel descriptions. In this case, the joint probability density function is shown to be merely a function of the Frobenius norm of the channel matrix |H|F. In the present paper, we investigate the case where information about the average covariance matrix is available (e.g. through measurements). The maximum entropy distribution of the covariance is derived under this constraint. Furthermore, we consider also the doubly correlated case, where the intermediate modeling parameters are chosen as the transmit- and receive-side channel covariance matrices (respectively E{HHH} and E{HHH}). We compare the
Yang, Shouguo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Kunhui; Tang, Weiping
2015-12-14
A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D) processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters' outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA), and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results.
Multiple-Parameter Estimation Method Based on Spatio-Temporal 2-D Processing for Bistatic MIMO Radar
Yang, Shouguo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Kunhui; Tang, Weiping
2015-01-01
A novel spatio-temporal 2-dimensional (2-D) processing method that can jointly estimate the transmitting-receiving azimuth and Doppler frequency for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise and an unknown number of targets is proposed. In the temporal domain, the cross-correlation of the matched filters’ outputs for different time-delay sampling is used to eliminate the spatial colored noise. In the spatial domain, the proposed method uses a diagonal loading method and subspace theory to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA), and the Doppler frequency can then be accurately estimated through the estimation of the DOD and DOA. By skipping target number estimation and the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of the data covariance matrix estimation and only requiring a one-dimensional search, the proposed method achieves low computational complexity. Furthermore, the proposed method is suitable for bistatic MIMO radar with an arbitrary transmitted and received geometrical configuration. The correction and efficiency of the proposed method are verified by computer simulation results. PMID:26694385
The Effects of Spatial Diversity and Imperfect Channel Estimation on Wideband MC-DS-CDMA and MC-CDMA
2009-10-01
input multiple-output (MIMO) system which employs Alamouti spacetime block coding at each sub-carrier frequency to achieve spatial diversity. We...number of pilot symbols per channel estimate. 13 N/A MC-DS-CDMA, MC-CDMA, Alamouti spacetime block coding, frequency-selective Rayleigh fading
Ling, Jun; Yardibi, Tarik; Su, Xiang; He, Hao; Li, Jian
2009-05-01
The need for achieving higher data rates in underwater acoustic communications leverages the use of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) schemes. In this paper two key issues regarding the design of a MIMO communications system, namely, channel estimation and symbol detection, are addressed. To enhance channel estimation performance, a cyclic approach for designing training sequences and a channel estimation algorithm called the iterative adaptive approach (IAA) are presented. Sparse channel estimates can be obtained by combining IAA with the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Moreover, the RELAX algorithm can be used to improve the IAA with BIC estimates further. Regarding symbol detection, a minimum mean-squared error based detection scheme, called RELAX-BLAST, which is a combination of vertical Bell Labs layered space-time (V-BLAST) algorithm and the cyclic principle of the RELAX algorithm, is presented and it is shown that RELAX-BLAST outperforms V-BLAST. Both simulated and experimental results are provided to validate the proposed MIMO scheme. RACE'08 experimental results employing a 4 x 24 MIMO system show that the proposed scheme enjoys an average uncoded bit error rate of 0.38% at a payload data rate of 31.25 kbps and an average coded bit error rate of 0% at a payload data rate of 15.63 kbps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdolahad
2015-01-01
Cancerous transformation may be dependent on correlation between electrical disruptions in the cell membrane and mechanical disruptions of cytoskeleton structures. Silicon nanotube (SiNT)-based electrical probes, as ultra-accurate signal recorders with subcellular resolution, may create many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here, we used this technology to electrically monitor cellular mechanosensing. The SiNT probe was combined with an electrically activated glass micropipette aspiration system to achieve a new cancer diagnostic technique that is based on real-time correlation between mechanical and electrical behaviour of single cells. Our studies demonstrated marked changes in the electrical response following increases in the mechanical aspiration force in healthy cells. In contrast, such responses were extremely weak for malignant cells. Confocal microscopy results showed the impact of actin microfilament remodelling on the reduction of the electrical response for aspirated cancer cells due to the significant role of actin in modulating the ion channel activity in the cell membrane.Cancerous transformation may be dependent on correlation between electrical disruptions in the cell membrane and mechanical disruptions of cytoskeleton structures. Silicon nanotube (SiNT)-based electrical probes, as ultra-accurate signal recorders with subcellular resolution, may create many opportunities for fundamental biological research and biomedical applications. Here, we used this technology to electrically monitor cellular mechanosensing. The SiNT probe was combined with an electrically activated glass micropipette aspiration system to achieve a new cancer diagnostic technique that is based on real-time correlation between mechanical and electrical behaviour of single cells. Our studies demonstrated marked changes in the electrical response following increases in the mechanical aspiration force in healthy cells. In contrast, such
Wugeti, N; Yu-Jun, G; Juan, S; Mahemuti, A
2015-12-07
Current resources to support genetic screening among the Uygur population in Xinjiang territory for atrial fibrillation (AF) have not been well established and large-scale epidemiological analyses are needed. Using patients from the Xinjiang Uygur population as subjects, and the delayed rectifier potassium channel KCNE1 and its associated polymorphism G38S (rs1805127) as the candidate gene, we analyzed the correlation between the G38S polymorphism and AF among the senior Uygur population in Xinjiang Province. Peripheral blood from AF Uygur patients (patient group) or non-AF Uygur patients (control group) from Xinjiang territory was collected (70 patients each). DNA was purified and tested by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism for the genotype and allelic distribution of KCNE1 (G38S). Correlation analysis between AF and multiple health-related factors was performed by logistic regression. Among patients with the KCNE1 G38S polymorphism, the genotypes AA, AG, and GG were present at frequencies of 17.14, 27.14, and 55.71%, respectively, in the patient group, compared with 24.29, 50, and 25.71%, respectively, in the control group. The difference between these two groups was shown to be statistically significant (P < 0.05), and the frequency of the G allele was significantly higher in the patient group (P < 0.05). Logistic regression showed that the GG genotype is correlated with the incidence of AF in Uygur seniors (P < 0.05). The incidence of AF among the senior Uygur population in Xinjiang territory was correlated with the KCNE1 (G38S) polymorphism, which may be an independent risk factor for Uygur AF patients.
Pereira, Ione; Mendes, Saulo J. F.; Pereira, Domingos M. S.; Muniz, Thayanne F.; Colares, Valderlane L. P.; Monteiro, Cinara R. A. V.; Martins, Mahiba M. R. de S.; Grisotto, Marcos A. G.; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Monteiro, Sílvio G.; Calixto, João B.; Brain, Susan D.; Fernandes, Elizabeth S.
2017-01-01
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer from pain and joint disability. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel expressed on sensory neurones and non-neuronal cells mediates pain transduction and inflammation and it has been implicated in RA. However, there is little information on the contribution of TRPA1 for human disease. Here, we investigated the expression of TRPA1 on peripheral blood leukocytes and the circulating levels of its endogenous activators 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in RA patients treated or not with the anti-rheumatic leflunomide (LFN) or the anti-TNFα adalimumab (ADA). We also assessed whether TRPA1 expression correlates with joint pain and disability, in addition to the immune changes in RA. TRPA1 expression on peripheral blood leukocytes correlated with pain severity and disability. TRPA1 levels on these cells were associated with the numbers of polymorphonuclear and the activation of CD14+ cells. No correlations were found between the lymphocyte population and TRPA1 expression, pain or disability. Patients recently diagnosed with RA expressed increased levels of TRPA1 on their leukocytes whilst treatment with either LFN or ADA down-regulated this receptor probably by reducing the numbers of polymorphonuclears and the activation of CD14+ cells. We suggest that the activation levels of CD14+ cells, the numbers of PMNs in the peripheral blood and the expression of TRPA1 on peripheral blood leukocytes correlate with RA progression, affecting joint pain sensitivity and loss of function. PMID:28239353
The miniaturised Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II: future developments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodionov, D.; Blumers, M.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Bernhardt, B.; Fleischer, I.; Schröder, C.; Morris, R.; Girones Lopez, J.
2007-08-01
In January 2004, the first in situ extraterrestrial Mössbauer spectrum was received from the Martian surface. At the present time (May 2007) two Miniaturized Mössbauer Spectrometers (MIMOS II) on board of the two Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" continue to collect valuable scientific data. Both spectrometers are operational after more than 3 years of work. Originally, the mission was expected to last for 90 days. To date more than 600 spectra were obtained with a total integration time for both rovers exceeding 260 days. The MER mission has proven that Mössbauer spectroscopy is a valuable technique for the in situ exploration of extraterrestrial bodies and the study of Fe-bearing samples. The Mössbauer team at the University of Mainz has accumulated a lot of experience and learned many lessons during last three years. All that makes MIMOS II a feasible choice for the future missions to Mars and other targets. Currently MIMOS II is on the scientific payload of two missions: Phobos Grunt (Russian Space Agency) and ExoMars (European Space Agency). Phobos Grunt is scheduled to launch in 2009. The main goals of the mission are: a) Phobos regolith sample return, b) Phobos in situ study, c) Mars and Phobos remote sensing. MIMOS II will be installed on the arm of a landing module. Currently, we are manufacturing an engineering model for testing purposes. The ESA "ExoMars" mission involves the development of a MER-like rover with more complex scientific payload (Pasteur exobiology instruments, including a drilling system). Its aim is to further characterise the biological environment in preparation for robotic missions and eventually human exploration. Data from the mission will provide invaluable input to the field of exobiology - the study of the origin, the evolution and distribution of life in the universe. The launch date is scheduled for 2013. Like on MER, the MIMOS II instrument will be mounted on a robotic arm. Advanced and improved version of
Strongly-coupled multi-core fiber and its optical characteristics for MIMO transmission systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakamoto, Taiji; Mori, Takayoshi; Wada, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Kazuhide
2017-02-01
We review recent progress on coupled multi-core fiber (MCF) technologies for optical multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission. First, we define types of MCF, namely non-coupled/coupled single-/few-mode MCF, and briefly report recent work on non-coupled/coupled MCF. We next describe the advantage of using coupled MCF in MIMO transmission systems, and present a coupled MCF design based on an analysis of coupling between super-modes in twisted bent MCF. We finally describe our experimental results for our strongly coupled MCF and its applicability for optical MIMO transmission systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blumers, M.; Bernhardt, B.; Lechner, P.; Klingelhöfer, G.; d'Uston, C.; Soltau, H.; Strüder, L.; Eckhardt, R.; Brückner, J.; Henkel, H.; Lopez, J. G.; Maul, J.
2010-12-01
The Miniaturised Mössbauer Spectrometers MIMOS II on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have now been collecting valuable scientific data for more than five years. Mössbauer Spectrometers are part of two future missions: Phobos Grunt (Russian Space Agency) and a joint ESA—NASA Rover in 2018. The new advanced MIMOS IIA instrument described in this paper uses Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) allowing also X-ray fluorescence chemical analysis (XRF) simultaneously to Mössbauer acquisitions. This paper highlights the features and technological improvements of the new spectrometer MIMOS IIA.
Lens design for indoor MIMO visible light communications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shang-Bin; Gong, Chen; Wang, Peilin; Xu, Zhengyuan
2017-04-01
We proposed a lens design procedure to generate parallel light beams that facilitate optical MIMO communication with negligible interference between the un-intended transceiver pairs, in a 2×2 LED array. We designed an imaging receiver using two aspheric lenses instead of one single hemispherical lens to improve the light-beam separation performance. The proposed scheme can be extended to the scenario with ultra-dense LED array. Numerical results show that proper parameter setting in lens design can lead to negligible interference between un-intended transceiver pairs. The bit error rate performance is also evaluated.
MIMO-OFDM signal optimization for SAR imaging radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baudais, J.-Y.; Méric, S.; Riché, V.; Pottier, É.
2016-12-01
This paper investigates the optimization of the coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmitted signal in a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) context. We propose to design OFDM signals to achieve range ambiguity mitigation. Indeed, range ambiguities are well known to be a limitation for SAR systems which operates with pulsed transmitted signal. The ambiguous reflected signal corresponding to one pulse is then detected when the radar has already transmitted the next pulse. In this paper, we demonstrate that the range ambiguity mitigation is possible by using orthogonal transmitted wave as OFDM pulses. The coded OFDM signal is optimized through genetic optimization procedures based on radar image quality parameters. Moreover, we propose to design a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration to enhance the noise robustness of a radar system and this configuration is mainly efficient in the case of using orthogonal waves as OFDM pulses. The results we obtain show that OFDM signals outperform conventional radar chirps for range ambiguity suppression and for robustness enhancement in 2 ×2 MIMO configuration.
Validation of a MIMO Random Control Tool Using the CUBE™
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrella, Alex; Janssens, Joris; Debille, Jan; Faignet, Eddy; Peetrs, Bart
2012-07-01
Environmental testing is an important engineering discipline which aims at simulating the effect of the environmnet on a given structure, item or system. A particular environment is the vibratory one. From development to qualification, engineering systems subject to harsh dynamic environments have to be tested in order to ensure their capability to withstand vibrations. To this end, there exist a wealth of test stadards which impose strict pass/fail criteria. However, these methods are rather dated and the testing community is constantly striving to update the standards to account for new technologies and ever more stringent requirements. Currently, the standard specify to carry out vibration tests along one axis at the time, that is using a Single-Input-Single-Ouput (SISO) or a Single-Input- Multiple-Ouput (SIMO) approach. However, there are a number of significant advanteges in using a Multiple- Input-Multiple-Ouput (MIMO) apporach. In this paper are presented the results of an experimental campaign aimed at assessing the capabilty of the new MIMO Random control developed at LMS.
The analysis of MAI in large scale MIMO-CDMA system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berceanu, Madalina-Georgiana; Voicu, Carmen; Halunga, Simona
2016-12-01
Recently, technological development imposed a rapid growth in the use of data carried by cellular services, which also implies the necessity of higher data rates and lower latency. To meet the users' demands, it was brought into discussion a series of new data processing techniques. In this paper, we approached the MIMO technology that uses multiple antennas at the receiver and transmitter ends. To study the performances obtained by this technology, we proposed a MIMO-CDMA system, where image transmission has been used instead of random data transmission to take benefit of a larger range of quality indicators. In the simulations we increased the number of antennas, we observed how the performances of the system are modified and, based on that, we were able to make a comparison between a conventional MIMO and a Large Scale MIMO system, in terms of BER and MSSIM index, which is a metric that compares the quality of the image before transmission with the received one.
Evaluation of the Performance of the Distributed Phased-MIMO Sonar
Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Jingning; Wang, Nan
2017-01-01
A broadband signal model is proposed for a distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) sonar system consisting of two transmitters and a receiving linear array. Transmitters are widely separated to illuminate the different aspects of an extended target of interest. The beamforming technique is utilized at the reception ends for enhancement of weak target echoes. A MIMO detector is designed with the estimated target position parameters within the general likelihood rate test (GLRT) framework. For the high signal-to-noise ratio case, the detection performance of the MIMO system is better than that of the phased-array system in the numerical simulations and the tank experiments. The robustness of the distributed phased-MIMO sonar system is further demonstrated in localization of a target in at-lake experiments. PMID:28085071
Application of sparse array and MIMO in near-range microwave imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Yaolong; Wang, Yanping; Tan, Weixian; Hong, Wen
2011-11-01
Near range microwave imaging systems have broad application prospects in the field of concealed weapon detection, biomedical imaging, nondestructive testing, etc. In this paper, the techniques of MIMO and sparse line array are applied to near range microwave imaging, which can greatly reduce the complexity of imaging systems. In detail, the paper establishes two-dimensional near range MIMO imaging geometry and corresponding echo model, where the imaging geometry is formed by arranging sparse antenna array in azimuth direction and transmitting broadband signals in range direction; then, by analyzing the relationship between MIMO and convolution principle, the paper develops a method of arranging sparse line array which can be equivalent to a full array; and the paper deduces the backprojection algorithm applied to near ranging MIMO imaging geometry; finally, the imaging geometry and corresponding imaging algorithm proposed in this paper are investigated and verified by means of theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.
CS-MIMO radars for through-the-wall imaging in an indoor multipath environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yao; Ahmad, Fauzia; Petropulu, Athina P.; Amin, Moeness G.
2014-05-01
Through-the-wall radar (TWR) systems are indispensable for situational awareness in a wide range of civilian and military applications. Multi-input multi-output (MIMO) TWR provides high spatial resolution for improved target detection in indoor environments. When combined with compressive sensing (CS), MIMO TWR enables good performance with a reduced number of samples, which, in turn, reduces the data acquisition time. Most of the existing MIMO TWR systems, either conventional or CS based, employ time-multiplexed transmitters. In this paper, we present a CS-MIMO TWR approach for the indoor environment under multipath propagation, in which the transmit antennas simultaneously emit different waveforms, thus allowing for further reduction of acquisition time as compared to time-multiplexed transmissions. Supporting simulation results are provided.
Evaluation of the Performance of the Distributed Phased-MIMO Sonar.
Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Jingning; Wang, Nan
2017-01-11
A broadband signal model is proposed for a distributed multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) sonar system consisting of two transmitters and a receiving linear array. Transmitters are widely separated to illuminate the different aspects of an extended target of interest. The beamforming technique is utilized at the reception ends for enhancement of weak target echoes. A MIMO detector is designed with the estimated target position parameters within the general likelihood rate test (GLRT) framework. For the high signal-to-noise ratio case, the detection performance of the MIMO system is better than that of the phased-array system in the numerical simulations and the tank experiments. The robustness of the distributed phased-MIMO sonar system is further demonstrated in localization of a target in at-lake experiments.
Locally optimum detector for MIMO radar in non-Gaussian clutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shouyong
2011-10-01
The optimum Gaussian detector of MIMO radar no longer works well in non-Gaussian clutter environment. Therefore, a locally optimum (LO) detector based on alpha stable distribution is proposed for the signal detection of MIMO radar. The proposed method assumes that the MIMO radar clutter satisfies alpha stable distribution, according to the multiple-input multiple-output characteristics of the signal model, a locally optimum detection statistics for MIMO radar is presented based on the generalized Neyman-Pearson lemma. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the optimum Gaussian detector suffers serious performance degradation in non-Gaussian clutter, whereas the proposed detector can achieve good performance and outperforms the Gaussian detector significantly.
Spatio-Temporal Waveform Design for Multiuser Massive MIMO Downlink With 1-bit Receivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gokceoglu, Ahmet; Bjornson, Emil; Larsson, Erik G.; Valkama, Mikko
2017-03-01
Internet-of-Things (IoT) refers to a high-density network of low-cost low-bitrate terminals and sensors where also low energy consumption is one central feature. As the power-budget of classical receiver chains is dominated by the high-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), there is a growing interest towards deploying receiver architectures with reduced-bit or even 1-bit ADCs. In this paper, we study waveform design, optimization and detection aspects of multi-user massive MIMO downlink where user terminals adopt very simple 1-bit ADCs with oversampling. In order to achieve spectral efficiency higher than 1 bit/s/Hz per real-dimension, we propose a two-stage precoding, namely a novel quantization precoder followed by maximum-ratio transmission (MRT) or zero-forcing (ZF) type spatial channel precoder which jointly form the multi-user-multiantenna transmit waveform. The quantization precoder outputs are optimized, under appropriate transmitter and receiver filter bandwidth constraints, to provide controlled inter-symbol-interference (ISI) enabling the input symbols to be uniquely detected from 1-bit quantized observations with a low-complexity symbol detector in the absence of noise. An additional optimization constraint is also imposed in the quantization precoder design to increase the robustness against noise and residual inter-user-interference (IUI). The purpose of the spatial channel precoder, in turn, is to suppress the IUI and provide high beamforming gains such that good symbol-error rates (SERs) can be achieved in the presence of noise and interference. Extensive numerical evaluations illustrate that the proposed spatio-temporal precoder based multiantenna waveform design can facilitate good multi-user link performance, despite the extremely simple 1-bit ADCs in the receivers, hence being one possible enabling technology for the future low-complexity IoT networks.
Parkash, Jai
2008-08-01
The immunological processes in type 1 diabetes and metabolic/inflammatory disorder in type 2 diabetes converge on common signaling pathway(s) leading to beta-cell death in these two diseases. The cytokine-mediated beta-cell death seems to be dependent on voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC)-mediated Ca2+ entry. The Ca2+ handling molecular networks control the homeostasis of [Ca2+]i in the beta-cell. The activity and membrane density of VDCC are regulated by several mechanisms including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). CaR is a 123-kDa seven transmembrane extracellular Ca2+ sensing protein that belongs to GPCR family C. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), is a cytokine widely known to activate nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription in beta-cells. To obtain a better understanding of TNF-alpha-induced molecular interactions between CaR and VDCC, confocal fluorescence measurements were performed on insulin-producing beta-cells exposed to varying concentrations of TNF-alpha and the results are discussed in the light of increased colocalization correlation coefficient. The insulin producing beta-cells were exposed to 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 ng/ml TNF-alpha for 24 h at 37 degrees . The cells were then immunolabelled with antibodies directed against CaR, VDCC, and NF-kappaB. The confocal fluorescence imaging data showed enhancement in the colocalization correlation coefficient between CaR and VDCC in beta-cells exposed to TNF-alpha thereby indicating increased membrane delimited spatial interactions between these two membrane proteins. TNF-alpha-induced colocalization of VDCC with CaR was inhibited by nimodipine, an inhibitor of L-type VDCC thereby suggesting that VDCC activity is required for spatial interactions with CaR. The 3-D confocal fluorescence imaging data also demonstrated that addition of TNF-alpha to RIN cells led to the translocation of NF-kappaB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Such molecular interactions between CaR and VDCC in tissues
Joint DOD/DOA Estimation in MIMO Radar Exploiting Time-Frequency Signal Representations
2012-05-08
direction-of-departure (DOD) and direction-of- arrival (DOA) information of maneuvering targets in a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar...CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report ( SAR ) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 21 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b...departure (DOD) and direction-of- arrival (DOA) information of maneuvering targets in a bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system
On the Implementation of Iterative Detection in Real-World MIMO Wireless Systems
2003-12-01
Iterative Detection in Real-World MIMO Wireless Systems Yvo de Jong DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited The work...remarkably high spectral efficiency as compared to conventional, single-antenna systems. This report identi- fies a number of problems which need to be...multientr~es et multisorties (MIMO) permettent une exploitation remarquable du spectre comparativement aux syst~mes traditionnels A antenne unique
Radac, Mircea-Bogdan; Precup, Radu-Emil; Petriu, Emil M
2015-11-01
This paper proposes a novel model-free trajectory tracking of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by the combination of iterative learning control (ILC) and primitives. The optimal trajectory tracking solution is obtained in terms of previously learned solutions to simple tasks called primitives. The library of primitives that are stored in memory consists of pairs of reference input/controlled output signals. The reference input primitives are optimized in a model-free ILC framework without using knowledge of the controlled process. The guaranteed convergence of the learning scheme is built upon a model-free virtual reference feedback tuning design of the feedback decoupling controller. Each new complex trajectory to be tracked is decomposed into the output primitives regarded as basis functions. The optimal reference input for the control system to track the desired trajectory is next recomposed from the reference input primitives. This is advantageous because the optimal reference input is computed straightforward without the need to learn from repeated executions of the tracking task. In addition, the optimization problem specific to trajectory tracking of square MIMO systems is decomposed in a set of optimization problems assigned to each separate single-input single-output control channel that ensures a convenient model-free decoupling. The new model-free primitive-based ILC approach is capable of planning, reasoning, and learning. A case study dealing with the model-free control tuning for a nonlinear aerodynamic system is included to validate the new approach. The experimental results are given.
Shaddad, R Q; Mohammad, A B; Al-Gailani, S A; Al-Hetar, A M
2014-01-01
The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength.
Performance analysis of cooperative virtual MIMO systems for wireless sensor networks.
Rafique, Zimran; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan
2013-05-28
Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) techniques can be used to increase the data rate for a given bit error rate (BER) and transmission power. Due to the small form factor, energy and processing constraints of wireless sensor nodes, a cooperative Virtual MIMO as opposed to True MIMO system architecture is considered more feasible for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Virtual MIMO with Vertical-Bell Labs Layered Space-Time (V-BLAST) multiplexing architecture has been recently established to enhance WSN performance. In this paper, we further investigate the impact of different modulation techniques, and analyze for the first time, the performance of a cooperative Virtual MIMO system based on V-BLAST architecture with multi-carrier modulation techniques. Through analytical models and simulations using real hardware and environment settings, both communication and processing energy consumptions, BER, spectral efficiency, and total time delay of multiple cooperative nodes each with single antenna are evaluated. The results show that cooperative Virtual-MIMO with Binary Phase Shift Keying-Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (BPSK-WOFDM) modulation is a promising solution for future high data-rate and energy-efficient WSNs.
Shaddad, R. Q.; Mohammad, A. B.; Al-Gailani, S. A.; Al-Hetar, A. M.
2014-01-01
The optical fiber is well adapted to pass multiple wireless signals having different carrier frequencies by using radio-over-fiber (ROF) technique. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber, such as wireless multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals feeding multiple antennas in the fiber wireless (FiWi) system. A novel optical frequency upconversion (OFU) technique is proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the novel OFU approach is used to transmit three wireless MIMO signals over a 20 km standard single mode fiber (SMF). The OFU technique exploits one optical source to produce multiple wavelengths by delivering it to a LiNbO3 external optical modulator. The wireless MIMO signals are then modulated by LiNbO3 optical intensity modulators separately using the generated optical carriers from the OFU process. These modulators use the optical single-sideband with carrier (OSSB+C) modulation scheme to optimize the system performance against the fiber dispersion effect. Each wireless MIMO signal is with a 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz carrier frequency, 1 Gb/s data rate, and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The crosstalk between the wireless MIMO signals is highly suppressed, since each wireless MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. PMID:24772009
Performance Analysis of Cooperative Virtual MIMO Systems for Wireless Sensor Networks
Rafique, Zimran; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan
2013-01-01
Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) techniques can be used to increase the data rate for a given bit error rate (BER) and transmission power. Due to the small form factor, energy and processing constraints of wireless sensor nodes, a cooperative Virtual MIMO as opposed to True MIMO system architecture is considered more feasible for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. Virtual MIMO with Vertical-Bell Labs Layered Space-Time (V-BLAST) multiplexing architecture has been recently established to enhance WSN performance. In this paper, we further investigate the impact of different modulation techniques, and analyze for the first time, the performance of a cooperative Virtual MIMO system based on V-BLAST architecture with multi-carrier modulation techniques. Through analytical models and simulations using real hardware and environment settings, both communication and processing energy consumptions, BER, spectral efficiency, and total time delay of multiple cooperative nodes each with single antenna are evaluated. The results show that cooperative Virtual-MIMO with Binary Phase Shift Keying-Wavelet based Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (BPSK-WOFDM) modulation is a promising solution for future high data-rate and energy-efficient WSNs. PMID:23760087
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Blumers, M.; Bernhardt, B.; Graff, T.
2011-01-01
For the advanced Moessbauer instrument MIMOS IIA, the new detector technologies and electronic components increase sensitivity and performance significantly. In combination with the high energy resolution of the SDD it is possible to perform X-ray fluorescence analysis simultaneously to Moessbauer spectroscopy. In addition to the Fe-mineralogy, information on the sample's elemental composition will be gathered. The ISRU 2010 field campaign demonstrated that in-situ Moessbauer spectroscopy is an effective tool for both science and feedstock exploration and process monitoring. Engineering tests showed that a compact nickel metal hydride battery provided sufficient power for over 12 hr of continuous operation for the MIMOS instruments.
Antiwindup analysis and design approaches for MIMO systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcopoli, Vincent R.; Phillips, Stephen M.
1993-01-01
Performance degradation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control systems having limited actuators is often handled by augmenting the controller with an antiwindup mechanism, which attempts to maintain system performance when limits are encountered. The goals of this paper are: 1) to develop a method to analyze antiwindup systems to determine precisely what stability and performance degradation is incurred under limited conditions. It is shown that by reformulating limited actuator commands as resulting from multiplicative perturbations to the corresponding controller requests, mu-analysis tools can be utilized to obtain quantitative measures of stability and performance degradation. 2) To propose a linear, time invariant (LTI) criterion on which to base the antiwindup design. These analysis and design methods are illustrated through the evaluation of two competing antiwindup schemes augmenting the controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight.
Antiwindup analysis and design approaches for MIMO systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marcopoli, Vincent R.; Phillips, Stephen M.
1994-01-01
Performance degradation of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) control systems having limited actuators is often handled by augmenting the controller with an antiwindup mechanism, which attempts to maintain system performance when limits are encountered. The goals of this paper are: (1) To develop a method to analyze antiwindup systems to determine precisely what stability and performance degradation is incurred under limited conditions. It is shown that by reformulating limited actuator commands as resulting from multiplicative perturbations to the corresponding controller requests, mu-analysis tools can be utilized to obtain quantitative measures of stability and performance degradation. (2) To propose a linear, time invariant (LTI) criterion on which to base the antiwindup design. These analysis and design methods are illustrated through the evaluation of two competing antiwindup schemes augmenting the controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft in transition flight.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, An; Liu, Youjian; Xiang, Haige; Luo, Wu
2011-01-01
We take two new approaches to design efficient algorithms for transmitter optimization under rate constraints, to guarantee the Quality of Service in general MIMO interference networks, which is a combination of multiple interfering broadcast channels (BC) and multiaccess channels (MAC) and is named B-MAC Networks. Two related optimization problems, maximizing the minimum of weighted rates under a sum-power constraint and minimizing the sum-power under rate constraints, are considered. The first approach takes advantage of existing efficient algorithms for SINR problems by building a bridge between rate and SINR through the design of optimal mappings between them. The approach can be applied to other optimization problems as well. The second approach employs polite water-filling, which is the optimal network version of water-filling that we recently found. It replaces most generic optimization algorithms currently used for networks and reduces the complexity while demonstrating superior performance even in non-convex cases. Both centralized and distributed algorithms are designed and the performance is analyzed in addition to numeric examples.
MimoDB: a new repository for mimotope data derived from phage display technology.
Ru, Beibei; Huang, Jian; Dai, Ping; Li, Shiyong; Xia, Zhongkui; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Guo, Fengbiao; Wang, Xianlong
2010-11-15
Peptides selected from phage-displayed random peptide libraries are valuable in two aspects. On one hand, these peptides are candidates for new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. On the other hand, they can be used to predict the networks or sites of protein-protein interactions. MimoDB, a new repository for these peptides, was developed, in which 10,716 peptides collected from 571 publications were grouped into 1,229 sets. Besides peptide sequences, other important information, such as the target, template, library and complex structure, was also included. MimoDB can be browsed and searched through a user-friendly web interface. For computational biologists, MimoDB can be used to derive customized data sets and benchmarks, which are useful for new algorithm development and tool evaluation. For experimental biologists, their results can be searched against the MimoDB database to exclude possible target-unrelated peptides. The MimoDB database is freely accessible at http://immunet.cn/mimodb/.
Neural network L1 adaptive control of MIMO systems with nonlinear uncertainty.
