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Sample records for corrosive bacterial consortia

  1. Characterization of corrosive bacterial consortia isolated from petroleum-product-transporting pipelines.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Anandkumar, Balakrishnan; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Ting, Yen-Peng; Rahman, Pattanathu K S M

    2010-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion is a problem commonly encountered in facilities in the oil and gas industries. The present study describes bacterial enumeration and identification in diesel and naphtha pipelines located in the northwest and southwest region in India, using traditional cultivation technique and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences of the isolates was carried out, and the samples obtained from the diesel and naphtha-transporting pipelines showed the occurrence of 11 bacterial species namely Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus subtilis AR12, Bacillus cereus ACE4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AI1, Klebsiella oxytoca ACP, Pseudomonas stutzeri AP2, Bacillus litoralis AN1, Bacillus sp., Bacillus pumilus AR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, and Bacillus megaterium AR4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were not detected in samples from both pipelines. The dominant bacterial species identified in the petroleum pipeline samples were B. cereus and S. marcescens in the diesel and naphtha pipelines, respectively. Therefore, several types of bacteria may be involved in biocorrosion arising from natural biofilms that develop in industrial facilities. In addition, localized (pitting) corrosion of the pipeline steel in the presence of the consortia was observed by scanning electron microscopy analysis. The potential role of each species in biofilm formation and steel corrosion is discussed.

  2. Effects of iron-reducing bacteria on carbon steel corrosion induced by thermophilic sulfate-reducing consortia.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Cantero, Eduardo; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José

    2014-02-28

    Four thermophilic bacterial species, including the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacillus sp. G2 and the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfotomaculum sp. SRB-M, were employed to integrate a bacterial consortium. A second consortium was integrated with the same bacteria, except for Geobacillus sp. G2. Carbon steel coupons were subjected to batch cultures of both consortia. The corrosion induced by the complete consortium was 10 times higher than that induced by the second consortium, and the ferrous ion concentration was consistently higher in iron-reducing consortia. Scanning electronic microscopy analysis of the carbon steel surface showed mineral films colonized by bacteria. The complete consortium caused profuse fracturing of the mineral film, whereas the non-iron-reducing consortium did not generate fractures. These data show that the iron-reducing activity of Geobacillus sp. G2 promotes fracturing of mineral films, thereby increasing steel corrosion.

  3. Bacterial consortia constructed for the decomposition of Agave biomass

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Miranda; Iskhakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Tingzhou; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that a greater variety of enzymes, as well as variety of microorganisms producing enzymes, can have an overall synergistic effect on the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of value-added bio-products. Here, 8 cellulase-degrading bacterial isolates were selected to develop co-, tri-, and tetra-cultures for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass. Glucose and xylose equivalents released from imitation biomass media containing 0.5% (w/v) beechwood xylan and 0.5% (w/v) Avicel was measured using di-nitrosalicylic acid for all consortia, along with cell growth and survival. Thereafter, 6 co- and 2 tri-cultures with greatest decomposition were examined for ability to degrade Agave americana fiber. Interestingly, when strains were paired up in co-culture, four pairs: G+5, G+A, C+A1, and G+A1 produced high reducing sugars in 24 h: 6 µM, 8 µM, 8 µM, and finally, 6 µM, respectively. From 4 co-cultures with highest reducing sugar equivalents, tri- and tetra-cultures were produced. The bacterial consortia which had the highest reducing sugars detected were 2 tri-cultures: G + A1 + A4 and G + A1 + 5, displaying levels as high as 9 µM and 5 µM in day 1, respectively. All co- and tri-cultures maintained high cell survival for 14 days with 0.5 g ground Agave. Upon evaluating Agave dry weight after treatment, it was evident that almost half the biomass could be decomposed in 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy of treated Agave supported decomposition when compared with the control. These bacterial consortia have potential for further study of value-added by-product production during metabolism of lignocellulosic biomasses. PMID:24637707

  4. Bacterial consortia constructed for the decomposition of Agave biomass.

    PubMed

    Maki, Miranda; Iskhakova, Svetlana; Zhang, Tingzhou; Qin, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that a greater variety of enzymes, as well as variety of microorganisms producing enzymes, can have an overall synergistic effect on the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of value-added bio-products. Here, 8 cellulase-degrading bacterial isolates were selected to develop co-, tri-, and tetra-cultures for the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass. Glucose and xylose equivalents released from imitation biomass media containing 0.5% (w/v) beechwood xylan and 0.5% (w/v) Avicel was measured using di-nitrosalicylic acid for all consortia, along with cell growth and survival. Thereafter, 6 co- and 2 tri-cultures with greatest decomposition were examined for ability to degrade Agave americana fiber. Interestingly, when strains were paired up in co-culture, four pairs: G+5, G+A, C+A1, and G+A1 produced high reducing sugars in 24 h: 6 µM, 8 µM, 8 µM, and finally, 6 µM, respectively. From 4 co-cultures with highest reducing sugar equivalents, tri- and tetra-cultures were produced. The bacterial consortia which had the highest reducing sugars detected were 2 tri-cultures: G + A1 + A4 and G + A1 + 5, displaying levels as high as 9 µM and 5 µM in day 1, respectively. All co- and tri-cultures maintained high cell survival for 14 days with 0.5 g ground Agave. Upon evaluating Agave dry weight after treatment, it was evident that almost half the biomass could be decomposed in 14 days. Scanning electron microscopy of treated Agave supported decomposition when compared with the control. These bacterial consortia have potential for further study of value-added by-product production during metabolism of lignocellulosic biomasses.

  5. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment.

    PubMed

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez, Diego Javier; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and culturing. Three consortia were constructed using the microbiota of lake sediment as the starting inoculum and untreated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) (acid or heat) or treated (with either acid or heat) as the sole source of carbonaceous compounds. Additionally, nitrate was used in order to limit sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Bacterial growth took place, as evidenced from 3 to 4 log unit increases in the 16S rRNA gene copy numbers as well as direct cell counts through three transfers on cleaned and reused substrate placed in fresh mineral medium. After 2 days, Aeromonas bestiarum-like organisms dominated the enrichments, irrespective of the substrate type. One month later, each substrate revealed major enrichments of organisms affiliated with different species of Clostridium. Moreover, only the heat-treated substrate selected Dysgonomonas capnocytophagoides-affiliated bacteria (Bacteroidetes). Towards the end of the experiment, members of the Proteobacteria (Aeromonas, Rhizobium and/or Serratia) became dominant in all three types of substrates. A total of 160 strains was isolated from the enrichments. Most of the strains tested (78%) were able to grow anaerobically on carboxymethyl cellulose and xylan. The final consortia yield attractive biological tools for the depolymerization of recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials and are proposed for the production of precursors of biofuels. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Design and composition of synthetic fungal-bacterial microbial consortia that improve lignocellulolytic enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiajun; Xue, Yiyun; Guo, Hongcheng; Gao, Min-Tian; Li, Jixiang; Zhang, Shiping; Tsang, Yiu Fai

    2017-03-01

    Microbial interactions are important for metabolism as they can improve or reduce metabolic efficiency. To improve lignocellulolytic enzyme activity, a series of synergistic microbial consortia of increasing diversity and complexity were devised using fungal strains, including Trichoderma reesei, Penicillium decumbens, Aspergillus tubingensis, and Aspergillus niger. However, when a screened microbial community with cellulolytic capacity was added to the consortia to increase the number of strains, it engendered more microbial interactions with the above strains and universally improved the β-glucosidase activity of the consortia. Analysis of the microbial community structure revealed that the bacteria in the consortia are more important for lignocellulolytic enzyme activity than the fungi. One fungal and 16 bacterial genera in the consortia may interact with T. reesei and are potential members of a devised synergistic microbial consortium. Such devised microbial consortia may potentially be applied to effectively and economically degrade lignocellulose.

  7. Bacterial degradation and corrosion of naphtha in transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, A; Ponmariappan, S; Maruthamuthu, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-11-01

    Five naphtha hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria including representative strains of the two classified species (Serratia marcescensAR1, Bacillus pumilusAR2, Bacillus carboniphilus AR3, Bacillus megaterium AR4, and Bacillus cereus AR5) were identified by 16S rDNA gene sequence in a naphtha-transporting pipeline. The naphtha-degrading strains were able to be involved in the corrosion process of API 5LX steel and also utilized the naphtha as the sole carbon source. The biodegradation of naphtha by the bacterial isolates was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Weight-loss measurement on the corrosion of API 5LX steel in the presence/absence of consortia grown in naphtha-water aqueous media was performed. The scanning electron microscope observation showed that the consortia were able to attack the steel API 5LX surface, creating localized corrosion (pit). The biodegradation of naphtha by the strains AR1, AR2, AR3, AR4, and AR5 showed biodegradation efficiency of about 76.21, 67.20, 68.78, 68.78, and 68.15, respectively. The role of degradation on corrosion has been discussed. This basic study will be useful for the development of new approaches for the detection, monitoring, and control of microbial corrosion in a petroleum product pipeline.

  8. Novel bacterial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas demonstrated enhanced degradation for low density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Manjunatha, Vishal; Sultana, Subiya; Jois, Chandana; Bai, Vidya; Vasist, Kiran S

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to formulate novel microbial consortia isolated from plastic garbage processing areas and thereby devise an eco-friendly approach for enhanced degradation of low-density polyethylene (LDPE). The LDPE degrading bacteria were screened and microbiologically characterized. The best isolates were formulated as bacterial consortia, and degradation efficiency was compared with the consortia formulated using known isolates obtained from the Microbial Culture Collection Centre (MTCC). The degradation products were analyzed by FTIR, GC-FID, tensile strength, and SEM. The bacterial consortia were characterized by 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. The formulated bacterial consortia demonstrated 81 ± 4 and 38 ± 3 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and LDPE pellets, respectively, over a period of 120 days. However, the consortia formulated by MTCC strains demonstrated 49 ± 4 and 20 ± 2 % of weight reduction for LDPE strips and pellets, respectively, for the same period. Furthermore, the three isolates in its individual application exhibited 70 ± 4, 68 ± 4, and 64 ± 4 % weight reduction for LDPE strips and 21 ± 2, 28 ± 2, 24 ± 2 % weight reduction for LDPE pellets over a period of 120 days (p < 0.05). The end product analysis showed structural changes and formation of bacterial film on degraded LDPE strips. The 16S rDNA characterization of bacterial consortia revealed that these organisms were novel strains and designated as Enterobacter sp. bengaluru-btdsce01, Enterobacter sp. bengaluru-btdsce02, and Pantoea sp. bengaluru-btdsce03. The current study thus suggests that industrial scale-up of these microbial consortia probably provides better insights for waste management of LDPE and similar types of plastic garbage.

  9. Glycoside Hydrolase Activities of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia Adapted to Switchgrass ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gladden, John M.; Allgaier, Martin; Miller, Christopher S.; Hazen, Terry C.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60°C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80°C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions. PMID:21724886

  10. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  11. Response of indigenously developed bacterial consortia in progressive degradation of polyvinyl chloride.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mohammad S; Kapri, Anil; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Mishra, Aradhana; Ansari, Mohammad W; Souche, Yogesh; Nautiyal, Chandra S; Zaidi, M G H; Goel, Reeta

    2016-07-01

    Thermoplastic-based materials are recalcitrant in nature, which extensive use affect environmental health. Here, we attempt to compare the response of indigenously produced bacterial consortium-I and consortium-II in degrading polyvinyl chloride (PVC). These consortia were developed by using different combination of bacterial strains of Pseudomonas otitidis, Bacillus cereus, and Acanthopleurobacter pedis from waste disposal sites of Northern India after their identification via 16S rDNA sequencing. The progressive degradation of PVC by consortia was examined via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-vis, FT-IR spectra, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis at different incubations and time intervals. The consortium-II was superior over consortium-I in degrading the PVC. Further, the carbon source utilization analysis revealed that the extensive use of consortia has not any effect on functional diversity of native soil microbes.

  12. Cd and proton adsorption onto bacterial consortia grown from industrial wastes and contaminated geologic settings.

    PubMed

    Borrok, David M; Fein, Jeremy B; Kulpa, Charles F

    2004-11-01

    To model the effects of bacterial metal adsorption in contaminated environments, results from metal adsorption experiments involving individual pure stains of bacteria must be extrapolated to systems in which potentially dozens of bacterial species are present. This extrapolation may be made easier because bacterial consortia from natural environments appear to exhibit similar metal binding properties. However, bacteria that thrive in highly perturbed contaminated environments may exhibit significantly different adsorptive behavior. Here we measure proton and Cd adsorption onto a range of bacterial consortia grown from heavily contaminated industrial wastes, groundwater, and soils. We model the results using a discrete site surface complexation approach to determine binding constants and site densities for each consortium. The results demonstrate that bacterial consortia from different contaminated environments exhibit a range of total site densities (approximately a 3-fold difference) and Cd-binding constants (approximately a 10-fold difference). These ranges for Cd binding constants may be small enough to suggest that bacteria-metal adsorption in contaminated environments can be described using relatively few "averaged" bacteria-metal binding constants (in conjunction with the necessary binding constants for competing surfaces and ligands). However, if additional precision is necessary, modeling parameters must be developed separately for each contaminated environment of interest.

  13. Stimulation of bacterial DNA synthesis by algal exudates in attached algal-bacterial consortia. [Amphora coffeaeformis; Vibrio proteolyticus

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.E.; Cooksey, K.E.; Priscu, J.C.

    1986-11-01

    Algal-bacterial consortia attached to polystyrene surfaces were prepared in the laboratory by using the marine diatom Amphora coffeaeformis and the marine bacterium Vibrio proteolytica (the approved name of this bacterium is Vibrio proteolyticus. The organisms were attached to the surfaces at cell densities of approximately 5 x 10/sup 4/ cells cm/sup -2/ (diatoms) and 5 x 10/sup 6/ cells cm/sup -2/ (bacteria). The algal-bacterial consortia consistently exhibited higher rates of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation than did biofilms composed solely of bacteria. The rates of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by the algal-bacterial consortia were fourfold greater than the rates of incorporation by monobacterial biofilms 16 h after biofilm formation and were 16-fold greater 70 h after biofilm formation. Extracellular material released from the attached Amphora cells supported rates of bacterial activity (0.8 x 10/sup -21/ mol to 17.9 x 10/sup -21/ mol of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporated cell /sup -1/ h/sup -1/) and growth (doubling time, 29.5 to 1.4 days) comparable to values reported for a wide variety of marine and freshwater ecosystems. In the presence of sessile diatom populations, DNA synthesis by attached V. proteolytica cells was light dependent and increased with increasing algal abundance. The metabolic activity of diatoms thus appears to be the rate-limiting process in biofilm development on illuminated surfaces under conditions of low bulk-water dissolved organic carbon.

  14. Fungal-bacterial consortia increase diuron degradation in water-unsaturated systems.

    PubMed

    Ellegaard-Jensen, Lea; Knudsen, Berith Elkær; Johansen, Anders; Albers, Christian Nyrop; Aamand, Jens; Rosendahl, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation of pesticide-polluted soil may be more efficient using mixed fungal-bacterial cultures rather than the individual strains alone. This may be due to cooperative catabolism, where the first organism transforms the pollutant to products which are then used by the second organism. In addition, fungal hyphae may function as transport vectors for bacteria, thereby facilitating a more effective spreading of degrader organisms in the soil. A more rapid mineralization of the phenylurea herbicide diuron was found in sand with added microbial consortia consisting of both degrading bacteria and fungi. Facilitated transport of bacteria by fungal hyphae was demonstrated using a system where herbicide-spiked sand was separated from the consortium by a layer of sterile glass beads. Several fungal-bacterial consortia were investigated by combining different diuron-degrading bacteria (Sphingomonas sp. SRS2, Variovorax sp. SRS16, and Arthrobacter globiformis D47) and fungi (Mortierella sp. LEJ702 and LEJ703). The fastest mineralization of (14)C-labeled diuron was seen in the consortium consisting of Mortierella LEJ702, Variovorax SRS16, and A. globiformis D47, as measured by evolved (14)CO2. In addition, the production of diuron metabolites by this consortium was minimal. Analyses of 16S rDNA suggested that bacteria were transported more efficiently by LEJ702 than by LEJ703. Finally, it was determined that the fungal growth differed for LEJ702 and LEJ703 in the three-member consortia. This study demonstrates new possibilities for applying efficient fungal-bacterial consortia for bioremediation of polluted soil. © 2013.

  15. Molecular fingerprinting of bacterial communities in enriched azo dye (Reactive Violet 5R) decolorising native acclimatised bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Jagat; Archana, G

    2013-08-01

    Reactive Violet 5R (RV5R) decolorising acclimatised bacterial consortia were enriched from industrial effluent contaminated and pristine samples from Gujarat, India on several different media. Twelve acclimatised consortia were selected for the study which were able to decolorise 100mg/L RV5R in 30 h under shaking or static conditions. Eubacterial diversity was studied by 16S rRNA gene based culture-independent methods, using HaeIII and Hinf1 enzymes for ARDRA and V3 region based DGGE analysis, forming total 6 clusters in both analysis. Decolorised end products of all the consortia were analysed by FTIR showing cleavage of the azo bond and group modifications. GC-MS data of dye decolorised end products of Gly consortium obtained from hydrocarbon contaminated soil demonstrated benzene ring cleavage activity. Present study suggests that enrichment of acclimatised consortia under different conditions can result in diverse microbial communities that differentially degrade RV5R and can provide rich source of dye decolorising strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel application of nitrifying bacterial consortia to ease ammonia toxicity in ornamental fish transport units: trials with zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dhanasiri, A K S; Kiron, V; Fernandes, J M O; Bergh, O; Powell, M D

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate whether two commercial nitrifying bacterial consortia can function as biocontrol agents in ornamental fish transporting systems. The consortia were applied in a simulated set-up using zebrafish as the model organism in three trials. The efficacy of the bacterial consortia in controlling the ammonia level was validated by measuring water quality parameters such as total ammonia, nitrate and pH of the transport water. The bacterial community structure in the transport unit was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The consortia tested improved the nitrifying activity that in turn facilitated the reduction of ammonia that had accumulated during the transport. Bacterial profiles revealed the presence of both ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the transport bags. The application of the consortia during the transportation of zebrafish could profoundly improve the water quality by curbing ammonia accumulation. The potential of applying nitrifying bacteria as a bioremediation practice during the transport of ornamental fish has been demonstrated and this innovative approach contributes to the amelioration of current fish welfare in ornamental fish trade. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Use of biolog methodology for optimizing the degradation of hydrocarbons by bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Ambrosoli, R; Bardi, L; Minati, J L; Belviso, S; Ricci, R; Marzona, M

    2003-01-01

    Biolog methodology was used for the preliminary screening of different cultural conditions in order to detect the best combination/s of factors influencing the metabolic performance of bacterial consortia active in the degradation of hydrocarbons. Two microbial consortia were tested for their activity on 2 hydrocarbons (nonadecane and eicosane) in presence of the following cultural coadjuvants: vegetal oil, beta-cyclodextrine, sodium acetate, mineral solution. Tests were conducted in Biolog MT plates, where only the redox indicator of microbial growth (tetrazolium violet) and no carbon sources are provided. The microwells were filled with various combinations of hydrocarbons, microbial inoculum and coadjuvants. Blanks were prepared with the same combinations but without hydrocarbons. The results obtained show the suitability of the methodology developed to identify the most active consortium and the conditions for its best degradation performance. The efficacy of Biolog methodology (Biolog Inc., USA) for the characterization of microbial communities on the basis of the metabolic profiles obtained on specific carbon sources in the microwells of Elisa-type plates, is widely acknowledged (Garland, 1997; Pietikäinen et al., 2000; Dauber and Wolters, 2000). Due to its aptitude to simultaneously evaluate multiple microbial responses and directly organize the results, it can be adapted to meet specific study purposes (Gamo and Shji, 1999). In the present research Biolog methodology was fitted for the preliminary screening of different cultural conditions, in order to detect the best combination/s of factors influencing the metabolic performance of bacterial consortia active in the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons, in view of their utilization for the bioremediation of polluted sites.

  18. Bioavailability of hydrocarbons to bacterial consortia during Triton X-100 mediated biodegradation in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Pęziak, Daria; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Marecik, Roman; Lisiecki, Piotr; Woźniak, Marta; Szulc, Alicja; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of Triton X-100 on the biodegradation efficiency of hexadecane and phenanthrene carried out by two bacterial consortia. It was established that the tested consortia were not able to directly uptake compounds closed in micelles. It was observed that in micellar systems the nonionic synthetic surfactant was preferentially degraded (the degradation efficiency of Triton X-100 after 21 days was 70% of the initial concentration - 500 mg/l), followed by a lesser decomposition of hydrocarbon released from the micelles (30% for hexadecane and 20% for phenanthrene). However, when hydrocarbons were used as the sole carbon source, 70% of hexadecane and 30% of phenanthrene were degraded. The degradation of the surfactant did not contribute to notable shifts in bacterial community dynamics, as determined by Real-Time PCR. The obtained results suggest that if surfactant-supplementation is to be used as an integral part of a bioremediation process, then possible bioavailability decrease due to entrapment of the contaminant into surfactant micelles should also be taken into consideration, as this phenomenon may have a negative impact on the biodegradation efficiency. Surfactant-induced mobilization of otherwise recalcitrant hydrocarbons may contribute to the spreading of contaminants in the environment and prevent their biodegradation.

  19. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. PMID:25261509

  20. PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF FOUR 2-CHLOROBENZOATE-DEGRADING ANAEROBIC BACTERIAL CONSORTIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dechlorination was the initial step of 2CB biodegradation in four 2-chlorobenzoate-degrading methanogenic consortia. Selected characteristics of orthoreductive dehalogenation were examined in consortia developed from the highest actively dechlorinating dilutions of the original 2...

  1. Effects of copper on sulfate reduction in bacterial consortia enriched from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Jin, Song; Drever, James I; Colberg, Patricia J S

    2007-02-01

    The effects of copper amendments on bacterial sulfate reduction in enrichment cultures obtained from two types of freshwater sediment were examined. Sulfate-reducing bacterial (SRB) consortia were enriched from pond sediment with no known history of metal contamination (uncontaminated) and from reservoir sediment with a well-documented history of metal contamination (metal-contaminated). The rates and extent of sulfate reduction in each sediment type in the absence of added copper were indistinguishable. With amendments of 0.8 mg/L copper, no inhibitory effects on sulfate reduction were observed in either consortium type. At 8.0 mg/L copper, activity in uncontaminated SRB consortia was significantly inhibited, as evidenced by a delay in and decreased rate of sulfate reduction; sulfidogenesis in metal-contaminated consortia was apparently unaffected. When the dissolved copper concentration was 30.0 mg/L, sulfidogenic activity in pond sediment consortia was completely inhibited. The rate of sulfate reduction temporarily decreased in the metal-contaminated enrichments but recovered after a short time. In active microcosms, copper was precipitated as CuS. The results of this study suggest that SRB from metal-contaminated environments have a markedly higher metal tolerance than those enriched from uncontaminated environments. The most significant inference from this work is that metal sulfide formation alone does not explain observed differences in metal tolerance between SRB consortia enriched from uncontaminated sediments and those that are derived from metal-contaminated sediments.

  2. Evolution of bacterial consortia in spontaneously started rye sourdoughs during two months of daily propagation.

    PubMed

    Bessmeltseva, Marianna; Viiard, Ene; Simm, Jaak; Paalme, Toomas; Sarand, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200), propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1∶10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius) were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus) was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping.

  3. Evolution of Bacterial Consortia in Spontaneously Started Rye Sourdoughs during Two Months of Daily Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Simm, Jaak; Paalme, Toomas; Sarand, Inga

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of bacterial consortia was studied in six semi-solid rye sourdoughs during long-term backslopping at different temperatures. Each rye sourdough was started spontaneously in a laboratory (dough yield 200), propagated at either 20°C or 30°C, and renewed daily at an inoculation rate of 1∶10 for 56 days. The changes in bacterial diversity over time were followed by both DGGE coupled with partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing and pyrosequencing of bar-coded 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Four species from the genus Lactobacillus (brevis, crustorum, plantarum, and paralimentarius) were detected in different combinations in all sourdoughs after 56 propagation cycles. Facultative heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 30°C, while both obligate and facultative heterofermentative LAB were found to dominate in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C. After 56 propagation cycles, Kazachstania unispora (formerly Saccharomyces unisporus) was identified as the only yeast species that dominated in sourdoughs fermented at 20°C, while different combinations of strains from four yeast species (Kazachstania unispora, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata) were detected in sourdoughs propagated at 30°C. The evolution of bacterial communities in sourdoughs fermented at the same temperature did not follow the same time course and changes in the composition of dominant and subdominant bacterial communities occurred even after six weeks of backslopping. PMID:24748058

  4. Improving nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics by introducing algal-bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yingke; Hu, Zhen; Zou, Yina; Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Zhuoran; Zhang, Jianda; Nie, Lichao

    2017-08-22

    Aquaponics is a promising technology combining aquaculture with hydroponics. In this study, algal-bacterial consortia were introduced into aquaponics, i.e., algal-bacterial based aquaponics (AA), to improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) of aquaponics. The results showed that the NUE of AA was 13.79% higher than that of media-based aquaponics (MA). In addition, higher NO3(-) removal by microalgae assimilation led to better water quality in AA, which made up for the deficiencies of poor aquaponic management of nitrate. As a result of lower NO3(-) concentrations and dramatically higher dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations caused by microalgae photosynthesis in the photobioreactor, the N2O emission of AA was 89.89% lower than that of MA, although nosZ gene abundance in MA's hydroponic bed was approximately 30 times over that in AA. Considering the factors mentioned above, AA would improve the sustainability of aquaponics and have a good application foreground. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nanobarium Titanate As Supplement To Accelerate Plastic Waste Biodegradation By Indigenous Bacterial Consortia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapri, Anil; Zaidi, M. G. H.; Goel, Reeta

    2009-06-01

    Plastic waste biodegradation studies have seen several developmental phases from the discovery of potential microbial cultures, inclusion of photo-oxidizable additives into the polymer chain, to the creation of starch-embedded biodegradable plastics. The present study deals with the supplementation of nanobarium titanate (NBT) in the minimal broth in order to alter the growth-profiles of the Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) degrading consortia. The pro-bacterial influence of the nanoparticles could be seen by substantial changes such as shortening of the lag phase and elongation of the exponential as well as stationary growth phases, respectively, which eventually increase the biodegradation efficiency. In-vitro biodegradation studies revealed better dissolution of LDPE in the presence of NBT as compared to control. Significant shifting in λ-max values was observed in the treated samples through UV-Vis spectroscopy, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and simultaneous thermogravimetric-differential thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTG-DTA) further confirmed the breakage and formation of bonds in the polymer backbone. Therefore, this study suggests the implementation of NBT as nutritional additive for plastic waste management through bacterial growth acceleration.

  6. Conversion of ammonia-pretreated switchgrass to biofuel precursors by bacterial-fungal consortia under solid-state and submerged-state cultivation.

    PubMed

    Jain, A; Pelle, H S; Baughman, W H; Henson, J M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate bacterial-fungal communities to deconstruct switchgrass to biofuel precursors. Bacterial-fungal consortia, mesophilic (25°C) and thermophilic (50°C), were enriched from switchgrass bales from which enzyme mixtures were used to deconstruct delignified switchgrass (DSG). The bacterial-fungal consortia were able to produce enzymes including endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, xylosidase and pectinase to convert DSG to soluble carbohydrates. 454 pyrosequencing revealed that Paenibacillus and Streptomyces were the dominant bacteria in the mesophilic and thermophilic consortia respectively. Penicillium and Acremonium were the dominant fungi in the mesophilic consortia, whereas Aspergillus and Penicillium were the dominant fungi present in the thermophilic consortia. The results show that the state of cultivation, solid-state or submerged-state, affects the community structure as well as enzyme activities produced by these bacterial-fungal consortia. The enzyme mixture produced by the bacterial-fungal consortia released a higher amount of xylose than glucose during saccharification of DSG. The study provides a novel approach to produce enzymes for conversion of lignocellulolytic feedstocks to soluble sugars which can be used to produce biofuel precursors. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Design and characterization of synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for direct production of isobutanol from cellulosic biomass

    PubMed Central

    Minty, Jeremy J.; Singer, Marc E.; Scholz, Scott A.; Bae, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Foster, Clifton E.; Liao, James C.; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-01-01

    Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. This has inspired fast-growing interest in engineering synthetic microbial consortia for biotechnology development. However, there are relatively few reports of their use in real-world applications, and achieving population stability and regulation has proven to be challenging. In this work, we bridge ecology theory with engineering principles to develop robust synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for efficient biosynthesis of valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei, which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli, which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. We developed and experimentally validated a comprehensive mathematical model for T. reesei/E. coli consortia, providing insights on key determinants of the system’s performance. To illustrate the bioprocessing potential of this consortium, we demonstrate direct conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated corn stover to isobutanol. Without costly nutrient supplementation, we achieved titers up to 1.88 g/L and yields up to 62% of theoretical maximum. In addition, we show that cooperator–cheater dynamics within T. reesei/E. coli consortia lead to stable population equilibria and provide a mechanism for tuning composition. Although we offer isobutanol production as a proof-of-concept application, our modular system could be readily adapted for production of many other valuable biochemicals. PMID:23959872

  8. Design and characterization of synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for direct production of isobutanol from cellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Minty, Jeremy J; Singer, Marc E; Scholz, Scott A; Bae, Chang-Hoon; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Foster, Clifton E; Liao, James C; Lin, Xiaoxia Nina

    2013-09-03

    Synergistic microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing features, such as sophisticated metabolic capabilities and robustness. This has inspired fast-growing interest in engineering synthetic microbial consortia for biotechnology development. However, there are relatively few reports of their use in real-world applications, and achieving population stability and regulation has proven to be challenging. In this work, we bridge ecology theory with engineering principles to develop robust synthetic fungal-bacterial consortia for efficient biosynthesis of valuable products from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The required biological functions are divided between two specialists: the fungus Trichoderma reesei, which secretes cellulase enzymes to hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass into soluble saccharides, and the bacterium Escherichia coli, which metabolizes soluble saccharides into desired products. We developed and experimentally validated a comprehensive mathematical model for T. reesei/E. coli consortia, providing insights on key determinants of the system's performance. To illustrate the bioprocessing potential of this consortium, we demonstrate direct conversion of microcrystalline cellulose and pretreated corn stover to isobutanol. Without costly nutrient supplementation, we achieved titers up to 1.88 g/L and yields up to 62% of theoretical maximum. In addition, we show that cooperator-cheater dynamics within T. reesei/E. coli consortia lead to stable population equilibria and provide a mechanism for tuning composition. Although we offer isobutanol production as a proof-of-concept application, our modular system could be readily adapted for production of many other valuable biochemicals.

  9. Biodegradation of gentamicin by bacterial consortia AMQD4 in synthetic medium and raw gentamicin sewage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanwang; Chang, Huiqing; Li, Zhaojun; Feng, Yao; Cheng, Dengmiao; Xue, Jianming

    2017-09-08

    Gentamicin, a broad spectrum antibiotic of the aminoglycoside class, is widely used for disease prevention of human beings as well as animals. Nowadays the environmental issue caused by the disposal of wastes containing gentamicin attracts increasing attention. In this study, a gentamicin degrading bacterial consortia named AMQD4, including Providencia vermicola, Brevundimonas diminuta, Alcaligenes sp. and Acinetobacter, was isolated from biosolids produced during gentamicin production for the removal of gentamicin in the environment. The component and structure of gentamicin have a great influence on its degradation and gentamicin C1a and gentamicin C2a were more prone to being degraded. AMQD4 could maintain relatively high gentamicin removal efficiency under a wide range of pH, especially in an alkaline condition. In addition, AMQD4 could remove 56.8% and 47.7% of gentamicin in unsterilized and sterilized sewage in a lab-scale experiment, respectively. And among the isolates in AMQD4, Brevundimonas diminuta BZC3 performed the highest gentamicin degradation about 50%. It was speculated that aac3iia was the gentamicin degradation gene and the main degradation product was 3'-acetylgentamicin. Our results suggest that AMQD4 and Brevundimonas diminuta BZC3 could be important candidates to the list of superior microbes for bioremediation of antibiotic pollution.

  10. Study of phenanthrene utilizing bacterial consortia associated with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-02-01

    Many legumes have been selected as model plants to degrade organic contaminants with their special associated rhizosphere microbes in soil. However, the function of root nodules during microbe-assisted phytoremediation is not clear. A pot study was conducted to examine phenanthrene (PHE) utilizing bacteria associated with root nodules and the effects of cowpea root nodules on phytoremediation in two different types of soils (freshly contaminated soil and aged contaminated soil). Cowpea nodules in freshly-contaminated soil showed less damage in comparison to the aged-contaminated soil, both morphologically and ultra-structurally by scanning electron microscopy. The study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) attenuation conducted by high performance liquid chromatography revealed that more PAH was eliminated from liquid culture around nodulated roots than nodule-free roots. PAH sublimation and denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis were applied to analyze the capability and diversity of PAH degrading bacteria from the following four parts of rhizo-microzone: bulk soil, root surface, nodule surface and nodule inside. The results indicated that the surface and inside of cowpea root nodules were colonized with bacterial consortia that utilized PHE. Our results demonstrated that root nodules not only fixed nitrogen, but also enriched PAH-utilizing microorganisms both inside and outside of the nodules. Legume nodules may have biotechnological values for PAH degradation.

  11. Crude oil degradation by bacterial consortia under four different redox and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shunzi; Li, Xia; Chen, Jianfa; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-02-01

    There is emerging interest in the anaerobic degradation of crude oil. However, there is limited knowledge about the geochemical effects and microbiological activities for it. A mixture of anaerobic sludge and the production water from an oil well was used as an inoculum to construct four consortia, which were incubated under sulfate-reducing or methanogenic conditions at either mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Significant degradation of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the changing quantities of some marker compounds, such as pristane, phytane, hopane and norhopane, and their relative quantities, suggested the activity of microorganisms in the consortia. Notably, the redox conditions and temperature strongly affected the diversity and structure of the enriched microbial communities and the oil degradation. Although some specific biomarker showed larger change under methanogenic condition, the degradation efficiencies for total aromatic and saturated hydrocarbon were higher under sulfate-reducing condition. After the 540-day incubation, bacteria of unknown classifications were dominant in the thermophilic methanogenic consortia, whereas Clostridium dominated the mesophilic methanogenic consortia. With the exception of the dominant phylotypes that were shared with the methanogenic consortia, the sulfate-reducing consortia were predominantly composed of Thermotogae, Deltaproteobacteria, Spirochaeta, and Synergistetes phyla. In conclusion, results in this study demonstrated that the different groups of degraders were responsible for degradation in the four constructed crude oil degrading consortia and consequently led to the existence of different amount of marker compounds under these distinct conditions. There might be distinct metabolic mechanism for degrading crude oil under sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions.

  12. The potential of oil-utilizing bacterial consortia associated with legume root nodules for cleaning oily soils.

    PubMed

    Dashti, N; Khanafer, M; El-Nemr, I; Sorkhoh, N; Ali, N; Radwan, S

    2009-03-01

    The surfaces of root nodules of Vicia faba and Lupinus albus (legume crops), were colonized with bacterial consortia which utilized oil and fixed nitrogen. Such combined activities apparently make those periphytic consortia efficient contributors to bioremediation of oily nitrogen-poor desert soils. This was confirmed experimentally in this study. Thus, cultivating V. faba, L. albus and, for comparison, Solanum melongena, a nonlegume crop, separately in oily sand samples resulted in more oil attenuation than in an uncultivated sample. This effect was more pronounced with the legume crops than with the nonlegume crop. Furthermore, in flask cultures, V. faba plants with nodulated roots exhibited a higher potential for oil attenuation in the surrounding water than plants with nodule-free roots. Denaturation gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of polymerase chain reaction amplified 16S rRNA coding genes revealed that periphytic bacteria had DGGE bands not matching those of the oil-utilizing rhizospheric bacteria. Legume nodules also contained endophytic bacteria whose 16S rDNA bands did not match those of Rhizobium nor those of all other individual periphytic and rhizospheric strains. It was concluded that legume crops host on their roots bacterial consortia with a satisfactory potential for oil phytoremediation.

  13. Developmental plasticity of bacterial colonies and consortia in germ-free and gnotobiotic settings

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacteria grown on semi-solid media can build two types of multicellular structures, depending on the circumstances. Bodies (colonies) arise when a single clone is grown axenically (germ-free), whereas multispecies chimeric consortia contain monoclonal microcolonies of participants. Growth of an axenic colony, mutual interactions of colonies, and negotiation of the morphospace in consortial ecosystems are results of intricate regulatory and metabolic networks. Multicellular structures developed by Serratia sp. are characteristically shaped and colored, forming patterns that reflect their growth conditions (in particular medium composition and the presence of other bacteria). Results Building on our previous work, we developed a model system for studying ontogeny of multicellular bacterial structures formed by five Serratia sp. morphotypes of two species grown in either "germ-free" or "gnotobiotic" settings (i.e. in the presence of bacteria of other conspecific morphotype, other Serratia species, or E. coli). Monoclonal bodies show regular and reproducible macroscopic appearance of the colony, as well as microscopic pattern of its growing margin. Standard development can be modified in a characteristic and reproducible manner in close vicinity of other bacterial structures (or in the presence of their products). Encounters of colonies with neighbors of a different morphotype or species reveal relationships of dominance, cooperation, or submission; multiple interactions can be summarized in "rock – paper – scissors" network of interrelationships. Chimerical (mixed) plantings consisting of two morphotypes usually produced a “consortium” whose structure is consistent with the model derived from interaction patterns observed in colonies. Conclusions Our results suggest that development of a bacterial colony can be considered analogous to embryogenesis in animals, plants, or fungi: to proceed, early stages require thorough insulation from the rest of

  14. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal-bacterial consortia

    DOE PAGES

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle; ...

    2016-06-28

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probemore » the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of > 16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought.« less

  15. Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal−bacterial consortia

    PubMed Central

    Hatzenpichler, Roland; Connon, Stephanie A.; Goudeau, Danielle; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Woyke, Tanja; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the biogeochemical roles of microorganisms in the environment, it is important to determine when and under which conditions they are metabolically active. Bioorthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) can reveal active cells by tracking the incorporation of synthetic amino acids into newly synthesized proteins. The phylogenetic identity of translationally active cells can be determined by combining BONCAT with rRNA-targeted fluorescence in situ hybridization (BONCAT-FISH). In theory, BONCAT-labeled cells could be isolated with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BONCAT-FACS) for subsequent genetic analyses. Here, in the first application, to our knowledge, of BONCAT-FISH and BONCAT-FACS within an environmental context, we probe the translational activity of microbial consortia catalyzing the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), a dominant sink of methane in the ocean. These consortia, which typically are composed of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria, have been difficult to study due to their slow in situ growth rates, and fundamental questions remain about their ecology and diversity of interactions occurring between ANME and associated partners. Our activity-correlated analyses of >16,400 microbial aggregates provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that AOM consortia affiliated with all five major ANME clades are concurrently active under controlled conditions. Surprisingly, sorting of individual BONCAT-labeled consortia followed by whole-genome amplification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed previously unrecognized interactions of ANME with members of the poorly understood phylum Verrucomicrobia. This finding, together with our observation that ANME-associated Verrucomicrobia are found in a variety of geographically distinct methane seep environments, suggests a broader range of symbiotic relationships within AOM consortia than previously thought. PMID:27357680

  16. A Formalized Design Process for Bacterial Consortia That Perform Logic Computing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Rui; Xi, Jingyi; Wen, Dingqiao; Feng, Jingchen; Chen, Yiwei; Qin, Xiao; Ma, Yanrong; Luo, Wenhan; Deng, Linna; Lin, Hanchi; Yu, Ruofan; Ouyang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The concept of microbial consortia is of great attractiveness in synthetic biology. Despite of all its benefits, however, there are still problems remaining for large-scaled multicellular gene circuits, for example, how to reliably design and distribute the circuits in microbial consortia with limited number of well-behaved genetic modules and wiring quorum-sensing molecules. To manage such problem, here we propose a formalized design process: (i) determine the basic logic units (AND, OR and NOT gates) based on mathematical and biological considerations; (ii) establish rules to search and distribute simplest logic design; (iii) assemble assigned basic logic units in each logic operating cell; and (iv) fine-tune the circuiting interface between logic operators. We in silico analyzed gene circuits with inputs ranging from two to four, comparing our method with the pre-existing ones. Results showed that this formalized design process is more feasible concerning numbers of cells required. Furthermore, as a proof of principle, an Escherichia coli consortium that performs XOR function, a typical complex computing operation, was designed. The construction and characterization of logic operators is independent of “wiring” and provides predictive information for fine-tuning. This formalized design process provides guidance for the design of microbial consortia that perform distributed biological computation. PMID:23468999

  17. A formalized design process for bacterial consortia that perform logic computing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weiyue; Shi, Handuo; Zhang, Haoqian; Sun, Rui; Xi, Jingyi; Wen, Dingqiao; Feng, Jingchen; Chen, Yiwei; Qin, Xiao; Ma, Yanrong; Luo, Wenhan; Deng, Linna; Lin, Hanchi; Yu, Ruofan; Ouyang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The concept of microbial consortia is of great attractiveness in synthetic biology. Despite of all its benefits, however, there are still problems remaining for large-scaled multicellular gene circuits, for example, how to reliably design and distribute the circuits in microbial consortia with limited number of well-behaved genetic modules and wiring quorum-sensing molecules. To manage such problem, here we propose a formalized design process: (i) determine the basic logic units (AND, OR and NOT gates) based on mathematical and biological considerations; (ii) establish rules to search and distribute simplest logic design; (iii) assemble assigned basic logic units in each logic operating cell; and (iv) fine-tune the circuiting interface between logic operators. We in silico analyzed gene circuits with inputs ranging from two to four, comparing our method with the pre-existing ones. Results showed that this formalized design process is more feasible concerning numbers of cells required. Furthermore, as a proof of principle, an Escherichia coli consortium that performs XOR function, a typical complex computing operation, was designed. The construction and characterization of logic operators is independent of "wiring" and provides predictive information for fine-tuning. This formalized design process provides guidance for the design of microbial consortia that perform distributed biological computation.

  18. Ecological Inferences from a deep screening of the Complex Bacterial Consortia associated with the coral, Porites astreoides.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Barberan, Albert; Bellantuono, Anthony J; Bastidas, Carolina

    2013-08-01

    The functional role of the bacterial organisms in the reef ecosystem and their contribution to the coral well-being remain largely unclear. The first step in addressing this gap of knowledge relies on in-depth characterization of the coral microbial community and its changes in diversity across coral species, space and time. In this study, we focused on the exploration of microbial community assemblages associated with an ecologically important Caribbean scleractinian coral, Porites astreoides, using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of the V5 fragment of 16S rRNA gene. We collected data from a large set of biological replicates, allowing us to detect patterns of geographical structure and resolve co-occurrence patterns using network analyses. The taxonomic analysis of the resolved diversity showed consistent and dominant presence of two OTUs affiliated with the order Oceanospirillales, which corroborates a specific pattern of bacterial association emerging for this coral species and for many other corals within the genus Porites. We argue that this specific association might indicate a symbiotic association with the adult coral partner. Furthermore, we identified a highly diverse rare bacterial 'biosphere' (725 OTUs) also living along with the dominant bacterial symbionts, but the assemblage of this biosphere is significantly structured along the geographical scale. We further discuss that some of these rare bacterial members show significant association with other members of the community reflecting the complexity of the networked consortia within the coral holobiont. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Biotreatment of industrial olive washing water by synergetic association of microalgal-bacterial consortia in a photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Maza-Márquez, P; González-Martínez, A; Martínez-Toledo, M V; Fenice, M; Lasserrot, A; González-López, J

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an effective technology for the olive processing industry to remediate olive washing water. A 14.5-L enclosed tubular photobioreactor was inoculated with a stable microalgal-bacterial consortium obtained by screening strains well adapted to olive washing water. The capacity of an enclosed tubular photobioreactor to remove toxic compounds was evaluated under photosynthesis conditions and without any external supply of oxygen. The results showed that the dominant green microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. and bacteria present in olive washing water (i.e. Pantoea agglomerans and Raoultella terrigena) formed a synergistic association that was resistant to toxic pollutants present in the effluent and during the initial biodegradation process, which resulted in the breakdown of the pollutant. Total phenolic compounds, COD, BOD5, turbidity and colour removals of 90.3 ± 11.4, 80.7 ± 9.7, 97.8 ± 12.7, 82.9 ± 8.4 and 83.3 ± 10.4 %, respectively, were recorded in the photobioreactor at 3 days of hydraulic retention time. Graphical abstract Biotreatment of industrial olive washing water by synergetic association of microalgal-bacterial consortia in a photobioreactor.

  20. Structural and Kinetic Characteristics of 1,4-Dioxane-Degrading Bacterial Consortia Containing the Phylum TM7.

    PubMed

    Nam, Ji-Hyun; Ventura, Jey-R S; Yeom, Ick Tae; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2016-11-28

    1,4-Dioxane-degrading bacterial consortia were enriched from forest soil (FS) and activated sludge (AS) using a defined medium containing 1,4-dioxane as the sole carbon source. These two enrichments cultures appeared to have inducible tetrahydrofuran/dioxane and propane degradation enzymes. According to qPCR results on the 16S rRNA and soluble di-iron monooxygenase genes, the relative abundances of 1,4-dioxane-degrading bacteria to total bacteria in FS and AS were 29.4% and 57.8%, respectively. For FS, the cell growth yields (Y), maximum specific degradation rate (Vmax), and half-saturation concentration (Km) were 0.58 mg-protein/mg-dioxane, 0.037 mg-dioxane/mg-protein∙h, and 93.9 mg/l, respectively. For AS, Y, Vmax, and Km were 0.34 mg-protein/mg-dioxane, 0.078 mg-dioxane/mg-protein∙h, and 181.3 mg/l, respectively. These kinetics data of FS and AS were similar to previously reported values. Based on bacterial community analysis on 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two enrichment cultures, the FS consortium was identified to contain 38.3% of Mycobacterium and 10.6% of Afipia, similar to previously reported literature. Meanwhile, 49.5% of the AS consortium belonged to the candidate division TM7, which has never been reported to be involved in 1,4-dioxane biodegradation. However, recent studies suggested that TM7 bacteria were associated with degradation of non-biodegradable and hazardous materials. Therefore, our results showed that previously unknown 1,4-dioxane-degrading bacteria might play an important role in enriched AS. Although the metabolic capability and ecophysiological significance of the predominant TM7 bacteria in AS enrichment culture remain unclear, our data reveal hidden characteristics of the TM7 phylum and provide a perspective for studying this previously uncultured phylotype.

  1. Targeting modular polyketide synthases with iteratively acting acyltransferases from metagenomes of uncultured bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Piel, Jörn; Hui, Dequan; Fusetani, Nobuhiro; Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2004-09-01

    Bacterial type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) produce a wide range of biomedically important secondary metabolites. These enzymes possess a modular structure that can be genetically re-engineered to yield novel drug candidates not found in nature. Recently, we have reported the putative pederin PKS from an uncultured bacterial symbiont of Paederus fuscipes beetles. It belongs to an architecturally unusual PKS group, the members of which contain iteratively acting acyltransferases that are not integrated into the PKS modules but are encoded by isolated genes. As these systems are rare, often contain additional unusual features and are of smaller size than regular PKSs, the development of a method for the targeted isolation of new group members would be of great interest. Here, we present a phylogenetic approach to identify these systems rapidly in highly complex metagenomic DNA samples. To demonstrate its practical value, we located two pederin-type PKS systems putatively involved in the biosynthesis of antitumour polyketides in the metagenomic DNA of beetles, sponges and their uncultivated bacterial symbionts.

  2. Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate accumulation in bacterial consortia from different environments.

