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Sample records for cortex impairs temporal

  1. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex impairs perceptual processing of tactile temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Hannula, Henri; Neuvonen, Tuomas; Savolainen, Petri; Tukiainen, Taru; Salonen, Oili; Carlson, Synnöve; Pertovaara, Antti

    2008-05-30

    Previous studies indicate that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with biphasic pulses applied approximately over the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) suppresses performance in vibrotactile temporal discrimination tasks; these previous results, however, do not allow separating perceptual influence from memory or decision-making. Moreover, earlier studies using external landmarks for directing biphasic TMS pulses to the cortex do not reveal whether the changes in vibrotactile task performance were due to action on S1 or an adjacent area. In the present study, we determined whether the S1 area representing a cutaneous test site is critical for perceptual processing of tactile temporal discrimination. Electrical test pulses were applied to the thenar skin of the hand and the subjects attempted to discriminate single from twin pulses. During discrimination task, monophasic TMS pulses or sham TMS pulses were directed anatomically accurately to the S1 area representing the thenar using magnetic resonance image-guided navigation. The subject's capacity to temporal discrimination was impaired with a decrease in the delay between the TMS pulse and the cutaneous test pulse from 50 to 0 ms. The result indicates that S1 area representing a cutaneous test site is involved in perceptual processing of tactile temporal discrimination.

  2. Ventrolateral and dorsomedial frontal cortex lesions impair mnemonic context retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chapados, Catherine; Petrides, Michael

    2015-02-22

    The prefrontal cortex appears to contribute to the mnemonic retrieval of the context within which stimuli are experienced, but only under certain conditions that remain to be clarified. Patients with lesions to the frontal cortex, the temporal lobe and neurologically intact individuals were tested for context memory retrieval when verbal stimuli (words) had been experienced across multiple (unstable context condition) or unique (stable context condition) contexts; basic recognition memory of these words-in-contexts was also tested. Patients with lesions to the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) were impaired on context retrieval only when the words had been seen in multiple contexts, demonstrating that this prefrontal region is critical for active retrieval processing necessary to disambiguate memory items embedded across multiple contexts. Patients with lesions to the left dorsomedial prefrontal region were impaired on both context retrieval conditions, regardless of the stability of the stimulus-to-context associations. Conversely, prefrontal lesions sparing the ventrolateral and dorsomedial regions did not impair context retrieval. Only patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired on basic recognition memory. The results demonstrate a basic contribution of the left dorsomedial frontal region to mnemonic context retrieval, with the VLPFC engaged, selectively, when contextual relations are unstable and require disambiguation.

  3. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Margherita; Benini, Ruba; de Guzman, Philip; Longo, Daniela; Avoli, Massimo

    2013-08-29

    The perirhinal cortex-which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory-plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i) highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii) briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii) focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus.

  4. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Margherita; Benini, Ruba; de Guzman, Philip; Longo, Daniela; Avoli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex—which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory—plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i) highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii) briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii) focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus. PMID:24009554

  5. Autobiographical memory of the recent past following frontal cortex or temporal lobe excisions.

    PubMed

    Thaiss, Laila; Petrides, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Previous research has raised questions regarding the necessity of the frontal cortex in autobiographical memory and the role that it plays in actively retrieving contextual information associated with personally relevant events. Autobiographical memory was studied in patients with unilateral excisions restricted to the frontal cortex or temporal lobe involving the amygdalo-hippocampal region and in normal controls using an event-sampling method. We examined accuracy of free recall, use of strategies during retrieval and memory for specific aspects of the autobiographical events, including temporal order. Patients with temporal lobe excisions were impaired in autobiographical recall. By contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions exhibited normal autobiographical recall but were less likely to use temporal order spontaneously to organize event retrieval. Instruction to organize retrieval by temporal order failed to improve recall in temporal lobe patients and increased the incidence of plausible intrusion errors in left temporal patients. In contrast, patients with frontal cortical excisions now surpassed control subjects in recall of autobiographical events. Furthermore, the retrieval accuracy for the temporal order of diary events was not impaired in these patients. In a subsequent cued recall test, temporal lobe patients were impaired in their memory for the details of the diary events and their context. In conclusion, a basic impairment in autobiographical memory (including memory for temporal context) results from damage to the temporal lobe and not the frontal cortex. Patients with frontal excisions fail to use organizational strategies spontaneously to aid retrieval but can use these effectively if instructed to do so.

  6. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients.

  7. Orbito-Frontal Cortex Is Necessary for Temporal Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Audrey; Henson, Richard N.; Knight, Robert T.; Emery, Tina; Graham, Kim S.

    2010-01-01

    Lesion and neuroimaging studies suggest that orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) supports temporal aspects of episodic memory. However, it is unclear whether OFC contributes to the encoding and/or retrieval of temporal context and whether it is selective for temporal relative to nontemporal (spatial) context memory. We addressed this issue with two…

  8. Reading Without the Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Neufeld, Nicholas H.; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P.; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who…

  9. Spatio-Temporal Updating in the Left Posterior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Makoto; Takano, Kouji; Ikegami, Shiro; Ora, Hiroki; Spence, Charles; Kansaku, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Adopting an unusual posture can sometimes give rise to paradoxical experiences. For example, the subjective ordering of successive unseen tactile stimuli delivered to the two arms can be affected when people cross them. A growing body of evidence now highlights the role played by the parietal cortex in spatio-temporal information processing when sensory stimuli are delivered to the body or when actions are executed; however, little is known about the neural basis of such paradoxical feelings resulting from such unusual limb positions. Here, we demonstrate increased fMRI activation in the left posterior parietal cortex when human participants adopted a crossed hands posture with their eyes closed. Furthermore, by assessing tactile temporal order judgments (TOJs) in the same individuals, we observed a positive association between activity in this area and the degree of reversal in TOJs resulting from crossing arms. The strongest positive association was observed in the left intraparietal sulcus. This result implies that the left posterior parietal cortex may be critically involved in monitoring limb position and in spatio-temporal binding when serial events are delivered to the limbs. PMID:22768126

  10. Reality monitoring impairment in schizophrenia reflects specific prefrontal cortex dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Garrison, Jane R; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Zaman, Rashid; Agius, Mark; Simons, Jon S

    2017-01-01

    Reality monitoring impairment is often reported in schizophrenia but the neural basis of this deficit is poorly understood. Difficulties with reality monitoring could be attributable to the same pattern of neural dysfunction as other cognitive deficits that characterize schizophrenia, or might instead represent a separable and dissociable impairment. This question was addressed through direct comparison of behavioral performance and neural activity associated with reality monitoring and working memory in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Participants performed a word-pair reality monitoring task and a Sternberg working memory task while undergoing fMRI scanning. Distinct behavioral deficits were observed in the patients during performance of each task, which were associated with separable task- and region-specific dysfunction in the medial anterior prefrontal cortex for reality monitoring and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for working memory. The results suggest that reality monitoring impairment is a distinct neurocognitive deficit in schizophrenia. The findings are consistent with the presence of a range of dissociable cognitive deficits in schizophrenia which may be associated with variable functional and structural dysconnectivity in underlying processing networks.

  11. Polymodal information processing via temporal cortex Area 37 modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, James K.

    2004-04-01

    A model of biological information processing is presented that consists of auditory and visual subsystems linked to temporal cortex and limbic processing. An biologically based algorithm is presented for the fusing of information sources of fundamentally different modalities. Proof of this concept is outlined by a system which combines auditory input (musical sequences) and visual input (illustrations such as paintings) via a model of cortex processing for Area 37 of the temporal cortex. The training data can be used to construct a connectionist model whose biological relevance is suspect yet is still useful and a biologically based model which achieves the same input to output map through biologically relevant means. The constructed models are able to create from a set of auditory and visual clues a combined musical/ illustration output which shares many of the properties of the original training data. These algorithms are not dependent on these particular auditory/ visual modalities and hence are of general use in the intelligent computation of outputs that require sensor fusion.

  12. A Hierarchy of Temporal Receptive Windows in Human Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Uri; Yang, Eunice; Vallines, Ignacio; Heeger, David J.; Rubin, Nava

    2008-01-01

    Real-world events unfold at different time scales and, therefore, cognitive and neuronal processes must likewise occur at different time scales. We present a novel procedure that identifies brain regions responsive to sensory information accumulated over different time scales. We measured functional magnetic resonance imaging activity while observers viewed silent films presented forward, backward, or piecewise-scrambled in time. Early visual areas (e.g., primary visual cortex and the motion-sensitive area MT+) exhibited high response reliability regardless of disruptions in temporal structure. In contrast, the reliability of responses in several higher brain areas, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS), precuneus, posterior lateral sulcus (LS), temporal parietal junction (TPJ), and frontal eye field (FEF), was affected by information accumulated over longer time scales. These regions showed highly reproducible responses for repeated forward, but not for backward or piecewise-scrambled presentations. Moreover, these regions exhibited marked differences in temporal characteristics, with LS, TPJ, and FEF responses depending on information accumulated over longer durations (~36 s) than STS and precuneus (~12 s). We conclude that, similar to the known cortical hierarchy of spatial receptive fields, there is a hierarchy of progressively longer temporal receptive windows in the human brain. PMID:18322098

  13. Temporal tuning of word and face selective cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to temporal change places fundamental limits on object processing in the visual system. An emerging consensus from the behavioral and neuroimaging literature suggests that temporal resolution differs substantially for stimuli of different complexity and for brain areas at different levels of the cortical hierarchy. Here we used Steady-State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEPs) to directly measure three fundamental parameters that characterize the underlying neural response to text and face images: temporal resolution, peak temporal frequency and response latency. We presented full-screen images of text or a human face, alternated with a scrambled image, at temporal frequencies between 1 and 12 Hz. These images elicited a robust response at the first harmonic that showed differential tuning, scalp topography and delay for the text and face images. Face selective responses were maximal at 4 Hz, but text selective responses, by contrast were maximal at 1 Hz. The topography of the text image response was strongly left-lateralized at higher stimulation rates, while the response to the face image was slightly right-lateralized but nearly bilateral at all frequencies. Both text and face images elicited steady state activity at more than one apparent latency; we observed early (141ms–160ms) and late (>250ms) text and face selective responses. These differences in temporal tuning profiles are likely to reflect differences in the nature of the computations performed by word and face selective cortex. Despite the close proximity of word and face selective regions on the cortical surface, our measurements demonstrate substantial differences in the temporal dynamics of word-versus face-selective responses. PMID:27378330

  14. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Eric B; Flint, Robert D; Moxon, Karen A

    2012-01-01

    The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g., motor tasks) under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC) of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n = 5), while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n = 6). Using perievent time histogram (PETH) analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT), however, only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter), we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R = 0.61) significantly better than nIT animals (R = 0.507, p < 0.01), suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time.

  15. Encoding of temporal intervals in the rat hindlimb sensorimotor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Eric B.; Flint, Robert D.; Moxon, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    The gradual buildup of neural activity over experimentally imposed delay periods, termed climbing activity, is well documented and is a potential mechanism by which interval time is encoded by distributed cortico-thalamico-striatal networks in the brain. Additionally, when multiple delay periods are incorporated, this activity has been shown to scale its rate of climbing proportional to the delay period. However, it remains unclear whether these patterns of activity occur within areas of motor cortex dedicated to hindlimb movement. Moreover, the effects of behavioral training (e.g., motor tasks) under different reward conditions but with similar behavioral output are not well addressed. To address this, we recorded activity from the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex (HLSMC) of two groups of rats performing a skilled hindlimb press task. In one group, rats were trained only to a make a valid press within a finite window after cue presentation for reward (non-interval trained, nIT; n = 5), while rats in the second group were given duration-specific cues in which they had to make presses of either short or long duration to receive reward (interval trained, IT; n = 6). Using perievent time histogram (PETH) analyses, we show that cells recorded from both groups showed climbing activity during the task in similar proportions (35% IT and 47% nIT), however, only climbing activity from IT rats was temporally scaled to press duration. Furthermore, using single trial decoding techniques (Wiener filter), we show that press duration can be inferred using climbing activity from IT animals (R = 0.61) significantly better than nIT animals (R = 0.507, p < 0.01), suggesting IT animals encode press duration through temporally scaled climbing activity. Thus, if temporal intervals are behaviorally relevant then the activity of climbing neurons is temporally scaled to encode the passage of time. PMID:23055956

  16. Functional specialization in rat occipital and temporal visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vermaercke, Ben; Gerich, Florian J.; Ytebrouck, Ellen; Arckens, Lutgarde; Van den Bergh, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed a surprising degree of functional specialization in rodent visual cortex. Anatomically, suggestions have been made about the existence of hierarchical pathways with similarities to the ventral and dorsal pathways in primates. Here we aimed to characterize some important functional properties in part of the supposed “ventral” pathway in rats. We investigated the functional properties along a progression of five visual areas in awake rats, from primary visual cortex (V1) over lateromedial (LM), latero-intermediate (LI), and laterolateral (LL) areas up to the newly found lateral occipito-temporal cortex (TO). Response latency increased >20 ms from areas V1/LM/LI to areas LL and TO. Orientation and direction selectivity for the used grating patterns increased gradually from V1 to TO. Overall responsiveness and selectivity to shape stimuli decreased from V1 to TO and was increasingly dependent upon shape motion. Neural similarity for shapes could be accounted for by a simple computational model in V1, but not in the other areas. Across areas, we find a gradual change in which stimulus pairs are most discriminable. Finally, tolerance to position changes increased toward TO. These findings provide unique information about possible commonalities and differences between rodents and primates in hierarchical cortical processing. PMID:24990566

  17. Subclinical delusional thinking predicts lateral temporal cortex responses during social reflection.

    PubMed

    Brent, Benjamin K; Coombs, Garth; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J; Moran, Joseph M; Holt, Daphne J

    2014-03-01

    Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated associations between delusions in psychotic disorders and abnormalities of brain areas involved in social cognition, including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, and lateral temporal cortex (LTC). General population studies have linked subclinical delusional thinking to impaired social cognition, raising the question of whether a specific pattern of brain activity during social perception is associated with delusional beliefs. Here, we tested the hypothesis that subclinical delusional thinking is associated with changes in neural function, while subjects made judgments about themselves or others ['social reflection' (SR)]. Neural responses during SR and non-social tasks, as well as resting-state activity, were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 22 healthy subjects. Delusional thinking was measured using the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory. Delusional thinking was negatively correlated with responses of the left LTC during SR (r = -0.61, P = 0.02, Bonferroni corrected), and connectivity between the left LTC and left ventral MPFC, and was positively correlated with connectivity between the left LTC and the right middle frontal and inferior temporal cortices. Thus, delusional thinking in the general population may be associated with reduced activity and aberrant functional connectivity of cortical areas involved in SR.

  18. Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex impairs judgment of harmful intent

    PubMed Central

    Young, Liane; Bechara, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel; Damasio, Hanna; Hauser, Marc; Damasio, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Summary Moral judgments, whether delivered in ordinary experience or in the courtroom, depend on our ability to infer intentions. We forgive unintentional or accidental harms and condemn failed attempts to harm. Prior work demonstrates that patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC) deliver abnormal judgments in response to moral dilemmas, and that these patients are especially impaired in triggering emotional responses to inferred or abstract events (e.g., intentions), as opposed to real or actual outcomes. We therefore predicted that VMPC patients would deliver abnormal moral judgments of harmful intentions in the absence of harmful outcomes, as in failed attempts to harm. This prediction was confirmed in the current study: VMPC patients judged attempted harms including attempted murder as more morally permissible relative to controls. These results highlight the critical role of the VMPC in processing harmful intent for moral judgment. PMID:20346759

  19. Mild Perceptual Categorization Deficits Follow Bilateral Removal of Anterior Inferior Temporal Cortex in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Narihisa; Eldridge, Mark A.G.; Saunders, Richard C.; Reoli, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In primates, visual recognition of complex objects depends on the inferior temporal lobe. By extension, categorizing visual stimuli based on similarity ought to depend on the integrity of the same area. We tested three monkeys before and after bilateral anterior inferior temporal cortex (area TE) removal. Although mildly impaired after the removals, they retained the ability to assign stimuli to previously learned categories, e.g., cats versus dogs, and human versus monkey faces, even with trial-unique exemplars. After the TE removals, they learned in one session to classify members from a new pair of categories, cars versus trucks, as quickly as they had learned the cats versus dogs before the removals. As with the dogs and cats, they generalized across trial-unique exemplars of cars and trucks. However, as seen in earlier studies, these monkeys with TE removals had difficulty learning to discriminate between two simple black and white stimuli. These results raise the possibility that TE is needed for memory of simple conjunctions of basic features, but that it plays only a small role in generalizing overall configural similarity across a large set of stimuli, such as would be needed for perceptual categorical assignment. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The process of seeing and recognizing objects is attributed to a set of sequentially connected brain regions stretching forward from the primary visual cortex through the temporal lobe to the anterior inferior temporal cortex, a region designated area TE. Area TE is considered the final stage for recognizing complex visual objects, e.g., faces. It has been assumed, but not tested directly, that this area would be critical for visual generalization, i.e., the ability to place objects such as cats and dogs into their correct categories. Here, we demonstrate that monkeys rapidly and seemingly effortlessly categorize large sets of complex images (cats vs dogs, cars vs trucks), surprisingly, even after removal of area TE

  20. Temporal cortex reflects effects of sentence context on phonetic processing

    PubMed Central

    Guediche, Sara; Salvata, Caden; Blumstein, Sheila E.

    2013-01-01

    Listeners’ perception of acoustically presented speech is constrained by many different sources of information that arise from other sensory modalities and from more abstract higher-level language context. An open question is how perceptual processes are influenced by and interact with these other sources of information. In this study, we use fMRI to examine the effect of a prior sentence-fragment meaning on the categorization of two possible target words that differ in an acoustic phonetic feature of the initial consonant, voice-onset time (VOT). Specifically, we manipulate the bias of the sentence context (biased, neutral) and the target type (ambiguous, unambiguous). Our results show that an interaction between these two factors emerged in a cluster in temporal cortex encompassing the left middle temporal gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. The locus and pattern of these interactions support an interactive view of speech processing and suggest that both the quality of the input and the potential bias of the context together interact and modulate neural activation patterns. PMID:23281778

  1. Reading without the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Seghier, Mohamed L.; Neufeld, Nicholas H.; Zeidman, Peter; Leff, Alex P.; Mechelli, Andrea; Nagendran, Arjuna; Riddoch, Jane M.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Price, Cathy J.

    2012-01-01

    The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex (LvOT) is thought to be essential for the rapid parallel letter processing that is required for skilled reading. Here we investigate whether rapid written word identification in skilled readers can be supported by neural pathways that do not involve LvOT. Hypotheses were derived from a stroke patient who acquired dyslexia following extensive LvOT damage. The patient followed a reading trajectory typical of that associated with pure alexia, re-gaining the ability to read aloud many words with declining performance as the length of words increased. Using functional MRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), we found that, when short (three to five letter) familiar words were read successfully, visual inputs to the patient’s occipital cortex were connected to left motor and premotor regions via activity in a central part of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS). The patient analysis therefore implied a left hemisphere “reading-without-LvOT” pathway that involved STS. We then investigated whether the same reading-without-LvOT pathway could be identified in 29 skilled readers and whether there was inter-subject variability in the degree to which skilled reading engaged LvOT. We found that functional connectivity in the reading-without-LvOT pathway was strongest in individuals who had the weakest functional connectivity in the LvOT pathway. This observation validates the findings of our patient’s case study. Our findings highlight the contribution of a left hemisphere reading pathway that is activated during the rapid identification of short familiar written words, particularly when LvOT is not involved. Preservation and use of this pathway may explain how patients are still able to read short words accurately when LvOT has been damaged. PMID:23017598

  2. Anatomical pathways for auditory memory II: information from rostral superior temporal gyrus to dorsolateral temporal pole and medial temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-López, M.; Insausti, R.; Mohedano-Moriano, A.; Mishkin, M.; Saunders, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    Auditory recognition memory in non-human primates differs from recognition memory in other sensory systems. Monkeys learn the rule for visual and tactile delayed matching-to-sample within a few sessions, and then show one-trial recognition memory lasting 10–20 min. In contrast, monkeys require hundreds of sessions to master the rule for auditory recognition, and then show retention lasting no longer than 30–40 s. Moreover, unlike the severe effects of rhinal lesions on visual memory, such lesions have no effect on the monkeys' auditory memory performance. The anatomical pathways for auditory memory may differ from those in vision. Long-term visual recognition memory requires anatomical connections from the visual association area TE with areas 35 and 36 of the perirhinal cortex (PRC). We examined whether there is a similar anatomical route for auditory processing, or that poor auditory recognition memory may reflect the lack of such a pathway. Our hypothesis is that an auditory pathway for recognition memory originates in the higher order processing areas of the rostral superior temporal gyrus (rSTG), and then connects via the dorsolateral temporal pole to access the rhinal cortex of the medial temporal lobe. To test this, we placed retrograde (3% FB and 2% DY) and anterograde (10% BDA 10,000 mW) tracer injections in rSTG and the dorsolateral area 38DL of the temporal pole. Results showed that area 38DL receives dense projections from auditory association areas Ts1, TAa, TPO of the rSTG, from the rostral parabelt and, to a lesser extent, from areas Ts2-3 and PGa. In turn, area 38DL projects densely to area 35 of PRC, entorhinal cortex (EC), and to areas TH/TF of the posterior parahippocampal cortex. Significantly, this projection avoids most of area 36r/c of PRC. This anatomical arrangement may contribute to our understanding of the poor auditory memory of rhesus monkeys. PMID:26041980

  3. Disrupted Causal Connectivity Anchored in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong; Wang, Chengwei; Zhang, Yumei; Xia, Liming; Feng, Zhan; Li, Deqiang; Xu, Shunliang; Xie, Haiyan; Chen, Feng; Shi, Yushu; Wang, Jue

    2017-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a transitional stage between normal cognitive aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Previous studies have found that neuronal activity and functional connectivity impaired in many functional networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN), which is related to significantly impaired cognitive and memory functions in aMCI patients. However, few studies have focused on the effective connectivity of the DMN and its subsystems in aMCI patients. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is considered a crucial region in connectivity of the DMN and its key subsystem. In this study, using the coefficient Granger causality analysis approach and using the PCC as the region of interest, we explored changes in the DMN and its subsystems in effective connectivity with other brain regions as well as in correlations among them in 16 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched cognitively normal elderly. Results showed decreased effective connectivity from PCC to whole brain in the left prefrontal cortex, the left medial temporal lobe (MTL), the left fusiform gyrus (FG), and the left cerebellar hemisphere, meanwhile, right temporal lobe showed increased effective connectivity from PCC to the whole brain in aMCI patients compared with normal control. In addition, compared with the normal controls, increased effective connectivity of the whole brain to the PCC in aMCI patients was found in the right thalamus, left medial temporal lobe, left FG, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Compared with the normal controls, no reduced effective connectivity was found in any brain regions from the whole brain to the PCC in aMCI patients. The reduced effective connectivity of the PCC to left MTL showed negative correlation trend with neuropsychological tests (Auditory Verbal Learning Test-immediate recall and clock drawing test) in aMCI patients. Our study shows that aMCI patients have abnormalities in effective connectivity within the PCC-centered DMN network and its

  4. Disrupted Causal Connectivity Anchored in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Wang, Chengwei; Zhang, Yumei; Xia, Liming; Feng, Zhan; Li, Deqiang; Xu, Shunliang; Xie, Haiyan; Chen, Feng; Shi, Yushu; Wang, Jue

    2017-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a transitional stage between normal cognitive aging and Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have found that neuronal activity and functional connectivity impaired in many functional networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN), which is related to significantly impaired cognitive and memory functions in aMCI patients. However, few studies have focused on the effective connectivity of the DMN and its subsystems in aMCI patients. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is considered a crucial region in connectivity of the DMN and its key subsystem. In this study, using the coefficient Granger causality analysis approach and using the PCC as the region of interest, we explored changes in the DMN and its subsystems in effective connectivity with other brain regions as well as in correlations among them in 16 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched cognitively normal elderly. Results showed decreased effective connectivity from PCC to whole brain in the left prefrontal cortex, the left medial temporal lobe (MTL), the left fusiform gyrus (FG), and the left cerebellar hemisphere, meanwhile, right temporal lobe showed increased effective connectivity from PCC to the whole brain in aMCI patients compared with normal control. In addition, compared with the normal controls, increased effective connectivity of the whole brain to the PCC in aMCI patients was found in the right thalamus, left medial temporal lobe, left FG, and left cerebellar hemisphere. Compared with the normal controls, no reduced effective connectivity was found in any brain regions from the whole brain to the PCC in aMCI patients. The reduced effective connectivity of the PCC to left MTL showed negative correlation trend with neuropsychological tests (Auditory Verbal Learning Test-immediate recall and clock drawing test) in aMCI patients. Our study shows that aMCI patients have abnormalities in effective connectivity within the PCC-centered DMN network and its

  5. Patients with schizophrenia selectively impaired in temporal order judgments.

    PubMed

    Capa, Rémi L; Duval, Céline Z; Blaison, Dorine; Giersch, Anne

    2014-06-01

    The ability to order events in time plays a pervasive role in cognitive functions, but has only rarely been explored in patients with schizophrenia. Results we obtained recently suggested that patients have difficulties following events over time. However, this impairment concerned implicit responses at very short asynchronies, and it is not known whether it generalizes to subjective temporal order judgments. Here, we make a direct comparison between temporal order judgments and simultaneity/asynchrony discrimination in the same patients. Two squares were displayed on the screen either simultaneously or with an asynchrony of 24 to 96ms. In one session 20 patients and 20 controls made a temporal order judgment and in the other they discriminated between simultaneous and asynchronous stimuli. Controls recorded similar performances in the two tasks at asynchronies above 50ms, whereas patients displayed a sizeable impairment in temporal order judgment selectively. This impairment occurred in the easiest conditions, with the largest SOAs (Stimulus Onset Asynchronies) and only in the temporal order judgment. The results are the first evidence that patients with schizophrenia have a selective difficulty determining temporal order, even for asynchronies producing a clear perception of asynchrony. This impairment may mediate difficulties engaging oneself in everyday life events.

  6. Right anterior temporal lobe dysfunction underlies theory of mind impairments in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Hodges, John R; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    Semantic dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the amodal and profound loss of semantic knowledge attributable to the degeneration of the left anterior temporal lobe. Although traditionally conceptualized as a language disorder, patients with semantic dementia display significant alterations in behaviour and socioemotional functioning. Recent evidence points to an impaired capacity for theory of mind in predominantly left-lateralized cases of semantic dementia; however, it remains unclear to what extent semantic impairments contribute to these deficits. Further the neuroanatomical signature of such disturbance remains unknown. Here, we sought to determine the neural correlates of theory of mind performance in patients with left predominant semantic dementia (n=11), in contrast with disease-matched cases with behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia (n=10) and Alzheimer's disease (n=10), and healthy older individuals (n=14) as control participants. Participants completed a simple cartoons task, in which they were required to describe physical and theory of mind scenarios. Irrespective of subscale, patients with semantic dementia exhibited marked impairments relative to control subjects; however, only theory of mind deficits persisted when we covaried for semantic comprehension. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that atrophy in right anterior temporal lobe structures, including the right temporal fusiform cortex, right inferior temporal gyrus, bilateral temporal poles and amygdalae, correlated significantly with theory of mind impairments in the semantic dementia group. Our results point to the marked disruption of cognitive functions beyond the language domain in semantic dementia, not exclusively attributable to semantic processing impairments. The significant involvement of right anterior temporal structures suggests that with disease evolution, the encroachment of pathology into the contralateral hemisphere heralds the

  7. Representations of faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Pinsk, Mark A; DeSimone, Kevin; Moore, Tirin; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2005-05-10

    Human neuroimaging studies suggest that areas in temporal cortex respond preferentially to certain biologically relevant stimulus categories such as faces and bodies. Single-cell studies in monkeys have reported cells in inferior temporal cortex that respond selectively to faces, hands, and bodies but provide little evidence of large clusters of category-specific cells that would form "areas." We probed the category selectivity of macaque temporal cortex for representations of monkey faces and monkey body parts relative to man-made objects using functional MRI in animals trained to fixate. Two face-selective areas were activated bilaterally in the posterior and anterior superior temporal sulcus exhibiting different degrees of category selectivity. The posterior face area was more extensively activated in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Immediately adjacent to the face areas, regions were activated bilaterally responding preferentially to body parts. Our findings suggest a category-selective organization for faces and body parts in macaque temporal cortex.