Zhen, Hong-tao; Qi, Xiao-hui; Li, Jie; Tian, Qing-min
2014-01-01
An indirect adaptive controller is developed for a class of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown uncertainties. This control system is comprised of an L 1 adaptive controller and an auxiliary neural network (NN) compensation controller. The L 1 adaptive controller has guaranteed transient response in addition to stable tracking. In this architecture, a low-pass filter is adopted to guarantee fast adaptive rate without generating high-frequency oscillations in control signals. The auxiliary compensation controller is designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions by MIMO RBF neural networks to suppress the influence of uncertainties. NN weights are tuned on-line with no prior training and the project operator ensures the weights bounded. The global stability of the closed-system is derived based on the Lyapunov function. Numerical simulations of an MIMO system coupled with nonlinear uncertainties are used to illustrate the practical potential of our theoretical results.
Neural Network L1 Adaptive Control of MIMO Systems with Nonlinear Uncertainty
Zhen, Hong-tao; Qi, Xiao-hui; Li, Jie; Tian, Qing-min
2014-01-01
An indirect adaptive controller is developed for a class of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown uncertainties. This control system is comprised of an L1 adaptive controller and an auxiliary neural network (NN) compensation controller. The L1 adaptive controller has guaranteed transient response in addition to stable tracking. In this architecture, a low-pass filter is adopted to guarantee fast adaptive rate without generating high-frequency oscillations in control signals. The auxiliary compensation controller is designed to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions by MIMO RBF neural networks to suppress the influence of uncertainties. NN weights are tuned on-line with no prior training and the project operator ensures the weights bounded. The global stability of the closed-system is derived based on the Lyapunov function. Numerical simulations of an MIMO system coupled with nonlinear uncertainties are used to illustrate the practical potential of our theoretical results. PMID:25147871
RF Lens-Embedded Massive MIMO Systems: Fabrication Issues and Codebook Design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwon, Taehoon; Lim, Yeon-Geun; Min, Byung-Wook; Chae, Chan-Byoung
2016-07-01
In this paper, we investigate a radio frequency (RF) lens-embedded massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system and evaluate the system performance of limited feedback by utilizing a technique for generating a suitable codebook for the system. We fabricate an RF lens that operates on a 77 GHz (mmWave) band. Experimental results show a proper value of amplitude gain and an appropriate focusing property. In addition, using a simple numerical technique--beam propagation method (BPM)--we estimate the power profile of the RF lens and verify its accordance with experimental results. We also design a codebook--multi-variance codebook quantization (MVCQ)--for limited feedback by considering the characteristics of the RF lens antenna for massive MIMO systems. Numerical results confirm that the proposed system shows significant performance enhancement over a conventional massive MIMO system without an RF lens.
2012-03-01
covariance PT T Ir, where R is the number of receive antennas. The capacity is given by B × log2 ∣ ∣Ir + PT T HHH ∣ ∣. From his theorem, Telatar stated that...Applying Telatar’s theorem to 2.9, the capacity for a MIMO system can be rewritten as C = B log2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ I+ PT T HHH ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ , (2.13) where I is the identity...as a MMSE equalizer and is modeled as H† = ( HHH + σ2 n I)−1HH, (2.39) where H is the channel gain matrix, σ2n is the SNR per transmit antenna, x H
Application of UWB and MIMO Wireless Technologies to Tactical Networks in Austere Environments
2010-09-01
Alexander Bordetsky, PhD Thesis Advisor Bryan Hudgens Second Reader Dan Boger , PhD Chairman, Department of Information Sciences...added into the MIMO system. For example, the data rate for the SIMO DL with a 1:1 ratio is 15.84 Mbps but when another antenna is added to form the...MIMO DL with a 1:1 ratio, the data rate doubles to 31.68 Mbps. The highest data rate that can be reached while mobile is 63.36 Mbps, although, static
A Desired PAR-Achieving Precoder Design for Multiuser MIMO OFDM Based on Concentration of Measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cha, Hyun-Su; Kim, Dong Ku
2017-03-01
For multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications in orthogonal frequency di- vision multiplexing systems, we propose a MIMO precoding scheme providing a desired peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) at the minimum cost that is defined as received SNR degradation. By taking advantage of the concentration of measure, we formulate a convex problem with constraint on the desired PAR. Consequently, the proposed scheme almost exactly achieves the desired PAR on average, and asymptotically attains the desired PAR at the 0.001 point of its complementary cumulative distribution function, as the number of subcarriers increases.
Matsumura, Cíntia Yuri; Taniguti, Ana Paula Tiemi; Pertille, Adriana; Santo Neto, Humberto; Marques, Maria Julia
2011-12-01
In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and in the mdx mouse model of DMD, the lack of dystrophin is related to enhanced calcium influx and muscle degeneration. Stretch-activated channels (SACs) might be directly involved in the pathology of DMD, and transient receptor potential cation channels have been proposed as likely candidates of SACs. We investigated the levels of transient receptor potential canonical channel 1 (TRPC1) and the effects of streptomycin, a SAC blocker, in muscles showing different degrees of the dystrophic phenotype. Mdx mice (18 days old, n = 16) received daily intraperitoneal injections of streptomycin (182 mg/kg body wt) for 18 days, followed by removal of the diaphragm, sternomastoid (STN), biceps brachii, and tibialis anterior muscles. Control mdx mice (n = 37) were injected with saline. Western blot analysis showed higher levels of TRPC1 in diaphragm muscle compared with STN and limb muscles. Streptomycin reduced creatine kinase and prevented exercise-induced increases of total calcium and Evans blue dye uptake in diaphragm and in STN muscles. It is suggested that different levels of the stretch-activated calcium channel protein TRPC1 may contribute to the different degrees of the dystrophic phenotype seen in mdx mice. Early treatment designed to regulate the activity of these channels may ameliorate the progression of dystrophy in the most affected muscle, the diaphragm.
Multi-static MIMO along track interferometry (ATI)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Knight, Chad; Deming, Ross; Gunther, Jake
2016-05-01
Along-track interferometry (ATI) has the ability to generate high-quality synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and concurrently detect and estimate the positions of ground moving target indicators (GMTI) with moderate processing requirements. This paper focuses on several different ATI system configurations, with an emphasis on low-cost configurations employing no active electronic scanned array (AESA). The objective system has two transmit phase centers and four receive phase centers and supports agile adaptive radar behavior. The advantages of multistatic, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) ATI system configurations are explored. The two transmit phase centers can employ a ping-pong configuration to provide the multistatic behavior. For example, they can toggle between an up and down linear frequency modulated (LFM) waveform every other pulse. The four receive apertures are considered in simple linear spatial configurations. Simulated examples are examined to understand the trade space and verify the expected results. Finally, actual results are collected with the Space Dynamics Laboratorys (SDL) FlexSAR system in diverse configurations. The theory, as well as the simulated and actual SAR results, are presented and discussed.
Design and implementation of SMO for a nonlinear MIMO AHRS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doostdar, Parisa; Keighobadi, Jafar
2012-10-01
In a low-cost attitude heading reference system (AHRS), the measurements made by MEMS inertial and magnetic sensors are affected by large parameter uncertainties, stochastic noises and unknown disturbances. In this paper, considering the robustness of the sliding mode observers (SMO) against both structured and unstructured uncertainties as well as exogenous inputs, the process of design and implementation of a nonlinear SMO is proposed for a low-cost AHRS. For simultaneous estimation of orientation variables and calibration biases of gyroscopes, a nonlinear and non-affine model of the AHRS is considered. Therefore, based on the Lie-algebraic method, the estimation algorithm is designed for a general class of non-affine nonlinear MIMO systems. In the proposed observer, owing to decreasing the required assumptions for coordinate transformation in recent literatures, the design process of the SMO is simplified. The gain matrices of the proposed SMO are obtained through ensuring the stability and the convergence of estimation errors based on Lyapunov's direct method. The expected tracking performance of the robust state and parameter estimation algorithm compared to that of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is evaluated through simulations and real experiments of a strapped AHRS on a ground vehicle.
Detection of Multiple Stationary Humans Using UWB MIMO Radar
Liang, Fulai; Qi, Fugui; An, Qiang; Lv, Hao; Chen, Fuming; Li, Zhao; Wang, Jianqi
2016-01-01
Remarkable progress has been achieved in the detection of single stationary human. However, restricted by the mutual interference of multiple humans (e.g., strong sidelobes of the torsos and the shadow effect), detection and localization of the multiple stationary humans remains a huge challenge. In this paper, ultra-wideband (UWB) multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) radar is exploited to improve the detection performance of multiple stationary humans for its multiple sight angles and high-resolution two-dimensional imaging capacity. A signal model of the vital sign considering both bi-static angles and attitude angle of the human body is firstly developed, and then a novel detection method is proposed to detect and localize multiple stationary humans. In this method, preprocessing is firstly implemented to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the vital signs, and then a vital-sign-enhanced imaging algorithm is presented to suppress the environmental clutters and mutual affection of multiple humans. Finally, an automatic detection algorithm including constant false alarm rate (CFAR), morphological filtering and clustering is implemented to improve the detection performance of weak human targets affected by heavy clutters and shadow effect. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can get a high-quality image of multiple humans and we can use it to discriminate and localize multiple adjacent human targets behind brick walls. PMID:27854356
Robust Decentralized Nonlinear Control for a Twin Rotor MIMO System.
Belmonte, Lidia María; Morales, Rafael; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Somolinos, José Andrés
2016-07-27
This article presents the design of a novel decentralized nonlinear multivariate control scheme for an underactuated, nonlinear and multivariate laboratory helicopter denominated the twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS). The TRMS is characterized by a coupling effect between rotor dynamics and the body of the model, which is due to the action-reaction principle originated in the acceleration and deceleration of the motor-propeller groups. The proposed controller is composed of two nested loops that are utilized to achieve stabilization and precise trajectory tracking tasks for the controlled position of the generalized coordinates of the TRMS. The nonlinear internal loop is used to control the electrical dynamics of the platform, and the nonlinear external loop allows the platform to be perfectly stabilized and positioned in space. Finally, we illustrate the theoretical control developments with a set of experiments in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear decentralized feedback controller, in which a comparative study with other controllers is performed, illustrating the excellent performance of the proposed robust decentralized control scheme in both stabilization and trajectory tracking tasks.
Robust Decentralized Nonlinear Control for a Twin Rotor MIMO System
Belmonte, Lidia María; Morales, Rafael; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Somolinos, José Andrés
2016-01-01
This article presents the design of a novel decentralized nonlinear multivariate control scheme for an underactuated, nonlinear and multivariate laboratory helicopter denominated the twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS). The TRMS is characterized by a coupling effect between rotor dynamics and the body of the model, which is due to the action-reaction principle originated in the acceleration and deceleration of the motor-propeller groups. The proposed controller is composed of two nested loops that are utilized to achieve stabilization and precise trajectory tracking tasks for the controlled position of the generalized coordinates of the TRMS. The nonlinear internal loop is used to control the electrical dynamics of the platform, and the nonlinear external loop allows the platform to be perfectly stabilized and positioned in space. Finally, we illustrate the theoretical control developments with a set of experiments in order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear decentralized feedback controller, in which a comparative study with other controllers is performed, illustrating the excellent performance of the proposed robust decentralized control scheme in both stabilization and trajectory tracking tasks. PMID:27472338
Statistical Space-Time-Frequency Characterization of MIMO Shallow Water Acoustic Channels
2010-06-01
top and bottom. The surface and bottom boundaries reflect an acoustic signal, which results in multiple eigenrays travelling between the Tx and Rx, as...Rx receives 2S downward arriving eigenrays , each one having different number of s surface and b bottom reflections, where 1 ≤ s ≤ S, and s−1 ≤ b ≤ s...Similarly, there are 2B upward arriving eigenrays with b bottom and s surface reflections, where 1 ≤ b ≤ B and b−1 ≤ s ≤ b. Note that exact positions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Xiaolong; Liu, Bo; Li, Li; Tian, Qinghua
2016-07-01
This paper proposes and demonstrates a low complexity multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) equalization digital signal processing (DSP) method for the few mode multi-core (FMMC) fiber optical transmission system. The MIMO equalization algorithm offers adaptive equalization taps according to the degree of crosstalk in cores or modes, which eliminates the interference among different modes and cores in space division multiplexing (SDM) transmission system. Compared with traditional MIMO method, the proposed scheme has increased the convergence rate by 4 times and reduced the number of finite impulse response (FIR) filters by 55% when the numbers of mode and core are three.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Two major problems in the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) aquaculture industry have been high disease losses to enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC), caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri and columnaris disease, caused by Flavobacterium columnare. Methods to control and prevent these diseases includ...
A unitary ESPRIT scheme of joint angle estimation for MOTS MIMO radar.
Wen, Chao; Shi, Guangming
2014-08-07
The transmit array of multi-overlapped-transmit-subarray configured bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MOTS MIMO) radar is partitioned into a number of overlapped subarrays, which is different from the traditional bistatic MIMO radar. In this paper, a new unitary ESPRIT scheme for joint estimation of the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for MOTS MIMO radar is proposed. In our method, each overlapped-transmit-subarray (OTS) with the identical effective aperture is regarded as a transmit element and the characteristics that the phase delays between the two OTSs is utilized. First, the measurements corresponding to all the OTSs are partitioned into two groups which have a rotational invariance relationship with each other. Then, the properties of centro-Hermitian matrices and real-valued rotational invariance factors are exploited to double the measurement samples and reduce computational complexity. Finally, the close-formed solution of automatically paired DOAs and DODs of targets is derived in a new manner. The proposed scheme provides increased estimation accuracy with the combination of inherent advantages of MOTS MIMO radar with unitary ESPRIT. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed scheme.
Luitel, Bipul; Venayagamoorthy, Ganesh Kumar
2010-06-01
Training a single simultaneous recurrent neural network (SRN) to learn all outputs of a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system is a difficult problem. A new training algorithm developed from combined concepts of swarm intelligence and quantum principles is presented. The training algorithm is called particle swarm optimization with quantum infusion (PSO-QI). To improve the effectiveness of learning, a two-step learning approach is introduced in the training. The objective of the learning in the first step is to find the optimal set of weights in the SRN considering all output errors. In the second step, the objective is to maximize the learning of each output dynamics by fine tuning the respective SRN output weights. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the PSO-QI training algorithm and the two-step learning approach, two examples of an SRN learning MIMO systems are presented. The first example is learning a benchmark MIMO system and the second one is the design of a wide area monitoring system for a multimachine power system. From the results, it is observed that SRNs can effectively learn MIMO systems when trained using the PSO-QI algorithm and the two-step learning approach.
Cooperative MIMO communication at wireless sensor network: an error correcting code approach.
Islam, Mohammad Rakibul; Han, Young Shin
2011-01-01
Cooperative communication in wireless sensor network (WSN) explores the energy efficient wireless communication schemes between multiple sensors and data gathering node (DGN) by exploiting multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and multiple input single output (MISO) configurations. In this paper, an energy efficient cooperative MIMO (C-MIMO) technique is proposed where low density parity check (LDPC) code is used as an error correcting code. The rate of LDPC code is varied by varying the length of message and parity bits. Simulation results show that the cooperative communication scheme outperforms SISO scheme in the presence of LDPC code. LDPC codes with different code rates are compared using bit error rate (BER) analysis. BER is also analyzed under different Nakagami fading scenario. Energy efficiencies are compared for different targeted probability of bit error p(b). It is observed that C-MIMO performs more efficiently when the targeted p(b) is smaller. Also the lower encoding rate for LDPC code offers better error characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Hussain; Ahmed, Sajid; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Sharawi, Mohammad S.; Alouini, Mohamed-S.
2017-01-01
Conventional algorithms used for parameter estimation in colocated multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) radars require the inversion of the covariance matrix of the received spatial samples. In these algorithms, the number of received snapshots should be at least equal to the size of the covariance matrix. For large size MIMO antenna arrays, the inversion of the covariance matrix becomes computationally very expensive. Compressive sensing (CS) algorithms which do not require the inversion of the complete covariance matrix can be used for parameter estimation with fewer number of received snapshots. In this work, it is shown that the spatial formulation is best suitable for large MIMO arrays when CS algorithms are used. A temporal formulation is proposed which fits the CS algorithms framework, especially for small size MIMO arrays. A recently proposed low-complexity CS algorithm named support agnostic Bayesian matching pursuit (SABMP) is used to estimate target parameters for both spatial and temporal formulations for the unknown number of targets. The simulation results show the advantage of SABMP algorithm utilizing low number of snapshots and better parameter estimation for both small and large number of antenna elements. Moreover, it is shown by simulations that SABMP is more effective than other existing algorithms at high signal-to-noise ratio.
Srinivasa, Narayan; Zhang, Deying; Grigorian, Beayna
2014-03-01
This paper describes a novel architecture for enabling robust and efficient neuromorphic communication. The architecture combines two concepts: 1) synaptic time multiplexing (STM) that trades space for speed of processing to create an intragroup communication approach that is firing rate independent and offers more flexibility in connectivity than cross-bar architectures and 2) a wired multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques to enable a robust and efficient intergroup communication for neuromorphic systems. The MIMO-OFDM concept for the proposed architecture was analyzed by simulating large-scale spiking neural network architecture. Analysis shows that the neuromorphic system with MIMO-OFDM exhibits robust and efficient communication while operating in real time with a high bit rate. Through combining STM with MIMO-OFDM techniques, the resulting system offers a flexible and scalable connectivity as well as a power and area efficient solution for the implementation of very large-scale spiking neural architectures in hardware.
Quantification of MDL-induced signal degradation in MIMO-OFDM mode-division multiplexing systems.
Tian, Yu; Li, Juhao; Zhu, Paikun; Wu, Zhongying; Chen, Yuanxiang; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan
2016-08-22
Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission over few-mode optical fiber has emerged as a promising technology to enhance transmission capacity, in which multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) after coherent detection is used to demultiplex the signals. Compared with conventional single-mode systems, MIMO-MDM systems suffer non-recoverable signal degradation induced by mode-dependent loss (MDL). In this paper, the MDL-induced signal degradation in orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) MDM systems is theoretically quantified in terms of mode-average error vector magnitude (EVM) through frequency domain norm analysis. A novel scalar MDL metric is proposed considering the probability distribution of the practical MDM input signals, and a closed-form expression for EVM measured after zero-force (ZF) MIMO equalization is derived. Simulation results show that the EVM estimations utilizing the novel MDL metric remain unbiased for unrepeated links. For a 6 × 100 km 20-mode MDM transmission system, the estimation accuracy is improved by more than 90% compared with that utilizing traditional condition number (CN) based MDL metric. The proposed MDL metric can be used to predict the MDL-induced SNR penalty in a theoretical manner, which will be beneficial for the design of practical MIMO-MDM systems.
He, Jiale; Li, Borui; Deng, Lei; Tang, Ming; Gan, Lin; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming
2016-06-13
In this paper, the feasibility of space division multiplexing for optical wireless fronthaul systems is experimentally demonstrated by implementing high speed MIMO-OFDM/OQAM radio signals over 20km 7-core fiber and 0.4m wireless link. Moreover, the impact of optical inter-core crosstalk in multicore fibers on the proposed MIMO-OFDM/OQAM radio over fiber system is experimentally evaluated in both SISO and MIMO configurations for comparison. The experimental results show that the inter-core crosstalk tolerance of the proposed radio over fiber system can be relaxed to -10 dB by using the proposed MIMO-OFDM/OQAM processing. These results could guide high density multicore fiber design to support a large number of antenna modules and a higher density of radio-access points for potential applications in 5G cellular system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schroder, Christian; Klingelhofer, Gostar; Morris, Richard V.; Yen, Albert S.; Renz, Franz; Graff, Trevor G.
2016-01-01
The miniaturized Mossbauer spectrometer MIMOS II is an off-the-shelf instrument, which has been successfully deployed during NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and was on-board the ESA/UK Beagle 2 Mars lander and the Russian Phobos-Grunt sample return mission. We propose to use a fully-qualified flight-spare MIMOS II instrument available from these missions for in situ asteroid characterization with the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panajotović, Aleksandra; Sekulović, Nikola; Drača, Dragan; Stefanović, Mihajlo; Stefanović, Časlav
2013-12-01
A dual selection combining (SC) receiver with correlated and unbalanced diversity branches operating in interference-limited Nakagami-m fading environment is considered in this paper. Actually, average fade duration (AFD) of SC system applying desired signal decision algorithm is obtained. Numerical results can be used to examine the effects of fading severity, input signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) unbalance and level of branch correlation on the AFD, as well as the correctness of proposed analytical formulation.
Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; ...
2016-02-01
For this research, we study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back upmore » our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. In conclusion, these results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.« less
Hosur, Pavan; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Roberts, Daniel A.; Yoshida, Beni
2016-02-01
For this research, we study chaos and scrambling in unitary channels by considering their entanglement properties as states. Using out-of-time-order correlation functions to diagnose chaos, we characterize the ability of a channel to process quantum information. We show that the generic decay of such correlators implies that any input subsystem must have near vanishing mutual information with almost all partitions of the output. Additionally, we propose the negativity of the tripartite information of the channel as a general diagnostic of scrambling. This measures the delocalization of information and is closely related to the decay of out-of-time-order correlators. We back up our results with numerics in two non-integrable models and analytic results in a perfect tensor network model of chaotic time evolution. In conclusion, these results show that the butterfly effect in quantum systems implies the information-theoretic definition of scrambling.
(DURIP) MIMO Radar Testbed for Waveform Adaptive Sensing Research
2015-06-17
to implement image suppression and channel selection. Heterodyne receivers can achieve high sensitivity and channel selectivity, DC offset is...common to receivers with intermediate frequency conversion stages. However, significant DC offsets at the output of quadrature mixers as a result of LO...practice. In addition low-IF bandpass sampling system enables us to use a DC - blocker at the output of quadrature mixer output, eliminating the DC
Venkatachalam, Kartik; Montell, Craig
2011-01-01
The TRP (Transient Receptor Potential) superfamily of cation channels is remarkable in that it displays greater diversity in activation mechanisms and selectivities than any other group of ion channels. The domain organizations of some TRP proteins are also unusual, as they consist of linked channel and enzyme domains. A unifying theme in this group is that TRP proteins play critical roles in sensory physiology, which include contributions to vision, taste, olfaction, hearing, touch, and thermo- and osmosensation. In addition, TRP channels enable individual cells to sense changes in their local environment. Many TRP channels are activated by a variety of different stimuli and function as signal integrators. The TRP superfamily is divided into seven subfamilies: the five group 1 TRPs (TRPC, TRPV, TRPM, TRPN, and TRPA) and two group 2 subfamilies (TRPP and TRPML). TRP channels are important for human health as mutations in at least four TRP channels underlie disease. PMID:17579562
Adaptive Fuzzy Tracking Control for a Class of MIMO Nonlinear Systems in Nonstrict-Feedback Form.
Chen, Bing; Lin, Chong; Liu, Xiaoping; Liu, Kefu
2015-12-01
This paper focuses on the problem of fuzzy adaptive control for a class of multiinput and multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems in nonstrict-feedback form, which contains the strict-feedback form as a special case. By the condition of variable partition, a new fuzzy adaptive backstepping is proposed for such a class of nonlinear MIMO systems. The suggested fuzzy adaptive controller guarantees that the proposed control scheme can guarantee that all the signals in the closed-loop system are semi-globally uniformly ultimately bounded and the tracking errors eventually converge to a small neighborhood around the origin. The main advantage of this paper is that a control approach is systematically derived for nonlinear systems with strong interconnected terms which are the functions of all states of the whole system. Simulation results further illustrate the effectiveness of the suggested approach.
Gkonis, Panagiotis K.; Seimeni, Maria A.; Asimakis, Nikolaos P.; Kaklamani, Dimitra I.; Venieris, Iakovos S.
2014-01-01
The goal of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the performance of a new subcarrier allocation strategy for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) multicellular networks which employ Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) architecture. For this reason, a hybrid system-link level simulator has been developed executing independent Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in parallel. Up to two tiers of cells around the central cell are taken into consideration and increased loading per cell. The derived results indicate that this strategy can provide up to 12% capacity gain for 16-QAM modulation and two tiers of cells around the central cell in a symmetric 2 × 2 MIMO configuration. This gain is derived when comparing the proposed strategy to the traditional approach of allocating subcarriers that maximize only the desired user's signal. PMID:24683351
Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.
Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen
2014-11-01
Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm.
In vivo measurement of human knee and hip dynamics using MIMO system identification.
Koopman, B; van Asseldonk, E F; van der Kooij, H
2010-01-01
This study presents a new method for the estimation of the dynamic impedance of multi-joint leg movements. The method is based on Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) system identification techniques and is designed for continuous torque perturbations at the hip and knee joint. Preliminary results from this study indicate that MIMO system identification can successfully be used to estimate the hip and knee impedance and the interaction dynamics between both joints. It is also concluded that, in order to create a good model representation of the leg impedance, the effect of biarticular muscles needs to be taken into account. The obtained measures for joint impedance might be used for clinical assessment and follow up of patients, as well as for the development of supportive devices.
Explosive hazard detection using MIMO forward-looking ground penetrating radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaw, Darren; Ho, K. C.; Stone, Kevin; Keller, James M.; Popescu, Mihail; Anderson, Derek T.; Luke, Robert H.; Burns, Brian
2015-05-01
This paper proposes a machine learning algorithm for subsurface object detection on multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR). By detecting hazards using FLGPR, standoff distances of up to tens of meters can be acquired, but this is at the degradation of performance due to high false alarm rates. The proposed system utilizes an anomaly detection prescreener to identify potential object locations. Alarm locations have multiple one-dimensional (ML) spectral features, two-dimensional (2D) spectral features, and log-Gabor statistic features extracted. The ability of these features to reduce the number of false alarms and increase the probability of detection is evaluated for both co-polarizations present in the Akela MIMO array. Classification is performed by a Support Vector Machine (SVM) with lane-based cross-validation for training and testing. Class imbalance and optimized SVM kernel parameters are considered during classifier training.
2014-01-01
This paper provides improved time delay-dependent stability criteria for multi-input and multi-output (MIMO) network control systems (NCSs) with nonlinear perturbations. Without the stability assumption on the neutral operator after the descriptor approach, the new proposed stability theory is less conservative than the existing stability condition. Theoretical proof is given in this paper to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed stability condition. PMID:24744679
New RoF-PON architecture using polarization multiplexed wireless MIMO signals for NG-PON
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmagzoub, M. A.; Mohammad, Abu Bakar; Shaddad, Redhwan Q.; Al-Gailani, Samir A.
2015-06-01
Next-generation access networks require provision of wireless services and high data rate to meet the huge demands for mobility and multiple services. Moreover, reusing the currently deployed optical distribution networks (ODNs) is highly beneficial and cost effective for providing the new high data rate wireless demands. In this paper, bidirectional radio over fiber passive optical network (RoF-PON) capable of handling multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) streams at low cost, high spectral efficiency and backward compatibility with currently deployed PON, is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, all the existing RoF MIMO solutions have not considered compatibility with currently deployed ODNs. Eight laser diodes (LDs) at the central office (CO) are enough for the whole system, instead of having LD or optical transmitter at each remote antenna unit (RAU), which makes a colorless and cost-effective RAU. Twenty four wavelengths are generated using optical comb technique. Each two 16-QAM MIMO signals that have the same carrier frequency in the downstream (DS) transmission are optically combined using polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM), where each two upstream (US) MIMO signals are time division multiplexed. The PDM configuration doubles spectral efficiency with a power penalty of only 1.5 dB. The proposed architecture is a bidirectional asymmetric RoF-PON with total 40/10 Gb/s for DS/US transmission. Even after transmission over 20 km SMF and splitting ratio of 32, acceptable transmission performance and widely separated constellation diagrams for the 16-QAM signals are achieved, with bit error rate (BER) of 10-6 for DS signals and 10-3 for the US signals which can be reduced down to 10-6 by using forward error correction (FEC).
Impact of nonzero boresight pointing error on ergodic capacity of MIMO FSO communication systems.
Boluda-Ruiz, Rubén; García-Zambrana, Antonio; Castillo-Vázquez, Beatriz; Castillo-Vázquez, Carmen
2016-02-22
A thorough investigation of the impact of nonzero boresight pointing errors on the ergodic capacity of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) free-space optical (FSO) systems with equal gain combining (EGC) reception under different turbulence models, which are modeled as statistically independent, but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.i.d.) is addressed in this paper. Novel closed-form asymptotic expressions at high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the ergodic capacity of MIMO FSO systems are derived when different geometric arrangements of the receive apertures at the receiver are considered in order to reduce the effect of nonzero inherent boresight displacement, which is inevitably present when more than one receive aperture is considered. As a result, the asymptotic ergodic capacity of MIMO FSO systems is evaluated over log-normal (LN), gamma-gamma (GG) and exponentiated Weibull (EW) atmospheric turbulence in order to study different turbulence conditions, different sizes of receive apertures as well as different aperture averaging conditions. It is concluded that the use of single-input/multiple-output (SIMO) and MIMO techniques can significantly increase the ergodic capacity respect to the direct path link when the inherent boresight displacement takes small values, i.e. when the spacing among receive apertures is not too big. The effect of nonzero additional boresight errors, which is due to the thermal expansion of the building, is evaluated in multiple-input/single-output (MISO) and single-input/single-output (SISO) FSO systems. Simulation results are further included to confirm the analytical results.
On performance analysis of ADRC for a class of MIMO lower-triangular nonlinear uncertain systems.
Xue, Wenchao; Huang, Yi
2014-07-01
This paper designs the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to achieve desired performance for a class of MIMO lower-triangular nonlinear systems with large uncertainties under un-matched condition. We develop the ADRC with a set of extended state observers, and prove that the closed-loop system can achieve satisfied dynamic performance. The theoretical results illustrate the relationship between the bound of the concerned error and the bandwidth of extend state observers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekido, Mamoru; Takefuji, Kazuhiro
2013-01-01
Kashima Space Technology Center (KSTC) is making use of two kinds of software correlators, the multi-channel K5/VSSP software correlator and the fast wide-band correlator 'GICO3,' for geodetic and R&D VLBI experiments. Overview of the activity and future plans are described in this paper.
MimoDB 2.0: a mimotope database and beyond.
Huang, Jian; Ru, Beibei; Zhu, Ping; Nie, Fulei; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xuyang; Dai, Ping; Lin, Hao; Guo, Feng-Biao; Rao, Nini
2012-01-01
Mimotopes are peptides with affinities to given targets. They are readily obtained through biopanning against combinatorial peptide libraries constructed by phage display and other display technologies such as mRNA display, ribosome display, bacterial display and yeast display. Mimotopes have been used to infer the protein interaction sites and networks; they are also ideal candidates for developing new diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. However, such valuable peptides are not collected in the central data resources such as UniProt and NCBI GenPept due to their 'unnatural' short sequences. The MimoDB database is an information portal to biopanning results of random libraries. In version 2.0, it has 15,633 peptides collected from 849 papers and grouped into 1818 sets. Besides the core data on panning experiments and their results, broad background information on target, template, library and structure is included. An accompanied benchmark has also been compiled for bioinformaticians to develop and evaluate their new models, algorithms and programs. In addition, the MimoDB database provides tools for simple and advanced searches, structure visualization, BLAST and alignment view on the fly. The experimental biologists can easily use the database as a virtual control to exclude possible target-unrelated peptides. The MimoDB database is freely available at http://immunet.cn/mimodb.