    PubMed

    Carpa, Rahela; Butiuc-Keul, Anca; Lupan, Iulia; Barbu-Tudoran, Lucian; Muntean, Vasile; Dobrotă, Cristina

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine soil samples from various vegetation zones in terms of physicochemical properties, microbial communities, and isolation and identification (by polymerase chain reaction and transmission electron microscopy) of bacteria producing poly-β-hydroxybutyrates (PHBs). Soil samples were analysed originating from zones with heterogeneous environmental conditions from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains (mountain zone with alpine meadow, karstic zone with limestone meadow, hill zone with xerophilous meadow, and flood plain zone with hygrophilic meadow). Different bacterial groups involved in the nitrogen cycle (aerobic mesophilic heterotrophs, ammonifiers, denitrifiers, nitrifiers, and free nitrogen-fixing bacteria from Azotobacter genus) were analysed. Soil biological quality was assessed by the bacterial indicator of soil quality, which varied between 4.3 and 4.7. A colony polymerase chain reaction technique was used for screening PHB producers. With different primers, specific bands were obtained in all the soil samples. Some wild types of Azotobacter species were isolated from the 4 studied sites. Biodegradable polymers of PHB were assessed by negative staining in transmission electron microscopy. The maximum PHB granules density was obtained in the strains isolated from the xerophilous meadow (10-18 granules/cell), which was the most stressful environment from all the studied sites, as the physicochemical and microbiological tests proved.

  3. Copper and lead removal from aqueous solutions by bacterial consortia acting as biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Waite, Carolina Coelho da Costa; da Silva, Guilherme Oliveira Andrade; Bitencourt, José Augusto Pires; Sabadini-Santos, Elisamara; Crapez, Mirian Araújo Carlos

    2016-08-15

    A bacterial consortium was selected in the presence of Cu from sediment samples taken from Sepetiba Bay, Brazil, which is a site historically contaminated by metals. Bacteria were exposed to 0, 1, 6, 12.5, 25 and 50μg·mL(-1) Cu, Pb and Cu+Pb for 11days of bioassay. Results showed Alcanivorax dominance (81%) and cell counts of 10(8)cells·mL(-1). However, a reduction in dehydrogenase activity was observed from the fifth day of exposure for all Cu, Pb, and Cu+Pb concentrations tested. Esterase activity tended to increase, indicating higher energy demand to complete the bacterial lifecycle. Pb concentrations in the filtered culture medium (0.2μm) were below the detection limit, indicating biosorption, whereas concentrations of Cu were close to the tested concentrations, indicative of efflux. Results suggest the need for biomarkers, such as esterase and dehydrogenase enzymatic activity, in the assessment of resistance and tolerance of communities previously exposed to stressors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Wiring Together Synthetic Bacterial Consortia to Create a Biological Integrated Circuit.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicolas; Nelson, Edward M; Timp, Gregory

    2016-12-16

    The promise of adapting biology to information processing will not be realized until engineered gene circuits, operating in different cell populations, can be wired together to express a predictable function. Here, elementary biological integrated circuits (BICs), consisting of two sets of transmitter and receiver gene circuit modules with embedded memory placed in separate cell populations, were meticulously assembled using live cell lithography and wired together by the mass transport of quorum-sensing (QS) signal molecules to form two isolated communication links (comlinks). The comlink dynamics were tested by broadcasting "clock" pulses of inducers into the networks and measuring the responses of functionally linked fluorescent reporters, and then modeled through simulations that realistically captured the protein production and molecular transport. These results show that the comlinks were isolated and each mimicked aspects of the synchronous, sequential networks used in digital computing. The observations about the flow conditions, derived from numerical simulations, and the biofilm architectures that foster or silence cell-to-cell communications have implications for everything from decontamination of drinking water to bacterial virulence.

  5. 454 pyrosequencing-based characterization of the bacterial consortia in a well established nitrifying reactor.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Vargas, Rocio; Serrano-Silva, Nancy; Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Alcántara-Hernández, Rocio J; Luna-Guido, Marco; Thalasso, Frederic; Dendooven, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This present study aimed to characterize the bacterial community in a well-established nitrifying reactor by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. The laboratory-scale continuous stirred tank reactor has been supplied with ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as sole energy source for over 5 years, while no organic carbon has been added, assembling thus a unique planktonic community with a mean NH(4)(+) removal rate of 86 ± 1.4 mg NH(4)(+)-N/(L d). Results showed a nitrifying community composed of bacteria belonging to Nitrosomonas (relative abundance 11.0%) as the sole ammonia oxidizers (AOB) and Nitrobacter (9.3%) as the sole nitrite oxidizers (NOB). The Alphaproteobacteria (42.3% including Nitrobacter) were the most abundant class within the Proteobacteria (62.8%) followed by the Gammaproteobacteria (9.4%). However, the Betaproteobacteria (excluding AOB) contributed only 0.08%, confirming that Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria thrived in low-organic-load environments while heterotrophic Betaproteobacteria are not well adapted to these conditions. Bacteroidetes, known to metabolize extracellular polymeric substances produced by nitrifying bacteria and secondary metabolites of the decayed biomass, was the second most abundant phylum (30.8%). It was found that Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter sustained a broad population of heterotrophs in the reactor dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, in a 1:4 ratio of total nitrifiers to all heterotrophs.

  6. Enhanced biodegradation of low and high-density polyethylene by novel bacterial consortia formulated from plastic-contaminated cow dung under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    Skariyachan, Sinosh; Setlur, Anagha Shamsundar; Naik, Sujay Yashwant; Naik, Ashwini Amaresh; Usharani, Makam; Vasist, Kiran S

    2017-03-01

    The current study aimed to devise eco-friendly, safe, and cost-effective strategies for enhanced degradation of low- and high-density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) using newly formulated thermophilic microbial consortia from cow dung and to assess the biodegradation end products. The plastic-degrading bacteria from cow dung samples gathered from highly plastic-acclimated environments were enriched by standard protocols. The degradation ability was comprehended by zone of clearance method, and the percentage of degradation was monitored by weight reduction process. The best isolates were characterized by standard microbiological and molecular biology protocols. The best isolates were employed to form several combinations of microbial consortia, and the degradation end products were analyzed. The stability of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was predicted by bioinformatics approach. This study identified 75 ± 2, 55 ± 2, 60 ± 3, and 43 ± 3% degradation for LDPE strips, pellets, HDPE strips, and pellets, respectively, for a period of 120 days (p < 0.05) at 55 °C by the formulated consortia of IS1-IS4, and the degradation efficiency was found to be better in comparison with other formulations. The end product analysis by Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance showed major structural changes and formation of bacterial biofilm on plastic surfaces. These novel isolates were designated as Bacillus vallismortis bt-dsce01, Psuedomonas protegens bt-dsce02, Stenotrophomonas sp. bt-dsce03, and Paenibacillus sp.bt-dsce04 by 16S rDNA sequencing and suggested good gene stability with minimum Gibb's free energy. Therefore, this study imparts substantial information regarding the utilization of these thermophilic microbial consortia from cow dung for rapid polyethylene removal.

  7. Diverse bacterial groups are associated with corrosive lesions at a Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV).

    PubMed

    Kan, J; Chellamuthu, P; Obraztsova, A; Moore, J E; Nealson, K H

    2011-08-01

    This study applied culture-dependent and molecular approaches to examine the bacterial communities at corrosion sites at Granite Mountain Record Vault (GMRV) in Utah, USA, with the goal of understanding the role of microbes in these unexpected corrosion events. Samples from corroded steel chunks, rock particles and waters around the corrosion pits were collected for bacterial isolation and molecular analyses. Bacteria cultivated from these sites were identified as members of Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In addition, molecular genetic characterization of the communities via nested-polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated the presence of a broad spectrum of bacterial groups, including Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. However, neither cultivation nor molecular approaches identified sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), the bacteria commonly implicated as causative organisms were found associated with corrosive lesions in a process referred to as microbially influenced corrosion (MIC). The high diversity of bacterial groups at the corrosion sites in comparison with that seen in the source waters suggested to us a role for the microbes in corrosion, perhaps being an expression of a redox-active group of microbes transferring electrons, harvesting energy and producing biomass. The corrosion sites contained highly diverse microbial communities, consistent with the involvement of microbial activities along the redox gradient at corrosion interface. We hypothesize an electron transport model for MIC, involving diverse bacterial groups such as acid-producing bacteria (APB), SRB, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), metal-reducing bacteria (MRB) and metal-oxidizing bacteria (MOB). The characterization of micro-organisms that influence metal-concrete corrosion at GMRV has significant implications for corrosion control in high

  8. An investigation of anaerobic methane oxidation by consortia of methanotrophic archaea and bacterial partners using nanoSIMS and process-based modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Kempes, C.; Chadwick, G.; McGlynn, S.; He, X.; Orphan, V. J.; Meile, C. D.

    2016-02-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane in marine sediments plays an important role in the global methane cycle. Mediated by a microbial consortium consisting of archaea and bacteria, it is estimated that almost 80% of all the methane that arises from marine sediments is oxidized anaerobically by this process (Reeburgh 2007, Chemical Reviews 107, 486-513). We used reactive transport modeling to compare and contrast potential mechanisms of methane oxidation. This included acetate, hydrogen, formate, and disulfide acting as intermediates that are exchanged between archaea and bacteria. Moreover, we investigated electron transport through nanowires, facilitating the electron exchange between the microbial partners. It was shown that reaction kinetics, transport intensities, and energetic considerations all could decisively impact the overall rate of methane consumption. Informed by observed microbial cell distribution, we applied the model to a range of spatial distribution patterns of archaea and bacteria. We found that a consortium with evenly distributed archaeal and bacterial cells has the potential to more efficiently oxidize methane, because the vicinity of bacteria and archaea counteracts the build up of products and therefore prevents the thermodynamic shutdown of microbial metabolism. Single cell stable isotope enrichment in archaeal-bacterial consortia observed by nanoSIMS revealed rather uniform levels of anabolic activity within consortia with different spatial distribution patterns. Comparison to model simulation illustrates that efficient exchange is necessary to reproduce such observations and prevent conditions that are energetically unfavorable for methane oxidation to take place. Model simulations indicate that a recently described mechanism of direct interspecies electron transport between the methanotrophic archaea and its bacterial partner through a conductive matrix (McGlynn et al. 2015, Nature, 10.1038/nature15512) is consistent with observations.

  9. Bacterial Exopolysaccharides For Corrosion Inhibition on Metal Substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biofilms, composed of extra-cellular polymers secreted by bacteria, have been observed to both increase as well as decrease the rate of metal corrosion. Exopolysaccharides derived from Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultures have been shown to inhibit corrosion on corrosion-sensitive metals. The substa...

  10. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are “green” amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS – lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents. PMID:25904907

  11. Biosurfactant production from marine hydrocarbon-degrading consortia and pure bacterial strains using crude oil as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Eleftheria; Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Korkakaki, Emmanouela; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Biosurfactants (BSs) are "green" amphiphilic molecules produced by microorganisms during biodegradation, increasing the bioavailability of organic pollutants. In this work, the BS production yield of marine hydrocarbon degraders isolated from Elefsina bay in Eastern Mediterranean Sea has been investigated. The drop collapse test was used as a preliminary screening test to confirm BS producing strains or mixed consortia. The community structure of the best consortia based on the drop collapse test was determined by 16S-rDNA pyrotag screening. Subsequently, the effect of incubation time, temperature, substrate and supplementation with inorganic nutrients, on BS production, was examined. Two types of BS - lipid mixtures were extracted from the culture broth; the low molecular weight BS Rhamnolipids and Sophorolipids. Crude extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and then identified by thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Results indicate that BS production yield remains constant and low while it is independent of the total culture biomass, carbon source, and temperature. A constant BS concentration in a culture broth with continuous degradation of crude oil (CO) implies that the BS producing microbes generate no more than the required amount of BSs that enables biodegradation of the CO. Isolated pure strains were found to have higher specific production yields than the complex microbial marine community-consortia. The heavy oil fraction of CO has emerged as a promising substrate for BS production (by marine BS producers) with fewer impurities in the final product. Furthermore, a particular strain isolated from sediments, Paracoccus marcusii, may be an optimal choice for bioremediation purposes as its biomass remains trapped in the hydrocarbon phase, not suffering from potential dilution effects by sea currents.

  12. Culture dependent and independent analyses of bacterial communities involved in copper plumbing corrosion.

    PubMed

    Pavissich, J P; Vargas, I T; González, B; Pastén, P A; Pizarro, G E

    2010-09-01

    This study used culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches to characterize bacterial communities in copper plumbing corrosion and to assess biofilm formation and copper resistance of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from copper pipes. Water and copper pipes were collected from a cold-water household distribution system affected by 'blue water' corrosion and presenting biofilm formation. Corrosion-promoting ageing experiments were performed with conditioned unused copper pipes filled with unfiltered and filtered sampled water as nonsterile and sterile treatments, respectively. During 8 weeks, stagnant water within the pipes was replaced with aerated fresh water every 2 or 3 days. Total copper and pH were determined in sampled water, and copper pipe coupons were cut for microscopic analyses. Biofilms were extracted from field and laboratory pipes, and total DNA was isolated. Bacterial communities' composition was analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clonal libraries of 16S rRNA genes. Heterotrophic bacterial isolates were obtained from water and biofilm extracts and characterized in terms of biofilm formation capacity and copper minimum inhibitory concentration. The results indicated that copper concentration in stagnant water from nonsterile treatments was much higher than in sterile treatments and corrosion by-products structure in coupon surfaces was different. Multivariate analysis of T-RFLP profiles and clone sequencing showed significant dissimilarity between field and laboratory biofilm communities, and a low richness and the dominant presence of Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria in both cases. Several bacterial isolates formed biofilm and tolerated high copper concentrations. The study demonstrates microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in copper plumbing. Gamma- and Betaproteobacteria dominated the corroded copper piping bacterial community, whose ability to form biofilms may be important for bacterial corrosion

  13. Two-phase photoperiodic cultivation of algal-bacterial consortia for high biomass production and efficient nutrient removal from municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Soo; Oh, Hyung-Seok; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the photoperiodic effects on the biomass production and nutrient removal in the algal-bacterial wastewater treatment, under the following three conditions: (1) a natural 12h:12h LD cycle, (2) a dark-elongated 12h:60h LD cycle, and (3) a two-phase photoperiodic 12h:60h LD, followed by 12h:12h LD cycles. The two-phase photoperiodic operation showed the highest dry cell weight and lipid productivity (282.6mgL(-1)day(-1), 71.4mgL(-1)day(-1)) and most efficient nutrient removals (92.3% COD, 95.8% TN, 98.1% TP). The genetic markers and sequencing analyses indicated rapid increments of bacteria, subsequent growths of Scenedesmus, and stabilized population balances between algae and bacteria. In addition, the two-phase photoperiod provided a higher potential for the algal-bacterial consortia to utilize various organic carbon substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Role of superoxide anion radicals in the bacterial corrosion of metals].

    PubMed

    Belov, D V; Kalinina, A A; Sokolova, T N; Smirnov, V F; Chelnokova, M V; Kartashov, V R

    2012-01-01

    It was found that seven strains of bacteria can cause corrosion damage to aluminum, its alloys, and zinc. With respect to the studied metals, the most active bacteria were Proteus vulgaris 1212 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 969. Superoxide anion radicals were demonstrated to play a role in the initiation of corrosive damage to aluminum and zinc, while bacterial exometabolites participate in the later stages of this process.

  15. Combined geochemical and electrochemical methodology to quantify corrosion of carbon steel by bacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Marta K; Moreira, Rebeca; Bildstein, Olivier; Lartigue, Jean-Eric; Schlegel, Michel L; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent; Libert, Marie

    2014-06-01

    The availability of respiratory substrates, such as H2 and Fe(II,III) solid corrosion products within nuclear waste repository, will sustain the activities of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB) and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB). This may have a direct effect on the rate of carbon steel corrosion. This study investigates the effects of Shewanella oneidensis (an HOB and IRB model organism) on the corrosion rate by looking at carbon steel dissolution in the presence of H2 as the sole electron donor. Bacterial effect is evaluated by means of geochemical and electrochemical techniques. Both showed that the corrosion rate is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in the presence of bacteria. The geochemical experiments indicated that the composition and crystallinity of the solid corrosion products (magnetite and vivianite) are modified by bacteria. Moreover, the electrochemical experiments evidenced that the bacterial activity can be stimulated when H2 is generated in a small confinement volume. In this case, a higher corrosion rate and mineralization (vivianite) on the carbon steel surface were observed. The results suggest that the mechanism likely to influence the corrosion rate is the bioreduction of Fe(III) from magnetite coupled to the H2 oxidation.

  16. Bacterial exopolysaccharides for corrosion resistance on low carbon steel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corrosion is a global issue that affects safety and economics. There is an increasing demand for bio-based polymers for industrial applications and production of polymers by micro-organisms is especially attractive. This work reports on the electrochemical and physical properties of exopolysaccharid...

  17. Effect of bacterial communities on the formation of cast iron corrosion tubercles in reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Jin, Juntao; Wu, Guangxue; Guan, Yuntao

    2015-03-15

    To understand the role bacterial communities play in corrosion scale development, the morphological and physicochemical characteristics of corrosion scales in raw and disinfected reclaimed water were systematically investigated. Corrosion tubercles were found in raw reclaimed water while thin corrosion layers formed in disinfected reclaimed water. The corrosion tubercles, composed mainly of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, and CaCO3, consisted of an top surface; a shell containing more magnetite than other layers; a core in association with stalks produced by bacteria; and a corroded layer. The thin corrosion layers also had layered structures. These had a smooth top, a dense middle, and a corroded layer. They mostly consisted of the same main components as the tubercles in raw reclaimed water, but with different proportions. The profiles of the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration, redox potential, and pH in the tubercles were different to those in the corrosion layers, which demonstrated that these parameters changed with a shift in the microbial processes in the tubercles. The bacterial communities in the tubercles were found to be dominated by Proteobacteria (56.7%), Bacteroidetes (10.0%), and Nitrospira (6.9%). The abundance of sequences affiliated to iron-reducing bacteria (IRB, mainly Geothrix) and iron-oxidizing bacteria (mainly Aquabacterium) was relatively high. The layered characteristics of the corrosion layers was due to the blocking of DO transfer by the development of the scales themselves. Bacterial communities could at least promote the layering process and formation of corrosion tubercles. Possible mechanisms might include: (1) bacterial communities mediated the pH and redox potential in the tubercles (which helped to form shell-like and core layers), (2) the metabolism of IRB and magnetic bacteria (Magnetospirillum) might contribute to the presence of Fe3O4 in the shell-like layer, while IRB contributed to green rust in the core layer, and (3) the diversity of

  18. Effect of corrosion rate and surface energy of silver coatings on bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei; Zhao, Q

    2010-03-01

    Many studies suggest a strong antimicrobial activity of silver coatings. The biocidal activity of silver is related to the biologically active silver ion released from silver coatings. However, no studies have been reported on the effect of surface energy of silver coatings on antibacterial performance. In this paper, three silver coatings with various corrosion rates and surface energies were prepared on stainless steel plates using AgNO(3) based electroless plating solutions. The corrosion rate and surface energy of the silver coatings were characterized with CorrTest Electrochemistry Workstation and Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer, respectively. The antibacterial performance of the silver coatings was evaluated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, which frequently causes medical device-associated infections. The experimental results showed that surface energy had significant influence on initial bacterial adhesion at low corrosion rate. The extended DLVO theory was used to explain the bacterial adhesion behavior.

  19. Corrosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  20. Corrosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabaugh, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Presents some materials for use in demonstration and experimentation of corrosion processes, including corrosion stimulation and inhibition. Indicates that basic concepts of electrochemistry, crystal structure, and kinetics can be extended to practical chemistry through corrosion explanation. (CC)

  1. Wear and corrosion resistance of anti-bacterial Ti-Cu-N coatings on titanium implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Xiangyu; He, Xiaojing; Li, Meng; Huang, Xiaobo; Hang, Ruiqiang; Tang, Bin

    2014-10-01

    Anti-bacterial coatings with excellent wear and corrosion resistance play a vital role in ensuring the durability of implant materials in constant use. To this end, a novel anti-bacterial surface modification by combining magnetron sputtering with plasma nitriding was adopted in this paper to fabricate Cu-bearing Ti-based nitrides coatings (Ti-Cu-N) on titanium surface. The anti-bacterial properties of Ti-Cu-N coatings were evaluated. The microstructures and composition of the coatings were investigated by using FESEM, EDS, GDOES, XRD. The wear and corrosion resistance of the coatings were investigated. The results confirmed that an anti-bacterial Ti-Cu-N coating with a thickness of 6 μm and good adhesive strength to substrate was successfully achieved on titanium surface. As implied by XRD, the coatings were consisted of TiN, Ti2N, TiN0.3 phases. The surface micro-hardness and wear resistance of Ti-Cu-N coatings were significantly enhanced after plasma nitriding treatment. The analysis of potentiodynamic polarization curves and Nyquist plots obtained in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution suggested that the Ti-Cu-N coatings also exhibited an excellent corrosion resistance. As mentioned above, it can be concluded that the duplex-treatment reported here was a versatile approach to develop anti-bacterial Ti-Cu-N coatings with excellent comprehensive properties on titanium implants.

  2. Characterization of microfouling and corrosive bacterial community of a firewater distribution system.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Balamurugan; Toleti, Subba Rao

    2016-04-01

    This investigation provides generic information on the culturable corrosive and the microfouling bacterial community in a firewater distribution system that uses freshwater. Conventional microbiological methods were used for the selective isolation of the major microfouling bacteria. The isolates were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the biofilm as well as the corrosion characteristics of the isolates were evaluated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus were predominantly observed in all the samples analysed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was carried out for the various samples of firewater system (FWS) and the high intensity bands were sequenced to identify the predominant bacteria. Bacterial groups such as Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were identified. Biofilm thickness was recorded using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). This was the first study to report Lysinibacillus fusiformis in a firewater system and its role in iron corrosion. Sulphidogenic bacteria Tissierella sp. and Clostridium bifermentans generated sulphides in the range of 400-900 ppm. Significant corrosion rates of carbon steel (CS) coupons were observed up to 4.3 mpy. C. bifermentans induced more localized corrosion in CS with a pit diameter of 50 μm. Overall, the data on the characterization of the fouling bacteria, their biofilm forming potential and subsequent metal deterioration studies supported in designing an effective water treatment program. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. [Effect of titanium nitride coating on bacterial corrosion resistance of dental Co-Cr alloy].

    PubMed

    Zou, Jie; Chen, Jie; Hu, Bin

    2010-04-01

    To study the influence of titanium nitride(TiN) coating on bacterial corrosion resistance of clinically used Co-Cr alloy. The Co-Cr alloy commonly used for casting metal full crown was casted with specimen 10mm x 10mm x 3mm in size. The specimen was coated with a thickness of 2.5 microm TiN coating on the surface by multi-arc physical vapor deposition. Then the specimen before and after coating titanium nitride were exposed to TSB media with S.mutans or Actinomyces viscosus,while pure media,as control.After inoculated for 24 hours, the Tafel polarization curves of the specimen were measured by electrochemical station. From the Tafel polarization curves, the non-coated Co-Cr alloy showed that corrosion potential moved to the negative way in presence of oral bacteria,and passivation interval got shorter.While the polarization curves of the specimen after coating TiN changed slightly in presence of oral microorganism. The TiN significantly weakened the corrosion action of bacteria on the alloy. These results demonstrate that the TiN coating with better tolerance to the bacterial action can improve bacterial corrosion resistance of Co-Cr alloy.Supported by Research Fund of Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality(Grant No.08DZ2271100) and Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Grant No. S30206).

  4. Properties of bacterial corrosion of stainless steel and its inhibition by protamine coating.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoshinobu; Yamada, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Kikuchi, Yasushi; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2007-03-01

    We investigated characteristics of the corrosion of stainless steel specimens by bacteria and the effects of using antimicrobial coating on the surface for inhibiting corrosion. Bacillus sp. 2-A and Staphylococcus sp. 2-1 cells adhered tightly to a stainless steel SUS304 specimen, formed a microcolony or biofilm, and had highly corrosive activities. Microbially influenced corrosion (MC) was observed under or around adhering cells. However, dead cells were markedly less active than viable cells not only in corroding the specimen but also in adhering to its surface. The culture supernatant was not able to induce the corrosion of SUS304 effectively. A protamine coating on the specimen killed bacterial cells only on its surface, interfered with cell adhesion, and inhibited MC. From these results, adhesion of viable cells to the surface of a SUS304 specimen led to the outbreak of MC. Protamine was also found to be an effective substance tested for protecting the specimen from both cell adhesion and surface MC. We suggest that a protamine coating can be applied as a convenient and inexpensive corrosion prevention method.

  5. Assessment of MTBE biodegradation pathways by two-dimensional isotope analysis in mixed bacterial consortia under different redox conditions.

    PubMed

    Youngster, Laura K G; Rosell, Mònica; Richnow, Hans H; Häggblom, Max M

    2010-09-01

    The fuel oxygenate, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), although now widely banned or substituted, remains a persistent groundwater contaminant. Multidimensional compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of carbon and hydrogen is being developed for determining the extent of MTBE loss due to biodegradation and can also potentially distinguish between different biodegradation pathways. Carbon and hydrogen isotopic fractionation factors were determined for MTBE degradation in aerobic and anaerobic laboratory cultures. The carbon isotopic enrichment factor (epsilonC) for aerobic MTBE degradation by a bacterial consortium containing the aerobic MTBE-degrading bacterium, Variovorax paradoxus, was -1.1 +/- 0.2 per thousand and the hydrogen isotope enrichment factor (epsilonH) was -15 +/- 2 per thousand. This corresponds to an approximated lambda value (Lambda = epsilonH/epsilonC) of 14. Carbon isotope enrichment factors for anaerobic MTBE-degrading enrichment cultures were -7.0 +/- 0.2 per thousand and did not vary based on the original inoculum source, redox condition of the enrichment, or supplementation with syringic acid as a co-substrate. The hydrogen enrichment factors of cultures without syringic acid were insignificant, however a strong hydrogen enrichment factor of -41 +/- 3 per thousand was observed for cultures which were fed syringic acid during MTBE degradation. The Lambda = 6 obtained for NYsyr cultures might be diagnostic for the stimulation of anaerobic MTBE degradation by methoxylated compounds by an as yet unknown pathway and mechanism. The stable-isotope enrichment factors determined in this study will enhance the use of CSIA for monitoring anaerobic and aerobic MTBE biodegradation in situ.

  6. Effect of Hydrogenase and Mixed Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Populations on the Corrosion of Steel

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Richard D.; Jansen, Wayne; Boivin, Joe; Laishley, Edward J.; Costerton, J. William

    1991-01-01

    The importance of hydrogenase activity to corrosion of steel was assessed by using mixed populations of sulfate-reducing bacteria isolated from corroded and noncorroded oil pipelines. Biofilms which developed on the steel studs contained detectable numbers of sulfate-reducing bacteria (104 increasing to 107/0.5 cm2). However, the biofilm with active hydrogenase activity (i.e., corrosion pipeline organisms), as measured by a semiquantitative commercial kit, was associated with a significantly higher corrosion rate (7.79 mm/year) relative to noncorrosive biofilm (0.48 mm/year) with 105 sulfate-reducing bacteria per 0.5 cm2 but no measurable hydrogenase activity. The importance of hydrogenase and the microbial sulfate-reducing bacterial population making up the biofilm are discussed relative to biocorrosion. Images PMID:16348560

  7. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide associations with regional bacterial diversity patterns in microbially induced concrete corrosion.

    PubMed

    Ling, Alison L; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Frank, Daniel N; Kotter, Cassandra V; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R; Hernandez, Mark T

    2014-07-01

    The microbial communities associated with deteriorating concrete corrosion fronts were characterized in 35 samples taken from wastewater collection and treatment systems in ten utilities. Bacterial communities were described using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the V1V2 region of the small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU-rRNA) gene recovered from fresh corrosion products. Headspace gas concentrations (hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and methane), pore water pH, moisture content, and select mineralogy were tested for correlation to community outcomes and corrosion extent using pairwise linear regressions and canonical correspondence analysis. Corroding concrete was most commonly characterized by moisture contents greater than 10%, pore water pH below one, and limited richness (<10 taxa). Bacterial community composition was not correlated to geographic location when considered independently from other environmental factors. Corrosion was most severe in sites with high levels of hydrogen sulfide (>100 ppm) and carbon dioxide (>1%) gases, conditions which also were associated with low diversity biofilms dominated by members of the acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer genus Acidithiobacillus.

  8. Identification of key factors in Accelerated Low Water Corrosion through experimental simulation of tidal conditions: influence of stimulated indigenous microbiota.

    PubMed

    Marty, Florence; Gueuné, Hervé; Malard, Emilie; Sánchez-Amaya, José M; Sjögren, Lena; Abbas, Ben; Quillet, Laurent; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors favoring Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on harbor steel structures remain unclear warranting their study under controlled experimental tidal conditions. Initial stimulation of marine microbial consortia by a pulse of organic matter resulted in localized corrosion and the highest corrosion rates (up to 12-times higher than non-stimulated conditions) in the low water zone, persisting after nine months exposure to natural seawater. Correlations between corrosion severity and the abundance and composition of metabolically active sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) indicated the importance and persistence of specific bacterial populations in accelerated corrosion. One phylotype related to the electrogenic SRB Desulfopila corrodens appeared as the major causative agent of the accelerated corrosion. The similarity of bacterial populations related to sulfur and iron cycles, mineral and tuberculation with those identified in ALWC support the relevance of experimental simulation of tidal conditions in the management of steel corrosion exposed to harbor environments.

  9. Formation and release behavior of iron corrosion products under the influence of bacterial communities in a simulated water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huifang; Shi, Baoyou; Lytle, Darren A; Bai, Yaohui; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-03-01

    To understand the formation and release behavior of iron corrosion products in a drinking water distribution system, annular reactors (ARs) were used to investigate the development processes of corrosion products and biofilm community as well as the concomitant iron release behavior. Results showed that the formation and transformation of corrosion products and bacterial community are closely related to each other. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB, e.g. Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum), sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB, e.g. Sulfuricella), and iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB, e.g. Acidovorax, Gallionella, Leptothrix, and Sphaerotilus) in biofilms could speed up iron corrosion; however, iron-reducing bacteria (IRB, e.g. Bacillus, Clostridium, and Pseudomonas) could inhibit iron corrosion and iron release. Corrosion scales on iron coupons could develop into a two-layered structure (top layer and inner layer) with time. The relatively stable constituents such as goethite (α-FeOOH) and magnetite (Fe3O4) mainly existed in the top layers, while green rust (Fe6(OH)12CO3) mainly existed in the inner layers. The IOB (especially Acidovorax) contributed to the formation of α-FeOOH, while IRB and the anaerobic conditions could facilitate the formation of Fe3O4. Compared with the AR test without biofilms, the iron corrosion rate with biofilms was relatively higher (p < 0.05) during the whole experimental period, but the iron release with biofilms was obviously lower both at the initial stage and after 3 months. Biofilm and corrosion scale samples formed under different water supply conditions in an actual drinking water distribution system verified the relationships between the bacterial community and corrosion products.

  10. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  11. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The stability of iron corrosion products and the bacterial composition of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) could have great impact on the water safety at the consumer ends. In this work, pipe loops were setup to investigate the transformation characteristics ...

  12. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of several alloys to dilute biologically active solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria/fungi detected in hygiene waters increased the corrosion rate in aluminum alloy. Biologically active media enhanced the formation of pits on metal coupons. Direct observation of gas evolved at the corrosion sample, coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis of the corrosion products indicates that the corrosion rate is increased because the presence of bacteria favor the reduction of hydrogen as the cathodic reaction through the reaction of oxygen and water. SEM verifies the presence of microbes in a biofilm on the surface of corroding samples. The bacterial consortia are associated with anodic sites on the metal surface, aggressive pitting occurs adjacent to biofilms. Many pits are associated with triple points and inclusions in the aluminum alloy microstructure. Similar bacterial colonization was found on the stainless steel samples. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy confirmed the presence of carbonyl groups in pitted areas of samples exposed to biologically active waters.

  13. Development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Catarina; Almeida, C Marisa R; Nunes da Silva, Marta; Bordalo, Adriano A; Mucha, Ana P

    2014-09-15

    Microbial assisted phytoremediation is a promising, though yet poorly explored, new remediation technique. The aim of this study was to develop autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that could enhance phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with this metal. The microbial consortia were selectively enriched from rhizosediments colonized by Juncus maritimus and Phragmites australis. The obtained consortia presented similar microbial abundance but a fairly different community structure, showing that the microbial community was a function of the sediment from which the consortia were enriched. The effect of the bioaugmentation with the developed consortia on cadmium uptake, and the microbial community structure associated to the different sediments were assessed using a microcosm experiment. Our results showed that the addition of the cadmium resistant microbial consortia increased J. maritimus metal phytostabilization capacity. On the other hand, in P. australis, microbial consortia amendment promoted metal phytoextraction. The addition of the consortia did not alter the bacterial structure present in the sediments at the end of the experiments. This study provides new evidences that the development of autochthonous microbial consortia for enhanced phytoremediation of salt-marsh sediments contaminated with cadmium might be a simple, efficient, and environmental friendly remediation procedure. Development of autochthonous microbial consortia resistant to cadmium that enhanced phytoremediation by salt-marsh plants, without a long term effect on sediment bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolation of a sulfide-producing bacterial consortium from cooling-tower water: Evaluation of corrosive effects on galvanized steel.

    PubMed

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Ozuolmez, Derya; Çotuk, Ayşın; Cansever, Nurhan; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-02-01

    Sulfidogenic Clostridia and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) often cohabit in nature. The presence of these microorganisms can cause microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of materials in different ways. To investigate this aspect, bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water and used in corrosion tests of galvanized steel. The identity of the isolates was determined by comparative sequence analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments, separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). This analysis showed that, in spite of the isolation process, colonies were not pure and consisted of a mixture of bacteria affiliated with Desulfosporosinus meridiei and Clostridium sp. To evaluate the corrosive effect, galvanized steel coupons were incubated with a mixed culture for 4, 8, 24, 72, 96, 168, 360 and 744 h, along with a control set in sterile culture medium only. The corrosion rate was determined by weight loss, and biofilm formation and corroded surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the sulfide-producing bacterial consortium led to a slight increase in the corrosion of galvanized steel coupons, when compared to the previous studies it can be said that Clostridium sp. can reduce the corrosive effect of the Desulfosporosinus sp. strain.

  15. Effect of sulfate on the transformation of corrosion scale composition and bacterial community in cast iron water distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Shi, Baoyou; Bai, Yaohui; Sun, Huifang; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-08-01

    The chemical stability of iron corrosion scales and the microbial community of biofilm in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have great impact on the iron corrosion and corrosion product release, which may result in "red water" issues, particularly under the situation of source water switch. In this work, experimental pipe loops were set up to investigate the effect of sulfate on the dynamical transformation characteristics of iron corrosion products and bacterial community in old cast iron distribution pipes. All the test pipes were excavated from existing DWDS with different source water supply histories, and the test water sulfate concentration was in the range of 50-350 mg/L. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that iron release increased markedly and even "red water" occurred for pipes with groundwater supply history when feed water sulfate elevated abruptly. However, the iron release of pipes with only surface water supply history changed slightly without noticeable color even the feed water sulfate increased multiply. The thick-layered corrosion scales (or densely distributed tubercles) on pipes with surface water supply history possessed much higher stability due to the larger proportion of stable constituents (mainly Fe3O4) in their top shell layer; instead, the rather thin and uniform non-layered corrosion scales on pipes with groundwater supply history contained relatively higher proportion of less stable iron oxides (e.g. β-FeOOH, FeCO3 and green rust). The less stable corrosion scales tended to be more stable with sulfate increase, which was evidenced by the gradually decreased iron release and the increased stable iron oxides. Bacterial community analysis indicated that when switching to high sulfate water, iron reducing bacteria (IRB) maintained dominant for pipes with stable corrosion scales, while significant increase of sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB

  16. Development of algae-bacteria granular consortia in photo-sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Fan, Hongyong; Liu, Yuhong; Liu, Chaoxiang; Huang, Xu

    2017-05-01

    The development and properties of algae-bacteria granular consortia, which cultivated with the algae (Chlorella and Scenedesmus) and aerobic granules, was investigated in this experiment. The results indicated that the granular consortia could be successfully developed by selection pressure control, and the algal biomass and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) concentration in the consortia showed notable correlation with the operating parameters of reactor. The maximum specific removal rates of total nitrogen and phosphate were obtained from the granular consortia with the highest algal biomass, yet the correlation between the fatty acid methyl esters yield and the algal biomass in the consortia was not markedly observed. The seed algae maintained dominance in the phototroph community, whereas the cyanobacteria only occupied a small proportion (5.2-6.5%). Although the bacterial communities with different operational strategies showed significant difference, the dominated bacteria (Comamonadaceae, 18.79-36.25%) in the mature granular consortia were similar.

  17. Directory of Academic Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delanoy, Diana D.; Caudra, Carlos, A.

    The purpose of this directory is to identify and describe all academic library consortia in the continental United States that satisfy the following specified criteria for inclusion: participating institutions must be autonomous, more than half the members must be academic libraries, two or more libraries must be involved, library consortia must…

  18. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  19. Library Consortia in Developing Countries: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Golnessa Galyani; Talawar, V. G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review consortia efforts in developing countries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper reviews the literature on library consortia in developing countries in general and India in particular. The paper also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of consortia. Findings: "Library consortia"…

  20. Academic Library Consortia in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberico, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of the Virtual Library of Virginia, describes how library consortia are in a state of transformation as technology enables the development of virtual libraries while expanding opportunities for sharing printed works. (EV)

  1. Consortia Arrangements and Educational Telecommunication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaworth, Rosalee C.

    1996-01-01

    Rapid changes in nursing programs are required in light of the developing health care system. Consortia are an effective method for delivering distance education, allowing quality to be controlled and conflict of interest among schools to be resolved. (JOW)

  2. Academic Library Consortia in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberico, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of the Virtual Library of Virginia, describes how library consortia are in a state of transformation as technology enables the development of virtual libraries while expanding opportunities for sharing printed works. (EV)

  3. South America consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Hennagir, T.

    1994-03-01

    Privatization of hydropower assets is creating new consortia opportunities throughout South America. This is particularly true in Argentina, where recent operating concession and ownership arrangements with CMS Generating Co. and Duke Energy Corp. for the country's two largest hydropower projects are the latest developments in Argentina's effort to develop private power. By the end of last year, Argentina had opened more than 7,000 MW of generation assets to privatization. In July, Hidroelectrica Norpatagonia S.A. (Hidronor) sold the 1,320 MW El Chocon project located on the Limay River in southwestern Argentina to the Hidroinvest S.A. consortium composed of CMS Generating Co., Chilean electric company Empressa Nacional de Electridad (Endesa), the Argentina province of Neuquen, BEA Associates and Sawgrass Limited of Spain. CMS holds about 15 percent of the ownership interest in El Chocon, a two-unit facility consisting of the 1,200 MW El Chocon station and the 120 MW Aroyito station on the Limay River. The plants will be operated by CMS according to a 30-year concession agreement. The other Argentine consortium that made financial headlines at the end of 1993 was Hidronenquen S.A., an international group of investors consisting of Duke Energy, Chilgener S.A. of Chile and TransAlta Energy of Canada. This consortium was awarded majority ownership and operation of Hidroelectrica Piedra del Aguila S.A., a 1,400 MW facility also on the Limay River, 62 miles upstream from the El Chocon station. The Emerging Marks Growth Fund Inc. and the New World Investment Fund, based on Los Angeles, Calif., are financial investors for the consortium's $272 million bid, which was selected in November by the government. Hidronenquen S.A. assumed ownership and operation of the complex in December 1993.

  4. Electrochemical evaluation for corrosion resistance of bacterial exopolysaccharides on low carbon steel

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corrosion is a global issue that affects safety and economics. There is an increasing demand for bio-based polymers for industrial applications and production of polymers by microorganisms is especially attractive. This work reports on the electrochemical and physical properties of 29 strains or fr...

  5. 24 CFR 92.101 - Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consortia. 92.101 Section 92.101... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Consortia; Designation and Revocation of Designation as a Participating Jurisdiction § 92.101 Consortia. (a) A consortium of geographically contiguous units of general...

  6. 24 CFR 92.101 - Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consortia. 92.101 Section 92.101... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Consortia; Designation and Revocation of Designation as a Participating Jurisdiction § 92.101 Consortia. (a) A consortium of geographically contiguous units of general...

  7. 24 CFR 92.101 - Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consortia. 92.101 Section 92.101... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Consortia; Designation and Revocation of Designation as a Participating Jurisdiction § 92.101 Consortia. (a) A consortium of geographically contiguous units of general...

  8. 24 CFR 92.101 - Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consortia. 92.101 Section 92.101... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Consortia; Designation and Revocation of Designation as a Participating Jurisdiction § 92.101 Consortia. (a) A consortium of geographically contiguous units of general...

  9. 24 CFR 92.101 - Consortia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consortia. 92.101 Section 92.101... INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Consortia; Designation and Revocation of Designation as a Participating Jurisdiction § 92.101 Consortia. (a) A consortium of geographically contiguous units of general...

  10. Academic Consortia as Strategic Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charlotte

    1991-01-01

    The Association for Higher Education of North Texas is an alliance of 20 colleges and universities, 21 high-tech businesses, and civic interests in the Dallas-Fort Worth area that is modeling new ways for higher education institutions to respond to community needs. Other consortia are generally curriculum centered, service centered, or special…

  11. Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlynn, Shawn E.; Chadwick, Grayson L.; Kempes, Christopher P.; Orphan, Victoria J.

    2015-10-01

    Multicellular assemblages of microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature, and the proximity afforded by aggregation is thought to permit intercellular metabolic coupling that can accommodate otherwise unfavourable reactions. Consortia of methane-oxidizing archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria are a well-known environmental example of microbial co-aggregation; however, the coupling mechanisms between these paired organisms is not well understood, despite the attention given them because of the global significance of anaerobic methane oxidation. Here we examined the influence of interspecies spatial positioning as it relates to biosynthetic activity within structurally diverse uncultured methane-oxidizing consortia by measuring stable isotope incorporation for individual archaeal and bacterial cells to constrain their potential metabolic interactions. In contrast to conventional models of syntrophy based on the passage of molecular intermediates, cellular activities were found to be independent of both species intermixing and distance between syntrophic partners within consortia. A generalized model of electric conductivity between co-associated archaea and bacteria best fit the empirical data. Combined with the detection of large multi-haem cytochromes in the genomes of methanotrophic archaea and the demonstration of redox-dependent staining of the matrix between cells in consortia, these results provide evidence for syntrophic coupling through direct electron transfer.

  12. Effect of bacterial biofilm on corrosion of galvanically coupled aluminum and stainless steel alloys under conditions simulating wet storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.J.; Dirk, W.J.; Geesey, G.G.

    1999-10-01

    Galvanic corrosion is a concern during wet storage of spent nuclear fuels when aluminum alloys used as cladding for nuclear fuel rods become coupled to stainless steel alloys used as materials for construction of fuel rod hangers and containment equipment. A larger galvanic current density was observed between coupled UNS A96061 and UNS S30400 electrodes submerged in autoclave-sterilized makeup water. The differences were attributed to the development of a discontinuous bacterial biofilm on the couples submerged in as-received makeup water, which was not evident on the control couples that contained several orders of magnitude lower densities of bacteria. While pitting corrosion was observed on the UNS A96061 electrodes containing high or low densities of bacteria, maximum pit depth on the electrodes with high bacterial densities was twice that measured on electrodes with low bacterial densities.

  13. Use of chlorine dioxide in a secondary recovery process to inhibit bacterial fouling and corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Knickrehm, M.; Caballero, E.; Romualdo, P.; Sandidge, J.

    1987-01-01

    A major oil company operates a secondary recovery waterflood in Inglewood, California. The waterflood currently processes 250,000 bbls. per day of produced fluid. The major economic and operational problems associated with a secondary recovery waterflood are: 1) corrosion due to oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and bacteria (sulfate reducers and slime biomass), 2) plugging from deposits due to salts, sulfides, and biofilms. These problems lead to deterioration of water handling equipment, injection lines (surface and subsurface), and decreased water quality resulting in the plugging of injection wells. During the last 8 years the operator has used varying mechanical and chemical technology to solve these problems. From 1978 to 1982 traditional chemical programs were in effect. Over this time period there was a continuing decline in water quality, and a substantial increase in chemical and operational costs. It was determined at that time that the major reason for this was due to microbiological activity. With this in mind, the operator proceeded to test the effects of using Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide in one portion of their water handling facilities. Due to the success of the program it was applied field wide. Presently, the primary problems associated with bacteria have been arrested. Solving one corrosion problem can lead to the onset of another. The operator is now in the process of making a concentrated effort to eliminate the other synergistically related corrosive and plugging agents (O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/S). A field history of the problems, findings, and solutions, are discussed along with an overview of our present direction.

  14. Microbial Influenced Corrosion (MIC) Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-23

    Incubation Conditions 26± 2C; 75-80% Rel. Humidity Microbacterium saperdae Bacteria Consortium Rhodococcus equi Staphylococcus epidermidis Aspergillus...Aluminum Coupon Results: 3 Month Exposure, Cleaned (Representative Samples) Bacteria ConsortiaCoupon ID 302 Copper Aluminum) Dried biofilm and corrosion

  15. Formation and Release Behavior of Iron Corrosion Products under the Influence of Bacterial Communities in a Simulated Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the effects of biofilm on the iron corrosion, iron release and associated corrosion by-products is critical for maintaining the water quality and the integrity of drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this work, iron corrosion experiments under sterilized a...

  16. Formation and Release Behavior of Iron Corrosion Products under the Influence of Bacterial Communities in a Simulated Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the effects of biofilm on the iron corrosion, iron release and associated corrosion by-products is critical for maintaining the water quality and the integrity of drinking water distribution system (DWDS). In this work, iron corrosion experiments under sterilized a...

  17. Improving Rural Schools through Curriculum Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieland, Regi L.; Ervay, Stuart B.

    2000-01-01

    Curriculum consortia composed of small, rural school districts can overcome professional isolation, better meet state accreditation standards, improve decision making, better attract external funding, and strengthen sense of community through the development of professional relationships. Describes how consortia are organized and developed and…

  18. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  19. Consortia in the Standards Development Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Martin; Cargill, Carl

    1992-01-01

    Both a classification of the relatively new standards-setting consortia and a theoretical basis for their emergence are developed. It is noted that the theory is based on the confluence of political theory and the theory of markets, and the implications of these consortia for the standards-setting process are considered from theoretical and…

  20. States Rushing to Join Assessment Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Spurred by the promise of $350 million in Race to the Top money for improved tests--as well as an opportunity to strengthen bids for part of the federal fund's larger $4 billion pot--states are scrambling to join consortia to develop common assessments. Six state consortia are now engaged in discussions about common tests, and the multiple…

  1. Educational Cooperation: An Examination of Fourteen Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepchenske, George L.

    The development of consortia and cooperative educational services in higher education in response to financial pressures and social and governmental influences is examined. Consortia or cooperatives may be multi-channeled efforts, with each member struggling to advance its own self-interest at the cost of united goals and efforts, or thriving…

  2. Microbial stability and safety of traditional Greek Graviera cheese: characterization of the lactic acid bacterial flora and culture-independent detection of bacteriocin genes in the ripened cheeses and their microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Samelis, John; Kakouri, Athanasia; Pappa, Eleni C; Matijasić, Bojana Bogovic; Georgalaki, Marina D; Tsakalidou, Effie; Rogelj, Andirena

    2010-07-01

    The microflora of four batches of traditional Greek Graviera cheese was studied at 5 weeks of ripening, and 200 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates were phenotypically characterized and screened for antilisterial bacteriocins. The cheeses were also analyzed for organic acids by high-performance liquid chromatography and for the potential presence of 25 known LAB bacteriocin genes directly in cheese and their microbial consortia by PCR. All batches were safe according to the European Union regulatory criteria for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, enterobacteria, and coagulase-positive staphylococci. The cheese flora was dominated by nonstarter Lactobacillus casei/paracasei (67.5%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (16.3%) strains, whereas few Streptococcus thermophilus (3.8%), Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (0.6%), and Leuconostoc (1.9%) organisms were present. Enterococcus faecium (9.4%) and Enterococcus durans (0.6%) were isolated among the dominant LAB from two batches; however, enterococci were present in all batches at 10- to 100-fold lower populations than mesophilic lactobacilli. Sixteen E. faecium isolates produced antilisterial enterocins. In accordance, enterocin B gene was detectable in all cheeses and enterocin P gene was present in one cheese, whereas the consortia of all cheeses contained at least two of the enterocin A, B, P, 31, L50A, and L50B genes. Plantaricin A gene was also amplified from all cheeses. Mean concentrations of lactic, acetic, citric, and propionic acids in the ripened cheeses exceeded 1.5% in total, of which approximately 0.9% was lactate. Thus, organic acid contents constitute an important hurdle factor for inhibiting growth of pathogens in traditional Graviera cheese products, with LAB bacteriocins, mainly enterocins, potentially contributing to increased cheese safety.