  8. Inactivation of the Infralimbic but Not the Prelimbic Cortex Impairs Consolidation and Retrieval of Fear Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R. Frederick

    2009-01-01

    Rats were subjected to one or two cycles of context fear conditioning and extinction to study the roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) in learning and relearning to inhibit fear responses. Inactivation of the PL depressed fear responses across the first or second extinction but did not impair learning or relearning fear…

  9. Local but not long-range microstructural differences of the ventral temporal cortex in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sunbin; Garrido, Lúcia; Nagy, Zoltan; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Steel, Adam; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Ray J.; Duchaine, Bradley; Furl, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) experience face recognition impairments despite normal intellect and low-level vision and no history of brain damage. Prior studies using diffusion tensor imaging in small samples of subjects with DP (n=6 or n=8) offer conflicting views on the neurobiological bases for DP, with one suggesting white matter differences in two major long-range tracts running through the temporal cortex, and another suggesting white matter differences confined to fibers local to ventral temporal face-specific functional regions of interest (fROIs) in the fusiform gyrus. Here, we address these inconsistent findings using a comprehensive set of analyzes in a sample of DP subjects larger than both prior studies combined (n=16). While we found no microstructural differences in long-range tracts between DP and age-matched control participants, we found differences local to face-specific fROIs, and relationships between these microstructural measures with face recognition ability. We conclude that subtle differences in local rather than long-range tracts in the ventral temporal lobe are more likely associated with developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26456436

  10. Local but not long-range microstructural differences of the ventral temporal cortex in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Song, Sunbin; Garrido, Lúcia; Nagy, Zoltan; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; Steel, Adam; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Ray J; Duchaine, Bradley; Furl, Nicholas

    2015-11-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) experience face recognition impairments despite normal intellect and low-level vision and no history of brain damage. Prior studies using diffusion tensor imaging in small samples of subjects with DP (n=6 or n=8) offer conflicting views on the neurobiological bases for DP, with one suggesting white matter differences in two major long-range tracts running through the temporal cortex, and another suggesting white matter differences confined to fibers local to ventral temporal face-specific functional regions of interest (fROIs) in the fusiform gyrus. Here, we address these inconsistent findings using a comprehensive set of analyzes in a sample of DP subjects larger than both prior studies combined (n=16). While we found no microstructural differences in long-range tracts between DP and age-matched control participants, we found differences local to face-specific fROIs, and relationships between these microstructural measures with face recognition ability. We conclude that subtle differences in local rather than long-range tracts in the ventral temporal lobe are more likely associated with developmental prosopagnosia.

  11. Dynamic Encoding of Speech Sequence Probability in Human Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Bouchard, Kristofer E.; Tang, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Sensory processing involves identification of stimulus features, but also integration with the surrounding sensory and cognitive context. Previous work in animals and humans has shown fine-scale sensitivity to context in the form of learned knowledge about the statistics of the sensory environment, including relative probabilities of discrete units in a stream of sequential auditory input. These statistics are a defining characteristic of one of the most important sequential signals humans encounter: speech. For speech, extensive exposure to a language tunes listeners to the statistics of sound sequences. To address how speech sequence statistics are neurally encoded, we used high-resolution direct cortical recordings from human lateral superior temporal cortex as subjects listened to words and nonwords with varying transition probabilities between sound segments. In addition to their sensitivity to acoustic features (including contextual features, such as coarticulation), we found that neural responses dynamically encoded the language-level probability of both preceding and upcoming speech sounds. Transition probability first negatively modulated neural responses, followed by positive modulation of neural responses, consistent with coordinated predictive and retrospective recognition processes, respectively. Furthermore, transition probability encoding was different for real English words compared with nonwords, providing evidence for online interactions with high-order linguistic knowledge. These results demonstrate that sensory processing of deeply learned stimuli involves integrating physical stimulus features with their contextual sequential structure. Despite not being consciously aware of phoneme sequence statistics, listeners use this information to process spoken input and to link low-level acoustic representations with linguistic information about word identity and meaning. PMID:25948269

  12. Dynamic encoding of speech sequence probability in human temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Bouchard, Kristofer E; Tang, Claire; Chang, Edward F

    2015-05-06

    Sensory processing involves identification of stimulus features, but also integration with the surrounding sensory and cognitive context. Previous work in animals and humans has shown fine-scale sensitivity to context in the form of learned knowledge about the statistics of the sensory environment, including relative probabilities of discrete units in a stream of sequential auditory input. These statistics are a defining characteristic of one of the most important sequential signals humans encounter: speech. For speech, extensive exposure to a language tunes listeners to the statistics of sound sequences. To address how speech sequence statistics are neurally encoded, we used high-resolution direct cortical recordings from human lateral superior temporal cortex as subjects listened to words and nonwords with varying transition probabilities between sound segments. In addition to their sensitivity to acoustic features (including contextual features, such as coarticulation), we found that neural responses dynamically encoded the language-level probability of both preceding and upcoming speech sounds. Transition probability first negatively modulated neural responses, followed by positive modulation of neural responses, consistent with coordinated predictive and retrospective recognition processes, respectively. Furthermore, transition probability encoding was different for real English words compared with nonwords, providing evidence for online interactions with high-order linguistic knowledge. These results demonstrate that sensory processing of deeply learned stimuli involves integrating physical stimulus features with their contextual sequential structure. Despite not being consciously aware of phoneme sequence statistics, listeners use this information to process spoken input and to link low-level acoustic representations with linguistic information about word identity and meaning.

  13. Attention reduces spatial uncertainty in human ventral temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kay, Kendrick N; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-03-02

    Ventral temporal cortex (VTC) is the latest stage of the ventral "what" visual pathway, which is thought to code the identity of a stimulus regardless of its position or size [1, 2]. Surprisingly, recent studies show that position information can be decoded from VTC [3-5]. However, the computational mechanisms by which spatial information is encoded in VTC are unknown. Furthermore, how attention influences spatial representations in human VTC is also unknown because the effect of attention on spatial representations has only been examined in the dorsal "where" visual pathway [6-10]. Here, we fill these significant gaps in knowledge using an approach that combines functional magnetic resonance imaging and sophisticated computational methods. We first develop a population receptive field (pRF) model [11, 12] of spatial responses in human VTC. Consisting of spatial summation followed by a compressive nonlinearity, this model accurately predicts responses of individual voxels to stimuli at any position and size, explains how spatial information is encoded, and reveals a functional hierarchy in VTC. We then manipulate attention and use our model to decipher the effects of attention. We find that attention to the stimulus systematically and selectively modulates responses in VTC, but not early visual areas. Locally, attention increases eccentricity, size, and gain of individual pRFs, thereby increasing position tolerance. However, globally, these effects reduce uncertainty regarding stimulus location and actually increase position sensitivity of distributed responses across VTC. These results demonstrate that attention actively shapes and enhances spatial representations in the ventral visual pathway.

  14. Rhinal and Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Lesions Produce Selective Impairments in Object and Spatial Learning and Memory in Canines

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Lori-Ann; Saunders, Richard C.; Kowalska, Danuta, M.; MacKay, William A.; Head, Elizabeth; Cotman, Carl W.; Milgram, Norton W.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the effects of rhinal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lesions on object and spatial recognition memory in canines, we used a protocol in which both an object (delayed non-matching to sample, or DNMS) and a spatial (delayed non-matching to position or DNMP) recognition task were administered daily. The tasks used similar procedures such that only the type of stimulus information to be remembered differed. Rhinal cortex (RC) lesions produced a selective deficit on the DNMS task, both in retention of the task rules at short delays and in object recognition memory. By contrast, performance on the DNMP task remained intact at both short and long delay intervals in RC animals. Subjects who received dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) lesions were impaired on a spatial task at a short, 5-sec delay, suggesting disrupted retention of the general task rules, however, this impairment was transient; long-term spatial memory performance was unaffected in dlPFC subjects. The present results provide support for the involvement of the RC in object, but not visuospatial, processing and recognition memory, whereas the dlPFC appears to mediate retention of a non-matching rule. These findings support theories of functional specialization within the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex and suggest that rhinal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices in canines are functionally similar to analogous regions in other mammals. PMID:18792072

  15. Prefrontal-temporal disconnection impairs recognition memory but not familiarity discrimination.

    PubMed

    Browning, Philip G F; Baxter, Mark G; Gaffan, David

    2013-06-05

    Neural mechanisms in the temporal lobe are essential for recognition memory. Evidence from human functional imaging and neuropsychology, and monkey neurophysiology and neuropsychology also suggests a role for prefrontal cortex in recognition memory. To examine the interaction of these cortical regions in support of recognition memory we tested rhesus monkeys with prefrontal-inferotemporal (PFC-IT) cortical disconnection on two recognition memory tasks, a "constant negative" task, and delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMS). In the constant negative task monkeys were presented with sets of 100 discrimination problems. In each problem one unrewarded object was presented once every day, and became familiar over the course of several days testing. The other, rewarded object was always novel. In this task monkeys learned to avoid the familiar constant negatives and choose the novel objects, so performance on this task is guided by a sense of familiarity for the constant negatives. Following PFC-IT disconnection monkeys were severely impaired at reacquiring the rule (to avoid familiar items) but were subsequently unimpaired at acquiring new constant negative problems, thus displaying intact familiarity recognition. The same monkeys were impaired in the acquisition of the DNMS task, as well as memory for lists of objects. This dissociation between two tests of recognition memory is best explained in terms of our general hypothesis that PFC-IT interactions support the representation of temporally complex events, which is necessary in DNMS but not in constant negative. These findings, furthermore, indicate that stimulus familiarity can be represented in temporal cortex without input from prefrontal cortex.

  16. Dissociation of visual and auditory pattern discrimination functions within the cat's temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, P; Nudo, R J; Straussfogel, D; Lomber, S G; Payne, B R

    1998-08-01

    In ablation-behavior experiments performed in adult cats, a double dissociation was demonstrated between ventral posterior suprasylvian cortex (vPS) and temporo-insular cortex (TI) lesions on complex visual and auditory tasks. Lesions of the vPS cortex resulted in deficits at visual pattern discrimination, but not at a difficult auditory discrimination. By contrast, TI lesions resulted in profound deficits at discriminating complex sounds, but not at discriminating visual patterns. This pattern of dissociation of deficits in cats parallels the dissociation of deficits after inferior temporal versus superior temporal lesions in monkeys and humans.

  17. Dysexecutive Functioning in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Derailment in Temporal Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Eppig, Joel; Wambach, Denene; Nieves, Christine; Price, Catherine C.; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Giovannetti, Tania; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Penney, Dana L.; Swenson, Rod; Lippa, Carol; Kabasakalian, Anahid; Bondi, Mark W.; Libon, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Libon et al. (2010) provided evidence for three statistically determined clusters of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI): amnesic (aMCI), dysexecutive (dMCI), and mixed (mxMCI). The current study further examined dysexecutive impairment in MCI using the framework of Fuster's (1997) derailed temporal gradients, that is, declining performance on executive tests over time or test epoch. Temporal gradients were operationally defined by calculating the slope of aggregate letter fluency output across 15-s epochs and accuracy indices for initial, middle, and latter triads from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Mental Control subtest (Boston Revision). For letter fluency, slope was steeper for dMCI compared to aMCI and NC groups. Between-group Mental Control analyses for triad 1 revealed worse dMCI performance than NC participants. On triad 2, dMCI scored lower than aMCI and NCs; on triad 3, mxMCI performed worse versus NCs. Within-group Mental Control analyses yielded equal performance across all triads for aMCI and NC participants. mxMCI scored lower on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3. dMCI participants also performed worse on triad 1 compared to triads 2 and 3, but scored higher on triad 3 versus triad 2. These data suggest impaired temporal gradients may provide a useful heuristic for understanding dysexecutive impairment in MCI. PMID:22014116

  18. A real-world size organization of object responses in occipito-temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Konkle, Talia; Oliva, Aude

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While there are selective regions of occipito-temporal cortex that respond to faces, letters, and bodies, the large-scale neural organization of most object categories remains unknown. Here we find that object representations can be differentiated along the ventral temporal cortex by their real-world size. In a functional neuroimaging experiment, observers were shown pictures of big and small real-world objects (e.g. table, bathtub; paperclip, cup), presented at the same retinal size. We observed a consistent medial-to-lateral organization of big and small object preferences in the ventral temporal cortex, mirrored along the lateral surface. Regions in the lateral-occipital, infero-temporal, and parahippocampal cortices showed strong peaks of differential real-world size selectivity, and maintained these preferences over changes in retinal size and in mental imagery. These data demonstrate that the real-world size of objects can provide insight into the spatial topography of object representation. PMID:22726840

  19. Selective lesion to the entorhinal cortex leads to an impairment in familiarity but not recollection.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Karen R; Eysenck, Michael W; Nielsen, Maria Kragh; von Oertzen, Tim J

    2016-04-01

    The present research explored the effects of selective impairment to the entorhinal cortex on the processes of familiarity and recollection. To achieve this objective, the performance of patient MR, who has a selective impairment of the left entorhinal cortex, was compared to that of age and IQ-matched controls. Four experiments tested participants' recognition memory for familiar and unfamiliar faces and words. In all experiments, participants studied lists of items and then completed an old/new recognition test in which they also made remember/know/guess judgements. A fifth experiment tested participants' priming associated with the familiarity process. MR had intact performance in both face recognition experiments as well as having intact performance in pseudoword recognition. Crucially, however, in the familiar word experiment, whilst MR performed similarly to control participants in terms of recollection, she showed a marked impairment in familiarity. Furthermore, she also demonstrated a reversed conceptual priming effect. MR's impairment is both material-specific and selective for previously encountered but not new verbal items (pseudowords). These findings provide the first clear evidence that selective impairment of the entorhinal cortex impairs the familiarity process for familiar verbal material whilst leaving recollection intact. These results suggest the entorhinal cortex does not have attributes reflective of both recollection and familiarity as previously assumed, but rather supports context-free long-term familiarity-based recognition memory.

  20. Synaptic Organization of Connections between the Temporal Cortex and Pulvinar Nucleus of the Tree Shrew

    PubMed Central

    Chomsung, Ranida D.; Wei, Haiyang; Day-Brown, Jonathan D.; Petry, Heywood M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the synaptic organization of reciprocal connections between the temporal cortex and the dorsal (Pd) and central (Pc) subdivisions of the tree shrew pulvinar nucleus, regions innervated by the medial and lateral superior colliculus, respectively. Both Pd and Pc subdivisions project topographically to 2 separate regions of the temporal cortex; small injections of anterograde tracers placed in either Pd or Pc labeled 2 foci of terminals in the temporal cortex. Pulvinocortical pathways innervated layers I–IV, with beaded axons oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface, where they synapsed with spines that did not contain gamma amino butyric acid (GABA), likely located on the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells. Projections from the temporal cortex to the Pd and Pc originate from layer VI cells, and form small terminals that contact small caliber non-GABAergic dendrites. These results suggest that cortical terminals are located distal to tectopulvinar terminals on the dendritic arbors of Pd and Pc projection cells, which subsequently contact pyramidal cells in the temporal cortex. This circuitry could provide a mechanism for the pulvinar nucleus to activate subcortical visuomotor circuits and modulate the activity of other visual cortical areas. The potential relation to primate tecto-pulvino-cortical pathways is discussed. PMID:19684245

  1. The effects of lighting conditions on responses of cells selective for face views in the macaque temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, J K; Perrett, D I; Oram, M W; Benson, P J; Dittrich, W H

    1992-01-01

    Neural mechanisms underlying recognition of objects must overcome the changes in an object's appearance caused by inconsistent viewing conditions, particularly those that occur with changes in lighting. In humans, lesions to the posterior visual association cortex can impair the ability to recognize objects and faces across different lighting conditions. Inferotemporal lesions in monkey have been shown to produce a similar difficulty in object matching tasks. Here we report on the extent to which cell responses selective for the face and other views of the head in monkey temporal cortex tolerate changes in lighting. For each cell studied the (preferred) head view eliciting maximal response was first established under normal lighting. Cells were then tested with the preferred head view lit from different directions (i.e. front, above, below or from the side). Responses of some cells failed to show complete generalization across all lighting conditions but together as a "population" they responded equally strongly under all four lighting conditions. Further tests on sub-groups of cells revealed that stimulus selectivity was maintained despite unusual lighting. The cells discriminated between head and control stimuli and between different views of the head independent of the lighting direction. The results indicate that constancy of recognition across different lighting conditions is apparent in the responses of single cells in the temporal cortex. Lighting constancy appears to be established by matching the retinal image to view-specific descriptions of objects (i.e. neurons which compute object structure from a limited range of perspective views).

  2. Impaired executive function following ischemic stroke in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Chris A; Jackson, Danielle; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hewlett, Krista A; Corbett, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Small (lacunar) infarcts frequently arise in frontal and midline thalamic regions in the absence of major stroke. Damage to these areas often leads to impairment of executive function likely as a result of interrupting connections of the prefrontal cortex. Thus, patients experience frontal-like symptoms such as impaired ability to shift ongoing behavior and attention. In contrast, executive dysfunction has not been demonstrated in rodent models of stroke, thereby limiting the development of potential therapies for human executive dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=40) underwent either sham surgery or bilateral endothelin-1 injections in the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus or in the medial prefrontal cortex. Executive function was assessed using a rodent attention set shifting test that requires animals to shift attention to stimuli in different stimulus dimensions. Medial prefrontal cortex ischemia impaired attention shift performance between different stimulus dimensions while sparing stimulus discrimination and attention shifts within a stimulus dimension, indicating a selective attention set-shift deficit. Rats with mediodorsal thalamic lacunar damage did not exhibit a cognitive impairment relative to sham controls. The selective attention set shift impairment observed in this study is consistent with clinical data demonstrating selective executive disorders following stroke within specific sub-regions of frontal cortex. These data contribute to the development and validation of a preclinical animal model of executive dysfunction, that can be employed to identify potential therapies for ameliorating cognitive deficits following stroke.

  3. Spatial representations of temporal and spectral sound cues in human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Herdener, Marcus; Esposito, Fabrizio; Scheffler, Klaus; Schneider, Peter; Logothetis, Nikos K; Uludag, Kamil; Kayser, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Natural and behaviorally relevant sounds are characterized by temporal modulations of their waveforms, which carry important cues for sound segmentation and communication. Still, there is little consensus as to how this temporal information is represented in auditory cortex. Here, by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) optimized for studying the auditory system, we report the existence of a topographically ordered spatial representation of temporal sound modulation rates in human auditory cortex. We found a topographically organized sensitivity within auditory cortex to sounds with varying modulation rates, with enhanced responses to lower modulation rates (2 and 4 Hz) on lateral parts of Heschl's gyrus (HG) and faster modulation rates (16 and 32 Hz) on medial HG. The representation of temporal modulation rates was distinct from the representation of sound frequencies (tonotopy) that was orientated roughly orthogonal. Moreover, the combination of probabilistic anatomical maps with a previously proposed functional delineation of auditory fields revealed that the distinct maps of temporal and spectral sound features both prevail within two presumed primary auditory fields hA1 and hR. Our results reveal a topographically ordered representation of temporal sound cues in human primary auditory cortex that is complementary to maps of spectral cues. They thereby enhance our understanding of the functional parcellation and organization of auditory cortical processing.

  4. Capturing the temporal evolution of choice across prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Laurence T; Behrens, Timothy EJ; Hosokawa, Takayuki; Wallis, Jonathan D; Kennerley, Steven W

    2015-01-01

    Activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been richly described using economic models of choice. Yet such descriptions fail to capture the dynamics of decision formation. Describing dynamic neural processes has proven challenging due to the problem of indexing the internal state of PFC and its trial-by-trial variation. Using primate neurophysiology and human magnetoencephalography, we here recover a single-trial index of PFC internal states from multiple simultaneously recorded PFC subregions. This index can explain the origins of neural representations of economic variables in PFC. It describes the relationship between neural dynamics and behaviour in both human and monkey PFC, directly bridging between human neuroimaging data and underlying neuronal activity. Moreover, it reveals a functionally dissociable interaction between orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral PFC in guiding cost-benefit decisions. We cast our observations in terms of a recurrent neural network model of choice, providing formal links to mechanistic dynamical accounts of decision-making. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11945.001 PMID:26653139

  5. Thalamic connections of architectonic subdivisions of temporal cortex in grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinenesis)

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Peiyan; Gharbawie, Omar A.; Luethke, Lynn E.; Kaas, Jon H.

    2008-01-01

    The temporal cortex of grey squirrels contains three architectonically distinct regions. One of these regions, the temporal anterior (Ta) region has been identified in previous physiological and anatomical studies as containing several areas that are largely auditory in function. Consistent with this evidence, Ta has architectonic features that are internally somewhat variable, but overall sensory in nature. In contrast, the caudally adjoining temporal intermediate region (Ti) has architectonic features that suggest higher order and possibly multisensory processing. Finally, the most caudal region, composed of previously defined temporal medial (Tm) and temporal posterior (Tp) fields, again has more of the appearance of sensory cortex. To better understand their functional roles, we injected anatomical tracers into these regions to reveal their thalamic connections. As expected, the dorsal portion of Ta, containing two primary or primary-like auditory areas, received inputs from the ventral and magnocellular divisions of the auditory medial geniculate complex, MGv and MGm. The most caudal region, Tm plus Tp, received inputs from the large visual pulvinar of squirrels, possibly accounting for the sensory architectonic characteristics of this region. However, Tp additionally receives inputs from the magnocellular (MGm) and dorsal (MGd) divisions of the medial geniculate complex, implicating Tp in bisensory processing. Finally, the middle region, Ti, had auditory inputs from MGd and MGm, but not from the visual pulvinar, providing evidence that Ti has higher-order auditory functions. The results indicate that the architectonically distinct regions of temporal cortex of squirrels are also functionally distinct. Understanding how temporal cortex is functionally organized in squirrels can guide interpretations of temporal cortex organization in other rodents where architectonic subdivisions are not as obvious. PMID:18666125

  6. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Kevin S.; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity—the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time—decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  7. Temporal Processing Capacity in High-Level Visual Cortex Is Domain Specific.

    PubMed

    Stigliani, Anthony; Weiner, Kevin S; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-09-09

    Prevailing hierarchical models propose that temporal processing capacity--the amount of information that a brain region processes in a unit time--decreases at higher stages in the ventral stream regardless of domain. However, it is unknown if temporal processing capacities are domain general or domain specific in human high-level visual cortex. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we measured temporal capacities of functional regions in high-level visual cortex. Contrary to hierarchical models, our data reveal domain-specific processing capacities as follows: (1) regions processing information from different domains have differential temporal capacities within each stage of the visual hierarchy and (2) domain-specific regions display the same temporal capacity regardless of their position in the processing hierarchy. In general, character-selective regions have the lowest capacity, face- and place-selective regions have an intermediate capacity, and body-selective regions have the highest capacity. Notably, domain-specific temporal processing capacities are not apparent in V1 and have perceptual implications. Behavioral testing revealed that the encoding capacity of body images is higher than that of characters, faces, and places, and there is a correspondence between peak encoding rates and cortical capacities for characters and bodies. The present evidence supports a model in which the natural statistics of temporal information in the visual world may affect domain-specific temporal processing and encoding capacities. These findings suggest that the functional organization of high-level visual cortex may be constrained by temporal characteristics of stimuli in the natural world, and this temporal capacity is a characteristic of domain-specific networks in high-level visual cortex. Significance statement: Visual stimuli bombard us at different rates every day. For example, words and scenes are typically stationary and vary at slow rates. In contrast, bodies are dynamic

  8. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  9. Impaired Verbal Associative Learning after Resection of Left Perirhinal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weintrob, David L.; Saling, Michael M.; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Reutens, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Some patients considered for left temporal lobectomy for epilepsy present with normal verbal learning and no MRI evidence of hippocampal pathology. In order to preserve learning function, the surgical approach in these cases often aims at sparing the hippocampus. Parahippocampal structures, including the left perirhinal region, however, also…

  10. Task-dependent modulation of regions in the left temporal cortex during auditory sentence comprehension.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linjun; Yue, Qiuhai; Zhang, Yang; Shu, Hua; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have revealed the essential role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension along with evidence of the functional specialization of the anterior and posterior temporal sub-areas. However, it is unclear whether task demands (e.g., active vs. passive listening) modulate the functional specificity of these sub-areas. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we addressed this issue by applying both independent component analysis (ICA) and general linear model (GLM) methods. Consistent with previous studies, intelligible sentences elicited greater activity in the left lateral temporal cortex relative to unintelligible sentences. Moreover, responses to intelligibility in the sub-regions were differentially modulated by task demands. While the overall activation patterns of the anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (STS/MTG) were equivalent during both passive and active tasks, a middle portion of the STS/MTG was found to be selectively activated only during the active task under a refined analysis of sub-regional contributions. Our results not only confirm the critical role of the left lateral temporal cortex in auditory sentence comprehension but further demonstrate that task demands modulate functional specialization of the anterior-middle-posterior temporal sub-areas.

  11. Stress signalling pathways that impair prefrontal cortex structure and function

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC)—the most evolved brain region—subserves our highest-order cognitive abilities. However, it is also the brain region that is most sensitive to the detrimental effects of stress exposure. Even quite mild acute uncontrollable stress can cause a rapid and dramatic loss of prefrontal cognitive abilities, and more prolonged stress exposure causes architectural changes in prefrontal dendrites. Recent research has begun to reveal the intracellular signalling pathways that mediate the effects of stress on the PFC. This research has provided clues as to why genetic or environmental insults that disinhibit stress signalling pathways can lead to symptoms of profound prefrontal cortical dysfunction in mental illness. PMID:19455173

  12. Learning temporal statistics for sensory predictions in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardi Luft, Caroline; Baker, Rosalind; Bentham, Peter; Kourtzi, Zoe

    2015-08-01

    Training is known to improve performance in a variety of perceptual and cognitive skills. However, there is accumulating evidence that mere exposure (i.e. without supervised training) to regularities (i.e. patterns that co-occur in the environment) facilitates our ability to learn contingencies that allow us to interpret the current scene and make predictions about future events. Recent neuroimaging studies have implicated fronto-striatal and medial temporal lobe brain regions in the learning of spatial and temporal statistics. Here, we ask whether patients with mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (MCI-AD) that are characterized by hippocampal dysfunction are able to learn temporal regularities and predict upcoming events. We tested the ability of MCI-AD patients and age-matched controls to predict the orientation of a test stimulus following exposure to sequences of leftwards or rightwards orientated gratings. Our results demonstrate that exposure to temporal sequences without feedback facilitates the ability to predict an upcoming stimulus in both MCI-AD patients and controls. However, our fMRI results demonstrate that MCI-AD patients recruit an alternate circuit to hippocampus to succeed in learning of predictive structures. In particular, we observed stronger learning-dependent activations for structured sequences in frontal, subcortical and cerebellar regions for patients compared to age-matched controls. Thus, our findings suggest a cortico-striatal-cerebellar network that may mediate the ability for predictive learning despite hippocampal dysfunction in MCI-AD.