Modeling and control of non-square MIMO system using relay feedback.
Kalpana, D; Thyagarajan, T; Gokulraj, N
2015-11-01
This paper proposes a systematic approach for the modeling and control of non-square MIMO systems in time domain using relay feedback. Conventionally, modeling, selection of the control configuration and controller design of non-square MIMO systems are performed using input/output information of direct loop, while the output of undesired responses that bears valuable information on interaction among the loops are not considered. However, in this paper, the undesired response obtained from relay feedback test is also taken into consideration to extract the information about the interaction between the loops. The studies are performed on an Air Path Scheme of Turbocharged Diesel Engine (APSTDE) model, which is a typical non-square MIMO system, with input and output variables being 3 and 2 respectively. From the relay test response, the generalized analytical expressions are derived and these analytical expressions are used to estimate unknown system parameters and also to evaluate interaction measures. The interaction is analyzed by using Block Relative Gain (BRG) method. The model thus identified is later used to design appropriate controller to carry out closed loop studies. Closed loop simulation studies were performed for both servo and regulatory operations. Integral of Squared Error (ISE) performance criterion is employed to quantitatively evaluate performance of the proposed scheme. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated on a lab-scale Two-Tank Cylindrical Interacting System (TTCIS), which is configured as a non-square system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voets, Thomas; Owsianik, Grzegorz; Nilius, Bernd
The TRP superfamily represents a highly diverse group of cation-permeable ion channels related to the product of the Drosophila trp (transient receptor potential) gene. The cloning and characterization of members of this cation channel family has experienced a remarkable growth during the last decade, uncovering a wealth of information concerning the role of TRP channels in a variety of cell types, tissues, and species. Initially, TRP channels were mainly considered as phospholipase C (PLC)-dependent and/or store-operated Ca2+-permeable cation channels. More recent research has highlighted the sensitivity of TRP channels to a broad array of chemical and physical stimuli, allowing them to function as dedicated biological sensors involved in processes ranging from vision to taste, tactile sensation, and hearing. Moreover, the tailored selectivity of certain TRP channels enables them to play key roles in the cellular uptake and/or transepithelial transport of Ca2+, Mg2+, and trace metal ions. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the TRP channel superfamily followed by a survey of current knowledge concerning their structure and activation mechanisms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaedicke, C.; Franke, D.; Piepjohn, K.; Brandes, C.; Sobolev, N.; Tolmacheva, T.; Mouly, B.
2012-12-01
The Laptev and East Siberian Seas cover large areas of the continental margin of North-Eastern Siberia and are separated by the New Siberian Islands. The East Siberian Shelf covering an area of 935.000 km2 is a virtually unexplored area and most geological models for this shelf are extrapolations of the geology of the New Siberian Islands, the Wrangel Island and the northeast Siberia landmass. Apart from few seismic reflection lines airborne magnetic data were the primary means of deciphering the structural pattern of the East Siberian Shelf. The Laptev Shelf covers an area of about 66.000 km2 and occupies a shelf region, where the active mid-oceanic spreading ridge meets the slope of a continental margin. Since no deep wells have been drilled so far on the shelves surrounding the New Siberian Islands, the precise age and nature of seismic horizons remain uncertain. All interpretations base on different evolution scenarios for the shelf areas resulting in a wide variety of interpretations available for the sedimentary cover of the Laptev Shelf where the interpretations range from Proterozoic to Cenozoic. During the joint VSEGEI/BGR field expedition CASE 13 (Circum Arctic Structural Events) in summer 2011 we sampled outcrops from the New Sibirian Archipelago including the DeLong Islands. Main purposes of the field work were: deciphering the structural evolution, paleo-stress analysis, stratigraphy and paleo-environmetal studies, and collection of potential hydrocarbon source rocks and host rocks. Here we present correlations from onshore to offshore based on multichannel reflection seismic data acquired by BGR in the 1990th and the field campaign CASE 13. Key marker horizons in the offshore data will be linked to major hiatuses in the onshore region. Well information is available close by the Lena delta in the form of sketched stratigraphy ranging from Proterozoic to Cretaceous. Both informations can be reconciled on a cross section despite a gap of approximately 25
Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Chiang, Shou-Chih; Chang, Hsi-Yu
2015-05-04
This paper proposes a 2x2 MIMO OFDM Radio-over-Fiber scheme based on optical subcarrier multiplexing and 60-GHz MIMO wireless transmission. We also schematically investigated the principle of optical subcarrier multiplexing, which is based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM). In our simulation result, combining two MIMO OFDM signals to drive DP-MZM gives rise to the PAPR augmentation of less than 0.4 dB, which mitigates nonlinear distortion. Moreover, we applied a Levin-Campello bit-loading algorithm to compensate for the uneven frequency responses in the V-band. The resulting system achieves OFDM signal rates of 61.5-Gbits/s with BER of 10(-3) over 25-km SMF transmission followed by 3-m wireless transmission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheung, K. M.; Vilnrotter, V.
1996-01-01
A closed-form expression for the capacity of an array of correlated Gaussian channels is derived. It is shown that when signal and noise are independent, the array of observables can be replaced with a single observable without diminishing the capacity of the array channel. Examples are provided to illustrate the dependence of channel capacity on noise correlation for two- and three-channel arrays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cong; Xiong, Zhihua; Ye, Hao
2014-07-01
In system identification, a data set needs to be informative to guarantee that the identification criterion has a unique global minimum asymptotically and the parameter estimation is consistent. In this paper, we study the informativity of the data set in a multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) networked control system (NCS), which contains possible network-induced delays, packet dropout, transmission scheduling, or a combination of these factors in network transmission. Moreover, to guarantee the data set of this MIMO NCS to be informative, a group of conditions for network transmission and controller's proportional term are developed. Finally, simulation studies are given to illustrate the result.
Max–Min SINR in Large-Scale Single-Cell MU-MIMO: Asymptotic Analysis and Low-Complexity Transceivers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sifaou, Houssem; Kammoun, Abla; Sanguinetti, Luca; Debbah, Merouane; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2017-04-01
This work focuses on the downlink and uplink of large-scale single-cell MU-MIMO systems in which the base station (BS) endowed with $M$ antennas communicates with $K$ single-antenna user equipments (UEs). Particularly, we aim at reducing the complexity of the linear precoder and receiver that maximize the minimum signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio subject to a given power constraint. To this end, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $M$ and $K$ grow large with a given ratio. Tools from random matrix theory (RMT) are then used to compute, in closed form, accurate approximations for the parameters of the optimal precoder and receiver, when imperfect channel state information (modeled by the generic Gauss-Markov formulation form) is available at the BS. The asymptotic analysis allows us to derive the asymptotically optimal linear precoder and receiver that are characterized by a lower complexity (due to the dependence on the large scale components of the channel) and, possibly, by a better resilience to imperfect channel state information. However, the implementation of both is still challenging as it requires fast inversions of large matrices in every coherence period. To overcome this issue, we apply the truncated polynomial expansion (TPE) technique to the precoding and receiving vector of each UE and make use of RMT to determine the optimal weighting coefficients on a per-UE basis that asymptotically solve the max-min SINR problem. Numerical results are used to validate the asymptotic analysis in the finite system regime and to show that the proposed TPE transceivers efficiently mimic the optimal ones, while requiring much lower computational complexity.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This book chapter provides a comprehensive overview of channel catfish aquaculture. Sections include fish biology; commercial culture; culture facilities; production practices; water quality management; nutrition, feeding and feed formulation; infectious diseases; harvesting and processing; and the...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinac, Boris
Living cells are exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli acting throughout the biosphere. The range of the stimuli extends from thermal molecular agitation to potentially destructive cell swelling caused by osmotic pressure gradients. Cellular membranes present a major target for these stimuli. To detect mechanical forces acting upon them cell membranes are equipped with mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels. Functioning as molecular mechanoelectrical transducers of mechanical forces into electrical and/or chemical intracellular signals these channels play a critical role in the physiology of mechanotransduction. Studies of prokaryotic MS channels and recent work on MS channels of eukaryotes have significantly increased our understanding of their gating mechanism, physiological functions, and evolutionary origins as well as their role in the pathology of disease.
The Miniaturized Moessbauer Spectrometers MIMOS II on MER: Four Years of Operation - A Summary
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleischer, I.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D.; Blumers, M.; Bernhardt, B.; Schroeder, C.; Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Cohen, B. A.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M. E.; Girones Lopez, J.; Studlek, G.; Brueckner, J.; Gellert, R.; d'Uston, C.
2008-01-01
The two Miniaturized Moessbauer Spectrometers (MIMOS II) on board the two Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity have now been collecting important scientific data for more than four years. The spectrometers provide information about Fe-bearing mineral phases and determine Fe oxidation states. The total amount of targets analized exceeds 600, the total integration time exceeds 260 days for both rovers. Since landing, more than five half-lives of the Co-57 MB sources have past (intensity at the time of landing approx. 150 mCi). Current integration times are about 50 hours in order to achieve reasonable statistics as opposed to 8 hours at the beginning of the mission. In total, 13 different mineral phases were detected: Olivine, pyroxene, hematite, magnetite and nanophase ferric oxide were detected at both landing sites. At Gusev, ilmenite, goethite, a ferric sulfate phase and a yet unassigned phase (in the rock Fuzzy Smith) were detected. At Meridiani, jarosite, metallic iron in meteoritic samples (kamacite), troilite, and an unassigned ferric phase were detected. Jarosite and goethite are of special interest, as these minerals are indicators for water activity. In this abstract, an overview of Moessbauer results will be given, with a focus on data obtained since the last martian winter. The MER mission has proven that Moessbauer spectroscopy is a valuable tool for the in situ exploration of extraterrestrial bodies and for the study of Febearing samples. The experience gained through the MER mission makes MIMOS II a obvious choice for future missions to Mars and other targets. Currently, MIMOS II is on the scientific payload of two approved future missions: Phobos Grunt (Russian Space Agency; 2009) and ExoMars (European Space Agency; 2013).
MIMO FSO communication using subcarrier intensity modulation over double generalized gamma fading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, Xiang; Yao, Mingwu; Wang, Xiaoyang
2017-01-01
Atmospheric turbulence-induced fading is known to have a serious detrimental effect on the performance of free-space optical (FSO) communication. The involvement of multiple lasers and photodetectors in FSO systems offers an effective way to overcome fading. Very recently, a new generic fading model, called double-generalized gamma (double GG), is developed for accurately describing irradiance fading over a wide range of turbulence conditions. Therefore, for a general and exact study of the multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) FSO system, the double GG fading model is adopted in this paper. We investigate the MIMO FSO systems using subcarrier intensity modulation. Two typical transmit diversity schemes, repetition code (RC) and orthogonal space-time block code (OSTBC), are considered. We first propose a new power series expression for the probability density function of the double GG fading. Then we derive the average error rate expressions for both schemes in terms of double power series. The truncated forms of the derived power series enable the rapid and accurate numerical computation of the error rates. Furthermore, we present the asymptotic error rate analyses at high electrical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for both schemes. Closed-form diversity order and coding gain for both schemes are also obtained. Our numerical results, verified by simulation, confirm that RC outperforms OSTBC for MIMO FSO systems with subcarrier intensity modulation in double GG fading. The asymptotic coding gain of the RC scheme over the OSTBC scheme is analytically quantified for varying degrees of the fading strength.
Capon-based single-snapshot DOA estimation in monostatic MIMO radar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanien, Aboulnasr; Amin, Moeness G.; Zhang, Yimin D.; Ahmad, Fauzia
2015-05-01
We consider the problem of single snapshot direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of multiple targets in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. When only a single snapshot is used, the sample covariance matrix of the data becomes non-invertible and, therefore, does not permit application of Capon-based DOA estimation techniques. On the other hand, low-resolution techniques, such as the conventional beamformer, suffer from biased estimation and fail to resolve closely spaced sources. In this paper, we propose a new Capon-based method for DOA estimation in MIMO radar using a single radar pulse. Assuming that the angular locations of the sources are known a priori to be located within a certain spatial sector, we employ multiple transmit beams to focus the transmit energy of multiple orthogonal waveforms within the desired sector. The transmit weight vectors are carefully designed such that they have the same transmit power distribution pattern. As compared to the standard MIMO radar, the proposed approach enables transmitting an arbitrary number of orthogonal waveforms. By using matched-filtering at the receiver, the data associated with each beam is extracted yielding a virtual data snapshot. The total number of virtual snapshots is equal to the number of transmit beams. By choosing the number of transmit beams to be larger than the number of receive elements, it becomes possible to form a full-rank sample covariance matrix. The Capon beamformer is then applied to estimate the DOAs of the targets of interest. The proposed method is shown to have improved DOA estimation performance as compared to conventional single-snapshot DOA estimation methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Blumers, M; Bernhardt, B.; Graff, T.
2014-01-01
The 2010 and 2012 In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test (ISRU) [1] on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawai'i was coordinated by the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology (NORCAT) in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through the PISCES program. Several instruments were tested as reference candidates for future analogue testing at the new field test site at the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawai'i. The fine-grained, volcanic nature of the material is a suitable lunar and martian analogue, and can be used to test excavation, site preparation, and resource utilization techniques. The 2010 location Pu'u Hiwahine, a cinder cone located below the summit of Mauna Kea (19deg45'39.29" N, 155deg28'14.56" W) at an elevation of 2800 m, provides a large number of slopes, rock avalanches, etc. to perform mobility tests, site preparation or resource prospecting. Besides hardware testing of technologies and systems related to resource identification, also in situ science measurements played a significant role in integration of ISRU and science instruments. For the advanced Mössbauer instrument MIMOS IIA, the new detector technologies and electronic components increase sensitivity and performance significantly. In combination with the high energy resolution of the SDD it is possible to perform Xray fluorescence analysis simultaneously to Mössbauer spectroscopy. In addition to the Fe-mineralogy, information on the sample's elemental composition will be gathered. The 2010 and 2012 field campaigns demonstrated that in-situ Mössbauer spectroscopy is an effective tool for both science and feedstock exploration and process monitoring. Engineering tests showed that a compact nickel metal hydride battery provided sufficient power for over 12 hr of continuous operation for the MIMOS instruments.
Laguerre-Volterra model and architecture for MIMO system identification and output prediction.
Li, Will X Y; Xin, Yao; Chan, Rosa H M; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W; Cheung, Ray C C
2014-01-01
A generalized mathematical model is proposed for behaviors prediction of biological causal systems with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO). The system properties are represented by a set of model parameters, which can be derived with random input stimuli probing it. The system calculates predicted outputs based on the estimated parameters and its novel inputs. An efficient hardware architecture is established for this mathematical model and its circuitry has been implemented using the field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This architecture is scalable and its functionality has been validated by using experimental data gathered from real-world measurement.
Single MIMO-OTA and single-grounded-capacitor-based first-order allpass filter design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Psychalinos, C.; Pal, K.; Khanday, F. A.
2014-12-01
A novel first-order voltage-mode allpass (AP) filter employing a single multiple-input-multiple-output operational-transconductance-amplifier (MIMO-OTA) and a single grounded capacitor is introduced in this article. Compared to the corresponding already published topologies, the offered benefits are as follows: it employs minimum number of active and passive components; the only capacitor is grounded, which is good for a monolithic integration of an IC; and the absence of any matching condition for its realisability. The performance of the proposed circuit has been evaluated through simulation results, utilising the analogue design environment of Cadence software.
Tracking and disturbance rejection of MIMO nonlinear systems with PI controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desoer, C. A.; Lin, C.-A.
1985-01-01
The tracking and disturbance rejection of a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with linear proportional plus integral (PI) compensator is studied. Roughly speaking, it is shown that if the given nonlinear plant is exponentially stable and has a strictly increasing dc steady-state I/O map, then a simple PI compensator can be used to yield a stable unity-feedback closed-loop system which asymptotically tracks reference inputs that tend to constant vectors and asymptotically rejects disturbances that tend to constant vectors.
Tracking and disturbance rejection of MIMO nonlinear systems with PI controller
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Desoer, C. A.; Lin, C. A.
1985-01-01
The tracking and disturbance rejection of a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with a linear proportional plus integral (PI) compensator is studied. Roughly speaking, it is shown that if the given nonlinear plant is exponentially stable and has a strictly increasing dc steady-state I/O map, then a simple PI compensator can be used to yield a stable unity-feedback closed-loop system which asymptotically tracks reference inputs that tend to constant vectors and asymptotically rejects disturbances that tend to constant vectors.
Modeling the Acoustic Channel for Simulation Studies
2012-09-30
including spatial correlations, and temporal variability over intervals of time pertaining not only to communication systems but also to networking...considered (including SNR, BER, channel impulse response, spatial correlation coefficients, amount of redundancy) as well as higher-layer metrics (including...communications systems and networking protocols, we have investigated the spatial relationship among simultaneous channel quality metrics collected during
Optical Communications Channel Combiner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quirk, Kevin J.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Nguyen, Huy
2012-01-01
NASA has identified deep-space optical communications links as an integral part of a unified space communication network in order to provide data rates in excess of 100 Mb/s. The distances and limited power inherent in a deep-space optical downlink necessitate the use of photon-counting detectors and a power-efficient modulation such as pulse position modulation (PPM). For the output of each photodetector, whether from a separate telescope or a portion of the detection area, a communication receiver estimates a log-likelihood ratio for each PPM slot. To realize the full effective aperture of these receivers, their outputs must be combined prior to information decoding. A channel combiner was developed to synchronize the log-likelihood ratio (LLR) sequences of multiple receivers, and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for information decoding. The channel combiner synchronizes the LLR sequences of up to three receivers and then combines these into a single LLR sequence for output. The channel combiner has three channel inputs, each of which takes as input a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The cross-correlation between the channels LLR time series are calculated and used to synchronize the sequences prior to combining. The output of the channel combiner is a sequence of four-bit LLRs for each PPM slot in a codeword via a XAUI 10 Gb/s quad optical fiber interface. The unit is controlled through a 1 Gb/s Ethernet UDP/IP interface. A deep-space optical communication link has not yet been demonstrated. This ground-station channel combiner was developed to demonstrate this capability and is unique in its ability to process such a signal.
O’Rourke, Brian
2009-01-01
In work spanning more than a century, mitochondria have been recognized for their multifunctional roles in metabolism, energy transduction, ion transport, inheritance, signaling, and cell death. Foremost among these tasks is the continuous production of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation, which requires a large electrochemical driving force for protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. This process requires a membrane with relatively low permeability to ions to minimize energy dissipation. However, a wealth of evidence now indicates that both selective and nonselective ion channels are present in the mitochondrial inner membrane, along with several known channels on the outer membrane. Some of these channels are active under physiological conditions, and others may be activated under pathophysiological conditions to act as the major determinants of cell life and death. This review summarizes research on mitochondrial ion channels and efforts to identify their molecular correlates. Except in a few cases, our understanding of the structure of mitochondrial ion channels is limited, indicating the need for focused discovery in this area. PMID:17059356
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaddad, Redhwan Q.; Mohammad, Abu Bakar; Al-Hetar, Abdulaziz M.; Al-Gailani, Samir A.
2013-04-01
The fiber-wireless (FiWi) access network is a powerful hybrid architecture of optical backhaul and wireless front-end to support high data rates and throughput with minimal time delay. By using radio over fiber (ROF) technique, the optical fiber is well adapted to propagate multiple wireless services having different carrier frequencies. However, multiple wireless signals which have the same carrier frequency cannot propagate over a single optical fiber on the same wavelength, such as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) signals. A novel optical single-sideband frequency translation technique is designed and simulated to solve this problem. 240 Mb/s 802.11n MIMO signals are proposed to transport over FiWi system using the proposed approach at 2.4 GHz and 5.0 GHz carrier frequencies. The crosstalk between MIMO signals with the same carrier frequency is excluded, since each MIMO signal is carried on a specific optical wavelength. Error vector magnitude (EVM) values of -29.83 dB (for 2.4 GHz) and -28.41 dB (for 5.0 GHz) have been achieved for bit error rate (BER) 10-5 in the proposed FiWi system.
Secrecy and Energy Efficiency in Massive MIMO Aided Heterogeneous C-RAN: A New Look at Interference
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lifeng; Wong, Kai-Kit; Elkashlan, Maged; Nallanathan, Arumugam; Lambotharan, Sangarapillai
2016-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the potential benefits of the massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) enabled heterogeneous cloud radio access network (C-RAN) in terms of the secrecy and energy efficiency (EE). In this network, both remote radio heads (RRHs) and massive MIMO macrocell base stations (BSs) are deployed and soft fractional frequency reuse (S-FFR) is adopted to mitigate the inter-tier interference. We first examine the physical layer security by deriving the area ergodic secrecy rate and secrecy outage probability. Our results reveal that the use of massive MIMO and C-RAN can greatly improve the secrecy performance. For C-RAN, a large number of RRHs achieves high area ergodic secrecy rate and low secrecy outage probability, due to its powerful interference management. We find that for massive MIMO aided macrocells, having more antennas and serving more users improves secrecy performance. Then we derive the EE of the heterogeneous C-RAN, illustrating that increasing the number of RRHs significantly enhances the network EE. Furthermore, it is indicated that allocating more radio resources to the RRHs can linearly increase the EE of RRH tier and improve the network EE without affecting the EE of the macrocells.
Polarization multiplexing of two MIMO RoF signals and one baseband signal over a single wavelength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elmagzoub, M. A.; Bakar Mohammad, Abu; Shaddad, Redhwan Q.; Al-Gailani, Samir A.
2016-01-01
Next-generation (NG) access networks require simultaneous provision of wired and wireless services and high data rates to meet the large demands of mobility and multiple services. In this paper, we propose a novel spectral efficient radio over fiber (RoF) scheme to simultaneously provide two spatially multiplexed multiple input multiple output (MIMO) wireless signals with a baseband (BB) wired signal in one wavelength using a centralized light source. The proposed scheme can be applicable to wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs). The BB signal is modulated at a low extinction ratio (ER). The modulated light is re-used to modulate two MIMO signals that have the same carrier frequency that is combined optically using polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM). The data rate for each MIMO stream was 1.25 Gb/s, and the data rate was 2.5 Gb/s for the BB signal. Error free performance with a bit error rate (BER) of 10-9 was achieved for all three signals after 20 km and 60 km through single mode fiber (SMF) for 16-QAM and 4-QAM for the MIMO signals, respectively.
Link Correlation Based Transmit Sector Antenna Selection for Alamouti Coded OFDM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Chang-Jun
In MIMO systems, the deployment of a multiple antenna technique can enhance the system performance. However, since the cost of RF transmitters is much higher than that of antennas, there is growing interest in techniques that use a larger number of antennas than the number of RF transmitters. These methods rely on selecting the optimal transmitter antennas and connecting them to the respective. In this case, feedback information (FBI) is required to select the optimal transmitter antenna elements. Since FBI is control overhead, the rate of the feedback is limited. This motivates the study of limited feedback techniques where only partial or quantized information from the receiver is conveyed back to the transmitter. However, in MIMO/OFDM systems, it is difficult to develop an effective FBI quantization method for choosing the space-time, space-frequency, or space-time-frequency processing due to the numerous subchannels. Moreover, MIMO/OFDM systems require antenna separation of 5 ∼ 10 wavelengths to keep the correlation coefficient below 0.7 to achieve a diversity gain. In this case, the base station requires a large space to set up multiple antennas. To reduce these problems, in this paper, we propose the link correlation based transmit sector antenna selection for Alamouti coded OFDM without FBI.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
The cloud covered earthscape of Northern Europe demonstrates the difficulty of photographing this elusive subject from space. The English Channel (51.0N, 1.5E) separating the British Islands from Europe is in the center of the scene. The white cliffs of Dover on the SE coast of the UK, the Thames River estuary and a partial view of the city of London can be seen on the north side of the Channel while the Normandy coast of France is to the south.
Precoding Method Interference Management for Quasi-EVD Channel
Song, Wei; Song, Sang Seob
2014-01-01
The Cholesky decomposition-block diagonalization (CD-BD) interference alignment (IA) for a multiuser multiple input multiple output (MU-MIMO) relay system is proposed, which designs precoders for the multiple access channel (MAC) by employing the singular value decomposition (SVD) as well as the mean square error (MSE) detector for the broadcast Hermitian channel (BHC) taken advantage of in our design. Also, in our proposed CD-BD IA algorithm, the relaying function is made use to restructure the quasieigenvalue decomposition (quasi-EVD) equivalent channel. This approach used for the design of BD precoding matrix can significantly reduce the computational complexity and proposed algorithm can address several optimization criteria, which is achieved by designing the precoding matrices in two steps. In the first step, we use Cholesky decomposition to maximize the sum-of-rate (SR) with the minimum mean square error (MMSE) detection. In the next step, we optimize the system BER performance with the overlap of the row spaces spanned by the effective channel matrices of different users. By iterating the closed form of the solution, we are able not only to maximize the achievable sum-of-rate (ASR), but also to minimize the BER performance at a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region. PMID:25258731
Antenna allocation in MIMO radar with widely separated antennas for multi-target detection.
Gao, Hao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Chunxiao; Zhang, Xudong
2014-10-27
In this paper, we explore a new resource called multi-target diversity to optimize the performance of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar with widely separated antennas for detecting multiple targets. In particular, we allocate antennas of the MIMO radar to probe different targets simultaneously in a flexible manner based on the performance metric of relative entropy. Two antenna allocation schemes are proposed. In the first scheme, each antenna is allocated to illuminate a proper target over the entire illumination time, so that the detection performance of each target is guaranteed. The problem is formulated as a minimum makespan scheduling problem in the combinatorial optimization framework. Antenna allocation is implemented through a branch-and-bound algorithm and an enhanced factor 2 algorithm. In the second scheme, called antenna-time allocation, each antenna is allocated to illuminate different targets with different illumination time. Both antenna allocation and time allocation are optimized based on illumination probabilities. Over a large range of transmitted power, target fluctuations and target numbers, both of the proposed antenna allocation schemes outperform the scheme without antenna allocation. Moreover, the antenna-time allocation scheme achieves a more robust detection performance than branch-and-bound algorithm and the enhanced factor 2 algorithm when the target number changes.
A Study of Advanced Modern Control Techniques Applied to a Twin Rotor MIMO System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Andrew E.
The twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) is a helicopter-like system that is restricted to two degrees of freedom, pitch and yaw. It is a complicated nonlinear, coupled, MIMO system used for the verification of control methods and observers. There have been many methods successfully applied to the system ranging from simple proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers, to machine learning algorithms, nonlinear control methods and other less explored methods like deadbeat control and various optimal methodologies. This thesis details the design procedure for two different control methods. The first is a suboptimal tracking controller using a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) with integral action. The second is the design of several adaptive sliding mode controller to provide robust tracking control of the TRMS. Once the design is complete the controllers are tested in simulation and their performance is compared against a PID controller experimentally. The performance of the controllers are also compared against other controllers in the literature. The ability of the sliding mode controllers (SMC) to suppress chattering is also be explored.
Real-Time Spatio-Temporal Twice Whitening for MIMO Energy Detector
Humble, Travis S; Mitra, Pramita; Barhen, Jacob; Schleck, Bryan
2010-01-01
While many techniques exist for local spectrum sensing of a primary user, each represents a computationally demanding task to secondary user receivers. In software-defined radio, computational complexity lengthens the time for a cognitive radio to recognize changes in the transmission environment. This complexity is even more significant for spatially multiplexed receivers, e.g., in SIMO and MIMO, where the spatio-temporal data sets grow in size with the number of antennae. Limits on power and space for the processor hardware further constrain SDR performance. In this report, we discuss improvements in spatio-temporal twice whitening (STTW) for real-time local spectrum sensing by demonstrating a form of STTW well suited for MIMO environments. We implement STTW on the Coherent Logix hx3100 processor, a multicore processor intended for low-power, high-throughput software-defined signal processing. These results demonstrate how coupling the novel capabilities of emerging multicore processors with algorithmic advances can enable real-time, software-defined processing of large spatio-temporal data sets.
LEA Detection and Tracking Method for Color-Independent Visual-MIMO
Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Ki-Doo
2016-01-01
Communication performance in the color-independent visual-multiple input multiple output (visual-MIMO) technique is deteriorated by light emitting array (LEA) detection and tracking errors in the received image because the image sensor included in the camera must be used as the receiver in the visual-MIMO system. In this paper, in order to improve detection reliability, we first set up the color-space-based region of interest (ROI) in which an LEA is likely to be placed, and then use the Harris corner detection method. Next, we use Kalman filtering for robust tracking by predicting the most probable location of the LEA when the relative position between the camera and the LEA varies. In the last step of our proposed method, the perspective projection is used to correct the distorted image, which can improve the symbol decision accuracy. Finally, through numerical simulation, we show the possibility of robust detection and tracking of the LEA, which results in a symbol error rate (SER) performance improvement. PMID:27384563
FPGA design of box-constrained DCD-based detector for large-scale MIMO systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quan, Zhi; Zakharov, Yuriy
2016-07-01
This paper proposes an improved architecture of a low-complexity box-constrained multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detector which is based on the dichotomous coordinate descent (DCD) algorithm. This architecture allows a simple field-programmable gate-array implementation of the detector and explores the parallel implementation to reduce the number of clock cycles required in the design. We investigate the proposed design and compare its detection performance, hardware resources, and convergence speed with that of known designs. It is shown that the proposed design provides improvement in the detection performance compared to the minimum mean square error (MMSE) detector. The numerical results also show that the proposed architecture requires as few as 184, 210, and 223 slices for 16 × 16, 64 × 64, and 128 × 128 MIMO systems, respectively, which is significantly less than that required by known designs of the MMSE detector. By comparing the serial and parallel implementations of the box-constrained detector, we show that the parallel implementation requires 15% fewer clock cycles.
RBFNDOB-based neural network inverse control for non-minimum phase MIMO system with disturbances.
Li, Juan; Li, Shihua; Chen, Xisong; Yang, Jun
2014-07-01
An adaptive control strategy combining neural network inverse controller (NNIC) with RBFN disturbance observer (RBFNDOB) is developed for a multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) system with non-minimum phase, internal and external disturbances in this paper. Since the inverse model of system is unstable due to the non-minimum phase, a pseudo-plant is constructed, then the RBFN is used to identify the inverse model of pseudo-plant, which can track the parameter variations of system. By copying the structure and parameters of the identifier, the NNIC is obtained. Cascading the NNIC with the original plant, the MIMO system can be decoupled and linearized into independent SISO systems. For the independent decoupled system, the RBFNDOB employs a RBFN to observe the external disturbances and this estimate value is used as a feed-forward compensation term in controller. The case study on ball mill grinding circuit is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by simulation results and comparisons.