  3. Managing government funded scientific consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Bakul; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    In recent years, it is becoming apparent that good science not only requires the talents of individual scientists, but also state-of-the-art laboratory facilities. These faculties, often costing millions to billions of dollars, allow scientists unprecedented opportunities to advance their knowledge and improve the quality of human life. To make optimum use of these experimental facilities, a significant amount of computational simulations is required. These mega-projects require large-scale computational facilities and complementary infrastructures of network and software. For physical sciences in US, most of these research and development efforts are funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and National Science Foundation (NSF). Universities, US National Laboratories, and occasionally industrial partners work together on projects awarded with different flavors of government funds managed under different rules. At Fermilab, we manage multiple such collaborative computing projects for university and laboratory consortia. In this paper, I explore important lessons learned from my experience with these projects. Using examples of projects delivering computing infrastructure for the Lattice QCD Collaboration, I explain how the use of federal enterprise architecture may be deployed to run projects effectively. I also describe the lessons learned in the process. Lessons learned from the execution of the above projects are also applicable to other consortia receiving federal government funds.

  4. Characterization of thermophilic consortia from two souring oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, R.F.; Nielsen P.H.

    1996-09-01

    Contamination of crude oil and fuel gas with hydrogen sulfide decreases the value of the product and increases refining costs. Injection of seawater into oil field reservoirs for secondary oil recovery is a common practice. However, seawater contains sulfate and other substances essential for bacterial growth, eventually growth requirements of sulfate-reducing bacteria; are met, resulting in the production of hydrogen sulfide. This paper presents results on substrate characterization for microbial consortia from two oil field reservoirs at a temperature range of 35 to 75 C. The competition of sulfate-reducing bacteria and other groups of microorganisms is discussed. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Final Report on Phase II; Study of Academic Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuadra, Carlos A.; And Others

    Phase II involves a case-study analysis of 15 selected consortia to help determine the usefulness and effectiveness of academic library consortia. The two major products resulting from the project are the "Directory of Academic Library Consortia" and the "Guidelines for the Development of Academic Library Consortia." The Phase II report presents…

  6. Different inocula produce distinctive microbial consortia with similar lignocellulose degradation capacity.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Tolalpa, Larisa; Jiménez, Diego Javier; de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Salles, Joana Falcão; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-09-01

    Despite multiple research efforts, the current strategies for exploitation of lignocellulosic plant matter are still far from optimal, being hampered mostly by the difficulty of degrading the recalcitrant parts. An interesting approach is to use lignocellulose-degrading microbial communities by using different environmental sources of microbial inocula. However, it remains unclear whether the inoculum source matters for the degradation process. Here, we addressed this question by verifying the lignocellulose degradation potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw by microbial consortia generated from three different microbial inoculum sources, i.e., forest soil, canal sediment and decaying wood. We selected these consortia through ten sequential-batch enrichments by dilution-to-stimulation using wheat straw as the sole carbon source. We monitored the changes in microbial composition and abundance, as well as their associated degradation capacity and enzymatic activities. Overall, the microbial consortia developed well on the substrate, with progressively-decreasing net average generation times. Each final consortium encompassed bacterial/fungal communities that were distinct in composition but functionally similar, as they all revealed high substrate degradation activities. However, we did find significant differences in the metabolic diversities per consortium: in wood-derived consortia cellobiohydrolases prevailed, in soil-derived ones β-glucosidases, and in sediment-derived ones several activities. Isolates recovered from the consortia showed considerable metabolic diversities across the consortia. This confirmed that, although the overall lignocellulose degradation was similar, each consortium had a unique enzyme activity pattern. Clearly, inoculum source was the key determinant of the composition of the final microbial degrader consortia, yet with varying enzyme activities. Hence, in accord with Beyerinck's, "everything is everywhere, the environment selects

  7. Biodegradation Of Thiocyanate Using Microbial Consortia Cultured From Gold Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, J. W.; Watts, M. P.; Spurr, L. P.; Vu, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Some bacteria possess the capability to degrade SCN-; therefore, harnessing this metabolic trait offers a biotechnological remediation strategy for SCN- produced in gold ore processing. A tailings storage facility (TSF) at a gold mine in Victoria, Australia holds large quantities of thiocyanate (SCN-) contaminated mine waste. The surface water in the TSF typically contains SCN- concentrations of >800 mg L-1, and seepage from the facility has contaminated the groundwater at the site. This study aimed to culture SCN-degrading microbes from the TSF, characterize the microbial consortia and test its operational parameters for use in a thiocyanate-degrading bioreactor. Surface samples were obtained from several locations around the TSF facility and used to inoculate medium reflective of the moderately saline and alkaline tailings water at the TSF, in the absence of organic carbon but subject to additions of phosphate and trace metals. Four microbial consortia capable of rapid SCN- degradation were successfully cultured. Sequencing of 16S rRNA genes found that the consortia were dominated by Thiobacillus species, a genus of known SCN- degraders. Lower abundances of other SCN- degraders; Sphingopyxis and Rhodobacter, were also identified. The impact of a number of geochemical conditions, including pH, temperature and SCN- concentration, upon the growth and SCN- degrading capacity of these consortia was determined. These results informed the optimization of a lab-scale thiocyanate degrading bioreactor. In summary, the cultured bacterial consortia proved effective towards SCN- degradation at the prevailing geochemical conditions of the TSF, requiring minimal nutrient additions. These consortia were dominated by genera of known autotrophic SCN- degraders. The comprehensive characterisation of these SCN- degrading consortia will provide the fundamental operational parameters required for deployment of this technique at the field scale.

  8. Immunological detection of enzymes for sulfate reduction in anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia.

    PubMed

    Milucka, Jana; Widdel, Friedrich; Shima, Seigo

    2013-05-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) at marine gas seeps is performed by archaeal-bacterial consortia that have so far not been cultivated in axenic binary or pure cultures. Knowledge about possible biochemical reactions in AOM consortia is based on metagenomic retrieval of genes related to those in archaeal methanogenesis and bacterial sulfate reduction, and identification of a few catabolic enzymes in protein extracts. Whereas the possible enzyme for methane activation (a variant of methyl-coenzyme M reductase, Mcr) was shown to be harboured by the archaea, enzymes for sulfate activation and reduction have not been localized so far. We adopted a novel approach of fluorescent immunolabelling on semi-thin (0.3-0.5 μm) cryosections to localize two enzymes of the SR pathway, adenylyl : sulfate transferase (Sat; ATP sulfurylase) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr) in microbial consortia from Black Sea methane seeps. Both Sat and Dsr were exclusively found in an abundant microbial morphotype (c. 50% of all cells), which was tentatively identified as Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus-related bacteria. These results show that ANME-2 archaea in the Black Sea AOM consortia did not express bacterial enzymes of the canonical sulfate reduction pathway and thus, in contrast to previous suggestions, most likely cannot perform canonical sulfate reduction. Moreover, our results show that fluorescent immunolabelling on semi-thin cryosections which to our knowledge has been so far only applied on cell tissues, is a powerful tool for intracellular protein detection in natural microbial associations.

  9. The implications of thermomechanical processing for microbiologically influenced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.W.

    1999-11-01

    This work examined the effect of systematic variation in the amounts of cerium, sulfur and silicon on corrosion resistance in an AISI 8630 base material and weldments exposed to sterile and biologically active anaerobic aqueous solutions. Significant correlation between microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) susceptibility and sulfide inclusion size, shape, chemical stability and spatial distribution were found in these materials. In addition, significant correlation was found between these factors and bacterial attachment, particularly during a critical time period in film evolution. These factors were found to affect the evolution of microbial consortia at metal surfaces and subsequent corrosion at attachment sites, as measured by pit initiation and maximum pit size. The results suggest mitigation strategies based on microstructural design. A two-level, three-factor full factorial experiment, with AISI 8630 (UNS G86300) as the master composition, was used to relate minor element composition to both MIC susceptibility and microbial attachment in weld composite zones, partially melted zones (PMZ) and adjacent base metal regions. In all cases studied, MIC susceptibility was greatest in the PMZ. In addition, the MIC susceptibility of materials tested was significantly altered by differences in fabrication procedure as measured by changes to heat input. Samples exposed to sterile solutions were significantly less corroded. Higher energy density processes and lower heat inputs diminished MIC sensitivity. In both base metal and welded samples the addition of Cerium was found to diminish MIC susceptibility. Cerium creates this benefit through its profound effect on inclusion geometry, chemical stability and thermal stability.

  10. Industry supports establishing consortia on superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This article presents a summary of a survey conducted to determine if an initiative on the manufacture of high-temperature superconductor products holds any promise. The survey included questions on the planning of and participation in industrial consortia, government sponsorship of R and D directions for R and D manufacturing, and a plan for U.S. Department of Defense involvement in high-temperature superconductor consortia. The results of the survey, as well as the conclusions are discussed.

  11. In vitro assessments on bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of TiN coating on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy synthesized by multi-arc ion plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Naiming; Huang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiangyu; Fan, Ailan; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2012-07-01

    TiN coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by multi-arc ion plating (MIP) technique. Surface morphology, cross sectional microstructure, elemental distributions and phase compositions of the obtained coating were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscope (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V and the TiN coating were assessed via in vitro bacterial adhesion tests and corrosion experiments, respectively. The results indicated that continuous and compact coating which was built up by pure TiN with a typical columnar crystal structure has reached a thickness of 1.5 μm. This TiN coating could significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion and enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V substrate.

  12. Microbial consortia at steady supply

    PubMed Central

    Taillefumier, Thibaud; Posfai, Anna; Meir, Yigal; Wingreen, Ned S

    2017-01-01

    Metagenomics has revealed hundreds of species in almost all microbiota. In a few well-studied cases, microbial communities have been observed to coordinate their metabolic fluxes. In principle, microbes can divide tasks to reap the benefits of specialization, as in human economies. However, the benefits and stability of an economy of microbial specialists are far from obvious. Here, we physically model the population dynamics of microbes that compete for steadily supplied resources. Importantly, we explicitly model the metabolic fluxes yielding cellular biomass production under the constraint of a limited enzyme budget. We find that population dynamics generally leads to the coexistence of different metabolic types. We establish that these microbial consortia act as cartels, whereby population dynamics pins down resource concentrations at values for which no other strategy can invade. Finally, we propose that at steady supply, cartels of competing strategies automatically yield maximum biomass, thereby achieving a collective optimum. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22644.001 PMID:28473032

  13. Egypt's Red Sea coast: phylogenetic analysis of cultured microbial consortia in industrialized sites

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ghada A.; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Siam, Rania

    2014-01-01

    The Red Sea possesses a unique geography, and its shores are rich in mangrove, macro-algal and coral reef ecosystems. Various sources of pollution affect Red Sea biota, including microbial life. We assessed the effects of industrialization on microbes along the Egyptian Red Sea coast at eight coastal sites and two lakes. The bacterial communities of sediment samples were analyzed using bacterial 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions. The taxonomic assignment of 131,402 significant reads to major bacterial taxa revealed five main bacterial phyla dominating the sampled sites: Proteobacteria (68%), Firmicutes (13%), Fusobacteria (12%), Bacteriodetes (6%), and Spirochetes (0.03%). Further analysis revealed distinct bacterial consortia that primarily included (1) marine Vibrio spp.—suggesting a “marine Vibrio phenomenon”; (2) potential human pathogens; and (3) oil-degrading bacteria. We discuss two divergent microbial consortia that were sampled from Solar Lake West near Taba/Eilat and Saline Lake in Ras Muhammad; these consortia contained the highest abundance of human pathogens and no pathogens, respectively. Our results draw attention to the effects of industrialization on the Red Sea and suggest the need for further analysis to overcome the hazardous effects observed at the impacted sites. PMID:25157243

  14. Egypt's Red Sea coast: phylogenetic analysis of cultured microbial consortia in industrialized sites.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Siam, Rania

    2014-01-01

    The Red Sea possesses a unique geography, and its shores are rich in mangrove, macro-algal and coral reef ecosystems. Various sources of pollution affect Red Sea biota, including microbial life. We assessed the effects of industrialization on microbes along the Egyptian Red Sea coast at eight coastal sites and two lakes. The bacterial communities of sediment samples were analyzed using bacterial 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of V6-V4 hypervariable regions. The taxonomic assignment of 131,402 significant reads to major bacterial taxa revealed five main bacterial phyla dominating the sampled sites: Proteobacteria (68%), Firmicutes (13%), Fusobacteria (12%), Bacteriodetes (6%), and Spirochetes (0.03%). Further analysis revealed distinct bacterial consortia that primarily included (1) marine Vibrio spp.-suggesting a "marine Vibrio phenomenon"; (2) potential human pathogens; and (3) oil-degrading bacteria. We discuss two divergent microbial consortia that were sampled from Solar Lake West near Taba/Eilat and Saline Lake in Ras Muhammad; these consortia contained the highest abundance of human pathogens and no pathogens, respectively. Our results draw attention to the effects of industrialization on the Red Sea and suggest the need for further analysis to overcome the hazardous effects observed at the impacted sites.

  15. Bacterial consortia at different wine fermentation phases of two typical Central European grape varieties: Blaufränkisch (Frankovka modrá) and Grüner Veltliner (Veltlínske zelené).

    PubMed

    Godálová, Zuzana; Kraková, Lucia; Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Kuchta, Tomáš; Piknová, Ľubica; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-01-18

    This is the first study focused to bacterial diversity and dynamic during the vinification of two important Central Europe grape vines: Blaufränkisch and Grüner Veltliner. The investigation strategy included culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. Four different agar media were utilized for the isolation of various bacteria occurring in several fermentation stages. The isolates were clustered by fluorescent-ITS PCR and, one or more representatives of each cluster, were identified by 16 rRNA gene sequencing. The culture-independent approach, based on 16S rRNA gene amplification, combined the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method and the construction of bacterial clone library for each wine fermentation step. A complex bacterial community was identified, comprising different lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria, such as Leuconostoc spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Gluconobacter spp. Other OTUs and bacterial isolates embraced the Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria classes. Different taxa already detected by recent studies, such as Sphingomonas, Variovorax, Pantoea, Enterobacter and Tatumella, were detected confirming the continuous occurrence of these kinds of bacteria in wine environment. Moreover, novel genera (Amycolatopsis, Hydrogenophilus, Snodgrassella, Telluria, Gilliamella, Lelliottia, and Lonsdale quercina) never detected before were recognized, too. The role of these, until now anonymous, bacteria during vinification deserves investigation, which could open a new research field in wine technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermophilic anaerobic oxidation of methane by marine microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Holler, Thomas; Widdel, Friedrich; Knittel, Katrin; Amann, Rudolf; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Teske, Andreas; Boetius, Antje; Wegener, Gunter

    2011-12-01

    The anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate controls the emission of the greenhouse gas methane from the ocean floor. AOM is performed by microbial consortia of archaea (ANME) associated with partners related to sulfate-reducing bacteria. In vitro enrichments of AOM were so far only successful at temperatures ≤25 °C; however, energy gain for growth by AOM with sulfate is in principle also possible at higher temperatures. Sequences of 16S rRNA genes and core lipids characteristic for ANME as well as hints of in situ AOM activity were indeed reported for geothermally heated marine environments, yet no direct evidence for thermophilic growth of marine ANME consortia was obtained to date. To study possible thermophilic AOM, we investigated hydrothermally influenced sediment from the Guaymas Basin. In vitro incubations showed activity of sulfate-dependent methane oxidation between 5 and 70 °C with an apparent optimum between 45 and 60 °C. AOM was absent at temperatures ≥75 °C. Long-term enrichment of AOM was fastest at 50 °C, yielding a 13-fold increase of methane-dependent sulfate reduction within 250 days, equivalent to an apparent doubling time of 68 days. The enrichments were dominated by novel ANME-1 consortia, mostly associated with bacterial partners of the deltaproteobacterial HotSeep-1 cluster, a deeply branching phylogenetic group previously found in a butane-amended 60 °C-enrichment culture of Guaymas sediments. The closest relatives (Desulfurella spp.; Hippea maritima) are moderately thermophilic sulfur reducers. Results indicate that AOM and ANME archaea could be of biogeochemical relevance not only in cold to moderate but also in hot marine habitats.

  17. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    DOE PAGES

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Song, Hyun -Seob; ...

    2016-03-11

    In this study, much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into robust consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution globalmore » measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that, when combined with appropriate modeling frameworks, systems-level knowledge can markedly improve our ability to predict the fate and functioning of consortia. Here we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties.« less

  18. Indian Consortia Models: FORSA Libraries' Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Y. M.; Birdie, C.; Bawdekar, N.; Barve, S.; Anilkumar, N.

    2007-10-01

    With increases in prices of journals, shrinking library budgets and cuts in subscriptions to journals over the years, there has been a big challenge facing Indian library professionals to cope with the proliferation of electronic information resources. There have been sporadic efforts by different groups of libraries in forming consortia at different levels. The types of consortia identified are generally based on various models evolved in India in a variety of forms depending upon the participants' affiliations and funding sources. Indian astronomy library professionals have formed a group called Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy and Astrophysics (FORSA), which falls under `Open Consortia', wherein participants are affiliated to different government departments. This is a model where professionals willingly come forward and actively support consortia formation; thereby everyone benefits. As such, FORSA has realized four consortia, viz. Nature Online Consortium; Indian Astrophysics Consortium for physics/astronomy journals of Springer/Kluwer; Consortium for Scientific American Online Archive (EBSCO); and Open Consortium for Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer), which are discussed briefly.

  19. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Song, Hyun -Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fields, Matthew W.; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-03-11

    In this study, much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into robust consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution global measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that, when combined with appropriate modeling frameworks, systems-level knowledge can markedly improve our ability to predict the fate and functioning of consortia. Here we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties.

  20. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, Stephen R.; Bernstein, Hans C.; Song, Hyun-Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Fields, Matthew W.; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R.; Beliaev, Alexander S.

    2016-03-11

    Much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into resilient consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here, we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution global measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that when combined with appropriate modeling framework that predictive knowledge generates testable hypotheses and orthogonal synthetic biology tools, such understanding can dramatically improve our ability to control the fate and functioning of consortia. In this article, we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties.

  1. Engineering microbial consortia for controllable outputs

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Stephen R; Bernstein, Hans C; Song, Hyun-Seob; Fredrickson, Jim K; Fields, Matthew W; Shou, Wenying; Johnson, David R; Beliaev, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Much research has been invested into engineering microorganisms to perform desired biotransformations; nonetheless, these efforts frequently fall short of expected results due to the unforeseen effects of biofeedback regulation and functional incompatibility. In nature, metabolic function is compartmentalized into diverse organisms assembled into robust consortia, in which the division of labor is thought to lead to increased community efficiency and productivity. Here we consider whether and how consortia can be designed to perform bioprocesses of interest beyond the metabolic flexibility limitations of a single organism. Advances in post-genomic analysis of microbial consortia and application of high-resolution global measurements now offer the promise of systems-level understanding of how microbial consortia adapt to changes in environmental variables and inputs of carbon and energy. We argue that, when combined with appropriate modeling frameworks, systems-level knowledge can markedly improve our ability to predict the fate and functioning of consortia. Here we articulate our collective perspective on the current and future state of microbial community engineering and control while placing specific emphasis on ecological principles that promote control over community function and emergent properties. PMID:26967105

  2. 78 FR 20665 - Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... development services (such as intellectual property advising; prototyping; engineering; laboratory and animal..., prototyping, preclinical, clinical, manufacturing, marketing, and commercialization. The consortia are... clinical, manufacturing, and marketing. ] Specifically, the consortia will facilitate the development...

  3. [The effect of chromium removal by algae-bacteria Bostrychia calliptera (Rhodomelaceae) consortia under laboratory conditions].

    PubMed

    Rengifo-Gallego, Ana Lucía; Peña-Salamanca, Enrique; Benitez-Campo, Neyla

    2012-09-01

    Water pollution is one of the most important environmental problems worldwide. Recently, biotechnology studies have oriented efforts to study algae-bacterium consortia with the aim to understand the mechanisms to find a possible solution in environmental sciences. This study determined the percentage of chromium removal by the alga-bacterium association exposed to a set of different chromium concentrations under controlled in vitro conditions. Wild plants of Bostrychia calliptera associated with bacterial populations were collected from Dagua River, Pacific coast of Colombia, and were monitored in the laboratory. The trial was conducted with synthetic seawater in bioreactors at two chromium levels: 5 and 10mg/L, and four different experimental treatments: i) algae-bacteria (AB), ii) algae with antibiotic (AA), iii) algal surface sediment, Natural Bacterial Consortium (CBN), and iv) the control without algae or bacteria. The experimental design followed a model of two factors (chromium concentration x combination types) with repeated measures using one factor. The microbial population behavior and the chromium concentration percentage were monitored by using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). According to the data, Algae-bacteria (AB) treatment was the most efficient combination at 10mg/L (87%), whereas the bacterial consortia (CBN) was the most efficient at 5mg/L (62.85%). The results showed significant differences of chromium uptake between algae-bacteria (AB) and natural bacterial consortia (CBN), meaning the importance of those treatments in the chromium removal from coastal waters.

  4. 14 CFR 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Consortia as recipients. 1274.205 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pre-Award Requirements § 1274.205 Consortia as recipients. (a) The use of consortia as recipients for cooperative agreements is encouraged. Such arrangements tend to bring a...

  5. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  6. Degradation potential and microbial community structure of heavy oil-enriched microbial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Suto, Koichi; Inoue, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    Mangroves constitute valuable coastal resources that are vulnerable to oil pollution. One of the major processes to remove oil from contaminated mangrove sediment is microbial degradation. A study on heavy oil- and hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial consortia from mangrove sediments in Okinawa, Japan was performed to evaluate their capacity to biodegrade and their microbial community composition. Surface sediment samples were obtained from mangrove sites in Okinawa (Teima, Oura, and Okukubi) and enriched with heavy oil as the sole carbon and energy source. The results revealed that all enriched microbial consortia degraded more than 20% of heavy oil in 21 days. The K1 consortium from Okukubi site showed the most extensive degradative capacity after 7 and 21 days. All consortia degraded more than 50% of hexadecane but had little ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The consortia were dominated by Pseudomonas or Burkholderia. When incubated in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds, the active bacterial community shifted to favor the dominance of Pseudomonas. The K1 consortium was a superior degrader, demonstrating the highest ability to degrade aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds; it was even able to degrade heavy oil at a concentration of 15%(w/v). The dominance and turn-over of Pseudomonas and Burkholderia in the consortia suggest an important ecological role for and relationship between these two genera in the mangrove sediments of Okinawa.

  7. Pricing Structures for Automated Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of successful pricing algorithms for cooperative library automation projects. Highlights include desirable characteristics of pricing measures, including simplicity and the ability to allow for system growth; problems with transaction-based systems; and a review of the pricing strategies of seven library consortia.…

  8. Leveraging Higher Education Consortia for Institutional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Diana; Gnam, Cathy; Newman, Robin; Straker, Howard; Babies, Tanika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptually the role of higher education consortia in facilitating the operational advancement of member institutions, and in enabling their development as learning organizations in a changing and competitive higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This article synthesizes the…

  9. Leveraging Higher Education Consortia for Institutional Advancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Diana; Gnam, Cathy; Newman, Robin; Straker, Howard; Babies, Tanika

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore conceptually the role of higher education consortia in facilitating the operational advancement of member institutions, and in enabling their development as learning organizations in a changing and competitive higher education environment. Design/methodology/approach: This article synthesizes the…

  10. R&D Consortia: Are They Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinneen, Gerald P.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the increasing importance of cooperative or joint R&D, including R&D Consortia, for private sector companies. Cites successful government-sponsored cooperative efforts which have made a difference in how private industry viewed technology and R&D. (RT)

  11. CO2 sequestration by ureolytic microbial consortia through microbially-induced calcite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Tugba O; Nguyen, Hang N; Castro, Sarah L; Rodrigues, Debora F

    2016-12-01

    Urea is an abundant nitrogen-containing compound found in urine of mammals and widely used in fertilizers. This compound is part of the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle and is easily biodegraded by ureolytic microorganisms that have the urease enzyme. Previous studies, with ureolytic isolates, have shown that some ureolytic microorganisms are able to sequester CO2 through a process called microbially-induced calcium carbonate precipitation. The present study investigates 15 ureolytic consortia obtained from the "Pamukkale travertines" and the "Cave Without A Name" using different growth media to identify the possible bacterial genera responsible for CO2 sequestration through the microbially-induced calcite precipitation (MICP). The community structure and diversity were determined by deep-sequencing. The results showed that all consortia presented varying CO2 sequestration capabilities and MICP rates. The CO2 sequestration varied between 0 and 86.4%, and it depended largely on the community structure, as well as on pH. Consortia with predominance of Comamonas, Plesiomonas and Oxalobacter presented reduced CO2 sequestration. On the other hand, consortia dominated by Sporosarcina, Sphingobacterium, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Elizabethkingia showed higher rates of CO2 uptake in the serum bottle headspace.

  12. Microbial consortia of gorgonian corals from the Aleutian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, Michael A.; Stone, R.P.; McLaughlin, M.R.; Kellogg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Gorgonians make up the majority of corals in the Aleutian archipelago and provide critical fish habitat in areas of economically important fisheries. The microbial ecology of the deep-sea gorgonian corals Paragorgea arborea, Plumarella superba, and Cryogorgia koolsae was examined with culture-based and 16S rRNA gene-based techniques. Six coral colonies (two per species) were collected. Samples from all corals were cultured, and clone libraries were constructed from P. superba and C. koolsae. Cultured bacteria were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, especially Vibrionaceae, with other phyla comprising <6% of the isolates. The clone libraries showed dramatically different bacterial communities between corals of the same species collected at different sites, with no clear pattern of conserved bacterial consortia. Two of the clone libraries (one from each coral species) were dominated by Tenericutes, with Alphaproteobacteria dominating the remaining sequences. The other libraries were more diverse and had a more even distribution of bacterial phyla, showing more similarity between genera than within coral species. Here we report the first microbiological characterization of P. arborea, P. superba, and C. koolsae. FEMS Microbiology Ecology ?? 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  13. Unveiling Bacterial Interactions through Multidimensional Scaling and Dynamics Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Dorado-Morales, Pedro; Vilanova, Cristina; P. Garay, Carlos; Martí, Jose Manuel; Porcar, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new strategy to identify and visualize bacterial consortia by conducting replicated culturing of environmental samples coupled with high-throughput sequencing and multidimensional scaling analysis, followed by identification of bacteria-bacteria correlations and interactions. We conducted a proof of concept assay with pine-tree resin-based media in ten replicates, which allowed detecting and visualizing dynamical bacterial associations in the form of statistically significant and yet biologically relevant bacterial consortia. PMID:26671778

  14. Metataxonomic profiling and prediction of functional behaviour of wheat straw degrading microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Mixed microbial cultures, in which bacteria and fungi interact, have been proposed as an efficient way to deconstruct plant waste. The characterization of specific microbial consortia could be the starting point for novel biotechnological applications related to the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to cello-oligosaccharides, plastics and/or biofuels. Here, the diversity, composition and predicted functional profiles of novel bacterial-fungal consortia are reported, on the basis of replicated aerobic wheat straw enrichment cultures. In order to set up biodegradative microcosms, microbial communities were retrieved from a forest soil and introduced into a mineral salt medium containing 1% of (un)treated wheat straw. Following each incubation step, sequential transfers were carried out using 1 to 1,000 dilutions. The microbial source next to three sequential batch cultures (transfers 1, 3 and 10) were analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 pyrosequencing. Faith's phylogenetic diversity values became progressively smaller from the inoculum to the sequential batch cultures. Moreover, increases in the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacteriales were noted along the enrichment process. Operational taxonomic units affiliated with Acinetobacter johnsonii, Pseudomonas putida and Sphingobacterium faecium were abundant and the underlying strains were successfully isolated. Interestingly, Klebsiella variicola (OTU1062) was found to dominate in both consortia, whereas K. variicola-affiliated strains retrieved from untreated wheat straw consortia showed endoglucanase/xylanase activities. Among the fungal players with high biotechnological relevance, we recovered members of the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Coniochaeta and Trichosporon. Remarkably, the presence of peroxidases, alpha-L-fucosidases, beta-xylosidases, beta-mannases and beta-glucosidases, involved in lignocellulose degradation, was indicated

  15. Metataxonomic profiling and prediction of functional behaviour of wheat straw degrading microbial consortia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mixed microbial cultures, in which bacteria and fungi interact, have been proposed as an efficient way to deconstruct plant waste. The characterization of specific microbial consortia could be the starting point for novel biotechnological applications related to the efficient conversion of lignocellulose to cello-oligosaccharides, plastics and/or biofuels. Here, the diversity, composition and predicted functional profiles of novel bacterial-fungal consortia are reported, on the basis of replicated aerobic wheat straw enrichment cultures. Results In order to set up biodegradative microcosms, microbial communities were retrieved from a forest soil and introduced into a mineral salt medium containing 1% of (un)treated wheat straw. Following each incubation step, sequential transfers were carried out using 1 to 1,000 dilutions. The microbial source next to three sequential batch cultures (transfers 1, 3 and 10) were analyzed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 pyrosequencing. Faith’s phylogenetic diversity values became progressively smaller from the inoculum to the sequential batch cultures. Moreover, increases in the relative abundances of Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Flavobacteriales and Sphingobacteriales were noted along the enrichment process. Operational taxonomic units affiliated with Acinetobacter johnsonii, Pseudomonas putida and Sphingobacterium faecium were abundant and the underlying strains were successfully isolated. Interestingly, Klebsiella variicola (OTU1062) was found to dominate in both consortia, whereas K. variicola-affiliated strains retrieved from untreated wheat straw consortia showed endoglucanase/xylanase activities. Among the fungal players with high biotechnological relevance, we recovered members of the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Coniochaeta and Trichosporon. Remarkably, the presence of peroxidases, alpha-L-fucosidases, beta-xylosidases, beta-mannases and beta-glucosidases, involved in lignocellulose

  16. Conserving archaeological sites as biological and historical resources in the Gulf of Mexico: the effects of crude oil and dispersant on the biodiversity and corrosion potential of shipwreck bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, J. L.; Little, B.; Lee, J.; Ray, R.; Hamdan, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    There are more than 2,000 documented shipwrecks in the Gulf of Mexico. Historic shipwrecks are invaluable cultural resources, but also serve as artificial reefs, enhancing biodiversity in the deep sea. Oil and gas-related activities have the potential to impact shipwreck sites. An estimated 30% of the oil from the Deepwater Horizon spill was deposited in the deep-sea, in areas that contain shipwrecks. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to determine if crude oil, dispersed oil, and/or dispersant affect the community composition, metabolic function, and/or corrosion potential of microorganisms inhabiting shipwrecks. Platforms containing carbon steel coupons (CSC) (n = 34 per platform) were placed at impacted and non-impacted shipwrecks or into four experimental microcosm tanks. After a 2-week acclimation period, tanks were treated with crude oil and/or dispersant or received no treatment. CSC and seawater (SW) samples for bacterial genetic analysis were collected bi-weekly (at 16 wks for field samples). Proteobacteria dominated field and lab CSC bacterial communities (77-97% of sequences). Field CSC bacterial communities differed at each wreck site (P = 0.001), with oil-impacted sites differing from control sites. Lab CSC bacterial communities differed between all treatment groups (P = 0.005) and changed over the course of the experiment (P = 0.001). CSC bacterial species richness, diversity, and dominance increased with time across all treatments indicating the recruitment and establishment of microbial biofilms on CSCs. SW bacterial communities differed between treatment groups (P = 0.001), with the dispersant treatment being most dissimilar from all other treatments (P < 0.01), and changed over time (P = 0.001). Oil- and oil/dispersant-treated CSCs exhibited higher corrosion compared to dispersant and control treatments. These findings indicate that exposure to oil and/or dispersant may alter bacterial community composition and corrosion potential.

  17. Microbial consortia that degrade 2,4-DNT by interspecies metabolism: isolation and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Snellinx, Zita; Taghavi, Safieh; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniël

    2003-01-01

    Two consortia, isolated by selective enrichment from a soil sample of a nitroaromatic-contaminated site, degraded 2,4-DNT as their sole nitrogen source without accumulating one or more detectable intermediates. Though originating from the same sample, the optimised consortia had no common members, indicating that selective enrichment resulted in different end points. Consortium 1 and consortium 2 contained four and six bacterial species respectively, but both had two members that were able to collectively degrade 2,4-DNT. Variovorax paradoxus VM685 (consortium 1) and Pseudomonas sp. VM908 (consortium 2) initiate the catabolism of 2,4-DNT by an oxidation step, thereby releasing nitrite and forming 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (4M5NC). Both strains contained a gene similar to the dntAa gene encoding 2,4-DNT dioxygenase. They subsequently metabolised 4M5NC to 2-hydroxy-5-methylquinone (2H5MQ) and nitrite, indicative of DntB or 4M5NC monooxygenase activity. A second consortium member, Pseudomonas marginalis VM683 (consortium 1) and P. aeruginosa VM903, Sphingomonas sp. VM904, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VM905 or P. viridiflava VM907 (consortium 2), was found to be indispensable for efficient growth of the consortia on 2,4-DNT and for efficient metabolisation of the intermediates 4M5NC and 2H5MQ. Knowledge about the interactions in this step of the degradation pathway is rather limited. In addition, both consortia can use 2,4-DNT as sole nitrogen and carbon source. A gene similar to the dntD gene of Burkholderia sp. strain DNT that catalyses ring fission was demonstrated by DNA hybridisation in the second member strains. To our knowledge, this is the first time that consortia are shown to be necessary for 2,4-DNT degradation.

  18. Temporal Stability and Biodiversity of Two Complex Antilisterial Cheese-Ripening Microbial Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Ariel; Mayr, Ralf; Scherer, Siegfried

    2003-01-01

    The temporal stability and diversity of bacterial species composition as well as the antilisterial potential of two different, complex, and undefined microbial consortia from red-smear soft cheeses were investigated. Samples were collected twice, at 6-month intervals, from each of two food producers, and a total of 400 bacterial isolates were identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Coryneform bacteria represented the majority of the isolates, with certain species being predominant. In addition, Marinolactobacillus psychrotolerans, Halomonas venusta, Halomonas variabilis, Halomonas sp. (106 to 107 CFU per g of smear), and an unknown, gram-positive bacterium (107 to 108 CFU per g of smear) are described for the first time in such a consortium. The species composition of one consortium was quite stable over 6 months, but the other consortium revealed less diversity of coryneform species as well as less stability. While the first consortium had a stable, extraordinarily high antilisterial potential in situ, the antilisterial activity of the second consortium was lower and decreased with time. The cause for the antilisterial activity of the two consortia remained unknown but is not due to the secretion of soluble, inhibitory substances by the individual components of the consortium. Our data indicate that the stability over time and a potential antilisterial activity are individual characteristics of the ripening consortia which can be monitored and used for safe food production without artificial preservatives. PMID:12839776

  19. Best Practices in Establishing and Sustaining Consortia in Pharmacy Education.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jennifer; Hincapie, Ana; Baugh, Gina; Rice, Luke; Sy, Erin; Penm, Jonathan; Albano, Christian

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To describe best practices, necessary resources, and success or lessons learned from established consortia in pharmacy education. Methods. Using semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis, interviews with members of established consortia in pharmacy education were conducted until saturation was reached. Themes were analyzed and meaningful descriptions of consortia characteristics were developed using systematic text condensation. Results. Thirteen interviews were conducted. The primary purpose for forming a consortium was identified as threefold: share ideas/best practices; facilitate collaboration; and perform shared problem-solving. For experiential education consortia, two additional purposes were found: share capacity for practice sites, and promote standardization across programs. When investigating best practices for established consortia, three main themes were identified. These included strategies for: (1) relationship building within consortia, (2) successful outcomes of consortia, and (3) sustainability. Successful outcomes included scholarship and, sometimes, program standardization. Sustainability was linked to structure/support and momentum. Respect was considered the foundation for collaborative relationships to flourish in these consortia. Conclusions. Pharmacy education consortia form through a process that involves relationship building to produce outcomes that promote sustainability, which benefits both pharmacy schools and individual faculty members. Consortium formation is a viable, productive, and often necessary institutional goal for pharmacy schools.

  20. 76 FR 3145 - Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program (P50)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... promote pediatric device development by providing grants to nonprofit consortia whose business model and...) providing assistance and advice as needed on business development, personnel training, prototype development...

  1. The new alliance: America's R and D consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Dimancescu, D.; Botkin, J.

    1986-01-01

    The 1980s may be remembered as America's R and D consortia years. Since the beginning of this decade, industry, universities, and government have been working together as never before, developing new business ideas, researching new technologies, and tapping new markets. These are America's new R and D consortia, say the authors of THE NEW ALLIANCE, and they represent a phenomenon important enough to be termed a ''movement.'' These alliances involve a wide and varied array of industries, educational institutions, political actors, and economic conditions. Founded by industry executives, academics, and government leaders who share a common recognition of the importance of high technology to the economy, as well as education's vital role in maintaining the competitive strength, the R and D consortia may be the newest examples of America's traditional resourcefulness, creativity, and resilience. The authors begin by describing the consortia movement as a phenomenon, illustrating specific cases, placing the movement in a historical context, and revealing the importance of consortia as forerunners of deeper changes in the society. THE NEW ALLIANCE a provides look at this phenomenon, analyzing the successes and failures of R and D consortia in the areas of leadership, research management, and technology transfer. Based on extensive interviews at fourteen consortia nationwide, this book looks into the possible future of the consortia experiment, focusing on electronics, manufacturing, robotics, and new materials consortia.

  2. Best Practices in Establishing and Sustaining Consortia in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Hincapie, Ana; Baugh, Gina; Rice, Luke; Sy, Erin; Penm, Jonathan; Albano, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To describe best practices, necessary resources, and success or lessons learned from established consortia in pharmacy education. Methods. Using semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis, interviews with members of established consortia in pharmacy education were conducted until saturation was reached. Themes were analyzed and meaningful descriptions of consortia characteristics were developed using systematic text condensation. Results. Thirteen interviews were conducted. The primary purpose for forming a consortium was identified as threefold: share ideas/best practices; facilitate collaboration; and perform shared problem-solving. For experiential education consortia, two additional purposes were found: share capacity for practice sites, and promote standardization across programs. When investigating best practices for established consortia, three main themes were identified. These included strategies for: (1) relationship building within consortia, (2) successful outcomes of consortia, and (3) sustainability. Successful outcomes included scholarship and, sometimes, program standardization. Sustainability was linked to structure/support and momentum. Respect was considered the foundation for collaborative relationships to flourish in these consortia. Conclusions. Pharmacy education consortia form through a process that involves relationship building to produce outcomes that promote sustainability, which benefits both pharmacy schools and individual faculty members. Consortium formation is a viable, productive, and often necessary institutional goal for pharmacy schools. PMID:28381887

  3. Evaluation of NASA space grant consortia programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The meaningful evaluation of the NASA Space Grant Consortium and Fellowship Programs must overcome unusual difficulties: (1) the program, in its infancy, is undergoing dynamic change; (2) the several state consortia and universities have widely divergent parochial goals that defy a uniform evaluative process; and (3) the pilot-sized consortium programs require that the evaluative process be economical in human costs less the process of evaluation comprise the effectiveness of the programs they are meant to assess. This paper represents an attempt to assess the context in which evaluation is to be conducted, the goals and limitations inherent to the evaluation, and to recommend appropriate guidelines for evaluation.

  4. Partner Power: A Study of Two Distance Education Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidduck, Anne Banks; Carey, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This research reports findings from a study which explored the process and criteria of partner selection--how and why partners are chosen--for two distance education consortia. The researchers reviewed recent literature on partnerships and partner selection. Two Canada-wide distance education consortia were identified as large-scale case studies…

  5. Phase I Final Report on Study of Academic Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lanoy, Diana D.; Cuadra, Carlos A.

    Phase I involves two questionnaire surveys aimed at identifying all academic library consortia in higher education and, within this univerise, providing a list of participating libraries and services. The major product of this phase is a "Directory of Academic Library Consortia." The descriptions of the individual tasks outlined in this Phase I…

  6. Supplement to the Directory of Academic Library Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantius, Kean

    In 1971, System Development Corporation (SDC) performed a study of academic library consortia, under contract to the U. S. Office of Education. The purpose of the study was to collect extensive information on existing academic library consortia and to develop a set of guidelines for planning, developing, operating, and evaluating a library…

  7. Metagenomic analysis of uncultured Cytophaga and beta-1,4 glycanases in marine consortia

    SciTech Connect

    David Kirchman

    2005-12-15

    Culture-independent studies have shown that microbial consortia in natural environments are incredibly diverse and are dominated by bacteria and archaea substantially different from microbes maintained in pure laboratory cultures. Recent studies indicate, however, that previous culture-independent studies using PCR-based methods have largely overlook an important group of uncultured bacteria, the Cytophagales. These bacteria appear to be abundant in the oceans and probably other oxic environments. Although well known to be active in degradation of structural glycans such as cellulose and chitin, no cellulase or chitinase gene has been sequenced from a Cytophaga, except those recently found by whole genome sequencing of Cytophaga hutchinsonii by the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). We hypothesize that the key to understanding consortia and their function in organic matter mineralization in oxic environments is to focus on uncultured Cytophagales, genes encoding endoglycanases, and other functional genes. The ''metagenomic'' approach used by this project consisted of constructing large insert libraries with DNA directly (no PCR) from uncultured microbial consortia found in the Arctic Ocean and Delaware Estuary. Our results provide insights into new types of bacterial metabolisms which have not considered adequately before, but which may change our views of the global carbon cycle.

  8. Corrosion cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on alloy corrosion cracking. Topics considered at the conference included the effect of niobium addition on intergranular stress corrosion cracking, corrosion-fatigue cracking in fossil-fueled-boilers, fracture toughness, fracture modes, hydrogen-induced thresholds, electrochemical and hydrogen permeation studies, the effect of seawater on fatigue crack propagation of wells for offshore structures, the corrosion fatigue of carbon steels in seawater, and stress corrosion cracking and the mechanical strength of alloy 600.

  9. Characterization of three plant biomass-degrading microbial consortia by metagenomics- and metasecretomics-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Schückel, Julia; Kračun, Stjepan Krešimir; Willats, William George Tycho; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-12-01

    The selection of microbes by enrichment on plant biomass has been proposed as an efficient way to develop new strategies for lignocellulose saccharification. Here, we report an in-depth analysis of soil-derived microbial consortia that were trained to degrade once-used wheat straw (WS1-M), switchgrass (SG-M) and corn stover (CS-M) under aerobic and mesophilic conditions. Molecular fingerprintings, bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic analyses showed that the three microbial consortia were taxonomically distinct. Based on the taxonomic affiliation of protein-encoding sequences, members of the Bacteroidetes (e.g. Chryseobacterium, Weeksella, Flavobacterium and Sphingobacterium) were preferentially selected on WS1-M, whereas SG-M and CS-M favoured members of the Proteobacteria (e.g. Caulobacter, Brevundimonas, Stenotrophomonas and Xanthomonas). The highest degradation rates of lignin (~59 %) were observed with SG-M, whereas CS-M showed a high consumption of cellulose and hemicellulose. Analyses of the carbohydrate-active enzymes in the three microbial consortia showed the dominance of glycosyl hydrolases (e.g. of families GH3, GH43, GH13, GH10, GH29, GH28, GH16, GH4 and GH92). In addition, proteins of families AA6, AA10 and AA2 were detected. Analysis of secreted protein fractions (metasecretome) for each selected microbial consortium mainly showed the presence of enzymes able to degrade arabinan, arabinoxylan, xylan, β-glucan, galactomannan and rhamnogalacturonan. Notably, these metasecretomes contain enzymes that enable us to produce oligosaccharides directly from wheat straw, sugarcane bagasse and willow. Thus, the underlying microbial consortia constitute valuable resources for the production of enzyme cocktails for the efficient saccharification of plant biomass.

  10. Construction of PAH-degrading mixed microbial consortia by induced selection in soil.

    PubMed

    Zafra, German; Absalón, Ángel E; Anducho-Reyes, Miguel Ángel; Fernandez, Francisco J; Cortés-Espinosa, Diana V

    2017-04-01

    Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soils through the biostimulation and bioaugmentation processes can be a strategy for the clean-up of oil spills and environmental accidents. In this work, an induced microbial selection method using PAH-polluted soils was successfully used to construct two microbial consortia exhibiting high degradation levels of low and high molecular weight PAHs. Six fungal and seven bacterial native strains were used to construct mixed consortia with the ability to tolerate high amounts of phenanthrene (Phe), pyrene (Pyr) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and utilize these compounds as a sole carbon source. In addition, we used two engineered PAH-degrading fungal strains producing heterologous ligninolytic enzymes. After a previous selection using microbial antagonism tests, the selection was performed in microcosm systems and monitored using PCR-DGGE, CO2 evolution and PAH quantitation. The resulting consortia (i.e., C1 and C2) were able to degrade up to 92% of Phe, 64% of Pyr and 65% of BaP out of 1000 mg kg(-1) of a mixture of Phe, Pyr and BaP (1:1:1) after a two-week incubation. The results indicate that constructed microbial consortia have high potential for soil bioremediation by bioaugmentation and biostimulation and may be effective for the treatment of sites polluted with PAHs due to their elevated tolerance to aromatic compounds, their capacity to utilize them as energy source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Population dynamics of two antilisterial cheese surface consortia revealed by temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Surface contamination of smear cheese by Listeria spp. is of major concern for the industry. Complex smear ecosystems have been shown to harbor antilisterial potential but the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in the inhibition mostly remain unclear, and are likely related to complex interactions than to production of single antimicrobial compounds. Bacterial biodiversity and population dynamics of complex smear ecosystems exhibiting antilisterial properties in situ were investigated by Temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE), a culture independent technique, for two microbial consortia isolated from commercial Raclette type cheeses inoculated with defined commercial ripening cultures (F) or produced with an old-young smearing process (M). Results TTGE revealed nine bacterial species common to both F and M consortia, but consortium F exhibited a higher diversity than consortium M, with thirteen and ten species, respectively. Population dynamics were studied after application of the consortia on fresh-produced Raclette cheeses. TTGE analyses revealed a similar sequential development of the nine species common to both consortia. Beside common cheese surface bacteria (Staphylococcus equorum, Corynebacterium spp., Brevibacterium linens, Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus casei), the two consortia contained marine lactic acid bacteria (Alkalibacterium kapii, Marinilactibacillus psychrotolerans) that developed early in ripening (day 14 to 20), shortly after the growth of staphylococci (day 7). A decrease of Listeria counts was observed on cheese surface inoculated at day 7 with 0.1-1 × 102 CFU cm-2, when cheeses were smeared with consortium F or M. Listeria counts went below the detection limit of the method between day 14 and 28 and no subsequent regrowth was detected over 60 to 80 ripening days. In contrast, Listeria grew to high counts (105 CFU cm-2) on cheeses smeared with a defined surface culture. Conclusions This work reports

  12. 45 CFR 2523.60 - May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or participate in consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... participate in consortia? 2523.60 Section 2523.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... participate in consortia? Yes. Such partnerships or consortia may consist of other Federal agencies, Indian... non-profit organizations. Partnerships and consortia must be approved by the Corporation....

  13. 45 CFR 2523.60 - May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or participate in consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... participate in consortia? 2523.60 Section 2523.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... participate in consortia? Yes. Such partnerships or consortia may consist of other Federal agencies, Indian... non-profit organizations. Partnerships and consortia must be approved by the Corporation....

  14. 45 CFR 2523.60 - May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or participate in consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... participate in consortia? 2523.60 Section 2523.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... participate in consortia? Yes. Such partnerships or consortia may consist of other Federal agencies, Indian... non-profit organizations. Partnerships and consortia must be approved by the Corporation....

  15. 45 CFR 2523.60 - May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or participate in consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in consortia? 2523.60 Section 2523.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... participate in consortia? Yes. Such partnerships or consortia may consist of other Federal agencies, Indian... non-profit organizations. Partnerships and consortia must be approved by the Corporation....

  16. 45 CFR 2523.60 - May Federal agencies enter into partnerships or participate in consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... participate in consortia? 2523.60 Section 2523.60 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare... participate in consortia? Yes. Such partnerships or consortia may consist of other Federal agencies, Indian... non-profit organizations. Partnerships and consortia must be approved by the Corporation....