  13. Impairments in prehension produced by early postnatal sensory motor cortex activity blockade.

    PubMed

    Martin, J H; Donarummo, L; Hacking, A

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the effects of blocking neural activity in sensory motor cortex during early postnatal development on prehension. We infused muscimol, either unilaterally or bilaterally, into the sensory motor cortex of cats to block activity continuously between postnatal weeks 3-7. After stopping infusion, we trained animals to reach and grasp a cube of meat and tested behavior thereafter. Animals that had not received muscimol infusion (unilateral saline infusion; age-matched) reached for the meat accurately with small end-point errors. They grasped the meat using coordinated digit flexion followed by forearm supination on 82.7% of trials. Performance using either limb did not differ significantly. In animals receiving unilateral muscimol infusion, reaching and grasping using the limb ipsilateral to the infusion were similar to controls. The limb contralateral to infusion showed significant increases in systematic and variable reaching end-point errors, often requiring subsequent corrective movements to contact the meat. Grasping occurred on only 14.8% of trials, replaced on most trials by raking without distal movements. Compensatory adjustments in reach length and angle, to maintain end-point accuracy as movements were started from a more lateral position, were less effective using the contralateral limb than ipsilateral limb. With bilateral inactivations, the form of reaching and grasping impairments was identical to that produced by unilateral inactivation, but the magnitude of the reaching impairments was less. We discuss these results in terms of the differential effects of unilateral and bilateral inactivation on corticospinal tract development. We also investigated the degree to which these prehension impairments after unilateral blockade reflect control by each hemisphere. In animals that had received unilateral blockade between postnatal weeks (PWs) 3 and 7, we silenced on-going activity (after PW 11) during task performance using continuous

  14. Thicker Temporal Cortex Associates with a Developmental Trajectory for Psychopathic Traits in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaling; Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Narr, Katherine L.; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Hafzalla, George; Raine, Adrian; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is a clinical condition characterized by a failure in normal social interaction and morality. Recent studies have begun to reveal brain structural abnormalities associated with psychopathic tendencies in children. However, little is known about whether variations in brain morphology are linked to the developmental trajectory of psychopathic traits over time. In this study, structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data from 108 14-year-old adolescents with no history of substance abuse (54 males and 54 females) were examined to detect cortical thickness variations associated with psychopathic traits and individual rates of change in psychopathic traits from ages 9 to 18. We found cortical thickness abnormalities to correlate with psychopathic traits both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Specifically, at age 14, higher psychopathic scores were correlated with thinner cortex in the middle frontal gyrus, particularly in females, and thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and parahippocampal gyrus, particularly in males. Longitudinally, individual rates of change in psychopathic tendency over time were correlated with thicker cortex in the superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and posterior cingulate gyrus, particularly in males. Findings suggest that abnormal cortical thickness may reflect a delay in brain maturation, resulting in disturbances in frontal and temporal functioning such as impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and emotional dysregulation in adolescents. Thus, findings provide initial evidence supporting that abnormal cortical thickness may serve as a biomarker for the development of psychopathic propensity in adolescents. PMID:26017779

  15. Recovery from Emotion Recognition Impairment after Temporal Lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Benuzzi, Francesca; Zamboni, Giovanna; Meletti, Stefano; Serafini, Marco; Lui, Fausta; Baraldi, Patrizia; Duzzi, Davide; Rubboli, Guido; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Nichelli, Paolo Frigio

    2014-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) can be associated with emotion recognition impairment that can be particularly severe in patients with early onset seizures (1–3). Whereas, there is growing evidence that memory and language can improve in seizure-free patients after anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) (4), the effects of surgery on emotional processing are still unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate short-term reorganization of networks engaged in facial emotion recognition in MTLE patients. Behavioral and fMRI data were collected from six patients before and after ATL. During the fMRI scan, patients were asked to make a gender decision on fearful and neutral faces. Behavioral data demonstrated that two patients with early onset right MTLE were impaired in fear recognition while fMRI results showed they lacked specific activations for fearful faces. Post-ATL behavioral data showed improved emotion recognition ability, while fMRI demonstrated the recruitment of a functional network for fearful face processing. Our results suggest that ATL elicited brain plasticity mechanisms allowing behavioral and fMRI improvement in emotion recognition. PMID:24936197

  16. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5 s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation.

  17. Distributed Processing and Cortical Specialization for Speech and Environmental Sounds in Human Temporal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leech, Robert; Saygin, Ayse Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Using functional MRI, we investigated whether auditory processing of both speech and meaningful non-linguistic environmental sounds in superior and middle temporal cortex relies on a complex and spatially distributed neural system. We found that evidence for spatially distributed processing of speech and environmental sounds in a substantial…

  18. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D.; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G.; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation. PMID:26519093

  19. Auditory Evoked Fields Elicited by Spectral, Temporal, and Spectral–Temporal Changes in Human Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Hidehiko; Teismann, Henning; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Pantev, Christo

    2012-01-01

    Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral–temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral–temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30–50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously. PMID:22593751

  20. Perirhinal cortex lesions impair tests of object recognition memory but spare novelty detection.

    PubMed

    Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M; Amin, Eman; Warburton, E Clea; Aggleton, John P

    2015-12-01

    The present study examined why perirhinal cortex lesions in rats impair the spontaneous ability to select novel objects in preference to familiar objects, when both classes of object are presented simultaneously. The study began by repeating this standard finding, using a test of delayed object recognition memory. As expected, the perirhinal cortex lesions reduced the difference in exploration times for novel vs. familiar stimuli. In contrast, the same rats with perirhinal cortex lesions appeared to perform normally when the preferential exploration of novel vs. familiar objects was tested sequentially, i.e. when each trial consisted of only novel or only familiar objects. In addition, there was no indication that the perirhinal cortex lesions reduced total levels of object exploration for novel objects, as would be predicted if the lesions caused novel stimuli to appear familiar. Together, the results show that, in the absence of perirhinal cortex tissue, rats still receive signals of object novelty, although they may fail to link that information to the appropriate object. Consequently, these rats are impaired in discriminating the source of object novelty signals, leading to deficits on simultaneous choice tests of recognition.

  1. Lesions to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex selectively impair reasoning about emotional material.

    PubMed

    Goel, Vinod; Lam, Elaine; Smith, Kathleen W; Goel, Amit; Raymont, Vanessa; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2017-03-03

    While it is widely accepted that lesions to orbital prefrontal cortex lead to emotion related disruptions and poor decision-making, there is very little patient data on this issue involving actual logical reasoning tasks. We tested patients with circumscribed, focal lesions largely confined to polar/orbital prefrontal cortex (BA 10 & 11) (N=17) on logical reasoning tasks involving neutral and emotional content, and compared their performance to that of an age and education-matched normal control group (N=22) and a posterior lesion control group (N=24). Our results revealed a significant group by content interaction driven by a selective impairment in the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex group compared to healthy normal controls and to the parietal patient group, in the emotional content reasoning trials. Subsequent analyses of congruent and incongruent reasoning trials indicated that this impairment was driven by the poor performance of patients with polar/orbital lesions in the incongruent trials. We conclude that the polar/orbital prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in filtering emotionally charged content from the material before it is passed on to the reasoning system in lateral/dorsal regions of prefrontal cortex. Where unfiltered content is passed to the reasoning engine, either as a result of pathology (as in the case of our patients) or as a result of individual differences, reasoning performance suffers.

  2. Medial temporal lobe damage impairs representation of simple stimuli.

    PubMed

    Warren, David E; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2010-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of MTL amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items more similar to the target. In the simultaneous condition, patients and comparisons exhibited an equivalent effect of similarity on fixation durations. However, imposing a delay modulated the effect differently for the two groups: in comparisons, fixation duration to similar items was exaggerated; in patients, the original effect was diminished. These findings indicate that MTL lesions subtly impair short-term maintenance of even simple stimuli, with performance reflecting not the complete loss of the maintained representation but rather a degradation or progressive drift of the representation over time.

  3. Social conceptual impairments in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with right anterior temporal hypometabolism.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Roland; Moll, Jorge; Iyengar, Vijeth; Huey, Edward D; Tierney, Michael; Krueger, Frank; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-03-01

    Inappropriate social behaviours are early and distinctive symptoms of the temporal and frontal variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Knowledge of social behaviour is essential for appropriate social conduct. It is unknown, however, in what way this knowledge is degraded in FTLD. In a recent functional MRI study, we have identified a right-lateralized superior anterior temporal lobe (aTL) region showing selective activation for 'social concepts' (i.e. concepts describing social behaviour: e.g. 'polite', 'stingy') as compared with concepts describing less socially relevant animal behaviour ('animal function concepts': e.g. 'trainable', 'nutritious'). In a further fMRI study, superior aTL activation was independent of the context of actions and feelings associated with these social concepts. Here, we investigated whether the right superior sector of the aTL is necessary for context-independent knowledge of social concepts. We assessed neuronal glucose uptake using 18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and a novel semantic discrimination task which probed knowledge of social and animal function concepts in patients with FTLD (n = 29) and corticobasal syndrome (n = 18). FTLD and corticobasal syndrome groups performed equally poorly on animal function concepts but FTLD patients showed more pronounced impairments on social concepts than corticobasal syndrome patients. FTLD patients with right superior aTL hypometabolism, as determined on individual ROI analyses, were significantly more impaired on social concepts than on animal function concepts. FTLD patients with selective impairments for social concepts, as determined on individual neuropsychological profiles, showed higher levels of inappropriate social behaviours ('disinhibition') and demonstrated more pronounced hypometabolism in the right superior aTL, the left temporal pole and the right lateral orbitofrontal and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex as compared with FTLD patients

  4. Involvement of the superior temporal cortex and the occipital cortex in spatial hearing: evidence from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lewald, Jörg; Meister, Ingo G; Weidemann, Jürgen; Töpper, Rudolf

    2004-06-01

    The processing of auditory spatial information in cortical areas of the human brain outside of the primary auditory cortex remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the role of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the occipital cortex (OC) in spatial hearing using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The right STG is known to be of crucial importance for visual spatial awareness, and has been suggested to be involved in auditory spatial perception. We found that rTMS of the right STG induced a systematic error in the perception of interaural time differences (a primary cue for sound localization in the azimuthal plane). This is in accordance with the recent view, based on both neurophysiological data obtained in monkeys and human neuroimaging studies, that information on sound location is processed within a dorsolateral "where" stream including the caudal STG. A similar, but opposite, auditory shift was obtained after rTMS of secondary visual areas of the right OC. Processing of auditory information in the OC has previously been shown to exist only in blind persons. Thus, the latter finding provides the first evidence of an involvement of the visual cortex in spatial hearing in sighted human subjects, and suggests a close interconnection of the neural representation of auditory and visual space. Because rTMS induced systematic shifts in auditory lateralization, but not a general deterioration, we propose that rTMS of STG or OC specifically affected neuronal circuits transforming auditory spatial coordinates in order to maintain alignment with vision.

  5. Temporal accuracy and variability in the left and right posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Vicario, C M; Martino, D; Koch, G

    2013-08-15

    Several brain-imaging and lesion studies have suggested a role for the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in computing interval-timing tasks. PPC also seems to have a key role in modulating visuospatial mechanisms, which are known to affect temporal performance. By applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left and right PPC, we aimed to modulate timing ability performance in healthy humans performing a cognitively controlled timing task. In two separate experiments we compared time-processing abilities of two groups of healthy adults submitted to anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS over right or left PPC, by employing a supra-second time reproduction task. Cathodal stimulation over the right PPC affected temporal accuracy by leading participants to overestimate time intervals. Moreover, when applied to the left PPC, it reduced variability in reproducing temporal intervals. No effect was reported for anodal stimulation. These results expand current knowledge on the role of the parietal cortex on temporal processing. We provide evidence that the parietal cortex of both hemispheres is involved in temporal processing by acting on distinct components of timing performance such as accuracy and variability.

  6. Pairing tone trains with vagus nerve stimulation induces temporal plasticity in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Shetake, Jai A; Engineer, Navzer D; Vrana, Will A; Wolf, Jordan T; Kilgard, Michael P

    2012-01-01

    The selectivity of neurons in sensory cortex can be modified by pairing neuromodulator release with sensory stimulation. Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of the cholinergic nucleus basalis, for example, induces input specific plasticity in primary auditory cortex (A1). Pairing nucleus basalis stimulation (NBS) with a tone increases the number of A1 neurons that respond to the paired tone frequency. Pairing NBS with fast or slow tone trains can respectively increase or decrease the ability of A1 neurons to respond to rapidly presented tones. Pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a single tone alters spectral tuning in the same way as NBS-tone pairing without the need for brain surgery. In this study, we tested whether pairing VNS with tone trains can change the temporal response properties of A1 neurons. In naïve rats, A1 neurons respond strongly to tones repeated at rates up to 10 pulses per second (pps). Repeatedly pairing VNS with 15 pps tone trains increased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons and repeatedly pairing VNS with 5 pps tone trains decreased the temporal following capacity of A1 neurons. Pairing VNS with tone trains did not alter the frequency selectivity or tonotopic organization of auditory cortex neurons. Since VNS is well tolerated by patients, VNS-tone train pairing represents a viable method to direct temporal plasticity in a variety of human conditions associated with temporal processing deficits.

  7. Beyond the Peak - Tactile Temporal Discrimination Does Not Correlate with Individual Peak Frequencies in Somatosensory Cortex.

    PubMed

    Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The human sensory systems constantly receive input from different stimuli. Whether these stimuli are integrated into a coherent percept or segregated and perceived as separate events, is critically determined by the temporal distance of the stimuli. This temporal distance has prompted the concept of temporal integration windows or perceptual cycles. Although this concept has gained considerable support, the neuronal correlates are still discussed. Studies suggested that neuronal oscillations might provide a neuronal basis for such perceptual cycles, i.e., the cycle lengths of alpha oscillations in visual cortex and beta oscillations in somatosensory cortex might determine the length of perceptual cycles. Specifically, recent studies reported that the peak frequency (the frequency with the highest spectral power) of alpha oscillations in visual cortex correlates with subjects' ability to discriminate two visual stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether peak frequencies in somatosensory cortex might serve as the correlate of perceptual cycles in tactile discrimination. Despite several different approaches, we were unable to find a significant correlation between individual peak frequencies in the alpha- and beta-band and individual discrimination abilities. In addition, analysis of Bayes factor provided evidence that peak frequencies and discrimination thresholds are unrelated. The results suggest that perceptual cycles in the somatosensory domain are not necessarily to be found in the peak frequency, but in other frequencies. We argue that studies based solely on analysis of peak frequencies might thus miss relevant information.

  8. Altered temporal dynamics of neural adaptation in the aging human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Björn; Henry, Molly J; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Obleser, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    Neural response adaptation plays an important role in perception and cognition. Here, we used electroencephalography to investigate how aging affects the temporal dynamics of neural adaptation in human auditory cortex. Younger (18-31 years) and older (51-70 years) normal hearing adults listened to tone sequences with varying onset-to-onset intervals. Our results show long-lasting neural adaptation such that the response to a particular tone is a nonlinear function of the extended temporal history of sound events. Most important, aging is associated with multiple changes in auditory cortex; older adults exhibit larger and less variable response magnitudes, a larger dynamic response range, and a reduced sensitivity to temporal context. Computational modeling suggests that reduced adaptation recovery times underlie these changes in the aging auditory cortex and that the extended temporal stimulation has less influence on the neural response to the current sound in older compared with younger individuals. Our human electroencephalography results critically narrow the gap to animal electrophysiology work suggesting a compensatory release from cortical inhibition accompanying hearing loss and aging.

  9. Impaired recognition of scary music following unilateral temporal lobe excision.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle; Noulhiane, Marion; Hasboun, Dominique; Beckett, Christine; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine

    2005-03-01

    Music constitutes an ideal means to create a sense of suspense in films. However, there has been minimal investigation into the underlying cerebral organization for perceiving danger created by music. In comparison, the amygdala's role in recognition of fear in non-musical contexts has been well established. The present study sought to fill this gap in exploring how patients with amygdala resection recognize emotional expression in music. To this aim, we tested 16 patients with left (LTR; n = 8) or right (RTR; n = 8) medial temporal resection (including amygdala) for the relief of medically intractable seizures and 16 matched controls in an emotion recognition task involving instrumental music. The musical selections were purposely created to induce fear, peacefulness, happiness and sadness. Participants were asked to rate to what extent each musical passage expressed these four emotions on 10-point scales. In order to check for the presence of a perceptual problem, the same musical selections were presented to the participants in an error detection task. None of the patients was found to perform below controls in the perceptual task. In contrast, both LTR and RTR patients were found to be impaired in the recognition of scary music. Recognition of happy and sad music was normal. These findings suggest that the anteromedial temporal lobe (including the amygdala) plays a role in the recognition of danger in a musical context.

  10. NORADRENERGIC, BUT NOT CHOLINERGIC, DEAFFERENTATION OF PREFRONTAL CORTEX IMPAIRS ATTENTIONAL SET-SHIFTING

    PubMed Central

    McGAUGHY, J.; ROSS, R. S.; EICHENBAUM, H.

    2008-01-01

    Both norepinephrine and acetylcholine have been shown to be critically involved in mediating attention but there remains debate about whether they serve similar or unique functions. Much of what is known about the role of these neurochemicals in cognition is based on manipulations done at the level of the cell body but these findings are difficult to reconcile with data regarding the unique contribution of cortical subregions, e.g. the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, to attention. In the current study, we directly compared the effects of noradrenergic and cholinergic deafferentation of the rat medial prefrontal cortex, the homologue of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, using an intradimensional/extradimensional attentional set shifting task, a task previously shown to be able to dissociate the function of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from orbitofrontal cortex. We found that noradrenergic, but not cholinergic, deafferentation produces specific impairments in the ability to shift attentional set. We also clarified the nature of the attentional deficits by assessing the ability of rats to disregard irrelevant stimuli. Noradrenergic lesions did not alter the ability of rats to ignore irrelevant stimuli, suggesting that the attentional deficit results from an overly focused attentional state that retards learning that a new stimulus dimension predicts reward. PMID:18355972

  11. Multiple Stability of a Sparsely Encoded Attractor Neural Network Model for the Inferior Temporal Cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimoto, Tomoyuki; Uezu, Tatsuya; Okada, Masato

    2008-12-01

    We study a neural network model for the inferior temporal cortex, in terms of finite memory loading and sparse coding. We show that an uncorrelated Hopfield-type attractor and some correlated attractors have multiple stability, and examine the retrieval dynamics for these attractors when the initial state is set to a noise-degraded memory pattern. Then, we show that there is a critical initial overlap: that is, the system converges to the correlated attractor when the noise level is large, and otherwise to the Hopfield-type attractor. Furthermore, we study the time course of the correlation between the correlated attractors in the retrieval dynamics. On the basis of these theoretical results, we resolve the controversy regarding previous physiologic experimental findings regarding neuron properties in the inferior temporal cortex and propose a new experimental paradigm.

  12. Frequency-Selective Attention in Auditory Scenes Recruits Frequency Representations Throughout Human Superior Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Riecke, Lars; Peters, Judith C; Valente, Giancarlo; Kemper, Valentin G; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina

    2016-05-26

    A sound of interest may be tracked amid other salient sounds by focusing attention on its characteristic features including its frequency. Functional magnetic resonance imaging findings have indicated that frequency representations in human primary auditory cortex (AC) contribute to this feat. However, attentional modulations were examined at relatively low spatial and spectral resolutions, and frequency-selective contributions outside the primary AC could not be established. To address these issues, we compared blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses in the superior temporal cortex of human listeners while they identified single frequencies versus listened selectively for various frequencies within a multifrequency scene. Using best-frequency mapping, we observed that the detailed spatial layout of attention-induced BOLD response enhancements in primary AC follows the tonotopy of stimulus-driven frequency representations-analogous to the "spotlight" of attention enhancing visuospatial representations in retinotopic visual cortex. Moreover, using an algorithm trained to discriminate stimulus-driven frequency representations, we could successfully decode the focus of frequency-selective attention from listeners' BOLD response patterns in nonprimary AC. Our results indicate that the human brain facilitates selective listening to a frequency of interest in a scene by reinforcing the fine-grained activity pattern throughout the entire superior temporal cortex that would be evoked if that frequency was present alone.

  13. Resting-state oscillatory dynamics in sensorimotor cortex in benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes and typical brain development.

    PubMed

    Koelewijn, Loes; Hamandi, Khalid; Brindley, Lisa M; Brookes, Matthew J; Routley, Bethany C; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Williams, Natalie; Thomas, Marie A; Kirby, Amanda; Te Water Naudé, Johann; Gibbon, Frances; Singh, Krish D

    2015-10-01

    Benign Epilepsy with Centro-Temporal Spikes (BECTS) is a common childhood epilepsy associated with deficits in several neurocognitive domains. Neurophysiological studies in BECTS often focus on centro-temporal spikes, but these correlate poorly with morphology and cognitive impairments. To better understand the neural profile of BECTS, we studied background brain oscillations, thought to be integrally involved in neural network communication, in sensorimotor areas. We used independent component analysis of temporally correlated sources on magnetoencephalography recordings to assess sensorimotor resting-state network activity in BECTS patients and typically developing controls. We also investigated the variability of oscillatory characteristics within focal primary motor cortex (M1), localized with a separate finger abduction task. We hypothesized that background oscillations would differ between patients and controls in the sensorimotor network but not elsewhere, especially in the beta band (13-30 Hz) because of its role in network communication and motor processing. The results support our hypothesis: in the sensorimotor network, patients had a greater variability in oscillatory amplitude compared to controls, whereas there was no difference in the visual network. Network measures did not correlate with age. The coefficient of variation of resting M1 peak frequency correlated negatively with age in the beta band only, and was greater than average for a number of patients. Our results point toward a "disorganized" functional sensorimotor network in BECTS, supporting a neurodevelopmental delay in sensorimotor cortex. Our findings further suggest that investigating the variability of oscillatory peak frequency may be a useful tool to investigate deficits of disorganization in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Prefrontal Cortex Organization: Dissociating Effects of Temporal Abstraction, Relational Abstraction, and Integration with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Nee, Derek Evan; Jahn, Andrew; Brown, Joshua W.

    2014-01-01

    The functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie higher-level cognition. Varying proposals suggest that the PFC is organized along a rostral-caudal gradient of abstraction with more abstract representations/processes associated with more rostral areas. However, the operational definition of abstraction is unclear. Here, we contrasted 2 prominent theories of abstraction—temporal and relational—using fMRI. We further examined whether integrating abstract rules—a function common to each theory—recruited the PFC independently of other abstraction effects. While robust effects of relational abstraction were present in the PFC, temporal abstraction effects were absent. Instead, we found activations specific to the integration of relational rules in areas previously shown to be associated with temporal abstraction. We suggest that previous effects of temporal abstraction were due to confounds with integration demands. We propose an integration framework to understand the functions of the PFC that resolves discrepancies in prior data. PMID:23563962

  15. Long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy in the human inferior and middle temporal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, W. R.; Lee, S.; Kato, K.; Spencer, D. D.; Shepherd, G. M.; Williamson, A.

    1996-01-01

    The primate temporal cortex has been demonstrated to play an important role in visual memory and pattern recognition. It is of particular interest to investigate whether activity-dependent modification of synaptic efficacy, a presumptive mechanism for learning and memory, is present in this cortical region. Here we address this issue by examining the induction of synaptic plasticity in surgically resected human inferior and middle temporal cortex. The results show that synaptic strength in the human temporal cortex could undergo bidirectional modifications, depending on the pattern of conditioning stimulation. High frequency stimulation (100 or 40 Hz) in layer IV induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of both intracellular excitatory postsynaptic potentials and evoked field potentials in layers II/III. The LTP induced by 100 Hz tetanus was blocked by 50-100 microM DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, suggesting that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors were responsible for its induction. Long-term depression (LTD) was elicited by prolonged low frequency stimulation (1 Hz, 15 min). It was reduced, but not completely blocked, by DL-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid, implying that some other mechanisms in addition to N-methyl-DL-aspartate receptors were involved in LTD induction. LTD was input-specific, i.e., low frequency stimulation of one pathway produced LTD of synaptic transmission in that pathway only. Finally, the LTP and LTD could reverse each other, suggesting that they can act cooperatively to modify the functional state of cortical network. These results suggest that LTP and LTD are possible mechanisms for the visual memory and pattern recognition functions performed in the human temporal cortex.

  16. Neuronal correlate of pictorial short-term memory in the primate temporal cortexYasushi Miyashita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yasushi; Chang, Han Soo

    1988-01-01

    It has been proposed that visual-memory traces are located in the temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex, as electric stimulation of this area in humans results in recall of imagery1. Lesions in this area also affect recognition of an object after a delay in both humans2,3 and monkeys4-7 indicating a role in short-term memory of images8. Single-unit recordings from the temporal cortex have shown that some neurons continue to fire when one of two or four colours are to be remembered temporarily9. But neuronal responses selective to specific complex objects10-18 , including hands10,13 and faces13,16,17, cease soon after the offset of stimulus presentation10-18. These results led to the question of whether any of these neurons could serve the memory of complex objects. We report here a group of shape-selective neurons in an anterior ventral part of the temporal cortex of monkeys that exhibited sustained activity during the delay period of a visual short-term memory task. The activity was highly selective for the pictorial information to be memorized and was independent of the physical attributes such as size, orientation, colour or position of the object. These observations show that the delay activity represents the short-term memory of the categorized percept of a picture.

  17. Impaired Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Mechanism for Chronic Stress-Induced Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Aboitiz, Francisco; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress-related psychiatric diseases, such as major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia, are characterized by a maladaptive organization of behavioral responses that strongly affect the well-being of patients. Current evidence suggests that a functional impairment of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Therefore, chronic stress may impair PFC functions required for the adaptive orchestration of behavioral responses. In the present review, we integrate evidence obtained from cognitive neuroscience with neurophysiological research with animal models, to put forward a hypothesis that addresses stress-induced behavioral dysfunctions observed in stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. We propose that chronic stress impairs mechanisms involved in neuronal functional connectivity in the PFC that are required for the formation of adaptive representations for the execution of adaptive behavioral responses. These considerations could be particularly relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of chronic stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26904302

  18. Impairment in delayed nonmatching to sample following lesions of dorsal prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tara L; Schettler, Stephen P; Killiany, Ronald J; Rosene, Douglas L; Moss, Mark B

    2012-12-01

    The prefrontal cortex has been identified as essential for executive function, as well as for aspects of rule learning and recognition memory. As part of our studies to assess prefrontal cortical function in the monkey, we evaluated the effects of damage to the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) on the Category Set Shifting Task (CSST), a test of abstraction and set-shifting, and on the Delayed Nonmatching to Sample (DNMS) task, a benchmark test of rule learning and recognition memory. The DPFC lesions in this study included dorsolateral and dorsomedial aspects of the PFC. In a previous report, we published evidence of an impairment on the CSST as a consequence of DPFC lesions (Moore, Schettler, Killiany, Rosene, & Moss, 2009). Here we report that monkeys with lesions of the DPFC were also markedly impaired relative to controls on both the acquisition (rule learning) and performance (recognition memory) conditions of trial-unique DNMS. The presence and extent of the deficits that we observed were of some surprise and support the possibility that the dorsal prefrontal cortex plays a more direct role in learning and recognition memory than had been previously thought.