MIMO Radar System for Respiratory Monitoring Using Tx and Rx Modulation with M-Sequence Codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miwa, Takashi; Ogiwara, Shun; Yamakoshi, Yoshiki
The importance of respiratory monitoring systems during sleep have increased due to early diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the home. This paper presents a simple respiratory monitoring system suitable for home use having 3D ranging of targets. The range resolution and azimuth resolution are obtained by a stepped frequency transmitting signal and MIMO arrays with preferred pair M-sequence codes doubly modulating in transmission and reception, respectively. Due to the use of these codes, Gold sequence codes corresponding to all the antenna combinations are equivalently modulated in receiver. The signal to interchannel interference ratio of the reconstructed image is evaluated by numerical simulations. The results of experiments on a developed prototype 3D-MIMO radar system show that this system can extract only the motion of respiration of a human subject 2m apart from a metallic rotatable reflector. Moreover, it is found that this system can successfully measure the respiration information of sleeping human subjects for 96.6 percent of the whole measurement time except for instances of large posture change.
Efficient List Extension Algorithm Using Multiple Detection Orders for Soft-Output MIMO Detection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kilhwan; Jung, Yunho; Lee, Seongjoo; Kim, Jaeseok
This paper proposes an efficient list extension algorithm for soft-output multiple-input-multiple-output (soft-MIMO) detection. This algorithm extends the list of candidate vectors based on the vector selected by initial detection, in order to solve the empty-set problem, while reducing the number of additional vectors. The additional vectors are obtained from multiple detection orders, from which high-quality soft-output can be generated. Furthermore, a method to reduce the complexity of the determination of the multiple detection orders is described. From simulation results for a 4×4 system with 16- and 64-quadrature amplitude modulations (QAM) and rate 1/2 and 5/6 duo-binary convolutional turbo code (CTC), the soft-MIMO detection to which the proposed list extension was applied showed a performance degradation of less than 0.5dB at bit error rate (BER) of 10-5, compared to that of the soft-output maximum-likelihood detection (soft-MLD) for all code rate and modulation pairs, while the complexity of the proposed list extension was approximately 38% and 17% of that of an existing algorithm with similar performance in a 4×4 system using 16- and 64-QAM, respectively.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, Victor R.
1988-01-01
The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosion, and dendritic channel networks, are examined. The topography of the Channeled Scabland region of the northwestern U.S. is described and compared to the Martian channels. The importance of water in the evolution of the channel systems is considered.
Sodium channel auxiliary subunits.
Tseng, Tsai-Tien; McMahon, Allison M; Johnson, Victoria T; Mangubat, Erwin Z; Zahm, Robert J; Pacold, Mary E; Jakobsson, Eric
2007-01-01
Voltage-gated ion channels are well known for their functional roles in excitable tissues. Excitable tissues rely on voltage-gated ion channels and their auxiliary subunits to achieve concerted electrical activity in living cells. Auxiliary subunits are also known to provide functional diversity towards the transport and biogenesis properties of the principal subunits. Recent interests in pharmacological properties of these auxiliary subunits have prompted significant amounts of efforts in understanding their physiological roles. Some auxiliary subunits can potentially serve as drug targets for novel analgesics. Three families of sodium channel auxiliary subunits are described here: beta1 and beta3, beta2 and beta4, and temperature-induced paralytic E (TipE). While sodium channel beta-subunits are encoded in many animal genomes, TipE has only been found exclusively in insects. In this review, we present phylogenetic analyses, discuss potential evolutionary origins and functional data available for each of these subunits. For each family, we also correlate the functional specificity with the history of evolution for the individual auxiliary subunits.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2007-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1
Translucent carbon dioxide ice covers the polar regions of Mars seasonally. It is warmed and sublimates (evaporates) from below, and escaping gas carves a numerous channel morphologies.
In this example (figure 1) the channels form a 'starburst' pattern, radiating out into feathery extensions. The center of the pattern is being buried with dust and new darker dust fans ring the outer edges. This may be an example of an expanding morphology, where new channels are formed as the older ones fill and are no longer efficiently channeling the subliming gas out.
Observation Geometry Image PSP_003443_0980 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on 21-Apr-2007. The complete image is centered at -81.8 degrees latitude, 76.2 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 247.1 km (154.4 miles). At this distance the image scale is 24.7 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) so objects 74 cm across are resolved. The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 04:52 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 71 degrees, thus the sun was about 19 degrees above the horizon. At a solar longitude of 223.4 degrees, the season on Mars is Northern Autumn.
In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Kho, Andy; Neff, Joseph D; Leung, Daniel; Liu, Norman; Meadows, Brian K; Gordon, Frank; Bulsara, Adi R; Palacios, Antonio
2012-12-01
The nonlinear channelizer is an integrated circuit made up of large parallel arrays of analog nonlinear oscillators, which, collectively, serve as a broad-spectrum analyzer with the ability to receive complex signals containing multiple frequencies and instantaneously lock-on or respond to a received signal in a few oscillation cycles. The concept is based on the generation of internal oscillations in coupled nonlinear systems that do not normally oscillate in the absence of coupling. In particular, the system consists of unidirectionally coupled bistable nonlinear elements, where the frequency and other dynamical characteristics of the emergent oscillations depend on the system's internal parameters and the received signal. These properties and characteristics are being employed to develop a system capable of locking onto any arbitrary input radio frequency signal. The system is efficient by eliminating the need for high-speed, high-accuracy analog-to-digital converters, and compact by making use of nonlinear coupled systems to act as a channelizer (frequency binning and channeling), a low noise amplifier, and a frequency down-converter in a single step which, in turn, will reduce the size, weight, power, and cost of the entire communication system. This paper covers the theory, numerical simulations, and some engineering details that validate the concept at the frequency band of 1-4 GHz.
2003-09-01
7 1 . Fixed Channel Allocation (FCA) ........................................................7 2. Dynamic Channel ...19 7. CSMA/CD-Based Multiple Network Lines .....................................20 8. Hybrid Channel Allocation in Wireless Networks...28 1 . Channel Allocation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fedosov, V. P.; Lomakina, A. V.; Legin, A. A.; Voronin, V. V.
2016-05-01
In this paper the system of wireless transmission of data based on the use an adaptive algorithm for processing spatial-time signals using antenna arrays is presented. In the transmission of data in a multipath propagation of signals have been used such technologies as a MIMO (Multiple input-Multiple output) and OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) to solve the problem of increasing the maximum speed of data transfer and the low probability of errors. The adaptation process is based on the formation of the directional pattern equivalent to the amplitude antenna array in the signal arrival direction with the highest capacity on one of propagation paths in the channel. The simulation results showed that the use of an adaptive algorithm on the reception side can significantly reduce the probability of bit errors, thus to increase throughput in an underwater acoustic data channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyatani, Tetsuhiko
This letter describes a new QR-decomposition maximum likelihood detector that is combined with frequency-domain equalization for single-carrier transmission based multiple-input multiple-output systems. By utilizing the equalized substreams to adjust the frequency selectivity in corresponding substreams in subsequent stages, the packet error rate performances of the proposed detector is superior to that of the minimum mean squared error receiver by a factor of the receive antenna diversity gain.
Hashim, H A; Abido, M A
2015-01-01
This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO) system (TRMS) considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and differential evolution (DE). In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD) controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed.
Robust adaptive tracking control of MIMO nonlinear systems in the presence of actuator hysteresis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Guiyuan; Ou, Linlin; Zhang, Weidong
2016-07-01
Adaptive tracking control of a class of MIMO nonlinear system preceded by unknown hysteresis is investigated. Based on dynamic surface control, an adaptive robust control law is developed and compensators are designed to mitigate the influences of both the unknown bounded external uncertainties and the unknown Prandtl-Islinskii hysteresis. By adopting the low-pass filters, the explosion of complexity caused by tedious computation of the time derivatives of the virtual control laws is overcome. With the proposed control scheme, the closed-loop system is proved to be semi-globally ultimately bounded by the Lyapunov stability theory, and the output of the controlled system can track the desired trajectories with an arbitrarily small error. Finally, numerical simulations are given to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Hashim, H. A.; Abido, M. A.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a comparative study of fuzzy controller design for the twin rotor multi-input multioutput (MIMO) system (TRMS) considering most promising evolutionary techniques. These are gravitational search algorithm (GSA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), artificial bee colony (ABC), and differential evolution (DE). In this study, the gains of four fuzzy proportional derivative (PD) controllers for TRMS have been optimized using the considered techniques. The optimization techniques are developed to identify the optimal control parameters for system stability enhancement, to cancel high nonlinearities in the model, to reduce the coupling effect, and to drive TRMS pitch and yaw angles into the desired tracking trajectory efficiently and accurately. The most effective technique in terms of system response due to different disturbances has been investigated. In this work, it is observed that GSA is the most effective technique in terms of solution quality and convergence speed. PMID:25960738
MIMO model of an interacting series process for Robust MPC via System Identification.
Wibowo, Tri Chandra S; Saad, Nordin
2010-07-01
This paper discusses the empirical modeling using system identification technique with a focus on an interacting series process. The study is carried out experimentally using a gaseous pilot plant as the process, in which the dynamic of such a plant exhibits the typical dynamic of an interacting series process. Three practical approaches are investigated and their performances are evaluated. The models developed are also examined in real-time implementation of a linear model predictive control. The selected model is able to reproduce the main dynamic characteristics of the plant in open-loop and produces zero steady-state errors in closed-loop control system. Several issues concerning the identification process and the construction of a MIMO state space model for a series interacting process are deliberated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wells, S. R.; Hess, R. A.
2002-01-01
A frequency-domain procedure for the design of sliding mode controllers for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems is presented. The methodology accommodates the effects of parasitic dynamics such as those introduced by unmodeled actuators through the introduction of multiple asymptotic observers and model reference hedging. The design procedure includes a frequency domain approach to specify the sliding manifold, the observer eigenvalues, and the hedge model. The procedure is applied to the development of a flight control system for a linear model of the Innovative Control Effector (ICE) fighter aircraft. The stability and performance robustness of the resulting design is demonstrated through the introduction of significant degradation in the control effector actuators and variation in vehicle dynamics.
Sparsity-Aware DOA Estimation Scheme for Noncircular Source in MIMO Radar
Wang, Xianpeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Xin; Liu, Qi; Liu, Jing
2016-01-01
In this paper, a novel sparsity-aware direction of arrival (DOA) estimation scheme for a noncircular source is proposed in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. In the proposed method, the reduced-dimensional transformation technique is adopted to eliminate the redundant elements. Then, exploiting the noncircularity of signals, a joint sparsity-aware scheme based on the reweighted l1 norm penalty is formulated for DOA estimation, in which the diagonal elements of the weight matrix are the coefficients of the noncircular MUSIC-like (NC MUSIC-like) spectrum. Compared to the existing l1 norm penalty-based methods, the proposed scheme provides higher angular resolution and better DOA estimation performance. Results from numerical experiments are used to show the effectiveness of our proposed method. PMID:27089345
Adaptive Predictor-Based Output Feedback Control for a Class of Unknown MIMO Linear Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Chuong Hoang; Leonessa, Alexander
2017-02-01
In this paper, the problem of characterizing adaptive output feedback control laws for a general class of unknown MIMO linear systems is considered. Specifically, the presented control approach relies on three components, i.e., a predictor, a reference model and a controller. The predictor is designed to predict the system's output with arbitrary accuracy, for any admissible control input. Subsequently, a full state feedback control law is designed to control the predictor output to approach the reference system, while the reference system tracks the desired trajectory. Ultimately, the control objective of driving the actual system output to track the desired trajectories is achieved by showing that the system output, the predictor output and the reference system trajectories all converge to each other.
Hashemi, Mahnaz; Ghaisari, Jafar; Askari, Javad
2015-07-01
This paper investigates an adaptive controller for a class of Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with unknown parameters, bounded time delays and in the presence of unknown time varying actuator failures. The type of considered actuator failure is one in which some inputs may be stuck at some time varying values where the values, times and patterns of the failures are unknown. The proposed approach is constructed based on a backstepping design method. The boundedness of all the closed-loop signals is guaranteed and the tracking errors are proved to converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The proposed approach is employed for a double inverted pendulums benchmark and a chemical reactor system. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.
An energy efficient cooperative hierarchical MIMO clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks.
Nasim, Mehwish; Qaisar, Saad; Lee, Sungyoung
2012-01-01
In this work, we present an energy efficient hierarchical cooperative clustering scheme for wireless sensor networks. Communication cost is a crucial factor in depleting the energy of sensor nodes. In the proposed scheme, nodes cooperate to form clusters at each level of network hierarchy ensuring maximal coverage and minimal energy expenditure with relatively uniform distribution of load within the network. Performance is enhanced by cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication ensuring energy efficiency for WSN deployments over large geographical areas. We test our scheme using TOSSIM and compare the proposed scheme with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) clustering scheme and traditional multihop Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) routing approach. Performance is evaluated on the basis of number of clusters, number of hops, energy consumption and network lifetime. Experimental results show significant energy conservation and increase in network lifetime as compared to existing schemes.
Robust constrained waveform design for MIMO radar with uncertain steering vectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xianxiang; Cui, Guolong; Piezzo, Marco; Iommelli, Salvatore; Kong, Lingjiang
2017-01-01
This paper considers the robust waveform design of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar to enhance targets detection in the presence of signal-dependent interferences assuming the knowledge of steering vectors is imprecise. Specifically, resorting to semidefinite programming (SDP)-related technique, we first maximize the worst-case signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) over uncertain region to optimize waveform covariance matrix forcing a uniform elemental power requirement. Then, based on least square (LS) approach, we devise the waveform accounting for constant modulus and similarity constraints by the obtained waveform covariance matrix using cyclic algorithm (CA). Finally, we assess the effectiveness of the proposed technique through numerical simulations in terms of non-uniform point-like clutter and uniform clutter.
High-resolution imaging using a wideband MIMO radar system with two distributed arrays.
Wang, Dang-wei; Ma, Xiao-yan; Chen, A-Lei; Su, Yi
2010-05-01
Imaging a fast maneuvering target has been an active research area in past decades. Usually, an array antenna with multiple elements is implemented to avoid the motion compensations involved in the inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. Nevertheless, there is a price dilemma due to the high level of hardware complexity compared to complex algorithm implemented in the ISAR imaging system with only one antenna. In this paper, a wideband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system with two distributed arrays is proposed to reduce the hardware complexity of the system. Furthermore, the system model, the equivalent array production method and the imaging procedure are presented. As compared with the classical real aperture radar (RAR) imaging system, there is a very important contribution in our method that the lower hardware complexity can be involved in the imaging system since many additive virtual array elements can be obtained. Numerical simulations are provided for testing our system and imaging method.
Novel angle estimation for bistatic MIMO radar using an improved MUSIC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xiaofei; Chen, Han
2014-09-01
In this article, we study the problem of angle estimation for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar and propose an improved multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm for joint direction of departure (DOD) and direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. The proposed algorithm obtains initial estimations of angles obtained from the signal subspace and uses the local one-dimensional peak searches to achieve the joint estimations of DOD and DOA. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm, and is almost the same as that of two-dimensional MUSIC. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can be suitable for irregular array geometry, obtain automatically paired DOD and DOA estimations, and avoid two-dimensional peak searching. The simulation results verify the effectiveness and improvement of the algorithm.
Synchronisation of high-order MIMO nonlinear systems using distributed neuro-adaptive control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghiti Sarand, Hassan; Karimi, Bahram
2016-07-01
This paper addresses synchronisation problem of high-order multi-input/multi-output (MIMO) multi-agent systems. Each agent has unknown nonlinear dynamics and is subject to uncertain external disturbances. The agents must follow a reference trajectory. An adaptive distributed controller based on relative information of neighbours of each agent is designed to solve the problem for any undirected connected communication topology. A radial basis function neural network is used to represent the controller's unknown structure. Lyapunov stability analysis is employed to guarantee stability of the overall system. By the theoretical analysis, the closed-loop control system is shown to be uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, simulations are provided to show effectiveness of the proposed control method against uncertainty and disturbances.
A new approach for inversion of large random matrices in massive MIMO systems.
Anjum, Muhammad Ali Raza; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor
2014-01-01
We report a novel approach for inversion of large random matrices in massive Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. It is based on the concept of inverse vectors in which an inverse vector is defined for each column of the principal matrix. Such an inverse vector has to satisfy two constraints. Firstly, it has to be in the null-space of all the remaining columns. We call it the null-space problem. Secondly, it has to form a projection of value equal to one in the direction of selected column. We term it as the normalization problem. The process essentially decomposes the inversion problem and distributes it over columns. Each column can be thought of as a node in the network or a particle in a swarm seeking its own solution, the inverse vector, which lightens the computational load on it. Another benefit of this approach is its applicability to all three cases pertaining to a linear system: the fully-determined, the over-determined, and the under-determined case. It eliminates the need of forming the generalized inverse for the last two cases by providing a new way to solve the least squares problem and the Moore and Penrose's pseudoinverse problem. The approach makes no assumption regarding the size, structure or sparsity of the matrix. This makes it fully applicable to much in vogue large random matrices arising in massive MIMO systems. Also, the null-space problem opens the door for a plethora of methods available in literature for null-space computation to enter the realm of matrix inversion. There is even a flexibility of finding an exact or approximate inverse depending on the null-space method employed. We employ the Householder's null-space method for exact solution and present a complete exposition of the new approach. A detailed comparison with well-established matrix inversion methods in literature is also given.
A New Approach for Inversion of Large Random Matrices in Massive MIMO Systems
Anjum, Muhammad Ali Raza; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor
2014-01-01
We report a novel approach for inversion of large random matrices in massive Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. It is based on the concept of inverse vectors in which an inverse vector is defined for each column of the principal matrix. Such an inverse vector has to satisfy two constraints. Firstly, it has to be in the null-space of all the remaining columns. We call it the null-space problem. Secondly, it has to form a projection of value equal to one in the direction of selected column. We term it as the normalization problem. The process essentially decomposes the inversion problem and distributes it over columns. Each column can be thought of as a node in the network or a particle in a swarm seeking its own solution, the inverse vector, which lightens the computational load on it. Another benefit of this approach is its applicability to all three cases pertaining to a linear system: the fully-determined, the over-determined, and the under-determined case. It eliminates the need of forming the generalized inverse for the last two cases by providing a new way to solve the least squares problem and the Moore and Penrose's pseudoinverse problem. The approach makes no assumption regarding the size, structure or sparsity of the matrix. This makes it fully applicable to much in vogue large random matrices arising in massive MIMO systems. Also, the null-space problem opens the door for a plethora of methods available in literature for null-space computation to enter the realm of matrix inversion. There is even a flexibility of finding an exact or approximate inverse depending on the null-space method employed. We employ the Householder's null-space method for exact solution and present a complete exposition of the new approach. A detailed comparison with well-established matrix inversion methods in literature is also given. PMID:24733148
Chromatic effects in long periodic transport channels
Litvinenko V. N.; Hao, Y.; Jing, Y.
2015-05-03
Long periodic transport channels are frequently used in accelerator complexes and suggested for using in high-energy ERLs for electron-hadron colliders. Without proper chromaticity compensation, such transport channels exhibit high sensitivity to the random orbit errors causing significant emittance growth. Such emittance growth can come from both the correlated and the uncorrelated energy spread. In this paper we present results of our theoretical and numerical studies of such effects and develop a criteria for acceptable chromaticity in such channels.
2011-01-01
REPORT Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded MIMO Systems 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Fixed-point Design of theLattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection andDecoding Receiver for Coded ...important, this report illustrates the performance of coded LR aided detectors. 1 Fixed-point Design of the Lattice-reduction-aided Iterative Detection and
Rocket Auroral Correlator Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
LaBelle, James
2003-01-01
Dartmouth College provided a multi-channel high- and low- frequency wave receivers, including active sensors on deployable booms, to the Rocket Auroral Correlator Experiment launched from Poker Flat, Alaska, in January 2002. College also performed preliminary analysis of the data. Details are outlined in chronological order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murshid, Syed H.; Lovell, Gregory L.; Hridoy, Arnob; Parhar, Gurinder; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Alanzi, Saud; Chowdhury, Bilas
2016-08-01
Spatial domain multiplexing (SDM), also known as space division multiplexing, adds a new degree of photon freedom to existing optical fiber multiplexing techniques by allocating separate radial locations to different channels of the same wavelength as a function of the input launch angle. These independent MIMO channels remain confined to their designated locations while traversing the length of the carrier fiber owing to helical propagation of light inside the fiber core. As a result, multiple channels of the same wavelength can be supported inside a single optical fiber core, thereby allowing spatial reuse of optical frequencies and multiplication of fiber bandwidth. It also shows that SDM channels of different operating wavelengths continue to follow an output pattern that is based on the input launch angle. As a result, the SDM technique can be used in tandem with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), to achieve higher optical fiber bandwidth through increased photon efficiency and added degrees of photon freedom. This endeavor presents the feasibility of a hybrid optical fiber communication architecture in which the spectral efficiency of the combined system increases by a factor of "n" when each channel of an "n" channel SDM system carries the entire range of WDM spectra.
Distributed joint source-channel coding in wireless sensor networks.
Zhu, Xuqi; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Lin
2009-01-01
Considering the fact that sensors are energy-limited and the wireless channel conditions in wireless sensor networks, there is an urgent need for a low-complexity coding method with high compression ratio and noise-resisted features. This paper reviews the progress made in distributed joint source-channel coding which can address this issue. The main existing deployments, from the theory to practice, of distributed joint source-channel coding over the independent channels, the multiple access channels and the broadcast channels are introduced, respectively. To this end, we also present a practical scheme for compressing multiple correlated sources over the independent channels. The simulation results demonstrate the desired efficiency.
Calculation of accurate channel spacing of an AWG optical demultiplexer applying proportional method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seyringer, D.; Hodzic, E.
2015-06-01
We present the proportional method to correct the channel spacing between the transmitted output channels of an AWG. The developed proportional method was applied to 64-channel, 50 GHz AWG and the achieved results confirm very good correlation between designed channel spacing (50 GHz) and the channel spacing calculated from simulated AWG transmission characteristics.
Eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels.
Arnadóttir, Jóhanna; Chalfie, Martin
2010-01-01
Mechanosensitive ion channels are gated directly by physical stimuli and transduce these stimuli into electrical signals. Several criteria must apply for a channel to be considered mechanically gated. Mechanosensitive channels from bacterial systems have met these criteria, but few eukaryotic channels have been confirmed by the same standards. Recent work has suggested or confirmed that diverse types of channels, including TRP channels, K(2P) channels, MscS-like proteins, and DEG/ENaC channels, are mechanically gated. Several studies point to the importance of the plasma membrane for channel gating, but intracellular and/or extracellular structures may also be required.
Analog and digital transport of RF channels over converged 5G wireless-optical networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Binh, Le Nguyen
2016-02-01
Under the exponential increase demand by the emerging 5G wireless access networking and thus data-center based Internet, novel and economical transport of RF channels to and from wireless access systems. This paper presents the transport technologies of RF channels over the analog and digital domain so as to meet the demands of the transport capacity reaching multi-Tbps, in the followings: (i) The convergence of 5G broadband wireless and optical networks and its demands on capacity delivery and network structures; (ii) Analog optical technologies for delivery of both the information and RF carriers to and from multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna sites so as to control the beam steering of MIMO antenna in the mmW at either 28.6 GHz and 56.8 GHz RF carrier and delivery of channels of aggregate capacity reaching several Tbps; (ii) Transceiver employing advanced digital modulation formats and digital signal processing (DSP) so as to provide 100G and beyond transmission rate to meet the ultra-high capacity demands with flexible spectral grids, hence pay-on-demand services. The interplay between DSP-based and analog transport techniques is examined; (iii) Transport technologies for 5G cloud access networks and associate modulation and digital processing techniques for capacity efficiency; and (iv) Finally the integrated optic technologies with novel lasers, comb generators and simultaneous dual function photonic devices for both demultiplexing/multiplexing and modulation are proposed, hence a system on chip structure can be structured. Quantum dot lasers and matrixes of micro ring resonators are integrated on the same Si-on-Silica substrate are proposed and described.
MIMO active vibration control of magnetically suspended flywheels for satellite IPAC service
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Junyoung
Theory and simulation results have demonstrated that four, variable speed flywheels could potentially provide the energy storage and attitude control functions of existing batteries and control moment gyros (CMGs) on a satellite. Past modeling and control algorithms were based on the assumption of rigidity in the flywheel's bearings and the satellite structure. This dissertation provides simulation results and theory which eliminates this assumption utilizing control algorithms for active vibration control (AVC), flywheel shaft levitation and integrated power transfer and attitude control (IPAC) that are effective even with low stiffness active magnetic bearings (AMB), and flexible satellite appendages. The flywheel AVC and levitation tasks are provided by a multi input multi output (MIMO) control law that enhances stability by reducing the dependence of the forward and backward gyroscopic poles with changes in flywheel speed. The control law is shown to be effective even for (1) Large polar to transverse inertia ratios which increases the stored energy density while causing the poles to become more speed dependent and, (2) Low bandwidth controllers shaped to suppress high frequency noise. These two main tasks could be successfully achieved by MIMO (Gyroscopic) control algorithm, which is unique approach. The vibration control mass (VCM) is designed to reduce the vibrations of flexible appendages of the satellite. During IPAC maneuver, the oscillation of flywheel spin speeds, torque motions and satellite appendages are significantly reduced compared without VCM. Several different properties are demonstrated to obtain optimal VCM. Notch, band-pass and low-pass filters are implemented in the AMB system to reduce and cancel high frequency, dynamic bearing forces and motor torques due to flywheel mass imbalance. The transmitted forces and torques to satellite are considerably decreased in the present of both notch and band-pass filter stages. Successful IPAC simulation
Digital Correlation By Optical Convolution/Correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trimble, Joel; Casasent, David; Psaltis, Demetri; Caimi, Frank; Carlotto, Mark; Neft, Deborah
1980-12-01
Attention is given to various methods by which the accuracy achieveable and the dynamic range requirements of an optical computer can be enhanced. A new time position coding acousto-optic technique for optical residue arithmetic processing is presented and experimental demonstration is included. Major attention is given to the implementation of a correlator operating on digital or decimal encoded signals. Using a convolution description of multiplication, we realize such a correlator by optical convolution in one dimension and optical correlation in the other dimension of a optical system. A coherent matched spatial filter system operating on digital encoded signals, a noncoherent processor operating on complex-valued digital-encoded data, and a real-time multi-channel acousto-optic system for such operations are described and experimental verifications are included.
Resolvability of positron decay channels
Fluss, M.J.; Howell, R.H.; Rosenberg, I.J.; Meyer, P.
1985-03-07
Many data analysis treatments of positron experiments attempt to resolve two or more positron decay or exist channels which may be open simultaneously. Examples of the need to employ such treatments of the experimental results can be found in the resolution of the constituents of a defect ensemble, or in the analysis of the complex spectra which arise from the interaction of slow positrons at or near the surfaces of solids. Experimental one- and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation experiments in Al single crystals have shown that two defect species (mono- and divacancies) can be resolved under suitable conditions. Recent experiments at LLNL indicate that there are a variety of complex exit channels open to positrons interacting at surfaces, and ultimely these decay channels must also be suitably resolved from one another. 6 refs., 4 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshar, Sepideh; Behrad Khamesee, Mir; Khajepour, Amir
2015-10-01
As an important development of medical instrumentation, minimally invasive therapeutic operations have been recently introduced. The foremost element of minimally invasive techniques is navigating a micro-device through human body, especially inside blood vessels. A remote actuation over the micro-device is normally provided by electromagnetic actuators. In most applications, a control scheme is also required to initiate the actuation force, the magnetic propulsion, such that at every time step, the micro-device moves towards or along a given path. This paper contributes in development of the electromagnetic system model mostly used in magnetic navigation systems to be representable in control affine form. Next, a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) trajectory tracking controller is designed to conduct the auto-navigation of the device along a given path. This method is a generalised version of a 'semi-global nonlinear output regulation' introduced for single-input single-output (SISO) systems. Finally, the proposed scheme is examined for an iron particle moving in a fluidic environment. The simulation results show fast decay in deviation of the particle position from the reference path under some assumptions. This shows that the proposed scheme can be offered for medical applications.
Adaptive dynamic surface control for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with actuator failures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amezquita S., Kendrick; Yan, Lin; Butt, Waseem A.
2013-03-01
In this article, an adaptive dynamic surface control scheme for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with actuator failures and uncertainties is presented. In the proposed control scheme, the dynamic changes and disturbances induced by actuator failures are detected and isolated by means of radial basis function neural networks, which also compensate system uncertainties that arise from the mismatch between nominal model and real plant. In the presence of unknown actuation functions, the effectiveness of the control scheme is guaranteed by imposing a structural condition on the actuation matrix. Moreover, the singularity problem that arises from the approximation of unknown actuation functions is circumvented, and thus the use parameter projection is avoided. In this work, the nominal plant is transformed into a suitable form via diffeomorphism. Dynamic surface control design technique is used to develop the control laws. The closed-loop signals are proven to be uniformly ultimately bounded through Lyapunov approach, and the output tracking error is shown to be bounded within a residual set which can be made arbitrarily small by appropriately tuning the controller parameters. Finally, the proposed adaptive control scheme effectiveness is verified by simulation of the longitudinal dynamics of a twin otter aircraft undergoing actuator failures.
A tensor-based subspace approach for bistatic MIMO radar in spatial colored noise.
Wang, Xianpeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Junxiang
2014-02-25
In this paper, a new tensor-based subspace approach is proposed to estimate the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar in the presence of spatial colored noise. Firstly, the received signals can be packed into a third-order measurement tensor by exploiting the inherent structure of the matched filter. Then, the measurement tensor can be divided into two sub-tensors, and a cross-covariance tensor is formulated to eliminate the spatial colored noise. Finally, the signal subspace is constructed by utilizing the higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) of the cross-covariance tensor, and the DOD and DOA can be obtained through the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) algorithm, which are paired automatically. Since the multidimensional inherent structure and the cross-covariance tensor technique are used, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance than Chen's method, the ESPRIT algorithm and the multi-SVD method. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness and the advantage of the proposed method.
An Efficient Circulant MIMO Equalizer for CDMA Downlink: Algorithm and VLSI Architecture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Yuanbin; Zhang, Jianzhong(Charlie); McCain, Dennis; Cavallaro, Joseph R.
2006-12-01
We present an efficient circulant approximation-based MIMO equalizer architecture for the CDMA downlink. This reduces the direct matrix inverse (DMI) of size[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] with[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] complexity to some FFT operations with[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] complexity and the inverse of some[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] submatrices. We then propose parallel and pipelined VLSI architectures with Hermitian optimization and reduced-state FFT for further complexity optimization. Generic VLSI architectures are derived for the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] high-order receiver from partitioned[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] submatrices. This leads to more parallel VLSI design with[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] further complexity reduction. Comparative study with both the conjugate-gradient and DMI algorithms shows very promising performance/complexity tradeoff. VLSI design space in terms of area/time efficiency is explored extensively for layered parallelism and pipelining with a Catapult C high-level-synthesis methodology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reggiannini, Ruggero
2015-12-01
This paper is concerned with spatial properties of linear arrays of antennas spaced less than half wavelength. Possible applications are in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless links for the purpose of increasing the spatial multiplexing gain in a scattering environment, as well as in other areas such as sonar and radar. With reference to a receiving array, we show that knowledge of the received field can be extrapolated beyond the actual array size by exploiting the finiteness of the interval of real directions from which the field components impinge on the array. This property permits to increase the performance of the array in terms of angular resolution. A simple signal processing technique is proposed allowing formation of a set of beams capable to cover uniformly the entire horizon with an angular resolution better than that achievable by a classical uniform-weighing half-wavelength-spaced linear array. Results are also applicable to active arrays. As the above approach leads to arrays operating in super-directive regime, we discuss all related critical aspects, such as sensitivity to external and internal noises and to array imperfections, and bandwidth, so as to identify the basic design criteria ensuring the array feasibility.