  17. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stams, A J M; Oude Elferink, S J W H; Westermann, P

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic consortia. Despite the potentially adverse effects, only few inorganic electron acceptors potentially utilizable for anaerobic respiration have been investigated with respect to negative interactions in anaerobic digesters. In this chapter we review competitive and inhibitory interactions between anaerobic respiring populations and methanogenic consortia in bioreactors. Due to the few studies in anaerobic digesters, many of our discussions are based upon studies of defined cultures or natural ecosystems.

  18. Engineering microbial consortia: a new frontier in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Katie; You, Lingchong; Arnold, Frances H

    2008-09-01

    Microbial consortia are ubiquitous in nature and are implicated in processes of great importance to humans, from environmental remediation and wastewater treatment to assistance in food digestion. Synthetic biologists are honing their ability to program the behavior of individual microbial populations, forcing the microbes to focus on specific applications, such as the production of drugs and fuels. Given that microbial consortia can perform even more complicated tasks and endure more changeable environments than monocultures can, they represent an important new frontier for synthetic biology. Here, we review recent efforts to engineer synthetic microbial consortia, and we suggest future applications.

  19. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H.; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide, 1 ppm D-tyrosine and 100 ppm D-methionine used separately successfully mitigated the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on carbon steel coupons. The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D-methionine, D-tyrosine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. The data also indicated that individual D-amino acids were inadequate for the biofilm consortia. PMID:27379039

  20. Enhanced Biocide Mitigation of Field Biofilm Consortia by a Mixture of D-Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingchao; Jia, Ru; Al-Mahamedh, Hussain H; Xu, Dake; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a major problem in the oil and gas industry as well as in many other industries. Current treatment methods rely mostly on pigging and biocide dosing. Biocide resistance is a growing concern. Thus, it is desirable to use biocide enhancers to improve the efficacy of existing biocides. D-Amino acids are naturally occurring. Our previous work demonstrated that some D-amino acids are biocide enhancers. Under a biocide stress of 50 ppm (w/w) hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) biocide, 1 ppm D-tyrosine and 100 ppm D-methionine used separately successfully mitigated the Desulfovibrio vulgaris biofilm on carbon steel coupons. The data reported in this work revealed that 50 ppm of an equimolar mixture of D-methionine, D-tyrosine, D-leucine, and D-tryptophan greatly enhanced 50 ppm THPS biocide treatment of two recalcitrant biofilm consortia containing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB), nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB), and fermentative bacteria, etc., from oil-field operations. The data also indicated that individual D-amino acids were inadequate for the biofilm consortia.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN MICROBIAL INHIBITOR TO CONTROL INTERNAL PIPELINE CORROSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kristine L. Lowe; Bill W. Bogan; Wendy R. Sullivan; Kristine Mila H. Cruz; Brigid M. Lamb; John J. Kilbane II

    2004-07-30

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmentally benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is to develop one or more environmentally benign (a.k.a. ''green'') products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. Previous testing indicated that the growth, and the metal corrosion caused by pure cultures of sulfate reducing bacteria were inhibited by hexane extracts of some pepper plants. This quarter tests were performed with mixed bacterial cultures obtained from natural gas pipelines. Treatment with the pepper extracts affected the growth and metabolic activity of the microbial consortia. Specifically, the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria was inhibited. The demonstration that pepper extracts can inhibit the growth and metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria in mixed cultures is a significant observation validating a key hypothesis of the project. Future tests to determine the effects of pepper extracts on mature/established biofilms will be performed next.

  2. Maximizing microbial perchlorate degradation using a genetic algorithm: consortia optimization.

    PubMed

    Kucharzyk, Katarzyna H; Soule, Terence; Hess, Thomas F

    2013-09-01

    Microorganisms in consortia perform many tasks more effectively than individual organisms and in addition grow more rapidly and in greater abundance. In this work, experimental datasets were assembled consisting of all possible selected combinations of perchlorate reducing strains of microorganisms and their perchlorate degradation rates were evaluated. A genetic algorithm (GA) methodology was successfully applied to define sets of microbial strains to achieve maximum rates of perchlorate degradation. Over the course of twenty generations of optimization using a GA, we saw a statistically significant 2.06 and 4.08-fold increase in average perchlorate degradation rates by consortia constructed using solely the perchlorate reducing bacteria (PRB) and by consortia consisting of PRB and accompanying organisms that did not degrade perchlorate, respectively. The comparison of kinetic rates constant in two types of microbial consortia additionally showed marked increases.

  3. Phenotype fingerprinting suggests the involvement of single-genotype consortia in degradation of aromatic compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    SciTech Connect

    Karpinets, Tatiana V; Pelletier, Dale A; Pan, Chongle; Uberbacher, Edward C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Samatova, Nagiza F

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of cellular processes involved in the anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds by microorganisms is crucial for development of innovative biotechnologies for bioethanol production and for efficient degradation of toxic organic compounds. In natural environment the degradation is usually accomplished by syntrophic consortia comprised of different bacterial species. Here we show that the metabolically versatile phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris may form its own syntrophic consortia, when it grows anaerobically on p-coumarate or benzoate as a sole carbon source. In the study we reveal the consortia from a comparison of large-scale measurements of mRNA and protein expressions under p-coumarate and benzoate degrading conditions using a novel computational approach referred as phenotype fingerprinting. In this approach marker genes for known R. palustris phenotypes are employed to calculate their expression from the gene and protein expressions in each studied condition. Subpopulations of the consortia are inferred from the expression of phenotypes and known metabolic modes of the R. palustris growth. We find that p-coumarate degrading condition leads to at least three R. palustris subpopulations utilizing p-coumarate, benzoate, and CO2 and H2. Benzoate degrading condition also produces at least three subpopulations utilizing benzoate, CO2 and H2, and N2 and formate. Communication among syntrophs and inter-syntrophic dynamics in each consortium are indicated by up-regulation of transporters and genes involved in the curli formation and chemotaxis. The photoautotrphic subpopulation found in both consortia is characterized by activation of two cbb operons and the uptake hydrogenase system. A specificity of N2-fixing subpopulation in the benzoate degrading consortium is the preferential activation of the vanadium nitrogenase over the molybdenum nitrogenase. The N2-fixing subpopulation in the consortium is confirmed by consumption of

  4. Characterization and in situ carbon metabolism of phototrophic consortia.

    PubMed

    Glaeser, Jens; Overmann, Jörg

    2003-07-01

    A dense population of the phototrophic consortium "Pelochromatium roseum" was investigated in the chemocline of a temperate holomictic lake (Lake Dagow, Brandenburg, Germany). Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the brown epibionts of "P. roseum" constituted up to 37% of the total bacterial cell number and up to 88% of all green sulfur bacteria present in the chemocline. Specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments of green sulfur bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting yielded a maximum of four different DNA bands depending on the year of study, indicating that the diversity of green sulfur bacteria was low. The 465-bp 16S rRNA gene sequence of the epibiont of "P. roseum" was obtained after sorting of individual consortia by micromanipulation, followed by a highly sensitive PCR. The sequence obtained represents a new phylotype within the radiation of green sulfur bacteria. Maximum light-dependent H(14)CO(3)(-) fixation in the chemocline in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea suggested that there was anaerobic autotrophic growth of the green sulfur bacteria. The metabolism of the epibionts was further studied by determining stable carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of their specific biomarkers. Analysis of photosynthetic pigments by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of high concentrations of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) e and smaller amounts of BChl a and d and chlorophyll a in the chemocline. Unexpectedly, isorenieratene and beta-isorenieratene, carotenoids typical of other brown members of the green sulfur bacteria, were absent. Instead, four different esterifying alcohols of BChl e were isolated as biomarkers of green sulfur bacterial epibionts, and their delta(13)C values were determined. Farnesol, tetradecanol, hexadecanol, and hexadecenol all were significantly enriched in (13)C compared to bulk dissolved and particulate organic carbon and compared to the biomarkers of

  5. Characterization and In Situ Carbon Metabolism of Phototrophic Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Jens; Overmann, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    A dense population of the phototrophic consortium “Pelochromatium roseum” was investigated in the chemocline of a temperate holomictic lake (Lake Dagow, Brandenburg, Germany). Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the brown epibionts of “P. roseum” constituted up to 37% of the total bacterial cell number and up to 88% of all green sulfur bacteria present in the chemocline. Specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments of green sulfur bacteria and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting yielded a maximum of four different DNA bands depending on the year of study, indicating that the diversity of green sulfur bacteria was low. The 465-bp 16S rRNA gene sequence of the epibiont of “P. roseum” was obtained after sorting of individual consortia by micromanipulation, followed by a highly sensitive PCR. The sequence obtained represents a new phylotype within the radiation of green sulfur bacteria. Maximum light-dependent H14CO3− fixation in the chemocline in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea suggested that there was anaerobic autotrophic growth of the green sulfur bacteria. The metabolism of the epibionts was further studied by determining stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) of their specific biomarkers. Analysis of photosynthetic pigments by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the presence of high concentrations of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) e and smaller amounts of BChl a and d and chlorophyll a in the chemocline. Unexpectedly, isorenieratene and β-isorenieratene, carotenoids typical of other brown members of the green sulfur bacteria, were absent. Instead, four different esterifying alcohols of BChl e were isolated as biomarkers of green sulfur bacterial epibionts, and their δ13C values were determined. Farnesol, tetradecanol, hexadecanol, and hexadecenol all were significantly enriched in 13C compared to bulk dissolved and particulate organic carbon and compared to the biomarkers of purple

  6. An overview of biopulping consortia research

    SciTech Connect

    Akhtar, M.; Lirk, T.K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of a 8-year biopulping research effort conducted under the auspices of two biopulping consortia, involving the Universities of Wisconsin and Minnesota, the Forest Products Laboratory, and the industry. Biopulping, defined as the fungal pretreatment of wood chips for pulping, is an environmentally benign process that saves at least 30% electrical energy during mechanical refining, and improves paper quality in a 2-week period during laboratory trials. A rapid method of evaluating the benefits of biopulping has been found using the Simons staining procedures. We have identified a white-rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora which is effective on both hardwood and softwood species. This fungus can perform biopulping effectively if chips are steamed using the atmospheric steam for a very short period of time prior to fungal inoculation. Also, one of the major costs during the scale-up of biopulping is inoculum production. To this end, we have reduced the amount of inoculum dramatically (from 3 kg to 0.25 g dry weight of fungus per ton of dry wood) by adding corn steep liquor to the mycelial suspension. Current research is focused on large-scale decontamination of chips and maintenance of suitable temperature, aeration and moisture in chip piles so that biopulping can become a successful industrial process.

  7. Corrosion protection

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-27

    There has been invented a chemically bonded phosphate corrosion protection material and process for application of the corrosion protection material for corrosion prevention. A slurry of iron oxide and phosphoric acid is used to contact a warm surface of iron, steel or other metal to be treated. In the presence of ferrous ions from the iron, steel or other metal, the slurry reacts to form iron phosphates which form grains chemically bonded onto the surface of the steel.

  8. Aircraft Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    materials still under development which look promising for the future. Classical corrosion control involves attacking the problem from three standpoints...effective- ness CONTROL BOX MECHANICAL AND Intermittent operation and faulty frequency ELECTRICAL TUNING LINKAGE selection. AND MOTOR CONTACTS WATER TRAPS...F.Fink 7 CORROSION CONTROL MEASURES FOR MILITARY AIRCRAFT - PRESENT UK REQUIREMENTS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS by V.C.R.McLoughlin 8 CORROSION PREVENTION

  9. Microbial consortia in meat processing environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandria, V.; Rantsiou, K.; Cavallero, M. C.; Riva, S.; Cocolin, L.

    2017-09-01

    Microbial contamination in food processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. The description of the microbial consortia in the meat processing environment is important since it is a first step in understanding possible routes of product contamination. Furthermore, it may contribute in the development of sanitation programs for effective pathogen removal. The purpose of this study was to characterize the type of microbiota in the environment of meat processing plants: the microbiota of three different meat plants was studied by both traditional and molecular methods (PCR-DGGE) in two different periods. Different levels of contamination emerged between the three plants as well as between the two sampling periods. Conventional methods of killing free-living bacteria through antimicrobial agents and disinfection are often ineffective against bacteria within a biofilm. The use of gas-discharge plasmas potentially can offer a good alternative to conventional sterilization methods. The purpose of this study was to measure the effectiveness of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (APP) surface treatments against bacteria in biofilms. Biofilms produced by three different L. monocytogenes strains on stainless steel surface were subjected to three different conditions (power, exposure time) of APP. Our results showed how most of the culturable cells are inactivated after the Plasma exposure but the RNA analysis by qPCR highlighted the entrance of the cells in the viable-but non culturable (VBNC) state, confirming the hypothesis that cells are damaged after plasma treatment, but in a first step, still remain alive. The understanding of the effects of APP on the L. monocytogenes biofilm can improve the development of sanitation programs with the use of APP for effective pathogen removal.

  10. Biomineralization mediated by anaerobic methane-consuming cell consortia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Li, Yi-Liang; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Li, Han; Lin, Yang-Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) play a significant role in global carbon cycles. These organisms consume more than 90% of ocean-derived methane and influence the landscape of the seafloor by stimulating the formation of carbonates. ANME frequently form cell consortia with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of the family Deltaproteobacteria. We investigated the mechanistic link between ANME and the natural consortium by examining anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) metabolism and the deposition of biogenetic minerals through high-resolution imaging analysis. All of the cell consortia found in a sample of marine sediment were encrusted by a thick siliceous envelope consisting of laminated and cementing substances, whereas carbonate minerals were not found attached to cells. Beside SRB cells, other bacteria (such as Betaproteobacteria) were found to link with the consortia by adhering to the siliceous crusts. Given the properties of siliceous minerals, we hypothesize that ANME cell consortia can interact with other microorganisms and their substrates via their siliceous envelope, and this mechanism of silicon accumulation may serve in clay mineral formation in marine sedimentary environments. A mechanism for biomineralization mediated by AOM consortia was suggested based on the above observations. PMID:25027246

  11. Biomineralization mediated by anaerobic methane-consuming cell consortia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Li, Yi-Liang; Zhou, Gen-Tao; Li, Han; Lin, Yang-Ting; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Feng-Ping

    2014-07-16

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) play a significant role in global carbon cycles. These organisms consume more than 90% of ocean-derived methane and influence the landscape of the seafloor by stimulating the formation of carbonates. ANME frequently form cell consortia with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) of the family Deltaproteobacteria. We investigated the mechanistic link between ANME and the natural consortium by examining anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) metabolism and the deposition of biogenetic minerals through high-resolution imaging analysis. All of the cell consortia found in a sample of marine sediment were encrusted by a thick siliceous envelope consisting of laminated and cementing substances, whereas carbonate minerals were not found attached to cells. Beside SRB cells, other bacteria (such as Betaproteobacteria) were found to link with the consortia by adhering to the siliceous crusts. Given the properties of siliceous minerals, we hypothesize that ANME cell consortia can interact with other microorganisms and their substrates via their siliceous envelope, and this mechanism of silicon accumulation may serve in clay mineral formation in marine sedimentary environments. A mechanism for biomineralization mediated by AOM consortia was suggested based on the above observations.

  12. Corrosion Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  13. Fireside Corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, Gordon

    2011-07-14

    Oxy-fuel fireside research goals are: (1) determine the effect of oxyfuel combustion on fireside corrosion - flue gas recycle choice, staged combustion ramifications; and (2) develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an ash corrosivity measurement - synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes.

  14. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Clarke, W.L. Jr.; Ciarlo, D.R.

    1994-04-26

    A corrosion sensor array is described incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis. 7 figures.

  15. Corrosion sensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Clarke, Jr., Willis L.; Ciarlo, Dino R.

    1994-01-01

    A corrosion sensor array incorporating individual elements for measuring various elements and ions, such as chloride, sulfide, copper, hydrogen (pH), etc. and elements for evaluating the instantaneous corrosion properties of structural materials. The exact combination and number of elements measured or monitored would depend upon the environmental conditions and materials used which are subject to corrosive effects. Such a corrosion monitoring system embedded in or mounted on a structure exposed to the environment would serve as an early warning system for the onset of severe corrosion problems for the structure, thus providing a safety factor as well as economic factors. The sensor array is accessed to an electronics/computational system, which provides a means for data collection and analysis.

  16. The AHEC library program and consortia development in California.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, M A; Maddalena, B

    1986-01-01

    A brief history of the first Area Health Education Center (AHEC) Library Program in California is presented, with a description of methodology and results. The goals of this program were to develop and improve hospital library resources and services, to train hospital library personnel, and to promote resource sharing in a medically underserved area. The health sciences library consortium that evolved became a model for the ten other library consortia in the state. Based on AHEC's twelve years' experience with consortia, from 1973 to 1985, recommendations are made as to size, composition, leadership, outside funding, group participation, publicity, and linkages. PMID:3742115

  17. The value of research collaborations and consortia in rare cancers.

    PubMed

    Blay, Jean-Yves; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Ducimetière, Françoise; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are defined by an incidence of less than six per 100,000 people per year. They represent roughly 20% of all human cancers and are associated with worse survival than are so-called frequent tumours, because of delays to accurate diagnosis, inadequate treatments, and fewer opportunities to participate in clinical trials (because of a paucity of dedicated trials from both academic and industrial sponsors). In this Series paper, we discuss how these challenges can be addressed by research consortia and suggest the integration of these consortia with reference networks, which gather multidisciplinary expert centres, for management of rare tumours.

  18. [Promising microbial consortia for producing biofertilizers for rice fields].

    PubMed

    Zaiadan, B K; Matorin, D N; Baĭmakhanova, G B; Bolatkhan, K; Oraz, G D; Sadanov, A K

    2014-01-01

    Two cyanobacterial cultures from rice paddies of Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan were isolated and characterized: Anabaena variabilis and Nostoc calsicola. Based on these cultures, new consortia ofcyanobacteria, microalgae and Azotobacter were developed: ZOB-1 (Anabaena variabilis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Azotobacter sp.) and ZBOB-2 (Nostoc calsicola, Chlorella vulgaris, and Azotobacter sp.). High growth rate and photosynthetic activity of microalgae were observed in these consortia. The active consotrium ZOB-1 was selected, which improvd germination and growth of rice plants. ZOB-1 was recommended as a biostimulator and biofertilizer for crops.

  19. Synthetic photosynthetic consortia define interactions leading to robustness and photoproduction

    DOE PAGES

    Hays, Stephanie G.; Yan, Leo L. W.; Silver, Pamela A.; ...

    2017-01-23

    In this study, microbial consortia composed of autotrophic and heterotrophic species abound in nature, yet examples of synthetic communities with mixed metabolism are limited in the laboratory. We previously engineered a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, to secrete the bulk of the carbon it fixes as sucrose, a carbohydrate that can be utilized by many other microbes. Here, we tested the capability of sucrose-secreting cyanobacteria to act as a flexible platform for the construction of synthetic, light-driven consortia by pairing them with three disparate heterotrophs: Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The comparison of these different co-culture dyadsmore » reveals general design principles for the construction of robust autotroph/heterotroph consortia. As a result, we observed heterotrophic growth dependent upon cyanobacterial photosynthate in each co-culture pair. Furthermore, these synthetic consortia could be stabilized over the long-term (weeks to months) and both species could persist when challenged with specific perturbations. Stability and productivity of autotroph/heterotroph co-cultures was dependent on heterotroph sucrose utilization, as well as other species-independent interactions that we observed across all dyads. One destabilizing interaction we observed was that non-sucrose byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis negatively impacted heterotroph growth. Conversely, inoculation of each heterotrophic species enhanced cyanobacterial growth in comparison to axenic cultures. Finally, these consortia can be flexibly programmed for photoproduction of target compounds and proteins; by changing the heterotroph in co-culture to specialized strains of B. subtilis or E. coli we demonstrate production of alpha-amylase and polyhydroxybutyrate, respectively. In conclusion, enabled by the unprecedented flexibility of this consortia design, we uncover species-independent design principles that influence

  20. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment.

  1. 25 CFR 1000.438 - May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.438 May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court? Yes, Tribes/Consortia may appeal decisions of Department officials relating...

  2. 47 CFR 54.604 - Consortia, telecommunications services, and existing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consortia, telecommunications services, and... Telecommunications Program § 54.604 Consortia, telecommunications services, and existing contracts. (a) Consortia. (1) Under the Telecommunications Program, an eligible health care provider may join a consortium with...

  3. 47 CFR 54.604 - Consortia, telecommunications services, and existing contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consortia, telecommunications services, and... Telecommunications Program § 54.604 Consortia, telecommunications services, and existing contracts. (a) Consortia. (1) Under the Telecommunications Program, an eligible health care provider may join a consortium with...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.438 - May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.438 May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court? Yes, Tribes/Consortia may appeal decisions of Department officials relating...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.438 - May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.438 May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court? Yes, Tribes/Consortia may appeal decisions of Department officials relating...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.438 - May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.438 May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court? Yes, Tribes/Consortia may appeal decisions of Department officials relating...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.438 - May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Appeals § 1000.438 May Tribes/Consortia appeal Department decisions to a Federal court? Yes, Tribes/Consortia may appeal decisions of Department officials relating...

  8. Phenotype Fingerprinting Suggests the Involvement of Single-Genotype Consortia in Degradation of Aromatic Compounds by Rhodopseudomonas palustris

    PubMed Central

    Karpinets, Tatiana V.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Pan, Chongle; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Melnichenko, Galina V.; Hettich, Robert L.; Samatova, Nagiza F.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds by microorganisms is crucial for development of innovative biotechnologies for bioethanol production and for efficient degradation of environmental pollutants. In natural environments, the degradation is usually accomplished by syntrophic consortia comprised of different bacterial species. This strategy allows consortium organisms to reduce efforts required for maintenance of the redox homeostasis at each syntrophic level. Cellular mechanisms that maintain the redox homeostasis during the degradation of aromatic compounds by one organism are not fully understood. Here we present a hypothesis that the metabolically versatile phototrophic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris forms its own syntrophic consortia, when it grows anaerobically on p-coumarate or benzoate as a sole carbon source. We have revealed the consortia from large-scale measurements of mRNA and protein expressions under p-coumarate, benzoate and succinate degrading conditions using a novel computational approach referred as phenotype fingerprinting. In this approach, marker genes for known R. palustris phenotypes are employed to determine the relative expression levels of genes and proteins in aromatics versus non-aromatics degrading condition. Subpopulations of the consortia are inferred from the expression of phenotypes and known metabolic modes of the R. palustris growth. We find that p-coumarate degrading conditions may lead to at least three R. palustris subpopulations utilizing p-coumarate, benzoate, and CO2 and H2. Benzoate degrading conditions may also produce at least three subpopulations utilizing benzoate, CO2 and H2, and N2 and formate. Communication among syntrophs and inter-syntrophic dynamics in each consortium are indicated by up-regulation of transporters and genes involved in the curli formation and chemotaxis. The N2-fixing subpopulation in the benzoate degrading consortium has preferential activation of the vanadium nitrogenase

  9. Corrosion and corrosivity monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunling, Russ; Dietrich, Paul

    2005-05-01

    Honeywell International has developed and flight-tested a Corrosion and Corrosivity Monitoring System (C2MS). The C2MS detects galvanic corrosion in the main gearbox feet fasteners of helicopters. In addition, it monitors the environmental conditions inside the main floorboard compartment to determine the need for structural maintenance. The C2MS sensor on a main gearbox feet fastener sends a small electrical signal through the fastener and housing to measure the conductivity of the assembly. The measured conductivity value is used to determine if galvanic corrosion is present in the fastener assembly. The floorboard compartment sensors use a surrogate metal coupon to measure the corrosivity of the environment. The information from this sensor is used to recommend an extension to the calendar-based maintenance schedule. Fleet-wide information can be gathered by the system. The C2MS uses two Data Collection Units (DCUs) to store the corrosion data: one for the main gearbox feet fasteners and one for the main floorboard compartment. The DCU design addresses the issues of long battery life for the C2MS (greater than 2 years) and compactness. The data from the DCUs is collected by a personal digital assistant and downloaded to a personal computer where the corrosion algorithms reside. The personal computer display provides the location(s) of galvanic corrosion in the main gearbox feet fasteners as well as the recommended date for floorboard compartment maintenance. This paper discusses the methodology used to develop the C2MS software and hardware, presents the principles of the galvanic corrosion detection algorithm, and gives the laboratory and flight test results that document system performance in detecting galvanic corrosion (detection and false alarm rate). The paper also discusses the benefits of environmental sensors for providing a maintenance scheduling date.

  10. Partnering with Sandia National Laboratories through alliances or consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Winchell, B.M.

    1994-12-01

    To better facilitate working with industry, groups of industrial participants, and partners in alliances or consortia, Sandia National Laboratories presents information helpful to those outside groups as to the forms of arrangements that may be used to better facilitate partnering relationships between Sandia National Laboratories and consortia or alliances of outside parties. It is expected that these alliances and consortia will include both large and small for-profit industrial concerns, as well as not-for-profit entities such as universities, institutes, other research facilities, and other nonprofit institutions or consortia containing institutions. The intent of this report is to provide such outside groups with information that will facilitate rapid interactions with Sandia National Laboratories through some of these forms of business which will be discussed in this report. These are not the only approaches to facilitating business interactions with Sandia National Laboratories and it is not intended that this report be legal advice or required approaches to doing business with Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this report is merely to suggest ways in which Sandia National Laboratories can work with outside parties in the most expeditious manner.

  11. Partnering with Sandia National Laboratories through alliances or consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Winchell, B.M.

    1994-04-01

    To better facilitate working with industry, groups of industrial participants, and partners in alliances or consortia, Sandia National laboratories presents information helpful to those outside groups as to the forms of arrangements that may be used to better facilitate partnering relationships between Sandia National Laboratories and consortia or alliances of outside parties. It is expected that these alliances and consortia will include both large and small for-profit industrial concerns, as well as not-for-profit entities such as universities, institutes, other research facilities, and other nonprofit institutions or consortia containing institutions. The intent of this report is to provide such outside groups with information that will facilitate rapid interactions with Sandia National Laboratories through some of these forms of business which will be discussed in this report. These are not the only approaches to facilitating business interactions with Sandia National Laboratories and it is not intended that this report be legal advice or required approaches to doing business with Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this report is merely to suggest ways in which Sandia National Laboratories can work with outside parties in the most expeditious manner.

  12. Organizing International Programs: The Experience of Two Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Charles B.; Fuller, Jon W.

    1983-01-01

    Two academic consortia have achieved success in sponsoring international programs, which any one of their member institutions would be unlikely to undertake alone. The Associated Colleges of the Midwest (ACM) and the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA) programs are described. (MLW)

  13. Speech and Theatre Programs in Two Midwest Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzza, Bonnie Wilson

    The official college catalogues of the 25 institutions comprising the Associated Colleges of the Midwest (ACM) and the Great Lakes Colleges Association (GLCA) consortia were studied to provide descriptive information on the special needs and interests of smaller speech and theatre programs. Information on speech departments indicated three general…

  14. 14 CFR 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... issues; (8) Internal and external reporting requirements; (9) Management structure of the consortium; (10... the consortia members (12) Agreements, if any, to share existing technology and data; (13) The firm... the source selection process. Articles of Collaboration do not become part of the...

  15. 14 CFR § 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... issues; (8) Internal and external reporting requirements; (9) Management structure of the consortium; (10... the consortia members (12) Agreements, if any, to share existing technology and data; (13) The firm... the source selection process. Articles of Collaboration do not become part of the...

  16. Issues in Forming School District Consortia To Deliver Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Tara J.

    A consortium is the most advanced form of collaboration, in which two or more institutions create a new mechanism to undertake "programs and projects of mutual interest" (Konrad and Small 1989, p. 200). This paper describes three distance-education consortia that were developed among Alberta, Canada, school districts. It describes the…

  17. Health Sciences Librarians and Education: Clinical Librarianship, Consortia, Extraterrestial Telemedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Polly; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Three speeches presented by a panel of health science librarians discuss: (1) clinical medical librarianship, with a definition and descriptions of programs in several medical school libraries; (2) consortia, including a definition and reasons for their development; and (3) use of telecommunications for sharing medical information. (MBR)

  18. IIM Digital Library System: Consortia-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandian, M. Paul; Jambhekar, Ashok; Karisiddappa, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a framework for the design and development of an intranet model based on a consortia approach by the Indian Institutes of Management (IIM) digital library system that will facilitate information access and use by providing a single Web-enabled window to users to their own resources and to sources in other participating institutions.…

  19. 14 CFR 1274.205 - Consortia as recipients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agreement with a consortium is the consortium's Articles of Collaboration, which is a definitive description of the roles and responsibilities of the consortium's members. The Articles of Collaboration must... the consortia members (12) Agreements, if any, to share existing technology and data; (13) The firm...

  20. Consortia Building: A Handshake and a Smile, Island Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Patricia J.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of library consortia focuses on the collaborative efforts in the Federated States of Micronesia that will enhance library services through staff training and educating while utilizing innovative technology. Highlights include background and socioeconomic overview; a project that addresses automation and Internet connectivity issues; and…

  1. Health Sciences Librarians and Education: Clinical Librarianship, Consortia, Extraterrestial Telemedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Polly; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Three speeches presented by a panel of health science librarians discuss: (1) clinical medical librarianship, with a definition and descriptions of programs in several medical school libraries; (2) consortia, including a definition and reasons for their development; and (3) use of telecommunications for sharing medical information. (MBR)

  2. Fighting Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures such as bridges, parking decks, and balconies are designed to have a service life of over 50 years. All too often, however, many structures fall short of this goal, requiring expensive repairs and protection work earlier than anticipated. The corrosion of reinforced steel within the concrete infrastructure is a major cause for this premature deterioration. Such corrosion is a particularly dangerous problem for the facilities at NASA s Kennedy Space Center. Located near the Atlantic Ocean in Florida, Kennedy is based in one of the most corrosive-prone areas in the world. In order to protect its launch support structures, highways, pipelines, and other steel-reinforced concrete structures, Kennedy engineers developed the Galvanic Liquid Applied Coating System. The system utilizes an inorganic coating material that slows or stops the corrosion of reinforced steel members inside concrete structures. Early tests determined that the coating meets the criteria of the National Association of Corrosion Engineers for complete protection of steel rebar embedded in concrete. Testing is being continued at the Kennedy's Materials Science Beach Corrosion Test Site.

  3. Higher Educational Consortia: Idea of the Past or Wave of the Future? Report of the Danforth Foundation's Conference on Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danforth Foundation, St. Louis, MO.

    Presently there are approximately 70 active formal higher educational consortia in the U. S. along with numerous other instances of voluntary academic cooperation. However, at a time in which cooperative efforts continue to expand, the benefits of these same efforts are being examined and questioned seriously by educators. The Danforth Conference…

  4. Chlorinated biphenyl mineralization by individual populations and consortia of freshwater bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, C A; Breen, A; Corcoran, C; Sayler, G S

    1990-01-01

    Comparative studies were performed to investigate the contribution of microbial consortia, individual microbial populations, and specific plasmids to chlorinated biphenyl biodegradation among microbial communities from a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated freshwater environment. A bacterial consortium, designated LPS10, was shown to mineralize 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) and dehalogenate 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl. The LPS10 consortium involved three isolates: Pseudomonas testosteroni (LPS10A), which mediated the breakdown of 4CB and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl to 4-chlorobenzoic acid; an isolate tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter sp. (LPS10B), which mediated 4-chlorobenzoic acid degradation; and Pseudomonas putida bv. A (LPS10C), whose role in the consortium has not been determined. None of these isolates contained detectable plasmids or sequences homologous to the 4CB-degradative plasmid pSS50. A freshwater isolate, designated LBS1C1, was found to harbor a 41-megadalton plasmid that was related to the 35-megadalton plasmid pSS50, and this isolate was shown to mineralize 4CB. In chemostat enrichments with biphenyl and 4CB as primary carbon sources, the LPS10 consortium was found to outcomplete bacterial populations harboring plasmids homologous to pSS50. These results demonstrate that an understanding of the biodegradative capacity of individual bacterial populations as well as interacting populations of bacteria must be considered in order to gain a better understanding of polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation in the environment. Images PMID:2117875

  5. Enhanced electricity production by use of reconstituted artificial consortia of estuarine bacteria grown as biofilms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinwei; Zhang, Enren; Scott, Keith; Burgess, J Grant

    2012-03-06

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can convert organic compounds directly into electricity by catalytic oxidation, and although MFCs have attracted considerable interest, there is little information on the electricity-generating potential of artificial bacterial biofilms. We have used acetate-fed MFCs inoculated with sediment, with two-chamber bottles and carbon cloth electrodes to deliver a maximum power output of ~175 mW · m(-2) and a stable power output of ~105 mW · m(-2). Power production was by direct transfer of electrons to the anode from bacterial consortia growing on the anode, as confirmed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Twenty different species (74 strains) of bacteria were isolated from the consortium under anaerobic conditions and cultured in the laboratory, of which 34% were found to be exoelectrogens in single-species studies. Exoelectrogenesis by members of the genera Vibrio , Enterobacter , and Citrobacter and by Bacillus stratosphericus was confirmed, by use of culture-based methods, for the first time. An MFC with a natural bacterial consortium showed higher power densities than those obtained with single strains. In addition, the maximum power output could be further increased to ~200 mW · m(-2) when an artificial consortium consisting of the best 25 exoelectrogenic isolates was used, demonstrating the potential for increased performance and underlying the importance of artificial biofilms for increasing power output.

  6. RNA Sociology: Group Behavioral Motifs of RNA Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Witzany, Guenther

    2014-01-01

    RNA sociology investigates the behavioral motifs of RNA consortia from the social science perspective. Besides the self-folding of RNAs into single stem loop structures, group building of such stem loops results in a variety of essential agents that are highly active in regulatory processes in cellular and non-cellular life. RNA stem loop self-folding and group building do not depend solely on sequence syntax; more important are their contextual (functional) needs. Also, evolutionary processes seem to occur through RNA stem loop consortia that may act as a complement. This means the whole entity functions only if all participating parts are coordinated, although the complementary building parts originally evolved for different functions. If complementary groups, such as rRNAs and tRNAs, are placed together in selective pressure contexts, new evolutionary features may emerge. Evolution initiated by competent agents in natural genome editing clearly contrasts with statistical error replication narratives. PMID:25426799

  7. Engineering microbial consortia to enhance biomining and bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Brune, Karl D.; Bayer, Travis S.

    2012-01-01

    In natural environments microorganisms commonly exist as communities of multiple species that are capable of performing more varied and complicated tasks than clonal populations. Synthetic biologists have engineered clonal populations with characteristics such as differentiation, memory, and pattern formation, which are usually associated with more complex multicellular organisms. The prospect of designing microbial communities has alluring possibilities for environmental, biomedical, and energy applications, and is likely to reveal insight into how natural microbial consortia function. Cell signaling and communication pathways between different species are likely to be key processes for designing novel functions in synthetic and natural consortia. Recent efforts to engineer synthetic microbial interactions will be reviewed here, with particular emphasis given to research with significance for industrial applications in the field of biomining and bioremediation of acid mine drainage. PMID:22679443

  8. Biomass and neutral lipid production in geothermal microalgal consortia.

    PubMed

    Bywaters, Kathryn F; Fritsen, Christian H

    2014-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems - in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L(-1) day(-1). The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L(-1 )day(-1); the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  9. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Bywaters, Kathryn F.; Fritsen, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems – in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L−1 day−1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L−1 day−1; the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels. PMID:25763368

  10. Biofilms: strategies for metal corrosion inhibition employing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Rongjun

    2007-10-01

    Corrosion causes dramatic economic loss. Currently widely used corrosion control strategies have disadvantages of being expensive, subject to environmental restrictions, and sometimes inefficient. Studies show that microbial corrosion inhibition is actually a common phenomenon. The present review summarizes recent progress in this novel strategy: corrosion control using beneficial bacteria biofilms. The possible mechanisms may involve: (1) removal of corrosive agents (such as oxygen) by bacterial physiological activities (e.g., aerobic respiration), (2) growth inhibition of corrosion-causing bacteria by antimicrobials generated within biofilms [e.g., sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) corrosion inhibition by gramicidin S-producing Bacillus brevis biofilm], (3) generation of protective layer by biofilms (e.g., Bacillus licheniformis biofilm produces on aluminum surface a sticky protective layer of gamma-polyglutamate). Successful utilization of this novel strategy relies on advances in study at the interface of corrosion engineering and biofilm biology.

  11. Polishing of municipal secondary effluent using native microalgae consortia.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Rocha, Julio César; Barceló-Quintal, Icela Dagmar; García-Martínez, Magdalena; Osornio-Berthet, Luis; Saavedra-Villarreal, Nidia; Villarreal-Chiu, Juan; López-Chuken, Ulrico Javier

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the use of native microalgae consortia for a dual role: polishing treatment of municipal wastewater effluents and microalgae biomass feedstock potential for biodiesel or biofertilizer production. An initial screening was undertaken to test N and P removal from secondary effluents and biomass production by 12 consortia. A subsequent treatment was performed by selected consortia (01 and 12) under three operational conditions: stirring (S), S + 12 h of daily aeration (S + A) and S + A enriched with CO2 (S + AC). All treatments resulted in compliance with environmental regulations (e.g. Directive 91/271/EEC) and high removal efficiency of nutrients: 64-79% and 80-94% of total N and PO4(3-)-P respectively. During the experiments it was shown that pH alkalinization due to microalgae growth benefits the chemical removal of ammonia and phosphorus. Moreover, advantages of pH increase could be accomplished by intermittent CO2 addition which in this research (treatment S + AC) promoted higher yield and lipid concentration. The resulting dry biomass analysis showed a low lipid content (0.5-4.3%) not ideal for biodiesel production. Moreover, the high rate of ash (29.3-53.0%) suggests that biomass could be readily recycled as a biofertilizer due to mineral supply and organic constituents formed by C, N and P (e.g. carbohydrate, protein, and lipids).

  12. Consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria: biotechnological potential.

    PubMed

    Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Ramakrishnan, Balasubramanian; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    Microbial metabolites are of huge biotechnological potential and their production can be coupled with detoxification of environmental pollutants and wastewater treatment mediated by the versatile microorganisms. The consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria can be efficient in detoxification of organic and inorganic pollutants, and removal of nutrients from wastewaters, compared to the individual microorganisms. Cyanobacterial/algal photosynthesis provides oxygen, a key electron acceptor to the pollutant-degrading heterotrophic bacteria. In turn, bacteria support photoautotrophic growth of the partners by providing carbon dioxide and other stimulatory means. Competition for resources and cooperation for pollutant abatement between these two guilds of microorganisms will determine the success of consortium engineering while harnessing the biotechnological potential of the partners. Relative to the introduction of gene(s) in a single organism wherein the genes depend on the regulatory- and metabolic network for proper expression, microbial consortium engineering is easier and achievable. The currently available biotechnological tools such as metabolic profiling and functional genomics can aid in the consortium engineering. The present review examines the current status of research on the consortia, and emphasizes the construction of consortia with desired partners to serve a dual mission of pollutant removal and commercial production of microbial metabolites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rethinking quasispecies theory: From fittest type to cooperative consortia.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Luis P; Witzany, Guenther

    2013-11-26

    Recent investigations surprisingly indicate that single RNA "stem-loops" operate solely by chemical laws that act without selective forces, and in contrast, self-ligated consortia of RNA stem-loops operate by biological selection. To understand consortial RNA selection, the concept of single quasi-species and its mutant spectra as drivers of RNA variation and evolution is rethought here. Instead, we evaluate the current RNA world scenario in which consortia of cooperating RNA stem-loops (not individuals) are the basic players. We thus redefine quasispecies as RNA quasispecies consortia (qs-c) and argue that it has essential behavioral motifs that are relevant to the inherent variation, evolution and diversity in biology. We propose that qs-c is an especially innovative force. We apply qs-c thinking to RNA stem-loops and evaluate how it yields altered bulges and loops in the stem-loop regions, not as errors, but as a natural capability to generate diversity. This basic competence-not error-opens a variety of combinatorial possibilities which may alter and create new biological interactions, identities and newly emerged self identity (immunity) functions. Thus RNA stem-loops typically operate as cooperative modules, like members of social groups. From such qs-c of stem-loop groups we can trace a variety of RNA secondary structures such as ribozymes, viroids, viruses, mobile genetic elements as abundant infection derived agents that provide the stem-loop societies of small and long non-coding RNAs.

  14. Ionic liquid biodegradability depends on specific wastewater microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Kathryn M; Aiello, Steven W; Buehler, Barbara K; Jones, Stuart E; Szymczyna, Blair R; Walker, Katherine A

    2015-10-01

    Complete biodegradation of a newly-synthesized chemical in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) eliminates the potential for novel environmental pollutants. However, differences within- and between-WWTP microbial communities may alter expectations for biodegradation. WWTP communities can also serve as a source of unique consortia that, when enriched, can metabolize chemicals that tend to resist degradation, but are otherwise promising green alternatives. We tested the biodegradability of three ionic liquids (ILs): 1-octyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (OMP), 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium bromide (BMP) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM). We performed tests using communities from two WWTPs at three time points. Site-specific and temporal variation both influenced community composition, which impacted the success of OMP biodegradability. Neither BMP nor BMIM degraded in any test, suggesting that these ILs are unlikely to be removed by traditional treatment. Following standard biodegradation assays, we enriched for three consortia that were capable of quickly degrading OMP, BMP and BMIM. Our results indicate WWTPs are not functionally redundant with regard to biodegradation of specific ionic liquids. However, consortia can be enriched to degrade chemicals that fail biodegradability assays. This information can be used to prepare pre-treatment procedures and prevent environmental release of novel pollutants.

  15. Enrichment and characterization of microbial consortia degrading soluble microbial products discharged from anaerobic methanogenic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na-Kyung; Oh, Seungdae; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-03-01

    Soluble microbial products (SMP) produced in bioprocesses have been known as a main cause to decrease treatment efficiency, lower effluent quality, and promote membrane fouling in water reclamation plants. In this study, biological degradation of SMP using selectively enriched microbial consortia in a down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was introduced to remove SMP discharged from anaerobic methanogenic reactors. On average, 68.9-87.5% SMP removal was achieved by the enriched microbial consortia in the DHS reactor for >800 days. The influent SMP fed to the DHS reactor exhibited a bimodal molecular weight (MW) distribution with 14-20 kDa and <4 kDa. Between these two types of SMP, the small MW SMP were biodegraded in the upper part of the reactor, together with most of the large MW SMP. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing technology, the microbial community composition and structure were characterized and correlated with operational factors, such as hydraulic retention time, organic loading rate, and removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand at different depths of the reactor, by performing network and redundancy analyses. The results revealed that Saprospiraceae was strongly correlated to the increasing SMP loading condition, indicating positive co-occurrences with neighboring bacterial populations. Different microbial diversity along with the depth of the reactor implies that stratified microbial communities could participate in the process of SMP degradation. Taken together, these observations indicate that the spatial and temporal variability of the enriched microbial community in the DHS reactor could effectively treat SMP with respect to changes in the operational factors.

  16. CORROSION INHIBITION

    DOEpatents

    Cartledge, G.H.

    1958-06-01

    The protection of ferrous metsls from the corrosive action of aqueous solutions is accomplished by the incorporation of small amounts of certain additive agents into the aqueous solutions. The method comprises providing a small concentration of technetium, in the form of pertechnetate ion, dissolved in the solution.

  17. Coking products as corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A.V.; Petrenko, V.G.; Frolova, R.P.; Kurinnaya, S.N.

    1982-11-06

    Activated sludge and froth from the biological treatment of coke plant waste waters has been determined to be a corrosion inhibitor in both neutral and acidic media, due to the presence of unreacted coking derived inhibitors, bacteriological formation of inhibitors, bacterial organisms, humic-type organics and traces of germanium, zinc, mercury and manganese. The corrosive liquids tested were, river water, technical system water, gas cooler aqueous condensate, gas collector condensate and coking waste water before and after treatment, the substrate being St 3 steel plates (45 X 45 X 5 M) (time 24-30 hr (acid media) and 934 hr (neutral media)). The activated sludge (25 g/l) reduced acid media corrosion rate by 10/sup 3/, the protective effect being 99% for the test liquids: Sludge is more effective than the froth.

  18. Corrosion and corrosion prevention in gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mom, A. J. A.; Kolkman, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions governing the corrosion behavior in gas turbines are surveyed. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, the presence of sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and fuel quality are discussed. Electromechanical corrosion at relatively low temperature in compressors; oxidation; and hot corrosion (sulfidation) at high temperature in turbines are considered. Corrosion prevention by washing and rinsing, fueld additives, and corrosion resistant materials and coatings are reviewed.

  19. Determination of bacteria constituting ruminal fibrolytic consortia developed on orchard grass hay stem.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Takumi; Ueki, Takaaki; Koike, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuo

    2014-03-01

    To determine the relationship between Fibrobacter succinogenes and other rumen bacteria, the bacterial community structure on fiber was analyzed by using two different materials. These were ruminally incubated orchard grass hay stems without and with preincubation with F. succinogenes (natural and artificial consortia, respectively). The natural consortium mainly consisted of Firmicutes (56.6%) and Bacteroidetes (33.1%), while the artificial consortium showed a significantly higher proportion of Firmicutes (85.5%) and a lower proportion of Bacteroidetes (4.6%). At species or genus level, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, the U2 group, Ruminococcus albus and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis made up a higher proportion in the artificial consortium. The most dominant bacterial group was the Butyrivibrio-Pseudobutyrivibrio-Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis group, which accounted for 19.7% in the natural and 29.5% in the artificial consortium. Within the genus Butyrivibrio, the phylogenetic groups SA and VA2 and phylogeny-undefined Butyribivrio, but not VA1, were detected at high frequency in the artificial consortium. These results suggest that ecological and possibly functional relationships exist in the rumen among F. succinogenes, a subset of B. fibrisolvens, the U2 group, R. albus and Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Feasibility of sunflower oil cake degradation with three different anaerobic consortia.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Bárbara; Portillo, María Del Carmen; González, Juan M; Fernández-Cegrí, Victoria; De La Rubia, María Ángeles; Borja, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Sunflower oil cake (SuOC) is the solid by-product from the sunflower oil extraction process and an important pollutant waste because of its high organic content. For the anaerobic digestion of SuOC three different industrial reactors were compared as inoculum sources. This was done using a biochemical methane production (BMP) test. Inoculum I was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating soft-drink wastewaters. Inoculum II was a flocculent biomass from a full-scale reactor treating biosolids generated in an urban wastewater treatment plant. Inoculum III was a granular biomass from an industrial reactor treating brewery wastes. The highest kinetic constant for methane production was achieved using inoculum II. The inoculum sources were analyzed through PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes and fingerprinting before (t = 0) and after the BMP test (t = 12 days). No significant differences were found in the bacterial community fingerprints between the beginning and the end of the experiments. The bacterial and archaeal communities of inoculum II were further analyzed. The main bacteria found in this inoculum belong to Alphaproteobacteria and Chloroflexi. Of the Archaea detected, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales made up practically the whole archaeal community. The results showed the importance of selecting an appropriate inoculum in short term processes due to the fact that the major microbial constituents in the initial consortia remained stable throughout anaerobic digestion.

  1. Shadow corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.

    2004-07-01

    An electrochemical mechanism, based on energetically favored complimentary reduction and oxidation reactions, operating in conjunction with radiolysis is proposed for explaining the shadow corrosion phenomenon observed under BWR conditions. The electrochemical reaction on platinum and nickel alloys (Inconel and X-750) is the oxidation of H 2O 2 to produce a localized enhancement in the concentrations of HO 2 and O 2. Energy level of the conduction band of ZrO 2 matches well with that for the reduction of HO 2 and O 2 regenerating H 2O 2. This reduction of the powerful oxidants, stimulates electron emission in ZrO 2 which then is balanced by increased oxidation of zirconium to generate additional electrons and hence also anion vacancies. A coupling between Zircaloy and platinum or nickel alloy is provided by H + transport, the source for initiating shadow corrosion, to Zircaloy-2 (Zircaloy-2 negative relative to platinum or the nickel alloy) in the gap between the materials. An enhanced localized corrosion of Zircaloy-2 occurs, its incidence dependent upon the transport of HO 2, O 2, H + and H 2O 2 in the coolant in the gap.

  2. AMCOM Corrosion Program Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    and Control (CPC)/NDT Training – CPC Sustainment Technology • Corrosion Repair Kits; Dehumidification ; Corrosion Preventive Compounds; Protective...Program Dehumidification (DH) Project Aviation Technical Supply Humid & Corrosive Environment Stores $ 17M Unique High Value Parts $92K

  3. [Effect of the inoculant strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis 20006FA on the bacterial composition of a phenanthrene-degrading consortium].