  19. Impairment in Delayed Non-Matching to Sample Following Lesions of Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Tara L; Schettler, Stephen P.; Killiany, Ronald J.; Rosene, Douglas L.; Moss, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex has been identified as essential for executive function, as well as for aspects of rule learning and recognition memory. As part of our studies to assess prefrontal cortical function in the monkey, we evaluated the effects of damage to the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) on the Category Set Shifting Task (CSST), a test of abstraction and set-shifting, and on the Delayed Non Matching-to-Sample (DNMS) task, a benchmark test of rule learning and recognition memory. The DPFC lesions in this study included dorsolateral and dorsomedial aspects of the PFC. In a previous report, we published evidence of an impairment on the CSST as a consequence of DPFC lesions (Moore et al, 2009). Here we report that monkeys with lesions of the DPFC were also markedly impaired relative to controls on both the acquisition (rule learning) and performance (recognition memory) conditions of trial-unique DNMS. The presence and extent of the deficits that we observed were of some surprise and support the possibility that the dorsal prefrontal cortex plays a more direct role in learning and recognition memory than had been previously thought. PMID:23088539

  20. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes-Bautista, Amanda G.; Rodríguez-Camacho, Mario; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E.; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth

    2015-01-01

    The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. PMID:26257956

  1. Distinct mechanisms for coding of visual actions in macaque temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Vangeneugden, Joris; De Mazière, Patrick A; Van Hulle, Marc M; Jaeggli, Tobias; Van Gool, Luc; Vogels, Rufin

    2011-01-12

    Temporal cortical neurons are known to respond to visual dynamic-action displays. Many human psychophysical and functional imaging studies examining biological motion perception have used treadmill walking, in contrast to previous macaque single-cell studies. We assessed the coding of locomotion in rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) temporal cortex using movies of stationary walkers, varying both form and motion (i.e., different facing directions) or varying only the frame sequence (i.e., forward vs backward walking). The majority of superior temporal sulcus and inferior temporal neurons were selective for facing direction, whereas a minority distinguished forward from backward walking. Support vector machines using the temporal cortical population responses as input classified facing direction well, but forward and backward walking less so. Classification performance for the latter improved markedly when the within-action response modulation was considered, reflecting differences in momentary body poses within the locomotion sequences. Responses to static pose presentations predicted the responses during the course of the action. Analyses of the responses to walking sequences wherein the start frame was varied across trials showed that some neurons also carried a snapshot sequence signal. Such sequence information was present in neurons that responded to static snapshot presentations and in neurons that required motion. Our data suggest that actions are analyzed by temporal cortical neurons using distinct mechanisms. Most neurons predominantly signal momentary pose. In addition, temporal cortical neurons, including those responding to static pose, are sensitive to pose sequence, which can contribute to the signaling of learned action sequences.

  2. Impaired rapid error monitoring but intact error signaling following rostral anterior cingulate cortex lesions in humans

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Martin E.; Di Gregorio, Francesco; Muricchio, Teresa; Di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Detecting one’s own errors and appropriately correcting behavior are crucial for efficient goal-directed performance. A correlate of rapid evaluation of behavioral outcomes is the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) which emerges at the time of the erroneous response over frontal brain areas. However, whether the error monitoring system’s ability to distinguish between errors and correct responses at this early time point is a necessary precondition for the subsequent emergence of error awareness remains unclear. The present study investigated this question using error-related brain activity and vocal error signaling responses in seven human patients with lesions in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and adjoining ventromedial prefrontal cortex, while they performed a flanker task. The difference between errors and correct responses was severely attenuated in these patients indicating impaired rapid error monitong, but they showed no impairment in error signaling. However, impaired rapid error monitoring coincided with a failure to increase response accuracy on trials following errors. These results demonstrate that the error monitoring system’s ability to distinguish between errors and correct responses at the time of the response is crucial for adaptive post-error adjustments, but not a necessary precondition for error awareness. PMID:26136674

  3. Discrimination of brief speech sounds is impaired in rats with auditory cortex lesions.

    PubMed

    Porter, Benjamin A; Rosenthal, Tara R; Ranasinghe, Kamalini G; Kilgard, Michael P

    2011-05-16

    Auditory cortex (AC) lesions impair complex sound discrimination. However, a recent study demonstrated spared performance on an acoustic startle response test of speech discrimination following AC lesions (Floody et al., 2010). The current study reports the effects of AC lesions on two operant speech discrimination tasks. AC lesions caused a modest and quickly recovered impairment in the ability of rats to discriminate consonant-vowel-consonant speech sounds. This result seems to suggest that AC does not play a role in speech discrimination. However, the speech sounds used in both studies differed in many acoustic dimensions and an adaptive change in discrimination strategy could allow the rats to use an acoustic difference that does not require an intact AC to discriminate. Based on our earlier observation that the first 40 ms of the spatiotemporal activity patterns elicited by speech sounds best correlate with behavioral discriminations of these sounds (Engineer et al., 2008), we predicted that eliminating additional cues by truncating speech sounds to the first 40 ms would render the stimuli indistinguishable to a rat with AC lesions. Although the initial discrimination of truncated sounds took longer to learn, the final performance paralleled rats using full-length consonant-vowel-consonant sounds. After 20 days of testing, half of the rats using speech onsets received bilateral AC lesions. Lesions severely impaired speech onset discrimination for at least one-month post lesion. These results support the hypothesis that auditory cortex is required to accurately discriminate the subtle differences between similar consonant and vowel sounds.

  4. Inactivation of the infralimbic but not the prelimbic cortex impairs consolidation and retrieval of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Vincent; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2009-09-01

    Rats were subjected to one or two cycles of context fear conditioning and extinction to study the roles of the prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) in learning and relearning to inhibit fear responses. Inactivation of the PL depressed fear responses across the first or second extinction but did not impair learning or relearning fear inhibition (experiment 1). Inactivation of the IL did not affect inhibition across the first extinction but disrupted its long-term retention. Inactivation of the IL impaired inhibition across the second extinction, and inactivation before or after this extinction impaired long-term retention (experiments 2 and 3). Inactivation of the IL before the retention test restored extinguished fear responses (experiment 4). These results show for the first time that neuronal activity in the PL is involved in the expression of fear responses but not in the learning that underlies long-term fear inhibition. They also confirm that the IL is involved in this inhibitory learning: Specifically, they show that the IL is critical for consolidation and retrieval of this inhibitory learning. The role of the IL is discussed in terms of a contemporary neural model of fear extinction.

  5. Early Impairment of Long-Term Depression in the Perirhinal Cortex of a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Burattini, Costanza; Casoli, Tiziana; Balietti, Marta; Fattoretti, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Visual recognition memory is early impaired in Alzheimer's disease. Long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the perirhinal cortex is critically involved in this form of memory. We found that synaptic transmission was impaired in perirhinal cortex slices obtained from 3-month-old Tg2576 mice, and that 3,000 pulses at 5 Hz induced long-term depression in perirhinal cortex slices from age-matched control mice, but not in those from Tg2576 mice. To our knowledge, these data provide the first evidence of synaptic transmission and long-term depression impairment in the perirhinal cortex in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease, and the earliest synaptic deficit in Tg2576 mice. PMID:22533438

  6. Temporal tuning in the bat auditory cortex is sharper when studied with natural echolocation sequences

    PubMed Central

    Beetz, M. Jerome; Hechavarría, Julio C.; Kössl, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Precise temporal coding is necessary for proper acoustic analysis. However, at cortical level, forward suppression appears to limit the ability of neurons to extract temporal information from natural sound sequences. Here we studied how temporal processing can be maintained in the bats’ cortex in the presence of suppression evoked by natural echolocation streams that are relevant to the bats’ behavior. We show that cortical neurons tuned to target-distance actually profit from forward suppression induced by natural echolocation sequences. These neurons can more precisely extract target distance information when they are stimulated with natural echolocation sequences than during stimulation with isolated call-echo pairs. We conclude that forward suppression does for time domain tuning what lateral inhibition does for selectivity forms such as auditory frequency tuning and visual orientation tuning. When talking about cortical processing, suppression should be seen as a mechanistic tool rather than a limiting element. PMID:27357230

  7. Dual temporal encoding mechanisms in human auditory cortex: Evidence from MEG and EEG.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huizhen; Crain, Stephen; Johnson, Blake W

    2016-03-01

    Current hypotheses about language processing advocate an integral relationship between encoding of temporal information and linguistic processing in the brain. All such explanations must accommodate the evident ability of the perceptual system to process both slow and fast time scales in speech. However most cortical neurons are limited in their capability to precisely synchronise to temporal modulations at rates faster than about 50Hz. Hence, a central question in auditory neurophysiology concerns how the full range of perceptually relevant modulation rates might be encoded in the cerebral cortex. Here we show with concurrent noninvasive magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements that the human auditory cortex transitions between a phase-locked (PL) mode of responding to modulation rates below about 50Hz, and a non-phase-locked (NPL) mode at higher rates. Precisely such dual response modes are predictable from the behaviours of single neurons in auditory cortices of non-human primates. Our data point to a common mechanistic explanation for the single neuron and MEG/EEG results and support the hypothesis that two distinct types of neuronal encoding mechanisms are employed by the auditory cortex to represent a wide range of temporal modulation rates. This dual encoding model allows slow and fast modulations in speech to be processed in parallel and is therefore consistent with theoretical frameworks in which slow temporal modulations (such as rhythm or syllabic structure) are akin to the contours or edges of visual objects, whereas faster modulations (such as periodicity pitch or phonemic structure) are more like visual texture.

  8. Hierarchy of prediction errors for auditory events in human temporal and frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Edwards, Erik; Reichert, Christoph; Dewar, Callum; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Kirsch, Heidi E.; Dalal, Sarang S.; Deouell, Leon Y.; Knight, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive coding theories posit that neural networks learn statistical regularities in the environment for comparison with actual outcomes, signaling a prediction error (PE) when sensory deviation occurs. PE studies in audition have capitalized on low-frequency event-related potentials (LF-ERPs), such as the mismatch negativity. However, local cortical activity is well-indexed by higher-frequency bands [high-γ band (Hγ): 80–150 Hz]. We compared patterns of human Hγ and LF-ERPs in deviance detection using electrocorticographic recordings from subdural electrodes over frontal and temporal cortices. Patients listened to trains of task-irrelevant tones in two conditions differing in the predictability of a deviation from repetitive background stimuli (fully predictable vs. unpredictable deviants). We found deviance-related responses in both frequency bands over lateral temporal and inferior frontal cortex, with an earlier latency for Hγ than for LF-ERPs. Critically, frontal Hγ activity but not LF-ERPs discriminated between fully predictable and unpredictable changes, with frontal cortex sensitive to unpredictable events. The results highlight the role of frontal cortex and Hγ activity in deviance detection and PE generation. PMID:27247381

  9. Perception of emotional expressions is independent of face selectivity in monkey inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hadj-Bouziane, Fadila; Bell, Andrew H; Knusten, Tamara A; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Tootell, Roger B H

    2008-04-08

    The ability to perceive and differentiate facial expressions is vital for social communication. Numerous functional MRI (fMRI) studies in humans have shown enhanced responses to faces with different emotional valence, in both the amygdala and the visual cortex. However, relatively few studies have examined how valence influences neural responses in monkeys, thereby limiting the ability to draw comparisons across species and thus understand the underlying neural mechanisms. Here we tested the effects of macaque facial expressions on neural activation within these two regions using fMRI in three awake, behaving monkeys. Monkeys maintained central fixation while blocks of different monkey facial expressions were presented. Four different facial expressions were tested: (i) neutral, (ii) aggressive (open-mouthed threat), (iii) fearful (fear grin), and (iv) submissive (lip smack). Our results confirmed that both the amygdala and the inferior temporal cortex in monkeys are modulated by facial expressions. As in human fMRI, fearful expressions evoked the greatest response in monkeys-even though fearful expressions are physically dissimilar in humans and macaques. Furthermore, we found that valence effects were not uniformly distributed over the inferior temporal cortex. Surprisingly, these valence maps were independent of two related functional maps: (i) the map of "face-selective" regions (faces versus non-face objects) and (ii) the map of "face-responsive" regions (faces versus scrambled images). Thus, the neural mechanisms underlying face perception and valence perception appear to be distinct.

  10. Neural selectivity and representation of gloss in the monkey inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Akiko; Goda, Naokazu; Komatsu, Hidehiko

    2012-08-01

    When we view an object, its appearance depends in large part on specific surface reflectance properties; among these is surface gloss, which provides important information about the material composition of the object and the fine structure of its surface. To study how gloss is represented in the visual cortical areas related to object recognition, we examined the responses of neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex of the macaque monkey to a set of object images exhibiting various combinations of specular reflection, diffuse reflection, and roughness, which are important physical parameters of surface gloss. We found that there are neurons in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus that selectively respond to specific gloss. This neuronal selectivity was largely maintained when the shape or illumination of the object was modified and perceived glossiness was unchanged. By contrast, neural responses were significantly altered when the pixels of the images were randomly rearranged, and perceived glossiness was dramatically changed. The stimulus preference of these neurons differed from cell to cell, and, as a population, they systematically represented a variety of surface glosses. We conclude that, within the visual cortex, there are mechanisms operating to integrate local image features and extract information about surface gloss and that this information is systematically represented in the IT cortex, an area playing an important role in object recognition.

  11. A high calorie diet causes memory loss, metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress into hippocampus and temporal cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Samuel; Aguilar-Alonso, Patrícia; Flores Hernandez, Jose Angel; Brambila, Eduardo; Guevara, Jorge; Flores, Gonzalo; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Toxqui, Veronica; Venegas, Berenice; Diaz, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    A high calorie intake can induce the appearance of the metabolic syndrome (MS), which is a serious public health problem because it affects glucose levels and triglycerides in the blood. Recently, it has been suggested that MS can cause complications in the brain, since chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are risk factors for triggering neuronal death by inducing a state of oxidative stress and inflammatory response that affect cognitive processes. This process, however, is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the consumption of a high-calorie diet (HCD) on both neurodegeneration and spatial memory impairment in rats. Our results demonstrated that HCD (90 day consumption) induces an alteration of the main energy metabolism markers, indicating the development of MS in rats. Moreover, an impairment of spatial memory was observed. Subsequently, the brains of these animals showed activation of an inflammatory response (increase in reactive astrocytes and interleukin1-β as well as tumor necrosis factor-α) and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation), causing a reduction in the number of neurons in the temporal cortex and hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that a HCD promotes the development of MS and contributes to the development of a neurodegenerative process and cognitive failure. In this regard, it is important to understand the relationship between MS and neuronal damage in order to prevent the onset of neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Retrosplenial cortex lesions impair water maze strategies learning or spatial place learning depending on prior experience of the rat.

    PubMed

    Cain, Donald P; Humpartzoomian, Richard; Boon, Francis

    2006-06-30

    There has been debate whether lesions strictly limited to retrosplenial (RS) cortex impair spatial navigation, and how robust and reliable any such impairment is. The present study used a detailed behavioral analysis with naive or strategies-pretrained rats given RS lesions and trained in a water maze (WM). Naive RS lesioned rats failed to acquire the required WM strategies throughout training. Strategies-pretrained RS lesioned rats were specifically impaired in spatial place memory without a WM strategies impairment. Additional training overcame the spatial memory impairment. Thus the behavioral consequences of the lesion depend on the specific previous experience of the animal. The use of appropriate training and testing techniques has revealed experience-dependant dissociable impairments in WM strategies learning and in spatial memory, indicating that RS cortex is involved in both forms of learning.

  13. Magnetoencephalography identifies rapid temporal processing deficit in autism and language impairment.

    PubMed

    Oram Cardy, Janis E; Flagg, Elissa J; Roberts, Wendy; Brian, Jessica; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2005-03-15

    Deficient rapid temporal processing may contribute to impaired language development by interfering with the processing of brief acoustic transitions crucial for speech perception. Using magnetoencephalography, evoked neural activity (M50, M100) to two 40 ms tones passively presented in rapid succession was recorded in 10 neurologically normal adults and 40 8-17-year-olds with autism, specific language impairment, Asperger syndrome or typical development. While 80% of study participants with intact language (Asperger syndrome, typical development, adults) showed identifiable responses to the second tone, which presented rapid temporal processing demands, 65% of study participants with impaired language (autism, specific language impairment) did not, despite having shown identifiable responses to the first tone. Rapid temporal processing impairments may be fundamentally associated with impairments in language rather than autism spectrum disorder.

  14. Retinal Structures and Visual Cortex Activity are Impaired Prior to Clinical Vision Loss in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Matthew C.; Conner, Ian P.; Teng, Cindy Y.; Lawrence, Jesse D.; Safiullah, Zaid; Wang, Bo; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S.; Chan, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we measured the structure, metabolism and function of the visual system by optical coherence tomography and multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and glaucoma patients with different degrees of vision loss. We found that inner retinal layer thinning, optic nerve cupping and reduced visual cortex activity occurred before patients showed visual field impairment. The primary visual cortex also exhibited more severe functional deficits than higher-order visual brain areas in glaucoma. Within the visual cortex, choline metabolism was perturbed along with increasing disease severity in the eye, optic radiation and visual field. In summary, this study showed evidence that glaucoma deterioration is already present in the eye and the brain before substantial vision loss can be detected clinically using current testing methods. In addition, cortical cholinergic abnormalities are involved during trans-neuronal degeneration and can be detected non-invasively in glaucoma. The current results can be of impact for identifying early glaucoma mechanisms, detecting and monitoring pathophysiological events and eye-brain-behavior relationships, and guiding vision preservation strategies in the visual system, which may help reduce the burden of this irreversible but preventable neurodegenerative disease. PMID:27510406

  15. The functional architecture of the ventral temporal cortex and its role in categorization

    PubMed Central

    Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Weiner, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    Visual categorization is thought to occur in the human ventral temporal cortex (VTC), but how this categorization is achieved is still largely unknown. In this Review, we consider the computations and representations that are necessary for categorization and examine how the microanatomical and macroanatomical layout of the VTC might optimize them to achieve rapid and flexible visual categorization. We propose that efficient categorization is achieved by organizing representations in a nested spatial hierarchy in the VTC. This spatial hierarchy serves as a neural infrastructure for the representational hierarchy of visual information in the VTC and thereby enables flexible access to category information at several levels of abstraction. PMID:24962370

  16. Cognitive flexibility impairment and reduced frontal cortex BDNF expression in the ouabain model of mania.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Dionisio A; Grospe, Gena; Zang, Hui; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Ragozzino, Michael E

    2017-03-14

    Central infusion of the Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain in rats serves as an animal model of mania because it leads to hyperactivity, as well as reproduces ion dysregulation and reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels similar to that observed in bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is also associated with cognitive inflexibility and working memory deficits. It is unknown whether ouabain treatment in rats leads to similar cognitive flexibility and working memory deficits. The present study examined the effects of an intracerebral ventricular infusion of ouabain in rats on spontaneous alternation, probabilistic reversal learning and BDNF expression levels in the frontal cortex. Ouabain treatment significantly increased locomotor activity, but did not affect alternation performance in a Y-maze. Ouabain treatment selectively impaired reversal learning in a spatial discrimination task using an 80/20 probabilistic reinforcement procedure. The reversal learning deficit in ouabain-treated rats resulted from an impaired ability to maintain a new choice pattern (increased regressive errors). Ouabain treatment also decreased sensitivity to negative feedback during the initial phase of reversal learning. Expression of BDNF mRNA and protein levels was downregulated in the frontal cortex which also negatively correlated with regressive errors. These findings suggest that the ouabain model of mania may be useful in understanding the neuropathophysiology that contributes to cognitive flexibility deficits and test potential treatments to alleviate cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder.

  17. Dynamic Control of Response Criterion in Premotor Cortex during Perceptual Detection under Temporal Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, Federico; de Lafuente, Victor; Romo, Ranulfo; Barak, Omri; Parga, Néstor

    2015-05-20

    Under uncertainty, the brain uses previous knowledge to transform sensory inputs into the percepts on which decisions are based. When the uncertainty lies in the timing of sensory evidence, however, the mechanism underlying the use of previously acquired temporal information remains unknown. We study this issue in monkeys performing a detection task with variable stimulation times. We use the neural correlates of false alarms to infer the subject's response criterion and find that it modulates over the course of a trial. Analysis of premotor cortex activity shows that this modulation is represented by the dynamics of population responses. A trained recurrent network model reproduces the experimental findings and demonstrates a neural mechanism to benefit from temporal expectations in perceptual detection. Previous knowledge about the probability of stimulation over time can be intrinsically encoded in the neural population dynamics, allowing a flexible control of the response criterion over time.

  18. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N.; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language. PMID:26441551

  19. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. The unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  20. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    DOE PAGES

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Liu, Hesheng; ...

    2015-09-15

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that themore » left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. As a result, the unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.« less

  1. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Liu, Hesheng; Greve, Douglas N.; Makris, Nikos; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2015-09-15

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that the left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. As a result, the unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.

  2. Effects of sound intensity on temporal properties of inhibition in the pallid bat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A

    2013-01-01

    Auditory neurons in bats that use frequency modulated (FM) sweeps for echolocation are selective for the behaviorally-relevant rates and direction of frequency change. Such selectivity arises through spectrotemporal interactions between excitatory and inhibitory components of the receptive field. In the pallid bat auditory system, the relationship between FM sweep direction/rate selectivity and spectral and temporal properties of sideband inhibition have been characterized. Of note is the temporal asymmetry in sideband inhibition, with low-frequency inhibition (LFI) exhibiting faster arrival times compared to high-frequency inhibition (HFI). Using the two-tone inhibition over time (TTI) stimulus paradigm, this study investigated the interactions between two sound parameters in shaping sideband inhibition: intensity and time. Specifically, the impact of changing relative intensities of the excitatory and inhibitory tones on arrival time of inhibition was studied. Using this stimulation paradigm, single unit data from the auditory cortex of pentobarbital-anesthetized cortex show that the threshold for LFI is on average ~8 dB lower than HFI. For equal intensity tones near threshold, LFI is stronger than HFI. When the inhibitory tone intensity is increased further from threshold, the strength asymmetry decreased. The temporal asymmetry in LFI vs. HFI arrival time is strongest when the excitatory and inhibitory tones are of equal intensities or if excitatory tone is louder. As inhibitory tone intensity is increased, temporal asymmetry decreased suggesting that the relative magnitude of excitatory and inhibitory inputs shape arrival time of inhibition and FM sweep rate and direction selectivity. Given that most FM bats use downward sweeps as echolocation calls, a similar asymmetry in threshold and strength of LFI vs. HFI may be a general adaptation to enhance direction selectivity while maintaining sweep-rate selective responses to downward sweeps.

  3. Effects of sound intensity on temporal properties of inhibition in the pallid bat auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.

    2013-01-01

    Auditory neurons in bats that use frequency modulated (FM) sweeps for echolocation are selective for the behaviorally-relevant rates and direction of frequency change. Such selectivity arises through spectrotemporal interactions between excitatory and inhibitory components of the receptive field. In the pallid bat auditory system, the relationship between FM sweep direction/rate selectivity and spectral and temporal properties of sideband inhibition have been characterized. Of note is the temporal asymmetry in sideband inhibition, with low-frequency inhibition (LFI) exhibiting faster arrival times compared to high-frequency inhibition (HFI). Using the two-tone inhibition over time (TTI) stimulus paradigm, this study investigated the interactions between two sound parameters in shaping sideband inhibition: intensity and time. Specifically, the impact of changing relative intensities of the excitatory and inhibitory tones on arrival time of inhibition was studied. Using this stimulation paradigm, single unit data from the auditory cortex of pentobarbital-anesthetized cortex show that the threshold for LFI is on average ~8 dB lower than HFI. For equal intensity tones near threshold, LFI is stronger than HFI. When the inhibitory tone intensity is increased further from threshold, the strength asymmetry decreased. The temporal asymmetry in LFI vs. HFI arrival time is strongest when the excitatory and inhibitory tones are of equal intensities or if excitatory tone is louder. As inhibitory tone intensity is increased, temporal asymmetry decreased suggesting that the relative magnitude of excitatory and inhibitory inputs shape arrival time of inhibition and FM sweep rate and direction selectivity. Given that most FM bats use downward sweeps as echolocation calls, a similar asymmetry in threshold and strength of LFI vs. HFI may be a general adaptation to enhance direction selectivity while maintaining sweep-rate selective responses to downward sweeps. PMID:23761762

  4. RNA sequencing from neural ensembles activated during fear conditioning in the mouse temporal association cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jin-Hyung; Huang, Ben S.; Gray, Jesse M.

    2016-01-01

    The stable formation of remote fear memories is thought to require neuronal gene induction in cortical ensembles that are activated during learning. However, the set of genes expressed specifically in these activated ensembles is not known; knowledge of such transcriptional profiles may offer insights into the molecular program underlying stable memory formation. Here we use RNA-Seq to identify genes whose expression is enriched in activated cortical ensembles labeled during associative fear learning. We first establish that mouse temporal association cortex (TeA) is required for remote recall of auditory fear memories. We then perform RNA-Seq in TeA neurons that are labeled by the activity reporter Arc-dVenus during learning. We identify 944 genes with enriched expression in Arc-dVenus+ neurons. These genes include markers of L2/3, L5b, and L6 excitatory neurons but not glial or inhibitory markers, confirming Arc-dVenus to be an excitatory neuron-specific but non-layer-specific activity reporter. Cross comparisons to other transcriptional profiles show that 125 of the enriched genes are also activity-regulated in vitro or induced by visual stimulus in the visual cortex, suggesting that they may be induced generally in the cortex in an experience-dependent fashion. Prominent among the enriched genes are those encoding potassium channels that down-regulate neuronal activity, suggesting the possibility that part of the molecular program induced by fear conditioning may initiate homeostatic plasticity. PMID:27557751

  5. Multi-voxel pattern analysis of noun and verb differences in ventral temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L

    2014-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests a probabilistic relationship exists between the phonological/orthographic form of a word and its lexical-syntactic category (specifically nouns vs. verbs) such that syntactic prediction may elicit form-based estimates in sensory cortex. We tested this hypothesis by conducting multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data from early visual cortex (EVC), left ventral temporal (VT) cortex, and a subregion of the latter - the left mid fusiform gyrus (mid FG), sometimes called the "visual word form area." Crucially, we examined only those volumes sampled when subjects were predicting, but not viewing, nouns and verbs. This allowed us to investigate prediction effects in visual areas without any bottom-up orthographic input. We found that voxels in VT and mid FG, but not in EVC, were able to classify noun-predictive trials vs. verb-predictive trials in sentence contexts, suggesting that sentence-level predictions are sufficient to generate word form-based estimates in visual areas.