A hybrid intelligent controller for a twin rotor MIMO system and its hardware implementation.
Juang, Jih-Gau; Liu, Wen-Kai; Lin, Ren-Wei
2011-10-01
This paper presents a fuzzy PID control scheme with a real-valued genetic algorithm (RGA) to a setpoint control problem. The objective of this paper is to control a twin rotor MIMO system (TRMS) to move quickly and accurately to the desired attitudes, both the pitch angle and the azimuth angle in a cross-coupled condition. A fuzzy compensator is applied to the PID controller. The proposed control structure includes four PID controllers with independent inputs in 2-DOF. In order to reduce total error and control energy, all parameters of the controller are obtained by a RGA with the system performance index as a fitness function. The system performance index utilized the integral of time multiplied by the square error criterion (ITSE) to build a suitable fitness function in the RGA. A new method for RGA to solve more than 10 parameters in the control scheme is investigated. For real-time control, Xilinx Spartan II SP200 FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is employed to construct a hardware-in-the-loop system through writing VHDL on this FPGA.
Uplink Downlink Rate Balancing and Throughput Scaling in FDD Massive MIMO Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergel, Itsik; Perets, Yona; Shamai, Shlomo
2016-05-01
In this work we extend the concept of uplink-downlink rate balancing to frequency division duplex (FDD) massive MIMO systems. We consider a base station with large number antennas serving many single antenna users. We first show that any unused capacity in the uplink can be traded off for higher throughput in the downlink in a system that uses either dirty paper (DP) coding or linear zero-forcing (ZF) precoding. We then also study the scaling of the system throughput with the number of antennas in cases of linear Beamforming (BF) Precoding, ZF Precoding, and DP coding. We show that the downlink throughput is proportional to the logarithm of the number of antennas. While, this logarithmic scaling is lower than the linear scaling of the rate in the uplink, it can still bring significant throughput gains. For example, we demonstrate through analysis and simulation that increasing the number of antennas from 4 to 128 will increase the throughput by more than a factor of 5. We also show that a logarithmic scaling of downlink throughput as a function of the number of receive antennas can be achieved even when the number of transmit antennas only increases logarithmically with the number of receive antennas.
Two-dimensional imaging via a narrowband MIMO radar system with two perpendicular linear arrays.
Wang, Dang-wei; Ma, Xiao-yan; Su, Yi
2010-05-01
This paper presents a system model and method for the 2-D imaging application via a narrowband multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar system with two perpendicular linear arrays. Furthermore, the imaging formulation for our method is developed through a Fourier integral processing, and the parameters of antenna array including the cross-range resolution, required size, and sampling interval are also examined. Different from the spatial sequential procedure sampling the scattered echoes during multiple snapshot illuminations in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging, the proposed method utilizes a spatial parallel procedure to sample the scattered echoes during a single snapshot illumination. Consequently, the complex motion compensation in ISAR imaging can be avoided. Moreover, in our array configuration, multiple narrowband spectrum-shared waveforms coded with orthogonal polyphase sequences are employed. The mainlobes of the compressed echoes from the different filter band could be located in the same range bin, and thus, the range alignment in classical ISAR imaging is not necessary. Numerical simulations based on synthetic data are provided for testing our proposed method.
Joint Source-Relay Design for Full-Duplex MIMO AF Relay Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Qingjiang; Hong, Mingyi; Gao, Xiqi; Song, Enbin; Cai, Yunlong; Xu, Weiqiang
2016-12-01
The performance of full-duplex (FD) relay systems can be greatly impacted by the self-interference (SI) at relays. By exploiting multi-antenna in FD relay systems, the spectral efficiency of FD relay systems can be enhanced through spatial SI mitigation. This paper studies joint source transmit beamforming and relay processing to achieve rate maximization for FD MIMO amplify-and-forward (AF) relay systems with consideration of relay processing delay. The problem is difficult to solve due mainly to the SI constraint induced by the relay processing delay. In this paper, we first present a sufficient condition under which the relay amplification matrix has rank one structure. Then, for the case of rank one amplification matrix, the rate maximization problem is equivalently simplified into an unconstrained problem which can be locally solved using gradient ascent method. Next, we propose a penalty-based algorithmic framework, called P-BSUM, for a class of constrained optimization problems which have difficult equality constraints in addition to some convex constraints. By rewriting the rate maximization problem with a set of auxiliary variables, we apply the P-BSUM algorithm to the rate maximization problem in the general case. Finally, numerical results validate the efficiency of the proposed algorithms and show that the joint source-relay design approach under the rank one assumption could be strictly suboptimal as compared to the P-BSUM-based joint source-relay design approach.
Sparse array angle estimation using reduced-dimension ESPRIT-MUSIC in MIMO radar.
Zhang, Chaozhu; Pang, Yucai
2013-01-01
Sparse linear arrays provide better performance than the filled linear arrays in terms of angle estimation and resolution with reduced size and low cost. However, they are subject to manifold ambiguity. In this paper, both the transmit array and receive array are sparse linear arrays in the bistatic MIMO radar. Firstly, we present an ESPRIT-MUSIC method in which ESPRIT algorithm is used to obtain ambiguous angle estimates. The disambiguation algorithm uses MUSIC-based procedure to identify the true direction cosine estimate from a set of ambiguous candidate estimates. The paired transmit angle and receive angle can be estimated and the manifold ambiguity can be solved. However, the proposed algorithm has high computational complexity due to the requirement of two-dimension search. Further, the Reduced-Dimension ESPRIT-MUSIC (RD-ESPRIT-MUSIC) is proposed to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. And the RD-ESPRIT-MUSIC only demands one-dimension search. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corey, Michael A.
1988-01-01
Theoretically analyzes phenomenon of channeling from perspective of C. G. Jung's analytic psychology. Hypothesizes that contact with otherworldly spiritual beings claimed by channelers is actually projected contact with contents of channeler's own unconscious mind. Suggests that channelers seek more constructive ways of contacting their…
Du, Guanyao; Yu, Jianjun
2016-01-01
This paper investigates the system achievable rate for the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system with an energy harvesting (EH) relay. Firstly we propose two protocols, time switching-based decode-and-forward relaying (TSDFR) and a flexible power splitting-based DF relaying (PSDFR) protocol by considering two practical receiver architectures, to enable the simultaneous information processing and energy harvesting at the relay. In PSDFR protocol, we introduce a temporal parameter to describe the time division pattern between the two phases which makes the protocol more flexible and general. In order to explore the system performance limit, we discuss the system achievable rate theoretically and formulate two optimization problems for the proposed protocols to maximize the system achievable rate. Since the problems are non-convex and difficult to solve, we first analyze them theoretically and get some explicit results, then design an augmented Lagrangian penalty function (ALPF) based algorithm for them. Numerical results are provided to validate the accuracy of our analytical results and the effectiveness of the proposed ALPF algorithm. It is shown that, PSDFR outperforms TSDFR to achieve higher achievable rate in such a MIMO-OFDM relaying system. Besides, we also investigate the impacts of the relay location, the number of antennas and the number of subcarriers on the system performance. Specifically, it is shown that, the relay position greatly affects the system performance of both protocols, and relatively worse achievable rate is achieved when the relay is placed in the middle of the source and the destination. This is different from the MIMO-OFDM DF relaying system without EH. Moreover, the optimal factor which indicates the time division pattern between the two phases in the PSDFR protocol is always above 0.8, which means that, the common division of the total transmission time into two equal phases in
River meanders and channel size
Williams, G.P.
1986-01-01
This study uses an enlarged data set to (1) compare measured meander geometry to that predicted by the Langbein and Leopold (1966) theory, (2) examine the frequency distribution of the ratio radius of curvature/channel width, and (3) derive 40 empirical equations (31 of which are original) involving meander and channel size features. The data set, part of which comes from publications by other authors, consists of 194 sites from a large variety of physiographic environments in various countries. The Langbein-Leopold sine-generated-curve theory for predicting radius of curvature agrees very well with the field data (78 sites). The ratio radius of curvature/channel width has a modal value in the range of 2 to 3, in accordance with earlier work; about one third of the 79 values is less than 2.0. The 40 empirical relations, most of which include only two variables, involve channel cross-section dimensions (bankfull area, width, and mean depth) and meander features (wavelength, bend length, radius of curvature, and belt width). These relations have very high correlation coefficients, most being in the range of 0.95-0.99. Although channel width traditionally has served as a scale indicator, bankfull cross-sectional area and mean depth also can be used for this purpose. ?? 1986.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhofer, G.; Blumers, M.
2013-01-01
Field testing and scientific investigations were conducted on the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, as part of the 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA). Measurements were conducted using both stand-alone and rover-mounted instruments to determine the geophysical and geochemical properties of the field site, as well as provide operational constraints and science considerations for future robotic and human missions [1]. Reported here are the results from the two MIMOS instruments deployed as part of this planetary analog field test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schroeder, C.; Klingelhoefer, G; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Renz, F.; Graff, T. G.
2016-01-01
The miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II is an off-the-shelf instrument with proven flight heritage. It has been successfully deployed during NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and was on-board the UK-led Beagle 2 Mars lander and the Russian Phobos-Grunt sample return mission. A Moessbauer spectrometer has been suggested for ASTEX, a DLR Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission study, and the potential payload to be hosted by the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). Here we make the case for in situ asteroid characterization with Moessbauer spectroscopy on the ARM employing one of three available fully-qualified flight-spare Moessbauer instruments.
Olson, Marvin
2016-01-12
A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong; Benitez, Yanice; Song, Yu; Ng, C. Y.; Jackson, W. M.
2014-06-01
We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã3Π; v) + O(3P0,1,2) and CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ; v) + O(3P0,1,2), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO2 to the 4s(101) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm-1. The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O+ VMI-PI images of O(3P0,1,2) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã3Π; v = 0-2) with well-resolved v = 0-2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO2 to form the spin-allowed CO(ã3Π; v = 0-2) + O(3P0,1,2) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ; v) + O(3P0,1,2) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ) with significant vibrational populations for v = 18-26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã3Π; v = 0-2) + O(3P0,1,2) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO2 4s(101) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(tilde X{}^1Σ ^ + ; v) + O(3P0,1,2) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.
Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong; Benitez, Yanice; Song, Yu; Ng, C Y; Jackson, W M
2014-06-21
We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã(3)Π; v) + O((3)P0,1,2) and CO(X̃(1)Σ(+); v) + O((3)P0,1,2), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO2 to the 4s(10 (1)) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm(-1). The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O(+) VMI-PI images of O((3)P0,1,2) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã(3)Π; v = 0-2) with well-resolved v = 0-2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO2 to form the spin-allowed CO(ã(3)Π; v = 0-2) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(X̃(1)Σ(+); v) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(X̃(1)Σ(+)) with significant vibrational populations for v = 18-26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã(3)Π; v = 0-2) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO2 4s(10 (1)) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(X̃(1)Σ(+); v) + O((3)P0,1,2) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Shih-Hao; Chow, Chi-Wai
2015-01-01
Multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) scheme can extend the transmission capacity for the light-emitting-diode (LED) based visible light communication (VLC) systems. The MIMO VLC system that uses the mobile-phone camera as the optical receiver (Rx) to receive MIMO signal from the n×n Red-Green-Blue (RGB) LED array is desirable. The key step of decoding this signal is to detect the signal direction. If the LED transmitter (Tx) is rotated, the Rx may not realize the rotation and transmission error can occur. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a novel hierarchical transmission scheme which can reduce the computation complexity of rotation detection in LED array VLC system. We use the n×n RGB LED array as the MIMO Tx. In our study, a novel two dimensional Hadamard coding scheme is proposed. Using the different LED color layers to indicate the rotation, a low complexity rotation detection method can be used for improving the quality of received signal. The detection correction rate is above 95% in the indoor usage distance. Experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Spherical Linear Interpolation for Transmit Beamforming in MIMO-OFDM Systems with Limited Feedback
2007-11-02
person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control ...between the uplink and the downlink channels, this requires informing the transmitter about all the beamforming vectors through a feedback control channel...feedback control channel. A practical solution for reducing the amount of feedback per beamforming vector is to use a codebook designed for quantization of
Microfluidic channel fabrication method
Arnold, Don W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cardinale, Gregory F.
2001-01-01
A new channel structure for microfluidic systems and process for fabricating this structure. In contrast to the conventional practice of fabricating fluid channels as trenches or grooves in a substrate, fluid channels are fabricated as thin walled raised structures on a substrate. Microfluidic devices produced in accordance with the invention are a hybrid assembly generally consisting of three layers: 1) a substrate that can or cannot be an electrical insulator; 2) a middle layer, that is an electrically conducting material and preferably silicon, forms the channel walls whose height defines the channel height, joined to and extending from the substrate; and 3) a top layer, joined to the top of the channels, that forms a cover for the channels. The channels can be defined by photolithographic techniques and are produced by etching away the material around the channel walls.
Joint source-channel coding for a quantum multiple access channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilde, Mark M.; Savov, Ivan
2012-11-01
Suppose that two senders each obtain one share of the output of a classical, bivariate, correlated information source. They would like to transmit the correlated source to a receiver using a quantum multiple access channel. In prior work, Cover, El Gamal and Salehi provided a combined source-channel coding strategy for a classical multiple access channel which outperforms the simpler ‘separation’ strategy where separate codebooks are used for the source coding and the channel coding tasks. In this paper, we prove that a coding strategy similar to the Cover-El Gamal-Salehi strategy and a corresponding quantum simultaneous decoder allow for the reliable transmission of a source over a quantum multiple access channel, as long as a set of information inequalities involving the Holevo quantity hold.
Quantum channels and memory effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caruso, Filippo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano
2014-10-01
Any physical process can be represented as a quantum channel mapping an initial state to a final state. Hence it can be characterized from the point of view of communication theory, i.e., in terms of its ability to transfer information. Quantum information provides a theoretical framework and the proper mathematical tools to accomplish this. In this context the notion of codes and communication capacities have been introduced by generalizing them from the classical Shannon theory of information transmission and error correction. The underlying assumption of this approach is to consider the channel not as acting on a single system, but on sequences of systems, which, when properly initialized allow one to overcome the noisy effects induced by the physical process under consideration. While most of the work produced so far has been focused on the case in which a given channel transformation acts identically and independently on the various elements of the sequence (memoryless configuration in jargon), correlated error models appear to be a more realistic way to approach the problem. A slightly different, yet conceptually related, notion of correlated errors applies to a single quantum system which evolves continuously in time under the influence of an external disturbance which acts on it in a non-Markovian fashion. This leads to the study of memory effects in quantum channels: a fertile ground where interesting novel phenomena emerge at the intersection of quantum information theory and other branches of physics. A survey is taken of the field of quantum channels theory while also embracing these specific and complex settings.
Exploring efficiencies of SISO, multi-SISO, and MIMO AVC schemes for floor vibration control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nyawako, Donald S.; Reynolds, Paul; Hudson, Malcolm J.
2012-04-01
Continued advancements in steel and concrete materials as well as improved computer-optimized designs are resulting in more efficient floor structures, which have longer spans and are more lightweight. In addition, there is a tendency for offices to be more open-plan with fewer internal partitions. These structures possess low and closely spaced natural frequencies, sometimes falling within the range of frequencies produced by human activities, as well as low damping levels. Vibration serviceability problems are thus arising more frequently than before. The tendency for developers to require floor structures suitable for a variety of types of occupation so as to increase their economic viability also has clear ramifications for their vibration serviceability. Active vibration control (AVC) is emerging as a viable technology for mitigation of human-induced vibrations in problem floors. Past AVC research work, as demonstrated in analytical studies and successfully implemented in field trials, have focused predominantly on collocated sensor and actuator pairs in SISO or multi-SISO direct-output feedback schemes, for example, direct velocity feedback (DVF). This paper demonstrates the potential benefits that may be derived from using model-based control approaches, for example, in isolating and controlling specific problematic frequencies only. The approaches investigated here comprise of independent modal space control (IMSC) and pole-placement controllers that are implemented in SISO, SIMO, and MIMO control structures. Both the analytical and experimental studies presented are based on a laboratory structure. Attenuations in target modes of vibration ranged between 15.0-27.0 dB in the analytical studies and experimental implementation for all the controllers studied. Further, both analytical studies and experimental implementation yielded a 70-89 % reduction in acceleration responses from two different walking frequencies.
A millimetre-wave MIMO radar system for threat detection in urban environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirschner, A. J.; Guetlein, J.; Bertl, S.; Detlefsen, J.
2012-10-01
The European Defence Agency (EDA) engages countermeasures against Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) by funding several scientific programs on threat awareness, countermeasures IEDs or land-mine detection, in which this work is only one of numerous projects. The program, denoted as Surveillance in an urban environment using mobile sensors (SUM), covers the idea of equipping one or more vehicles of a patrol or a convoy with a set of sensors exploiting different physical principles in order to gain detailed insights of the road situation ahead. In order to give an added value to a conventional visual camera system, measurement data from an infra-red (IR) camera, a radiometer and a millimetre-wave radar are fused with data from an optical image and are displayed on a human-machine-interface (HMI) which shall assist the vehicle's co-driver to identify suspect objects or persons on or next to the road without forcing the vehicle to stop its cruise. This paper shall especially cover the role of the millimetre-wave radar sensor and its different operational modes. Measurement results are discussed. It is possible to alter the antenna mechanically which gives two choices for a field of view and angular resolution trade-off. Furthermore a synthetic aperture radar mode is possible and has been tested successfully. MIMO radar principles like orthogonal signal design were exploited tofrom a virtual array by 4 transmitters and 4 receivers. In joint evaluation, it was possible to detect e.g. grenade shells under cardboard boxes or covered metal barrels which were invisible for optical or infra-red detection.
Hardware Emulation of Wireless Communication Fading Channels
2011-01-01
vol. 19, no. 6 , pp. 1009-1018, Jun. 2001. [9] B. E. Baddour and N. C. Beaulieu, “Accurate simulation of multiple cross- correlated Rician fading...Rayleigh fading waveforms,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 6 , no. 6 , pp. 256-258, Nov. 2002. [18] Y. R. Zheng and C. Xiao, “ Simulation models with correct...waveforms in the baseband equivalent channel due to the bandlimited nature of wireless systems [ 6 ]. Software-based channel simulators usually employ
Single-Side Two-Location Spotlight Imaging for Building Based on MIMO Through-Wall-Radar
Jia, Yong; Zhong, Xiaoling; Liu, Jiangang; Guo, Yong
2016-01-01
Through-wall-radar imaging is of interest for mapping the wall layout of buildings and for the detection of stationary targets within buildings. In this paper, we present an easy single-side two-location spotlight imaging method for both wall layout mapping and stationary target detection by utilizing multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) through-wall-radar. Rather than imaging for building walls directly, the images of all building corners are generated to speculate wall layout indirectly by successively deploying the MIMO through-wall-radar at two appropriate locations on only one side of the building and then carrying out spotlight imaging with two different squint-views. In addition to the ease of implementation, the single-side two-location squint-view detection also has two other advantages for stationary target imaging. The first one is the fewer multi-path ghosts, and the second one is the smaller region of side-lobe interferences from the corner images in comparison to the wall images. Based on Computer Simulation Technology (CST) electromagnetic simulation software, we provide multiple sets of validation results where multiple binary panorama images with clear images of all corners and stationary targets are obtained by combining two single-location images with the use of incoherent additive fusion and two-dimensional cell-averaging constant-false-alarm-rate (2D CA-CFAR) detection. PMID:27618039
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Anzhong; Lv, Tiejun; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Shaoshi
2014-10-01
In this paper, an approach of estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) localization of incoherently distributed (ID) sources in large-scale/massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The traditional ESPRIT-based methods are valid only for one-dimensional (1-D) localization of the ID sources. By contrast, in the proposed approach the signal subspace is constructed for estimating the nominal azimuth and elevation direction-of-arrivals and the angular spreads. The proposed estimator enjoys closed-form expressions and hence it bypasses the searching over the entire feasible field. Therefore, it imposes significantly lower computational complexity than the conventional 2-D estimation approaches. Our analysis shows that the estimation performance of the proposed approach improves when the large-scale/massive MIMO systems are employed. The approximate Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound of the proposed estimator for the 2-D localization is also derived. Numerical results demonstrate that albeit the proposed estimation method is comparable with the traditional 2-D estimators in terms of performance, it benefits from a remarkably lower computational complexity.
Gouta, Houssemeddine; Hadj Saïd, Salim; Barhoumi, Nabil; M'Sahli, Faouzi
2017-03-01
This paper deals with the problem of the observer based control design for a coupled four-tank liquid level system. For this MIMO system's dynamics, motivated by a desire to provide precise and sensorless liquid level control, a nonlinear predictive controller based on a continuous-discrete observer is presented. First, an analytical solution from the model predictive control (MPC) technique is developed for a particular class of nonlinear MIMO systems and its corresponding exponential stability is proven. Then, a high gain observer that runs in continuous-time with an output error correction time that is updated in a mixed continuous-discrete fashion is designed in order to estimate the liquid levels in the two upper tanks. The effectiveness of the designed control schemes are validated by two tests; The first one is maintaining a constant level in the first bottom tank while making the level in the second bottom tank to follow a sinusoidal reference signal. The second test is more difficult and it is made using two trapezoidal reference signals in order to see the decoupling performance of the system's outputs. Simulation and experimental results validate the objective of the paper.
Levitan, Irena; Fang, Yun; Rosenhouse-Dantsker, Avia; Romanenko, Victor
2010-01-01
A variety of ion channels, including members of all major ion channel families, have been shown to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol and partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains. In general, several types of cholesterol effects have been described. The most common effect is suppression of channel activity by an increase in membrane cholesterol, an effect that was described for several types of inwardly-rectifying K+ channels, voltage-gated K+ channels, Ca+2 sensitive K+ channels, voltage-gated Na+ channels, N-type voltage-gated Ca+2 channels and volume-regulated anion channels. In contrast, several types of ion channels, such as epithelial amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels and Transient Receptor Potential channels, as well as some of the types of inwardly-rectifying and voltage-gated K+ channels were shown to be inhibited by cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol was also shown to alter the kinetic properties and current-voltage dependence of several voltage-gated channels. Finally, maintaining membrane cholesterol level is required for coupling ion channels to signalling cascades. In terms of the mechanisms, three general mechanisms have been proposed: (i) specific interactions between cholesterol and the channel protein, (ii) changes in the physical properties of the membrane bilayer and (iii) maintaining the scaffolds for protein-protein interactions. The goal of this review is to describe systematically the role of cholesterol in regulation of the major types of ion channels and to discuss these effects in the context of the models proposed. PMID:20213557
Argo, P.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.
1991-12-31
This invention relates to high frequency (HF) radio signal propagation through fading channels and, more particularly, to simulation of fading channels in order to characterize HF radio system performance in transmitting and receiving signals through such fading channels. Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.
2003-01-01
QUASI- ANONYMOUS CHANNELS Ira S. Moskowitz Center for High Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC...Assurance Computer Systems - Code 5540 Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA Abstract Although both anonymity and covert...channels are part of the larger topic of information hiding, there also exists an intrinsic linkage between anonymity and covert channels. This linkage
Channel incision and water quality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shields, F. D.
2009-12-01
Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p < 0.02). Physical aquatic habitat and fish populations in the nonincised urbanizing stream were
Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano
2013-01-01
In his recent opus magnum review paper published in the October issue of Physiology Reviews, Rainer Hedrich summarized the field of plant ion channels.1 He started from the earliest electric recordings initiated by Charles Darwin of carnivorous Dionaea muscipula,1,2 known as Venus flytrap, and covered the topic extensively up to the most recent discoveries on Shaker-type potassium channels, anion channels of SLAC/SLAH families, and ligand-activated channels of glutamate receptor-like type (GLR) and cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGC).1 PMID:23221742
Priest, Birgit T; McDermott, Jeff S
2015-01-01
Ion channels are critical for all aspects of cardiac function, including rhythmicity and contractility. Consequently, ion channels are key targets for therapeutics aimed at cardiac pathophysiologies such as atrial fibrillation or angina. At the same time, off-target interactions of drugs with cardiac ion channels can be the cause of unwanted side effects. This manuscript aims to review the physiology and pharmacology of key cardiac ion channels. The intent is to highlight recent developments for therapeutic development, as well as elucidate potential mechanisms for drug-induced cardiac side effects, rather than present an in-depth review of each channel subtype. PMID:26556552
Incompatibility of quantum channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki
2017-03-01
Two quantum channels are called compatible if they can be obtained as marginals from a single broadcasting channel; otherwise they are incompatible. We derive a characterization of the compatibility relation in terms of concatenation and conjugation, and we show that all pairs of sufficiently noisy quantum channels are compatible. The complement relation of incompatibility can be seen as a unifying aspect for several important quantum features, such as impossibility of universal broadcasting and unavoidable measurement disturbance. We show that the concepts of entanglement breaking channel and antidegradable channel can be completely characterized in terms compatibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uhlmann, Armin
2001-09-01
The entropy HT (ρ) of a state with respect to a channel T and the Holevo capacity of the channel require the solution of difficult variational problems. For a class of 1-qubit channels, which contains all the extremal ones, the problem can be significantly simplified by attaching a unique Hermitian antilinear operator ϑ to every channel of the considered class. The channel's concurrence CT can be expressed by ϑ and turns out to be a flat roof. This allows to write down an explicit expression for HT. Its maximum would give the Holevo (one-shot) capacity.
Mechanically Activated Ion Channels
Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem
2015-01-01
Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601
Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.
Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem
2015-09-23
Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels.
Counter-current flow limitation in thin rectangular channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Lap Y.
The phenomenon of counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) in thin rectangular channels is important in determining the heat removal capability of research reactors which use plate-type fuel elements similar to the MTR design. An analytical expression for predicting CCFL in narrow rectangular channels was derived from the momentum equations for the liquid and gas phase. The model assumes that the liquid downflow is in the form of a film along the narrower side walls of the channel, while the gas flow occupies the wide span of the rectangular channel. The average thickness of liquid film is related to the rate of gas flow through a stability criterion for the liquid film. The CCFL correlation agrees with air/water data taken at relatively high gas velocities. Depending on the magnitude of the dimensionless channel width, the new CCFL correlation approaches zero liquid penetration either in the form of a Wallis correlation or in terms of a Kutateladze number. The new correlation indicates that for a thin rectangular channel, the constant C in the Wallis flooding correlation depends on the aspect ratio of the channel. The approach to the appropriate asymptotic solutions also justifies the use of twice the wide span as the correct length scale for thin rectangular channels.
Hematite at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater as identified by the Moessbauer Spectrometer MIMOS II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D.; Schroeder, C.; de Souza, P. A.; Yen, A.; Renz, F.; Wdowiak, T.
2006-01-01
The Moessbauer (MB) spectrometers on the MER rovers Opportunity and Spirit, which landed on Mars in January 2004, have identified the iron-containing mineral hematite (a-Fe2O3) at both landing sites. On Earth, hematite can occur either by itself or with other iron oxides as massive deposits, in veins , and as particles dispersed through a silicate or other matrix material. Hematite particle size can range from nanophase (superparamagnetic) to multidomain and particle shape ranges from equant to acicular to platy. Fine-grained hematite is red in color and is a pigmenting agent. Coarse-grained hematite can be spectrally neutral (gray) at visible wavelengths. Substitutional impurities, particularly Al, are common in hematite. Chemically pure, coarse-grained, and well-crystalline hematite has a magnetic transition (the Morin transition) at 260 K. Moessbauer spectra, recorded as a function of temperature, provide a way to characterize Martian hematite with respect to some of the physical and chemical characteristics. At Meridiani Planum besides the iron-sulfate mineral jarosite also the Fe-oxide hematite has been identified by the Moessbauer spectrometer, mainly in three distinct types of reservoir: - outcrop matrix material dominated by the mineral jarosite in the MB spectrum, certain basaltic soils, and mm-sized spherules dubbed blueberries. Moessbauer spectra of each reservoir yield a distinct set of hyperfine parameters for hematite, suggesting different degrees of crystallinity and particle size. The hematite found by MB instrument MIMOS II in the outcrop material shows the Morin transition at relatively high temperatures (ca. 250 K) which is an indication of pure and well-crystallized hematite. The source of the hematite in the Blueberries as identified by Moessbauer spectroscopy, and also by MiniTES, is not known. These spherules, covering nearly the whole landing site area (Eagle crater, plains, Endurance crater), may be concretions formed in the outcrop
Space-Time Processing for Tactical Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
2008-08-01
Maximization in Multi-User, MIMO Channels with Linear Processing...58 2.9 Using Feedback in Ad Hoc Networks....................................................................65 2.10 Feedback MIMO ...in MIMO Ad Hoc Interference Networks.......................................................................................................75 2.12
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cotariu, Steven S.
1991-01-01
Pattern recognition may supplement or replace certain navigational aids on spacecraft in docking or landing activities. The need to correctly identify terrain features remains critical in preparation of autonomous planetary landing. One technique that may solve this problem is optical correlation. Correlation has been successfully demonstrated under ideal conditions; however, noise significantly affects the ability of the correlator to accurately identify input signals. Optical correlation in the presence of noise must be successfully demonstrated before this technology can be incorporated into system design. An optical correlator is designed and constructed using a modified 2f configuration. Liquid crystal televisions (LCTV) are used as the spatial light modulators (SLM) for both the input and filter devices. The filter LCTV is characterized and an operating curve is developed. Determination of this operating curve is critical for reduction of input noise. Correlation of live input with a programmable filter is demonstrated.
Levitan, Irena
2009-01-01
To date, most of the major types of Kir channels, Kir2s, Kir3s, Kir4s and Kir6s, have been found to partition into cholesterol-rich membrane domains and/or to be regulated by changes in the level of membrane cholesterol. Surprisingly, however, in spite of the structural similarities between different Kirs, effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels vary from cholesterol-induced decrease in the current density (Kir2 channels) to the loss of channel activity by cholesterol depletion (Kir4 channels) and loss of channel coupling by different mediators (Kir3 and Kir6 channels). Recently, we have gained initial insights into the mechanisms responsible for cholesterol-induced suppression Kir2 channels, but mechanisms underlying cholesterol sensitivity of other Kir channels are mostly unknown. The goal of this review is to present a summary of the current knowledge of the distinct effects of cholesterol on different types of Kir channels in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19548316
Argo, Paul E.; Fitzgerald, T. Joseph
1993-01-01
Fading channel effects on a transmitted communication signal are simulated with both frequency and time variations using a channel scattering function to affect the transmitted signal. A conventional channel scattering function is converted to a series of channel realizations by multiplying the square root of the channel scattering function by a complex number of which the real and imaginary parts are each independent variables. The two-dimensional inverse-FFT of this complex-valued channel realization yields a matrix of channel coefficients that provide a complete frequency-time description of the channel. The transmitted radio signal is segmented to provide a series of transmitted signal and each segment is subject to FFT to generate a series of signal coefficient matrices. The channel coefficient matrices and signal coefficient matrices are then multiplied and subjected to inverse-FFT to output a signal representing the received affected radio signal. A variety of channel scattering functions can be used to characterize the response of a transmitter-receiver system to such atmospheric effects.
Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi
2010-04-01
regime by a buried oxide layer / V. Guidi, A. Mazzolari and V. V. Tikhomirov -- A positron source using channeling in crystals for linear colliders / X. Artru ... [et al.] -- Parametric channeling and collapse of charged particles beams in crystals / M. Vysotskyy and V. Vysotskii.The formation and usage of coherent correlated charged particles states in the physics of channeling in crystals / S. V. Adamenko, V. I. Vysotskii and M. V. Vysotskyy -- Surface channeling of magnetic-charged particles on multilayer surface / S. V. Adamenko and V. I. Vysotskii -- Coherent creation of anti-hydrogen atoms in a crystal by relativistic antiproton / Yu. P. Kunashenko -- Thermal equilibrium of light ions in heavy crystals / E. Tsyganov -- Photon emission of electrons in a crystalline undulator / H. Backe ... [et al.] -- Channeling radiation from relativistic electrons in a crystal target as complementary x-ray and gamma ray source at synchrotron light facilities / K. B. Korotchenko, Yu. L. Pivovarov and T. A. Tukhfatullin -- Diffracted channeling radiation and other compound radiation processes / H. Nitta -- Collective scattering on the atom planes under the condition of full transition / A. R. Mkrtchyan ... [et al.] -- The proposal of the experiment on the research of the diffracted channeling radiation / D. A. Baklanov ... [et al.] -- Positron channeling at the DaOne BTF Facility: the cup experiment / L. Quintieri ... [et al.] -- Radiation spectra of 200 MeV electrons in diamond and silicon crystals at axial and planar orientations / K. Fissum ... [et al.] -- Channeling experiments with electrons at the Mainz Microtron Mami / W. Lauth ... [et al.] -- Dechanneling of positrons by dislocations: effects of anharmonic interactions / J. George and A. P. Pathak -- Diffracted channeling radiation from axially channeled relativistic electrons / K. B. Korotchenko ... [et al.] -- Intensive quasi-monochromatic, directed x-ray radiation of planar channeled positron bunch / L. Gevorgian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Li-Hui; Geng, Li-Yan; Lu, Sheng-Li; Cui, Shi-Gang
2012-07-01
An L 2-optimal identification method is extended to cope with MIMO errors-in-variables (EIV) model estimation based on a geometrical interpretation for the v-gap metric. The L 2-optimal approximate models are composed of system and noise models and characterised by a normalised right graph symbol (NRGS) and its complementary inner factor (CIF), respectively. This metric can be evaluated as the supreme of sine values of the maximal principal angles between NRGS frequency responses of two concerned models. In order to make full use of the angular cosine formula for complex vectors to reduce computational loads, a CIF of the NRGS of the perturbed model is introduced and thus, the system parameter optimisation can be efficiently solved by sequential quadratic programming methods. With the estimated system model, the associated noise model can be built by right multiplication of an inner matrix. Finally, a simulation example demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed identification method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yang; Yue, Dong; Yuan, Deming
2016-11-01
Considering interconnections among subsystems, we propose an adaptive neural tracking control scheme for a class of multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) non-affine pure-feedback time-delay nonlinear systems with input saturation. Neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate unknown functions in the design procedure, and the separation technology is introduced here to tackle the problem induced from unknown time-delay items. The adaptive neural tracking control scheme is constructed by combining Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, NNs, the auxiliary system, the implicit function theory and the mean value theorem along with the dynamic surface control technique. Also, it is proven that the strategy guarantees tracking errors converge to a small neighbourhood around the origin by appropriate choice of design parameters and all signals in the closed-loop system uniformly ultimately bounded. Numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
A scalable correlator for multichannel diffuse correlation spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stapels, Christopher J.; Kolodziejski, Noah J.; McAdams, Daniel; Podolsky, Matthew J.; Fernandez, Daniel E.; Farkas, Dana; Christian, James F.
2016-03-01
Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a technique which enables powerful and robust non-invasive optical studies of tissue micro-circulation and vascular blood flow. The technique amounts to autocorrelation analysis of coherent photons after their migration through moving scatterers and subsequent collection by single-mode optical fibers. A primary cost driver of DCS instruments are the commercial hardware-based correlators, limiting the proliferation of multi-channel instruments for validation of perfusion analysis as a clinical diagnostic metric. We present the development of a low-cost scalable correlator enabled by microchip-based time-tagging, and a software-based multi-tau data analysis method. We will discuss the capabilities of the instrument as well as the implementation and validation of 2- and 8-channel systems built for live animal and pre-clinical settings.
Diatloff, Eugene; Peyronnet, Rémi; Colcombet, Jean; Thomine, Sébastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène
2010-01-01
Plant genomes code for channels involved in the transport of cations, anions and uncharged molecules through membranes. Although the molecular identity of channels for cations and uncharged molecules has progressed rapidly in the recent years, the molecular identity of anion channels has lagged behind. Electrophysiological studies have identified S-type (slow) and R-type (rapid) anion channels. In this brief review, we summarize the proposed functions of the R-type anion channels which, like the S-type, were first characterized by electrophysiology over 20 years ago, but unlike the S-type, have still yet to be cloned. We show that the R-type channel can play multiple roles. PMID:21051946
Huang, Yi-Shao; Liu, Wel-Ping; Wu, Min; Wang, Zheng-Wu
2014-09-01
This paper presents a novel observer-based decentralized hybrid adaptive fuzzy control scheme for a class of large-scale continuous-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) uncertain nonlinear systems whose state variables are unmeasurable. The scheme integrates fuzzy logic systems, state observers, and strictly positive real conditions to deal with three issues in the control of a large-scale MIMO uncertain nonlinear system: algorithm design, controller singularity, and transient response. Then, the design of the hybrid adaptive fuzzy controller is extended to address a general large-scale uncertain nonlinear system. It is shown that the resultant closed-loop large-scale system keeps asymptotically stable and the tracking error converges to zero. The better characteristics of our scheme are demonstrated by simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakrabartty, Shantanu
2010-04-01
Localization of acoustic sources using miniature microphone arrays poses a significant challenge due to fundamental limitations imposed by the physics of sound propagation. With sub-wavelength distances between the microphones, resolving acute localization cues become difficult due to precision artifacts. In this work, we present the design of a miniature, microphone array sensor based on a patented Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) analog-to-feature converter (AFC) chip-sets which overcomes the limitations due to precision artifacts. Measured results from fabricated prototypes demonstrate a bearing range of 0 degrees to 90 degrees with a resolution less than 2 degrees. The power dissipation of the MIMO-ADC chip-set for this task was measured to be less than 75 microwatts making it ideal for portable, battery powered sniper and gunshot detection applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciochina, Cristina; Mottier, David; Castelain, Damien
2011-12-01
Single-carrier space frequency block coding (SC-SFBC) is an innovative mapping scheme suitable for implementing transmit diversity in single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) systems. The main advantage of SC-SFBC is that it preserves the low envelope variations of SC-FDMA, which is particularly interesting for the uplink of wireless communications systems. In this article, we apply the SC-SFBC concept in a multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) scenario. We introduce a novel algorithm allowing the optimization of the parameters of SC-SFBC to enable low-complexity decoding at the receiver side and to maximize the overall spectral occupancy in MU-MIMO SC-FDMA systems, and we show the good performance of the proposed MU scheme.
The Capacity Gain of Orbital Angular Momentum Based Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhuofan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin
2016-05-01
Wireless communication using electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has attracted increasing interest in recent years, and its potential to increase channel capacity has been explored widely. In this paper, we compare the technique of using uniform linear array consist of circular traveling-wave OAM antennas for multiplexing with the conventional multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) communication method, and numerical results show that the OAM based MIMO system can increase channel capacity while communication distance is long enough. An equivalent model is proposed to illustrate that the OAM multiplexing system is equivalent to a conventional MIMO system with a larger element spacing, which means OAM waves could decrease the spatial correlation of MIMO channel. In addition, the effects of some system parameters, such as OAM state interval and element spacing, on the capacity advantage of OAM based MIMO are also investigated. Our results reveal that OAM waves are complementary with MIMO method. OAM waves multiplexing is suitable for long-distance line-of-sight (LoS) communications or communications in open area where the multi-path effect is weak and can be used in massive MIMO systems as well.
The Capacity Gain of Orbital Angular Momentum Based Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output System
Zhang, Zhuofan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin
2016-01-01
Wireless communication using electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has attracted increasing interest in recent years, and its potential to increase channel capacity has been explored widely. In this paper, we compare the technique of using uniform linear array consist of circular traveling-wave OAM antennas for multiplexing with the conventional multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) communication method, and numerical results show that the OAM based MIMO system can increase channel capacity while communication distance is long enough. An equivalent model is proposed to illustrate that the OAM multiplexing system is equivalent to a conventional MIMO system with a larger element spacing, which means OAM waves could decrease the spatial correlation of MIMO channel. In addition, the effects of some system parameters, such as OAM state interval and element spacing, on the capacity advantage of OAM based MIMO are also investigated. Our results reveal that OAM waves are complementary with MIMO method. OAM waves multiplexing is suitable for long-distance line-of-sight (LoS) communications or communications in open area where the multi-path effect is weak and can be used in massive MIMO systems as well. PMID:27146453
The Capacity Gain of Orbital Angular Momentum Based Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output System.
Zhang, Zhuofan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin
2016-05-05
Wireless communication using electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has attracted increasing interest in recent years, and its potential to increase channel capacity has been explored widely. In this paper, we compare the technique of using uniform linear array consist of circular traveling-wave OAM antennas for multiplexing with the conventional multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) communication method, and numerical results show that the OAM based MIMO system can increase channel capacity while communication distance is long enough. An equivalent model is proposed to illustrate that the OAM multiplexing system is equivalent to a conventional MIMO system with a larger element spacing, which means OAM waves could decrease the spatial correlation of MIMO channel. In addition, the effects of some system parameters, such as OAM state interval and element spacing, on the capacity advantage of OAM based MIMO are also investigated. Our results reveal that OAM waves are complementary with MIMO method. OAM waves multiplexing is suitable for long-distance line-of-sight (LoS) communications or communications in open area where the multi-path effect is weak and can be used in massive MIMO systems as well.
Switchable topological phonon channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Süsstrunk, Roman; Zimmermann, Philipp; Huber, Sebastian D.
2017-01-01
Guiding energy deliberately is one of the central elements in engineering and information processing. It is often achieved by designing specific transport channels in a suitable material. Topological metamaterials offer a way to construct stable and efficient channels of unprecedented versatility. However, due to their stability it can be tricky to terminate them or to temporarily shut them off without changing the material properties massively. While a lot of effort was put into realizing mechanical topological metamaterials, almost no works deal with manipulating their edge channels in sight of applications. Here, we take a step in this direction, by taking advantage of local symmetry breaking potentials to build a switchable topological phonon channel.
Selfcomplementary Quantum Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smaczyński, Marek; Roga, Wojciech; Życzkowski, Karol
2016-10-01
Selfcomplementary quantum channels are characterized by such an interaction between the principal quantum system and the environment that leads to the same output states of both interacting systems. These maps can describe approximate quantum copy machines, as perfect copying of an unknown quantum state is not possible due to the celebrated no-cloning theorem. We provide here a parametrization of a large class of selfcomplementary channels and analyze their properties. Selfcomplementary channels preserve some residual coherences and residual entanglement. Investigating some measures of non-Markovianity, we show that time evolution under selfcomplementary channels is highly non-Markovian.
Valverde, Miguel A; Cantero-Recasens, Gerard; Garcia-Elias, Anna; Jung, Carole; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Vicente, Rubén
2011-09-23
Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that permit the passive flow of ions following their electrochemical gradients. In the airways, ion channels participate in the production of epithelium-based hydroelectrolytic secretions and in the control of intracellular Ca(2+) levels that will ultimately activate almost all lung cells, either resident or circulating. Thus, ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthma pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. In this minireview, we focus on molecular, genetic, and animal model studies associating ion channels with asthma.
Distributed Joint Source-Channel Coding in Wireless Sensor Networks
Zhu, Xuqi; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Lin
2009-01-01
Considering the fact that sensors are energy-limited and the wireless channel conditions in wireless sensor networks, there is an urgent need for a low-complexity coding method with high compression ratio and noise-resisted features. This paper reviews the progress made in distributed joint source-channel coding which can address this issue. The main existing deployments, from the theory to practice, of distributed joint source-channel coding over the independent channels, the multiple access channels and the broadcast channels are introduced, respectively. To this end, we also present a practical scheme for compressing multiple correlated sources over the independent channels. The simulation results demonstrate the desired efficiency. PMID:22408560
Low-Bit Rate Feedback Strategies for Iterative IA-Precoded MIMO-OFDM-Based Systems
Teodoro, Sara; Silva, Adão; Dinis, Rui; Gameiro, Atílio
2014-01-01
Interference alignment (IA) is a promising technique that allows high-capacity gains in interference channels, but which requires the knowledge of the channel state information (CSI) for all the system links. We design low-complexity and low-bit rate feedback strategies where a quantized version of some CSI parameters is fed back from the user terminal (UT) to the base station (BS), which shares it with the other BSs through a limited-capacity backhaul network. This information is then used by BSs to perform the overall IA design. With the proposed strategies, we only need to send part of the CSI information, and this can even be sent only once for a set of data blocks transmitted over time-varying channels. These strategies are applied to iterative MMSE-based IA techniques for the downlink of broadband wireless OFDM systems with limited feedback. A new robust iterative IA technique, where channel quantization errors are taken into account in IA design, is also proposed and evaluated. With our proposed strategies, we need a small number of quantization bits to transmit and share the CSI, when comparing with the techniques used in previous works, while allowing performance close to the one obtained with perfect channel knowledge. PMID:24678274
Pérez, Francisco J.; Ponce, Carolina A.; Rojas, Diego A.; Iturra, Pablo A.; Bustamante, Rebeca I.; Gallo, Myriam; Hananias, Karime; Vargas, Sergio L.
2014-01-01
Fungal colonization with Pneumocystis is associated with increased airway mucus in infants during their primary Pneumocystis infection, and to severity of COPD in adults. The pathogenic mechanisms are under investigation. Interestingly, increased levels of hCLCA1 – a member of the calcium-sensitive chloride conductance family of proteins that drives mucus hypersecretion – have been associated with increased mucus production in patients diagnosed with COPD and in immunocompetent rodents with Pneumocystis infection. Pneumocystis is highly prevalent in infants; therefore, the contribution of Pneumocystis to hCLCA1 expression was examined in autopsied infant lungs. Respiratory viruses that may potentially increase mucus, were also examined. hCLCA1 expression was measured using actin-normalized Western-blot, and the burden of Pneumocystis organisms was quantified by qPCR in 55 autopsied lungs from apparently healthy infants who died in the community. Respiratory viruses were diagnosed using RT-PCR for RSV, metapneumovirus, influenza, and parainfluenza viruses; and by PCR for adenovirus. hCLCA1 levels in virus positive samples were comparable to those in virus-negative samples. An association between Pneumocystis and increased hCLCA1 expression was documented (P=0.028). Additionally, increasing Pneumocystis burden correlated with increasing hCLCA1 protein expression levels (P=0.017). Results strengthen the evidence of Pneumocystis-associated up-regulation of mucus-related airway responses in infant lungs. Further characterization of this immunocompetent host-Pneumocystis-interaction, including assessment of potential clinical significance, is warranted. PMID:25379375
A linearization of quantum channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crowder, Tanner
2015-06-01
Because the quantum channels form a compact, convex set, we can express any quantum channel as a convex combination of extremal channels. We give a Euclidean representation for the channels whose inverses are also valid channels; these are a subset of the extreme points. They form a compact, connected Lie group, and we calculate its Lie algebra. Lastly, we calculate a maximal torus for the group and provide a constructive approach to decomposing any invertible channel into a product of elementary channels.
Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier
2010-08-01
Ion channels play essential roles in human physiology and toxicology. Cardiac contraction, neural transmission, temperature sensing, insulin release, regulation of apoptosis, cellular pH and oxidative stress, as well as detection of active compounds from chilli, are some of the processes in which ion channels have an important role. Regulation of ion channels by several chemicals including those found in air, water and soil represents an interesting potential link between environmental pollution and human diseases; for instance, de novo expression of ion channels in response to exposure to carcinogens is being considered as a potential tool for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Non-specific binding of several drugs to ion channels is responsible for a huge number of undesirable side-effects, and testing guidelines for several drugs now require ion channel screening for pharmaceutical safety. Animal toxins targeting human ion channels have serious effects on the population and have also provided a remarkable tool to study the molecular structure and function of ion channels. In this review, we will summarize the participation of ion channels in biological processes extensively used in toxicological studies, including cardiac function, apoptosis and cell proliferation. Major findings on the adverse effects of drugs on ion channels as well as the regulation of these proteins by different chemicals, including some pesticides, are also reviewed. Association of ion channels and toxicology in several biological processes strongly suggests these proteins to be excellent candidates to follow the toxic effects of xenobiotics, and as potential early indicators of life-threatening situations including chronic degenerative diseases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cashman, K. V.; Griffiths, R. W.; Kerr, R. C.
2004-12-01
In Hawaii, the mode of lava transport - through open channels or through insulating lava tubes - determines the thermal, rheological, and emplacement history of a lava flow. Most Hawaiian lavas are erupted at near-liquidus temperatures and are therefore crystal-poor; lava transport through open channels allows rapid cooling and consequent rapid increases in lava crystallinity. Solidified aa flows resulting from channelized flow are typically fine-grained throughout their thickness, indicating cooling of the entire flow thickness during transport. In contrast, transport of lava through insulating tubes permits flow over long distances with little cooling. Flows emerging from such tubes typically have pahoehoe flow surfaces with glassy crusts. Groundmass textures that coarsen from the flow rind to the interior reflect rates of post-emplacement, rather than syn-emplacement, cooling. To distinguish eruption conditions that result in lava channels from those that allow formation of lava tubes, we have performed a series of laboratory experiments involving injection of PEG 600 (a wax with a Newtonian rheology and freezing temperature of 19ºC) into cold water through both uniform and non-uniform sloping channels. In uniform channels, tube formation can be distinguished from open channel flow using a dimensionless parameter based on a solidification time scale, an advection time scale, and a Rayleigh number that describes convection by heat loss from crust-free shear zones. Theoretical analysis predicts that in the open channel regime, the width of the crust (dc) will vary with the channel width (W) as dc = W5/3. Crustal coverage of non-uniform channels in both laboratory experiments and field examples from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, is consistent with this prediction. However, experiments in non-uniform channels illustrate additional controls on the surface coverage of lava channels. Most important is crustal extension resulting from flow acceleration through constrictions
Hematite at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater as identified by the Moessbauer Spectrometer MIMOS II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Rodionov, D.; Schroeder, C.; de Souza, P. A.; Yen, A.; Renz, F.; Wdowiak, T.
2004-12-01
The Moessbauer (MB) spectrometers on the MER rovers Opportunity and Spirit, which landed on Mars in January 2004, have identified the iron-containing mineral hematite (a-Fe2O3) at both landing sites. On Earth, hematite can occur either by itself or with other iron oxides as massive deposits, in veins , and as particles dispersed through a silicate or other matrix material. Hematite particle size can range from nanophase (superparamagnetic) to multidomain and particle shape ranges from equant to acicular to platy. Fine-grained hematite is red in color and is a pigmenting agent. Coarse-grained hematite can be spectrally neutral (gray) at visible wavelengths. Substitutional impurities, particularly Al, are common in hematite. Chemically pure, coarse-grained, and well-crystalline hematite has a magnetic transition (the Morin transition) at ~260 K. Moessbauer spectra, recorded as a function of temperature, provide a way to characterize Martian hematite with respect to some of the physical and chemical characteristics. At Meridiani Planum besides the iron-sulfate mineral jarosite also the Fe-oxide hematite has been identified by the Moessbauer spectrometer, mainly in three distinct types of reservoir: - outcrop matrix material dominated by the mineral jarosite in the MB spectrum, certain basaltic soils, and mm-sized spherules dubbed blueberries. Moessbauer spectra of each reservoir yield a distinct set of hyperfine parameters for hematite, suggesting different degrees of crystallinity and particle size. The hematite found by MB instrument MIMOS II in the outcrop material shows the Morin transition at relatively high temperatures (ca. 250 K) which is an indication of pure and well-crystallized hematite. The source of the hematite in the `Blueberries' as identified by Moessbauer spectroscopy, and also by MiniTES, is not known. These spherules, covering nearly the whole landing site area (Eagle crater, plains, Endurance crater), may be concretions formed in the outcrop
Martinac, Boris; Saimi, Yoshiro; Kung, Ching
2008-01-01
Summary Studies of ion channels have for long been dominated by the animalcentric, if not anthropocentric view of physiology. The structures and activities of ion channels had, however, evolved long before the appearance of complex multicellular organisms on Earth. The diversity of ion channels existing in cellular membranes of prokaryotes is a good example. Though at first it may appear as a paradox that most of what we know about the structure of eukaryotic ion channels is based on the structure of bacterial channels, this should not be surprising given the evolutionary relatedness of all living organisms and suitability of microbial cells for structural studies of biological macromolecules in a laboratory environment. Genome sequences of the human as well as various microbial, plant and animal organisms unambiguously established the evolutionary links, whereas crystallographic studies of the structures of major types of ion channels published over the last decade clearly demonstrated the advantage of using microbes as experimental organisms. The purpose of this review is not only to provide an account of acquired knowledge on microbial ion channels but also to show that the study of microbes and their ion channels may also hold a key to solving unresolved molecular mysteries in the future. PMID:18923187
Athermalized channeled spectropolarimeter enhancement.
Jones, Julia Craven; Way, Brandyn Michael; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Hunt, Jeffery P.
2013-09-01
Channeled spectropolarimetry can measure the complete polarization state of light as a function of wavelength. Typically, a channeled spectropolarimeter uses high order retarders made of uniaxial crystal to amplitude modulate the measured spectrum with the spectrally-dependent Stokes polarization information. A primary limitation of conventional channeled spectropolarimeters is related to the thermal variability of the retarders. Thermal variation often forces frequent system recalibration, particularly for field deployed systems. However, implementing thermally stable retarders, made of biaxial crystal, results in an athermal channeled spectropolarimeter that relieves the need for frequent recalibration. This report presents experimental results for an anthermalized channeled spectropolarimeter prototype produced using potassium titanyl phosphate. The results of this prototype are compared to the current thermal stabilization state of the art. Finally, the application of the technique to the thermal infrared is studied, and the athermalization concept is applied to an infrared imaging spectropolarimeter design.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, V. R.
1982-01-01
Early observations of Mars conducted by means of telescopes are considered. Secchi introduced the Italian word 'canale' ('channel') in 1869 to describe apparent lines on the planet's surface. Between 1877 and 1888 Schiaparelli mapped a profusion of 'canali'. Schiaparelli's work led to famous controversies about Mars. This book attempts to investigate the puzzle posed by the Martian channels, taking into account also the results of the studies conducted with the aid of the two orbiting Viking spacecraft which have produced a total number of nearly 60,000 pictures. The channel types are discussed along with questions regarding the distribution, the ages, and the proposed origins of the channels. Attention is given to the geomorphology of Mars, the patterns and networks of Martian valleys, ice and the Martian surface, the outflow channels, catastrophic flood processes, questions of analogy between terrestrial and Martian geographic features, and Martian phenomena associated with water liquid or water ice.
Multichannel correlation recognition method of optical images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongxia; He, Junfa; Sun, Honghui
2000-10-01
In this paper a multi-channel real-time hybrid joint transform correlator is proposed. In this correlator, the computer control is used to divide the screen into several equal size windows, reference images of the windows are all the same one and object images are adopted from different frames of image sequences by CCD, twice Fourier transforms of every channel images are realized by using hololens array. Areas of LCLV and the output light energy can be used effectively. The correlation performance can be improved.
Active dendrites, potassium channels and synaptic plasticity.
Johnston, Daniel; Christie, Brian R; Frick, Andreas; Gray, Richard; Hoffman, Dax A; Schexnayder, Lalania K; Watanabe, Shigeo; Yuan, Li-Lian
2003-01-01
The dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus express numerous types of voltage-gated ion channel, but the distributions or densities of many of these channels are very non-uniform. Sodium channels in the dendrites are responsible for action potential (AP) propagation from the axon into the dendrites (back-propagation); calcium channels are responsible for local changes in dendritic calcium concentrations following back-propagating APs and synaptic potentials; and potassium channels help regulate overall dendritic excitability. Several lines of evidence are presented here to suggest that back-propagating APs, when coincident with excitatory synaptic input, can lead to the induction of either long-term depression (LTD) or long-term potentiation (LTP). The induction of LTD or LTP is correlated with the magnitude of the rise in intracellular calcium. When brief bursts of synaptic potentials are paired with postsynaptic APs in a theta-burst pairing paradigm, the induction of LTP is dependent on the invasion of the AP into the dendritic tree. The amplitude of the AP in the dendrites is dependent, in part, on the activity of a transient, A-type potassium channel that is expressed at high density in the dendrites and correlates with the induction of the LTP. Furthermore, during the expression phase of the LTP, there are local changes in dendritic excitability that may result from modulation of the functioning of this transient potassium channel. The results support the view that the active properties of dendrites play important roles in synaptic integration and synaptic plasticity of these neurons. PMID:12740112
Glossmann, H.; Ferry, D.R.
1985-01-01
This chapter focuses on biochemical assays for Ca/sup 2 +/-selective channels in electrically excitable membranes which are blocked in electrophysiological and pharmacological experiments by verapamil, 1,4-dihydropyridines, diltiazen (and various other drugs), as well as inorganic di- or trivalent cations. The strategy employed is to use radiolabeled 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives which block calcium channels with ED/sub 50/ values in the nanomolar range. Although tritiated d-cis-diltiazem and verapamil can be used to label calcium channels, the 1,4-dihydropyridines offer numerous advantages. The various sections cover tissue specificity of channel labeling, the complex interactions of divalent cations with the (/sup 3/H)nimodipine-labeled calcium channels, and the allosteric regulation of (/sup 3/H)nimodipine binding by the optically pure enantiomers of phenylalkylamine and benzothiazepine calcium channel blockers. A comparison of the properties of different tritiated 1,4-dihydropyridine radioligands and the iodinated channel probe (/sup 125/I)iodipine is given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
A color image of fine channel networks on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows heavily cratered highlands dissected by dendritic open channel networks that dissect steep slopes of impact crater walls. This image is a composite of Viking high-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 9 degrees S. to 5 degrees S. and from longitude 312 degrees to 320 degrees; Mercator projection. The dendritic pattern of the fine channels and their location on steep slopes leads to the interpretation that these are runoff channels. The restriction of these types of channels to ancient highland rocks suggests that these channels are old and date from a time on Mars when conditions existed for precipitation to actively erode rocks. After the channels reach a low plain, they appear to end. Termination may have resulted from burial by younger deposits or perhaps the flows percolated into the surface materials and continued underground.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Morris, Richard; Blumers, Mathias; Girones-Lopez, Jordi; Bernhardt, Bodo; Henkel, Hartmut; D'Uston, Claude; Brueckner, Johannes; Rodionov, Daniel; Strueder, Lothar
The Miniaturised Mössbauer Spectrometers MIMOS II on board the two NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) have now collected valuable scientific data for more than ten years [1-4]. This mission has demonstrated that Mössbauer spectroscopy is extremely valuable for the in situ exploration of extraterrestrial bodies and the study of Fe-bearing samples. A MIMOS instrument was also on the scientific payload of the Russian mission Phobos Grunt [5]. The instrument MIMOS IIA originally developed for the ESA ExoMars mission (now 2018) will use newly de-signed Si-Drift detectors with circular geometry (SDD) [6,7] allowing high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy simultaneously to Mössbauer measurements. The new design of the improved MIMOS II instrument is reduced in total mass (less than 400 g). The sensorhead of MIMOS IIA will be equipped with a ring of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) optimized for the backscatter geometry of the miniaturized Mössbauer spectrometer. The main goal of the new detector system design was to combine high energy resolution at high counting rates and large detector area while making maximum use of the area close to the collimator of the 57Co Mössbauer source. The active area per SDD segment is 2x45 mm2. The energy resolution at 5.9 keV is < 280 eV at room temperature and 131 eV FWHM at -40oC. This performance will increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce the integration time of Mössbauer measurement by a factor of up to 10. In addition to the Mössbauer analysis simultaneous acquisition of the X-ray fluorescence spectrum will provide data on the sample's elemental composition [7]. Preliminary studies at room temperature and normal pressure show detection of X-rays down to ~1 keV. A new control- and readout electronics for MIMOS IIA allows spectra acquisition at highest possible countrates available at about 360 mm2 total detector area. A prototype of MIMOS IIA has been tested successfully during a field test at Mauna Kea
Measured channel parameters for the disturbed wide-bandwidth HF channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissen, Christopher A.; Bello, Phillip A.
2003-04-01
The wideband HF (WBHF) channel impulse response measurements presented here were taken over a high-latitude auroral path using the MITRE experimental WBHF test facility. A nominal instantaneous bandwidth of 1 MHz was used for the majority of the tests. These tests took place from 14 March through 1 April 1992 over a path from Sondrestrom AFB, Greenland, to Bedford, Massachusetts, a distance of approximately 3,100 km. The measurements were made using a direct-sequence pseudo-noise (DSPN) channel probe with a (±180°) chip modulation and chip rate of 1024 kchips/second. Complex channel impulse response values at increments of 500 nanoseconds in delay were derived by correlating the received signal with a set of local DSPN references uniformly spaced in delay over a delay range of 2 ms. Each of these channel impulse response values was sampled in time at a rate of up to 62.5 samples per second, resulting in the ability to observe (one-sided) Doppler spectra and shifts of up to 31.25 Hz. From these measurements, the channel scattering function, rms (2σ) Doppler spread, rms (2σ) Delay spread, Doppler shift, and rms (2σ) spread factor were calculated. In addition, for the first time, the impulse response correlation along the delay axis was calculated. These latter measurements support the use of an uncorrelated scattering hypothesis in modeling the disturbed WBHF channel.
Nicklaus, Dennis J.
2013-10-13
We have developed an Erlang language implementation of the Channel Access protocol. Included are low-level functions for encoding and decoding Channel Access protocol network packets as well as higher level functions for monitoring or setting EPICS process variables. This provides access to EPICS process variables for the Fermilab Acnet control system via our Erlang-based front-end architecture without having to interface to C/C++ programs and libraries. Erlang is a functional programming language originally developed for real-time telecommunications applications. Its network programming features and list management functions make it particularly well-suited for the task of managing multiple Channel Access circuits and PV monitors.