    PubMed

    Madueño, L; Coppotelli, B M; Morelli, I S

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the inoculant strain Sphingomonas paucimobilis 20006FA on the bacterial composition of a phenanthrene-degrading consortium obtained from a pristine soil in sequencing batch cultures was studied. Inoculated (F200+1) and non-inoculated (F200) phenanthrene-degrading consortia, were obtained. Bacterial diversity of consortia was studied at cultivable (phenotype and genotype characterization) and non-cultivable (PCR-DGGE) levels. During the successive cultures, a loss in the phenanthrene-degrading capacity and a decrease in the bacterial diversity were observed in both consortia. Although inoculation did not produce any significant changes in the consortia phenanthrene-degrading capacity (29.9% F200 and 27.6% F200+1), it did produce changes in the bacterial composition, showing a differential structural dynamics in the DGGE profiles of the inoculated consortium. In both consortia, a dominant band placed at the same position as that of the DNA of the inoculant strain in the DGGE gel could be observed. However, isolated cultures from the consortia which had an identical band position to that of S. paucimobilis 20006FA in the PCR-DGGE profile showed low similarity with respect to the inoculant strain (RAPD).

  4. Biodegradation of nanocrystalline cellulose by two environmentally-relevant consortia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gargi; Chandoha-Lee, Cody; Zhang, Wei; Renneckar, Scott; Vikesland, Peter J; Pruden, Amy

    2016-11-01

    Nanocellulose is growing in popularity due to its versatile properties and applications. However, there is a void of knowledge regarding the environmental fate of nanocellulose and the response of environmental microbial communities that are historically adapted to non-nano cellulose forms. Given its distinction in terms of size and chemical and physical properties, nanocellulose could potentially resist biodegradation and/or pose a xenobiotic influence on microbial communities during wastewater treatment or in receiving environments. In this study, biodegradation of H2SO4 hydrolyzed nanocrystalline cellulose (HNC) was compared with that of microcrystalline cellulose using two distinct anaerobic cellulose-degrading microbial consortia initially sourced from anaerobic digester (AD) and wetland (W) inocula. Equivalent cellulose masses were dosed and monitored with time by measurement of liberated glucose. HNC biodegraded at slightly faster rate than microcrystalline cellulose (1st order decay constants: 0.62 ± 0.08 wk(-1) for HNC versus 0.39 ± 0.05 wk(-1) for microcrystalline cellulose for the AD consortium; 0.69 ± 0.04 wk(-1)for HNCversus 0.58 ± 0.05 wk(-1) for microcrystalline cellulose for the W consortium). 16S rRNA (total bacteria) and cel48 (glycoside hydrolase gene family 48, indicative of cellulose-degrading potential) genes were observed to be more enriched in the HNC condition for both consortia. According to Illumina amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, the composition of the consortia underwent distinct shifts in concert with HNC versus microcrystalline cellulose degradation. This study demonstrates that the biodegradation of cellulose is not inhibited in the nano-size range, particularly in the crystalline form, though the microbes and pathways involved likely differ. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic Microbial Ecology: Engineering Habitats for Modular Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Ben Said, Sami; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic diversity present in microbial communities enables cooperation toward accomplishing more complex tasks than possible by a single organism. Members of a consortium communicate by exchanging metabolites or signals that allow them to coordinate their activity through division of labor. In contrast with monocultures, evidence suggests that microbial consortia self-organize to form spatial patterns, such as observed in biofilms or in soil aggregates, that enable them to respond to gradient, to improve resource interception and to exchange metabolites more effectively. Current biotechnological applications of microorganisms remain rudimentary, often relying on genetically engineered monocultures (e.g., pharmaceuticals) or mixed-cultures of partially known composition (e.g., wastewater treatment), yet the vast potential of “microbial ecological power” observed in most natural environments, remains largely underused. In line with the Unified Microbiome Initiative (UMI) which aims to “discover and advance tools to understand and harness the capabilities of Earth's microbial ecosystems,” we propose in this concept paper to capitalize on ecological insights into the spatial and modular design of interlinked microbial consortia that would overcome limitations of natural systems and attempt to optimize the functionality of the members and the performance of the engineered consortium. The topology of the spatial connections linking the various members and the regulated fluxes of media between those modules, while representing a major engineering challenge, would allow the microbial species to interact. The modularity of such spatially linked microbial consortia (SLMC) could facilitate the design of scalable bioprocesses that can be incorporated as parts of a larger biochemical network. By reducing the need for a compatible growth environment for all species simultaneously, SLMC will dramatically expand the range of possible combinations of microorganisms

  6. Chemical Industry Corrosion Management

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Improved Corrosion Management Could Provide Significant Cost and Energy Savings for the Chemical Industry. In the chemical industry, corrosion is often responsible for significant shutdown and maintenance costs.

  7. Corrosion protection of low-carbon steel using exopolysaccharide coatings from Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Corrosion is one of the most serious and challenging problems faced worldwide by industry. This research investigates the inhibition of corrosive behavior of SAE1010 steel by bacterial exopolysaccharides. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy was used to evaluate the corrosion inhibition of diffe...

  8. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  9. Hanging Together To Avoid Hanging Separately: Opportunities for Academic Libraries and Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Barbara McFadden; Hirshon, Arnold

    1998-01-01

    Discusses academic library consortia, examines types of consortia, and presents three case histories (OhioLINK, PALCI and CIC). Highlights include economic competition; changes in information access and delivery; growth of information technology; quality improvement; and future strategies, including pricing models for electronic information,…

  10. 2012 Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Standard Operating Procedures (SOP), Consortia 2012 (DOC, 491KB) (All SOP Documents with Table of Contents) DCP Acronym List, Consortia 2012 (DOC, 62.5KB) See SOP Documents, DCP Guidance Documents and additional resources linked by topic within the tabs below.   Developing |

  11. Managing the Advantages and Challenges of Multiple Library Consortia: The View from within the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xudong; Maurer, Margaret Beecher

    2007-01-01

    The authors are both managers in OhioLINK libraries and have complex experiences working within a variety of simultaneous library consortial agreements. Their librarians'-eye view of consortia allows for a discussion of the nature of that landscape, some perspectives on the benefits and advantages of consortia as well as thoughts on the challenges…

  12. Regional Consortia for E-Resources: A Case Study of Deals in the South China Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunrong, Luo; Jingfen, Wang; Zhinong, Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the current situation and the social and economic benefits from the consortia acquisitions of electronic resources by the China Academic Library and Information System (CALIS) South China Regional Centre and to recommend improvements for consortia acquisitions. Design/methodology/approach: Analyses…

  13. Consortia--A Viable Model and Medium for Distance Education in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Consortia are increasingly popular mechanisms by which educational institutions may achieve organisational goals that might be especially challenging to accomplish individually. Such collaborations are intended to offer courses and services through combined resources and expertise. Consortia designed to develop and deliver distance education…

  14. Operational Procedures for Successful Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Serving Business and Industry in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, James E.; Stanton, William

    The development, organization, and operation of the Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Ohio was examined to identify those elements, policies, practices, and procedures that contribute to their effective operation and future growth. Data about individual consortia and general information were gathered by questionnaires completed by…

  15. 25 CFR 1001.8 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a... OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.8 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. (a) Who may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any tribe/consortium that has...

  16. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.9 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking... before a tribe/consortium is admitted into the applicant pool? Any tribe/consortium that is not a...

  17. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.9 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking... before a tribe/consortium is admitted into the applicant pool? Any tribe/consortium that is not a...

  18. 25 CFR 1001.8 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a... OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.8 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. (a) Who may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any tribe/consortium that has...

  19. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.9 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking... before a tribe/consortium is admitted into the applicant pool? Any tribe/consortium that is not a...

  20. 25 CFR 1001.9 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance planning grant funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking advance..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.9 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia seeking... before a tribe/consortium is admitted into the applicant pool? Any tribe/consortium that is not a...

  1. 25 CFR 1001.8 - Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a... OF THE INTERIOR SELF-GOVERNANCE PROGRAM § 1001.8 Selection criteria for tribes/consortia to receive a negotiation grant. (a) Who may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any tribe/consortium that has...

  2. Sustainability for the Americas: Building the American Network of Sustainability Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motloch, John; Pacheco, Pedro; Vann, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To build awareness of an emergent global network of sustainability consortia, the network's Sustainability for the Americas (SFTA) regional cluster, its pilot US-Brazil Sustainability Consortium (USBSC), its subsequent North American Sustainability, Housing and Community Consortium (NASHCC), the process through which these consortia are…

  3. Sustainability for the Americas: Building the American Network of Sustainability Consortia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motloch, John; Pacheco, Pedro; Vann, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To build awareness of an emergent global network of sustainability consortia, the network's Sustainability for the Americas (SFTA) regional cluster, its pilot US-Brazil Sustainability Consortium (USBSC), its subsequent North American Sustainability, Housing and Community Consortium (NASHCC), the process through which these consortia are…

  4. Consortia--A Viable Model and Medium for Distance Education in Developing Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Consortia are increasingly popular mechanisms by which educational institutions may achieve organisational goals that might be especially challenging to accomplish individually. Such collaborations are intended to offer courses and services through combined resources and expertise. Consortia designed to develop and deliver distance education…

  5. A Study of the Inter-Organizational Behavior in Consortia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Robert J.

    In an attempt to formulate hypotheses and administrative guidelines for voluntary consortia in higher education, a heuristic framework was devised through which behavioral patterns of consortia member organizations and their representatives could be ascertained. The rationale, the framework, and the methodology of the study are first discussed.…

  6. The Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia Serving Business and Industry in Ohio. Digest of Study: Operational Procedures for Successful Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Serving Business and Industry in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, James E.; Stanton, William

    This publication reports the development of the vocational-technical resource consortia in Ohio and identifies the operational procedures associated with successful programs. Five exemplary consortia were studied in some depth; however, data were obtained from all of the 23 consortia in the state. The research indicates that the consortium is an…

  7. The Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia Serving Business and Industry in Ohio. Digest of Study: Operational Procedures for Successful Vocational-Technical Resource Consortia in Serving Business and Industry in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, James E.; Stanton, William

    This publication reports the development of the vocational-technical resource consortia in Ohio and identifies the operational procedures associated with successful programs. Five exemplary consortia were studied in some depth; however, data were obtained from all of the 23 consortia in the state. The research indicates that the consortium is an…

  8. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-09-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, "extreme centrism", and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics-separate and together-have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  9. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196

  10. Fermentation Enhancement of Methanogenic Archaea Consortia from an Illinois Basin Coalbed via DOL Emulsion Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dong; Peng, Su-Ping; Wang, En-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Microbially enhanced coalbed methane technology must be used to increase the methane content in mining and generate secondary biogenic gas. In this technology, the metabolic processes of methanogenic consortia are the basis for the production of biomethane from some of the organic compounds in coal. Thus, culture nutrition plays an important role in remediating the nutritional deficiency of a coal seam. To enhance the methane production rates for microorganism consortia, different types of nutrition solutions were examined in this study. Emulsion nutrition solutions containing a novel nutritional supplement, called dystrophy optional modification latex, increased the methane yield for methanogenic consortia. This new nutritional supplement can help methanogenic consortia form an enhanced anaerobic environment, optimize the microbial balance in the consortia, and improve the methane biosynthesis rate. PMID:25884952

  11. Fermentation enhancement of methanogenic archaea consortia from an Illinois basin coalbed via DOL emulsion nutrition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dong; Peng, Su-Ping; Wang, En-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Microbially enhanced coalbed methane technology must be used to increase the methane content in mining and generate secondary biogenic gas. In this technology, the metabolic processes of methanogenic consortia are the basis for the production of biomethane from some of the organic compounds in coal. Thus, culture nutrition plays an important role in remediating the nutritional deficiency of a coal seam. To enhance the methane production rates for microorganism consortia, different types of nutrition solutions were examined in this study. Emulsion nutrition solutions containing a novel nutritional supplement, called dystrophy optional modification latex, increased the methane yield for methanogenic consortia. This new nutritional supplement can help methanogenic consortia form an enhanced anaerobic environment, optimize the microbial balance in the consortia, and improve the methane biosynthesis rate.

  12. Corrosion Damage Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell H.

    2002-11-30

    Corrosion damage can lead to reduced operational lifetimes. Often this damage is not as obvious as general corrosion but takes the form of pits, intergranular corrosion, crevice corrosion and hydrogen absorption. These types of corrosion damage lead to stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking and corrosion fatigue. A critical step in defining a corrosion damage function is determining the relationship between the corrosion damage, the resulting crack propagation mechanism and component lifetimes. The sequence of events is often some localized corrosion event such as pitting, transition of the pit to a planar crack, propagation of this short crack, transition of the short crack to long crack conditions and continued propagation through Stage I, II, and III of the long crack SCC regimes. A description of critical corrosion damage processes and examples of the transition to long crack SCC conditions will be discussed.

  13. Characterization of anaerobic consortia coupled lignin depolymerization with biomethane generation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Rui; He, Jianzhong

    2013-07-01

    Two sediment-free microbial consortia (LI3 and LP3) were established to depolymerize lignin under anaerobic conditions. During depolymerizing high molecular weight lignin to low molecular weight molecules, the two cultures produced biomethane up to 151.7 and 113.0 mL g(-1) total lignin. Furthermore, LI3 and LP3 could also utilize the biomass - oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB) to produce 190.6 and 195.6 mL methaneg(-1) total lignin in OPEFB, and at the same time improve the bioavailability of lignocellulosic matters for further enzymatic hydrolysis. The microbial community analysis by denature gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and the high-density 16S rDNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) exhibited that Methanomethylovorans sp. (LI3) and Methanoculleus sp. (LP3) were the main methanogens present, and phylum Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were mainly involved in the lignin depolymerization. The established microbial consortia with both lignin depolymerization and biomethane production provide profound application on the environmental friendly pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Different cultivation methods to acclimatise ammonia-tolerant methanogenic consortia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hailin; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Mancini, Enrico; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-02-11

    Bioaugmentation with ammonia tolerant-methanogenic consortia was proposed as a solution to overcome ammonia inhibition during anaerobic digestion process recently. However, appropriate technology to generate ammonia tolerant methanogenic consortia is still lacking. In this study, three basic reactors (i.e. batch, fed-batch and continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR)) operated at mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions were assessed, based on methane production efficiency, incubation time, TAN/FAN (total ammonium nitrogen/free ammonia nitrogen) levels and maximum methanogenic activity. Overall, fed-batch cultivation was clearly the most efficient method compared to batch and CSTR. Specifically, by saving incubation time up to 150%, fed-batch reactors were acclimatised to nearly 2-fold higher FAN levels with a 37%-153% methanogenic activity improvement, compared to batch method. Meanwhile, CSTR reactors were inhibited at lower ammonia levels. Finally, specific methanogenic activity test showed that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were more active than aceticlastic methanogens in all FAN levels above 540mgNH3-NL(-1).

  15. Analysis of propionate-degrading consortia from agricultural biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Ahlert, Stephan; Zimmermann, Rita; Ebling, Johannes; König, Helmut

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate the propionate-degrading community of agricultural biogas plants, four propionate-degrading consortia (Ap1a, N12, G12, and Wp2a) were established from different biogas plants which were fed with renewable resources. The consortia were cultivated in a batch for a period of 2-4 years and then analyzed in an 8-week batch experiment for microbial succession during propionate degradation. Community shifts showed considerable propagation of Syntrophobacter sulfatireducens, Cryptanaerobacter sp./Pelotomaculum sp., and "Candidatus Cloacamonas sp." in the course of decreasing propionate concentration. Methanogenic species belonged mainly to the genera Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta, and Methanoculleus. Due to the prevalent presence of the syntrophic acetate-oxidizing species Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and potentially autotrophic homoacetogenic bacteria (Moorella sp., Thermacetogenium sp.), a theoretical involvement of syntrophic acetate oxidation and autotrophic homoacetogenesis in stable and efficient propionate degradation was indicated. Considering theoretical Gibbs free energy values at different hydrogen partial pressures, it is noticeable that syntrophic acetate oxidation and autotrophic homoacetogenesis have the potential to counterbalance adverse hydrogen partial pressure fluctuations, stabilizing most probably continuous and stable propionate degradation. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Characterization of thermophilic consortia from two souring oil reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R F; Nielsen, P H

    1996-09-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen.

  17. 25 CFR 1000.53 - Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants... Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.53 Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant? Yes, Tribes/Consortia that successfully complete the planning...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.63 - Under what circumstances may planning and negotiation grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia? 1000.63 Section 1000.63 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... may planning and negotiation grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia? At the discretion of the Director, grants may be awarded when requested by the Tribe. Tribes/Consortia may submit only one application...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.53 - Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants... Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.53 Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant? Yes, Tribes/Consortia that successfully complete the planning...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.63 - Under what circumstances may planning and negotiation grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia? 1000.63 Section 1000.63 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... may planning and negotiation grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia? At the discretion of the Director, grants may be awarded when requested by the Tribe. Tribes/Consortia may submit only one application...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.53 - Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants... Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.53 Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant? Yes, Tribes/Consortia that successfully complete the planning...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.63 - Under what circumstances may planning and negotiation grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia? 1000.63 Section 1000.63 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY... may planning and negotiation grants be awarded to Tribes/Consortia? At the discretion of the Director, grants may be awarded when requested by the Tribe. Tribes/Consortia may submit only one application...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.53 - Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants... Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.53 Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant? Yes, Tribes/Consortia that successfully complete the planning...

  4. 25 CFR 1000.53 - Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants... Advance Planning Grant Funding § 1000.53 Can Tribes/Consortia that receive advance planning grants also apply for a negotiation grant? Yes, Tribes/Consortia that successfully complete the planning...

  5. FDA's pediatric device consortia: national program fosters pediatric medical device development.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Linda C; Joseph, Francesca D; Lewis, Debra Y; Koenig, Robert L

    2013-05-01

    This article reports on the progress made in addressing pediatric medical device needs through the establishment of the Pediatric Device Consortia Grant Program. Pediatric practitioners should be aware of both the imperative for well-studied devices for children and the existence of recently created resources to help foster the development of such products. This article discusses some of the challenges associated with pediatric device development and describes the implementation of section 305 of the Pediatric Medical Device Safety and Improvement Act of 2007. This statute called for the creation of nonprofit consortia to facilitate the development, production, and distribution of pediatric medical devices. A summary of the accomplishments of the pediatric device consortia is presented. Eleven million dollars have been awarded to 5 consortia since 2009. As of July 2012, they have collectively assisted in the development of 219 pediatric device ideas. The consortia provide innovators with both mentorship and services to help advance proposed pediatric device projects, including assistance with prototyping, identification of potential funding sources, preclinical and clinical trial design, and introductions to potential manufacturers. Currently, 5 federally funded pediatric device consortia exist to help advance the development of potential pediatric devices. These consortia serve as a national resource for those with ideas for medical devices that may advance the health and well-being of children.

  6. Governance of global health research consortia: Sharing sovereignty and resources within Future Health Systems.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-02-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia that conduct programs of research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). An ethical framework has been developed that describes how the governance of consortia comprised of institutions from high-income countries and LMICs should be structured to promote health equity. It encompasses initial guidance for sharing sovereignty in consortia decision-making and sharing consortia resources. This paper describes a first effort to examine whether and how consortia can uphold that guidance. Case study research was undertaken with the Future Health Systems consortium, performs research to improve health service delivery for the poor in Bangladesh, China, India, and Uganda. Data were thematically analysed and revealed that proposed ethical requirements for sharing sovereignty and sharing resources are largely upheld by Future Health Systems. Facilitating factors included having a decentralised governance model, LMIC partners with good research capacity, and firm budgets. Higher labour costs in the US and UK and the funder's policy of allocating funds to consortia on a reimbursement basis prevented full alignment with guidance on sharing resources. The lessons described in this paper can assist other consortia to more systematically link their governance policy and practice to the promotion of health equity.

  7. Modeling the Mutualistic Interactions between Tubeworms and Microbial Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Michael A; Shea, Katriona; Arvidson, Rolf S; Fisher, Charles R

    2005-01-01

    The deep-sea vestimentiferan tubeworm Lamellibrachia luymesi forms large aggregations at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico that may persist for over 250 y. Here, we present the results of a diagenetic model in which tubeworm aggregation persistence is achieved through augmentation of the supply of sulfate to hydrocarbon seep sediments. In the model, L. luymesi releases the sulfate generated by its internal, chemoautotrophic, sulfide-oxidizing symbionts through posterior root-like extensions of its body. The sulfate fuels sulfate reduction, commonly coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation and hydrocarbon degradation by bacterial–archaeal consortia. If sulfate is released by the tubeworms, sulfide generation mainly by hydrocarbon degradation is sufficient to support moderate-sized aggregations of L. luymesi for hundreds of years. The results of this model expand our concept of the potential benefits derived from complex interspecific relationships, in this case involving members of all three domains of life. PMID:15736979

  8. Effects of Spatial Localization on Microbial Consortia Growth.

    PubMed

    Venters, Michael; Carlson, Ross P; Gedeon, Tomas; Heys, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    Microbial consortia are commonly observed in natural and synthetic systems, and these consortia frequently result in higher biomass production relative to monocultures. The focus here is on the impact of initial spatial localization and substrate diffusivity on the growth of a model microbial consortium consisting of a producer strain that consumes glucose and produces acetate and a scavenger strain that consumes the acetate. The mathematical model is based on an individual cell model where growth is described by Monod kinetics, and substrate transport is described by a continuum-based, non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion model where convective transport is negligible (e.g., in a biofilm). The first set of results focus on a single producer cell at the center of the domain and surrounded by an initial population of scavenger cells. The impact of the initial population density and substrate diffusivity is examined. A transition is observed from the highest initial density resulting in the greatest cell growth to cell growth being independent of initial density. A high initial density minimizes diffusive transport time and is typically expected to result in the highest growth, but this expected behavior is not predicted in environments with lower diffusivity or larger length scales. When the producer cells are placed on the bottom of the domain with the scavenger cells above in a layered biofilm arrangement, a similar critical transition is observed. For the highest diffusivity values examined, a thin, dense initial scavenger layer is optimal for cell growth. However, for smaller diffusivity values, a thicker, less dense initial scavenger layer provides maximal growth. The overall conclusion is that high density clustering of members of a food chain is optimal under most common transport conditions, but under some slow transport conditions, high density clustering may not be optimal for microbial growth.

  9. Effects of Spatial Localization on Microbial Consortia Growth

    PubMed Central

    Venters, Michael; Carlson, Ross P.; Gedeon, Tomas

    2017-01-01

    Microbial consortia are commonly observed in natural and synthetic systems, and these consortia frequently result in higher biomass production relative to monocultures. The focus here is on the impact of initial spatial localization and substrate diffusivity on the growth of a model microbial consortium consisting of a producer strain that consumes glucose and produces acetate and a scavenger strain that consumes the acetate. The mathematical model is based on an individual cell model where growth is described by Monod kinetics, and substrate transport is described by a continuum-based, non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion model where convective transport is negligible (e.g., in a biofilm). The first set of results focus on a single producer cell at the center of the domain and surrounded by an initial population of scavenger cells. The impact of the initial population density and substrate diffusivity is examined. A transition is observed from the highest initial density resulting in the greatest cell growth to cell growth being independent of initial density. A high initial density minimizes diffusive transport time and is typically expected to result in the highest growth, but this expected behavior is not predicted in environments with lower diffusivity or larger length scales. When the producer cells are placed on the bottom of the domain with the scavenger cells above in a layered biofilm arrangement, a similar critical transition is observed. For the highest diffusivity values examined, a thin, dense initial scavenger layer is optimal for cell growth. However, for smaller diffusivity values, a thicker, less dense initial scavenger layer provides maximal growth. The overall conclusion is that high density clustering of members of a food chain is optimal under most common transport conditions, but under some slow transport conditions, high density clustering may not be optimal for microbial growth. PMID:28045924

  10. Characterization of Thermophilic Consortia from Two Souring Oil Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, R. F.; Nielsen, P. H.

    1996-01-01

    The microbial consortia from produced water at two different oil fields in Alaska (Kuparuk) and the North Sea (Ninian) were investigated for sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activity over a range of temperatures and for a variety of substrates. The consortia were sampled on site, and samples were either incubated on site at 60(deg)C with various substrates or frozen for later incubation and analyses. Temperature influenced the rates of sulfate reduction, hydrogen sulfide production, and substrate oxidation, as well as the cell morphology. The highest rates of sulfate reduction and substrate oxidation were found between 50 and 60(deg)C. Formate and n-butyrate were the most favorable electron donors at any tested temperature. Acetate was utilized at 35(deg)C but not at 50 or 70(deg)C and was produced at 60(deg)C. This indicates that the high levels of acetate found in produced water from souring oil formations are due mainly to an incomplete oxidation of volatile fatty acids to acetate. The cell size distribution of the microbial consortium indicated a nonuniform microbial composition in the original sample from the Kuparuk field. At different temperatures, different microbial morphologies and physiologies were observed. Methane-producing activity at thermophilic temperatures (60(deg)C) was found only for the Kuparuk consortium when hydrogen and carbon dioxide were present. No methane production from acetate was observed. Suppression of methanogenic activity in the presence of sulfate indicated a competition with sulfate-reducing bacteria for hydrogen. PMID:16535394

  11. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    PubMed

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  12. Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the science of corrosion control and control of scaling in drinking water systems. Topics covered include: types of corrosion; physical, microbial and chemical factors influencing corrosion; corrosion of specific materials; direct ...

  13. Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge of the science of corrosion control and control of scaling in drinking water systems. Topics covered include: types of corrosion; physical, microbial and chemical factors influencing corrosion; corrosion of specific materials; direct ...

  14. Microbial consortia in Oman oil fields: a possible use in enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, Saif N; Elshafie, Abdulkader E; Al-Wahaibi, Yahya M; Al-Bemani, Ali S; Joshi, Sanket J; Al-Maaini, Ratiba A; Al-Alawi, Wafa J; Sugai, Yuichi; Al-Mandhari, Mussalam

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. Microbial consortia from Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water, Al-Wusta region, Oman were screened. Microbial consortia in brine samples were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The detected microbial consortia of Wafra oil wells were completely different from microbial consortia of Suwaihat formation water. A total of 33 genera and 58 species were identified in Wafra oil wells and Suwaihat production water. All of the identified microbial genera were first reported in Oman, with Caminicella sporogenes for the first time reported from oil fields. Most of the identified microorganisms were found to be anaerobic, thermophilic, and halophilic, and produced biogases, biosolvants, and biosurfactants as by-products, which may be good candidates for MEOR.

  15. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TECHNOLOGY § 614.5 What are the matching requirements for the consortia? A consortium must provide at least 50 percent of the total project cost per budget period of the project using non-Federal funds...

  16. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    PubMed

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  17. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion of Pilings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-04

    localised attack including pitting, enhanced erosion corrosion, enhanced galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen embrittlement of CS...proJiKx localisv.J attack incluJmi; pittm;;, ciilianci-J viosion corrosion, enhanced galvanic corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen

  18. Water-soluble inhibitor on microbiologically influenced corrosion in diesel pipeline.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2006-12-01

    The effect of water-soluble corrosion inhibitor on the growth of bacteria and its corrosion inhibition efficiency were investigated. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by rotating cage test and flow loop techniques. The nature of biodegradation of corrosion inhibitor was also analyzed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Gas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The bacterial isolates (Serratia marcescens ACE2, Bacillus cereus ACE4) have the capacity to degrade the aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon present in the corrosion inhibitor. The degraded products of corrosion inhibitor and bacterial activity determine the electrochemical behaviour of API 5LX steel. The influence of bacterial activity on degradation of corrosion inhibitor and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX have been evaluated by employing weight loss techniques and electrochemical studies. The main finding of this paper is that the water-soluble corrosion inhibitor is consumed by the microbial action, which contributes to the decrease in inhibitor efficiency. The present study also emphasis the importance of evaluation of water-soluble corrosion inhibitor in stagnant model (flow loop test) and discusses the demerits of the water-soluble corrosion inhibitors in petroleum product pipeline.

  19. Microbial influenced corrosion by thermophilic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lata, Suman; Sharma, Chhaya; Singh, Ajay

    2012-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate microbial influenced corrosion (MIC) on stainless steels due to thermophilic bacteria Desulfotomaculum nigrificans. The objective of the study was to measure the extent of corrosion and correlate it with the growth of the biofilm by monitoring the composition of its extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The toxic effect of heavy metals on MIC was also observed. For this purpose, stainless steels 304L, 316L and 2205 were subjected to electrochemical polarization and immersion tests in the modified Baar's media, control and inoculated, in anaerobic conditions at room temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were used to identify the chemicals present in/outside the pit. The results show maximum corrosive conditions when bacterial activity is highest, which in turn minimizes the amount of carbohydrate and protein along with the increase in the fraction of uronic acid in carbohydrate in EPS of the biofilm. However, although bacterial activity and corrosion rate decreases, the amount of biofilm components continue to increase. It is also observed that the toxicity of metals ions affect the bacterial activity and EPS production. It was observed that Desulfotomaculum sp. has the ability to biodegrade its own EPS.

  20. Assessing the role of spatial structure on cell-specific activity and interactions within uncultured methane-oxidizing syntrophic consortia (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphan, V. J.; McGlynn, S.; Chadwick, G.; Dekas, A.; Green-Saxena, A.

    2013-12-01

    Sulfate-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane is catalysed through symbiotic associations between archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria and represents the dominant sink for methane in the oceans. These methane-oxidizing symbiotic consortia form well-structured multi-celled aggregations in marine methane seeps, where close spatial proximity is believed to be essential for efficient exchange of substrates between syntrophic partners. The nature of this interspecies metabolic relationship is still unknown however there are a number of hypotheses regarding the electron carrying intermediate and ecophysiology of the partners, each of which should be affected by, and influence, the spatial arrangement of archaeal and bacterial cells within aggregates. To advance our understanding of the role of spatial structure within naturally occurring environmental consortia, we are using spatial statistical methods combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization and high-resolution nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (FISH-nanoSIMS) to quantify the effect of spatial organization and intra- and inter-species interactions on cell-specific microbial activity within these diverse archaeal-bacterial partnerships.

  1. [Inter-municipal health consortia: the case of Paraná State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nicoletto, Sônia Cristina Stefano; Cordoni, Luiz; Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2005-01-01

    Inter-municipal health consortia emerged in Brazil's Unified National Health System (SUS) policy in the late 1980s. Municipal health administrators adhered to this strategy with the aim of upgrading health services supplied to the population. This research analyzes the profile of such consortia in Paraná State, focusing on specialized medical care. Data were obtained from reports by the State Health Council and questionnaires sent to all 20 existing municipal health consortia. Governmental Decree no. 1,101 and data published in 2000 on the profile of the health system in Paraná were used as references. Of the 399 municipalities in Paraná State, 81.5% have joined municipal consortia. Specialists are allocated by municipalities (4.4%), the State government (13.6%), or Federal Government (12.8%); another 69.2% are hired by the consortia themselves. The supply of consultations with specialists is either insufficient or inadequately distributed, and there are flaws in the referral and counter-referral system. Municipal health consortia serve as viable instrument for expanding and increasing the capacity of municipalities to supply specialized care, although there is a need for well-defined criteria, planning, and improving of the referral and counter-referral system.

  2. Biodegradation of a crude oil by three microbial consortia of different origins and metabolic capabilities.

    PubMed

    Viñas, M; Grifoll, M; Sabaté, J; Solanas, A M

    2002-05-01

    Microbial consortia were obtained three by sequential enrichment using different oil products. Consortium F1AA was obtained on a heavily saturated fraction of a degraded crude oil; consortium TD, by enrichment on diesel and consortium AM, on a mixture of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs]. The three consortia were incubated with a crude oil in order to elucidate their metabolic capabilities and to investigate possible differences in the biodegradation of these complex hydrocarbon mixtures in relation to their origin. The efficiency of the three consortia in removing the saturated fraction was 60% (F1AA), 48% (TD) and 34% (AM), depending on the carbon sources used in the enrichment procedures. Consortia F1AA and TD removed 100% of n-alkanes and branched alkanes, whereas with consortium AM, 91% of branched alkanes remained. Efficiency on the polyaromatic fraction was 19% (AM), 11% (TD) and 7% (F1AA). The increase in aromaticity of the polyaromatic fraction during degradation of the crude oil by consortium F1AA suggested that this consortium metabolized the aromatic compounds primarily by oxidation of the alkylic chains. The 500-fold amplification of the inocula from the consortia by subculturing in rich media, necessary for use of the consortia in bioremediation experiments, showed no significant decrease in their degradation capability.

  3. Duralumin and Its Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, WM

    1927-01-01

    The types of corrosion and factors of corrosion of duralumin are investigated. Salt water is the most common of the corroding media with which designers have to contend in using duralumin in aircraft and ships.

  4. Corrosion inhibiting organic coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Sasson, E.

    1984-10-16

    A corrosion inhibiting coating comprises a mixture of waxes, petroleum jelly, a hardener and a solvent. In particular, a corrosion inhibiting coating comprises candelilla wax, carnauba wax, microcrystalline waxes, white petrolatum, an oleoresin, lanolin and a solvent.

  5. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G.; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-03-25

    A cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways sustains dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16–174 nmol cm–3 per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (greater than or equal to0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. The most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems.

  6. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands is sustained by a cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16–174 nmol cm–3 per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (⩾0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. Most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems. PMID:27015005

  7. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; Tringe, Susannah G; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Loy, Alexander; Pester, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands is sustained by a cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16-174 nmol cm(-3) per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (⩾0.1% estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. Most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems.

  8. Consortia of low-abundance bacteria drive sulfate reduction-dependent degradation of fermentation products in peat soil microcosms

    DOE PAGES

    Hausmann, Bela; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Schreck, Katharina; ...

    2016-03-25

    A cryptic sulfur cycle and effectively competes with methanogenic degradation pathways sustains dissimilatory sulfate reduction in peatlands. In a series of peat soil microcosms incubated over 50 days, we identified bacterial consortia that responded to small, periodic additions of individual fermentation products (formate, acetate, propionate, lactate or butyrate) in the presence or absence of sulfate. Under sulfate supplementation, net sulfate turnover (ST) steadily increased to 16–174 nmol cm–3 per day and almost completely blocked methanogenesis. 16S rRNA gene and cDNA amplicon sequencing identified microorganisms whose increases in ribosome numbers strongly correlated to ST. Natively abundant (greater than or equal to0.1%more » estimated genome abundance) species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed no significant response to sulfate. In contrast, low-abundance OTUs responded significantly to sulfate in incubations with propionate, lactate and butyrate. These OTUs included members of recognized sulfate-reducing taxa (Desulfosporosinus, Desulfopila, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio) and also members of taxa that are either yet unknown sulfate reducers or metabolic interaction partners thereof. The most responsive OTUs markedly increased their ribosome content but only weakly increased in abundance. Responsive Desulfosporosinus OTUs even maintained a constantly low population size throughout 50 days, which suggests a novel strategy of rare biosphere members to display activity. Interestingly, two OTUs of the non-sulfate-reducing genus Telmatospirillum (Alphaproteobacteria) showed strongly contrasting preferences towards sulfate in butyrate-amended microcosms, corroborating that closely related microorganisms are not necessarily ecologically coherent. We show that diverse consortia of low-abundance microorganisms can perform peat soil sulfate reduction, a process that exerts control on methane production in these climate-relevant ecosystems.« less

  9. Automated Corrosion Detection Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    color. 14. ABSTRACT An evaluation of several hidden corrosion-detection technologies was performed using a probability of detection ( POD ) method for...for improved corrosion management maintenance philosophies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Corrosion, NDE, probability of detection ( POD ), KC-135, material loss...Size ...............................30 11 POD Curve

  10. Corrosion: ASM metals handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The handbook covers forms of corrosion, testing and evaluation, corrosion-resistant design, and various protection methods. 20 sections covering specific metals and alloys, heat treatments, protective coatings, anodic and cathodic protection, and design considerations. A final section discusses corrosion problems in 20 major industries, as well as the prevention and protection methods used.

  11. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    PubMed Central

    Romo, E.; Weinacker, D.F.; Zepeda, A.B.; Figueroa, C.A.; Chavez-Crooker, P.; Farias, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control. PMID:24294251

  12. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite.

    PubMed

    Romo, E; Weinacker, D F; Zepeda, A B; Figueroa, C A; Chavez-Crooker, P; Farias, J G

    2013-01-01

    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control.

  13. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Lowe, Kristine L; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J

    2003-04-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  14. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  15. An evaluation of microbial growth and corrosion of 316L SS in glycol/seawater mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jason S.; Ray, Richard I.; Lowe, Kristine L.; Jones-Meehan, Joanne; Little, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    Glycol/seawater mixtures containing > 50% glycol inhibit corrosion of 316L stainless steel and do not support bacterial growth. The results indicate bacteria are able to use low concentrations of glycol (10%) as a growth medium, but bacterial growth decreased with increasing glycol concentration. Pitting potential, determined by anodic polarization, was used to evaluate susceptibility of 316L SS to corrosion in seawater-contaminated glycol. Mixture containing a minimum concentration of 50% propylene glycol-based coolant inhibited pitting corrosion. A slightly higher minimum concentration (55%) was needed for corrosion protection in ethylene glycol mixtures.

  16. Development of tailored indigenous marine consortia for the degradation of naturally weathered polyethylene films

    PubMed Central

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kroll, Kevin; Kolvenbach, Boris; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of bacterial-mediated polyethylene (PE) degradation in a two-phase microcosm experiment. During phase I, naturally weathered PE films were incubated for 6 months with the indigenous marine community alone as well as bioaugmented with strains able to grow in minimal medium with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) as the sole carbon source. At the end of phase I the developed biofilm was harvested and re-inoculated with naturally weathered PE films. Bacteria from both treatments were able to establish an active population on the PE surfaces as the biofilm community developed in a time dependent way. Moreover, a convergence in the composition of these communities was observed towards an efficient PE degrading microbial network, comprising of indigenous species. In acclimated communities, genera affiliated with synthetic (PE) and natural (cellulose) polymer degraders as well as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were enriched. The acclimated consortia (indigenous and bioaugmented) reduced more efficiently the weight of PE films in comparison to non-acclimated bacteria. The SEM images revealed a dense and compact biofilm layer and signs of bio-erosion on the surface of the films. Rheological results suggest that the polymers after microbial treatment had wider molecular mass distribution and a marginally smaller average molar mass suggesting biodegradation as opposed to abiotic degradation. Modifications on the surface chemistry were observed throughout phase II while the FTIR profiles of microbially treated films at month 6 were similar to the profiles of virgin PE. Taking into account the results, we can suggest that the tailored indigenous marine community represents an efficient consortium for degrading weathered PE plastics. PMID:28841722

  17. Development of tailored indigenous marine consortia for the degradation of naturally weathered polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kroll, Kevin; Kolvenbach, Boris; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Fava, Fabio; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of bacterial-mediated polyethylene (PE) degradation in a two-phase microcosm experiment. During phase I, naturally weathered PE films were incubated for 6 months with the indigenous marine community alone as well as bioaugmented with strains able to grow in minimal medium with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) as the sole carbon source. At the end of phase I the developed biofilm was harvested and re-inoculated with naturally weathered PE films. Bacteria from both treatments were able to establish an active population on the PE surfaces as the biofilm community developed in a time dependent way. Moreover, a convergence in the composition of these communities was observed towards an efficient PE degrading microbial network, comprising of indigenous species. In acclimated communities, genera affiliated with synthetic (PE) and natural (cellulose) polymer degraders as well as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were enriched. The acclimated consortia (indigenous and bioaugmented) reduced more efficiently the weight of PE films in comparison to non-acclimated bacteria. The SEM images revealed a dense and compact biofilm layer and signs of bio-erosion on the surface of the films. Rheological results suggest that the polymers after microbial treatment had wider molecular mass distribution and a marginally smaller average molar mass suggesting biodegradation as opposed to abiotic degradation. Modifications on the surface chemistry were observed throughout phase II while the FTIR profiles of microbially treated films at month 6 were similar to the profiles of virgin PE. Taking into account the results, we can suggest that the tailored indigenous marine community represents an efficient consortium for degrading weathered PE plastics.

  18. A Combinatorial Algorithm for Microbial Consortia Synthetic Design

    PubMed Central

    Julien-Laferrière, Alice; Bulteau, Laurent; Parrot, Delphine; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Stougie, Leen; Vinga, Susana; Mary, Arnaud; Sagot, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology has boomed since the early 2000s when it started being shown that it was possible to efficiently synthetize compounds of interest in a much more rapid and effective way by using other organisms than those naturally producing them. However, to thus engineer a single organism, often a microbe, to optimise one or a collection of metabolic tasks may lead to difficulties when attempting to obtain a production system that is efficient, or to avoid toxic effects for the recruited microorganism. The idea of using instead a microbial consortium has thus started being developed in the last decade. This was motivated by the fact that such consortia may perform more complicated functions than could single populations and be more robust to environmental fluctuations. Success is however not always guaranteed. In particular, establishing which consortium is best for the production of a given compound or set thereof remains a great challenge. This is the problem we address in this paper. We thus introduce an initial model and a method that enable to propose a consortium to synthetically produce compounds that are either exogenous to it, or are endogenous but where interaction among the species in the consortium could improve the production line. PMID:27373593

  19. Biodegradation of oil tank bottom sludge using microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Gallego, José Luis R; García-Martínez, María Jesús; Llamas, Juan F; Belloch, Carmen; Peláez, Ana I; Sánchez, Jesús

    2007-06-01

    We present a rationale for the selection of a microbial consortia specifically adapted to degrade toxic components of oil refinery tank bottom sludge (OTBS). Sources such as polluted soils, petrochemical waste, sludge from refinery-wastewater plants, and others were used to obtain a collection of eight microorganisms, which were individually tested and characterized to analyze their degradative capabilities on different hydrocarbon families. After initial experiments using mixtures of these strains, we developed a consortium consisting of four microorganisms (three bacteria and one yeast) selected in the basis of their cometabolic effects, emulsification properties, colonization of oil components, and degradative capabilities. Although the specific contribution each of the former parameters makes is not clearly understood, the activity of the four-member consortium had a strong impact not only on linear alkane degradation (100%), but also on the degradation of cycloalkanes (85%), branched alkanes (44%), and aromatic and sulphur-aromatic compounds (31-55%). The effectiveness of this consortium was significantly superior to that obtained by individual strains, commercial inocula or an undefined mixture of culturable and non-culturable microorganisms obtained from OTBS-polluted soil. However, results were similar when another consortium of four microorganisms, previously isolated in the same OTBS-polluted soil, was assayed.

  20. Biodegradation of corrosion inhibitors and their influence on petroleum product pipeline.

    PubMed

    Rajasekar, Aruliah; Maruthamuthu, Sundaram; Palaniswamy, Narayanan; Rajendran, Annamalai

    2007-01-01

    The present study enlightens the role of Bacillus cereus ACE4 on biodegradation of commercial corrosion inhibitors (CCI) and the corrosion process on API 5LX steel. Bacillus cereus ACE4, a dominant facultative aerobic species was identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis, which was isolated from the corrosion products of refined diesel-transporting pipeline in North West India. The effect of CCI on the growth of bacterium and its corrosion inhibition efficiency were investigated. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by rotating cage test and the nature of biodegradation of corrosion inhibitors was also analyzed. This isolate has the capacity to degrade the aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon present in the corrosion inhibitors. The degraded products of corrosion inhibitors and bacterial activity determine the electrochemical behavior of API 5LX steel.

  1. Nitrogen losses in anoxic marine sediments driven by Thioploca-anammox bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Prokopenko, M G; Hirst, M B; De Brabandere, L; Lawrence, D J P; Berelson, W M; Granger, J; Chang, B X; Dawson, S; Crane, E J; Chong, L; Thamdrup, B; Townsend-Small, A; Sigman, D M

    2013-08-08

    Ninety per cent of marine organic matter burial occurs in continental margin sediments, where a substantial fraction of organic carbon escapes oxidation and enters long-term geologic storage within sedimentary rocks. In such environments, microbial metabolism is limited by the diffusive supply of electron acceptors. One strategy to optimize energy yields in a resource-limited habitat is symbiotic metabolite exchange among microbial associations. Thermodynamic and geochemical considerations indicate that microbial co-metabolisms are likely to play a critical part in sedimentary organic carbon cycling. Yet only one association, between methanotrophic archaea and sulphate-reducing bacteria, has been demonstrated in marine sediments in situ, and little is known of the role of microbial symbiotic interactions in other sedimentary biogeochemical cycles. Here we report in situ molecular and incubation-based evidence for a novel symbiotic consortium between two chemolithotrophic bacteria--anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and the nitrate-sequestering sulphur-oxidizing Thioploca species--in anoxic sediments of the Soledad basin at the Mexican Pacific margin. A mass balance of benthic solute fluxes and the corresponding nitrogen isotope composition of nitrate and ammonium fluxes indicate that anammox bacteria rely on Thioploca species for the supply of metabolic substrates and account for about 57 ± 21 per cent of the total benthic N2 production. We show that Thioploca-anammox symbiosis intensifies benthic fixed nitrogen losses in anoxic sediments, bypassing diffusion-imposed limitations by efficiently coupling the carbon, nitrogen and sulphur cycles.

  2. Performance of low temperature Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) catalyzed by mixed bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Tkach, Olga; Sangeetha, Thangavel; Maria, Spiridonova; Wang, Aijie

    2017-02-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) are a promising technology for treating wastewater in a sustainable manner. In potential applications, low temperatures substantially reduce MFC performance. To better understand the effect of temperature and particularly how bioanodes respond to changes in temperature, we investigated the current generation of mixed-culture and pure-culture MFCs at two low temperatures, 10°C and 5°C. The results implied that the mixed-culture MFC sustainably performed better than the pure-culture (Shewanella) MFC at 10°C, but the electrogenic activity of anodic bacteria was substantially reduced at the lower temperature of 5°C. At 10°C, the maximum output voltage generated with the mixed-culture was 540-560mV, which was 10%-15% higher than that of Shewanella MFCs. The maximum power density reached 465.3±5.8mW/m(2) for the mixed-culture at 10°C, while only 68.7±3.7mW/m(2) was achieved with the pure-culture. It was shown that the anodic biofilm of the mixed-culture MFC had a lower overpotential and resistance than the pure-culture MFC. Phylogenetic analysis disclosed the prevalence of Geobacter and Pseudomonas rather than Shewanella in the mixed-culture anodic biofilm, which mitigated the increase of resistance or overpotential at low temperatures.

  3. Salicylate biodegradation by various algal-bacterial consortia under photosynthetic oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raul; Köllner, Claudia; Guieysse, Benoit; Mattiasson, Bo

    2003-11-01

    Four green microalgae (Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus obliquus and Selenastrum capricornutum), a wild Bolivian microalga strain and two cyanobacteria (Anabaena catenula and Microcystis aeruginosa) were compared for tolerance to salicylate, O2 production capacity and ability to support salicylate degradation by a Ralstonia basilensis strain in symbiotic microcosms with the microalgae. Microcystis aeruginosa had the highest tolerance to salicylate at 500 mg l(-1) and 1500 mg l(-1) but only produced 0.7 mg O2 l(-1) h(-1) in the absence of pollutant. Chlorella sorokiniana resisted salicylate at 1500 mg l(-1) with the highest O2 production in the absence of salicylate (26 mg l(-1) h(-1)) closely followed by the Bolivian microalga (23 mg l(-1) h(-1)) and Chlorella vulgaris (21 mg l(-1) h(-1)). Selenastrum capricornutum and Anabaena catenula were completely inhibited by salicylate at 500 mg l(-1). When inoculated with Ralstonia sp. and supplied with salicylate, Chlorella sorokiniana had the highest removal rate (19 mg l(-1) h(-1)), followed by the wild Bolivian strain (18 mg l(-1) h(-1)) and Chlorella vulgaris (14 mg l(-1) h(-1)).