  6. Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis of Noun and Verb Differences in Ventral Temporal Cortex Marked Revision

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Christine; Trueswell, John C.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a probabilistic relationship exists between the phonological/orthographic form of a word and its lexical-syntactic category (specifically nouns vs. verbs) such that syntactic prediction may elicit form-based estimates in sensory cortex. We tested this hypothesis by conducting multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data from early visual cortex (EVC), left ventral temporal (VT) cortex, and a subregion of the latter - the left mid fusiform gyrus (mid FG), sometimes called the “visual word form area.” Crucially, we examined only those volumes sampled when subjects were predicting, but not viewing, nouns and verbs. This allowed us to investigate prediction effects in visual areas without any bottom-up orthographic input. We found that voxels in VT and mid FG, but not in EVC, were able to classify noun-predictive trials vs. verb-predictive trials in sentence contexts, suggesting that sentence-level predictions are sufficient to generate word form-based estimates in visual areas. PMID:25156159

  7. Trace and contextual fear conditioning are impaired following unilateral microinjection of muscimol in the ventral hippocampus or amygdala, but not the medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Marieke R.; Kwapis, Janine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2012-01-01

    Trace fear conditioning, in which a brief empty “trace interval” occurs between presentation of the CS and UCS, differs from standard delay conditioning in that contributions from both the hippocampus and prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex (PL mPFC) are required to form a normal long term memory. Little is currently known about how the PL interacts with various temporal lobe structures to support learning across this temporal gap between stimuli. We temporarily inactivated PL along with either ventral hippocampus or amygdala in a disconnection design to determine if these structures functionally interact to acquire trace fear conditioning. Disconnection (contralateral injections) of the PL with either the ventral hippocampus or amygdala impaired trace fear conditioning; however, ipsilateral control rats were also impaired. Follow-up experiments examined the effects of unilateral inactivation of the PL, ventral hippocampus, or amygdala during conditioning. The results of this study demonstrate that unilateral inactivation of the ventral hippocampus or amygdala impairs memory, while bilateral inactivation of the PL is required to produce a deficit. Memory deficits after unilateral inactivation of the ventral hippocampus or amygdala prevent us from determining whether the mPFC functionally interacts with the medial temporal lobe using a disconnection approach. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that the trace fear network is more integrated than previously thought. PMID:22469748

  8. Temporal dysfunction in traumatic brain injury patients: primary or secondary impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Mioni, Giovanna; Grondin, Simon; Stablum, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Adequate temporal abilities are required for most daily activities. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients often present with cognitive dysfunctions, but few studies have investigated temporal impairments associated with TBI. The aim of the present work is to review the existing literature on temporal abilities in TBI patients. Particular attention is given to the involvement of higher cognitive processes in temporal processing in order to determine if any temporal dysfunction observed in TBI patients is due to the disruption of an internal clock or to the dysfunction of general cognitive processes. The results showed that temporal dysfunctions in TBI patients are related to the deficits in cognitive functions involved in temporal processing rather than to a specific impairment of the internal clock. In fact, temporal dysfunctions are observed when the length of temporal intervals exceeds the working memory span or when the temporal tasks require high cognitive functions to be performed. The consistent higher temporal variability observed in TBI patients is a sign of impaired frontally mediated cognitive functions involved in time perception. PMID:24817847

  9. Temporal cortex direct current stimulation enhances performance on a visual recognition memory task in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Boggio, P S; Khoury, L P; Martins, D C S; Martins, O E M S; de Macedo, E C; Fregni, F

    2009-04-01

    Several studies have reported that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive method of neuromodulation, enhances some aspects of working memory in healthy and Parkinson disease subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of anodal tDCS on recognition memory, working memory and selective attention in Alzheimer disease (AD). Ten patients with diagnosis of AD received three sessions of anodal tDCS (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left temporal cortex and sham stimulation) with an intensity of 2 mA for 30 min. Sessions were performed in different days in a randomised order. The following tests were assessed during stimulation: Stroop, Digit Span and a Visual Recognition Memory task (VRM). The results showed a significant effect of stimulation condition on VRM (p = 0.0085), and post hoc analysis showed an improvement after temporal (p = 0.01) and prefrontal (p = 0.01) tDCS as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in attention as indexed by Stroop task performance. As far as is known, this is the first trial showing that tDCS can enhance a component of recognition memory. The potential mechanisms of action and the implications of these results are discussed.

  10. Bilateral temporal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation worsens male performance in a multisensory integration task.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Olivia Morgan; Fregni, Felipe; Oberman, Lindsay M; Boggio, Paulo Sergio

    2012-10-11

    Somatosensory integration is a critical cognitive function for human social interaction. Though somatosensory integration has been highly explored in cognitive studies; only a few studies have explored focal modulation of cortical excitability using a speech perception paradigm. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of tDCS applied over the temporal cortex of healthy subjects during a go-no-go task in which stimuli were shapes and non-words. Twenty-eight subjects were randomized to receive cathodal, anodal or sham tDCS bilaterally over the superior temporal cortex (the reference electrode was on deltoid) in a counterbalanced order. The effects on judgment of congruency between shapes and non-words in healthy volunteers were measured by a go-no-go task. Our findings show a significant modification of performance according to the polarity of stimulation, task and subject gender. We found that men performed worse on the no-go condition for congruent stimuli during cathodal tDCS. For reaction time, on the other hand, there was a similar effect for anodal and cathodal stimulation. There were significantly faster responses on incongruent trials during both anodal and cathodal tDCS. Along with previous literature showing gender differences in tasks associated with speech perception, the findings of this study provide additional evidence suggesting that men may have a more focal and restricted neural processing in this multisensory integration task.

  11. Awake fMRI reveals a specialized region in dog temporal cortex for face processing

    PubMed Central

    Dilks, Daniel D.; Cook, Peter; Weiller, Samuel K.; Berns, Helen P.; Spivak, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioral evidence suggests that dogs, like humans and monkeys, are capable of visual face recognition. But do dogs also exhibit specialized cortical face regions similar to humans and monkeys? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in six dogs trained to remain motionless during scanning without restraint or sedation, we found a region in the canine temporal lobe that responded significantly more to movies of human faces than to movies of everyday objects. Next, using a new stimulus set to investigate face selectivity in this predefined candidate dog face area, we found that this region responded similarly to images of human faces and dog faces, yet significantly more to both human and dog faces than to images of objects. Such face selectivity was not found in dog primary visual cortex. Taken together, these findings: (1) provide the first evidence for a face-selective region in the temporal cortex of dogs, which cannot be explained by simple low-level visual feature extraction; (2) reveal that neural machinery dedicated to face processing is not unique to primates; and (3) may help explain dogs’ exquisite sensitivity to human social cues. PMID:26290784

  12. An anterior temporal face patch in human cortex, predicted by macaque maps

    PubMed Central

    Rajimehr, Reza; Young, Jeremy C.; Tootell, Roger B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that primate visual cortex has a specialized architecture for processing discrete object categories such as faces. Human fMRI studies have described a localized region in the fusiform gyrus [the fusiform face area (FFA)] that responds selectively to faces. In contrast, in nonhuman primates, electrophysiological and fMRI studies have instead revealed 2 apparently analogous regions of face representation: the posterior temporal face patch (PTFP) and the anterior temporal face patch (ATFP). An earlier study suggested that human FFA is homologous to the PTFP in macaque. However, in humans, no obvious homologue of the macaque ATFP has been demonstrated. Here, we used fMRI to map face-selective sites in both humans and macaques, based on equivalent stimuli in a quantitative topographic comparison. This fMRI evidence suggests that such a face-selective area exists in human anterior inferotemporal cortex, comprising the apparent homologue of the fMRI-defined ATFP in macaques. PMID:19179278

  13. Neuronal correlate of visual associative long-term memory in the primate temporal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    1988-10-01

    In human long-term memory, ideas and concepts become associated in the learning process1. No neuronal correlate for this cognitive function has so far been described, except that memory traces are thought to be localized in the cerebral cortex; the temporal lobe has been assigned as the site for visual experience because electric stimulation of this area results in imagery recall,2 and lesions produce deficits in visual recognition of objects3-9. We previously reported that in the anterior ventral temporal cortex of monkeys, individual neurons have a sustained activity that is highly selective for a few of the 100 coloured fractal patterns used in a visual working-memory task10. Here I report the development of this selectivity through repeated trials involving the working memory. The few patterns for which a neuron was conjointly selective were frequently related to each other through stimulus-stimulus association imposed during training. The results indicate that the selectivity acquired by these cells represents a neuronal correlate of the associative long-term memory of pictures.

  14. Betaine prevents homocysteine-induced memory impairment via matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, K; Nakashima, N; Nagao, M; Nomura, T; Kinoshita, S; Hiramatsu, M

    2015-10-01

    Betaine plays important roles that include acting as a methyl donor and converting homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine. Elevated plasma Hcy levels are known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) and contribute to impairments of learning and memory. Although it is commonly known that betaine plays an important role in Hcy metabolism, the effects of betaine on Hcy-induced memory impairment have not been investigated. Previously, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of betaine on acute stress and lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment. In the present study, we investigated whether betaine ameliorates Hcy-induced memory impairment and the underlying mechanisms of this putative effect. Mice were treated with Hcy (0.162mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for nine days, and betaine (25mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30min before the Hcy injections. The memory functions were evaluated using a spontaneous alternation performance test (Y-maze) at seven days and a step-down type passive avoidance test (SD) at nine and ten days after Hcy injection. We found that betaine suppressed the memory impairment induced by repeated Hcy injections. However, the blood concentrations of Hcy were significantly increased in the Hcy-treated mice immediately after the passive avoidance test, and betaine did not prevent this increase. Furthermore, Hcy induces redox stress in part by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which leads to BBB dysfunction. Therefore, we tested whether betaine affected MMP-9 activity. Interestingly, treatment with betaine significantly inhibited Hcy-induced MMP-9 activity in the frontal cortex but not in the hippocampus after acute Hcy injection. These results suggest that the changes in MMP-9 activity after betaine treatment might have been partially responsible for the amelioration of the memory deficits and that MMP-9 might be a candidate therapeutic target for HHcy.

  15. Variable Temporal Integration of Stimulus Patterns in the Mouse Barrel Cortex.

    PubMed

    Pitas, Anna; Albarracín, Ana Lía; Molano-Mazón, Manuel; Maravall, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Making sense of the world requires distinguishing temporal patterns and sequences lasting hundreds of milliseconds or more. How cortical circuits integrate over time to represent specific sensory sequences remains elusive. Here we assessed whether neurons in the barrel cortex (BC) integrate information about temporal patterns of whisker movements. We performed cell-attached recordings in anesthetized mice while delivering whisker deflections at variable intervals and compared the information carried by neurons about the latest interstimulus interval (reflecting sensitivity to instantaneous frequency) and earlier intervals (reflecting integration over timescales up to several hundred milliseconds). Neurons carried more information about the latest interval than earlier ones. The amount of temporal integration varied with neuronal responsiveness and with the cortical depth of the recording site, that is, with laminar location. A subset of neurons in the upper layers displayed the strongest integration. Highly responsive neurons in the deeper layers encoded the latest interval but integrated particularly weakly. Under these conditions, BC neurons act primarily as encoders of current stimulation parameters; however, our results suggest that temporal integration over hundreds of milliseconds can emerge in some neurons within BC.

  16. The fusion of mental imagery and sensation in the temporal association cortex.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-10-08

    It is well understood that the brain integrates information that is provided to our different senses to generate a coherent multisensory percept of the world around us (Stein and Stanford, 2008), but how does the brain handle concurrent sensory information from our mind and the external world? Recent behavioral experiments have found that mental imagery--the internal representation of sensory stimuli in one's mind--can also lead to integrated multisensory perception (Berger and Ehrsson, 2013); however, the neural mechanisms of this process have not yet been explored. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an adapted version of a well known multisensory illusion (i.e., the ventriloquist illusion; Howard and Templeton, 1966), we investigated the neural basis of mental imagery-induced multisensory perception in humans. We found that simultaneous visual mental imagery and auditory stimulation led to an illusory translocation of auditory stimuli and was associated with increased activity in the left superior temporal sulcus (L. STS), a key site for the integration of real audiovisual stimuli (Beauchamp et al., 2004a, 2010; Driver and Noesselt, 2008; Ghazanfar et al., 2008; Dahl et al., 2009). This imagery-induced ventriloquist illusion was also associated with increased effective connectivity between the L. STS and the auditory cortex. These findings suggest an important role of the temporal association cortex in integrating imagined visual stimuli with real auditory stimuli, and further suggest that connectivity between the STS and auditory cortex plays a modulatory role in spatially localizing auditory stimuli in the presence of imagined visual stimuli.

  17. Short-Term Memory Trace in Rapidly Adapting Synapses of Inferior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Liu, Zheng; Wiener, Matthew C.; Optican, Lance M.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    Visual short-term memory tasks depend upon both the inferior temporal cortex (ITC) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Activity in some neurons persists after the first (sample) stimulus is shown. This delay-period activity has been proposed as an important mechanism for working memory. In ITC neurons, intervening (nonmatching) stimuli wipe out the delay-period activity; hence, the role of ITC in memory must depend upon a different mechanism. Here, we look for a possible mechanism by contrasting memory effects in two architectonically different parts of ITC: area TE and the perirhinal cortex. We found that a large proportion (80%) of stimulus-selective neurons in area TE of macaque ITCs exhibit a memory effect during the stimulus interval. During a sequential delayed matching-to-sample task (DMS), the noise in the neuronal response to the test image was correlated with the noise in the neuronal response to the sample image. Neurons in perirhinal cortex did not show this correlation. These results led us to hypothesize that area TE contributes to short-term memory by acting as a matched filter. When the sample image appears, each TE neuron captures a static copy of its inputs by rapidly adjusting its synaptic weights to match the strength of their individual inputs. Input signals from subsequent images are multiplied by those synaptic weights, thereby computing a measure of the correlation between the past and present inputs. The total activity in area TE is sufficient to quantify the similarity between the two images. This matched filter theory provides an explanation of what is remembered, where the trace is stored, and how comparison is done across time, all without requiring delay period activity. Simulations of a matched filter model match the experimental results, suggesting that area TE neurons store a synaptic memory trace during short-term visual memory. PMID:18464917

  18. Converging models of schizophrenia - Network alterations of prefrontal cortex underlying cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Gamo, Nao J; Hikida, Takatoshi; Kim, Sun-Hong; Murai, Toshiya; Tomoda, Toshifumi; Sawa, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain areas are crucial for cognitive function. Cognitive impairments are one of the core symptoms associated with schizophrenia, and manifest even before the onset of the disorder. Altered neural networks involving PFC contribute to cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Both genetic and environmental risk factors affect the development of the local circuitry within PFC as well as development of broader brain networks, and make the system vulnerable to further insults during adolescence, leading to the onset of the disorder in young adulthood. Since spared cognitive functions correlate with functional outcome and prognosis, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairments will have important implications for novel therapeutics for schizophrenia focusing on cognitive functions. Multidisciplinary approaches, from basic neuroscience to clinical studies, are required to link molecules, circuitry, networks, and behavioral phenotypes. Close interactions among such fields by sharing a common language on connectomes, behavioral readouts, and other concepts are crucial for this goal. PMID:26408506

  19. Blockade of glutamatergic transmission in perirhinal cortex impairs object recognition memory in macaques.

    PubMed

    Malkova, Ludise; Forcelli, Patrick A; Wellman, Laurie L; Dybdal, David; Dubach, Mark F; Gale, Karen

    2015-03-25

    The perirhinal cortex (PRc) is essential for visual recognition memory, as shown by electrophysiological recordings and lesion studies in a variety of species. However, relatively little is known about the functional contributions of perirhinal subregions. Here we used a systematic mapping approach to identify the critical subregions of PRc through transient, focal blockade of glutamate receptors by intracerebral infusion of kynurenic acid. Nine macaques were tested for visual recognition memory using the delayed nonmatch-to-sample task. We found that inactivation of medial PRc (consisting of Area 35 together with the medial portion of Area 36), but not lateral PRc (the lateral portion of Area 36), resulted in a significant delay-dependent impairment. Significant impairment was observed with 30 and 60 s delays but not with 10 s delays. The magnitude of impairment fell within the range previously reported after PRc lesions. Furthermore, we identified a restricted area located within the most anterior part of medial PRc as critical for this effect. Moreover, we found that focal blockade of either NMDA receptors by the receptor-specific antagonist AP-7 or AMPA receptors by the receptor-specific antagonist NBQX was sufficient to disrupt object recognition memory. The present study expands the knowledge of the role of PRc in recognition memory by identifying a subregion within this area that is critical for this function. Our results also indicate that, like in the rodent, both NMDA and AMPA-mediated transmission contributes to object recognition memory.

  20. Decoding Multiple Sound Categories in the Human Temporal Cortex Using High Resolution fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengqing; Wang, Ji-Ping; Kim, Jieun; Parrish, Todd; Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of sound categories is an important aspect of auditory perception. The extent to which the brain’s representation of sound categories is encoded in specialized subregions or distributed across the auditory cortex remains unclear. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of brain activations have provided important insights into how the brain decodes perceptual information. In the large existing literature on brain decoding using MVPA methods, relatively few studies have been conducted on multi-class categorization in the auditory domain. Here, we investigated the representation and processing of auditory categories within the human temporal cortex using high resolution fMRI and MVPA methods. More importantly, we considered decoding multiple sound categories simultaneously through multi-class support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (MSVM-RFE) as our MVPA tool. Results show that for all classifications the model MSVM-RFE was able to learn the functional relation between the multiple sound categories and the corresponding evoked spatial patterns and classify the unlabeled sound-evoked patterns significantly above chance. This indicates the feasibility of decoding multiple sound categories not only within but across subjects. However, the across-subject variation affects classification performance more than the within-subject variation, as the across-subject analysis has significantly lower classification accuracies. Sound category-selective brain maps were identified based on multi-class classification and revealed distributed patterns of brain activity in the superior temporal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with previous studies, indicating that information in the spatially distributed patterns may reflect a more abstract perceptual level of representation of sound categories. Further, we show that the across-subject classification performance can be significantly improved by averaging the f

  1. Decoding multiple sound categories in the human temporal cortex using high resolution fMRI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengqing; Wang, Ji-Ping; Kim, Jieun; Parrish, Todd; Wong, Patrick C M

    2015-01-01

    Perception of sound categories is an important aspect of auditory perception. The extent to which the brain's representation of sound categories is encoded in specialized subregions or distributed across the auditory cortex remains unclear. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of brain activations have provided important insights into how the brain decodes perceptual information. In the large existing literature on brain decoding using MVPA methods, relatively few studies have been conducted on multi-class categorization in the auditory domain. Here, we investigated the representation and processing of auditory categories within the human temporal cortex using high resolution fMRI and MVPA methods. More importantly, we considered decoding multiple sound categories simultaneously through multi-class support vector machine-recursive feature elimination (MSVM-RFE) as our MVPA tool. Results show that for all classifications the model MSVM-RFE was able to learn the functional relation between the multiple sound categories and the corresponding evoked spatial patterns and classify the unlabeled sound-evoked patterns significantly above chance. This indicates the feasibility of decoding multiple sound categories not only within but across subjects. However, the across-subject variation affects classification performance more than the within-subject variation, as the across-subject analysis has significantly lower classification accuracies. Sound category-selective brain maps were identified based on multi-class classification and revealed distributed patterns of brain activity in the superior temporal gyrus and the middle temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with previous studies, indicating that information in the spatially distributed patterns may reflect a more abstract perceptual level of representation of sound categories. Further, we show that the across-subject classification performance can be significantly improved by averaging the f

  2. Spectral vs. Temporal Auditory Processing in Specific Language Impairment: A Developmental ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceponiene, R.; Cummings, A.; Wulfeck, B.; Ballantyne, A.; Townsend, J.

    2009-01-01

    Pre-linguistic sensory deficits, especially in "temporal" processing, have been implicated in developmental language impairment (LI). However, recent evidence has been equivocal with data suggesting problems in the spectral domain. The present study examined event-related potential (ERP) measures of auditory sensory temporal and spectral…

  3. Stimulation over primary motor cortex during action observation impairs effector recognition.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Barnes, Brittany; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2016-04-01

    Recent work suggests that motor cortical processing during action observation plays a role in later recognition of the object involved in the action. Here, we investigated whether recognition of the effector making an action is also impaired when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - thought to interfere with normal cortical activity - is applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) during action observation. In two experiments, single-pulse TMS was delivered over the hand area of M1 while participants watched short clips of hand actions. Participants were then asked whether an image (experiment 1) or a video (experiment 2) of a hand presented later in the trial was the same or different to the hand in the preceding video. In Experiment 1, we found that participants' ability to recognise static images of hands was significantly impaired when TMS was delivered over M1 during action observation, compared to when no TMS was delivered, or when stimulation was applied over the vertex. Conversely, stimulation over M1 did not affect recognition of dot configurations, or recognition of hands that were previously presented as static images (rather than action movie clips) with no object. In Experiment 2, we found that effector recognition was impaired when stimulation was applied part way through (300ms) and at the end (500ms) of the action observation period, indicating that 200ms of action-viewing following stimulation was not long enough to form a new representation that could be used for later recognition. The findings of both experiments suggest that interfering with cortical motor activity during action observation impairs subsequent recognition of the effector involved in the action, which complements previous findings of motor system involvement in object memory. This work provides some of the first evidence that motor processing during action observation is involved in forming representations of the effector that are useful beyond the action observation period.

  4. Ultrastructural evidence for impaired mitochondrial fission in the aged rhesus monkey dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yury M; Datta, Dibyadeep; Paspalas, Constantinos D; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2017-03-01

    Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex mediates high-order cognitive functions that are impaired early in the aging process in monkeys and humans. Here, we report pronounced changes in mitochondrial morphology in dendrites of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex neurons from aged rhesus macaques. Electron microscopy paired with 3D reconstruction from serial sections revealed an age-related increase in mitochondria with thin segments that intermingled with enlarged ones, the 'mitochondria-on-a-string' phenotype, similar to those recently reported in patients with Alzheimer's disease. The thin mitochondrial segments were associated with endoplasmic reticulum cisterns, and the mitochondrial proteins Fis1 and Drp1, all of which initiate mitochondrial fission. These data suggest that the 'mitochondria-on-a-string' phenotype may reflect malfunction in mitochondrial dynamics, whereby fission is initiated, but the process is incomplete due to malfunction of subsequent step(s). Thus, aged rhesus monkeys may be particularly helpful in exploring the age-related changes that render higher cortical circuits so vulnerable to degeneration.

  5. Dynamical changes and temporal precision of synchronized spiking activity in monkey motor cortex during movement preparation.

    PubMed

    Riehle, A; Grammont, F; Diesmann, M; Grün, S

    2000-01-01

    Movement preparation is considered to be based on central processes which are responsible for improving motor performance. For instance, it has been shown that motor cortical neurones change their activity selectively in relation to prior information about movement parameters. However, it is not clear how groups of neurones dynamically organize their activity to cope with computational demands. The aim of the study was to compare the firing rate of multiple simultaneously recorded neurones with the interaction between them by describing not only the frequency of occurrence of epochs of significant synchronization, but also its modulation in time and its changes in temporal precision during an instructed delay. Multiple single-neurone activity was thus recorded in monkey motor cortex during the performance of two different delayed multi-directional pointing tasks. In order to detect conspicuous spike coincidences in simultaneously recorded spike trains by tolerating temporal jitter ranging from 0 to 20 ms and to calculate their statistical significance, a modified method of the 'Unitary Events' analysis was used. Two main results were obtained. First, simultaneously recorded neurones synchronize their spiking activity in a highly dynamic way. Synchronization becomes significant only during short periods (about 100 to 200 ms). Several such periods occurred during a behavioural trial more or less regularly. Second, in many pairs of neurones, the temporal precision of synchronous activity was highest at the end of the preparatory period. As a matter of fact, at the beginning of this period, after the presentation of the preparatory signal, neurones significantly synchronize their spiking activity, but with low temporal precision. As time advances, significant synchronization becomes more precise. Data indicate that not only the discharge rate is involved in preparatory processes, but also temporal aspects of neuronal activity as expressed in the precise synchronization

  6. Effects of deafness and cochlear implant use on temporal response characteristics in cat primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Fallon, James B; Shepherd, Robert K; Nayagam, David A X; Wise, Andrew K; Heffer, Leon F; Landry, Thomas G; Irvine, Dexter R F

    2014-09-01

    We have previously shown that neonatal deafness of 7-13 months duration leads to loss of cochleotopy in the primary auditory cortex (AI) that can be reversed by cochlear implant use. Here we describe the effects of a similar duration of deafness and cochlear implant use on temporal processing. Specifically, we compared the temporal resolution of neurons in AI of young adult normal-hearing cats that were acutely deafened and implanted immediately prior to recording with that in three groups of neonatally deafened cats. One group of neonatally deafened cats received no chronic stimulation. The other two groups received up to 8 months of either low- or high-rate (50 or 500 pulses per second per electrode, respectively) stimulation from a clinical cochlear implant, initiated at 10 weeks of age. Deafness of 7-13 months duration had no effect on the duration of post-onset response suppression, latency, latency jitter, or the stimulus repetition rate at which units responded maximally (best repetition rate), but resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the ability of units to respond to every stimulus in a train (maximum following rate). None of the temporal response characteristics of the low-rate group differed from those in acutely deafened controls. In contrast, high-rate stimulation had diverse effects: it resulted in decreased suppression duration, longer latency and greater jitter relative to all other groups, and an increase in best repetition rate and cut-off rate relative to acutely deafened controls. The minimal effects of moderate-duration deafness on temporal processing in the present study are in contrast to its previously-reported pronounced effects on cochleotopy. Much longer periods of deafness have been reported to result in significant changes in temporal processing, in accord with the fact that duration of deafness is a major factor influencing outcome in human cochlear implantees.

  7. Temporal dynamics of cerebellar and motor cortex physiological processes during motor skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, D.; Celnik, P.

    2017-01-01

    Learning motor tasks involves distinct physiological processes in the cerebellum (CB) and primary motor cortex (M1). Previous studies have shown that motor learning results in at least two important neurophysiological changes: modulation of cerebellar output mediated in-part by long-term depression of parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and induction of long-term plasticity (LTP) in M1, leading to transient occlusion of additional LTP-like plasticity. However, little is known about the temporal dynamics of these two physiological mechanisms during motor skill learning. Here we use non-invasive brain stimulation to explore CB and M1 mechanisms during early and late motor skill learning in humans. We predicted that early skill acquisition would be proportional to cerebellar excitability (CBI) changes, whereas later stages of learning will result in M1 LTP-like plasticity modifications. We found that early, and not late into skill training, CBI changed. Whereas, occlusion of LTP-like plasticity over M1 occurred only during late, but not early training. These findings indicate a distinct temporal dissociation in the physiological role of the CB and M1 when learning a novel skill. Understanding the role and temporal dynamics of different brain regions during motor learning is critical to device optimal interventions to augment learning. PMID:28091578

  8. Sustained Attentional States Require Distinct Temporal Involvement of the Dorsal and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Luchicchi, Antonio; Mnie-Filali, Ouissame; Terra, Huub; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; de Kloet, Sybren F.; Obermayer, Joshua; Heistek, Tim S.; de Haan, Roel; de Kock, Christiaan P. J.; Deisseroth, Karl; Pattij, Tommy; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2016-01-01

    Attending the sensory environment for cue detection is a cognitive operation that occurs on a time scale of seconds. The dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) contribute to separate aspects of attentional processing. Pyramidal neurons in different parts of the mPFC are active during cognitive behavior, yet whether this activity is causally underlying attentional processing is not known. We aimed to determine the precise temporal requirements for activation of the mPFC subregions during the seconds prior to cue detection. To test this, we used optogenetic silencing of dorsal or ventral mPFC pyramidal neurons at defined time windows during a sustained attentional state. We find that the requirement of ventral mPFC pyramidal neuron activity is strictly time-locked to stimulus detection. Inhibiting the ventral mPFC 2 s before or during cue presentation reduces response accuracy and hampers behavioral inhibition. The requirement for dorsal mPFC activity on the other hand is temporally more loosely related to a preparatory attentional state, and short lapses in pyramidal neuron activity in dorsal mPFC do not affect performance. This only occurs when the dorsal mPFC is inhibited during the entire preparatory period. Together, our results reveal that a dissociable temporal recruitment of ventral and dorsal mPFC is required during attentional processing. PMID:27630545

  9. Impaired processing of binaural temporal cues to auditory scene analysis in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Natasha; Todd, Juanita; Mannion, Damien J; Finnigan, Simon; Catts, Stanley; Michie, Patricia T

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate alterations in auditory perception beginning at the very earliest stages of information processing. However, it is not clear how these impairments in basic information processing translate into high-order cognitive deficits. Auditory scene analysis allows listeners to group auditory information into meaningful objects, and as such provides an important link between low-level auditory processing and higher cognitive abilities. In the present study we investigated whether low-level impairments in the processing of binaural temporal information impact upon auditory scene analysis ability. Binaural temporal processing ability was investigated in 19 individuals with schizophrenia and 19 matched controls. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impaired binaural temporal processing ability on an inter-aural time difference (ITD) discrimination task. In addition, patients demonstrated impairment in two measures of auditory scene analysis. Specifically, patients had reduced ability to use binaural temporal cues to extract signal from noise in a masking level difference paradigm, and to separate the location of a source sound in the presence of an echo in the precedence effect paradigm. These findings demonstrate that individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in the accuracy with which simple binaural temporal information is encoded in the auditory system, and furthermore, this impairment has functional consequences in terms of the use of these cues to extract information in complex auditory environments.