Fractional channel multichannel analyzer
Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.
1994-01-01
A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.
Fractional channel multichannel analyzer
Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.
1994-08-23
A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.
Temporal channels and disparity representations in stereoscopic depth perception.
Doi, Takahiro; Takano, Maki; Fujita, Ichiro
2013-11-26
Stereoscopic depth perception is supported by a combination of correlation-based and match-based representations of binocular disparity. It also relies on both transient and sustained temporal channels of the visual system. Previous studies suggest that the relative contribution of the correlation-based representation (over the match-based representation) and the transient channel (over the sustained channel) to depth perception increases with the disparity magnitude. The mechanisms of the correlation-based and match-based representations may receive preferential inputs from the transient and sustained channels, respectively. We examined near/far discrimination by observers using random-dot stereograms refreshed at various rates. The relative contribution of the two representations was inferred by changing the fraction of dots that were contrast reversed between the two eyes. Both representations contributed to depth discrimination over the tested range of refresh rates. As the rate increased, the correlation-based representation increased its contribution to near/far discrimination. Another experiment revealed that the match-based representation was constructed by exploiting the variability in correlation-based disparity signals. Thus, the relative weight of the transient over sustained channel differs between the two representations. The correlation-based representation dominates depth perception with dynamic inputs. The match-based representation, which may be a nonlinear refinement of the correlation-based representation, exerts more influence on depth perception with slower inputs.
Burnett, T. L.; McDonald, S. A.; Gholinia, A.; Geurts, R.; Janus, M.; Slater, T.; Haigh, S. J.; Ornek, C.; Almuaili, F.; Engelberg, D. L.; Thompson, G. E.; Withers, P. J.
2014-01-01
Increasingly researchers are looking to bring together perspectives across multiple scales, or to combine insights from different techniques, for the same region of interest. To this end, correlative microscopy has already yielded substantial new insights in two dimensions (2D). Here we develop correlative tomography where the correlative task is somewhat more challenging because the volume of interest is typically hidden beneath the sample surface. We have threaded together x-ray computed tomography, serial section FIB-SEM tomography, electron backscatter diffraction and finally TEM elemental analysis all for the same 3D region. This has allowed observation of the competition between pitting corrosion and intergranular corrosion at multiple scales revealing the structural hierarchy, crystallography and chemistry of veiled corrosion pits in stainless steel. With automated correlative workflows and co-visualization of the multi-scale or multi-modal datasets the technique promises to provide insights across biological, geological and materials science that are impossible using either individual or multiple uncorrelated techniques. PMID:24736640
Cooperative gating between ion channels.
Choi, Kee-Hyun
2014-01-01
Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.
Ion Channels in Epithelial Cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmer, Lawrence G.
Ion channels in epithelial cells serve to move ions, and in some cases fluid, between compartments of the body. This function of the transfer of material is fundamentally different from that of the transfer of information, which is the main job of most channels in excitable cells. Nevertheless the basic construction of the channels is similar in many respects in the two tissue types. This chapter reviews the nature of channels in epithelia and discusses how their functions have evolved to accomplish the basic tasks for which they are responsible. I will focus on three channel types: epithelial Na+ channels, inward-rectifier K+ channels, and CFTR Cl- channels.
SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.
1989-01-01
Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mclyman, W. T.
1981-01-01
Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
White, A. S.
1976-01-01
Describes a simple water channel, for use with an overhead projector. It is run from a water tap and may be used for flow visualization experiments, including the effect of streamlining and elementary building aerodynamics. (MLH)
Chondrocyte channel transcriptomics
Lewis, Rebecca; May, Hannah; Mobasheri, Ali; Barrett-Jolley, Richard
2013-01-01
To date, a range of ion channels have been identified in chondrocytes using a number of different techniques, predominantly electrophysiological and/or biomolecular; each of these has its advantages and disadvantages. Here we aim to compare and contrast the data available from biophysical and microarray experiments. This letter analyses recent transcriptomics datasets from chondrocytes, accessible from the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). We discuss whether such bioinformatic analysis of microarray datasets can potentially accelerate identification and discovery of ion channels in chondrocytes. The ion channels which appear most frequently across these microarray datasets are discussed, along with their possible functions. We discuss whether functional or protein data exist which support the microarray data. A microarray experiment comparing gene expression in osteoarthritis and healthy cartilage is also discussed and we verify the differential expression of 2 of these genes, namely the genes encoding large calcium-activated potassium (BK) and aquaporin channels. PMID:23995703
... such as high blood pressure, chest pain and Raynaud's disease. Find out more about this class of medication. ... Irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia) Some circulatory conditions, such as Raynaud's disease For black people and older people, calcium channel ...
Pupo, Amaury; Baez-Nieto, David; Martínez, Agustín; Latorre, Ramón; González, Carlos
2014-01-01
Voltage-gated proton channels are integral membrane proteins with the capacity to permeate elementary particles in a voltage and pH dependent manner. These proteins have been found in several species and are involved in various physiological processes. Although their primary topology is known, lack of details regarding their structures in the open conformation has limited analyses toward a deeper understanding of the molecular determinants of their function and regulation. Consequently, the function-structure relationships have been inferred based on homology models. In the present work, we review the existing proton channel models, their assumptions, predictions and the experimental facts that support them. Modeling proton channels is not a trivial task due to the lack of a close homolog template. Hence, there are important differences between published models. This work attempts to critically review existing proton channel models toward the aim of contributing to a better understanding of the structural features of these proteins. PMID:24755912
Multicarrier chaotic communications in multipath fading channels without channel estimation
Wang, Shilian Zhang, Zhili
2015-01-15
A multi-carrier chaotic shift keying(MC-CSK) communication scheme with low probability of interception(LPI) is proposed in this article. We apply chaotic spreading sequences in the frequency domain, mapping a different chip of a chaotic sequence to an individual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) subcarrier. In each block size of $M$ OFDM symbols, we use one pilot OFDM symbol inserted time-spaced in all-frequency to transmit the reference chaotic signal and use the other M-1 OFDM symbols to transmit the information-bearing signals each spreaded by the reference chaotic signal. At the receiver, we construct a differential detector after DFT and recover the information bits from the correlations between the pilot OFDM symbol and the other M-1 OFDM symbols in each block size of M. Performance analysis and computer simulations show that the MC-CSK outperforms differential chaos shift keying(DCSK) in AWGN channels with high bandwidth efficiency for the block size of M=2 and that the MC-CSK exploits effectively the frequent diversity of the multipath channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nihei, Kurt T.; Yi, Weidong; Myer, Larry R.; Cook, Neville G. W.; Schoenberg, Michael
1999-03-01
The properties of guided waves which propagate between two parallel fractures are examined. Plane wave analysis is used to obtain a dispersion equation for the velocities of fracture channel waves. Analysis of this equation demonstrates that parallel fractures form an elastic waveguide that supports two symmetric and two antisymmetric dispersive Rayleigh channel waves, each with particle motions and velocities that are sensitive to the normal and tangential stiffnesses of the fractures. These fracture channel waves degenerate to shear waves when the fracture stiffnesses are large, to Rayleigh waves and Rayleigh-Lamb plate waves when the fracture stiffnesses are low, and to fracture interface waves when the fractures are either very closely spaced or widely separated. For intermediate fracture stiffnesses typical of fractured rock masses, fracture channel waves are dispersive and exhibit moderate to strong localization of guided wave energy between the fractures. The existence of these waves is examined using laboratory acoustic measurements on a fractured marble plate. This experiment confirms the distinct particle motion of the fundamental antisymmetric fracture channel wave (A0 mode) and demonstrates the ease with which a fracture channel wave can be generated and detected.
Wanitchakool, Podchanart; Ousingsawat, Jiraporn; Sirianant, Lalida; MacAulay, Nanna; Schreiber, Rainer; Kunzelmann, Karl
2016-10-01
A remarkable feature of apoptosis is the initial massive cell shrinkage, which requires opening of ion channels to allow release of K(+), Cl(-), and organic osmolytes to drive osmotic water movement and cell shrinkage. This article focuses on the role of the Cl(-) channels LRRC8, TMEM16/anoctamin, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in cellular apoptosis. LRRC8A-E has been identified as a volume-regulated anion channel expressed in many cell types. It was shown to be required for regulatory and apoptotic volume decrease (RVD, AVD) in cultured cell lines. Its presence also determines sensitivity towards cytostatic drugs such as cisplatin. Recent data point to a molecular and functional relationship of LRRC8A and anoctamins (ANOs). ANO6, 9, and 10 (TMEM16F, J, and K) augment apoptotic Cl(-) currents and AVD, but it remains unclear whether these anoctamins operate as Cl(-) channels or as regulators of other apoptotic Cl(-) channels, such as LRRC8. CFTR has been known for its proapoptotic effects for some time, and this effect may be based on glutathione release from the cell and increase in cytosolic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Although we find that CFTR is activated by cell swelling, it is possible that CFTR serves RVD/AVD through accumulation of ROS and activation of independent membrane channels such as ANO6. Thus activation of ANO6 will support cell shrinkage and induce additional apoptotic events, such as membrane phospholipid scrambling.
Channel fill characteristics in submarine fans and deltas
Bouma, A.H.; Goddard, D. )
1993-02-01
Excellent data sources may not answer all pertinent questions and multifold seismic data usually cannot resolve internal characteristics of channel fills, even when it can detect the channel. Well log correlations can be wrong, especially when dealing with thin channel fills and outcrops are seldom sufficiently large to reveal a complete channel fill. In the final analysis, integration of all these types of data is necessary. Although not well understood, a lot of similarities exist between the channel fills from submarine fans and those from deltas. It is definitely beneficial to compare data from both environments. Channels and their fills can be: (1) primarily the result of major erosion forming an incisement that becomes gradually filled; (2) primarily the result of deposition, maintaining a channel, gradually filling it and simultaneously building its levees; (3) massive fill; (4) a bedded fill with or without an upward and/or lateral thinning or fining; or (5) a combination of thick bedded and thin bedded. Many channels alternate between erosional and depositional activities. Often an erosional cut is lined with shale, reducing fluid flow between channel sandstones and those of the levees. Also, a thorough knowledge of all of these varied processes is essential for the understanding of why [open quotes]massive[close quotes] channel fills can be wet and [open quotes]thin-bedded levees[close quotes] deposits oil prone.
Markov modeling of ion channels: implications for understanding disease.
Lampert, Angelika; Korngreen, Alon
2014-01-01
Ion channels are the bridge between the biochemical and electrical domains of our life. These membrane crossing proteins use the electric energy stored in transmembrane ion gradients, which are produced by biochemical activity to generate ionic currents. Each ion channel can be imagined as a small power plant similar to a hydroelectric power station, in which potential energy is converted into electric current. This current drives basically all physiological mechanisms of our body. It is clear that a functional blueprint of these amazing cellular power plants is essential for understanding the principle of all aspects of physiology, particularly neurophysiology. The golden path toward this blueprint starts with the biophysical investigation of ion channel activity and continues through detailed numerical modeling of these channels that will eventually lead to a full system-level description of cellular and organ physiology. Here, we discuss the first two stages of this process focusing on voltage-gated channels, particularly the voltage-gated sodium channel which is neurologically and pathologically important. We first detail the correlations between the known structure of the channel and its activity and describe some pathologies. We then provide a hands-on description of Markov modeling for voltage-gated channels. These two sections of the chapter highlight the dichotomy between the vast amounts of electrophysiological data available on voltage-gated channels and the relatively meager number of physiologically relevant models for these channels.
Separate-channel analysis of two-channel microarrays: recovering inter-spot information
2013-01-01
Background Two-channel (or two-color) microarrays are cost-effective platforms for comparative analysis of gene expression. They are traditionally analysed in terms of the log-ratios (M-values) of the two channel intensities at each spot, but this analysis does not use all the information available in the separate channel observations. Mixed models have been proposed to analyse intensities from the two channels as separate observations, but such models can be complex to use and the gain in efficiency over the log-ratio analysis is difficult to quantify. Mixed models yield test statistics for the null distributions can be specified only approximately, and some approaches do not borrow strength between genes. Results This article reformulates the mixed model to clarify the relationship with the traditional log-ratio analysis, to facilitate information borrowing between genes, and to obtain an exact distributional theory for the resulting test statistics. The mixed model is transformed to operate on the M-values and A-values (average log-expression for each spot) instead of on the log-expression values. The log-ratio analysis is shown to ignore information contained in the A-values. The relative efficiency of the log-ratio analysis is shown to depend on the size of the intraspot correlation. A new separate channel analysis method is proposed that assumes a constant intra-spot correlation coefficient across all genes. This approach permits the mixed model to be transformed into an ordinary linear model, allowing the data analysis to use a well-understood empirical Bayes analysis pipeline for linear modeling of microarray data. This yields statistically powerful test statistics that have an exact distributional theory. The log-ratio, mixed model and common correlation methods are compared using three case studies. The results show that separate channel analyses that borrow strength between genes are more powerful than log-ratio analyses. The common correlation analysis
A RD-ESPRIT algorithm for coherent DOA estimation in monostatic MIMO radar using a single pulse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiaofei
2014-08-01
This paper discusses the problem of coherent direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in a monostatic multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar using a single pulse, and proposes a reduced dimension (RD)-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm. We reconstruct the received data and then utilise it to construct a set of Toeplitz matrices. After that, we use RD-ESPRIT to obtain the DOAs of the sources. The proposed algorithm is effective for coherent angle estimation based on a single pulse, and it has much better angle estimation performance than the forward backward spatial smoothing (FBSS)-ESPRIT algorithm and the ESPRIT-like of Li, as well as very close angle estimation performance to the ESPRIT-like of Han. For complexity comparison, our algorithm has very close complexity to the FBSS-ESPRIT algorithm, and lower complexity than the ESPRIT-like of Han and the ESPRIT-like of Li. Simulation results present the effectiveness and improvement of our approach.
Peng, Yuyang; Choi, Jaeho
2014-01-01
Improving the energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks (WSN) has attracted considerable attention nowadays. The multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique has been proved as a good candidate for improving the energy efficiency, but it may not be feasible in WSN which is due to the size limitation of the sensor node. As a solution, the cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (CMIMO) technique overcomes this constraint and shows a dramatically good performance. In this paper, a new CMIMO scheme based on the spatial modulation (SM) technique named CMIMO-SM is proposed for energy-efficiency improvement. We first establish the system model of CMIMO-SM. Based on this model, the transmission approach is introduced graphically. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, a detailed analysis in terms of energy consumption per bit of the proposed scheme compared with the conventional CMIMO is presented. Later, under the guide of this new scheme we extend our proposed CMIMO-SM to a multihop clustered WSN for further achieving energy efficiency by finding an optimal hop-length. Equidistant hop as the traditional scheme will be compared in this paper. Results from the simulations and numerical experiments indicate that by the use of the proposed scheme, significant savings in terms of total energy consumption can be achieved. Combining the proposed scheme with monitoring sensor node will provide a good performance in arbitrary deployed WSN such as forest fire detection system.
Improving Bandwidth Utilization in a 1 Tbps Airborne MIMO Communications Downlink
2013-03-21
number of transmitters). C = log2 ∣∣∣∣∣INr + EsNtN0 HHH ∣∣∣∣∣ (2.32) In the signal to noise ratio, Es represents the total energy from all transmitters...channel matrix pseudo-inverse is computed by (2.36) [6, p. 970] 31 H+ = ( HHH )−1HH. (2.36) 2.6.5 Minimum Mean-Squared Error Detection. Minimum Mean Squared...H† = ( HHH + Nt SNR I )−1 HH . (3.14) Equation (3.14) was defined in [2] as an implementation of a MMSE equalizer, and was applied to the received
Statistical Beamforming for Interference Mitigation in Multi-cell Massive MIMO Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Anzhong
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a statistical beamforming approach to mitigate interference in multi-cell massive multiple-input multiple-output systems. The proposed approach projects the signal subspace onto the null space of the interference to form the weight vector with the statistical channel state information. In contrast to the existing methods which only utilize the partial null space of the interference, the proposed approach can collect more signal when mitigating the interference. In addition, the large system analysis demonstrates that the interference is eliminated with uniform rectangular arrays. Numerical results show that the proposed approach can achieve higher sum rate than the existing methods and verify the performance analysis.
Premkumar, Louis S; Abooj, Mruvil
2013-03-19
Since cloning and characterizing the first nociceptive ion channel Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), other TRP channels involved in nociception have been cloned and characterized, which include TRP Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), TRP Vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), TRP Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), TRP Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), more recently TRP Canonical 1, 5, 6 (TRPC1, 5, 6), TRP Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and TRP Melastatin 3 (TRPM3). These channels are predominantly expressed in C and Aδ nociceptors and transmit noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivities. TRP channels are modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides and cytokines. Significant advances have been made targeting these receptors either by antagonists or agonists to treat painful conditions. In this review, we will discuss TRP channels as targets for next generation analgesics and the side effects that may ensue as a result of blocking/activating these receptors, because they are also involved in physiological functions such as release of vasoactive neuropeptides and regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of the body temperature, gastrointestinal motility, urinary bladder control, etc.
Premkumar, Louis S.; Abooj, Mruvil
2013-01-01
Since cloning and characterizing the first nociceptive ion channel Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), other TRP channels involved in nociception have been cloned and characterized, which include TRP Vanilloid 2 (TRPV2), TRP Vanilloid 3 (TRPV3), TRP Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), TRP Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and TRP Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), more recently TRP Canonical 1, 5, 6 (TRPC1, 5, 6), TRP Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) and TRP Melastatin 3 (TRPM3). These channels are predominantly expressed in C and Aδ nociceptors and transmit noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical sensitivities. TRP channels are modulated by pro-inflammatory mediators, neuropeptides and cytokines. Significant advances have been made targeting these receptors either by antagonists or agonists to treat painful conditions. In this review, we will discuss TRP channels as targets for next generation analgesics and the side effects that may ensue as a result of blocking/activating these receptors, because they are also involved in physiological functions such as release of vasoactive neuropeptides and regulation of vascular tone, maintenance of the body temperature, gastrointestinal motility, urinary bladder control etc. PMID:22910182
Calcium channels and migraine.
Pietrobon, Daniela
2013-07-01
Missense mutations in CACNA1A, the gene that encodes the pore-forming α1 subunit of human voltage-gated Ca(V)2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels, cause a rare form of migraine with aura (familial hemiplegic migraine type 1: FHM1). Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder whose key manifestations are recurrent attacks of unilateral headache that may be preceded by transient neurological aura symptoms. This review, first, briefly summarizes current understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms that are believed to underlie migraine headache, migraine aura and the onset of a migraine attack, and briefly describes the localization and function of neuronal Ca(V)2.1 channels in the brain regions that have been implicated in migraine pathogenesis. Then, the review describes and discusses i) the functional consequences of FHM1 mutations on the biophysical properties of recombinant human Ca(V)2.1 channels and native Ca(V)2.1 channels in neurons of knockin mouse models carrying the mild R192Q or severe S218L mutations in the orthologous gene, and ii) the functional consequences of these mutations on neurophysiological processes in the cerebral cortex and trigeminovascular system thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of migraine, and the insights into migraine mechanisms obtained from the functional analysis of these processes in FHM1 knockin mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium channels.
Channel Identification Machines
Lazar, Aurel A.; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B.
2012-01-01
We present a formal methodology for identifying a channel in a system consisting of a communication channel in cascade with an asynchronous sampler. The channel is modeled as a multidimensional filter, while models of asynchronous samplers are taken from neuroscience and communications and include integrate-and-fire neurons, asynchronous sigma/delta modulators and general oscillators in cascade with zero-crossing detectors. We devise channel identification algorithms that recover a projection of the filter(s) onto a space of input signals loss-free for both scalar and vector-valued test signals. The test signals are modeled as elements of a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) with a Dirichlet kernel. Under appropriate limiting conditions on the bandwidth and the order of the test signal space, the filter projection converges to the impulse response of the filter. We show that our results hold for a wide class of RKHSs, including the space of finite-energy bandlimited signals. We also extend our channel identification results to noisy circuits. PMID:23227035
MEMS in microfluidic channels.
Ashby, Carol Iris Hill; Okandan, Murat; Michalske, Terry A.; Sounart, Thomas L.; Matzke, Carolyn M.
2004-03-01
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) comprise a new class of devices that include various forms of sensors and actuators. Recent studies have shown that microscale cantilever structures are able to detect a wide range of chemicals, biomolecules or even single bacterial cells. In this approach, cantilever deflection replaces optical fluorescence detection thereby eliminating complex chemical tagging steps that are difficult to achieve with chip-based architectures. A key challenge to utilizing this new detection scheme is the incorporation of functionalized MEMS structures within complex microfluidic channel architectures. The ability to accomplish this integration is currently limited by the processing approaches used to seal lids on pre-etched microfluidic channels. This report describes Sandia's first construction of MEMS instrumented microfluidic chips, which were fabricated by combining our leading capabilities in MEMS processing with our low-temperature photolithographic method for fabricating microfluidic channels. We have explored in-situ cantilevers and other similar passive MEMS devices as a new approach to directly sense fluid transport, and have successfully monitored local flow rates and viscosities within microfluidic channels. Actuated MEMS structures have also been incorporated into microfluidic channels, and the electrical requirements for actuation in liquids have been quantified with an elegant theory. Electrostatic actuation in water has been accomplished, and a novel technique for monitoring local electrical conductivities has been invented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Blumers, Mathias; Girones-Lopez, Jordi; Bernhardt, Bodo; Lechner, Peter; Str, Lothar; Maul, Jasmine; Soltau, Heike; Henkel, Hartmut; Br, Johannes; Claude, D.; Henrich, Cristina
The Miniaturised Müssbauer Spectrometers MIMOS II on board the two NASA Mars Explo-o ration Rovers (MER) have now collected valuable scientific data for more than six years [1-4]. This mission has demonstrated that Müss-bauer spectroscopy is extremely valuable for the in situ exploration of extraterrestrial bodies and the study of Fe-bearing samples. A MIMOS instrument is also on the scientific payload of the Russian mission Phobos Grunt sched-uled for 2011 [5]. The instrument MIMOS IIA originally developed for the ESA ExoMars mission (now 2018) will use newly designed Si-Drift detectors with circular geometry (SDD) [6,7] allowing high resolution X-ray fluores-cence spectroscopy simultaneously to Müssbauer measurements. The new design of the improved MIMOS II instrument is reduced in total mass (less than 400 g). The sensorhead of MIMOS IIA will be equipped with a ring of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) optimized for the backscatter geometry of the miniaturized Müssbauer spectrometer. The main goal of the new detector system design was to combine high energy resolution at high counting rates and large detector area while making maximum use of the area close to the collimator of the 57Co Müssbauer source. The active area per SDD segment is 2x45 mm2. The energy resolution at 5.9 keV is ¡ 280 eV at room temperature and 131 eV FWHM at -40oC. This performance will increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and reduce the integration time of Müssbauer measurement by a factor of up to 10. In addition to the Müssbauer analysis simultaneous acquisition of the X-ray fluorescence spectrum will provide data on the sample's elemental composition [7]. Preliminary studies at room temperature and normal pressure show detec-tion of X-rays down to 1 keV. A new control-and readout electronics for MIMOS IIA allows spectra acquisition at highest possible countrates available at about 360 mm2 total detector area. This is possible due to digital pulse shap-ing and pulsed JFET reset
Loussert Fonta, Céline; Humbel, Bruno M
2015-09-01
In recent years correlative microscopy, combining the power and advantages of different imaging system, e.g., light, electrons, X-ray, NMR, etc., has become an important tool for biomedical research. Among all the possible combinations of techniques, light and electron microscopy, have made an especially big step forward and are being implemented in more and more research labs. Electron microscopy profits from the high spatial resolution, the direct recognition of the cellular ultrastructure and identification of the organelles. It, however, has two severe limitations: the restricted field of view and the fact that no live imaging can be done. On the other hand light microscopy has the advantage of live imaging, following a fluorescently tagged molecule in real time and at lower magnifications the large field of view facilitates the identification and location of sparse individual cells in a large context, e.g., tissue. The combination of these two imaging techniques appears to be a valuable approach to dissect biological events at a submicrometer level. Light microscopy can be used to follow a labelled protein of interest, or a visible organelle such as mitochondria, in time, then the sample is fixed and the exactly same region is investigated by electron microscopy. The time resolution is dependent on the speed of penetration and fixation when chemical fixatives are used and on the reaction time of the operator for cryo-fixation. Light microscopy can also be used to identify cells of interest, e.g., a special cell type in tissue or cells that have been modified by either transfections or RNAi, in a large population of non-modified cells. A further application is to find fluorescence labels in cells on a large section to reduce searching time in the electron microscope. Multiple fluorescence labelling of a series of sections can be correlated with the ultrastructure of the individual sections to get 3D information of the distribution of the marked proteins: array
Lu, Zhou; Chang, Yih Chung; Gao, Hong; Benitez, Yanice; Song, Yu; Ng, C. Y. E-mail: wmjackson@ucdavis.edu; Jackson, W. M. E-mail: wmjackson@ucdavis.edu
2014-06-21
We present a generally applicable experimental method for the direct measurement of nascent spin-orbit state distributions of atomic photofragments based on the detection of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV)-excited autoionizing-Rydberg (VUV-EAR) states. The incorporation of this VUV-EAR method in the application of the newly established VUV-VUV laser velocity-map-imaging-photoion (VMI-PI) apparatus has made possible the branching ratio measurement for correlated spin-orbit state resolved product channels, CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) and CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}), formed by VUV photoexcitation of CO{sub 2} to the 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) Rydberg state at 97,955.7 cm{sup −1}. The total kinetic energy release (TKER) spectra obtained from the O{sup +} VMI-PI images of O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) reveal the formation of correlated CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) with well-resolved v = 0–2 vibrational bands. This observation shows that the dissociation of CO{sub 2} to form the spin-allowed CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel has no potential energy barrier. The TKER spectra for the spin-forbidden CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel were found to exhibit broad profiles, indicative of the formation of a broad range of rovibrational states of CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}) with significant vibrational populations for v = 18–26. While the VMI-PI images for the CO(ã{sup 3}Π; v = 0–2) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are anisotropic, indicating that the predissociation of CO{sub 2} 4s(1{sub 0}{sup 1}) occurs via a near linear configuration in a time scale shorter than the rotational period, the angular distributions for the CO(Χ{sup ~1}Σ{sup +}; v) + O({sup 3}P{sub 0,1,2}) channel are close to isotropic, revealing a slower predissociation process, which possibly occurs on a triplet surface via an intersystem crossing mechanism.
Channel plate for DNA sequencing
Douthart, Richard J.; Crowell, Shannon L.
1998-01-01
This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface.
Channel plate for DNA sequencing
Douthart, R.J.; Crowell, S.L.
1998-01-13
This invention is a channel plate that facilitates data compaction in DNA sequencing. The channel plate has a length, a width and a thickness, and further has a plurality of channels that are parallel. Each channel has a depth partially through the thickness of the channel plate. Additionally an interface edge permits electrical communication across an interface through a buffer to a deposition membrane surface. 15 figs.
Julius, David
2013-01-01
Nociception is the process whereby primary afferent nerve fibers of the somatosensory system detect noxious stimuli. Pungent irritants from pepper, mint, and mustard plants have served as powerful pharmacological tools for identifying molecules and mechanisms underlying this initial step of pain sensation. These natural products have revealed three members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family--TRPV1, TRPM8, and TRPA1--as molecular detectors of thermal and chemical stimuli that activate sensory neurons to produce acute or persistent pain. Analysis of TRP channel function and expression has validated the existence of nociceptors as a specialized group of somatosensory neurons devoted to the detection of noxious stimuli. These studies are also providing insight into the coding logic of nociception and how specification of nociceptor subtypes underlies behavioral discrimination of noxious thermal, chemical, and mechanical stimuli. Biophysical and pharmacological characterization of these channels has provided the intellectual and technical foundation for developing new classes of analgesic drugs.
Ionic Channels in Thunderclouds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Losseva, T. V.; Fomenko, A. S.; Nemtchinov, I. V.
2007-12-01
We proceed to study the formation and propagation of ionic channels in thunderclouds in the framework of the model of the corona discharge wave propagation (Fomenko A.S., Losseva T.V., Nemtchinov I.V. The corona discharge waves in thunderclouds and formation of ionic channels // 2004 Fall Meeting. EOS Trans. AGU. 2004. V. 85. ¹ 47. Suppl. Abstract AE23A-0835.). In this model we proposed a hypothesis that the structure of a thundercloud becomes nonuniform due to corona discharge on the drops and ice particles and formation of ionic channels with higher conductivity than the surrounding air. When the onset strength of corona discharge becomes smaller than the electric field strength the corona discharge increases concentrations of ions in a small part of the cloud (a hot spot). An additional charge at opposite ends of the hot spot forms due to polarization process. The increased electric field initiates corona discharge in other parts of the cloud on ice particles and water drops with smaller sizes. The corona discharge front moves as a wave with the velocity of the order of ion drift and formes a highly conductive channel. We model this non-stationary problem with Poisson equation which is solved simultaneously with a simplified set of kinetic equations for ions, small charged particles and electrons (at high electric fields), including ionization due to electronic impact, attachment and formation of positive ions. By applying 3D numerical simulations we obtain the parameters of formed ionic channels with respect to onset electric fields both from large particles (in hot spot) and from small particles (surrounding hot spot), microscopic currents from particles with different sizes and the external electric field in the cloud. The interaction of ionic channels is also investigated. This work was supported by Russian Foundation of Basic Research (Project No 07-05-00998-à).
The neutron channeling phenomenon.
Khanouchi, A; Sabir, A; Boulkheir, M; Ichaoui, R; Ghassoun, J; Jehouani, A
1997-01-01
Shields, used for protection against radiation, are often pierced with vacuum channels for passing cables and other instruments for measurements. The neutron transmission through these shields is an unavoidable phenomenon. In this work we study and discuss the effect of channels on neutron transmission through shields. We consider an infinite homogeneous slab, with a fixed thickness (20 lambda, with lambda the mean free path of the neutron in the slab), which contains a vacuum channel. This slab is irradiated with an infinite source of neutrons on the left side and on the other side (right side) many detectors with windows equal to 2 lambda are placed in order to evaluate the neutron transmission probabilities (Khanouchi, A., Aboubekr, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1994) Rencontre Nationale des Jeunes Chercheurs en Physique. Casa Blanca Maroc; Khanouchi, A., Sabir, A., Ghassoun, J. and Jehouani, A. (1995) Premier Congré International des Intéractions Rayonnements Matière. Eljadida Maroc). The neutron history within the slab is simulated by the Monte Carlo method (Booth, T. E. and Hendricks, J. S. (1994) Nuclear Technology 5) and using the exponential biasing technique in order to improve the Monte Carlo calculation (Levitt, L. B. (1968) Nuclear Science and Engineering 31, 500-504; Jehouani, A., Ghassoun, J. and Aboubker, A. (1994) In Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, Rabat, Morocco). Then different geometries of the vacuum channel have been studied. For each geometry we have determined the detector response and calculated the neutron transmission probability for different detector positions. This neutron transmission probability presents a peak for the detectors placed in front of the vacuum channel. This study allowed us to clearly identify the neutron channeling phenomenon. One application of our study is to detect vacuum defects in materials.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1997-01-01
A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.