  4. Influence of high salinities on the degradation of diesel fuel by bacterial consortia.

    PubMed

    Riis, Volker; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Babel, Wolfgang

    2003-11-01

    Microbial communities from three Argentinean saline soils were extracted and tested for their ability to degrade diesel fuel in liquid culture at salinities between 0% and 25%. In each case, the degradation process was continuously monitored by measuring oxygen consumption. Two communities (CR1 and CR2) showed nearly equal degrees of degradation across a salinity range of 0%-10% (the former degrading about 63% of the diesel fuel and the latter about 70% after 53 and 80 d, respectively). Furthermore, the degree of degradation was not significantly lower in the presence of 17.5% salt (58% and 65% degraded, respectively). A third community (El Zorro) showed a maximum turnover at 5% salt (79% diesel fuel degraded) and significant degradation (66%) at a salinity of 10%. However, the degree of degradation by this community clearly dropped at 0% and 15% salt. None of the communities were able to degrade diesel fuel in the presence of 25% salt, but the living cell counts showed that components of the microbial population survived the long-term exposure. The surviving portion is obviously sufficient to allow substantial restoration of the original community, as verified by the BIOLOG method. Isolates of the CR1 community were identified as members of the genera Cellulomonas, Bacillus, Dietzia, and Halomonas. In light of our investigations, the bioremediation of contaminated saline soils should be quite possible if the salinity of the soil water is lower than 15% or if it is reduced below this limit by the addition of water.

  5. Optimization of biohydrogen yield produced by bacterial consortia using residual glycerin from biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mariana de Oliveira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana Santana

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this study were to simplify the fermentation medium and to optimize the conditions of dark fermentation of residual glycerin to produce biohydrogen. It was possible to remove all micronutrients of fermentation medium and improve biohydrogen production by applying residual glycerin as feedstock. After statistical analysis of the following parameters pH, glycerin concentration and volatile suspended solids, the values of 5.5; 0.5g.L(-1) and 8.7g.L(-1), respectively, were defined as optimum condition for this process. It generated 2.44molH2/molglycerin, an expressive result when compared to previous results reported in literature and considering that theoretical yield of H2 from glycerol in dark fermentation process is 3molH2/molglycerol. This study allowed the improvement of yield and productivity by 68% and 67%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Marine and offshore corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Until recently marine corrosion technology has been preoccupied with the corrosion of ships. Within the last ten years, however, the rapid expansion of oil and gas exploration has changed the course of corrosion research as well as the market for corrosion services and products. So complete has been the change that a new approach, dealing with ships, structures, and plant has been taken in this book. This introduction to the control of corrosion in marine environments will serve as a reference on topics ranging from coating systems to metallurgical considerations in the design of ships, offshore structure, plant and pipelines.

  7. Identification, visualization, and sorting of translationally active microbial consortia from deep-sea methane seeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzenpichler, R.; Connon, S. A.; Goudeau, D.; Malmstrom, R.; Woyke, T.; Orphan, V. J.

    2015-12-01

    Within the past few years, great progress has been made in tapping the genomes of individual cells separated from environmental samples. Unfortunately, however, most often these efforts have been target blind, as they did not pre-select for taxa of interest or focus on metabolically active cells that could be considered key species of the system at the time. This problem is particularly pronounced in low-turnover systems such as deep sea sediments. In an effort to tap the genetic potential hidden within functionally active cells, we have recently developed an approach for the in situ fluorescent tracking of protein synthesis in uncultured cells via bioorthogonal non-canonical amino acid-tagging (BONCAT). This technique depends on the incorporation of synthetic amino acids that carry chemically modifiable tags into newly made proteins, which later can be visualized via click chemistry-mediated fluorescence-labeling. BONCAT is thus able to specifically target proteins that have been expressed in reaction to an experimental condition. We are particularly interested in using BONCAT to understand the functional potential of slow-growing syntrophic consortia of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria which together catalyze the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in marine methane seeps. In order to specifically target consortia that are active under varying environmental regimes, we are studying different subpopulations of these inter-domain consortia via a combination of BONCAT with rRNA-targeted FISH. We then couple the BONCAT-enabled staining of active consortia with their separation from inactive members of the community via fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) and metagenomic sequencing of individual consortia. Using this approach, we were able to identify previously unrecognized AOM-partnerships. By comparing the mini-metagenomes obtained from individual consortia with each other we are starting to gain a more hollistic understanding

  8. Potent antilisterial cell-free supernatants produced by complex red-smear cheese microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Bleicher, A; Stark, T; Hofmann, T; Bogovic Matijasić, B; Rogelj, I; Scherer, S; Neuhaus, K

    2010-10-01

    The microbial surface ripening consortia of 49 soft cheeses were investigated with respect to their inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes. When L. monocytogenes EGDe (serovar 1/2a) was cultivated in cell-free supernatants obtained from consortia grown for 8 h in liquid medium, a strong bactericidal activity was observed in several cases. The cell-free supernatants of 2 of these consortia (I and II) reduced an initial L. monocytogenes inoculum of 5 × 10(7) cfu/mL to zero after 24 h of incubation. No inhibitory substances could be washed off the complex consortia when incubated for a 10-min period. A taxonomical analysis of the antilisterial consortia I and II using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy yielded a considerable species diversity, with lactic acid bacteria increasing strongly during the 8-h cultivation. Therefore, 23 lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin genes were assayed using specific PCR primers, identifying 3 bacteriocin genes in both microbial communities. However, no transcription of these genes was found on cheese surfaces or in consortia propagated in liquid culture. Individual lactic acid bacteria isolates of consortia I and II displayed no or only weak inhibition of L. monocytogenes on solid medium. The complex cell-free supernatants I and II, in contrast, exhibited an unusually broad inhibitory spectrum, killing L. monocytogenes ssp., Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, as well as gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli DH5α and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Inhibition could not be abolished by heating to 100°C or by proteinase K treatment. Initial purification of an inhibitory substance from consortium I by solid-phase extraction and HPLC indicates the presence of rather small, extremely stable compounds, which, most probably, are not bacteriocins.

  9. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    PubMed

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  10. Electrochemical corrosion testing: An effective tool for corrosion inhibitor evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bartley, L.S.; Van de Ven, P.; Mowlem, J.K.

    1996-10-01

    Corrosivity of an Antifreeze/Coolant can lead to localized attacks which are a major cause for metal failure. To prevent this phenomenon, specific corrosion inhibitors are used to protect the different metals in service. This paper will discuss the electrochemical principles behind corrosion, Realized corrosion and corrosion inhibition. It will also discuss electrochemical techniques which allow for the evaluation of these inhibitors.

  11. Use of Silicate Minerals for pH Control during Reductive Dechlorination of Chloroethenes in Batch Cultures of Different Microbial Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Elsa; Brovelli, Alessandro; Barry, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    In chloroethene-contaminated sites undergoing in situ bioremediation, groundwater acidification is a frequent problem in the source zone, and buffering strategies have to be implemented to maintain the pH in the neutral range. An alternative to conventional soluble buffers is silicate mineral particles as a long-term source of alkalinity. In previous studies, the buffering potentials of these minerals have been evaluated based on abiotic dissolution tests and geochemical modeling. In the present study, the buffering potentials of four silicate minerals (andradite, diopside, fayalite, and forsterite) were tested in batch cultures amended with tetrachloroethene (PCE) and inoculated with different organohalide-respiring consortia. Another objective of this study was to determine the influence of pH on the different steps of PCE dechlorination. The consortia showed significant differences in sensitivities toward acidic pH for the different dechlorination steps. Molecular analysis indicated that Dehalococcoides spp. that were present in all consortia were the most pH-sensitive organohalide-respiring guild members compared to Sulfurospirillum spp. and Dehalobacter spp. In batch cultures with silicate mineral particles as pH-buffering agents, all four minerals tested were able to maintain the pH in the appropriate range for reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes. However, complete dechlorination to ethene was observed only with forsterite, diopside, and fayalite. Dissolution of andradite increased the redox potential and did not allow dechlorination. With forsterite, diopside, and fayalite, dechlorination to ethene was observed but at much lower rates for the last two dechlorination steps than with the positive control. This indicated an inhibition effect of silicate minerals and/or their dissolution products on reductive dechlorination of cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. Hence, despite the proven pH-buffering potential of silicate minerals, compatibility with

  12. Characterization of methane, benzene and toluene-oxidizing consortia enriched from landfill and riparian wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Park, Hyunjung; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2010-12-15

    The microbial oxidations of methane (M) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were compared with those of M and VOCs alone after enriching soil samples with M and/or VOCs. Landfill cover and riparian wetland soils from which M and VOCs were simultaneously emitted were selected as representative samples. Benzene (B) and toluene (T) were employed as the model VOCs. With the landfill soil consortia, the rate of M oxidation decreased from 4.15-5.56 to 2.26-3.42 μmol g-dry soil(-1)h(-1) in the presence of both B and T, but with the wetland soil consortia the rate of M oxidation (3.09 μmol g-dry soil(-1)h(-1)) in the mixture of M as well as both B and T was similar to that of M alone (3.04 μmol g-dry soil(-1)h(-1)). Compared with the methanotrophic community with M alone, the portion of type II methanotrophs was greater in the landfill consortia; whereas, the proportion in wetland consortia was less in the presence of both B and T. The oxidations of B and T were stimulated by the presence of M with both the landfill and wetland consortia. There were no correlations between the oxidation rate of M and those of B and T with the gene copy numbers of pmoA and tmoA responsible for the oxidations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. SRB seawater corrosion project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozack, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of 2219 aluminum when exposed to seawater was characterized. Controlled corrosion experiments at three different temperatures (30, 60 and 100 C) and two different environments (seawater and 3.5 percent salt solution) were designed to elucidate the initial stages in the corrosion process. It was found that 2219 aluminum is an active catalytic surface for growth of Al2O3, NaCl, and MgO. Formation of Al2O3 is favored at lower temperatures, while MgO is favored at higher temperatures. Visible corrosion products are formed within 30 minutes after seawater exposure. Corrosion characteristics in 3.5 percent salt solution are different than corrosion in seawater. Techniques utilized were: (1) scanning electron microscopy, (2) energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and (3) Auger electron spectroscopy.

  14. Corrosion, microstructure, and metallography

    SciTech Connect

    Northwood, D.O.; White, W.E.; Vander Voort, G.F.

    1985-01-01

    Of the forty-one papers presented, nearly half of them deal with microstructural aspects of corrosion, corrosion control and corrosion failure analysis. They describe various analytical approaches for studying corrosion and for diagnosing corrosion failure mechanisms. Details include microstructural features of corrosion on a wide range of materials or coatings and in environments ranging from within the human body to outer space. Another series of papers handles microstructure-property relationships and contains reports on hydrogen embrittlement of AISI 316 stainless steel, shell and detail cracking in railroad rails, and the precipitation of martensitic Fe-Ni-W alloys. A third grouping looks at microstructure-fracture relationships. Coverage of advancements in metal-lographic techniques includes the use of microcomputers, applied techniques of inplace analysis, and use of the Tandem Van de Graff accelerator facility.

  15. Stress corrosion resistant fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    A family of high performance aerospace fasteners made from corrosion resistant alloys for use in applications where corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking are of major concern are discussed. The materials discussed are mainly A-286, Inconel 718, MP35N and MP159. Most of the fasteners utilize cold worked and aged materials to achieve the desired properties. The fasteners are unique in that they provide a combination of high strength and immunity to stress corrosion cracking not previously attainable. A discussion of fastener stress corrosion failures is presented including a review of the history and a description of the mechanism. Case histories are presented to illustrate the problems which can arise when material selection is made without proper regard for the environmental conditions. Mechanical properties and chemical compositions are included for the fasteners discussed. Several aspects of the application of high performance corrosion resistant fasteners are discussed including galvanic compatibility and torque-tension relationships.

  16. Novel corrosion inhibitor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Ven, P.; Fritz, P.; Pellet, R.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, patented corrosion inhibitor technology has been identified for use in heat transfer applications such as automotive and heavy-duty coolant. The new technology is based on a low-toxic, virtually depletion-free carboxylic acid corrosion inhibitor package that performs equally well in mono ethylene glycol and in less toxic propylene glycol coolants. An aqueous inhibitor concentrate is available to provide corrosion protection where freezing protection is not an issue. In the present paper, this inhibitor package is evaluated in the different base fluids: mono ethylene glycol, mono propylene glycol and water. Results are obtained in both standardized and specific corrosion tests as well as in selected field trials. These results indicate that the inhibitor package remains effective and retains the benefits previously identified in automotive engine coolant applications: excellent corrosion protection under localized conditions, general corrosion conditions as well as at high temperature.

  17. Recent advances in the study of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.

    1993-12-31

    The study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) has progressed from phenomenological case histories to a mature interdisciplinary science including electrochemical, metallurgical, surface analytical, microbiological, biotechnological and biophysical techniques. With gene probes and microelectrodes it is now possible to measure interfacial dissolved oxygen, dissolved sulfide and pH and to further determine the microbial species responsible for the localized chemistry. Biofilms can be tailored to contain consortia of specific microorganisms and naturally occurring biofilms can be dissected into cellular and extracellular constituents. Scanning vibrating electrodes can be used to map the distribution of anodes and cathodes so that localized corrosion can be correlated with the location of microorganisms. The development of environmental scanning electron, atomic force, and laser confocal microscopy makes it possible to image cells on surfaces and to accurately determine the spatial relationship between microorganisms and corrosion. Transport of nutrients through biofilms is being modeled using techniques including optical density measurements to precisely locate the water/biofilm interface and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to visualize flow characteristics near surfaces colonized with microorganisms. The ways in which these new techniques can be used to understand fundamental mechanisms and to discriminate critical issues of MIC will be discussed.

  18. Data sharing in large research consortia: experiences and recommendations from ENGAGE.

    PubMed

    Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle; Isaeva, Julia; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Tassé, Anne Marie; Shen, Huei-yi; McCarthy, Mark I; Harris, Jennifer R

    2014-03-01

    Data sharing is essential for the conduct of cutting-edge research and is increasingly required by funders concerned with maximising the scientific yield from research data collections. International research consortia are encouraged to share data intra-consortia, inter-consortia and with the wider scientific community. Little is reported regarding the factors that hinder or facilitate data sharing in these different situations. This paper provides results from a survey conducted in the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) that collected information from its participating institutions about their data-sharing experiences. The questionnaire queried about potential hurdles to data sharing, concerns about data sharing, lessons learned and recommendations for future collaborations. Overall, the survey results reveal that data sharing functioned well in ENGAGE and highlight areas that posed the most frequent hurdles for data sharing. Further challenges arise for international data sharing beyond the consortium. These challenges are described and steps to help address these are outlined.

  19. Electrochemical corrosion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knockemus, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective was to gain familiarity with the Model 350 Corrosion Measurement Console, to determine if metal protection by grease coatings can be measured by the polarization-resistance method, and to compare corrosion rates of 4130 steel coated with various greases. Results show that grease protection of steel may be determined electrochemically. Studies were also conducted to determine the effectiveness of certain corrosion inhibitors on aluminum and steel.

  20. Galvanic Corrosion Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    tested to indfiqte whether the galvanic corrosion which developed was cosmetic or if it had an effect on ’the mechanical properties wthe * material. fly...properties of each material were determined. The resulting data distinguished the developed corrosion as either being cosmetic or having " " an effect on the...corrosion that occurs is not just cosmetic , but instead has an effect on the mechanical properties of the material. While a galvanic couple may be safe in one

  1. Handbook of corrosion data

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, D.

    1989-01-01

    Each listing includes a general description of the environment, a comment on the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in the environment, a bibliography of recent articles specific to the environment, tables consolidating and comparing corrosion rates at temperatures and concentrations for various alloys, and finally, graphical information. Also included are summaries on the general corrosion characteristics of major metals and alloys. This separate section of the book considers each material group; such as, aluminum, stainless steel, zinc, etc. Additional tables are presented to give the corrosion characteristics of various alloys in hundreds of environments.

  2. Strength in Numbers: Creating Employment Consortia To Assist People Who Are Blind and Visually Impaired To Secure Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candela, Anthony R.; Wolffe, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the activities of two consortia that consist of individuals who assist people who are blind and visually impaired to secure employment. Consortia members are direct service employment specialists who focus on five critical activities: preparing consumers for job seeking, job development, placement, follow-up, and job…

  3. Higher Education in Further Education Colleges: Indirectly Funded Partnerships: Codes of Practice for Franchise and Consortia Arrangements. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This report provides codes of practice for two types of indirectly funded partnerships entered into by higher education institutions and further education sector colleges: franchises and consortia. The codes of practice set out guidance on the principles that should be reflected in the franchise and consortia agreements that underpin indirectly…

  4. 25 CFR 1000.51 - How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants? 1000.51 Section 1000.51 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Planning Grant Funding § 1000.51 How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.46 - Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a... Criteria § 1000.46 Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any Tribe/Consortium that has been accepted into the applicant pool and has been accepted to negotiate a...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.15 - How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may... select up to 50 additional Indian Tribes per year from an “applicant pool”. A Consortium of Indian...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.15 - How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may... select up to 50 additional Indian Tribes per year from an “applicant pool”. A Consortium of Indian...

  8. 25 CFR 1000.272 - Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.272 Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover? Yes, there are claims against Self-Governance...

  9. 25 CFR 1000.46 - Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a... Criteria § 1000.46 Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any Tribe/Consortium that has been accepted into the applicant pool and has been accepted to negotiate a...

  10. 25 CFR 1000.272 - Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.272 Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover? Yes, there are claims against Self-Governance...

  11. 25 CFR 1000.46 - Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a... Criteria § 1000.46 Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any Tribe/Consortium that has been accepted into the applicant pool and has been accepted to negotiate a...

  12. 25 CFR 1000.15 - How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may... select up to 50 additional Indian Tribes per year from an “applicant pool”. A Consortium of Indian...

  13. 25 CFR 1000.51 - How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants? 1000.51 Section 1000.51 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Planning Grant Funding § 1000.51 How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.272 - Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.272 Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover? Yes, there are claims against Self-Governance...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.51 - How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants? 1000.51 Section 1000.51 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Planning Grant Funding § 1000.51 How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.46 - Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a... Criteria § 1000.46 Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any Tribe/Consortium that has been accepted into the applicant pool and has been accepted to negotiate a...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.51 - How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants? 1000.51 Section 1000.51 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Planning Grant Funding § 1000.51 How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.46 - Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a... Criteria § 1000.46 Which Tribes/Consortia may be selected to receive a negotiation grant? Any Tribe/Consortium that has been accepted into the applicant pool and has been accepted to negotiate a...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.51 - How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning grants? 1000.51 Section 1000.51 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY, INDIAN AFFAIRS... Planning Grant Funding § 1000.51 How will Tribes/Consortia know when and how to apply for planning...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.15 - How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in self-governance per year?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How many additional Tribes/Consortia may participate in... Participation in Tribal Self-Governance Eligibility § 1000.15 How many additional Tribes/Consortia may... select up to 50 additional Indian Tribes per year from an “applicant pool”. A Consortium of Indian...

  1. Corrosion behaviour and biocorrosion of galvanized steel water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, F; Tosar, F; Vitry, V

    2014-06-01

    Galvanized steel tubes are a popular mean for water distribution systems but suffer from corrosion despite their zinc or zinc alloy coatings. First, the quality of hot-dip galvanized (HDG) coatings was studied. Their microstructure, defects, and common types of corrosion were observed. It was shown that many manufactured tubes do not reach European standard (NBN EN 10240), which is the cause of several corrosion problems. The average thickness of zinc layer was found at 41μm against 55μm prescribed by the European standard. However, lack of quality, together with the usual corrosion types known for HDG steel tubes was not sufficient to explain the high corrosion rate (reaching 20μm per year versus 10μm/y for common corrosion types). Electrochemical tests were also performed to understand the corrosion behaviours occurring in galvanized steel tubes. Results have shown that the limiting step was oxygen diffusion, favouring the growth of anaerobic bacteria in steel tubes. EDS analysis was carried out on corroded coatings and has shown the presence of sulphur inside deposits, suggesting the likely bacterial activity. Therefore biocorrosion effects have been investigated. Actually sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) can reduce sulphate contained in water to hydrogen sulphide (H2S), causing the formation of metal sulphides. Although microbial corrosion is well-known in sea water, it is less investigated in supply water. Thus, an experimental water main was kept in operation for 6months. SRB were detected by BART tests in the test water main.

  2. Influence of an oil soluble inhibitor on microbiologically influenced corrosion in a diesel transporting pipeline.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, N; Maruthamuthu, S; Mohanan, S; Palaniswamy, N

    2007-01-01

    Microbial degradation of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitor (OSCI) Baker NC 351 contributed to a decrease in inhibitor efficiency. Corrosion inhibition efficiency was studied by the rotating cage and flow loop methods. The nature of the biodegradation of the corrosion inhibitor was also analysed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The influence of bacterial activity on the degradation of the corrosion inhibitor and its influence on corrosion of API 5LX were evaluated using a weight loss technique and impedance studies. Serratia marcescens ACE2 and Bacillus cereus ACE4 can degrade aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the corrosion inhibitor. The present study also discusses the demerits of the oil soluble corrosion inhibitors used in petroleum product pipeline.

  3. Dual active ionic liquids and organic salts for inhibition of microbially influenced corrosion.

    PubMed

    Seter, Marianne; Thomson, Melanie J; Stoimenovski, Jelena; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

    2012-06-18

    We describe a series of novel compounds designed to combat the bacterial growth that leads to microbially induced corrosion on steel in the marine environment. A synergistic effect of the ionic components in these dual active organic salts is demonstrated.

  4. Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": Guidance for States and State Assessment Consortia in Defining and Addressing Policy and Technical Issues and Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linquanti, Robert; Cook, H. Gary

    2013-01-01

    States participating in the four federally-funded assessment consortia are required to establish a "common definition of English Learner." This includes the two Race to the Top academic assessment consortia and the two Enhanced Assessment Grant English language proficiency (ELP) assessment consortia. This paper provides guidance that…

  5. Effects of microbial redox cycling of iron on cast iron pipe corrosion in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Zhang, Lili; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min

    2014-11-15

    Bacterial characteristics in corrosion products and their effect on the formation of dense corrosion scales on cast iron coupons were studied in drinking water, with sterile water acting as a reference. The corrosion process and corrosion scales were characterized by electrochemical and physico-chemical measurements. The results indicated that the corrosion was more rapidly inhibited and iron release was lower due to formation of more dense protective corrosion scales in drinking water than in sterile water. The microbial community and denitrifying functional genes were analyzed by pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the bacteria in corrosion products played an important role in the corrosion process in drinking water. Nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) Acidovorax and Hydrogenophaga enhanced iron corrosion before 6 days. After 20 days, the dominant bacteria became NRB Dechloromonas (40.08%) with the protective corrosion layer formation. The Dechloromonas exhibited the stronger corrosion inhibition by inducing the redox cycling of iron, to enhance the precipitation of iron oxides and formation of Fe3O4. Subsequently, other minor bacteria appeared in the corrosion scales, including iron-respiring bacteria and Rhizobium which captured iron by the produced siderophores, having a weaker corrosion-inhibition effect. Therefore, the microbially-driven redox cycling of iron with associated microbial capture of iron caused more compact corrosion scales formation and lower iron release.

  6. Fireside Corrosion USC Steering

    SciTech Connect

    G. R. Holcomb; J. Tylczak

    2011-09-07

    Oxy-Fuel Fireside Research goals are: (1) Determine the effect of oxy-fuel combustion on fireside corrosion - (a) Flue gas recycle choice, Staged combustion ramifications, (c) JCOAL Collaboration; and (2) Develop methods to use chromia solubility in ash as an 'ash corrosivity' measurement - (a) Synthetic ashes at first, then boiler and burner rig ashes, (b) Applicable to SH/RH conditions.

  7. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  8. Potentiodynamic Corrosion Testing.

    PubMed

    Munir, Selin; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R

    2016-09-04

    Different metallic materials have different polarization characteristics as dictated by the open circuit potential, breakdown potential, and passivation potential of the material. The detection of these electrochemical parameters identifies the corrosion factors of a material. A reliable and well-functioning corrosion system is required to achieve this. Corrosion of the samples was achieved via a potentiodynamic polarization technique employing a three-electrode configuration, consisting of reference, counter, and working electrodes. Prior to commencement a baseline potential is obtained. Following the stabilization of the corrosion potential (Ecorr), the applied potential is ramped at a slow rate in the positive direction relative to the reference electrode. The working electrode was a stainless steel screw. The reference electrode was a standard Ag/AgCl. The counter electrode used was a platinum mesh. Having a reliable and well-functioning in vitro corrosion system to test biomaterials provides an in-expensive technique that allows for the systematic characterization of the material by determining the breakdown potential, to further understand the material's response to corrosion. The goal of the protocol is to set up and run an in vitro potentiodynamic corrosion system to analyze pitting corrosion for small metallic medical devices.

  9. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  10. Reduce FCC corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    Efficiency of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) vapor recovery units can be significantly reduced by corrosion and fouling. The fundamentals of FCC light ends corrosion, including diagnoses, control and monitoring of hydrogen blistering, general metal loss, pitting, erosion and under-deposit attack are discussed, relating actual unit problems to effective treatment program solutions.

  11. Crude unit corrosion and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Bagdasarian, A.; Feather, J.; Hull, B.; Stephenson, R.; Strong, R.

    1996-08-01

    In the petroleum refining process, the Crude Unit is the initial stage of distillation of the crude oil into useable fractions, either as end products or feed to downstream units. The major pieces of equipment found on units will vary depending on factors such as the assay of the design crude, the age of the refinery, and other downstream units. The unit discussed in this paper has all of the major pieces of equipment found on crude units including double desalting, a preflash section, an atmospheric section, a vacuum section, and a stabilization section. This paper reviews fundamental corrosion issues concerning the Crude Unit process. It is, in concise form, a description of the process and major equipment found in the Crude Unit; types of corrosion and where they occur; corrosion monitoring and inspection advice; and a list of related references for further reading. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Metagenomic analyses reveal the involvement of syntrophic consortia in methanol/electricity conversion in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Ayaka; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m(-2) (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors.

  13. Divergent PCB organohalide-respiring consortia enriched from the efflux channel of a former Delor manufacturer in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Cvancarova, Monika; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Holliger, Christof; Rossi, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) organohalide-respiring communities from the efflux channel of a former Delor manufacturer in Eastern Slovakia were assessed using metagenomic, statistical and cultivation-adapted approaches. Multivariate analysis of environmental factors together with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the bacterial communities in the primary sediments revealed both temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of microbial populations, which reflects the dynamic pattern of contamination and altered conditions for biodegradation activity along the channel. Anaerobic microcosms were developed from eight sediments sampled along the channel, where high concentrations of PCBs - from 6.6 to 136mg/kg dry weight, were measured. PCB dehalorespiring activity, congruent with changes in the microbial composition in all microcosms, was detected. After 10 months of cultivation, the divergently evolved consortia achieved up to 35.9 percent reduction of the total PCB concentration. Phylogenetic-analysis of the active Chloroflexi-related organohalide-respiring bacteria by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes in cDNA from microcosms with the highest PCB dechlorination activity revealed diverse and unique complexity of the populations. The predominant organohalide respirers were either affiliated with Dehalococcoides sp. and Dehalococcoides-like group (DLG) organisms or were composed of currently unknown distant clades of DLG bacteria. The present study should encourage researchers to explore the full potential of the indigenous PCB dechlorinating populations to develop effective bioremediation approaches that can perform the complete mineralization of PCBs in polluted environments.

  14. Characterization of oily sludge from a refinery and biodegradability assessment using various hydrocarbon degrading strains and reconstituted consortia.

    PubMed

    Jasmine, Jublee; Mukherji, Suparna

    2015-02-01

    Oily sludge obtained from a refinery in India contained 10-11% oil associated with fine particulates. Along with Fe, Ca and Mg various toxic elements were associated with the sludge solids (Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni and V). The oil contained 41-56% asphaltenes and the maltenes comprised of 49 ± 4%, 42 ± 2% and 4 ± 2%, aliphatic, aromatic and polar fractions, respectively. Biodegradation studies with the maltene fraction of oil provided as sole substrate revealed higher degradation by various 3-5 membered reconstituted consortia compared to pure bacterial strains and up to 42 ± 8% degradation could be achieved over 30 days. In contrast, over the same period up to 71.5 ± 2% oil degradation could be achieved using dried oily sludge (15% w/v) as sole substrate. Significant biodegradation observed in the un-inoculated controls indicated the presence of indigenous microorganisms in oily sludge. However, large variability in oil degradation was observed in the un-inoculated controls. Greater biodegradation of the maltene fraction led to significant enrichment of asphaltenes in residual oil associated with the sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioremediation of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soil by native soil microbiota and bioaugmentation with isolated microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Silva, Isis Serrano; Santos, Eder da Costa dos; Menezes, Cristiano Ragagnin de; Faria, Andréia Fonseca de; Franciscon, Elisangela; Grossman, Matthew; Durrant, Lucia Regina

    2009-10-01

    Biodegradation of a mixture of PAHs was assessed in forest soil microcosms performed either without or with bioaugmentation using individual fungi and bacterial and a fungal consortia. Respiratory activity, metabolic intermediates and extent of PAH degradation were determined. In all microcosms the low molecular weight PAH's naphthalene, phenanthrene and anthracene, showed a rapid initial rate of removal. However, bioaugmentation did not significantly affect the biodegradation efficiency for these compounds. Significantly slower degradation rates were demonstrated for the high molecular weight PAH's pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and benz[a]pyrene. Bioaugmentation did not improve the rate or extent of PAH degradation, except in the case of Aspergillus sp. Respiratory activity was determined by CO(2) evolution and correlated roughly with the rate and timing of PAH removal. This indicated that the PAHs were being used as an energy source. The native microbiota responded rapidly to the addition of the PAHs and demonstrated the ability to degrade all of the PAHs added to the soil, indicating their ability to remediate PAH-contaminated soils.

  16. Metagenomic Analyses Reveal the Involvement of Syntrophic Consortia in Methanol/Electricity Conversion in Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamamuro, Ayaka; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Abe, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2014-01-01

    Methanol is widely used in industrial processes, and as such, is discharged in large quantities in wastewater. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have the potential to recover electric energy from organic pollutants in wastewater; however, the use of MFCs to generate electricity from methanol has not been reported. In the present study, we developed single-chamber MFCs that generated electricity from methanol at the maximum power density of 220 mW m−2 (based on the projected area of the anode). In order to reveal how microbes generate electricity from methanol, pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA-gene amplicons and Illumina shotgun sequencing of metagenome were conducted. The pyrosequencing detected in abundance Dysgonomonas, Sporomusa, and Desulfovibrio in the electrolyte and anode and cathode biofilms, while Geobacter was detected only in the anode biofilm. Based on known physiological properties of these bacteria, it is considered that Sporomusa converts methanol into acetate, which is then utilized by Geobacter to generate electricity. This speculation is supported by results of shotgun metagenomics of the anode-biofilm microbes, which reconstructed relevant catabolic pathways in these bacteria. These results suggest that methanol is anaerobically catabolized by syntrophic bacterial consortia with electrodes as electron acceptors. PMID:24852573

  17. Metagenomic analysis of planktonic microbial consortia from a non-tidal urban-impacted segment of James River

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bonnie L.; LePrell, Rebecca V.; Franklin, Rima B.; Rivera, Maria C.; Cabral, Francine M.; Eaves, Hugh L.; Gardiakos, Vicki; Keegan, Kevin P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-09-19

    Knowledge of the diversity and ecological function of the microbial consortia of James River in Virginia, USA, is essential to developing a more complete understanding of the ecology of this model river system. Metagenomic analysis of James River's planktonic microbial community was performed for the first time using an unamplified genomic library and a 16S rDNA amplicon library prepared and sequenced by Ion PGM and MiSeq, respectively. From the 0.46-Gb WGS library (GenBank:SRR1146621; MG-RAST:4532156.3), 4 x 106 reads revealed >3 x 106 genes, 240 families of prokaryotes, and 155 families of eukaryotes. From the 0.68-Gb 16S library (GenBank:SRR2124995; MG-RAST:4631271.3; EMB:2184), 4 x 106 reads revealed 259 families of eubacteria. Results of the WGS and 16S analyses were highly consistent and indicated that more than half of the bacterial sequences were Proteobacteria, predominantly Comamonadaceae. The most numerous genera in this group were Acidovorax (including iron oxidizers, nitrotolulene degraders, and plant pathogens), which accounted for 10 % of assigned bacterial reads. Polaromonas were another 6 % of all bacterial reads, with many assignments to groups capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Albidiferax (iron reducers) and Variovorax (biodegraders of a variety of natural biogenic compounds as well as anthropogenic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disruptors) each accounted for an additional 3% of bacterial reads. Comparison of these data to other publically-available aquatic metagenomes revealed that this stretch of James River is highly similar to the upper Mississippi River, and that these river systems are more similar to aquaculture and sludge ecosystems than they are to lakes or to a pristine section of the upper Amazon River. Altogether, these analyses exposed previously unknown aspects of microbial biodiversity, documented

  18. Metagenomic analysis of planktonic microbial consortia from a non-tidal urban-impacted segment of James River

    DOE PAGES

    Brown, Bonnie L.; LePrell, Rebecca V.; Franklin, Rima B.; ...

    2015-09-19

    Knowledge of the diversity and ecological function of the microbial consortia of James River in Virginia, USA, is essential to developing a more complete understanding of the ecology of this model river system. Metagenomic analysis of James River's planktonic microbial community was performed for the first time using an unamplified genomic library and a 16S rDNA amplicon library prepared and sequenced by Ion PGM and MiSeq, respectively. From the 0.46-Gb WGS library (GenBank:SRR1146621; MG-RAST:4532156.3), 4 x 106 reads revealed >3 x 106 genes, 240 families of prokaryotes, and 155 families of eukaryotes. From the 0.68-Gb 16S library (GenBank:SRR2124995; MG-RAST:4631271.3; EMB:2184),more » 4 x 106 reads revealed 259 families of eubacteria. Results of the WGS and 16S analyses were highly consistent and indicated that more than half of the bacterial sequences were Proteobacteria, predominantly Comamonadaceae. The most numerous genera in this group were Acidovorax (including iron oxidizers, nitrotolulene degraders, and plant pathogens), which accounted for 10 % of assigned bacterial reads. Polaromonas were another 6 % of all bacterial reads, with many assignments to groups capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Albidiferax (iron reducers) and Variovorax (biodegraders of a variety of natural biogenic compounds as well as anthropogenic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disruptors) each accounted for an additional 3% of bacterial reads. Comparison of these data to other publically-available aquatic metagenomes revealed that this stretch of James River is highly similar to the upper Mississippi River, and that these river systems are more similar to aquaculture and sludge ecosystems than they are to lakes or to a pristine section of the upper Amazon River. Altogether, these analyses exposed previously unknown aspects of microbial biodiversity, documented the ecological responses of microbes to urban effects, and revealed

  19. Metagenomic analysis of planktonic microbial consortia from a non-tidal urban-impacted segment of James River.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bonnie L; LePrell, Rebecca V; Franklin, Rima B; Rivera, Maria C; Cabral, Francine M; Eaves, Hugh L; Gardiakos, Vicki; Keegan, Kevin P; King, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the diversity and ecological function of the microbial consortia of James River in Virginia, USA, is essential to developing a more complete understanding of the ecology of this model river system. Metagenomic analysis of James River's planktonic microbial community was performed for the first time using an unamplified genomic library and a 16S rDNA amplicon library prepared and sequenced by Ion PGM and MiSeq, respectively. From the 0.46-Gb WGS library (GenBank:SRR1146621; MG-RAST:4532156.3), 4 × 10(6) reads revealed >3 × 10(6) genes, 240 families of prokaryotes, and 155 families of eukaryotes. From the 0.68-Gb 16S library (GenBank:SRR2124995; MG-RAST:4631271.3; EMB:2184), 4 × 10(6) reads revealed 259 families of eubacteria. Results of the WGS and 16S analyses were highly consistent and indicated that more than half of the bacterial sequences were Proteobacteria, predominantly Comamonadaceae. The most numerous genera in this group were Acidovorax (including iron oxidizers, nitrotolulene degraders, and plant pathogens), which accounted for 10 % of assigned bacterial reads. Polaromonas were another 6 % of all bacterial reads, with many assignments to groups capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Albidiferax (iron reducers) and Variovorax (biodegraders of a variety of natural biogenic compounds as well as anthropogenic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disruptors) each accounted for an additional 3 % of bacterial reads. Comparison of these data to other publically-available aquatic metagenomes revealed that this stretch of James River is highly similar to the upper Mississippi River, and that these river systems are more similar to aquaculture and sludge ecosystems than they are to lakes or to a pristine section of the upper Amazon River. Taken together, these analyses exposed previously unknown aspects of microbial biodiversity, documented the ecological responses of microbes to urban

  20. Field studies of microbiological corrosion in water injection plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elboujdaini, M.; Sastri, V.S.

    1995-12-01

    Electrochemical impedance, weight loss and potentiodyne techniques were used to determine the corrosion rates of carbon steel along with the determination of activities of both sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and acid-producing bacteria (APB) in a water injection field test facility. Corrosion rates determined by the potentiodyne technique did not correlate with the bacterial activity. Corrosion rates obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were comparable to the rates obtained by weight loss measurements. The average corrosion rates obtained by EIS paralleled the cumulative SRB activity over 84 days, and the addition of biocide resulted in reduced bacterial activity and corrosion rate. The depression angles in Nyquist plots were high (30{degree}, 29{degree}) for control and biocide lines respectively indicating a fair degree of pitting corrosion. After 42 days, the values were lower, 11{degree} for biocide line compared to 22{degree} for control he showing the decrease in pitting tendency in line to which biocide was added at the end of 28 days.

  1. Biodegradation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microbial consortia in soil and slurry phases.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Li, Peijun; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Chungui; Li, Qi; Gong, Zongqiang

    2008-01-15

    Microbial consortia isolated from aged oil-contaminated soil were used to degrade 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (15.72 mgkg(-1)) in soil and slurry phases. The three microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) could degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the highest PAH removals were found in soil and slurry inoculated with fungi (50.1% and 55.4%, respectively). PAHs biodegradation in slurry was lower than in soil for bacteria and bacteria-fungi complex inoculation treatments. Degradation of three- to five-ring PAHs treated by consortia was observed in soil and slurry, and the highest degradation of individual PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, and benz(a)anthracene) appeared in soil (45.9-75.5%, 62-83.7% and 64.5-84.5%, respectively) and slurry (46.0-75.8%, 50.2-86.1% and 54.3-85.7%, respectively). Therefore, inoculation of microbial consortia (bacteria, fungi and bacteria-fungi complex) isolated from in situ contaminated soil to degrade PAHs could be considered as a successful method.

  2. Selected Outcomes Related to Tech Prep Implementation by Illinois Consortia, 2001-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Kirby, Catherine; Zhu, Rongchun

    2006-01-01

    This report is the summary of key aspects of Tech Prep in Illinois over the five year period of 2001-2005 during which all Tech Prep consortia provided annual data based on federal legislative requirements and state-determined essential elements of successful programs. These annual Tech Prep reports enable local educators to monitor student…

  3. Common Core State Standards in 2014: District Implementation of Consortia-Developed Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentner, Diane Stark; Kober, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Later this school year, states that have adopted the voluntary Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are scheduled to begin testing students' progress in learning the content of the standards in mathematics and English language arts (ELA). Many of these states belong to one of two consortia--the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium and the…

  4. The microbiology of biomining: development and optimization of mineral-oxidizing microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E; Johnson, D Barrie

    2007-02-01

    Biomining, the use of micro-organisms to recover precious and base metals from mineral ores and concentrates, has developed into a successful and expanding area of biotechnology. While careful considerations are made in the design and engineering of biomining operations, microbiological aspects have been subjected to far less scrutiny and control. Biomining processes employ microbial consortia that are dominated by acidophilic, autotrophic iron- or sulfur-oxidizing prokaryotes. Mineral biooxidation takes place in highly aerated, continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactors or in irrigated dump or heap reactors, both of which provide an open, non-sterile environment. Continuous-flow, stirred tanks are characterized by homogeneous and constant growth conditions where the selection is for rapid growth, and consequently tank consortia tend to be dominated by two or three species of micro-organisms. In contrast, heap reactors provide highly heterogeneous growth environments that change with the age of the heap, and these tend to be colonized by a much greater variety of micro-organisms. Heap micro-organisms grow as biofilms that are not subject to washout and the major challenge is to provide sufficient biodiversity for optimum performance throughout the life of a heap. This review discusses theoretical and pragmatic aspects of assembling microbial consortia to process different mineral ores and concentrates, and the challenges for using constructed consortia in non-sterile industrial-scale operations.

  5. Issues Facing Academic Library Consortia and Perceptions of Members of the Illinois Digital Academic Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sam; Dorst, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of consortia in academic libraries, specifically the Illinois Digital Academic Library (IDAL), and describes a study conducted by the IDAL that investigated issues surrounding full text database research including stability of content, vendor communication, embargo periods, publisher concerns, quality of content, linking and…

  6. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  7. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  8. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  9. 34 CFR 614.5 - What are the matching requirements for the consortia?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the matching requirements for the consortia? 614.5 Section 614.5 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PREPARING TOMORROW'S TEACHERS TO...

  10. Transition from High School to College and Work for Tech Prep Participants in Eight Selected Consortia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.; Loeb, Jane W.; Gong, Yuqin; Deng, Chi-Ping; Yoo, Jung-sup; Hill, Jerry L.

    The transition from high school to college and work for tech prep participants was examined in a 4-year longitudinal study of local tech prep consortia in eight regions of the United States. The study methodology drew heavily on transcript analysis and two surveys with tech prep participants and nonparticipants. The tech prep participants and…

  11. Comparison of prominent Azospirillum strains in Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus consortia for promotion of maize growth.

    PubMed

    Couillerot, Olivier; Ramírez-Trujillo, Augusto; Walker, Vincent; von Felten, Andreas; Jansa, Jan; Maurhofer, Monika; Défago, Geneviève; Prigent-Combaret, Claire; Comte, Gilles; Caballero-Mellado, Jesus; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan

    2013-05-01

    Azospirillum are prominent plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) extensively used as phytostimulatory crop inoculants, but only few studies are dealing with Azospirillum-containing mixed inocula involving more than two microorganisms. We compared here three prominent Azospirillum strains as part of three-component consortia including also the PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens F113 and a mycorrhizal inoculant mix composed of three Glomus strains. Inoculant colonization of maize was assessed by quantitative PCR, transcription of auxin synthesis gene ipdC (involved in phytostimulation) in Azospirillum by RT-PCR, and effects on maize by secondary metabolic profiling and shoot biomass measurements. Results showed that phytostimulation by all the three-component consortia was comparable, despite contrasted survival of the Azospirillum strains and different secondary metabolic responses of maize to inoculation. Unexpectedly, the presence of Azospirillum in the inoculum resulted in lower phytostimulation in comparison with the Pseudomonas-Glomus two-component consortium, but this effect was transient. Azospirillum's ipdC gene was transcribed in all treatments, especially with three-component consortia, but not with all plants and samplings. Inoculation had no negative impact on the prevalence of mycorrhizal taxa in roots. In conclusion, this study brought new insights in the functioning of microbial consortia and showed that Azospirillum-Pseudomonas-Glomus three-component inoculants may be useful in environmental biotechnology for maize growth promotion.

  12. Phenotype harmonization and cross-study collaboration in GWAS consortia: the GENEVA experience

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Siiri N.; Caporaso, Neil; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Agrawal, Arpana; Barnes, Kathleen; Boyd, Heather A.; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Heiss, Gerardo; Heit, John A.; Kang, Jae Hee; Kittner, Steven J.; Kraft, Peter; Lowe, William; Marazita, Mary L.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Ramos, Erin M.; van Dam, Rob M.; Udren, Jenna; Williams, Kayleen

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) consortia and collaborations formed to detect genetic loci for common phenotypes or investigate gene-environment (G*E) interactions are increasingly common. While these consortia effectively increase sample size, phenotype heterogeneity across studies represents a major obstacle that limits successful identification of these associations. Investigators are faced with the challenge of how to harmonize previously collected phenotype data obtained using different data collection instruments which cover topics in varying degrees of detail and over diverse time frames. This process has not been described in detail. We describe here some of the strategies and pitfalls associated with combining phenotype data from varying studies. Using the Gene Environment Association Studies (GENEVA) multi-site GWAS consortium as an example, this paper provides an illustration to guide GWAS consortia through the process of phenotype harmonization and describes key issues that arise when sharing data across disparate studies. GENEVA is unusual in the diversity of disease endpoints and so the issues it faces as its participating studies share data will be informative for many collaborations. Phenotype harmonization requires identifying common phenotypes, determining the feasibility of cross-study analysis for each, preparing common definitions, and applying appropriate algorithms. Other issues to be considered include genotyping timeframes, coordination of parallel efforts by other collaborative groups, analytic approaches, and imputation of genotype data. GENEVA's harmonization efforts and policy of promoting data sharing and collaboration, not only within GENEVA but also with outside collaborations, can provide important guidance to ongoing and new consortia. PMID:21284036

  13. Exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria as corrosion inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignatova-Ivanova, Tsveteslava; Ivanov, Radoslav

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial EPSs (exopolysaccharides) are believed to play an important role in the environment by promoting survival strategies such as bacterial attachment to surfaces and nutrient trapping, which facilitate processes of biofilm formation and development. These microbial biofilms have been implicated in corrosion of metals, bacterial attachment to prosthetic devices, fouling of heat exchange surfaces, toxicant immobilization, and fouling of ship hulls. In this paper, data on EPS production and the effect of EPS on corrosion of steel produced by Lactobacillus sp. are presented and discussed. Lactobacillus delbrueckii K27, Lactobacillus delbrueckii B8, Lactobacillus delbrueckii KO43, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K3, Lactobacillus delbrueckii K15 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii K17 was obtained from Collection of Department of General and Applied Microbiology, Sofia University. It was tested for its ability to produce exopolysaccharides when cultivated in a media containing 10% sucrose, 10% lacose and 10% maltose. The study of the corrosive stability of steel samples was conducted on the gravimetrique method. The rate of corrosion, the degree of protection, and coefficient of protection have been calculated. The structure of layer over steel plates was analysed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) JSM 5510. It could be underlined that 10% sucrose, 10% lactose and 10% maltose in the media stimulated the process of protection of corrosion.

  14. Consortia Focused on Photovoltaic R&D, Manufacturing, and Testing: A Review of Existing Models and Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Coggeshall, C.; Margolis, R. M.

    2010-03-01

    As the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Program prepares to initiate a new cost-shared research and development (R&D) effort on photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing, it is useful to review the experience to date with consortia focused on PV R&D, manufacturing, and testing. Information was gathered for this report by conducting interviews and accessing Web sites of 14 U.S. consortia and four European consortia, each with either a primary focus on or an emerging interest in PV technology R&D, manufacturing, or testing. Additional input was collected from several workshops held by the DOE and National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in 2009, which examined the practical steps -- including public-private partnerships and policy support -- necessary to enhance the United States' capacity to competitively manufacture photovoltaics. This report categorizes the 18 consortia into three groups: university-led consortia, industry-led consortia, and manufacturing and testing facilities consortia. The first section summarizes the organizations within the different categories, with a particular focus on the key benefits and challenges for each grouping. The second section provides a more detailed overview of each consortium, including the origins, goals, organization, membership, funding sources, and key contacts. This survey is a useful resource for stakeholders interested in PV manufacturing R&D, but should not imply endorsement of any of these groups.

  15. The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron Antiques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Discusses general corrosion reactions (iron to rust), including corrosion of iron, sulfur dioxide, chlorides, immersed corrosion, and underground corrosion. Also discusses corrosion inhibition, including corrosion inhibitors (anodic, cathodic, mixed, organic); safe/dangerous inhibitors; and corrosion/inhibition in concrete/marble, showcases/boxes,…

  16. The Corrosion and Preservation of Iron Antiques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Discusses general corrosion reactions (iron to rust), including corrosion of iron, sulfur dioxide, chlorides, immersed corrosion, and underground corrosion. Also discusses corrosion inhibition, including corrosion inhibitors (anodic, cathodic, mixed, organic); safe/dangerous inhibitors; and corrosion/inhibition in concrete/marble, showcases/boxes,…

  17. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Pullen, William C.; Kollie, Thomas G.; Bell, Richard T.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  18. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  19. Current and potential distributions in corrosion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Current and potential distribution calculations in corrosion are reviewed. The mathematical methods used, and the specific results for galvanic corrosion, cathodic protection, and localized corrosion are described.

  20. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  1. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  2. BWR steel containment corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.P.; Bagchi, G.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes regulatory actions taken after corrosion was discovered in the drywell at the Oyster Creek Plant and in the torus at the Nine Mile Point 1 Plant. The report describes the causes of corrosion, requirements for monitoring corrosion, and measures to mitigate the corrosive environment for the two plants. The report describes the issuances of generic letters and information notices either to collect information to determine whether the problem is generic or to alert the licensees of similar plants about the existence of such a problem. Implementation of measures to enhance the containment performance under severe accident conditions is discussed. A study by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) of the performance of a degraded containment under severe accident conditions is summarized. The details of the BNL study are in the appendix to the report.