  10. The neural correlates and temporal sequence of the relationship between shock exposure, disturbed sleep and impaired consolidation of fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Spoormaker, V I; Sturm, A; Andrade, K C; Schröter, M S; Goya-Maldonado, R; Holsboer, F; Wetter, T C; Sämann, P G; Czisch, M

    2010-12-01

    Consolidation of extinction learning is a primary mechanism disrupted in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), associated with hypoactivity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. A role for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances in this failure to consolidate extinction learning has been proposed. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with simultaneous skin conductance response (SCR) measurements in 16 healthy participants during conditioning/extinction and later recall of extinction. The visual stimuli were basic geometric forms and electrical shocks functioned as the unconditioned stimulus. Between the conditioning/extinction and recall sessions, participants received a 90-min sleep window in the sleep laboratory. This daytime sleep was polysomnographically recorded and scored by professionals blind to the study design. Only seven out of 16 participants had REM sleep; participants without REM sleep had a significantly slower decline of both SCR and neural activity of the laterodorsal tegmentum in response to electrical shocks during conditioning. At recall of fear extinction, participants with preceding REM sleep had a reduced SCR and stronger activation of the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex and bilateral lingual gyrus in response to the extinguished stimulus than participants lacking REM sleep. This study indicates that trait-like differences in shock reactivity/habituation (mediated by the brainstem) are predictive of REM sleep disruption, which in turn is associated with impaired consolidation of extinction (mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex). These findings help understand the neurobiological basis and the temporal sequence of the relationship between shock exposure, disturbed sleep and impaired consolidation of extinction, as observed in PTSD.

  11. The path to learning: action acquisition is impaired when visual reinforcement signals must first access cortex.

    PubMed

    Thirkettle, Martin; Walton, Thomas; Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin; Redgrave, Peter; Stafford, Tom

    2013-04-15

    Animals, interacting with the environment, learn and exploit the consequences of their movements. Fundamental to this is the pairing of salient sensory input with recent motor output to form an action-outcome pair linking a performed movement with its outcome. Short-latency dopamine (DA) signalling in the basal ganglia has been proposed to support this crucial task. For visual stimuli, this DA signalling is triggered at short latency by input from the superior colliculus (SC). While some aspects of the visual signal (e.g. luminance), are relayed directly to the SC via the retinotectal projection, other information unavailable to this subcortical pathway must take a more circuitous route to the SC, first submitting to early visual processing in cortex. By comparing action-outcome pairing when the visual stimulus denoting success was immediately available to the SC, via the retinotectal pathway, against that when cortical processing of the signal was required, the impact this additional sensory processing has on action-outcome learning can be established. We found that action acquisition was significantly impaired when the action was reinforced by a stimulus ineligible for the retinotectal pathway. Furthermore, we found that when the stimulus was eligible for the retinotectal pathway but evoked an increased latency, action acquisition was not impaired. These results suggest that the afferent sensory pathway via the SC is certainly primary and possibly instrumental to the DA neurons' role in the discovery of novel actions and that the differences found are not due to simple sensory latency.

  12. TIRDA Originating From Lateral Temporal Cortex in a Patient With mTLE Is Not Related to Hippocampal Activity.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Anna; Issa, Naoum P; Rose, Sandra; Wu, Shasha; Warnke, Peter; Tao, James X

    2016-12-01

    Electrophysiological studies have suggested that temporal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (TIRDA) has a localizing value similar to interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and is associated with a favorable outcome after temporal lobectomy. However, it remains controversial whether TIRDA is an EEG marker for mesial or lateral temporal epileptogenesis. We simultaneously recorded scalp EEG and stereoencephalography in a patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy during epilepsy presurgical evaluation. Seizure onset was localized to the hippocampus. However, TIRDA originated from the lateral temporal cortex, and rhythmic delta activity was not observed concomitantly in the hippocampus. In addition, TIRDA was not associated with repetitive interictal spikes or subclinical seizures in the hippocampus as previously speculated. This case suggests that TIRDA can be an EEG marker that is independent of hippocampal activity and can represent temporal neocortical epileptogenesis.

  13. Increased temporal cortex ER stress proteins in depressed subjects who died by suicide.

    PubMed

    Bown, C; Wang, J F; MacQueen, G; Young, L T

    2000-03-01

    Regulation of ER stress proteins, such as the 78-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (GRP78) by chronic treatment with mood stabilizing drugs suggests that this family of proteins may be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Indeed, increased levels of GRP78, GRP94, and calreticulin, a third member of the ER stress protein family, were found in temporal cortex of subjects with major depressive disorder who died by suicide compared with controls and subjects who died by other means. No such differences were found in subjects with other psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. These data suggest a potential role for ER stress proteins in severe depression that merits further study.

  14. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    PubMed Central

    Emadi, Nazli; Rajimehr, Reza; Esteky, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (<8 Hz) oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance. PMID:25404900

  15. Neurophysiological Organization of the Middle Face Patch in Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Paul L; Issa, Elias B; DiCarlo, James J

    2016-12-14

    While early cortical visual areas contain fine scale spatial organization of neuronal properties, such as orientation preference, the spatial organization of higher-level visual areas is less well understood. The fMRI demonstration of face-preferring regions in human ventral cortex and monkey inferior temporal cortex ("face patches") raises the question of how neural selectivity for faces is organized. Here, we targeted hundreds of spatially registered neural recordings to the largest fMRI-identified face-preferring region in monkeys, the middle face patch (MFP), and show that the MFP contains a graded enrichment of face-preferring neurons. At its center, as much as 93% of the sites we sampled responded twice as strongly to faces than to nonface objects. We estimate the maximum neurophysiological size of the MFP to be ∼6 mm in diameter, consistent with its previously reported size under fMRI. Importantly, face selectivity in the MFP varied strongly even between neighboring sites. Additionally, extremely face-selective sites were ∼40 times more likely to be present inside the MFP than outside. These results provide the first direct quantification of the size and neural composition of the MFP by showing that the cortical tissue localized to the fMRI defined region consists of a very high fraction of face-preferring sites near its center, and a monotonic decrease in that fraction along any radial spatial axis.

  16. A common, high-dimensional model of the representational space in human ventral temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Haxby, James V.; Guntupalli, J. Swaroop; Connolly, Andrew C.; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Conroy, Bryan R.; Gobbini, M. Ida; Hanke, Michael; Ramadge, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary We present a high-dimensional model of the representational space in human ventral temporal (VT) cortex in which dimensions are response-tuning functions that are common across individuals and patterns of response are modeled as weighted sums of basis patterns associated with these response-tunings. We map response pattern vectors, measured with fMRI, from individual subjects’ voxel spaces into this common model space using a new method, ‘hyperalignment’. Hyperalignment parameters based on responses during one experiment – movie-viewing – identified 35 common response-tuning functions that captured fine-grained distinctions among a wide range of stimuli in the movie and in two category perception experiments. Between-subject classification (BSC, multivariate pattern classification based on other subjects’ data) of response pattern vectors in common model space greatly exceeded BSC of anatomically-aligned responses and matched within-subject classification. Results indicate that population codes for complex visual stimuli in VT cortex are based on response-tuning functions that are common across individuals. PMID:22017997

  17. A common, high-dimensional model of the representational space in human ventral temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Haxby, James V; Guntupalli, J Swaroop; Connolly, Andrew C; Halchenko, Yaroslav O; Conroy, Bryan R; Gobbini, M Ida; Hanke, Michael; Ramadge, Peter J

    2011-10-20

    We present a high-dimensional model of the representational space in human ventral temporal (VT) cortex in which dimensions are response-tuning functions that are common across individuals and patterns of response are modeled as weighted sums of basis patterns associated with these response tunings. We map response-pattern vectors, measured with fMRI, from individual subjects' voxel spaces into this common model space using a new method, "hyperalignment." Hyperalignment parameters based on responses during one experiment--movie viewing--identified 35 common response-tuning functions that captured fine-grained distinctions among a wide range of stimuli in the movie and in two category perception experiments. Between-subject classification (BSC, multivariate pattern classification based on other subjects' data) of response-pattern vectors in common model space greatly exceeded BSC of anatomically aligned responses and matched within-subject classification. Results indicate that population codes for complex visual stimuli in VT cortex are based on response-tuning functions that are common across individuals.

  18. Dissimilar processing of emotional facial expressions in human and monkey temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qi; Nelissen, Koen; Van den Stock, Jan; De Winter, François-Laurent; Pauwels, Karl; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2013-02-01

    Emotional facial expressions play an important role in social communication across primates. Despite major progress made in our understanding of categorical information processing such as for objects and faces, little is known, however, about how the primate brain evolved to process emotional cues. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the processing of emotional facial expressions between monkeys and humans. We used a 2×2×2 factorial design with species (human and monkey), expression (fear and chewing) and configuration (intact versus scrambled) as factors. At the whole brain level, neural responses to conspecific emotional expressions were anatomically confined to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in humans. Within the human STS, we found functional subdivisions with a face-selective right posterior STS area that also responded to emotional expressions of other species and a more anterior area in the right middle STS that responded specifically to human emotions. Hence, we argue that the latter region does not show a mere emotion-dependent modulation of activity but is primarily driven by human emotional facial expressions. Conversely, in monkeys, emotional responses appeared in earlier visual cortex and outside face-selective regions in inferior temporal cortex that responded also to multiple visual categories. Within monkey IT, we also found areas that were more responsive to conspecific than to non-conspecific emotional expressions but these responses were not as specific as in human middle STS. Overall, our results indicate that human STS may have developed unique properties to deal with social cues such as emotional expressions.

  19. Allopregnanolone Levels are Reduced in Temporal Cortex in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Compared to Cognitively Intact Control Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Jennifer C.; Kilts, Jason D.; Hulette, Christine M.; Steffens, David C.; Blazer, Dan G.; Ervin, John F.; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Allen, Trina B.; Massing, Mark W.; Payne, Victoria M.; Youssef, Nagy A.; Shampine, Lawrence J.; Marx, Christine E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The neurosteroid allopregnanolone has pronounced neuroprotective actions, increases myelination, and enhances neurogenesis. Evidence suggests that allopregnanolone dysregulation may play a role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. Our prior data demonstrate that allopregnanolone is reduced in prefrontal cortex in male patients with AD compared to male cognitively intact control subjects, and inversely correlated with neuropathological disease stage (Braak and Braak). We therefore determined if allopregnanolone levels are also reduced in AD patients compared to control subjects in temporal cortex, utilizing a larger set of samples from both male and female patients. In addition, we investigated if neurosteroids are altered in subjects who are APOE4 allele carriers. Methods Allopregnanolone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and pregnenolone levels were determined in temporal cortex postmortem samples by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, preceded by high performance liquid chromatography (40 subjects with AD/41 cognitively intact control subjects). Results Allopregnanolone levels are reduced in temporal cortex in patients with AD (median 2.68 ng/g, n= 40) compared to control subjects (median 5.64 ng/g, n=41), Mann-Whitney p=0.0002, and inversely correlated with Braak and Braak neuropathological disease stage (Spearman r= −0.38, p=0.0004). DHEA and pregnenolone are increased in patients with AD compared to control subjects. Patients carrying an APOE4 allele demonstrate reduced allopregnanolone levels in temporal cortex (Mann-Whitney p=0.04). Conclusions Neurosteroids are altered in temporal cortex in patients with AD and related to neuropathological disease stage. The APOE4 allele is associated with reduced allopregnanolone levels. Neurosteroids may be relevant to the neurobiology and therapeutics of AD. PMID:20488256

  20. Recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex neurons during alcohol withdrawal predicts cognitive impairment and excessive alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    George, Olivier; Sanders, Chelsea; Freiling, John; Grigoryan, Edward; Vu, Shayla; Allen, Camryn D.; Crawford, Elena; Mandyam, Chitra D.; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic intermittent access to alcohol leads to the escalation of alcohol intake, similar to binge drinking in humans. Converging lines of evidence suggest that impairment of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) cognitive function and overactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are key factors that lead to excessive drinking in dependence. However, the role of the mPFC and CeA in the escalation of alcohol intake in rats with a history of binge drinking without dependence is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Fos) expression in the mPFC, CeA, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens and evaluated working memory and anxiety-like behavior in rats given continuous (24 h/d for 7 d/wk) or intermittent (3 d/wk) access to alcohol (20% vol/vol) using a two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that abstinence from alcohol in rats with a history of escalation of alcohol intake specifically recruited GABA and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the mPFC and produced working memory impairments associated with excessive alcohol drinking during acute (24–72 h) but not protracted (16 –68 d) abstinence. Moreover, abstinence from alcohol was associated with a functional disconnection of the mPFC and CeA but not mPFC and nucleus accumbens. These results show that recruitment of a subset of GABA and CRF neurons in the mPFC during withdrawal and disconnection of the PFC–CeA pathway may be critical for impaired executive control over motivated behavior, suggesting that dysregulation of mPFC interneurons may be an early index of neuroadaptation in alcohol dependence. PMID:23071333

  1. What do temporal lobe epilepsy and progressive mild cognitive impairment have in common?

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Yvonne; Trinka, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are both subject to intensive memory research. Memory problems are a core characteristic of both conditions and we wonder if there are analogies which would enrich the two distinct research communities. In this review we focus on memory decline in both conditions, that is, the most feared psychosocial effect. While it is clear that memory decline in MCI is highly likely and would lead to the more severe diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, it is a debate if TLE is a dementing disease or not. As such, like for MCI, one can differentiate progressive from stable TLE subtypes, mainly depending on the age of onset. Neuroimaging techniques such as volumetric analysis of the hippocampus, entorhinal, and perirhinal cortex show evidence of pathological changes in TLE and are predictive for memory decline in MCI. Several studies emphasize that it is necessary to extend the region of interest—even whole-brain characteristics can be predictive for conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease. Electroencephalography is increasingly subject to computational neuroscience, revealing new approaches for analyzing frequency, spatial synchronization, and information content of the signals. These methods together with event-related designs that assess memory functions are highly promising for understanding the mechanisms of memory decline in both TLE and MCI populations. Finally, there is evidence that the potential of such markers for memory decline is far from being exhausted. Similar structural and neurophysiological characteristics are linked to memory decline in TLE and MCI. We raise the hope that interdisciplinary research and cross-talk between fields such as research on epilepsy and dementia, will shed further light on the dementing characteristics of the pathological basis of MCI and TLE and support the development of new memory enhancing treatment strategies. PMID:24795575

  2. Spike count, spike timing and temporal information in the cortex of awake, freely moving rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaglione, Alessandro; Foffani, Guglielmo; Moxon, Karen A.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Sensory processing of peripheral information is not stationary but is, in general, a dynamic process related to the behavioral state of the animal. Yet the link between the state of the behavior and the encoding properties of neurons is unclear. This report investigates the impact of the behavioral state on the encoding mechanisms used by cortical neurons for both detection and discrimination of somatosensory stimuli in awake, freely moving, rats. Approach. Neuronal activity was recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex of five rats under two different behavioral states (quiet versus whisking) while electrical stimulation of increasing stimulus strength was delivered to the mystacial pad. Information theoretical measures were then used to measure the contribution of different encoding mechanisms to the information carried by neurons in response to the whisker stimulation. Main results. We found that the behavioral state of the animal modulated the total amount of information conveyed by neurons and that the timing of individual spikes increased the information compared to the total count of spikes alone. However, the temporal information, i.e. information exclusively related to when the spikes occur, was not modulated by behavioral state. Significance. We conclude that information about somatosensory stimuli is modulated by the behavior of the animal and this modulation is mainly expressed in the spike count while the temporal information is more robust to changes in behavioral state.

  3. Spike count, spike timing and temporal information in the cortex of awake, freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Alessandro; Foffani, Guglielmo; Moxon, Karen A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sensory processing of peripheral information is not stationary but is, in general, a dynamic process related to the behavioral state of the animal. Yet the link between the state of the behavior and the encoding properties of neurons is unclear. This report investigates the impact of the behavioral state on the encoding mechanisms used by cortical neurons for both detection and discrimination of somatosensory stimuli in awake, freely moving, rats. Approach Neuronal activity was recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex of five rats under two different behavioral states (quiet vs. whisking) while electrical stimulation of increasing stimulus strength was delivered to the mystacial pad. Information theoretical measures were then used to measure the contribution of different encoding mechanisms to the information carried by neurons in response to the whisker stimulation. Main Results We found that the behavioral state of the animal modulated the total amount of information conveyed by neurons and that the timing of individual spikes increased the information compared to the total count of spikes alone. However, the temporal information, i.e. information exclusively related to when the spikes occur, was not modulated by behavioral state. Significance We conclude that information about somatosensory stimuli is modulated by the behavior of the animal and this modulation is mainly expressed in the spike count while the temporal information is more robust to changes in behavioral state. PMID:25024291

  4. A physiologically based model for temporal envelope encoding in human primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Dugué, Pierre; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Edeline, Jean-Marc; Faucon, Gérard

    2010-09-01

    Communication sounds exhibit temporal envelope fluctuations in the low frequency range (<70 Hz) and human speech has prominent 2-16 Hz modulations with a maximum at 3-4 Hz. Here, we propose a new phenomenological model of the human auditory pathway (from cochlea to primary auditory cortex) to simulate responses to amplitude-modulated white noise. To validate the model, performance was estimated by quantifying temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs). Previous models considered either the lower stages of the auditory system (up to the inferior colliculus) or only the thalamocortical loop. The present model, divided in two stages, is based on anatomical and physiological findings and includes the entire auditory pathway. The first stage, from the outer ear to the colliculus, incorporates inhibitory interneurons in the cochlear nucleus to increase performance at high stimuli levels. The second stage takes into account the anatomical connections of the thalamocortical system and includes the fast and slow excitatory and inhibitory currents. After optimizing the parameters of the model to reproduce the diversity of TMTFs obtained from human subjects, a patient-specific model was derived and the parameters were optimized to effectively reproduce both spontaneous activity and the oscillatory part of the evoked response.

  5. The temporal dynamics of early visual cortex involvement in behavioral priming.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Christianne; de Graaf, Tom A; Goebel, Rainer; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) allows for non-invasive interference with ongoing neural processing. Applied in a chronometric design over early visual cortex (EVC), TMS has proved valuable in indicating at which particular time point EVC must remain unperturbed for (conscious) vision to be established. In the current study, we set out to examine the effect of EVC TMS across a broad range of time points, both before (pre-stimulus) and after (post-stimulus) the onset of symbolic visual stimuli. Behavioral priming studies have shown that the behavioral impact of a visual stimulus can be independent from its conscious perception, suggesting two independent neural signatures. To assess whether TMS-induced suppression of visual awareness can be dissociated from behavioral priming in the temporal domain, we thus implemented three different measures of visual processing, namely performance on a standard visual discrimination task, a subjective rating of stimulus visibility, and a visual priming task. To control for non-neural TMS effects, we performed electrooculographical recordings, placebo TMS (sham), and control site TMS (vertex). Our results suggest that, when considering the appropriate control data, the temporal pattern of EVC TMS disruption on visual discrimination, subjective awareness and behavioral priming are not dissociable. Instead, TMS to EVC disrupts visual perception holistically, both when applied before and after the onset of a visual stimulus. The current findings are discussed in light of their implications on models of visual awareness and (subliminal) priming.

  6. Electrophysiological Responses in the Ventral Temporal Cortex During Reading of Numerals and Calculation.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Dora; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Foster, Brett L; King, Jean-Remi; Kasikci, Itir; Miller, Kai J; Parvizi, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that specific neuronal populations in the ventral temporal cortex show larger electrophysiological responses to visual numerals compared with morphologically similar stimuli. This study investigates how these responses change from simple reading of numerals to the active use of numerals in an arithmetic context. We recorded high-frequency broadband (HFB) signals, a reliable measure for local neuronal population activity, while 10 epilepsy patients implanted with subdural electrodes performed separate numeral reading and calculation tasks. We found that calculation increased activity in the posterior inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) with a factor of approximately 1.5 over the first 500 ms of calculation, whereas no such increase was noted for reading numerals without calculation or reading and judging memory statements. In a second experiment conducted in 2 of the same subjects, we show that HFB responses increase in a systematic manner when the single numerals were presented successively in a calculation context: The HFB response in the ITG, to the second and third numerals (i.e., b and c in a + b = c), was approximately 1.5 times larger than the responses to the first numeral (a). These results provide electrophysiological evidence for modulation of local neuronal population responses to visual stimuli based on increasing task demands.

  7. Neuronal correlates of functional magnetic resonance imaging in human temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Corina, David P.; Corrigan, Neva; Schoenfield-McNeill, Julie; Poliakov, Andrew; Zamora, Leona; Zanos, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging and neuronal activity remains controversial. Data collected during awake neurosurgical procedures for the treatment of epilepsy provided a rare opportunity to examine this relationship in human temporal association cortex. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen dependent signals, single neuronal activity and local field potentials from 8 to 300 Hz at 13 temporal cortical sites, from nine subjects, during paired associate learning and control measures. The relation between the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal and the electrophysiologic parameters was assessed in two ways: colocalization between significant changes in these signals on the same paired associate-control comparisons and multiple linear regressions of the electrophysiologic measures on the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal, across all tasks. Significant colocalization was present between increased functional magnetic resonance imaging signals and increased local field potentials power in the 50–250 Hz range. Local field potentials power greater than 100 Hz was also a significant regressor for the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal, establishing this local field potentials frequency range as a neuronal correlate of the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. There was a trend for a relation between power in some low frequency local field potentials frequencies and the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal, for 8–15 Hz increases in the colocalization analysis and 16–23 Hz in the multiple linear regression analysis. Neither analysis provided evidence for an independent relation to frequency of single neuron activity. PMID:19773355

  8. Word or Word-Like? Dissociating Orthographic Typicality from Lexicality in the Left Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollams, Anna M.; Silani, Giorgia; Okada, Kayoko; Patterson, Karalyn; Price, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Prior lesion and functional imaging studies have highlighted the importance of the left ventral occipito-temporal (LvOT) cortex for visual word recognition. Within this area, there is a posterior-anterior hierarchy of subregions that are specialized for different stages of orthographic processing. The aim of the present fMRI study was to…

  9. Familiarity breeds plasticity: distinct effects of experience on putative excitatory and inhibitory neurons in inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Freedman, David J

    2012-04-12

    Primates have a remarkable capacity to recognize a vast array of visual objects, an ability that depends on experience. In this issue of Neuron, Woloszyn and Sheinberg (2012) report that putative excitatory and inhibitory neurons in inferior temporal cortex exhibit distinct influences long-term visual experience.

  10. Selective cholinergic denervation of the cingulate cortex impairs the acquisition and performance of a conditional visual discrimination in rats.

    PubMed

    Winters, Boyer D; Robbins, Trevor W; Everitt, Barry J

    2004-01-01

    Results from excitotoxic lesion studies have implicated the cingulate cortex and its basal forebrain afferents in the acquisition and performance of conditional discrimination tasks. In the present work, we sought to clarify the role of specifically cholinergic projections from the vertical limb nucleus of the diagonal band (VDB) to the cingulate cortex in conditional visual discrimination (CVD) learning and performance in rats. We injected the cholinergic immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin into the cingulate cortex to produce selective retrograde lesions of the cholinergic neurons projecting from the VDB to the cingulate cortex with the aim of sparing afferents of non-cingulate regions that can be disrupted by excitotoxic or immunotoxic VDB injections and non-cholinergic VDB projections that can also be damaged by excitotoxic lesions. Rats sustaining selective cholinergic denervation in this manner were significantly impaired relative to sham-operated animals in the acquisition and performance of a CVD rule of the type 'If lights are flashing FAST, press the left lever; if SLOW, press right'. Asymptotic performance of the lesion group was substantially lower than for control rats, indicating an enduring performance deficit. This impairment was associated with a selective disruption on trials with the FAST flashing stimulus. The results confirm the involvement of cholinergic innervation of the cingulate cortex in CVD performance; however, the nature of the deficit suggests a role for cholinergic modulation in task-relevant stimulus processing rather than stimulus-response learning per se.

  11. An architecture for encoding sentence meaning in left mid-superior temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Frankland, Steven M.; Greene, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Human brains flexibly combine the meanings of words to compose structured thoughts. For example, by combining the meanings of “bite,” “dog,” and “man,” we can think about a dog biting a man, or a man biting a dog. Here, in two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we identify a region of left mid-superior temporal cortex (lmSTC) that flexibly encodes “who did what to whom” in visually presented sentences. We find that lmSTC represents the current values of abstract semantic variables (“Who did it?” and “To whom was it done?”) in distinct subregions. Experiment 1 first identifies a broad region of lmSTC whose activity patterns (i) facilitate decoding of structure-dependent sentence meaning (“Who did what to whom?”) and (ii) predict affect-related amygdala responses that depend on this information (e.g., “the baby kicked the grandfather” vs. “the grandfather kicked the baby”). Experiment 2 then identifies distinct, but neighboring, subregions of lmSTC whose activity patterns carry information about the identity of the current “agent” (“Who did it?”) and the current “patient” (“To whom was it done?”). These neighboring subregions lie along the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral bank of the superior temporal gyrus, respectively. At a high level, these regions may function like topographically defined data registers, encoding the fluctuating values of abstract semantic variables. This functional architecture, which in key respects resembles that of a classical computer, may play a critical role in enabling humans to flexibly generate complex thoughts. PMID:26305927

  12. Long-Term Temporal Imprecision of Information Coding in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Mice with Peripheral Inflammation or Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang-Yao; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yong-Jie; Zuo, Zhen-Xing; Koga, Kohei; Luo, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Temporal properties of spike firing in the central nervous system (CNS) are critical for neuronal coding and the precision of information storage. Chronic pain has been reported to affect cognitive and emotional functions, in addition to trigger long-term plasticity in sensory synapses and behavioral sensitization. Less is known about the possible changes in temporal precision of cortical neurons in chronic pain conditions. In the present study, we investigated the temporal precision of action potential firing in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) by using both in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological approaches. We found that peripheral inflammation caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) increased the standard deviation (SD) of spikes latency (also called jitter) of ∼51% of recorded neurons in the ACC of adult rats in vivo. Similar increases in jitter were found in ACC neurons using in vitro brain slices from adult mice with peripheral inflammation or nerve injury. Bath application of glutamate receptor antagonists CNQX and AP5 abolished the enhancement of jitter induced by CFA injection or nerve injury, suggesting that the increased jitter depends on the glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Activation of adenylyl cyclases (ACs) by bath application of forskolin increased jitter, whereas genetic deletion of AC1 abolished the change of jitter caused by CFA inflammation. Our study provides strong evidence for long-term changes of temporal precision of information coding in cortical neurons after peripheral injuries and explains neuronal mechanism for chronic pain caused cognitive and emotional impairment. PMID:25100600

  13. Differential contributions of subregions of medial temporal lobe to memory system in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: insights from fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu; Duan, Xujun; Shu, Hao; Wang, Zan; Long, Zhiliang; Liu, Duan; Liao, Wenxiang; Shi, Yongmei; Chen, Huafu; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Altered function of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is a valuable indicator of conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to Alzheimer’s disease. This study is to delineate the functional circuitry of multiple subdivisions of parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus (HIP) and to examine how this knowledge contributes to a more principled understanding of the contributions of its subregions to memory in aMCI. The functional connectivity (FC) analysis was performed in 85 aMCI and 129 healthy controls. The aMCI demonstrated the distinct disruptive patterns of the MTL subregional connectivity with the whole-brain. The right entorhinal cortex (ERC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC) showed increased connectivity with the left inferior and middle occipital gyrus, respectively, which potentially indicated a compensatory mechanism. Furthermore, the right altered MTL subregional FC was associated with episodic memory performance in aMCI. These results provide novel insights into the heterogeneous nature of its large-scale connectivity in MTL subregions in memory system underlying the memory deficits in aMCI. It further suggests that altered FC of MTL subregions is associated with the impairment of the differential encoding stages of memories and the functional changes in the specific right HIP-ERC-PRC-temporal circuitry may contribute to the impairment of episodic memory in aMCI. PMID:27184985

  14. Impaired periamygdaloid-cortex prodynorphin is characteristic of opiate addiction and depression.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah Ann R; Michaelides, Michael; Zarnegar, Parisa; Ren, Yanhua; Fagergren, Pernilla; Thanos, Panayotis K; Wang, Gene-Jack; Bannon, Michael; Neumaier, John F; Keller, Eva; Volkow, Nora D; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2013-12-01

    Negative affect is critical for conferring vulnerability to opiate addiction as reflected by the high comorbidity of opiate abuse with major depressive disorder (MDD). Rodent models implicate amygdala prodynorphin (Pdyn) as a mediator of negative affect; however, evidence of PDYN involvement in human negative affect is limited. Here, we found reduced PDYN mRNA expression in the postmortem human amygdala nucleus of the periamygdaloid cortex (PAC) in both heroin abusers and MDD subjects. Similar to humans, rats that chronically self-administered heroin had reduced Pdyn mRNA expression in the PAC at a time point associated with a negative affective state. Using the in vivo functional imaging technology DREAMM (DREADD-assisted metabolic mapping, where DREADD indicates designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs), we found that selective inhibition of Pdyn-expressing neurons in the rat PAC increased metabolic activity in the extended amygdala, which is a key substrate of the extrahypothalamic brain stress system. In parallel, PAC-specific Pdyn inhibition provoked negative affect-related physiological and behavioral changes. Altogether, our translational study supports a functional role for impaired Pdyn in the PAC in opiate abuse through activation of the stress and negative affect neurocircuitry implicated in addiction vulnerability.