This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.
The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jiehui; Xu, Yinfan; Shi, Jianyang; Wang, Yuanquan; Ji, Xinming; Ou, Haiyan; Chi, Nan
2016-05-01
In this paper, we proposed a 2×2 imaging Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO)-Visible Light Communication (VLC) system by employing Space Balanced Coding (SBC) based on two RGB LEDs and integrated PIN array reception. We experimentally demonstrated 1.4-Gbit/s VLC transmission at a distance of 2.5 m. The proposed imaging system not only overcomes the limitation of bandwidth existing in LEDs, but also can reject the second-order nonlinearity distortion. It turned out to be very promising to use integrated antennas in the VLC system in the future.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klingelhoefer, G.; Rodionov, D. S.; Morris, R. V.; Schroeder, C.; deSouza, P. A.; Ming, D. W.; Yen, A. S.; Bernhardt, B.; Renz, F.; Fleischer, I.
2005-01-01
The miniaturized Mossbauer (MB) spectrometer MIMOS II [1] is part of the Athena payload of NASA s twin Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" (MER-A) and "Opportunity" (MER-B). It determines the Fe-bearing mineralogy of Martian soils and rocks at the Rovers respective landing sites, Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Both spectrometers performed successfully during first year of operation. Total integration time is about 49 days for MERA (79 samples) and 34 days for MER-B (85 samples). For curiosity it might be interesting to mention that the total odometry of the oscillating part of the MB drive exceeds 35 km for both rovers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ackers, Peter
1988-07-01
The development and utilisation of water resources for irrigation, hydropower and public supply can be severely affected by sediment. Where there is a mature and well vegetated landscape, sediment problems may be relatively minor; but where slopes are steep and vegetation sparse, the yield of sediment from the catchment gives high concentrations in the rivers. In utilising these resources, for whatever purpose, an understanding of the hydraulics of alluvial channels is vital. The regime of any conveyance channel in alluvium depends on the interrelationships of sediment transport, channel resistance and bank stability. The regime concept was originally based on empirical relations obtained from observations from canal systems in the Indian subcontinent, and for many years was surrounded by a certain degree of mystique and much scepticism from academics. In more recent years the unabashed empiricism of the original method has been replaced by process-based methods, which have also served as broad confirmation of the classic regime formulae, including their extension to natural channels and meandering channels. The empirical approach to the hydraulics of alluvial channels has thus been updated by physically based formulae for sediment transport and resistance, though there remains some uncertainty about the third function to complete the definition of slope and geometry. Latest thoughts in this respect are that the channel seeks a natural optimum state. Physical modelling using scaled down representations of rivers and estuaries has been used for almost a century, but it requires the correct simulation of the relevant processes. The coming of a better understanding of the physics of sediment transport and the complexity of alluvial channel roughness leads to the conclusion that only in very restricted circumstances can scale models simulate closely the full-size condition. However, the quantification of these processes has been instrumental in the development of
Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels
Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek
2015-05-22
Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.
Zeolites: Exploring Molecular Channels
Arslan, Ilke; Derewinski, Mirek
2016-07-12
Synthetic zeolites contain microscopic channels, sort of like a sponge. They have many uses, such as helping laundry detergent lather, absorbing liquid in kitty litter, and as catalysts to produce fuel. Of the hundreds of types of zeolites, only about 15 are used for catalysis. PNNL catalysis scientists Ilke Arslan and Mirek Derewinksi are studying these zeolites to understand what make them special. By exploring the mystery of these microscopic channels, their fundamental findings will help design better catalysts for applications such as biofuel production.
HF COMMUNICATION EFFECTS: EXPERIMENTAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE GAUSSIAN CHANNEL MODEL.
correlation coefficient . An estimate of the relationship between the correlation coefficient and channel frequency spread is derived and compared with experimental data. Agreement between correlation - coefficient estimates from log-envelope change and phase change is discussed. The experimental envelope distributions of the received signal are compared with the Rayleigh, Rician, and log-normal distributions, and deviations are discussed. Alternative envelope distributions based on a conditional Rayleigh distribution are also
Hexagonalization of correlation functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleury, Thiago; Komatsu, Shota
2017-01-01
We propose a nonperturbative framework to study general correlation functions of single-trace operators in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at large N . The basic strategy is to decompose them into fundamental building blocks called the hexagon form factors, which were introduced earlier to study structure constants using integrability. The decomposition is akin to a triangulation of a Riemann surface, and we thus call it hexagonalization. We propose a set of rules to glue the hexagons together based on symmetry, which naturally incorporate the dependence on the conformal and the R-symmetry cross ratios. Our method is conceptually different from the conventional operator product expansion and automatically takes into account multi-trace operators exchanged in OPE channels. To illustrate the idea in simple set-ups, we compute four-point functions of BPS operators of arbitrary lengths and correlation functions of one Konishi operator and three short BPS operators, all at one loop. In all cases, the results are in perfect agreement with the perturbative data. We also suggest that our method can be a useful tool to study conformal integrals, and show it explicitly for the case of ladder integrals.
2011-03-24
Distribution ~NA maintain primary management responsibility and Statement "A" - unclassifed, unlimited distribution ? authority to release all...AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED... DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT/GCE/ENG/11-04 COVERT CHANNELS WITHIN IRC Wayne C. Henry, BSCE Captain, USAF Approved
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gescheider, George A.; Wright, John H.
2012-01-01
Vibrotactile intensity-discrimination thresholds for sinusoidal stimuli applied to the thenar eminence of the hand declined as a function of practice. However, improvement was confined to the tactile information-processing channel in which learning had occurred. Specifically, improvements in performance with training within the Pacinian-corpuscle…
Developments in relativistic channeling
Carrigan, R.A. Jr.
1996-10-01
The possibility of using channeling as a tool for high energy accelerator applications and particle physics has now been extensively investigated. Bent crystals have been used for accelerator extraction and for particle deflection. Applications as accelerating devices have been discussed but have not yet been tried. 61 refs., 1 fig.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sproule, J. Michael
Defining propaganda as "efforts by special interests to win over the public covertly by infiltrating messages into various channels of public expression ordinarily viewed as politically neutral," this book argues that propaganda has become pervasive in American life. Pointing out that the 1990s society is inundated with propaganda from…
Chemistry in Microfluidic Channels
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chia, Matthew C.; Sweeney, Christina M.; Odom, Teri W.
2011-01-01
General chemistry introduces principles such as acid-base chemistry, mixing, and precipitation that are usually demonstrated in bulk solutions. In this laboratory experiment, we describe how chemical reactions can be performed in a microfluidic channel to show advanced concepts such as laminar fluid flow and controlled precipitation. Three sets of…
Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen
2011-04-01
Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.
Channeling through Bent Crystals
Mack, Stephanie; /Ottawa U. /SLAC
2012-09-07
Bent crystals have demonstrated potential for use in beam collimation. A process called channeling is when accelerated particle beams are trapped by the nuclear potentials in the atomic planes within a crystal lattice. If the crystal is bent then the particles can follow the bending angle of the crystal. There are several different effects that are observed when particles travel through a bent crystal including dechanneling, volume capture, volume reflection and channeling. With a crystal placed at the edge of a particle beam, part of the fringe of the beam can be deflected away towards a detector or beam dump, thus helping collimate the beam. There is currently FORTRAN code by Igor Yazynin that has been used to model the passage of particles through a bent crystal. Using this code, the effects mentioned were explored for beam energy that would be seen at the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET) at a range of crystal orientations with respect to the incoming beam. After propagating 5 meters in vacuum space past the crystal the channeled particles were observed to separate from most of the beam with some noise due to dechanneled particles. Progressively smaller bending radii, with corresponding shorter crystal lengths, were compared and it was seen that multiple scattering decreases with the length of the crystal therefore allowing for cleaner detection of the channeled particles. The input beam was then modified and only a portion of the beam sent through the crystal. With the majority of the beam not affected by the crystal, most particles were not deflected and after propagation the channeled particles were seen to be deflected approximately 5mm. After a portion of the beam travels through the crystal, the entire beam was then sent through a quadrupole magnet, which increased the separation of the channeled particles from the remainder of the beam to a distance of around 20mm. A different code, which was developed at SLAC, was used to
On the gating of mechanosensitive channels by fluid shear stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Zhangli; Pak, On Shun; Feng, Zhe; Liu, Allen P.; Young, Yuan-Nan
2016-12-01
Mechanosensation is an important process in biological fluid-structure interaction. To understand the biophysics underlying mechanosensation, it is essential to quantify the correlation between membrane deformation, membrane tension, external fluid shear stress, and conformation of mechanosensitive (MS) channels. Smoothed dissipative particle dynamics (SDPD) simulations of vesicle/cell in three types of flow configurations are conducted to calculate the tension in lipid membrane due to fluid shear stress from the surrounding viscous flow. In combination with a simple continuum model for an MS channel, SDPD simulation results suggest that shearing adhered vesicles/cells is more effective to induce membrane tension sufficient to stretch MS channels open than a free shear flow or a constrictive channel flow. In addition, we incorporate the bilayer-cytoskeletal interaction in a two-component model to probe the effects of a cytoskeletal network on the gating of MS channels.
A channel differential EZW coding scheme for EEG data compression.
Dehkordi, Vahid R; Daou, Hoda; Labeau, Fabrice
2011-11-01
In this paper, a method is proposed to compress multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) signals in a scalable fashion. Correlation between EEG channels is exploited through clustering using a k-means method. Representative channels for each of the clusters are encoded individually while other channels are encoded differentially, i.e., with respect to their respective cluster representatives. The compression is performed using the embedded zero-tree wavelet encoding adapted to 1-D signals. Simulations show that the scalable features of the scheme lead to a flexible quality/rate tradeoff, without requiring detailed EEG signal modeling.
Martian channels and valleys: Their characteristics, distribution, and age
Carr, M.H.; Clow, G.D.
1981-01-01
All Martian channels and valleys visible at a resolution of 125 to 300 meters between 65??N and 65??S were mapped at a scale of 1:5,000,000 and the maps then digitized. Correlations of valley presence with other surface features show that almost all valleys are in the old cratered terrain. preferentially in areas of low albedo, low violet/red ratios, and high elevation. The networks are open, the individual drainage basins are small relative to Earth, and large distances separate the basins, features which all suggest an immature drainage system. The simplest explanation of the correlations and the restriction of valley networks to old terrain is that the channels themselves are old, and that the climatic conditions necessary for their formation did not prevail for long after the decline in the cratering rate around 3.9 billion years ago. Two types of outflow channel are distinguished: unconfined, in which broad swaths of terrain are scoured, and confined, in which flow is restricted to discrete channels. The outflow channels have a wide range of ages and may form under present climatic conditions. Fretted channels are largely restrited to two latitude belts centered on 40??N and 45??S, where relatively rapid erosion along escarpments results from mass wasting. They probably form by enlargement of preexisting channels by escarpment retreat. ?? 1981.
Error Rate Improvement in Underwater MIMO Communications Using Sparse Partial Response Equalization
2006-09-01
λn−kvi(k) vHi (k) (13) θi(n) = n∑ k=1 λn−kvi(k)x (s)H i (k) (14) are the (time averaged) output correlation matrix and the input-output cross...error vector [5] and Ki(n) is the RLS gain defined as αi(n) = x (s) i (n)− cHi (n− 1)vi(n) (17) Ki(n) = Pi(n− 1)vi(n) λi + vHi (n)Pi(n− 1)vi(n) · (18...Using equations 13, 14, and the matrix inversion lemma [5], the inverse correlation matrix Pi(n) can be updated as Pi(n) = [ I−Ki(n) vHi (n) ] Pi(n− 1
Learning Channels and Verbal Behavior
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lin, Fan-Yu; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.
2004-01-01
This article reviews the basics of learning channels and how specification of stimuli can help enhance verbal behavior. This article will define learning channels and the role of the ability matrix in training verbal behavior.
Quantum transport with two interacting conduction channels.
White, Alexander J; Migliore, Agostino; Galperin, Michael; Nitzan, Abraham
2013-05-07
The transport properties of a conduction junction model characterized by two mutually coupled channels that strongly differ in their couplings to the leads are investigated. Models of this type describe molecular redox junctions (where a level that is weakly coupled to the leads controls the molecular charge, while a strongly coupled one dominates the molecular conduction), and electron counting devices in which the current in a point contact is sensitive to the charging state of a nearby quantum dot. Here we consider the case where transport in the strongly coupled channel has to be described quantum mechanically (covering the full range between sequential tunneling and co-tunneling), while conduction through the weakly coupled channel is a sequential process that could by itself be described by a simple master equation. We compare the result of a full quantum calculation based on the pseudoparticle non-equilibrium Green function method to that obtained from an approximate mixed quantum-classical calculation, where correlations between the channels are taken into account through either the averaged rates or the averaged energy. We find, for the steady state current, that the approximation based on the averaged rates works well in most of the voltage regime, with marked deviations from the full quantum results only at the threshold for charging the weekly coupled level. These deviations are important for accurate description of the negative differential conduction behavior that often characterizes redox molecular junctions in the neighborhood of this threshold.
HCN Channels Modulators: The Need for Selectivity
Romanelli, Maria Novella; Sartiani, Laura; Masi, Alessio; Mannaioni, Guido; Manetti, Dina; Mugelli, Alessandro; Cerbai, Elisabetta
2016-01-01
Hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, the molecular correlate of the hyperpolarization-activated current (If/Ih), are membrane proteins which play an important role in several physiological processes and various pathological conditions. In the Sino Atrial Node (SAN) HCN4 is the target of ivabradine, a bradycardic agent that is, at the moment, the only drug which specifically blocks If. Nevertheless, several other pharmacological agents have been shown to modulate HCN channels, a property that may contribute to their therapeutic activity and/or to their side effects. HCN channels are considered potential targets for developing drugs to treat several important pathologies, but a major issue in this field is the discovery of isoform-selective compounds, owing to the wide distribution of these proteins into the central and peripheral nervous systems, heart and other peripheral tissues. This survey is focused on the compounds that have been shown, or have been designed, to interact with HCN channels and on their binding sites, with the aim to summarize current knowledge and possibly to unveil useful information to design new potent and selective modulators. PMID:26975509
Radar channel balancing with commutation
Doerry, Armin Walter
2014-02-01
When multiple channels are employed in a pulse-Doppler radar, achieving and maintaining balance between the channels is problematic. In some circumstances the channels may be commutated to achieve adequate balance. Commutation is the switching, trading, toggling, or multiplexing of the channels between signal paths. Commutation allows modulating the imbalance energy away from the balanced energy in Doppler, where it can be mitigated with filtering.
Meander properties of Venusian channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Komatsu, G.; Baker, V. R.
1993-01-01
Venusian lava channels have meander dimensions that relate to their mode of formation. Their meander properties generally follow terrestrial river trends of wavelength (L) to width (W) ratios, suggesting an equilibrium adjustment of channel form. Slightly higher L/W for many Venusian channels in comparison to terrestrial rivers may relate to nonaqueous flow processes. The unusually low L/W values for some Venusian and lunar sinuous rilles probably indicate modification of original meander patterns by lava-erosional channel widening.
Universality of receptor channel responses.
Kardos, J; Nyikos, L
2001-12-01
Rate parameters estimated for neurotransmitter-gated receptor channel opening and receptor desensitization are classified according to their dependence on the temporal resolution of the techniques applied in the measurements. Because allosteric proteins constituting receptor channels impose restrictions on the types of model suitable to describe the dynamic response of channels to neurotransmitters, Markovian, non-linear or fractal dynamic models and their possible extension to receptor channel response in excitable membranes are discussed.
``Just Another Distribution Channel?''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemstra, Wolter; de Leeuw, Gerd-Jan; van de Kar, Els; Brand, Paul
The telecommunications-centric business model of mobile operators is under attack due to technological convergence in the communication and content industries. This has resulted in a plethora of academic contributions on the design of new business models and service platform architectures. However, a discussion of the challenges that operators are facing in adopting these models is lacking. We assess these challenges by considering the mobile network as part of the value system of the content industry. We will argue that from the perspective of a content provider the mobile network is ‘just another’ distribution channel. Strategic options available for the mobile communication operators are to deliver an excellent distribution channel for content delivery or to move upwards in the value chain by becoming a content aggregator. To become a mobile content aggregator operators will have to develop or acquire complementary resources and capabilities. Whether this strategic option is sustainable remains open.
Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi; Chiang, Jing-Hsien
1995-09-01
A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.
Nanochannels: biological channel analogues.
Pradeep, H; Rajanikant, G K
2012-06-01
The flux of ions across the biological membrane is a central activity to many cellular processes, from conduction of nerve impulse to the apoptosis. Traffic of ions or molecules across the membrane and organelles is governed by natural machines of great precision; ion channels, a special class of proteins, reside in the biological membranes. Recent studies in the field of nanoscience have concentrated on to precisely mimic the physical and chemical properties of these pores that make them increasingly attractive in this field. Synthetic nanoporous materials have a great deal of medical applications, including biosensing, biosorting, immune-isolation and drug delivery. In this review, the authors briefly describe the interesting synthetic channels that are extensively studied, and also attempt to furnish a precise overview of recent advances in this arena.
Borovsky, J.E.
1998-05-01
In this report, several lightning-channel parameters are calculated with the aid of an electrodynamic model of lightning. The electrodynamic model describes dart leaders and return strokes as electromagnetic waves that are guided along conducting lightning channels. According to the model, electrostatic energy is delivered to the channel by a leader, where it is stored around the outside of the channel; subsequently, the return stroke dissipates this locally stored energy. In this report this lightning-energy-flow scenario is developed further. Then the energy dissipated per unit length in lightning channels is calculated, where this quantity is now related to the linear charge density on the channel, not to the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference. Energy conservation is then used to calculate the radii of lightning channels: their initial radii at the onset of return strokes and their final radii after the channels have pressure expanded. Finally, the risetimes for channel heating during return strokes are calculated by defining an energy-storage radius around the channel and by estimating the radial velocity of energy flow toward the channel during a return stroke. In three appendices, values for the linear charge densities on lightning channels are calculated, estimates of the total length of branch channels are obtained, and values for the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference are estimated. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union
1981-04-01
geometry of the stilling basin and appurtenances for optimum energy dissipation. The hydraulic design, based on a 100-year return period design storm...cases the only viable alternative based on present technology is to let the channel seek its oa equilibrium, but attempt to minimize total losses by...are degrading, resulting in bank caving, land loss , and damage to highway bridges. Many streams have enlarged to the extent that 50 to 100-year runoff
Umbellulone modulates TRP channels.
Zhong, Jian; Minassi, Alberto; Prenen, Jean; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Appendino, Giovanni; Nilius, Bernd
2011-12-01
Inhalation of umbellulone (UMB), the offensive principle of the so-called "headache tree" (California bay laurel, Umbellularia californica Nutt.), causes a painful cold sensation. We therefore studied the action of UMB and some derivatives devoid of thiol-trapping properties on the "cold" transient receptor potential cation channels TRPA1 and TRPM8. UMB activated TRPA1 in a dose-dependent manner that was attenuated by cysteine-to-serine isosteric mutation in TRPA1 (C622S), while channel block was observed at higher concentration. However, although activation by mustard oil was completely prevented in these mutants, UMB still retained activating properties, indicating that it acts on TRPA1 only as a partial electrophilic agonist. UMB also activated TRPM8, but to a lower extent than TRPA1. Removing Michael acceptor properties of UMB (reduction or nucleophilic trapping) was detrimental for the activation of TRPA1, but increased the blocking potency. This was, however, attenuated by acetylation of the hydroxylated analogs. All UMB derivatives, except the acetylated derivatives, were also TRPM8 activators. They acted, however, in a bimodal manner, inhibiting the channel more potently than UMB, and with tetrahydro-UMB being the most potent TRPM8 activator. In conclusion, UMB is a bimodal activator of TRPA1 and a weak activator of TRPM8. Non-electrophilic derivatives of UMB are better TRPM8 activators than the natural product and also potent blockers of this channel as well as of TRPA1. The lack of effects of the acetylated UMB derivatives suggests that steric hindrance may prevent access to the recognition site for the bicyclic monoterpene pharmacophore on TRPA1 and TRPM8.
Athermal channeled spectropolarimeter
Jones, Julia Craven
2015-12-08
A temperature insensitive (athermal) channeled spectropolarimeter (CSP) is described. The athermal CSP includes a crystal retarder formed of a biaxial crystal. The crystal retarder has three crystal axes, wherein each axis has its own distinct index of refraction. The axes are oriented in a particular manner, causing an amplitude modulating carrier frequency induced by the crystal retarder to be thermally invariant. Accordingly, a calibration beam technique can be used over a relatively wide range of ambient temperatures, with a common calibration data set.
Wimmers, Sönke; Karl, Mike O; Strauss, Olaf
2007-05-01
In close interaction with photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role for visual function. The analysis of RPE functions, specifically ion channel functions, provides a basis to understand many degenerative diseases of the retina. The invention of the patch-clamp technique significantly improved the knowledge of ion channel structure and function, which enabled a new understanding of cell physiology and patho-physiology of many diseases. In this review, ion channels identified in the RPE will be described in terms of their specific functional role in RPE physiology. The RPE expresses voltage- and ligand-gated K(+), Cl(-), and Ca(2+)-conducting channels. K(+) and Cl(-) channels are involved in transepithelial ion transport and volume regulation. Voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels act as regulators of secretory activity, and ligand-gated cation channels contribute to RPE function by providing driving forces for ion transport or by influencing intracellular Ca(2+) homoeostasis. Collectively, activity of these ion channels determines the physiology of the RPE and its interaction with photoreceptors. Furthermore, changes in ion channel function, such as mutations in ion channel genes or a changed regulation of ion channel activity, have been shown to lead to degenerative diseases of the retina. Increasing knowledge about the properties of RPE ion channels has not only provided a new understanding of RPE function but has also provided greater understanding of RPE function in health and disease.
Cascading blockages in channel bundles.
Barré, C; Talbot, J
2015-11-01
Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of N(c) parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary N(c) and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary N(c) and N=1 for coupled channels. For N>1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N=1 but decreases for N>1. This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.
Cascading blockages in channel bundles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barré, C.; Talbot, J.
2015-11-01
Flow in channel networks may involve a redistribution of flux following the blockage or failure of an individual link. Here we consider a simplified model consisting of Nc parallel channels conveying a particulate flux. Particles enter these channels according to a homogeneous Poisson process and an individual channel blocks if more than N particles are simultaneously present. The behavior of the composite system depends strongly on how the flux of entering particles is redistributed following a blockage. We consider two cases. In the first, the intensity on each open channel remains constant while in the second the total intensity is evenly redistributed over the open channels. We obtain exact results for arbitrary Nc and N for a system of independent channels and for arbitrary Nc and N =1 for coupled channels. For N >1 we present approximate analytical as well as numerical results. Independent channels block at a decreasing rate due to a simple combinatorial effect, while for coupled channels the interval between successive blockages remains constant for N =1 but decreases for N >1 . This accelerating cascade is due to the nonlinear dependence of the mean blocking time of a single channel on the entering particle flux that more than compensates for the decrease in the number of active channels.
Elam, Jeffrey W.; Lee, Seon W.; Wang, Hsien -Hau; Pellin, Michael J.; Byrum, Karen; Frisch, Henry J.
2015-09-22
A method and system for providing a micro-channel plate detector. An anodized aluminum oxide membrane is provided and includes a plurality of nanopores which have an Al coating and a thin layer of an emissive oxide material responsive to incident radiation, thereby providing a plurality of radiation sensitive channels for the micro-channel plate detector.
MUON POLARIZATION IN A FRONT-END CHANNEL OF A NEUTRINO FACTORY.
FUKUI, Y.; FERNOW, R.C.; GALLARDO, J.C.
2001-06-18
As one of the figures of merit, muon polarization and its correlation to the particle arrival time was studied for the high intensity muon beam source of a Neutrino Factory. Muon polarization, 100% polarized in the parent pion rest system, was tracked down the pion capture, phase rotation, and ionization cooling channels, using the BMT equation. A study was done of the dependence of the muon polarization and its correlation on the configuration of induction linac channels in the phase rotation channel. Depolarization effects of the muon polarization through absorbers in the ionization cooling channel was simulated.
Fisch, N. J.
2015-12-10
Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.
Doyle, Barney Lee; Corona, Aldo; Nguyen, Anh
2014-09-01
A MS Excel program has been written that calculates accidental, or unintentional, ion channeling in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals or polycrystalline materials. This becomes an important issue when simulating the creation by energetic neutrons of point displacement damage and extended defects using beams of ions. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different powers of the argument. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles and minimum yield or dechanneling probabilities, effects on half-angles of amorphous overlayers, accidental channeling probabilities for randomly oriented crystals or crystallites, and finally a way to automatically generate stereographic projections of axial and planar channeling half-angles. The program can generate these projections and calculate these probabilities for
Toward a unifying model of malaria-induced channel activity
Bouyer, Guillaume; Egée, Stéphane; Thomas, Serge L. Y.
2007-01-01
Infection of RBC by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum activates, at the trophozoite stage, a membrane current 100- to 150-fold larger than in uninfected RBC. This current is carried by small anion channels initially described in supraphysiological ion concentrations (1.115 M Cl−) and named plasmodial surface anion channels (PSAC), suggesting their plasmodial origin. Our results obtained with physiological ion concentrations (0.145 M Cl−) support the notion that the parasite-induced channels represent enhanced activity versions of anion channels already present in uninfected RBCs. Among them, an 18-pS inwardly rectifying anion channel (IRC) and a 4- to 5-pS small conductance anion channel (SCC) were present in most single-channel recordings of infected membranes. The aim of this study was to clarify disparities in the reported electrophysiological data and to investigate possible technical reasons why these discrepancies have arisen. We demonstrate that PSAC is the supraphysiological correlate of the SCC and is inhibited by Zn2+, suggesting that it is a ClC-2 channel. We show that in physiological solutions 80% of the membrane conductance in infected cells can be accounted for by IRC and 20% can be accounted for by SCC whereas in supraphysiological conditions the membrane conductance is almost exclusively carried by SCC (PSAC) because the IRC is functionally turned off. PMID:17576926
Enhanced multi-channel model for auditory spectrotemporal integration.
Oh, Yonghee; Feth, Lawrence L; Hoglund, Evelyn M
2015-11-01
In psychoacoustics, a multi-channel model has traditionally been used to describe detection improvement for multicomponent signals. This model commonly postulates that energy or information within either the frequency or time domain is transformed into a probabilistic decision variable across the auditory channels, and that their weighted linear summation determines optimum detection performance when compared to a critical value such as a decision criterion. In this study, representative integration-based channel models, specifically focused on signal-processing properties of the auditory periphery are reviewed (e.g., Durlach's channel model). In addition, major limitations of the previous channel models are described when applied to spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal integration performance by human listeners. Here, integration refers to detection threshold improvements as the number of brief tone bursts in a signal is increased. Previous versions of the multi-channel model underestimate listener performance in these experiments. Further, they are unable to apply a single processing unit to signals which vary simultaneously in time and frequency. Improvements to the previous channel models are proposed by considering more realistic conditions such as correlated signal responses in the auditory channels, nonlinear properties in system performance, and a peripheral processing unit operating in both time and frequency domains.
Modeling channel interference in an orbital angular momentum-multiplexed laser link
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anguita, Jaime A.; Neifeld, Mark A.; Vasic, Bane V.
2009-08-01
We study the effects of optical turbulence on the energy crosstalk among constituent orbital angular momentum (OAM) states in a vortex-based multi-channel laser communication link and determine channel interference in terms of turbulence strength and OAM state separation. We characterize the channel interference as a function of C2n and transmit OAM state, and propose probability models to predict the random fluctuations in the received signals for such architecture. Simulations indicate that turbulence-induced channel interference is mutually correlated across receive channels.
Sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon. Must channels open before inactivating
Bean, B.P.
1981-09-01
Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed on voltage-clamped crayfish giant axons. The primary goals was to investigate whether channels must open before activating. Voltage-clamp artifacts were minimized by the use of low-sodium solutions and full series resistance compensation, and the spatial uniformity of the currents was checked with a closely spaced pair of electrodes used to measure local current densities. For membrane potentials between -40 and +40 mV, sodium currents decay to zero with a single exponential time-course. The time constant for decay is a steep function of membrane potential. The time-course of inactivation measured with the double-pulse method is very similar to the decay of current at the same potential. Steady-state inactivation curves measured with different test pulses are identical. The time-course of doubling pulse inactivation shows a lag that roughly correlates with the opening of sodium channels, but it is not strictly necessary for channels to open before inactivating. Measurements of the potential dependence of the integral of sodium conductance are also inconsistent with the simplest cases of models in which channels must open before activating.
Cheng, Jen-Kun; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Yang, Jia-Rung; Chiou, Lih-Chu
2006-01-01
Gabapentin is a novel analgesic whose mechanism of action is not known. We investigated in a postoperative pain model whether adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels, N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors, and Ca2+ channels are involved in the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin. Mechanical allodynia was induced by a paw incision in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Withdrawal thresholds to von Frey filament stimulation near the incision site were measured before and after incision and after intrathecal drug administration. The antiallodynic effect of gabapentin (100 mug) was not affected by intrathecal pretreatment with antagonists of K(ATP) channels, NMDA receptors or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptors. K(ATP) channel openers and GABA(A) receptor agonist, per se, had little effect on the postincision allodynic response. The Ca2+ channel blocker of N-type (omega-conotoxin GVIA, 0.1-3 microg), but not of P/Q-type (omega-agatoxin IVA), L-type (verapamil, diltiazem or nimodipine), or T-type (mibefradil), attenuated the incision-induced allodynia, as did gabapentin. Both the antiallodynic effects of gabapentin and omega-conotoxin GVIA were attenuated by Bay K 8644, an L-type Ca2+ channel activator. These results provide correlative evidence to support the contention that N-type Ca2+ channels, but not K(ATP) channels or NMDA or GABA(A) receptors, might be involved in the antiallodynic effect of intrathecal gabapentin.
Numerical investigation of turbulent channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moin, P.; Kim, J.
1981-01-01
Fully developed turbulent channel flow was simulated numerically at Reynolds number 13800, based on centerline velocity and channel halt width. The large-scale flow field was obtained by directly integrating the filtered, three dimensional, time dependent, Navier-Stokes equations. The small-scale field motions were simulated through an eddy viscosity model. The calculations were carried out on the ILLIAC IV computer with up to 516,096 grid points. The computed flow field was used to study the statistical properties of the flow as well as its time dependent features. The agreement of the computed mean velocity profile, turbulence statistics, and detailed flow structures with experimental data is good. The resolvable portion of the statistical correlations appearing in the Reynolds stress equations are calculated. Particular attention is given to the examination of the flow structure in the vicinity of the wall.