  3. Corrosivity Of Pyrolysis Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R; Bestor, Michael A; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Storey, John Morse

    2011-01-01

    Pyrolysis oils from several sources have been analyzed and used in corrosion studies which have consisted of exposing corrosion coupons and stress corrosion cracking U-bend samples. The chemical analyses have identified the carboxylic acid compounds as well as the other organic components which are primarily aromatic hydrocarbons. The corrosion studies have shown that raw pyrolysis oil is very corrosive to carbon steel and other alloys with relatively low chromium content. Stress corrosion cracking samples of carbon steel and several low alloy steels developed through-wall cracks after a few hundred hours of exposure at 50 C. Thermochemical processing of biomass can produce solid, liquid and/or gaseous products depending on the temperature and exposure time used for processing. The liquid product, known as pyrolysis oil or bio-oil, as produced contains a significant amount of oxygen, primarily as components of water, carboxylic acids, phenols, ketones and aldehydes. As a result of these constituents, these oils are generally quite acidic with a Total Acid Number (TAN) that can be around 100. Because of this acidity, bio-oil is reported to be corrosive to many common structural materials. Despite this corrosive nature, these oils have the potential to replace some imported petroleum. If the more acidic components can be removed from this bio-oil, it is expected that the oil could be blended with crude oil and then processed in existing petroleum refineries. The refinery products could be transported using customary routes - pipelines, barges, tanker trucks and rail cars - without a need for modification of existing hardware or construction of new infrastructure components - a feature not shared by ethanol.

  4. Corrosion Experience Data Requirements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    Pattern .... ........... .50 5-6 Focused Transducer Concept Showing the Diverging Beam from the Point of Focus as it Enters Parallel into the Steel Plate...and inspection standards. Although the ABS rules for building and classing steel vessels do not mention explicitly the allowances adopted, they have...the effects of a corrosive environment on crack growth of ship steel in terms of the probability of failure. The results indicate that corrosion is a

  5. Study of biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haiya; Tian, Yimei; Wan, Jianmei; Zhao, Peng

    2015-12-01

    Biofilm influenced corrosion on cast iron pipes in reclaimed water was systemically studied using the weight loss method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results demonstrated that compared to sterile water, the existence of the biofilm in reclaimed water promoted the corrosion process significantly. The characteristics of biofilm on cast iron coupons were examined by the surface profiler, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The bacterial counts in the biofilm were determined using the standard plate count method and the most probable number (MPN). The results demonstrated that the corrosion process was influenced by the settled bacteria, EPS, and corrosion products in the biofilm comprehensively. But, the corrosion mechanisms were different with respect to time and could be divided into three stages in our study. Furthermore, several corresponding corrosion mechanisms were proposed for different immersion times.

  6. Corrosion fundamentals and corrosion effects on aboveground storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, J.H. III

    1995-12-31

    Corrosion is an electrochemical process that involves ion migration and electron flow. The electrochemical process is explained and the four elements of the basic cell are described--anode, cathode, electrolyte and return circuit. The corrosion mechanisms affecting underground structures can be divided into two main categories--naturally occurring corrosion and stray current corrosion. Several examples of each are shown. These mechanisms of corrosion are applicable to aboveground storage tanks. Various types of exterior and interior corrosion of ASTs are explained in the light of electrochemical theory.

  7. In Union There Is Strength: The Role of State Global Education Consortia in Expanding Community College Involvement in Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbel, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter profiles state and regional global education consortia, the successes they have enjoyed, and the challenges they face. It concludes with recommendations for strengthening these associations and ensuring their continued existence and effectiveness. (Contains 1 table.)

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation potential and diversity of microbial consortia enriched from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Bacosa, Hernando Pactao; Inoue, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake caused tsunamis and resulted in widespread damage to human life and infrastructure. The disaster also resulted in contamination of the environment by chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This study was conducted to investigate the degradation potential and describe the PAH-degrading microbial communities from tsunami sediments in Miyagi, Japan. PAH-degrading bacteria were cultured by enrichment using PAH mixture or pyrene alone as carbon and energy sources. Among the ten consortia tested for PAH mixture, seven completely degraded fluorene and more than 95% of phenanthrene in 10 days, while only four consortia partially degraded pyrene. Six consortia partially degraded pyrene as a single substrate. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) revealed that each sample was dominated by unique microbial populations, regardless of sampling location. The consortia were dominated by known PAHs degraders including Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingobium; and previously unknown degraders such as Dokdonella and Luteimonas. A potentially novel and PAH-degrading Dokdonella was detected for the first time. PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) gene was shown to be more effective than nidA in estimating pyrene-degrading bacteria in the enriched consortia. The consortia obtained in this study are potential candidates for remediation of PAHs contaminated soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil-Derived Microbial Consortia Enriched with Different Plant Biomass Reveal Distinct Players Acting in Lignocellulose Degradation.

    PubMed

    de Lima Brossi, Maria Julia; Jiménez, Diego Javier; Cortes-Tolalpa, Larisa; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Here, we investigated how different plant biomass, and-for one substrate-pH, drive the composition of degrader microbial consortia. We bred such consortia from forest soil, incubated along nine aerobic sequential - batch enrichments with wheat straw (WS1, pH 7.2; WS2, pH 9.0), switchgrass (SG, pH 7.2), and corn stover (CS, pH 7.2) as carbon sources. Lignocellulosic compounds (lignin, cellulose and xylan) were best degraded in treatment SG, followed by CS, WS1 and WS2. In terms of composition, the consortia became relatively stable after transfers 4 to 6, as evidenced by PCR-DGGE profiles obtained from each consortium DNA. The final consortia differed by ~40 % (bacteria) and ~60 % (fungi) across treatments. A 'core' community represented by 5/16 (bacteria) and 3/14 (fungi) bands was discerned, next to a variable part. The composition of the final microbial consortia was strongly driven by the substrate, as taxonomically-diverse consortia appeared in the different substrate treatments, but not in the (WS) different pH one. Biodegradative strains affiliated to Sphingobacterium kitahiroshimense, Raoultella terrigena, Pseudomonas putida, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila (bacteria), Coniochaeta ligniaria and Acremonium sp. (fungi) were recovered in at least three treatments, whereas strains affiliated to Delftia tsuruhatensis, Paenibacillus xylanexedens, Sanguibacter inulus and Comamonas jiangduensis were treatment-specific.

  10. Microalgae consortia cultivation in dairy wastewater to improve the potential of nutrient removal and biodiesel feedstock production.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lei; Wang, Zhongming; Sun, Yongming; Shu, Qing; Feng, Pingzhong; Zhu, Liandong; Xu, Jin; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-05-01

    The potential of microalgae consortia used in dairy wastewater treatment combined with microalgae biodiesel feedstock production was evaluated by comparing the nutrient removal of dairy wastewater, the growth of cells, and the lipid content and composition of biomass between monoalgae and microalgae consortia cultivation system. Our results showed that higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (maximum, 57.01-62.86 %) and total phosphorus (TP) removal (maximum, 91.16-95.96 %) were achieved in almost microalgae consortia cultivation system than those in Chlorella sp. monoalgae cultivation system (maximum, 44.76 and 86.74 %, respectively). In addition, microalgae consortia cultivation except the mixture of Chlorella sp. and Scenedesmus spp. reached higher biomass concentration (5.11-5.41 g L(-1)), biomass productivity (730.4-773.2 mg L(-1) day(-1)), and lipid productivity (143.7-150.6 mg L(-1) day(-1)) than those of monoalgae cultivation (4.72 g L(-1), 674.3, and 142.2 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively) on the seventh day. Furthermore, the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated the lipids produced from microalgae consortia cultivation system were more suitable for biodiesel production. The microalgae consortia display superiority in dairy wastewater treatment and the getting feedstock for biodiesel production.

  11. Use of silicate minerals for pH control during reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes in batch cultures of different microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Elsa; Brovelli, Alessandro; Barry, D A; Holliger, Christof

    2014-07-01

    In chloroethene-contaminated sites undergoing in situ bioremediation, groundwater acidification is a frequent problem in the source zone, and buffering strategies have to be implemented to maintain the pH in the neutral range. An alternative to conventional soluble buffers is silicate mineral particles as a long-term source of alkalinity. In previous studies, the buffering potentials of these minerals have been evaluated based on abiotic dissolution tests and geochemical modeling. In the present study, the buffering potentials of four silicate minerals (andradite, diopside, fayalite, and forsterite) were tested in batch cultures amended with tetrachloroethene (PCE) and inoculated with different organohalide-respiring consortia. Another objective of this study was to determine the influence of pH on the different steps of PCE dechlorination. The consortia showed significant differences in sensitivities toward acidic pH for the different dechlorination steps. Molecular analysis indicated that Dehalococcoides spp. that were present in all consortia were the most pH-sensitive organohalide-respiring guild members compared to Sulfurospirillum spp. and Dehalobacter spp. In batch cultures with silicate mineral particles as pH-buffering agents, all four minerals tested were able to maintain the pH in the appropriate range for reductive dechlorination of chloroethenes. However, complete dechlorination to ethene was observed only with forsterite, diopside, and fayalite. Dissolution of andradite increased the redox potential and did not allow dechlorination. With forsterite, diopside, and fayalite, dechlorination to ethene was observed but at much lower rates for the last two dechlorination steps than with the positive control. This indicated an inhibition effect of silicate minerals and/or their dissolution products on reductive dechlorination of cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride. Hence, despite the proven pH-buffering potential of silicate minerals, compatibility with

  12. Metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with Santa Barbara seep oil.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Erik R; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alexander; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Pati, Amrita; Jansson, Janet R; Gilbert, Jack A; Tringe, Susannah Green; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with natural oils seeping into the Pacific Ocean offshore the coast of Santa Barbara (California, USA) were determined to complement already existing metagenomes generated from microbial communities associated with hydrocarbons that pollute the marine ecosystem. This genomics resource article is the first of two publications reporting a total of four new metagenomes from oils that seep into the Santa Barbara Channel.

  13. Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program (Consortia) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Five cancer research centers lead multiple collaborative networks to assess potential cancer preventive agents and to conduct early clinical development of promising preventive agents. Also called the Consortia for Early Phase Prevention Trials, the studies require extensive biomarker analysis, investigation of the biologic effects of the cancer preventive agents on their intended molecular targets and on multiple endpoints associated with carcinogenesis, and correlation with clinically relevant endpoints. | Systematic early clinical development of promising preventive agents through five major medical research centers.

  14. Cultivating microbial dark matter in benzene-degrading methanogenic consortia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fei; Devine, Cheryl E; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    The microbes responsible for anaerobic benzene biodegradation remain poorly characterized. In this study, we identified and quantified microbial populations in a series of 16 distinct methanogenic, benzene-degrading enrichment cultures using a combination of traditional 16S rRNA clone libraries (four cultures), pyrotag 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing (11 cultures), metagenome sequencing (1 culture) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; 12 cultures). An operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from the Deltaproteobacteria designated ORM2 that is only 84% to 86% similar to Syntrophus or Desulfobacterium spp. was consistently identified in all enrichment cultures, and typically comprised more than half of the bacterial sequences. In addition to ORM2, a sequence belonging to Parcubacteria (candidate division OD1) identified from the metagenome data was the only other OTU common to all the cultures surveyed. Culture transfers (1% and 0.1%) were made in the presence and absence of benzene, and the abundance of ORM2, OD1 and other OTUs was tracked over 415 days using qPCR. ORM2 sequence abundance increased only when benzene was present, while the abundance of OD1 and other OTUs increased even in the absence of benzene. Deltaproteobacterium ORM2 is unequivocally the benzene-metabolizing population. This study also hints at laboratory cultivation conditions for a member of the widely distributed yet uncultivated Parcubacteria (OD1). © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-01-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the ‘pink berry’ consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and 34S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0–500 μm. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while δ34S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to −31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate–sulfide isotopic fractionations (15–53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria. PMID:24428801

  16. Trophic interactions induce spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Or, Dani

    2014-10-24

    The spatial context of microbial interactions common in natural systems is largely absent in traditional pure culture-based microbiology. The understanding of how interdependent microbial communities assemble and coexist in limited spatial domains remains sketchy. A mechanistic model of cell-level interactions among multispecies microbial populations grown on hydrated rough surfaces facilitated systematic evaluation of how trophic dependencies shape spatial self-organization of microbial consortia in complex diffusion fields. The emerging patterns were persistent irrespective of initial conditions and resilient to spatial and temporal perturbations. Surprisingly, the hydration conditions conducive for self-assembly are extremely narrow and last only while microbial cells remain motile within thin aqueous films. The resulting self-organized microbial consortia patterns could represent optimal ecological templates for the architecture that underlie sessile microbial colonies on natural surfaces. Understanding microbial spatial self-organization offers new insights into mechanisms that sustain small-scale soil microbial diversity; and may guide the engineering of functional artificial microbial consortia.

  17. Applicability of cryoconite consortia of microorganisms and glacier-dwelling animals in astrobiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawierucha, Krzysztof; Ostrowska, Marta; Kolicka, Małgorzata

    2017-06-01

    For several years it has been of interest to astrobiologists to focus on Earth's glaciers as a habitat that can be similar to glaciers on other moons and planets. Microorganisms on glaciers form consortia - cryoconite granules (cryoconites). They are granular/spherical mineral particles connected with archaea, cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, algae, fungi, and micro animals (mainly Tardigrada and Rotifera). Cryophilic organisms inhabiting glaciers have been studied in different aspects: from taxonomy, ecology and biogeography, to searching of biotechnological potentials and physiological strategies to survive in extreme glacial habitats. However, they have never been used in astrobiological experiments. The main aim of this paper is brief review of literature and supporting assumptions that cryoconite granules and microinvertebrates on glaciers, are promising models in astrobiology for looking for analogies and survival strategies in terms of icy planets and moons. So far, astrobiological research have been conducted on single strains of prokaryotes or microinvertebrates but never on a consortium of them. Due to the hypothetical similarity of glaciers on the Earth to those on other planets these cryoconites consortia of microorganisms and glacier microinvertebrates may be applied in astrobiological experiments instead of the limno-terrestrial ones used currently. Those consortia and animals have qualities to use them in such studies and they may be the key to understanding how organisms are able to survive, reproduce and remain active at low temperatures.

  18. Developing multicenter consortia in liver disease in Latin America: Challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mendizabal, Manuel; Silva, Marcelo O

    2017-09-01

    The development of consortia has been useful for exploring challenging scenarios and uncharted territories in liver disease treatments. Several consortia already developed in the United States and Europe have become key factors in patient care decision-making processes and medical education, and they have also impacted policy makers' decisions. In Latin America, the situation is different. As a result of a combination of different factors, our region has not been able to develop networking advantages in research and education in liver diseases. Thus far, most of the initial experiences focused on the development of collaborative groups established to investigate a particular topic, which were dissolved once the questions were answered. It is the aim of this review to describe those difficulties we confront in developing multicenter liver consortia in Latin America, to identify those challenges we face, and also to describe the opportunities we have for improvement. Liver Transplantation 23 1210-1215 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  19. Unveiling the metabolic potential of two soil-derived microbial consortia selected on wheat straw

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Diego Javier; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Based on the premise that plant biomass can be efficiently degraded by mixed microbial cultures and/or enzymes, we here applied a targeted metagenomics-based approach to explore the metabolic potential of two forest soil-derived lignocellulolytic microbial consortia, denoted RWS and TWS (bred on wheat straw). Using the metagenomes of three selected batches of two experimental systems, about 1.2 Gb of sequence was generated. Comparative analyses revealed an overrepresentation of predicted carbohydrate transporters (ABC, TonB and phosphotransferases), two-component sensing systems and β-glucosidases/galactosidases in the two consortia as compared to the forest soil inoculum. Additionally, “profiling” of carbohydrate-active enzymes showed significant enrichments of several genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases of families GH2, GH43, GH92 and GH95. Sequence analyses revealed these to be most strongly affiliated to genes present on the genomes of Sphingobacterium, Bacteroides, Flavobacterium and Pedobacter spp. Assembly of the RWS and TWS metagenomes generated 16,536 and 15,902 contigs of ≥10 Kb, respectively. Thirteen contigs, containing 39 glycosyl hydrolase genes, constitute novel (hemi)cellulose utilization loci with affiliation to sequences primarily found in the Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study provides deep insight in the plant polysaccharide degrading capabilities of microbial consortia bred from forest soil, highlighting their biotechnological potential. PMID:26343383

  20. Metagenomes of tropical soil-derived anaerobic switchgrass-adapted consortia with and without iron

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; D’Haeseleer, Patrik; Chivian, Dylan; Simmons, Blake; Arkin, Adam P.; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tringe, Susannah; Hazen, Terry C.

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forest soils decompose litter rapidly with frequent episodes of anoxia, making it likely that bacteria using alternate terminal electron acceptors (TEAs) such as iron play a large role in supporting decomposition under these conditions. The prevalence of many types of metabolism in litter deconstruction makes these soils useful templates for improving biofuel production. To investigate how iron availability affects decomposition, we cultivated feedstock-adapted consortia (FACs) derived from iron-rich tropical forest soils accustomed to experiencing frequent episodes of anaerobic conditions and frequently fluctuating redox. One consortium was propagated under fermenting conditions, with switchgrass as the sole carbon source in minimal media (SG only FACs), and the other consortium was treated the same way but received poorly crystalline iron as an additional terminal electron acceptor (SG + Fe FACs). We sequenced the metagenomes of both consortia to a depth of about 150 Mb each, resulting in a coverage of 26× for the more diverse SG + Fe FACs, and 81× for the relatively less diverse SG only FACs. Both consortia were able to quickly grow on switchgrass, and the iron-amended consortium exhibited significantly higher microbial diversity than the unamended consortium. We found evidence of higher stress in the unamended FACs and increased sugar transport and utilization in the iron-amended FACs. This work provides metagenomic evidence that supplementation of alternative TEAs may improve feedstock deconstruction in biofuel production. PMID:24019987

  1. Identification and Resolution of Microdiversity through Metagenomic Sequencing of Parallel Consortia.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William C; Maezato, Yukari; Wu, Yu-Wei; Romine, Margaret F; Lindemann, Stephen R

    2015-10-23

    To gain a predictive understanding of the interspecies interactions within microbial communities that govern community function, the genomic complement of every member population must be determined. Although metagenomic sequencing has enabled the de novo reconstruction of some microbial genomes from environmental communities, microdiversity confounds current genome reconstruction techniques. To overcome this issue, we performed short-read metagenomic sequencing on parallel consortia, defined as consortia cultivated under the same conditions from the same natural community with overlapping species composition. The differences in species abundance between the two consortia allowed reconstruction of near-complete (at an estimated >85% of gene complement) genome sequences for 17 of the 20 detected member species. Two Halomonas spp. indistinguishable by amplicon analysis were found to be present within the community. In addition, comparison of metagenomic reads against the consensus scaffolds revealed within-species variation for one of the Halomonas populations, one of the Rhodobacteraceae populations, and the Rhizobiales population. Genomic comparison of these representative instances of inter- and intraspecies microdiversity suggests differences in functional potential that may result in the expression of distinct roles in the community. In addition, isolation and complete genome sequence determination of six member species allowed an investigation into the sensitivity and specificity of genome reconstruction processes, demonstrating robustness across a wide range of sequence coverage (9× to 2,700×) within the metagenomic data set.

  2. Collaborative cancer epidemiology in the 21st century: the model of cancer consortia.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Michael R; Ioannidis, John P A; Kaminski, Brett M; Derycke, Eric; Rogers, Scott; Khoury, Muin J; Seminara, Daniela

    2013-12-01

    During the last two decades, epidemiology has undergone a rapid evolution toward collaborative research. The proliferation of multi-institutional, interdisciplinary consortia has acquired particular prominence in cancer research. Herein, we describe the characteristics of a network of 49 established cancer epidemiology consortia (CEC) currently supported by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI). This collection represents the largest disease-based research network for collaborative cancer research established in population sciences. We describe the funding trends, geographic distribution, and areas of research focus. The CEC have been partially supported by 201 grants and yielded 3,876 publications between 1995 and 2011. We describe this output in terms of interdisciplinary collaboration and translational evolution. We discuss challenges and future opportunities in the establishment and conduct of large-scale team science within the framework of CEC, review future prospects for this approach to large-scale, interdisciplinary cancer research, and describe a model for the evolution of an integrated Network of Cancer Consortia optimally suited to address and support 21st-century epidemiology. ©2013 AACR.

  3. Microscale sulfur cycling in the phototrophic pink berry consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh.

    PubMed

    Wilbanks, Elizabeth G; Jaekel, Ulrike; Salman, Verena; Humphrey, Parris T; Eisen, Jonathan A; Facciotti, Marc T; Buckley, Daniel H; Zinder, Stephen H; Druschel, Gregory K; Fike, David A; Orphan, Victoria J

    2014-11-01

    Microbial metabolism is the engine that drives global biogeochemical cycles, yet many key transformations are carried out by microbial consortia over short spatiotemporal scales that elude detection by traditional analytical approaches. We investigate syntrophic sulfur cycling in the 'pink berry' consortia of the Sippewissett Salt Marsh through an integrative study at the microbial scale. The pink berries are macroscopic, photosynthetic microbial aggregates composed primarily of two closely associated species: sulfide-oxidizing purple sulfur bacteria (PB-PSB1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (PB-SRB1). Using metagenomic sequencing and (34) S-enriched sulfate stable isotope probing coupled with nanoSIMS, we demonstrate interspecies transfer of reduced sulfur metabolites from PB-SRB1 to PB-PSB1. The pink berries catalyse net sulfide oxidation and maintain internal sulfide concentrations of 0-500 μm. Sulfide within the berries, captured on silver wires and analysed using secondary ion mass spectrometer, increased in abundance towards the berry interior, while δ(34) S-sulfide decreased from 6‰ to -31‰ from the exterior to interior of the berry. These values correspond to sulfate-sulfide isotopic fractionations (15-53‰) consistent with either sulfate reduction or a mixture of reductive and oxidative metabolisms. Together this combined metagenomic and high-resolution isotopic analysis demonstrates active sulfur cycling at the microscale within well-structured macroscopic consortia consisting of sulfide-oxidizing anoxygenic phototrophs and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

  4. Trophic interactions induce spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on rough surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Or, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The spatial context of microbial interactions common in natural systems is largely absent in traditional pure culture-based microbiology. The understanding of how interdependent microbial communities assemble and coexist in limited spatial domains remains sketchy. A mechanistic model of cell-level interactions among multispecies microbial populations grown on hydrated rough surfaces facilitated systematic evaluation of how trophic dependencies shape spatial self-organization of microbial consortia in complex diffusion fields. The emerging patterns were persistent irrespective of initial conditions and resilient to spatial and temporal perturbations. Surprisingly, the hydration conditions conducive for self-assembly are extremely narrow and last only while microbial cells remain motile within thin aqueous films. The resulting self-organized microbial consortia patterns could represent optimal ecological templates for the architecture that underlie sessile microbial colonies on natural surfaces. Understanding microbial spatial self-organization offers new insights into mechanisms that sustain small-scale soil microbial diversity; and may guide the engineering of functional artificial microbial consortia. PMID:25343307

  5. Functional Stability Of A Mixed Microbial Consortia Producing PHA From Waste Carbon Sources

    SciTech Connect

    David N. Thompson; Erik R. Coats; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; Michael P. Wolcott

    2006-04-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), naturally-occurring biological polyesters that are microbially synthesized from a myriad of carbon sources, can be utilized as biodegradable substitutes for petroleum-derived thermoplastics. However, current PHA commercialization schemes are limited by high feedstock costs, the requirement for aseptic reactors, and high separation and purification costs. Bacteria indigenous to municipal waste streams can accumulate large quantities of PHA under environmentally controlled conditions; hence, a potentially more environmentally-effective method of production would utilize these consortia to produce PHAs from inexpensive waste carbon sources. In this study, PHA production was accomplished in sequencing batch bioreactors utilizing mixed microbial consortia from municipal activated sludge as inoculum, in cultures grown on real wastewaters. PHA production averaged 85%, 53%, and 10% of the cell dry weight from methanol-enriched pulp-and-paper mill foul condensate, fermented municipal primary solids, and biodiesel wastewater, respectively. The PHA-producing microbial consortia were examined to explore the microbial community changes that occurred during reactor operations, employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S-rDNA from PCR-amplified DNA extracts. Distinctly different communities were observed both between and within wastewaters following enrichment. More importantly, stable functions were maintained despite the differing and contrasting microbial populations.

  6. 1,4-Dioxane-degrading consortia can be enriched from uncontaminated soils: prevalence of Mycobacterium and soluble di-iron monooxygenase genes.

    PubMed

    He, Ya; Mathieu, Jacques; da Silva, Marcio L B; Li, Mengyan; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2017-10-06

    Two bacterial consortia were enriched from uncontaminated soil by virtue of their ability to grow on 1,4-dioxane (dioxane) as a sole carbon and energy source. Their specific dioxane degradation rates at 30°C, pH = 7 (i.e. 5.7 to 7.1 g-dioxane per g-protein per day) were comparable to those of two dioxane-metabolizing archetypes: Pseudonocardia dioxanivoransCB1190 and Mycobacterium dioxanotrophicusPH-06. Based on 16S rRNA sequencing, Mycobacterium was the dominant genus. Acetylene inhibition tests suggest that dioxane degradation was mediated by monooxygenases. However, qPCR analyses targeting the tetrahydrofuran/dioxane monooxygenase gene (thmA/dxmA) (which is, to date, the only sequenced dioxane monooxygenase gene) were negative, indicating that other (as yet unknown) catabolic gene(s) were responsible. DNA sequence analyses also showed threefold to sevenfold enrichment of group 5 and group 6 soluble di-iron monooxygenase (SDIMO) genes relative to the original soil samples. Whereas biodegradation of trace levels of dioxane is a common challenge at contaminated sites, both consortia degraded dioxane at low initial concentrations (300 μg l(-1) ) below detectable levels (5 μg l(-1) ) in bioaugmented microcosms prepared with impacted groundwater. Overall, this work shows that dioxane-degrading bacteria (and the associated natural attenuation potential) exist even in some uncontaminated soils, and may be enriched to broaden bioaugmentation options for sites experiencing insufficient dioxane catabolic capacity. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, Frederick A.

    1995-12-05

    A method for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested, composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness.

  8. Corrosion testing using isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1995-12-05

    A method is described for determining the corrosion behavior of a material with respect to a medium in contact with the material by: implanting a substantially chemically inert gas in a matrix so that corrosion experienced by the material causes the inert gas to enter the medium; placing the medium in contact with the material; and measuring the amount of inert gas which enters the medium. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested is described composed of: a body of the material, which body has a surface to be contacted by the medium; and a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the body to a depth below the surface. A test sample of a material whose resistance to corrosion by a medium is to be tested is described composed of: a substrate of material which is easily corroded by the medium, the substrate having a surface; a substantially chemically inert gas implanted into the substrate; and a sheet of the material whose resistance to corrosion is to be tested, the sheet being disposed against the surface of the substrate and having a defined thickness. 3 figs.

  9. Microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep groundwater environment

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Pauliina; Carpén, Leena; Vepsäläinen, Mikko; Raulio, Mari; Sohlberg, Elina; Bomberg, Malin

    2015-01-01

    The metallic low and intermediate level radioactive waste generally consists of carbon steel and stainless steels. The corrosion rate of carbon steel in deep groundwater is typically low, unless the water is very acidic or microbial activity in the environment is high. Therefore, the assessment of microbially induced corrosion of carbon steel in deep bedrock environment has become important for evaluating the safety of disposal of radioactive waste. Here we studied the corrosion inducing ability of indigenous microbial community from a deep bedrock aquifer. Carbon steel coupons were exposed to anoxic groundwater from repository site 100 m depth (Olkiluoto, Finland) for periods of 3 and 8 months. The experiments were conducted at both in situ temperature and room temperature to investigate the response of microbial population to elevated temperature. Our results demonstrate that microorganisms from the deep bedrock aquifer benefit from carbon steel introduced to the nutrient poor anoxic deep groundwater environment. In the groundwater incubated with carbon steel the planktonic microbial community was more diverse and 100-fold more abundant compared to the environment without carbon steel. The betaproteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial class in all samples where carbon steel was present, whereas in groundwater incubated without carbon steel the microbial community had clearly less diversity. Microorganisms induced pitting corrosion and were found to cluster inside the corrosion pits. Temperature had an effect on the species composition of microbial community and also affected the corrosion deposits layer formed on the surface of carbon steel. PMID:26257707

  10. Succession of microbial consortia in the developing infant gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Jeremy E; Spor, Aymé; Scalfone, Nicholas; Fricker, Ashwana D; Stombaugh, Jesse; Knight, Rob; Angenent, Largus T; Ley, Ruth E

    2011-03-15

    The colonization process of the infant gut microbiome has been called chaotic, but this view could reflect insufficient documentation of the factors affecting the microbiome. We performed a 2.5-y case study of the assembly of the human infant gut microbiome, to relate life events to microbiome composition and function. Sixty fecal samples were collected from a healthy infant along with a diary of diet and health status. Analysis of >300,000 16S rRNA genes indicated that the phylogenetic diversity of the microbiome increased gradually over time and that changes in community composition conformed to a smooth temporal gradient. In contrast, major taxonomic groups showed abrupt shifts in abundance corresponding to changes in diet or health. Community assembly was nonrandom: we observed discrete steps of bacterial succession punctuated by life events. Furthermore, analysis of ≈ 500,000 DNA metagenomic reads from 12 fecal samples revealed that the earliest microbiome was enriched in genes facilitating lactate utilization, and that functional genes involved in plant polysaccharide metabolism were present before the introduction of solid food, priming the infant gut for an adult diet. However, ingestion of table foods caused a sustained increase in the abundance of Bacteroidetes, elevated fecal short chain fatty acid levels, enrichment of genes associated with carbohydrate utilization, vitamin biosynthesis, and xenobiotic degradation, and a more stable community composition, all of which are characteristic of the adult microbiome. This study revealed that seemingly chaotic shifts in the microbiome are associated with life events; however, additional experiments ought to be conducted to assess how different infants respond to similar life events.

  11. Biodegradation kinetics of neutralized Sarin by two different consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.; Harvey, S.P.; Wild, J.R.; Rainina, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Sarin (o-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate), one of the several highly toxic chemical warfare agents, can be readily neutralized in sodium hydroxide solution forming large quantities of brine solution containing IMPA (o-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid) and sodium fluoride that must be further processed and disposed. Two mixed cultures were successfully acclimated to use IMPA as a phosphorus source. The medium formula was chosen to provide the reactors with adequate alternative carbon sources so that the only limiting factor of the bacterial growth is phosphorus. Kinetic studies of the two cultures both in suspended and encapsulated forms were done with the initial IMPA concentrations ranged from 15 mg/L to 1,280 mg/L. Kinetic parameters were estimated based on IMPA and biomass concentrations measured over time using Monod equation and the least square method. For both cultures IMPA was not inhibitive under the tested conditions. For the free cells, n{sub max} was 131.3 mg/l/day for the APG swamp microorganisms and 120.9 mg/l/day for the soil extracted microorganisms. For the encapsulated cells, n{sub max} was 81.7 mg/l/day for the APG swamp microorganisms and 67.1 mg/l/day for the soil extracted microorganisms. The smaller values of n{sub max} for both types of the encapsulated microorganisms were very likely caused by substrate and nutrient transport limitation. For both cultures and both cell forms, it was observed that the degradation of IMPA formed MPA and phosphate sequentially. This led to the proposal of an IMPA biodegradative pathway involving an organophosphate hydrolase catalyzed reaction forming MPA. This would then be followed by C-P lyase catalyzed reaction transforming MPA to orthophosphate.

  12. Air-dust-borne associations of phototrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms: promising consortia in volatile hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Al-Bader, Dhia; Eliyas, Mohamed; Rayan, Rihab; Radwan, Samir

    2012-11-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms active in hydrocarbon bioremediation have been described earlier. The question arises: do similar consortia also occur in the atmosphere? Dust samples at the height of 15 m were collected from Kuwait City air, and analyzed microbiologically for phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms, which were subsequently characterized according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. The hydrocarbon utilization potential of the heterotrophs alone, and in association with the phototrophic partners, was measured quantitatively. The chlorophyte Gloeotila sp. and the two cyanobacteria Nostoc commune and Leptolyngbya thermalis were found associated with dust, and (for comparison) the cynobacteria Leptolyngbya sp. and Acaryochloris sp. were isolated from coastal water. All phototrophic cultures harbored oil vapor-utilizing bacteria in the magnitude of 10(5) g(-1). Each phototrophic culture had its unique oil-utilizing bacteria; however, the bacterial composition in Leptolyngbya cultures from air and water was similar. The hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria were affiliated with Acinetobacter sp., Aeromonas caviae, Alcanivorax jadensis, Bacillus asahii, Bacillus pumilus, Marinobacter aquaeolei, Paenibacillus sp., and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. The nonaxenic cultures, when used as inocula in batch cultures, attenuated crude oil in light and dark, and in the presence of antibiotics and absence of nitrogenous compounds. Aqueous and diethyl ether extracts from the phototrophic cultures enhanced the growth of the pertinent oil-utilizing bacteria in batch cultures, with oil vapor as a sole carbon source. It was concluded that the airborne microbial associations may be effective in bioremediating atmospheric hydrocarbon pollutants in situ. Like the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, the atmosphere contains dust-borne associations of phototrophic and heterotrophic hydrocarbon

  13. High Voltage Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) as a New Method for Detection of PAH During Screening for PAH-Degrading Microbial Consortia.

    PubMed

    Staninska, Justyna; Szczepaniak, Zuzanna; Staninski, Krzysztof; Czarny, Jakub; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Nowak, Jacek; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Cyplik, Paweł

    The search for new bacterial consortia capable of removing PAH from the environment is associated with the need to employ novel, simple, and economically efficient detection methods. A fluorimetric method (FL) as well as high voltage electrochemiluminescence (ECL) on a modified surface of an aluminum electrode were used in order to determine the changes in the concentrations of PAH in the studied aqueous solutions. The ECL signal (the spectrum and emission intensity for a given wavelength) was determined with the use of an apparatus operating in single photon counting mode. The dependency of ECL and FL intensity on the concentration of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene was linear in the studied concentration range. The biodegradation kinetics of the particular PAH compounds was determined on the basis of the obtained spectroscopic determinations. It has been established that the half-life of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at initial concentrations of 50 mg/l (beyond the solubility limit) reached 41, 75, and 130 h, accordingly. Additionally, the possibility of using ECL for rapid determination of the soluble fraction of PAH directly in the aqueous medium has been confirmed. Metagenomic analysis of the gene encoding 16S rRNA was conducted on the basis of V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and allowed to identify 198 species of bacteria that create the S4consortium. The consortium was dominated by Gammaproteobacteria (78.82 %), Flavobacteria (9.25 %), Betaproteobacteria (7.68 %), Sphingobacteria (3.76 %), Alphaproteobacteria (0.42 %), Clostridia (0.04 %), and Bacilli (0.03 %).

  14. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  15. Solving A Corrosion Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.

  16. Underground pipeline corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Gundry, R.D.

    1988-04-01

    In the past few years, the pipeline corrosion control industry has been shaken by several catastrophic pipeline failures attributed to corrosion. Reports of corrosion-related failures seem to be on the rise, and this has caused the industry to reassess the criteria for cathodic protection and the correct application of the criteria. The US Congress and many state legislatures are also asking questions about pipeline safety. Several pieces of legislation are proposed to improve pipeline safety. NACE Task Group T-10-1 is in the process of revising Standard RP0169. Field data have been solicited from industry and are being analyzed. The committee has reviewed an extensive compilation of articles written over the last 50 years to evaluate the existing document. The committee is also awaiting the issuance of an Interim Report from the American Gas Association on the effectiveness of the criteria. The report is to present data obtained from several field test sites from around the country.

  17. Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Russ Braunling

    2004-10-31

    The Corrosion Monitoring System (CMS) program developed and demonstrated a continuously on-line system that provides real-time corrosion information. The program focused on detecting pitting corrosion in its early stages. A new invention called the Intelligent Ultrasonic Probe (IUP) was patented on the program. The IUP uses ultrasonic guided waves to detect small defects and a Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) algorithm to provide an image of the pits. Testing of the CMS demonstrated the capability to detect pits with dimensionality in the sub-millimeter range. The CMS was tested in both the laboratory and in a pulp and paper industrial plant. The system is capable of monitoring the plant from a remote location using the internet.

  18. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Bacterial Vaginosis – CDC Fact Sheet Language: English (US) Españ ...

  19. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2011-06-07

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  20. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Fronk, Matthew Howard; Borup, Rodney Lynn; Hulett, Jay S.; Brady, Brian K.; Cunningham, Kevin M.

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  1. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Fronk, Matthew Howard [Honeoye Falls, NY; Borup, Rodney Lynn [East Rochester, NY; Hulett, Jay S [Rochester, NY; Brady, Brian K. NY; Cunningham, Kevin M [Romeo, MI

    2011-06-07

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  2. Novel microbial populations in ambient and mesophilic biogas-producing and phenol-degrading consortia unraveled by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ju, Feng; Zhang, Tong

    2014-08-01

    Methanogenesis from wastewater-borne organics and organic solid wastes (e.g., food residues) can be severely suppressed by the presence of toxic phenols. In this work, ambient (20 °C) and mesophilic (37 °C) methane-producing and phenol-degrading consortia were enriched and characterized using high-throughput sequencing (HTS). 454 Pyrosequencing indicated novel W22 (25.0 % of bacterial sequences) in the WWE1 and Sulfurovum-resembled species (32.0 %) in the family Campylobacterales were the most abundant in mesophilic and ambient reactors, respectively, which challenges previous knowledge that Syntrophorhabdus was the most predominant. Previous findings may underestimate bacterial diversity and low-abundance bacteria, but overestimate abundance of Syntrophorhabdus. Illumina HTS revealed that archaeal populations were doubled in ambient reactor and tripled in mesophilic reactor, respectively, compared to the ∼4.9 % (of the bacteria and archaea sequences) in the seed sludge. Moreover, unlike the dominance of Methanosarcina in seed sludge, acetotrophic Methanosaeta predominated both (71.4-76.5 % of archaeal sequences) ambient and mesophilic enrichments. Noteworthy, this study, for the first time, discovered the co-occurrence of green sulfur bacteria Chlorobia, sulfur-reducing Desulfovibrio, and Sulfurovum-resembling species under ambient condition, which could presumably establish mutualistic relationships to compete with syntrophic bacteria and methanogens, leading to the deterioration of methanogenic activity. Taken together, this HTS-based study unravels the high microbial diversity and complicated bacterial interactions within the biogas-producing and phenol-degrading bioreactors, and the identification of novel bacterial species and dominant methanogens involved in the phenol degradation provides novel insights into the operation of full-scale bioreactors for maximizing biogas generation.

  3. The effect of the source of microorganisms on adaptation of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage.

    PubMed

    Poszytek, Krzysztof; Pyzik, Adam; Sobczak, Adam; Lipinski, Leszek; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-02-17

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the source of microorganisms on the selection of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage. The selection process was investigated based on the analysis of changes in the hydrolytic activity and the diversity of microbial communities derived from (i) a hydrolyzer of a commercial agricultural biogas plant, (ii) cattle slurry and (iii) raw sewage sludge, during a series of 10 passages. Following the selection process, the adapted consortia were thoroughly analyzed for their ability to utilize maize silage and augmentation of anaerobic digestion communities. The results of selection of the consortia showed that every subsequent passage of each consortium leads to their adaptation to degradation of maize silage, which was manifested by the increased hydrolytic activity of the adapted consortia. Biodiversity analysis (based on the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing) confirmed the changes microbial community of each consortium, and showed that after the last (10th) passage all microbial communities were dominated by the representatives of Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae. The results of the functional analyses showed that the adapted consortia improved the efficiency of maize silage degradation, as indicated by the increase in the concentration of glucose and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), as well as the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). Moreover, bioaugmentation of anaerobic digestion communities by the adapted hydrolytic consortia increased biogas yield by 10-29%, depending on the origin of the community. The obtained results also indicate that substrate input (not community origin) was the driving force responsible for the changes in the community structure of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion.

  4. Effect of copper and lead on two consortia of phototrophic microorganisms and their capacity to sequester metals.

    PubMed

    Burgos, A; Maldonado, J; De Los Rios, A; Solé, A; Esteve, I

    2013-09-15

    The roles of consortia of phototrophic microorganisms have been investigated in this paper to determine their potential role to tolerate or resist metals and to capture them from polluted cultures. With this purpose, two consortia of microorganisms: on one hand, Geitlerinema sp. DE2011 (Ge) and Scenedesmus sp. DE2009 (Sc) (both identified in this paper by molecular biology methods) isolated from Ebro Delta microbial mats, and on the other, Spirulina sp. PCC 6313 (Sp) and Chroococcus sp. PCC 9106 (Ch), from Pasteur culture collection were polluted with copper and lead. In order to analyze the ability of these consortia to tolerate and capture metals, copper and lead were selected, because both have been detected in Ebro Delta microbial mats. The tolerance-resistance to copper and lead for both consortia was determined in vivo and at cellular level by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM-λscan function). The results obtained demonstrate that both consortia are highly tolerant-resistant to lead and that the limits between the copper concentration having cytotoxic effect and that having an essential effect are very close in these microorganisms. The capacity of both consortia to capture extra- and intracellular copper and lead was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) respectively, coupled to an Energy Dispersive X-ray detector (EDX). The results showed that all the microorganisms assayed were able to capture copper extracellularly in the extrapolymeric substances, and lead extra- and intracellularly in polyphosphate inclusions. Moreover, the studied micro-organisms did not exert any inhibitory effect on each other's metal binding capacity. From the results obtained in this paper, it can be concluded that consortia of phototrophic microorganisms could play a very important role in biorepairing sediments polluted by metals, as a result of their ability to tolerate or resist high concentrations of metals and to

  5. The effect of corrosion inhibitors on microbial communities associated with corrosion in a model flow cell system.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Kathleen E; Perez-Ibarra, Beatriz Monica; Jenneman, Gary; Harris, Jennifer Busch; Webb, Robert; Sublette, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    A model flow cell system was designed to investigate pitting corrosion in pipelines associated with microbial communities. A microbial inoculum producing copious amounts of H₂S was enriched from an oil pipeline biofilm sample. Reservoirs containing a nutrient solution and the microbial inoculum were pumped continuously through six flow cells containing mild steel corrosion coupons. Two cells received corrosion inhibitor "A", two received corrosion inhibitor "B", and two ("untreated") received no additional chemicals. Coupons were removed after 1 month and analyzed for corrosion profiles and biofilm microbial communities. Coupons from replicate cells showed a high degree of similarity in pitting parameters and in microbial community profiles, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence libraries but differed with treatment regimen, suggesting that the corrosion inhibitors differentially affected microbial species. Viable microbial biomass values were more than 10-fold higher for coupons from flow cells treated with corrosion inhibitors than for coupons from untreated flow cells. The total number of pits >10 mils diameter and maximum pitting rate were significantly correlated with each other and the total number of pits with the estimated abundance of sequences classified as Desulfomicrobium. The maximum pitting rate was significantly correlated with the sum of the estimated abundance of Desulfomicrobium plus Clostridiales, and with the sum of the estimated abundance of Desulfomicrobium plus Betaproteobacteria. The lack of significant correlation with the estimated abundance of Deltaproteobacteria suggests not all Deltaproteobacteria species contribute equally to microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) and that it is not sufficient to target one bacterial group when monitoring for MIC.

  6. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  7. Bacterial Sialidase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Data shows that elevated sialidase in bacterial vaginosis patients correlates to premature births in women. Bacterial sialidase also plays a significant role in the unusual colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients. Crystals of Salmonella sialidase have been reproduced and are used for studying the inhibitor-enzyme complexes. These inhibitors may also be used to inhibit a trans-sialidase of Trypanosome cruzi, a very similar enzyme to bacterial sialidase, therefore preventing T. cruzi infection, the causitive agent of Chagas' disease. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography suggests that inhibitors of bacterial sialidases can be used as prophylactic drugs to prevent bacterial infections in these critical cases.

  8. Corrosion protection by anaerobiosis.

    PubMed

    Volkland, H P; Harms, H; Wanner; Zehnder, A J

    2001-01-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria can protect mild (unalloyed) steel from corrosion. Mild steel coupons incubated with Rhodoccocus sp. strain C125 and Pseudomonas putida mt2 in an aerobic phosphate-buffered medium containing benzoate as carbon and energy source, underwent a surface reaction leading to the formation of a corrosion-inhibiting vivianite layer [Fe3(PO4)2]. Electrochemical potential (E) measurements allowed us to follow the buildup of the vivianite cover. The presence of sufficient metabolically active bacteria at the steel surface resulted in an E decrease to -510 mV, the potential of free iron, and a continuous release of ferrous iron. Part of the dissolved iron precipitated as vivianite in a compact layer of two to three microns in thickness. This layer prevented corrosion of mild steel for over two weeks, even in a highly corrosive medium. A concentration of 20 mM phosphate in the medium was found to be a prerequisite for the formation of the vivianite layer.

  9. Underground corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion of underground metallic structures continues to be a crucial concern within society and the engineering community. Costs associated with corrosion losses are staggering. Indirect costs associated with environmental damage as well as loss of public confidence has in many cases out-stripped direct costs for facility repair and replacement. NACE Group Committee T-10, responsible for the study and advancement of technology necessary for engineering solutions for underground corrosion problems, is divided into five key unit committees as follows: cathodic protection; interference problems; electric power and communications; protective coating systems; and internal corrosion of pipelines. The papers presented in this publication reflect the most recent developments in field practice in all five areas. Cathodic protection criteria, protection of pipelines, tanks and pilings, test methods, transit systems investigations, power and communication cables, and compliance with regulations are addressed. Interference testing, refinery problems, methods of safely mitigating the effects of induced AC on pipelines, and experience with alternate engineering materials such as prestressed concrete cylinder pipe and ductile iron pipe are included. All 37 papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. COPPER CORROSION RESEARCH UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Copper release and corrosion related issues continue to be important to many water systems. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the current state of copper research at the USEPA. Specifically, the role of aging on copper release, use of phosphates for copper corrosio...

  11. NAVAIR Corrosion Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Cleaning Efficiency • Hydrogen Embrittlement •Corrosion Testing •Storage Stability (1 & 2 year extended) •Pump Bottles, 5 gal pail, 55 gal drum 20...Technology - Materials Protection Advanced Polymers and Composites  NDI Functional materials IN-SERVICE ENGINEERING/PRODUCTION SUPPORT • FRC/ISSC Engineering

  12. Corrosion resistant cemented carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.

    1990-10-16

    This paper describes a corrosion resistant cemented carbide composite. It comprises: a granular tungsten carbide phase, a semi-continuous solid solution carbide phase extending closely adjacent at least a portion of the grains of tungsten carbide for enhancing corrosion resistance, and a substantially continuous metal binder phase. The cemented carbide composite consisting essentially of an effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive, from about 4 to about 16 percent by weight metal binder phase, and with the remaining portion being from about 84 to about 96 percent by weight metal carbide wherein the metal carbide consists essentially of from about 4 to about 30 percent by weight of a transition metal carbide or mixtures thereof selected from Group IVB and of the Periodic Table of Elements and from about 70 to about 96 percent tungsten carbide. The metal binder phase consists essentially of nickel and from about 10 to about 25 percent by weight chromium, the effective amount of an anti-corrosion additive being selected from the group consisting essentially of copper, silver, tine and combinations thereof.

  13. Smart Coatings for Corrosion Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Li, Wendy; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Johnsey, Marissa N.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly all metals and their alloys are subject to corrosion that causes them to lose their structural integrity or other critical functionality. It is essential to detect corrosion when it occurs, and preferably at its early stage, so that action can be taken to avoid structural damage or loss of function. Protective coatings are the most commonly used method of corrosion control. However, progressively stricter environmental regulations have resulted in the ban of many commercially available corrosion protective coatings due to the harmful effects of their solvents or corrosion inhibitors. This work concerns the development of a multifunctional, smart coating for the autonomous control of corrosion. This coating is being developed to have the inherent ability to detect the chemical changes associated with the onset of corrosion and respond autonomously to indicate it and control it.