  15. Impaired Processing in the Primary Auditory Cortex of an Animal Model of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Anomal, Renata Figueiredo; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne; Brandão, Juliana Alves; Diniz, Rebecca; Costa, Marcos R.; Romcy-Pereira, Rodrigo N.

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder clinically characterized by deficits in communication, lack of social interaction and repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. A number of studies have reported that sensory perception abnormalities are common in autistic individuals and might contribute to the complex behavioral symptoms of the disorder. In this context, hearing incongruence is particularly prevalent. Considering that some of this abnormal processing might stem from the unbalance of inhibitory and excitatory drives in brain circuitries, we used an animal model of autism induced by valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy in order to investigate the tonotopic organization of the primary auditory cortex (AI) and its local inhibitory circuitry. Our results show that VPA rats have distorted primary auditory maps with over-representation of high frequencies, broadly tuned receptive fields and higher sound intensity thresholds as compared to controls. However, we did not detect differences in the number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in AI of VPA and control rats. Altogether our findings show that neurophysiological impairments of hearing perception in this autism model occur independently of alterations in the number of parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. These data support the notion that fine circuit alterations, rather than gross cellular modification, could lead to neurophysiological changes in the autistic brain. PMID:26635548

  16. Anterior cingulate cortex inactivation impairs rodent visual selective attention and prospective memory

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jangjin; Wasserman, Edward A.; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a role in selective visual attention. The current study further examined the role of the ACC in attention using a visual cuing task with task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli. On every trial, two stimuli were presented on the touchscreen; one was task-relevant and the other was task-irrelevant. Rats were trained to attend to the task-relevant stimulus over the task-irrelevant stimulus to determine which side of the touchscreen should be selected for reward. After the rats were well-trained, cannulae targeting the ACC were implanted bilaterally for infusions of PBS or muscimol. When the ACC was functionally intact, high task performance was correlated with the anticipatory touches toward the reward; rats touched the stimulus proximal to the correct side more often, regardless of its task-relevancy. Analysis of the pre-surgery training data showed that rats developed anticipatory touches during training. Linear discriminant analyses of the touches also showed that the touches predict rats’ choices in trials. With muscimol infusions, choice accuracy was impaired and the anticipatory touches toward the correct response location were less frequent. A control experiment, in which there were no irrelevant stimuli, showed no effects of ACC inactivation on choice accuracy or anticipatory touches. These results indicate that the rat ACC plays a critical role in reducing distraction from irrelevant stimuli as well as in guiding attention toward the goal locations. PMID:26692448

  17. Combined unilateral lesions of the amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex impair affective processing in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alicia; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2004-05-01

    The amygdala and orbital prefrontal cortex (PFo) interact as part of a system for affective processing. To assess whether there is a hemispheric functional specialization for the processing of emotion or reward or both in nonhuman primates, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with combined lesions of the amygdala and PFo in one hemisphere, either left or right, were compared with unoperated controls on a battery of tasks that tax affective processing, including two tasks that tax reward processing and two that assess emotional reactions. Although the two operated groups did not differ from each other, monkeys with unilateral lesions, left and right, showed altered reward-processing abilities as evidenced by attenuated reinforcer devaluation effects and an impairment in object reversal learning relative to controls. In addition, both operated groups showed blunted emotional reactions to a rubber snake. By contrast, monkeys with unilateral lesions did not differ from controls in their responses to an unfamiliar human (human "intruder"). Although the results provide no support for a hemispheric specialization of function, they yield the novel finding that unilateral lesions of the amygdala-orbitofrontal cortical circuit in monkeys are sufficient to significantly disrupt affective processing.

  18. Orbitofrontal cortex inactivation impairs between- but not within-session Pavlovian extinction: an associative analysis.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Marios C; Killcross, Simon

    2014-02-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is argued to be the neural locus of Pavlovian outcome expectancies. Reinforcement learning theories argue that extinction learning in Pavlovian procedures is caused by the discrepancy between the expected value of the outcome (US) that is elicited by a predictive stimulus (CS), and the lack of experienced US. If the OFC represents Pavlovian outcome expectancies that are necessary for extinction learning, then disrupting OFC function prior to extinction training should impair extinction learning. This was tested. In experiment 1, Long Evans rats received infusions of saline or muscimol targeting the lateral OFC prior to three appetitive Pavlovian extinction sessions. Muscimol infused into the OFC disrupted between-session but not within-session extinction behaviour. This finding was not due to muscimol infusions disrupting the memory consolidation process per se as there was no effect of muscimol infusion when administered immediately post session (experiment 2). These findings support a role for the OFC in representing outcome expectancies that are necessary for learning. A number of ways in which disrupting outcome expectancy information might block learning will be discussed in the context of traditional associative learning theories and the associative structures they depend on.

  19. Damage to the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Learning from Observed Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Dharshan; Warren, David E.; Tranel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Individuals learn both from the outcomes of their own internally generated actions (“experiential learning”) and from the observation of the consequences of externally generated actions (“observational learning”). While neuroscience research has focused principally on the neural mechanisms by which brain structures such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) support experiential learning, relatively less is known regarding how learning proceeds through passive observation. We explored the necessity of the vmPFC for observational learning by testing a group of patients with damage to the vmPFC as well as demographically matched normal comparison and brain-damaged comparison groups—and a single patient with bilateral dorsal prefrontal damage—using several value-learning tasks that required learning from direct experience, observational learning, or both. We found a specific impairment in observational learning in patients with vmPFC damage manifest in the reduced influence of previously observed rewards on current choices, despite a relatively intact capacity for experiential learning. The current study provides evidence that the vmPFC plays a critical role in observational learning, suggests that there are dissociable neural circuits for experiential and observational learning, and offers an important new extension of how the vmPFC contributes to learning and memory. PMID:25911415

  20. Temporal trade-off effects in sustained attention: dynamics in visual cortex predict the target detection performance during distraction.

    PubMed

    Wieser, Matthias J; Keil, Andreas

    2011-05-25

    Models of visual selective attention have suggested that the representation of specific features characterizing a target object is enhanced in the visual cortex, at the cost of competing task-irrelevant information. In psychophysical studies, however, such attentional enhancement has been shown to result in reduced perceptual sensitivity when maintained over periods of several seconds. Two experiments examined the relationship between target detection behavior and electrocortical facilitation in human visual cortex during sustained attention under competition, in near real time. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were used in a change detection paradigm, in which a stream of flickering grating stimuli containing target events was fully overlapping with distractor faces (experiment 1) or competing complex scenes (experiment 2), covering the same part of the visual field. Beamformer source localization was used to test plausibility of lower-tier visual cortex involvement in modulation of the ssVEP signal. Results of both experiments suggest that early overallocation of visual cortical resources to the attended stimulus stream is associated with rapid reduction of electrocortical facilitation and poor change detection across the entire trial. By contrast, temporally balanced dynamics in visual cortex predicted accurate change detection. Together, the present results support models of sustained selective attention that emphasize competition for resources in lower-tier visual cortex. These models can be extended by a temporal dimension, on which attentive behavior is characterized by frugal resource sharing across the viewing time.

  1. Temporal Asymmetry in Dark–Bright Processing Initiates Propagating Activity across Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rekauzke, Sascha; Nortmann, Nora; Staadt, Robert; Hock, Howard S.; Schöner, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Differences between visual pathways representing darks and lights have been shown to affect spatial resolution and detection timing. Both psychophysical and physiological studies suggest an underlying retinal origin with amplification in primary visual cortex (V1). Here we show that temporal asymmetries in the processing of darks and lights create motion in terms of propagating activity across V1. Exploiting the high spatiotemporal resolution of voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we captured population responses to abrupt local changes of luminance in cat V1. For stimulation we used two neighboring small squares presented on either bright or dark backgrounds. When a single square changed from dark to bright or vice versa, we found coherent population activity emerging at the respective retinal input locations. However, faster rising and decay times were obtained for the bright to dark than the dark to bright changes. When the two squares changed luminance simultaneously in opposite polarities, we detected a propagating wave front of activity that originated at the cortical location representing the darkened square and rapidly expanded toward the region representing the brightened location. Thus, simultaneous input led to sequential activation across cortical retinotopy. Importantly, this effect was independent of the squares' contrast with the background. We suggest imbalance in dark–bright processing as a driving force in the generation of wave-like activity. Such propagation may convey motion signals and influence perception of shape whenever abrupt shifts in visual objects or gaze cause counterchange of luminance at high-contrast borders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT An elementary process in vision is the detection of darks and lights through the retina via ON and OFF channels. Psychophysical and physiological studies suggest that differences between these channels affect spatial resolution and detection thresholds. Here we show that temporal asymmetries in the

  2. Beyond the Peak – Tactile Temporal Discrimination Does Not Correlate with Individual Peak Frequencies in Somatosensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The human sensory systems constantly receive input from different stimuli. Whether these stimuli are integrated into a coherent percept or segregated and perceived as separate events, is critically determined by the temporal distance of the stimuli. This temporal distance has prompted the concept of temporal integration windows or perceptual cycles. Although this concept has gained considerable support, the neuronal correlates are still discussed. Studies suggested that neuronal oscillations might provide a neuronal basis for such perceptual cycles, i.e., the cycle lengths of alpha oscillations in visual cortex and beta oscillations in somatosensory cortex might determine the length of perceptual cycles. Specifically, recent studies reported that the peak frequency (the frequency with the highest spectral power) of alpha oscillations in visual cortex correlates with subjects’ ability to discriminate two visual stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether peak frequencies in somatosensory cortex might serve as the correlate of perceptual cycles in tactile discrimination. Despite several different approaches, we were unable to find a significant correlation between individual peak frequencies in the alpha- and beta-band and individual discrimination abilities. In addition, analysis of Bayes factor provided evidence that peak frequencies and discrimination thresholds are unrelated. The results suggest that perceptual cycles in the somatosensory domain are not necessarily to be found in the peak frequency, but in other frequencies. We argue that studies based solely on analysis of peak frequencies might thus miss relevant information. PMID:28382013

  3. Multivariate pattern analysis of the human medial temporal lobe revealed representationally categorical cortex and representationally agnostic hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Derek J; Stark, Craig E L

    2014-11-01

    Contemporary theories of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) suggest that there are functional differences between the MTL cortex and the hippocampus. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analysis were utilized to study whether MTL subregions could classify categories of images, with the hypothesis that the hippocampus would be less representationally categorical than the MTL cortex. Results revealed significant classification accuracy for faces versus objects and faces versus scenes in MTL cortical regions-parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and perirhinal cortex (PRC)-with little evidence for category discrimination in the hippocampus. MTL cortical regions showed significantly greater classification accuracy than the hippocampus. The hippocampus showed significant classification accuracy for images compared to a nonmnemonic baseline task, suggesting that it responded to the images. Classification accuracy in a region of interest encompassing retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) posterior to RSC, showed a similar pattern of results to PHC, supporting the hypothesis that these regions are functionally related. The results suggest that PHC, PRC, and RSC/PCC are representationally categorical and the hippocampus is more representationally agnostic, which is concordant with the hypothesis of the role of the hippocampus in pattern separation.

  4. Chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence in rats induces motor impairments and cerebral cortex damage associated with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Francisco Bruno; Santana, Luana Nazaré da Silva; Bezerra, Fernando Romualdo; De Carvalho, Sabrina; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Crespo-López, Maria Elena; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz; Lima, Rafael Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Binge drinking is common among adolescents, and this type of ethanol exposure may lead to long-term nervous system damage. In the current study, we evaluated motor performance and tissue alterations in the cerebral cortex of rats subjected to intermittent intoxication with ethanol from adolescence to adulthood. Adolescent male Wistar rats (35 days old) were treated with distilled water or ethanol (6.5 g/kg/day, 22.5% w/v) during 55 days by gavage to complete 90 days of age. The open field, inclined plane and the rotarod tests were used to assess the spontaneous locomotor activity and motor coordination performance in adult animals. Following completion of behavioral tests, half of animals were submitted to immunohistochemical evaluation of NeuN (marker of neuronal bodies), GFAP (a marker of astrocytes) and Iba1 (microglia marker) in the cerebral cortex while the other half of the animals were subjected to analysis of oxidative stress markers by biochemical assays. Chronic ethanol intoxication in rats from adolescence to adulthood induced significant motor deficits including impaired spontaneous locomotion, coordination and muscle strength. These behavioral impairments were accompanied by marked changes in all cellular populations evaluated as well as increased levels of nitrite and lipid peroxidation in the cerebral cortex. These findings indicate that continuous ethanol intoxication from adolescence to adulthood is able to provide neurobehavioral and neurodegenerative damage to cerebral cortex.

  5. The Effect of Temporal Adverbials on Past Tense Production by Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Laurie R.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often fail to produce past tense forms in obligatory contexts, although the factors affecting such inconsistency are not well understood. This study examined the influence of accompanying temporal adverbials (e.g., "just, already") on the past tense production of these children. Method:…

  6. Representations of individuals in ventral temporal cortex defined by faces and biographies.

    PubMed

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2013-09-01

    The fusiform gyrus responds more strongly to faces than to other categories of objects. This response could reflect either categorical detection of faces or recognition of particular facial identities. Recent fMRI studies have attempted to address the question of what information is encoded in these regions, but have reported mixed results. We tested whether the creation of richer identity representations via training on visual and social information, and the use of an adaptation design, would reveal more robust representations of these identities in ventral temporal cortex. Examining the patterns of activation across voxels in bilateral fusiform gyri, we identified unique patterns for particular identities. Attaching distinctive biographical information to identities did not increase the strength of these representations, but did produce a grouping effect: faces associated with the same amount of biographical information were represented more similarly to each other. These results are consistent with the possibility that identity exemplars are represented in posterior visual areas best known for their role in representing categorical information, and suggest that these areas may be sensitive to some forms of non-visual information, including from the social domain.

  7. The impact of orientation filtering on face-selective neurons in monkey inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; Goffaux, Valerie; Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Vogels, Rufin

    2016-02-16

    Faces convey complex social signals to primates. These signals are tolerant of some image transformations (e.g. changes in size) but not others (e.g. picture-plane rotation). By filtering face stimuli for orientation content, studies of human behavior and brain responses have shown that face processing is tuned to selective orientation ranges. In the present study, for the first time, we recorded the responses of face-selective neurons in monkey inferior temporal (IT) cortex to intact and scrambled faces that were filtered to selectively preserve horizontal or vertical information. Guided by functional maps, we recorded neurons in the lateral middle patch (ML), the lateral anterior patch (AL), and an additional region located outside of the functionally defined face-patches (CONTROL). We found that neurons in ML preferred horizontal-passed faces over their vertical-passed counterparts. Neurons in AL, however, had a preference for vertical-passed faces, while neurons in CONTROL had no systematic preference. Importantly, orientation filtering did not modulate the firing rate of neurons to phase-scrambled face stimuli in any recording region. Together these results suggest that face-selective neurons found in the face-selective patches are differentially tuned to orientation content, with horizontal tuning in area ML and vertical tuning in area AL.

  8. Reafferent copies of imitated actions in the right superior temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Iacoboni, Marco; Koski, Lisa M.; Brass, Marcel; Bekkering, Harold; Woods, Roger P.; Dubeau, Marie-Charlotte; Mazziotta, John C.; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2001-01-01

    Imitation is a complex phenomenon, the neural mechanisms of which are still largely unknown. When individuals imitate an action that already is present in their motor repertoire, a mechanism matching the observed action onto an internal motor representation of that action should suffice for the purpose. When one has to copy a new action, however, or to adjust an action present in one's motor repertoire to a different observed action, an additional mechanism is needed that allows the observer to compare the action made by another individual with the sensory consequences of the same action made by himself. Previous experiments have shown that a mechanism that directly matches observed actions on their motor counterparts exists in the premotor cortex of monkeys and humans. Here we report the results of functional magnetic resonance experiments, suggesting that in the superior temporal sulcus, a higher order visual region, there is a sector that becomes active both during hand action observation and during imitation even in the absence of direct vision of the imitator's hand. The motor-related activity is greater during imitation than during control motor tasks. This newly identified region has all the requisites for being the region at which the observed actions, and the reafferent motor-related copies of actions made by the imitator, interact. PMID:11717457

  9. Children with High Functioning Autism show increased prefrontal and temporal cortex activity during error monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Melissa C.; Spinelli, Simona; Joel, Suresh; Pekar, James J.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence exists for deficits in error monitoring in autism. These deficits may be particularly important because they may contribute to excessive perseveration and repetitive behavior in autism. We examined the neural correlates of error monitoring using fMRI in 8–12-year-old children with high-functioning autism (HFA, n=11) and typically developing children (TD, n=15) during performance of a Go/No-Go task by comparing the neural correlates of commission errors versus correct response inhibition trials. Compared to TD children, children with HFA showed increased BOLD fMRI signal in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC) and the left superior temporal gyrus (STempG) during commission error (versus correct inhibition) trials. A follow-up region-of-interest analysis also showed increased BOLD signal in the right insula in HFA compared to TD controls. Our findings of increased amPFC and STempG activity in HFA, together with the increased activity in the insula, suggest a greater attention towards the internally-driven emotional state associated with making an error in children with HFA. Since error monitoring occurs across different cognitive tasks throughout daily life, an increased emotional reaction to errors may have important consequences for early learning processes. PMID:21151713

  10. Dynamical Cell Assembly Hypothesis - Theoretical Possibility of Spatio-temporal Coding in the Cortex.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Minoru; Ichinose, Natsuhiro; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Hiroshi

    1996-11-01

    This paper is an attempt to understand how knowledge and events are represented and processed in the brain. An important point is the question of what carries information in the brain - the mean firing rate or the timing of spikes? The idea we want to pursue is that, contrary to the traditional view, the brain might use higher order statistics, which means in essence that timing of spikes plays a critical role in encoding, representing, and processing knowledge and events in the brain.A recently revealed salient nature of cortical pyramidal cells, i.e., the high variability of inter-spike intervals suggests that a cortical neuron may function effectively as a coincidence detector. At the same time, non-classical experimental phenomena of task-related, short time-scaled dynamical modulations of temporal correlations between neurons suggest a non-classical view on the dynamics working in the brain. In response to contexts or external events, a group of neurons, a dynamical cell assembly, spontaneously organizes, linked temporarily by coincident timing of incident spikes, showing correlated firing with each other. This is an emergent property of neuronal populations in the cortex.We make a theoretical exploration on issues as (1) the description of such emergent dynamics of dynamical cell assemblies based on the working hypothesis that a cortica neuron functions effectively as a coincidence detector, and (2) the principle of spatio-temporal coding based on the hypothetical emergent dynamics. Note that the conventional rate coding hypothesis does not give satisfactory answers to fundamental questions on the representation and processing of knowledge or events in the brain, e.g., the questions of cross-modular integration of information or the binding problem, and representation of hierarchical knowledge etc.The first goal is to give a non-encyclopedic review on (1) the temporal structure of spike sequences, focusing on the question of the basic code in the brain; (2

  11. Intact Visual Perception in Memory-Impaired Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Shrager, Yael; Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    A recent proposal that structures of the medial temporal lobe support visual perception in addition to memory challenges the long-standing idea that the ability to acquire new memories is separable from other cognitive and perceptual functions. In four experiments, we have put this proposal to a rigorous test. Six memory-impaired patients with well characterized lesions of either the hippocampal region or the hippocampal region plus additional medial temporal lobe structures were assessed on difficult tests of visual perceptual discrimination. Across all four experiments, the patients performed as well as controls. The results show that visual perception is intact in memory-impaired patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe even when perception is assessed with challenging tasks. Furthermore, the results support the principle that the ability to acquire new memories is a distinct cerebral function, dissociable from other perceptual and cognitive functions. PMID:16495450

  12. A functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation of theory of mind impairments in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hennion, Sophie; Delbeuck, Xavier; Koelkebeck, Katja; Brion, Marine; Tyvaert, Louise; Plomhause, Lucie; Derambure, Philippe; Lopes, Renaud; Szurhaj, William

    2016-12-01

    Although patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) are known to have theory of mind (ToM) impairments, the latter's neural functional bases have yet to be explored. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to gain insights into the neural dysfunction associated with ToM impairments in patients with mTLE. Twenty-five patients (12 and 13 with right and left mTLE, respectively) and 25 healthy controls performed the "animated shapes" task during fMRI. This complex ToM task requires both explicit reasoning about mental states and implicit processing of information on biological motion and action. The animated shapes evoke both ToM and non-ToM interaction perception, and the corresponding neural activation patterns were compared. Behavioral performance (i.e. categorization of the interactions) was also recorded. Relative to healthy controls, both patients with right and left mTLE were impaired in categorizing ToM interactions. The fMRI results showed that both patients with right and left mTLE had less intense neural activation (relative to controls) in regions involved in the implicit component of ToM processes (i.e. the fusiform gyrus in patients with right mTLE and the supplementary motor area in patients with left mTLE). In patients with right mTLE, we also observed more intense activation (relative to controls) in regions involved in the explicit component of ToM processes (i.e. the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex); age at onset of epilepsy also mediated activation in regions involved in the explicit component (i.e. the ventral medial prefrontal cortex and the temporoparietal junction). Patients with left mTLE displayed greater activation of the contralateral mesial regions (relative to controls); we speculate that this may correspond to the deployment of a compensatory mechanism. This study provides insights into the disturbances of the implicit/explicit ToM neural network in patients with mTLE. These impairments in the ToM neural network

  13. Interhemispheric temporal lobe connectivity predicts language impairment in adolescents born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liégeois, Frédérique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language regions. To investigate this, we performed a comprehensive assessment of language and academic abilities in a group of adolescents born prematurely, some of whom had evidence of brain injury at birth (n = 50, mean age: 16 years, mean gestational age: 27 weeks) and compared them to a term-born control group (n = 30). Detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tractography analyses of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric white matter bundles were performed. Analysis of intrahemispheric pathways included the arcuate fasciculus (dorsal language pathway) and uncinate fasciculus/extreme capsule (ventral language pathway). Analysis of interhemispheric pathways (in particular, connections between the temporal lobes) included the two major commissural bundles: the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. We found language impairment in 38% of adolescents born preterm. Language impairment was not related to abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus (or its subsegments), but was associated with bilateral volume reductions in the ventral language pathway. However, the most significant volume reduction was detected in the posterior corpus callosum (splenium), which contains interhemispheric connections between the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Diffusion tractography showed that of the three groups of interhemispheric fibres within the splenium, only those connecting the temporal lobes were reduced. Crucially, we found that language impairment was only detectable if the anterior commissure (a second temporal lobe commissural pathway) was also small. Regression analyses

  14. Chronic stress impairs prefrontal cortex-dependent response inhibition and spatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Mika, Agnieszka; Mazur, Gabriel J; Hoffman, Ann N; Talboom, Joshua S; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A; Sanabria, Federico; Conrad, Cheryl D

    2012-10-01

    Chronic stress leads to neurochemical and structural alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that correspond to deficits in PFC-mediated behaviors. The present study examined the effects of chronic restraint stress on response inhibition (using a response-withholding task, the fixed-minimum interval schedule of reinforcement, or FMI), and working memory (using a radial arm water maze, RAWM). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were first trained on the RAWM and subsequently trained on FMI. After acquisition of FMI, rats were assigned to a restraint stress (6h/d/28d in wire mesh restrainers) or control condition. Immediately after chronic stress, rats were tested on FMI and subsequently on RAWM. FMI results suggest that chronic stress reduces response inhibition capacity and motivation to initiate the task on selective conditions when sucrose reward was not obtained on the preceding trial. RAWM results suggest that chronic stress produces transient deficits in working memory without altering previously consolidated reference memory. Behavioral measures from FMI failed to correlate with metrics from RAWM except for one in which changes in FMI timing imprecision negatively correlated with changes in RAWM working memory errors for the controls, a finding that was not observed following chronic stress. Fisher's r-to-z transformation revealed no significant differences between control and stress groups with correlation coefficients. These findings are the first to show that chronic stress impairs both response inhibition and working memory, two behaviors that have never been directly compared within the same animals after chronic stress, using FMI, an appetitive task, and RAWM, a nonappetitive task.

  15. Selective neuronal degeneration in the retrosplenial cortex impairs the recall of contextual fear memory.

    PubMed

    Sigwald, Eric L; Genoud, Manuel E; Giachero, Marcelo; de Olmos, Soledad; Molina, Víctor A; Lorenzo, Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    The retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is one of the largest cortical areas in rodents, and is subdivided in two main regions, A29 and A30, according to their cytoarchitectural organization and connectivities. However, very little is known about the functional activity of each RSC subdivision during the execution of complex cognitive tasks. Here, we used a well-established fear learning protocol that induced long-lasting contextual fear memory and showed that during evocation of the fear memory, the expression of early growth response gene 1 was up-regulated in A30, and in other brain areas implicated in fear and spatial memory, however, was down-regulated in A29, including layers IV and V. To search for the participation of A29 on fear memory, we triggered selective degeneration of neurons within cortical layers IV and V of A29 by using a non-invasive protocol that takes advantage of the vulnerability that these neurons have MK801-toxicity and the modulation of this neurodegeneration by testosterone. Application of 5 mg/kg MK801 in intact males induced negligible neuronal degeneration of A29 neurons and had no impact on fear memory retrieval. However, in orchiectomized rats, 5 mg/kg MK801 induced overt degeneration of layers IV-V neurons of A29, significantly impairing fear memory recall. Degeneration of A29 neurons did not affect exploratory or anxiety-related behavior nor altered unconditioned freezing. Importantly, protecting A29 neurons from MK801-toxicity by testosterone preserved fear memory recall in orchiectomized rats. Thus, neurons within cortical layers IV-V of A29 are critically required for efficient retrieval of contextual fear memory.