  14. Anaerobic biodegradation of BTEX by original bacterial communities from an underground gas storage aquifer.

    PubMed

    Berlendis, Sabrina; Lascourreges, Jean-François; Schraauwers, Blandine; Sivadon, Pierre; Magot, Michel

    2010-05-01

    BTEX biodegradation by an indigenous deep subsurface microbial community was evaluated in a water sample collected in the area of an underground gas storage. Five different sulfate-reducing microbial communities able to use at least either benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, or xylene (BTEX) compounds were studied. A total of 21 different bacterial phylotypes were identified, each community containing three to nine bacterial phylotypes. Archaeal phylotypes were retrieved from only three communities. The analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that i) these consortia were mainly composed of novel species, some of which belonging to bacterial groups not previously suspected to be involved in BTEX anaerobic degradation, ii) three consortia were dominated by an uncultured Pelobacter sp. previously detected in biodegraded oil reservoirs, iii) a deeply branching species distantly affiliated to Thermotogales was abundant in two consortia, and that iv) Firmicutes related to the Desulfotomaculum and Carboxydocella genera represented the only three detectable phylotypes in a toluene-degrading consortium. This work shows that subdominant microbial populations present in a deep subsurface aquifer used for seasonal underground gas storage could be involved in the natural attenuation of the traces of BTEX coinjected with methane in the deep subsurface.

  15. Biological treatment of tannery wastewater by using salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar; Mahadevan, Surianarayanan; Sekar, Sudharshan; Rajakumar, Susheela

    2008-01-01

    Background High salinity (1–10% w/v) of tannery wastewater makes it difficult to be treated by conventional biological treatment. Salt tolerant microbes can adapt to these saline conditions and degrade the organics in saline wastewater. Results Four salt tolerant bacterial strains isolated from marine and tannery saline wastewater samples were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth factors of the identified strains were optimized. Tannery saline wastewater obtained from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) near Chennai (southern India) was treated with pure and mixed consortia of four salt tolerant bacterial strains. Experiments with optimized conditions and varying salt content (between 2 and 10% (w/v) were conducted. Salt inhibition effects on COD removal rate were noted. Comparative analysis was made by treating the tannery saline wastewater with activated sludge obtained from CETP and with natural habitat microbes present in raw tannery saline wastewater. Conclusion Salt tolerant bacterial mixed consortia showed appreciable biodegradation at all saline concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% w/v) with 80% COD reduction in particular at 8% salinity level the consortia could be used as suitable working cultures for tannery saline wastewater treatment. PMID:18445252

  16. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    SciTech Connect

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80{degrees}C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either {open_quotes}satisfactory{close_quotes} (2-20 mpy) or {open_quotes}excellent{close_quotes} (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment.

  17. Corrosion potential analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Karl F.

    1998-03-01

    Many cities in the northeastern U.S. transport electrical power from place to place via underground cables, which utilize voltages from 68 kv to 348 kv. These cables are placed in seamless steel pipe to protect the conductors. These buried pipe-type-cables (PTCs) are carefully designed and constantly pressurized with transformer oil to prevent any possible contamination. A protective coating placed on the outside diameter of the pipe during manufacture protects the steel pipe from the soil environment. Notwithstanding the protection mechanisms available, the pipes remain vulnerable to electrochemical corrosion processes. If undetected, corrosion can cause the pipes to leak transformer oil into the environment. These leaks can assume serious proportions due to the constant pressure on the inside of the pipe. A need exists for a detection system that can dynamically monitor the corrosive potential on the length of the pipe and dynamically adjust cathodic protection to counter local and global changes in the cathodic environment surrounding the pipes. The northeastern United States contains approximately 1000 miles of this pipe. This milage is critical to the transportation and distribution of power. So critical, that each of the pipe runs has a redundant double running parallel to it. Invocon, Inc. proposed and tested a technically unique and cost effective solution to detect critical corrosion potential and to communicate that information to a central data collection and analysis location. Invocon's solution utilizes the steel of the casing pipe as a communication medium. Each data gathering station on the pipe can act as a relay for information gathered elsewhere on the pipe. These stations must have 'smart' network configuration algorithms that constantly test various communication paths and determine the best and most power efficient route through which information should flow. Each network station also performs data acquisition and analysis tasks that ultimately

  18. Education commissioning by consortia: some theoretical and practical issues relating to qualitative aspects of British nurse education.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, J

    1996-12-01

    In 1995 the British National Health Service (NHS) Executive published details of a new framework for planning and commissioning education and training in the NHS. Among the central elements of these new arrangements are consortia of representatives from health care provider organizations and purchasing authorities among others, who will in due course take on responsibility for the commissioning of non-medical education and training (NMET). This NMET market is clearly distinct from the larger 'internal market' for health care provision by virtue of its separate funding, and different supply and demand side components. This paper includes an analysis of the new arrangements in terms of quasi-market theory and articulates a key role for consortia in harmonising the distinct markets for health services and NMET. A primary purpose of the paper is to examine the extent to which the new arrangements generally, and consortia in particular, can ensure that NMET contributes to NHS reform. Evidence from consortium development work in the South Thames Regional Health Authority, England, is discussed and it is argued that consortia will only perform effectively if they receive devolved real powers to an extent that persuades members to genuinely commit themselves to the proper development of consortia and the responsibilities of NMET commissioning. Finally a tendency to become preoccupied with education and training operations and processes rather than outputs is described and identified as a threat both to consortium effectiveness and educational innovation.

  19. Genomic Reconstruction of Carbohydrate Utilization Capacities in Microbial-Mat Derived Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Leyn, Semen A.; Maezato, Yukari; Romine, Margaret F.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.

    2017-01-01

    Two nearly identical unicyanobacterial consortia (UCC) were previously isolated from benthic microbial mats that occur in a heliothermal saline lake in northern Washington State. Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for most heterotrophic bacteria. Since CO2 is the only carbon source provided, the cyanobacterium must provide a source of carbon to the heterotrophs. Available genomic sequences for all members of the UCC provide opportunity to investigate the metabolic routes of carbon transfer between autotroph and heterotrophs. Here, we applied a subsystem-based comparative genomics approach to reconstruct carbohydrate utilization pathways and identify glycohydrolytic enzymes, carbohydrate transporters and pathway-specific transcriptional regulators in 17 heterotrophic members of the UCC. The reconstructed metabolic pathways include 800 genes, near a one-fourth of which encode enzymes, transporters and regulators with newly assigned metabolic functions resulting in discovery of novel functional variants of carbohydrate utilization pathways. The in silico analysis revealed the utilization capabilities for 40 carbohydrates and their derivatives. Two Halomonas species demonstrated the largest number of sugar catabolic pathways. Trehalose, sucrose, maltose, glucose, and beta-glucosides are the most commonly utilized saccharides in this community. Reconstructed regulons for global regulators HexR and CceR include central carbohydrate metabolism genes in the members of Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, respectively. Genomics analyses were supplemented by experimental characterization of metabolic phenotypes in four isolates derived from the consortia. Measurements of isolate growth on the defined medium supplied with individual carbohydrates confirmed most of the predicted catabolic phenotypes. Not all consortia members use carbohydrates and only a few use complex polysaccharides suggesting a hierarchical carbon flow from cyanobacteria to

  20. Identification and Resolution of Microdiversity through Metagenomic Sequencing of Parallel Consortia

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, William C.; Maezato, Yukari; Wu, Yu-Wei; Romine, Margaret F.; Lindemann, Stephen R.; Löffler, F. E.

    2015-10-23

    To gain a predictive understanding of the interspecies interactions within microbial communities that govern community function, the genomic complement of every member population must be determined. Although metagenomic sequencing has enabled thede novoreconstruction of some microbial genomes from environmental communities, microdiversity confounds current genome reconstruction techniques. To overcome this issue, we performed short-read metagenomic sequencing on parallel consortia, defined as consortia cultivated under the same conditions from the same natural community with overlapping species composition. The differences in species abundance between the two consortia allowed reconstruction of near-complete (at an estimated >85% of gene complement) genome sequences for 17 of the 20 detected member species. TwoHalomonasspp. indistinguishable by amplicon analysis were found to be present within the community. In addition, comparison of metagenomic reads against the consensus scaffolds revealed within-species variation for one of theHalomonaspopulations, one of theRhodobacteraceaepopulations, and theRhizobialespopulation. Genomic comparison of these representative instances of inter- and intraspecies microdiversity suggests differences in functional potential that may result in the expression of distinct roles in the community. In addition, isolation and complete genome sequence determination of six member species allowed an investigation into the sensitivity and specificity of genome reconstruction processes, demonstrating robustness across a wide range of sequence coverage (9× to 2,700×) within the metagenomic data set.

  1. Biodegradation of different petroleum hydrocarbons by free and immobilized microbial consortia.

    PubMed

    Shen, Tiantian; Pi, Yongrui; Bao, Mutai; Xu, Nana; Li, Yiming; Lu, Jinren

    2015-12-01

    The efficiencies of free and immobilized microbial consortia in the degradation of different types of petroleum hydrocarbons were investigated. In this study, the biodegradation rates of naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and crude oil reached about 80%, 30%, 56% and 48% under the optimum environmental conditions of free microbial consortia after 7 d. We evaluated five unique co-metabolic substances with petroleum hydrocarbons, α-lactose was the best co-metabolic substance among glucose, α-lactose, soluble starch, yeast powder and urea. The orthogonal biodegradation analysis results showed that semi-coke was the best immobilized carrier followed by walnut shell and activated carbon. Meanwhile, the significance of various factors that contribute to the biodegradation of semi-coke immobilized microbial consortia followed the order of: α-lactose > semi-coke > sodium alginate > CaCl2. Moreover, the degradation rate of the immobilized microbial consortium (47%) was higher than that of a free microbial consortium (26%) under environmental conditions such as the crude oil concentration of 3 g L(-1), NaCl concentration of 20 g L(-1), pH at 7.2-7.4 and temperature of 25 °C after 5 d. SEM and FTIR analyses revealed that the structure of semi-coke became more porous and easily adhered to the microbial consortium; the functional groups (e.g., hydroxy and phosphate) were identified in the microbial consortium and were changed by immobilization. This study demonstrated that the ability of microbial adaptation to the environment can be improved by immobilization which expands the application fields of microbial remediation.

  2. Development of methanogenic consortia in fluidized-bed batches using sepiolite of different particle size.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J M; Rodríguez, F; Valle, L; Muñoz, M A; Moriñigo, M A; Borrego, J J

    1996-09-01

    The addition of support materials, such as sepiolite, to fluidized-bed anaerobic digesters enhances the methane production by increasing the colonization by syntrophic microbiota. However, the efficiency in the methanogenesis depends on the particle size of the support material, the highest level of methane production being obtained by the smaller particle size sepiolite. Because of the porosity and physico-chemical characteristics of these support materials, the anaerobic microbial consortia formed quickly (after one week of incubation). The predominant methanogenic bacteria present in the active granules, detected both by immunofluorescence using specific antibodies and by scanning electron microscopy, were acetoclastic methanogens, mainly Methanosarcina and Methanosaeta.

  3. Intermunicipal health care consortia in Brazil: strategic behavior, incentives and sustainability.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luciana; Bugarin, Mauricio; Dourado, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    This article studies strategic behavior in municipal health care consortia where neighboring municipalities form a partnership to supply high-complexity health care. Each municipality partially funds the organization. Depending on the partnership contract, a free rider problem may jeopardize the organization. A municipality will default its payments if it can still benefit from the services, especially when political pressures for competing expenditure arise. The main result is that the partnership sustainability depends on punishment mechanisms to a defaulting member, the gains from joint provision of services and the overall economic environment. Possible solutions to the incentive problem are discussed.

  4. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  5. Assessing microbiologically induced corrosion of waste package materials in the Yucca Mountain repository

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J. M., LLNL

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of bacterial activities to corrosion of nuclear waste package materials must be determined to predict the adequacy of containment for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), NV. The program to evaluate potential microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of candidate waste container materials includes characterization of bacteria in the post-construction YM environment, determination of their required growth conditions and growth rates, quantitative assessment of the biochemical contribution to metal corrosion, and evaluation of overall MIC rates on candidate waste package materials.

  6. Corrosion in a temperature gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; White, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    High temperature corrosion limits the operation of equipment used in the Power Generation Industry. Some of the more destructive corrosive attack occurs on the surfaces of heat exchangers, boilers, and turbines where the alloys are subjected to large temperature gradients that cause a high heat flux through the accumulated ash, the corrosion product, and the alloy. Most current and past corrosion research has, however, been conducted under isothermal conditions. Research on the thermal-gradient-affected corrosion of various metals and alloys is currently being studied at the Albany Research Center’s SECERF (Severe Environment Corrosion and Erosion Research Facility) laboratory. The purpose of this research is to verify theoretical models of heat flux effects on corrosion and to quantify the differences between isothermal and thermal gradient corrosion effects. The effect of a temperature gradient and the resulting heat flux on corrosion of alloys with protective oxide scales is being examined by studying point defect diffusion and corrosion rates. Fick’s first law of diffusion was expanded, using irreversible thermodynamics, to include a heat flux term – a Soret effect. Oxide growth rates are being measured for the high temperature corrosion of cobalt at a metal surface temperature of 900ºC. Corrosion rates are also being determined for the high temperature corrosion of carbon steel boiler tubes in a simulated waste combustion environment consisting of O2, CO2, N2, and water vapor. Tests are being conducted both isothermally and in the presence of a temperature gradient to verify the effects of a heat flux and to compare to isothermal oxidation.

  7. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  8. MULTIPLE IMAGING TECHNIQUES DEMONSTRATE THE MANIPULATION OF SURFACES TO REDUCE BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface imaging techniques were combined to determine appropriate manipulation of technologically important surfaces for commercial applications. Stainless steel surfaces were engineered to reduce bacterial contamination, biofilm formation, and corrosion during product processing...

  9. Impact of nitrate-mediated microbial control of souring in oil reservoirs on the extent of corrosion.

    PubMed

    Nemati, M; Jenneman, G E; Voordouw, G

    2001-01-01

    The effect of microbial control of souring on the extent of corrosion was studied in a model system consisting of pure cultures of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacterium (NR-SOB) Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO and the sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac6, as well as in an SRB consortium enriched from produced water from a Canadian oil reservoir. The average corrosion rate induced by the SRB consortium (1.4 g x m(-2) x day(-1)) was faster than that observed in the presence of strain Lac6 (0.2 g x m(-2) x day(-1)). Examination of the metallic coupons at the end of the tests indicated a uniform corrosion in both cases. Addition of CVO and 10 mM nitrate to a fully grown culture of Lac6 or the SRB consortium led to complete removal of sulfide from the system and a significant increase in the population of CVO, as determined by reverse sample genome probing. In the case of the SRB consortium addition of just nitrate (10 mM) had a similar effect. When grown in the absence of nitrate, the consortium was dominated by Desulfovibrio sp. strains Lac15 and Lac29, while growth in the presence of nitrate led to dominance of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3. The addition of CVO and nitrate to the Lac6 culture or nitrate to the SRB consortium accelerated the average corrosion rate to 1.5 and 2.9 g x m(-2) x day(-1), respectively. Localized corrosion and the occurrence of pitting were apparent in both cases. Although the sulfide concentration (0.5-7 mM) had little effect on corrosion rates, a clear increase of the corrosion rate with increasing nitrate concentration was observed in experiments conducted with consortia enriched from produced water.

  10. Fatigue in the Presence of Corrosion (Fatigue sous corrosion)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    examines the embrittlement of high strength steels from corrosion, the loss in elongation and energy density was because of hydrogen absorption. This...1996. R.F. Heheman (eds.), Hydrogen [23] G.N. Haidemenopoulos, N. Hassiotis, Embrittlement and Stress G. Papapolymerou and Corrosion Cracking, Materials...corrosion fatigue hydrogen embrittlement because the diffusion cracks take over, the propagating flaw is a of Hydrogen would be at saturation. On the hybrid

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; G. Husmillo; V. Trbovic

    2003-01-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter were isolation and cultivation of MIC-causing microorganisms from corroded pipeline samples, optimizing parameters in the laboratory-scale corrosion test loop system and testing the effective concentrations of Capsicum sp. extracts to verify the extent of corrosion on metal coupons by batch culture method. A total of 22 strains from the group of heterotrophic, acid producing, denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria were isolated from the gas pipeline samples obtained from Northern Indiana Public Service Company in Trenton, Indiana. They were purified and will be sent out for identification. Bacterial strains of interest were used in antimicrobial screenings and test loop experiments. Parameters for the laboratory-scale test loop system such as gas and culture medium flow rate; temperature; inoculation period; and length of incubation were established. Batch culture corrosion study against Desulfovibrio vulgaris showed that one (S{sub 1}M) out of the four Capsicum sp. extracts tested was effective in controlling the corrosion rate in metal coupons by 33.33% when compared to the untreated group.

  12. Insights into Cystic Fibrosis Polymicrobial Consortia: The Role of Species Interactions in Biofilm Development, Phenotype, and Response to In-Use Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Andreia P; Lopes, Susana P; Pereira, Maria O

    2016-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) airways disease involves complex polymicrobial infections where different bacterial species can interact and influence each other and/or even interfere with the whole community. To gain insights into the role that interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa in co-culture with Staphylococcus aureus, Inquilinus limosus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia may play in infection, the reciprocal effect during biofilm formation and the response of dual biofilms toward ciprofloxacin under in vitro atmospheres with different oxygen availabilities were evaluated. Biofilm formation kinetics showed that the growth of S. aureus, I. limosus, and S. maltophilia was disturbed in the presence of P. aeruginosa, under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. On the other hand, under aerobic conditions, I. limosus led to a decrease in biofilm mass production by P. aeruginosa, although biofilm-cells viability remains unaltered. The interaction between S. maltophilia and P. aeruginosa positively influenced dual biofilm development by increasing its biomass. Compared with monocultures, biomass of P. aeruginosa+ S. aureus biofilms was significantly reduced by reciprocal interference. When grown in dual biofilms with P. aeruginosa, ciprofloxacin was less effective against S. aureus, I. limosus, and S. maltophilia, with increasing antibiotic doses leading to drastic inhibitions of P. aeruginosa cultivability. Therefore, P. aeruginosa might be responsible for the protection of the whole dual consortia against ciprofloxacin activity. Based on the overall data, it can be speculated that reciprocal interferences occur between the different bacterial species in CF lung, regardless the level of oxygen. The findings also suggest that alterations of bacterial behavior due to species interplay may be important for disease progression in CF infection.

  13. Insights into Cystic Fibrosis Polymicrobial Consortia: The Role of Species Interactions in Biofilm Development, Phenotype, and Response to In-Use Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Andreia P.; Lopes, Susana P.; Pereira, Maria O.

    2017-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) airways disease involves complex polymicrobial infections where different bacterial species can interact and influence each other and/or even interfere with the whole community. To gain insights into the role that interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa in co-culture with Staphylococcus aureus, Inquilinus limosus, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia may play in infection, the reciprocal effect during biofilm formation and the response of dual biofilms toward ciprofloxacin under in vitro atmospheres with different oxygen availabilities were evaluated. Biofilm formation kinetics showed that the growth of S. aureus, I. limosus, and S. maltophilia was disturbed in the presence of P. aeruginosa, under both aerobic and anaerobic environments. On the other hand, under aerobic conditions, I. limosus led to a decrease in biofilm mass production by P. aeruginosa, although biofilm-cells viability remains unaltered. The interaction between S. maltophilia and P. aeruginosa positively influenced dual biofilm development by increasing its biomass. Compared with monocultures, biomass of P. aeruginosa+ S. aureus biofilms was significantly reduced by reciprocal interference. When grown in dual biofilms with P. aeruginosa, ciprofloxacin was less effective against S. aureus, I. limosus, and S. maltophilia, with increasing antibiotic doses leading to drastic inhibitions of P. aeruginosa cultivability. Therefore, P. aeruginosa might be responsible for the protection of the whole dual consortia against ciprofloxacin activity. Based on the overall data, it can be speculated that reciprocal interferences occur between the different bacterial species in CF lung, regardless the level of oxygen. The findings also suggest that alterations of bacterial behavior due to species interplay may be important for disease progression in CF infection. PMID:28133457

  14. 25 CFR 1000.61 - Are other funds available to self-governance Tribes/Consortia for planning and negotiating with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are other funds available to self-governance Tribes/Consortia for planning and negotiating with non-BIA bureaus? 1000.61 Section 1000.61 Indians OFFICE OF THE... other funds available to self-governance Tribes/Consortia for planning and negotiating with...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.132 - How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in developing the list of available programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in... Compacts and Funding Agreements Eligibility § 1000.132 How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia... year, the Secretary must distribute to each participating self-governance Tribe/Consortium the...

  16. 25 CFR 1000.132 - How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in developing the list of available programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in... Compacts and Funding Agreements Eligibility § 1000.132 How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia... year, the Secretary must distribute to each participating self-governance Tribe/Consortium the...

  17. 25 CFR 1000.132 - How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in developing the list of available programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in... Compacts and Funding Agreements Eligibility § 1000.132 How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia... year, the Secretary must distribute to each participating self-governance Tribe/Consortium the...

  18. 25 CFR 1000.132 - How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in developing the list of available programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in... Compacts and Funding Agreements Eligibility § 1000.132 How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia... year, the Secretary must distribute to each participating self-governance Tribe/Consortium the...

  19. 25 CFR 1000.132 - How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in developing the list of available programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia in developing the list of available programs? 1000.132 Section 1000.132 Indians OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... Compacts and Funding Agreements Eligibility § 1000.132 How will the Secretary consult with Tribes/Consortia...

  20. Corrosion studies with pixe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Chaudhri, M.; Crawford, A.

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the possible causes of corrosion of some of the tooth paste tubes of a major international cosmetic product manufacturer, the elemental compositions of corroded and clean unused tubes were compared, using PIXE. It was observed that some of the corroded tubes contained much higher amounts of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn than the clean tubes, while the concentrations of Cr and Ni showed no significant difference between the two types of tubes. Only certain regions of one of the tubes were found to contain higher concentrations of Cu. Those regions were badly corroded and had the highest concentrations of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn, too. It is suggested that the presence of higher amounts of Ti, Fe, Ga and Zn, and especially of Cu, in the aluminium sheets used to manufacture the tooth paste tubes, may be one of the reasons for the corrosion of some of the tooth paste tubes.

  1. [Microbial corrosion of dental alloy].

    PubMed

    Li, Lele; Liu, Li

    2004-10-01

    There is a very complicated electrolytical environment in oral cavity with plenty of microorganisms existing there. Various forms of corrosion would develop when metallic prosthesis functions in mouth. One important corrosive form is microbial corrosion. The metabolic products, including organic acid and inorganic acid, will affect the pH of the surface or interface of metallic prosthesis and make a change in composition of the medium, thus influencing the electron-chemical reaction and promoting the development of corrosion. The problem of develpoment of microbial corrosion on dental alloy in the oral environment lies in the primary condition that the bacteria adhere to the surface of alloy and form a relatively independent environment that promotes corrosion.

  2. Corrosion inhibitors from expired drugs.

    PubMed

    Vaszilcsin, Nicolae; Ordodi, Valentin; Borza, Alexandra

    2012-07-15

    This paper presents a method of expired or unused drugs valorization as corrosion inhibitors for metals in various media. Cyclic voltammograms were drawn on platinum in order to assess the stability of pharmaceutically active substances from drugs at the metal-corrosive environment interface. Tafel slope method was used to determine corrosion rates of steel in the absence and presence of inhibitors. Expired Carbamazepine and Paracetamol tablets were used to obtain corrosion inhibitors. For the former, the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in 0.1 mol L(-1) sulfuric acid solution was about 90%, whereas for the latter, the corrosion inhibition efficiency of the same material in the 0.25 mol L(-1) acetic acid-0.25 mol L(-1) sodium acetate buffer solution was about 85%.

  3. Zirconium for superior corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, K.W.; Richardson, K.

    1997-03-01

    Zirconium is a transition element located along with sister elements titanium and hafnium in Group IVB of the periodic table. It is grayish white metal, with a density somewhat less than carbon steel. Zirconium is the ninth most common metallic element in the earth`s crust, and is more abundant than zinc, lead, nickel, or even copper. Zirconium is exceptionally resistant to corrosion by many common acids and alkalis. It is resistant to most organic acids, such as formic, acetic, lactic, and oxalic acids. It also has a high resistance to localized forms of corrosion, such as pitting, crevice corrosion, and stress corrosion cracking. Its corrosion resistance is caused by the formation of a dense, tenaciously adherent, chemically inert oxide film on the surface. This oxide film protects the base metal from both chemical and mechanical attack at temperatures up to about 400 C (750 F). This article describes zirconium`s formability, machinability, corrosion resistance, and several typical applications.

  4. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, Debra A.; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Thompson, Karen G.; Bryan, Coleman J.

    1997-01-01

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  5. Corrosion resistant coating

    DOEpatents

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Benicewicz, B.C.; Thompson, K.G.; Bryan, C.J.

    1997-08-19

    A method of protecting a metal substrate from corrosion including coating a metal substrate of, e.g., steel, iron or aluminum, with a conductive polymer layer of, e.g., polyaniline, coating upon said metal substrate, and coating the conductive polymer-coated metal substrate with a layer of a topcoat upon the conductive polymer coating layer, is provided, together with the resultant coated article from said method.

  6. CORROSION PROTECTION OF ALUMINUM

    DOEpatents

    Dalrymple, R.S.; Nelson, W.B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred. (D.C.W.)

  7. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    DOEpatents

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  8. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-05

    types of bacteria to diag- nose and predict MIC, and an over interpretation of pit morphology to diagnose MIC [33]. In 2004, NACE International...of evolutionary descent, that is, bacteria , (methanogens), and eukaryota (fungi). The list of ’W<Jrganismls involved in MIC and the mechanisms by...enhanced erosion corrosion. However, microorganisms do not produce a unique con·osion morphology that distinguishes MIC from abiotically produced

  9. Accelerated Corrosion Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    conducted on high-strength 4340 steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy usina accelerating pollutants such as sulfur dinxide, nitrogen dioxide, surface salt...CONTROLLED 100 ATMOSPHERES APPiENDIX B - ACCELERATED ATMDSPHERIC-CORROSION TESTING 128 v I. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Ficure Page 1 Schematic Diagram of Applied...Static-Load Crack-Growth Rate (from ref. 17). 26 12 Environmental-System Flow Diagram . 33 13 Compact-Tension Plane-Strain Fracture-Toughness Specimen

  10. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Richlen, Scott L.

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  11. Papering Over Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center's battle against corrosion led to a new coating that was licensed to GeoTech and is commercially sold as Catize. The coating uses ligno sulfonic acid doped polyaniline (Ligno-Pani), also known as synthetic metal. Ligno-Pani can be used to extend the operating lives of steel bridges as one example of its applications. future applications include computers, televisions, cellular phones, conductive inks, and stealth technology.

  12. Corrosion consultant expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Y.L.

    1994-12-31

    The development and use of an expert system to recommend coatings for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plant is described. The system ranks coatings by their material properties, experimental test and plant performance scores when the component to be coated and its working environment are specified. The user interface, the inference engine, the knowledge base and the implementation of the expert system are presented with comments on its suitability and application for corrosion consultations.

  13. Stress Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Advanced testing of structural materials was developed by Lewis Research Center and Langley Research Center working with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Under contract, Aluminum Company of America (Alcoa) conducted a study for evaluating stress corrosion cracking, and recommended the "breaking load" method which determines fracture strengths as well as measuring environmental degradation. Alcoa and Langley plan to submit the procedure to ASTM as a new testing method.

  14. Methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marcia; Velázquez, Elia; Jan, Janet; Revah, Sergio; González, Uriel; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2004-02-01

    Microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites were individually enriched with pentane, hexane, isooctane and toluene. Cometabolism with methyl tert-butyl ether, (MTBE), gave maximum degradation rates of 49, 12, 32 and 0 mg g(-1)protein h(-1), respectively. MTBE was fully degraded even when pentane was completely depleted with a cometabolic coefficient of 1 mgMTBE mg(-1)pentane. The analysis of 16S rDNA from isolated microorganisms in the pentane-adapted consortia showed that microorganisms could be assigned to Pseudomonas. This is the first work reporting the cometabolic mineralization of MTBE by consortium of this genus.

  15. Recent advances in the study of microbiologically influenced corrosion. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Little, B.; Wagner, P.

    1993-12-31

    The study of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) has progressed from phenomenological case histories to a mature interdisciplinary science including electrochemical, metallurgical, surface analytical, microbiological, biotechnological and biophysical techniques. With gene probes and microelectrodes it is now possible to measure interfacial dissolved oxygen, dissolved sulfide and pH and to further determine the microbial species responsible for the localized chemistry. Biofilms can be tailored to contain consortia of specific microorganisms and naturally occurring biofilms can be dissected into cellular and extracellular constituents. Scanning vibrating electrodes can be used to map the distribution of anodes and cathodes so that localized corrosion can be correlated with the location of microorganisms. The development of environmental scanning electron, atomic force, and laser confocal microscopy makes it possible to image cells on surfaces and to accurately determine the spatial relationship between microorganisms and corrosion. Transport of nutrients through biofilms is being modeled using techniques including optical density measurements to precisely locate the water/biofilm interface and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging to visualize flow characteristics near surfaces colonized with microorganisms. The way in which these now techniques can be used to understand fundamental mechanisms and to discriminate critical issues of MIC will be discussed.

  16. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  17. Corrosive wear principles

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, W.J.

    1993-12-31

    The dual effects of corrosion and wear operate together in such industries as paper and pulp, coal handling, mining, and sugar beet extraction. There is a synergistic effect that causes far greater wastage to carbon steels, alloy steels, and even much more abrasion resistant cast irons. Several laboratory and in situ studies have been conducted to better understand the contributions of corrosion and wear to the wastage process. The environmental conditions are usually set by the process. However, there are a few instances where inhibitors as sodium nitrite, sodium chromate, and sodium metasilicate have been successfully used to reduce metal wastage of carbon steels. Hardness has been found to be an unreliable guide to performance under wet sliding conditions. Heat treated alloy steels and cast irons are inferior to stainless steels. Even distilled water is too severe a corrodent for steels. While the austenitic stainlesses perform the best, cold rolling to increase hardness does not further improve their performance. The surface roughness of stainless steels gets smoother during corrosive wear testing while it gets rougher for the alloy steels. This observation substantiated the reputation of improved slideability for stainless alloys over alloy steels.

  18. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  19. Chemical corrosion potential in boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bairr, D.L.; McDonough, C.J.

    1998-12-31

    Misuse or abuse of chelants has long been recognized as a potential corrosion problem in boilers. In recent years all polymer chemical treatment programs have been introduced and although they are much more benign even all polymer programs must be properly designed and controlled. Under extreme conditions a similar corrosion potential exists. This paper discusses the potential for chelant or polymer corrosion in boilers and the proper safeguards. Case histories are presented.

  20. Vehicle Corrosion Expert System (CES)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-19

    Report developed under SBlR contract for topic A99-092. This report describes the design and development of a vehicle Corrosion Expert System (CES). CES has immediate utility in the automotive industry by vehicle manufactures that have the...eliminate or reduce the expensive Accelerated Corrosion Testing phase of the new vehicle development effort. The Vehicle Corrosion Expert System supports...and level of detail required to allow the user to use the Expert System for his area of interest.

  1. Accelerated Stress-Corrosion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Test procedures for accelerated stress-corrosion testing of high-strength aluminum alloys faster and provide more quantitative information than traditional pass/fail tests. Method uses data from tests on specimen sets exposed to corrosive environment at several levels of applied static tensile stress for selected exposure times then subsequently tensile tested to failure. Method potentially applicable to other degrading phenomena (such as fatigue, corrosion fatigue, fretting, wear, and creep) that promote development and growth of cracklike flaws within material.

  2. Corrosion Mitigation Strategies - an Introduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-05

    Control Technology – Cathodic protection – Corrosion inhibitors – Combination of methods • Balance cost and other factors Candidate Materials - Metals...Technology -UV, ozone,solvents,oxygen • Concrete -acids, chlorides, sulfates • Vitreous Materials-solvents • Corrosion Control • Waterproofing • Weather...Tar Enamel Leaders in Corrosion Control Technology – Tape – Concrete (Weight) Coating • Make metal to be protected act as a cathode • Application of

  3. Revealing characteristics of mixed consortia for azo dye decolorization: Lotka-Volterra model and game theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bor-Yann

    2007-10-22

    This study provides a novel explanation to put forward, in Lotka-Volterra competition model and game theory, interspecific competition in bioaugmentation using constructed mixed consortia for azo dye decolorization. As mixed cultures are regularly used in industrial dye-laden wastewater treatment, understanding species competition of mixed consortia is apparently of great importance to azo dye decolorization. In aerobic growth conditions, Escherichia coli DH5alpha owned a growth advantage to out-compete Pseudomonas luteola due to preferential growth rate of DH5alpha. However, in static decolorization conditions DH5alpha surrendered some proportion of its advantage (i.e., a decrease in its competitive power for metabolite stimulation) to enhance color removal of P. luteola for total coexistence. In aerobic growth, DH5alpha had its growth advantage to exclude P. luteola for dominance (i.e, conflict strategy) according to competitive exclusion principle. In static decolorization conditions, as the removal of a common dye threat was crucial to both species for survival, both species selected cooperation strategy through metabolite stimulation of DH5alpha to enhance effective decolorization of P. luteola for long-term sustainable management. This analysis of game theory clearly unlocked unsolved mysteries in previous studies.

  4. Do the shuffle: Changes in Symbiodinium consortia throughout juvenile coral development.

    PubMed

    Reich, Hannah G; Robertson, Deborah L; Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of symbiotic associations between scleractinians corals and Symbiodinium have demonstrated that the consortium of symbionts can change in response to environmental conditions. However, less is known about symbiont shuffling during early coral development, particularly in brooding species. This study examined whether Symbiodinium consortia (1) varied in Porites astreoides on shallow (10m) and upper mesophotic (30m) reefs, (2) changed during coral development, and (3) influenced growth of juveniles in different environments. Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences were amplified using universal primers and analyzed using phylotype-specific primers designed for phylotypes A, B, and C. Adults from both depths were found to host only phylotype A, phylotypes A and B, or phylotypes A, B, and C and the frequency of the phylotype composition did not vary with depth. However, phylotype A was the dominant symbiont that was vertically transmitted to the planulae. The presence of phylotypes B and C was detected in the majority of juveniles when transplanted onto the shallow and upper mesophotic reefs whereas only phylotype A was detected in the majority of juveniles reared in outdoor aquaria. In addition, growth of juvenile P. astreoides harboring different combinations of Symbiodinium phylotypes did not vary when transplanted to different reef zones. However, juveniles reared in in situ reef environments grew faster than those reared in ex situ outdoor aquaria. These results show that Symbiodinium consortia change during development of P. astreoides and are influenced by environmental conditions.

  5. Between Site Reliability of Startle Prepulse Inhibition Across Two Early Psychosis Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Jean; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Mathalon, Dan H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bachman, Peter; Belger, Ayse; Carrión, Ricardo E.; Donkers, Franc C.L.; Duncan, Erica; Johannesen, Jason; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Light, Gregory; Mondragón, Alejandra; Niznikiewicz, Margaret; Nunag, Jason; Roach, Brian J.; Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) and reactivity of the acoustic startle response are widely used biobehavioral markers in psychopathology research. Previous studies have demonstrated that PPI and startle reactivity exhibit substantial within-site stability; between-site stability, however, has not been established. In two separate consortia investigating biomarkers of early psychosis, traveling subjects studies were performed as part of quality assurance procedures in order to assess the fidelity of data across sites. In the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Studies (NAPLS) Consortium, 8 normal subjects traveled to each of the 8 NAPLS sites and were tested twice at each site on the startle PPI paradigm. In preparation for a binational study, 10 healthy subjects were assessed twice in both San Diego and Mexico City. Intraclass correlations between and within sites were significant for PPI and startle response parameters, confirming the reliability of startle measures across sites in both consortia. There were between site differences in startle magnitude in the NAPLS study that did not appear to be related to methods or equipment. In planning multi-site studies, it is essential to institute quality assurance procedures early and establish between site reliability to assure comparable data across sites. PMID:23799460

  6. Do the shuffle: Changes in Symbiodinium consortia throughout juvenile coral development

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Hannah G.; Robertson, Deborah L.; Goodbody-Gringley, Gretchen

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies of symbiotic associations between scleractinians corals and Symbiodinium have demonstrated that the consortium of symbionts can change in response to environmental conditions. However, less is known about symbiont shuffling during early coral development, particularly in brooding species. This study examined whether Symbiodinium consortia (1) varied in Porites astreoides on shallow (10m) and upper mesophotic (30m) reefs, (2) changed during coral development, and (3) influenced growth of juveniles in different environments. Symbiodinium ITS2 sequences were amplified using universal primers and analyzed using phylotype-specific primers designed for phylotypes A, B, and C. Adults from both depths were found to host only phylotype A, phylotypes A and B, or phylotypes A, B, and C and the frequency of the phylotype composition did not vary with depth. However, phylotype A was the dominant symbiont that was vertically transmitted to the planulae. The presence of phylotypes B and C was detected in the majority of juveniles when transplanted onto the shallow and upper mesophotic reefs whereas only phylotype A was detected in the majority of juveniles reared in outdoor aquaria. In addition, growth of juvenile P. astreoides harboring different combinations of Symbiodinium phylotypes did not vary when transplanted to different reef zones. However, juveniles reared in in situ reef environments grew faster than those reared in ex situ outdoor aquaria. These results show that Symbiodinium consortia change during development of P. astreoides and are influenced by environmental conditions. PMID:28182684

  7. Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Balaji, V; Arulazhagan, P; Ebenezer, P

    2014-05-01

    The present study focuses on fungal strains capable of secreting extracellular enzymes by utilizing hydrocarbons present in the contaminated soil. Fungal strains were enriched from petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil samples collected from Chennai city, India. The potential fungi were isolated and screened for their enzyme secretion such as lipase, laccase, peroxidase and protease and also evaluated fungal enzyme mediated PAHs degradation. Total, 21 potential PAHs degrading fungi were isolated from PAHs contaminated soil, which belongs to 9 genera such as Aspergillus, Curvularia, Drechslera, Fusarium, Lasiodiplodia, Mucor Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, and two oilseed-associated fungal genera such as Colletotrichum and Lasiodiplodia were used to test their efficacy in degradation of PAHs in polluted soil. Maximum lipase production was obtained with P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1 under optimized cultural condition, which utilized PAHs in contaminated soil as sole carbon source. Fungal strains, P. chrysogenum, M. racemosus and L. theobromae VBE1, as consortia, used in the present study were capable of degrading branched alkane isoprenoids such as pristine (C17) and pyrene (C18) present in PAHs contaminated soil with high lipase production. The fungal consortia acts as potential candidate for bioremediation of PAHs contaminated environments.

  8. Bacterial Vaginosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Bacterial Vaginosis Page Content Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in ... in harmful bacteria. The actual organism responsible for vaginosis hasn’t been clearly identified. BV is uncommon ...

  9. Effects of disinfectant and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipes in a reclaimed water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Hu, Chun; Hu, Xuexiang; Yang, Min; Qu, Jiuhui

    2012-03-15

    The effects of disinfection and biofilm on the corrosion of cast iron pipe in a model reclaimed water distribution system were studied using annular reactors (ARs). The corrosion scales formed under different conditions were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the bacterial characteristics of biofilm on the surface were determined using several molecular methods. The corrosion scales from the ARs with chlorine included predominantly α-FeOOH and Fe2O3, while CaPO3(OH)·2H2O and α-FeOOH were the predominant phases after chloramines replaced chlorine. Studies of the consumption of chlorine and iron release indicated that the formation of dense oxide layers and biofilm inhibited iron corrosion, causing stable lower chlorine decay. It was verified that iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) such as Sediminibacterium sp., and iron-reducing bacteria (IRB) such as Shewanella sp., synergistically interacted with the corrosion product to prevent further corrosion. For the ARs without disinfection, α-FeOOH was the predominant phase at the primary stage, while CaCO3 and α-FeOOH were predominant with increasing time. The mixed corrosion-inducing bacteria, including the IRB Shewanella sp., the IOB Sediminibacterium sp., and the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) Limnobacter thioxidans strain, promoted iron corrosion by synergistic interactions in the primary period, while anaerobic IRB became the predominant corrosion bacteria, preventing further corrosion via the formation of protective layers.

  10. Computerized system for corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that computerization of basic corrosion measurements to provide record-keeping and graphical output has been used by pipeline companies over the lst decade. Northwest Pipeline Corp. has embarked on an ambition project to expand well beyond the scope of standard computer record-keeping by integrating data analysis and management with computer-aided advanced corrosion engineering practices. Most maturing pipeline systems require immense capital and maintenance expenditures to maintain regulatory levels of cathodic protection consistent with traditional corrosion control methods. Major pipeline coating rehabilitation programs and the installation of numerous anode-bed systems will continue in the absence of sophisticated computer-aided corrosion control methods.

  11. Corrosion and fatigue of surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Implants for the treatment of femoral fractures, mechanisms leading to the failure or degradation of such structures, and current perspectives on surgical implants are discussed. Under the first heading, general usage, materials and procedures, environmental conditions, and laboratory analyses of implants after service are considered. Corrosion, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular corrosion, pitting corrosion, fatigue, and corrosion fatigue are the principal degradation mechanisms described. The need for improvement in the reliability of implants is emphasized.

  12. Corrosion and fatigue of surgical implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisagor, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Implants for the treatment of femoral fractures, mechanisms leading to the failure or degradation of such structures, and current perspectives on surgical implants are discussed. Under the first heading, general usage, materials and procedures, environmental conditions, and laboratory analyses of implants after service are considered. Corrosion, crevice corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular corrosion, pitting corrosion, fatigue, and corrosion fatigue are the principal degradation mechanisms described. The need for improvement in the reliability of implants is emphasized.

  13. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys. PMID:26615896

  14. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-11-01

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  15. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in supercritical water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Was, G. S.; Ampornrat, P.; Gupta, G.; Teysseyre, S.; West, E. A.; Allen, T. R.; Sridharan, K.; Tan, L.; Chen, Y.; Ren, X.; Pister, C.

    2007-09-01

    Supercritical water (SCW) has attracted increasing attention since SCW boiler power plants were implemented to increase the efficiency of fossil-based power plants. The SCW reactor (SCWR) design has been selected as one of the Generation IV reactor concepts because of its higher thermal efficiency and plant simplification as compared to current light water reactors (LWRs). Reactor operating conditions call for a core coolant temperature between 280 °C and 620 °C at a pressure of 25 MPa and maximum expected neutron damage levels to any replaceable or permanent core component of 15 dpa (thermal reactor design) and 100 dpa (fast reactor design). Irradiation-induced changes in microstructure (swelling, radiation-induced segregation (RIS), hardening, phase stability) and mechanical properties (strength, thermal and irradiation-induced creep, fatigue) are also major concerns. Throughout the core, corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and the effect of irradiation on these degradation modes are critical issues. This paper reviews the current understanding of the response of candidate materials for SCWR systems, focusing on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking response, and highlights the design trade-offs associated with certain alloy systems. Ferritic-martensitic steels generally have the best resistance to stress corrosion cracking, but suffer from the worst oxidation. Austenitic stainless steels and Ni-base alloys have better oxidation resistance but are more susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. The promise of grain boundary engineering and surface modification in addressing corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance is discussed.

  16. Mitigation of Corrosion on Magnesium Alloy by Predesigned Surface Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuming; Wu, Guosong; Peng, Xiang; Li, Limin; Feng, Hongqing; Gao, Biao; Huo, Kaifu; Chu, Paul K

    2015-11-30

    Rapid corrosion of magnesium alloys is undesirable in structural and biomedical applications and a general way to control corrosion is to form a surface barrier layer isolating the bulk materials from the external environment. Herein, based on the insights gained from the anticorrosion behavior of corrosion products, a special way to mitigate aqueous corrosion is described. The concept is based on pre-corrosion by a hydrothermal treatment of Al-enriched Mg alloys in water. A uniform surface composed of an inner compact layer and top Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) microsheet is produced on a large area using a one-step process and excellent corrosion resistance is achieved in saline solutions. Moreover, inspired by the super-hydrophobic phenomenon in nature such as the lotus leaves effect, the orientation of the top microsheet layer is tailored by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature, time, and pH to produce a water-repellent surface after modification with fluorinated silane. As a result of the trapped air pockets in the microstructure, the super-hydrophobic surface with the Cassie state shows better corrosion resistance in the immersion tests. The results reveal an economical and environmentally friendly means to control and use the pre-corrosion products on magnesium alloys.

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL BENIGN MITIGATION OF MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION (MIC)

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek

    2002-03-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate environmental benign agents or products that are effective in the prevention, inhibition, and mitigation of microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) in the internal surfaces of metallic natural gas pipelines. The goal is one or more environmental benign, a.k.a. ''green'' products that can be applied to maintain the structure and dependability of the natural gas infrastructure. The technical approach for this quarter has been to evaluate a number of real world pipeline sources for microbial communities or consortia that form biofilms under laboratory simulations of pipelines. The microorganisms will be identified using classical and molecular microbiological tools and there activities under pipeline simulating conditions will be studied. The quarter saw the collection of the first samples from the industry for isolation of the microorganisms, as well as the design and construction of the laboratory-scale pipeline simulators. Methods development for MIC and biofilm microbial isolations and identification, and laboratory design and construction of pipeline simulators were the only activities. At this stage of the study (first quarter), only preliminary results are available.

  18. Microbial Activities' Influence on Three Kinds of Metal Material Corrosion Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Chen, Haiyan; Chen, Pimao; Qing, Chuangxing; Li, Huanyuan

    2017-05-01

    The corrosion behaviors of copper, 6063 aluminum alloy, and Q235 steel were investigated by open-circuit potential (OCP), anodic polarization curve analysis, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning electron microscopy revealed that a small number of translucent rod-shaped bacterial colonies on the copper surface of copper, whereas plenty of rod-shaped microbes colony were detected on the surface of 6063 aluminum material. Moreover, rod-shaped bacteria and mold colonies attached to the surface of Q235 steel. The decrease in the OCP of copper, 6063 aluminum alloy, and Q235 steel led to higher corrosion tendency. EIS analysis showed that bacteria can reduce the value of AC impedance of copper, the polarization resistance, and the surface resistance, thereby accelerating corrosion. Moreover, the polarization resistance of aluminum alloy in bacterial seawater is lower than that in non-bacterial seawater, indicating the existence of bacteria accelerated the corrosion of 6063 aluminum alloy. The adherence of microbes on Q235 steel surface accelerated the dissolution of the surface layer, and then the passive film is replaced by incompact biofilm layer. Q235 steel corrodes faster under the influence of bacteria because the polarization resistance in bacterial seawater is much lower than that in non-bacterial seawater.

  19. Parallel characterization of anaerobic toluene- and ethylbenzene-degrading microbial consortia by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, RNA-DNA membrane hybridization, and DNA microarray technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Said; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis.

  20. Parallel Characterization of Anaerobic Toluene- and Ethylbenzene-Degrading Microbial Consortia by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, RNA-DNA Membrane Hybridization, and DNA Microarray Technology

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Yoshikazu; Kelly, John J.; Nakagawa, Tatsunori; Urakawa, Hidetoshi; El-Fantroussi, Saïd; Al-Muzaini, Saleh; Fukui, Manabu; Urushigawa, Yoshikuni; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    A mesophilic toluene-degrading consortium (TDC) and an ethylbenzene-degrading consortium (EDC) were established under sulfate-reducing conditions. These consortia were first characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments, followed by sequencing. The sequences of the major bands (T-1 and E-2) belonging to TDC and EDC, respectively, were affiliated with the family Desulfobacteriaceae. Another major band from EDC (E-1) was related to an uncultured non-sulfate-reducing soil bacterium. Oligonucleotide probes specific for the 16S rRNAs of target organisms corresponding to T-1, E-1, and E-2 were designed, and hybridization conditions were optimized for two analytical formats, membrane and DNA microarray hybridization. Both formats were used to characterize the TDC and EDC, and the results of both were consistent with DGGE analysis. In order to assess the utility of the microarray format for analysis of environmental samples, oil-contaminated sediments from the coast of Kuwait were analyzed. The DNA microarray successfully detected bacterial nucleic acids from these samples, but probes targeting specific groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria did not give positive signals. The results of this study demonstrate the limitations and the potential utility of DNA microarrays for microbial community analysis. PMID:12088997