  16. Passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in the inferior colliculus and primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Maike; Beitel, Ralph E; Schreiner, Christoph E; Leake, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In profoundly deaf cats, behavioral training with intracochlear electric stimulation (ICES) can improve temporal processing in the primary auditory cortex (AI). To investigate whether similar effects are manifest in the auditory midbrain, ICES was initiated in neonatally deafened cats either during development after short durations of deafness (8 wk of age) or in adulthood after long durations of deafness (≥3.5 yr). All of these animals received behaviorally meaningless, "passive" ICES. Some animals also received behavioral training with ICES. Two long-deaf cats received no ICES prior to acute electrophysiological recording. After several months of passive ICES and behavioral training, animals were anesthetized, and neuronal responses to pulse trains of increasing rates were recorded in the central (ICC) and external (ICX) nuclei of the inferior colliculus. Neuronal temporal response patterns (repetition rate coding, minimum latencies, response precision) were compared with results from recordings made in the AI of the same animals (Beitel RE, Vollmer M, Raggio MW, Schreiner CE. J Neurophysiol 106: 944-959, 2011; Vollmer M, Beitel RE. J Neurophysiol 106: 2423-2436, 2011). Passive ICES in long-deaf cats remediated severely degraded temporal processing in the ICC and had no effects in the ICX. In contrast to observations in the AI, behaviorally relevant ICES had no effects on temporal processing in the ICC or ICX, with the single exception of shorter latencies in the ICC in short-deaf cats. The results suggest that independent of deafness duration passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in auditory midbrain and cortex, and primary auditory cortex emerges as a pivotal site for behaviorally driven neuronal temporal plasticity in the deaf cat.

  17. Overlapping and nonoverlapping cortical projections to cortex of the superior temporal sulcus in the rhesus monkey: double anterograde tracer studies.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, B; Cola, M G; Gutierrez, C; Massee, M; Weldon, C; Cusick, C G

    1996-06-24

    To examine how fibers from functionally distinct cortical zones interrelate within their target areas of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the rhesus monkey, separate anterograde tracers were injected in two different regions of the same hemisphere known to project to the STS. Paired injections were placed in dorsal prearcuate cortex and the caudal inferior parietal lobule (IPL), interconnected regions that are part of a hypothesized distributed network concerned with visuospatial analysis or directed attention; in a presumed auditory region of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and in extrastriate visual cortex, the caudal IPL and lower rim of the intraparietal sulcus; and in dorsal prearcuate cortex and the STG. Overlapping and nonoverlapping projections were then examined in STS visual and polysensory areas. Prefrontal and parietal fibers directly overlapped extensively in area MST and all subdivisions of presumed polysensory cortex (areas TPOc, TPOi, and TPOr), although nonoverlapping connections were also found. Although STG and IPL fibers targeted all TPO subdivisions, connections were to nonoverlapping, but often adjacent, columns. Paired prefrontal and STG injections revealed largely nonoverlapping vertical columns of connections but substantial overlap within layers VI and I or areas TPOc and TPOi. The findings suggest that area TPO contains differently connected modules that may maintain at least initial segregation of visual versus auditory inputs. Other modules within area TPO receive directly converging input from the posterior parietal and the prefrontal cortices and may participate in a distributed cortical network concerned with visuospatial functions.

  18. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over auditory cortex degrades frequency discrimination by affecting temporal, but not place, coding.

    PubMed

    Tang, Matthew F; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2013-09-01

    We report three studies of the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over auditory cortex on audition in humans. Experiment 1 examined whether tDCS enhances rapid frequency discrimination learning. Human subjects were trained on a frequency discrimination task for 2 days with anodal tDCS applied during the first day with the second day used to assess effects of stimulation on retention. This revealed that tDCS did not affect learning but did degrade frequency discrimination during both days. Follow-up testing 2-3 months after stimulation showed no long-term effects. Following the unexpected results, two additional experiments examined the effects of tDCS on the underlying mechanisms of frequency discrimination, place and temporal coding. Place coding underlies frequency selectivity and was measured using psychophysical tuning curves with broader curves indicating poorer frequency selectivity. Temporal coding is determined by measuring the ability to discriminate sounds with different fine temporal structure. We found that tDCS does not broaden frequency selectivity but instead degraded the ability to discriminate tones with different fine temporal structure. The overall results suggest anodal tDCS applied over auditory cortex degrades frequency discrimination by affecting temporal, but not place, coding mechanisms.

  19. Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal or parietal cortex does not impair metacognitive visual awareness

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Daniel; Schwartzman, David J.; Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies commonly associate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex with conscious perception. However, such studies only investigate correlation, rather than causation. In addition, many studies conflate objective performance with subjective awareness. In an influential recent paper, Rounis and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective) awareness for a perceptual task, while objective performance was kept constant. We attempted to replicate this finding, with minor modifications, including an active cTBS control site. Using a between-subjects design for both DLPFC and posterior parietal cortices, we found no evidence of a cTBS-induced metacognitive impairment. In a second experiment, we devised a highly rigorous within-subjects cTBS design for DLPFC, but again failed to find any evidence of metacognitive impairment. One crucial difference between our results and the Rounis study is our strict exclusion of data deemed unsuitable for a signal detection theory analysis. Indeed, when we included this unstable data, a significant, though invalid, metacognitive impairment was found. These results cast doubt on previous findings relating metacognitive awareness to DLPFC, and inform the current debate concerning whether or not prefrontal regions are preferentially implicated in conscious perception. PMID:28192502

  20. Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation to the prefrontal or parietal cortex does not impair metacognitive visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Bor, Daniel; Schwartzman, David J; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies commonly associate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and posterior parietal cortex with conscious perception. However, such studies only investigate correlation, rather than causation. In addition, many studies conflate objective performance with subjective awareness. In an influential recent paper, Rounis and colleagues addressed these issues by showing that continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) applied to the DLPFC impaired metacognitive (subjective) awareness for a perceptual task, while objective performance was kept constant. We attempted to replicate this finding, with minor modifications, including an active cTBS control site. Using a between-subjects design for both DLPFC and posterior parietal cortices, we found no evidence of a cTBS-induced metacognitive impairment. In a second experiment, we devised a highly rigorous within-subjects cTBS design for DLPFC, but again failed to find any evidence of metacognitive impairment. One crucial difference between our results and the Rounis study is our strict exclusion of data deemed unsuitable for a signal detection theory analysis. Indeed, when we included this unstable data, a significant, though invalid, metacognitive impairment was found. These results cast doubt on previous findings relating metacognitive awareness to DLPFC, and inform the current debate concerning whether or not prefrontal regions are preferentially implicated in conscious perception.

  1. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces

    PubMed Central

    Cuaya, Laura V.; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs’ brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs. PMID:26934715

  2. Our Faces in the Dog's Brain: Functional Imaging Reveals Temporal Cortex Activation during Perception of Human Faces.

    PubMed

    Cuaya, Laura V; Hernández-Pérez, Raúl; Concha, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces) showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.

  3. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N = 13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N = 22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception--temporal resolution--in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties.

  4. Representation of Perceptual Color Space in Macaque Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex (the V4 Complex)

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Kaitlin S.; Hermann, Katherine L.; Hansen, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The lateral geniculate nucleus is thought to represent color using two populations of cone-opponent neurons [L vs M; S vs (L + M)], which establish the cardinal directions in color space (reddish vs cyan; lavender vs lime). How is this representation transformed to bring about color perception? Prior work implicates populations of glob cells in posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT; the V4 complex), but the correspondence between the neural representation of color in PIT/V4 complex and the organization of perceptual color space is unclear. We compared color-tuning data for populations of glob cells and interglob cells to predictions obtained using models that varied in the color-tuning narrowness of the cells, and the color preference distribution across the populations. Glob cells were best accounted for by simulated neurons that have nonlinear (narrow) tuning and, as a population, represent a color space designed to be perceptually uniform (CIELUV). Multidimensional scaling and representational similarity analyses showed that the color space representations in both glob and interglob populations were correlated with the organization of CIELUV space, but glob cells showed a stronger correlation. Hue could be classified invariant to luminance with high accuracy given glob responses and above-chance accuracy given interglob responses. Luminance could be read out invariant to changes in hue in both populations, but interglob cells tended to prefer stimuli having luminance contrast, regardless of hue, whereas glob cells typically retained hue tuning as luminance contrast was modulated. The combined luminance/hue sensitivity of glob cells is predicted for neurons that can distinguish two colors of the same hue at different luminance levels (orange/brown). PMID:27595132

  5. Differing contributions of inferior prefrontal and anterior temporal cortex to concrete and abstract conceptual knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Binney, Richard J; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Semantic cognition is underpinned by regions involved in representing conceptual knowledge and executive control areas that provide regulation of this information according to current task requirements. Using distortion-corrected fMRI, we investigated the contributions of these two systems to abstract and concrete word comprehension. We contrasted semantic decisions made either with coherent contextual support, which encouraged retrieval of a rich conceptual representation, or with irrelevant contextual information, which instead maximised demands on control processes. Inferior prefrontal cortex was activated more when decisions were made in the presence of irrelevant context, suggesting that this region is crucial for the semantic control functions required to select appropriate aspects of meaning in the face of competing information. It also exhibited greater activation for abstract words, which reflects the fact that abstract words tend to have variable, context-dependent meanings that place higher demands on control processes. In contrast, anterior temporal regions (ATL) were most active when decisions were made with the benefit of a coherent context, suggesting a representational role. There was a graded shift in concreteness effects in this region, with dorsolateral areas particularly active for abstract words and ventromedial areas preferentially activated by concrete words. This supports the idea that concrete concepts are closely associated with visual experience and abstract concepts with auditory-verbal information; and that sub-regions of the ATL display graded specialisation for these two types of knowledge. Between these two extremes, we identified significant activations for both word types in ventrolateral ATL. This area is known to be involved in representing knowledge for concrete concepts; here we established that it is also activated by abstract concepts. These results converge with data from rTMS and neuropsychological investigations in

  6. Relationships between spike-free local field potentials and spike timing in human temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zanos, Theodoros P.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Ojemann, George A.; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    Intracortical recordings comprise both fast events, action potentials (APs), and slower events, known as local field potentials (LFPs). Although it is believed that LFPs mostly reflect local synaptic activity, it is unclear which of their signal components are most closely related to synaptic potentials and would therefore be causally related to the occurrence of individual APs. This issue is complicated by the significant contribution from AP waveforms, especially at higher LFP frequencies. In recordings of single-cell activity and LFPs from the human temporal cortex, we computed quantitative, nonlinear, causal dynamic models for the prediction of AP timing from LFPs, at millisecond resolution, before and after removing AP contributions to the LFP. In many cases, the timing of a significant number of single APs could be predicted from spike-free LFPs at different frequencies. Not surprisingly, model performance was superior when spikes were not removed. Cells whose activity was predicted by the spike-free LFP models generally fell into one of two groups: in the first group, neuronal spike activity was associated with specific phases of low LFP frequencies, lower spike activity at high LFP frequencies, and a stronger linear component in the spike-LFP model; in the second group, neuronal spike activity was associated with larger amplitude of high LFP frequencies, less frequent phase locking, and a stronger nonlinear model component. Spike timing in the first group was better predicted by the sign and level of the LFP preceding the spike, whereas spike timing in the second group was better predicted by LFP power during a certain time window before the spike. PMID:22157112

  7. Representation of Perceptual Color Space in Macaque Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex (the V4 Complex).

    PubMed

    Bohon, Kaitlin S; Hermann, Katherine L; Hansen, Thorsten; Conway, Bevil R

    2016-01-01

    The lateral geniculate nucleus is thought to represent color using two populations of cone-opponent neurons [L vs M; S vs (L + M)], which establish the cardinal directions in color space (reddish vs cyan; lavender vs lime). How is this representation transformed to bring about color perception? Prior work implicates populations of glob cells in posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT; the V4 complex), but the correspondence between the neural representation of color in PIT/V4 complex and the organization of perceptual color space is unclear. We compared color-tuning data for populations of glob cells and interglob cells to predictions obtained using models that varied in the color-tuning narrowness of the cells, and the color preference distribution across the populations. Glob cells were best accounted for by simulated neurons that have nonlinear (narrow) tuning and, as a population, represent a color space designed to be perceptually uniform (CIELUV). Multidimensional scaling and representational similarity analyses showed that the color space representations in both glob and interglob populations were correlated with the organization of CIELUV space, but glob cells showed a stronger correlation. Hue could be classified invariant to luminance with high accuracy given glob responses and above-chance accuracy given interglob responses. Luminance could be read out invariant to changes in hue in both populations, but interglob cells tended to prefer stimuli having luminance contrast, regardless of hue, whereas glob cells typically retained hue tuning as luminance contrast was modulated. The combined luminance/hue sensitivity of glob cells is predicted for neurons that can distinguish two colors of the same hue at different luminance levels (orange/brown).

  8. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    PubMed

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as "baseline condition") followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation.

  9. Temporally Regular Musical Primes Facilitate Subsequent Syntax Processing in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Brisseau, Lucie; Molinier, Pauline; Roch, Didier; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders have been shown to be also impaired in rhythm and meter perception. Temporal processing and its link to language processing can be understood within the dynamic attending theory. An external stimulus can stimulate internal oscillators, which orient attention over time and drive speech signal segmentation to provide benefits for syntax processing, which is impaired in various patient populations. For children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and dyslexia, previous research has shown the influence of an external rhythmic stimulation on subsequent language processing by comparing the influence of a temporally regular musical prime to that of a temporally irregular prime. Here we tested whether the observed rhythmic stimulation effect is indeed due to a benefit provided by the regular musical prime (rather than a cost subsequent to the temporally irregular prime). Sixteen children with SLI and 16 age-matched controls listened to either a regular musical prime sequence or an environmental sound scene (without temporal regularities in event occurrence; i.e., referred to as “baseline condition”) followed by grammatically correct and incorrect sentences. They were required to perform grammaticality judgments for each auditorily presented sentence. Results revealed that performance for the grammaticality judgments was better after the regular prime sequences than after the baseline sequences. Our findings are interpreted in the theoretical framework of the dynamic attending theory (Jones, 1976) and the temporal sampling (oscillatory) framework for developmental language disorders (Goswami, 2011). Furthermore, they encourage the use of rhythmic structures (even in non-verbal materials) to boost linguistic structure processing and outline perspectives for rehabilitation. PMID:27378833

  10. Reversal learning impairment and alterations in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus in a model of portosystemic hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Marta; Méndez-López, Magdalena; López, Laudino; Begega, Azucena; Aller, María Angeles; Arias, Jaime; Arias, Jorge L

    2010-09-01

    Patients with liver dysfunction often suffer from hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neurological complication that affects attention and memory. Various experimental animal models have been used to study HE, the most frequently used being the portocaval shunt (PCS). In order to determine brain substrates of cognitive impairment in this model, we assessed reversal learning and c-Fos expression in a rat model of portosystemic derivation. PCS and sham-operated rats (SHAM) were tested for reversal learning. Brains were processed for c-Fos immunocytochemistry. The total number of c-Fos positive nuclei was quantified in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The spatial reference memory task showed no differences between groups in escape latencies. The no-platform probe test showed that both the PCS and the SHAM learned the location of platform. However, the PCS group perseverated in the old target during reversal. The PCS group presented less c-Fos- positive cells in prelimbic cortex, CA1 and dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus than SHAM. Overall, these results suggest that this specific model of portosystemic hepatic encephalopathy produces reversal learning impairment that could be linked to dysfunction in neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

  11. Abnormal functioning of the left temporal lobe in language-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Helenius, Päivi; Sivonen, Päivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Isoaho, Pia; Hannus, Sinikka; Kauppila, Timo; Salmelin, Riitta; Isotalo, Leena

    2014-03-01

    Specific language impairment is associated with enduring problems in language-related functions. We followed the spatiotemporal course of cortical activation in SLI using magnetoencephalography. In the experiment, children with normal and impaired language development heard spoken real words and pseudowords presented only once or two times in a row. In typically developing children, the activation in the bilateral superior temporal cortices was attenuated to the second presentation of the same word. In SLI children, this repetition effect was nearly nonexistent in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, the activation was equally strong to words and pseudowords in SLI children whereas in the typically developing children the left hemisphere activation persisted longer for pseudowords than words. Our results indicate that the short-term maintenance of linguistic activation that underlies spoken word recognition is defective in SLI particularly in the left language-dominant hemisphere. The unusually rapid decay of speech-evoked activation can contribute to impaired vocabulary growth.

  12. Associative-memory representations emerge as shared spatial patterns of theta activity spanning the primate temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Ken; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Takeda, Masaki; Sugiyama, Sayaka; Nakata, Ryota; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Highly localized neuronal spikes in primate temporal cortex can encode associative memory; however, whether memory formation involves area-wide reorganization of ensemble activity, which often accompanies rhythmicity, or just local microcircuit-level plasticity, remains elusive. Using high-density electrocorticography, we capture local-field potentials spanning the monkey temporal lobes, and show that the visual pair-association (PA) memory is encoded in spatial patterns of theta activity in areas TE, 36, and, partially, in the parahippocampal cortex, but not in the entorhinal cortex. The theta patterns elicited by learned paired associates are distinct between pairs, but similar within pairs. This pattern similarity, emerging through novel PA learning, allows a machine-learning decoder trained on theta patterns elicited by a particular visual item to correctly predict the identity of those elicited by its paired associate. Our results suggest that the formation and sharing of widespread cortical theta patterns via learning-induced reorganization are involved in the mechanisms of associative memory representation. PMID:27282247

  13. Eccentricity mapping of the human visual cortex to evaluate temporal dynamics of functional T1ρ mapping

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Hye-Young; Wemmie, John A; Johnson, Casey P; Thedens, Daniel R; Magnotta, Vincent A

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments suggest that T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) is sensitive to metabolism and can detect localized activity-dependent changes in the human visual cortex. Current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods have poor temporal resolution due to delays in the hemodynamic response resulting from neurovascular coupling. Because T1ρ is sensitive to factors that can be derived from tissue metabolism, such as pH and glucose concentration via proton exchange, we hypothesized that activity-evoked T1ρ changes in visual cortex may occur before the hemodynamic response measured by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) and arterial spin labeling (ASL) contrast. To test this hypothesis, functional imaging was performed using T1ρ, BOLD, and ASL in human participants viewing an expanding ring stimulus. We calculated eccentricity phase maps across the occipital cortex for each functional signal and compared the temporal dynamics of T1ρ versus BOLD and ASL. The results suggest that T1ρ changes precede changes in the two blood flow-dependent measures. These observations indicate that T1ρ detects a signal distinct from traditional fMRI contrast methods. In addition, these findings support previous evidence that T1ρ is sensitive to factors other than blood flow, volume, or oxygenation. Furthermore, they suggest that tissue metabolism may be driving activity-evoked T1ρ changes. PMID:25966957

  14. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold ("visual acuity") nor of the contrast threshold ("contrast sensitivity") of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain regions.

  15. A Small Motor Cortex Lesion Abolished Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Mouse Primary Visual Cortex and Impaired Experience-Dependent Visual Improvements

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Greifzu, Franziska; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    It was previously shown that a small lesion in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) prevented both cortical plasticity and sensory learning in the adult mouse visual system: While 3-month-old control mice continued to show ocular dominance (OD) plasticity in their primary visual cortex (V1) after monocular deprivation (MD), age-matched mice with a small photothrombotically induced (PT) stroke lesion in S1, positioned at least 1 mm anterior to the anterior border of V1, no longer expressed OD-plasticity. In addition, in the S1-lesioned mice, neither the experience-dependent increase of the spatial frequency threshold (“visual acuity”) nor of the contrast threshold (“contrast sensitivity”) of the optomotor reflex through the open eye was present. To assess whether these plasticity impairments can also occur if a lesion is placed more distant from V1, we tested the effect of a PT-lesion in the secondary motor cortex (M2). We observed that mice with a small M2-lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers no longer expressed an OD-shift towards the open eye after 7 days of MD in V1 of the lesioned hemisphere. Consistent with previous findings about the consequences of an S1-lesion, OD-plasticity in V1 of the nonlesioned hemisphere of the M2-lesioned mice was still present. In addition, the experience-dependent improvements of both visual acuity and contrast sensitivity of the open eye were severely reduced. In contrast, sham-lesioned mice displayed both an OD-shift and improvements of visual capabilities of their open eye. To summarize, our data indicate that even a very small lesion restricted to the superficial cortical layers and more than 3mm anterior to the anterior border of V1 compromised V1-plasticity and impaired learning-induced visual improvements in adult mice. Thus both plasticity phenomena cannot only depend on modality-specific and local nerve cell networks but are clearly influenced by long-range interactions even from distant brain

  16. Impaired acquisition of new words after left temporal lobectomy despite normal fast-mapping behavior

    PubMed Central

    Warren, David E.; Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa C.

    2015-01-01

    Word learning under different conditions has been proposed to rely on different brain regions including the temporal lobes, and the left temporal lobe appears to be especially important. In order to investigate the role of the left temporal lobe in word learning under different conditions, we tested whether patients with left temporal lobectomies (N=6) could learn novel words using two distinct learning formats. Previous research has shown that word learning in contrastive fast mapping conditions may rely on different neural substrates than explicit encoding conditions (Sharon, Moscovitch, & Gilboa, 2011). In the current investigation, we used a previously reported word learning task that implemented two distinct study formats (Warren & Duff, 2014): a contrastive fast mapping condition in which a picture of a novel item was displayed beside a picture of a familiar item while the novel item's name was presented aurally (“Click on the numbat.”); and an explicit encoding (i.e., control) condition in which a picture of a novel item was displayed while its name was presented aurally (“This is a numbat.”). After a delay, learning of the novel words was evaluated with memory tests including three-alternative forced-choice recognition, free recall, cued recall, and familiarity ratings. During the fast-mapping study condition both the left temporal lobectomy and healthy comparison groups performed well, but at test only the comparison group showed evidence of novel word learning. Our findings indicate that unilateral resection of the left temporal lobe including the hippocampus and temporal pole can severely impair word learning, and that fast mapping study conditions do not promote subsequent word learning in temporal lobectomy populations. PMID:26617264

  17. Impaired acquisition of new words after left temporal lobectomy despite normal fast-mapping behavior.

    PubMed

    Warren, David E; Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa C

    2016-01-08

    Word learning has been proposed to rely on unique brain regions including the temporal lobes, and the left temporal lobe appears to be especially important. In order to investigate the role of the left temporal lobe in word learning under different conditions, we tested whether patients with left temporal lobectomies (N=6) could learn novel words using two distinct formats. Previous research has shown that word learning in contrastive fast mapping conditions may rely on different neural substrates than explicit encoding conditions (Sharon et al., 2011). In the current investigation, we used a previously reported word learning task that implemented two distinct study formats (Warren and Duff, 2014): a contrastive fast mapping condition in which a picture of a novel item was displayed beside a picture of a familiar item while the novel item's name was presented aurally ("Click on the numbat."); and an explicit encoding (i.e., control) condition in which a picture of a novel item was displayed while its name was presented aurally ("This is a numbat."). After a delay, learning of the novel words was evaluated with memory tests including three-alternative forced-choice recognition, free recall, cued recall, and familiarity ratings. During the fast-mapping study condition both the left temporal lobectomy and healthy comparison groups performed well, but at test only the comparison group showed evidence of novel word learning. Our findings indicate that unilateral resection of the left temporal lobe including the hippocampus and temporal pole can severely impair word learning, and that fast-mapping study conditions do not promote subsequent word learning in temporal lobectomy populations.

  18. The temporal structure of resting-state brain activity in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts self-consciousness.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zirui; Obara, Natsuho; Davis, Henry Hap; Pokorny, Johanna; Northoff, Georg

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated an overlap between the neural substrate of resting-state activity and self-related processing in the cortical midline structures (CMS). However, the neural and psychological mechanisms mediating this so-called "rest-self overlap" remain unclear. To investigate the neural mechanisms, we estimated the temporal structure of spontaneous/resting-state activity, e.g. its long-range temporal correlations or self-affinity across time as indexed by the power-law exponent (PLE). The PLE was obtained in resting-state activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in 47 healthy subjects by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed correlation analyses of the PLE and Revised Self-Consciousness Scale (SCSR) scores, which enabled us to access different dimensions of self-consciousness and specified rest-self overlap in a psychological regard. The PLE in the MPFC's resting-state activity correlated with private self-consciousness scores from the SCSR. Conversely, we found no correlation between the PLE and the other subscales of the SCSR (public, social) or between other resting-state measures, including functional connectivity, and the SCSR subscales. This is the first evidence for the association between the scale-free dynamics of resting-state activity in the CMS and the private dimension of self-consciousness. This finding implies the relationship of especially the private dimension of self with the temporal structure of resting-state activity.

  19. Visual short-term memory for high resolution associations is impaired in patients with medial temporal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Koen, Joshua D; Borders, Alyssa A; Petzold, Michael T; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-02-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL) plays a critical role in episodic long-term memory, but whether the MTL is necessary for visual short-term memory is controversial. Some studies have indicated that MTL damage disrupts visual short-term memory performance whereas other studies have failed to find such evidence. To account for these mixed results, it has been proposed that the hippocampus is critical in supporting short-term memory for high resolution complex bindings, while the cortex is sufficient to support simple, low resolution bindings. This hypothesis was tested in the current study by assessing visual short-term memory in patients with damage to the MTL and controls for high resolution and low resolution object-location and object-color associations. In the location tests, participants encoded sets of two or four objects in different locations on the screen. After each set, participants performed a two-alternative forced-choice task in which they were required to discriminate the object in the target location from the object in a high or low resolution lure location (i.e., the object locations were very close or far away from the target location, respectively). Similarly, in the color tests, participants were presented with sets of two or four objects in a different color and, after each set, were required to discriminate the object in the target color from the object in a high or low resolution lure color (i.e., the lure color was very similar or very different, respectively, to the studied color). The patients were significantly impaired in visual short-term memory, but importantly, they were more impaired for high resolution object-location and object-color bindings. The results are consistent with the proposal that the hippocampus plays a critical role in forming and maintaining complex, high resolution bindings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Impaired extraction of speech rhythm from temporal modulation patterns in speech in developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Victoria; Goswami, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Dyslexia is associated with impaired neural representation of the sound structure of words (phonology). The “phonological deficit” in dyslexia may arise in part from impaired speech rhythm perception, thought to depend on neural oscillatory phase-locking to slow amplitude modulation (AM) patterns in the speech envelope. Speech contains AM patterns at multiple temporal rates, and these different AM rates are associated with phonological units of different grain sizes, e.g., related to stress, syllables or phonemes. Here, we assess the ability of adults with dyslexia to use speech AMs to identify rhythm patterns (RPs). We study 3 important temporal rates: “Stress” (~2 Hz), “Syllable” (~4 Hz) and “Sub-beat” (reduced syllables, ~14 Hz). 21 dyslexics and 21 controls listened to nursery rhyme sentences that had been tone-vocoded using either single AM rates from the speech envelope (Stress only, Syllable only, Sub-beat only) or pairs of AM rates (Stress + Syllable, Syllable + Sub-beat). They were asked to use the acoustic rhythm of the stimulus to identity the original nursery rhyme sentence. The data showed that dyslexics were significantly poorer at detecting rhythm compared to controls when they had to utilize multi-rate temporal information from pairs of AMs (Stress + Syllable or Syllable + Sub-beat). These data suggest that dyslexia is associated with a reduced ability to utilize AMs <20 Hz for rhythm recognition. This perceptual deficit in utilizing AM patterns in speech could be underpinned by less efficient neuronal phase alignment and cross-frequency neuronal oscillatory synchronization in dyslexia. Dyslexics' perceptual difficulties in capturing the full spectro-temporal complexity of speech over multiple timescales could contribute to the development of impaired phonological representations for words, the cognitive hallmark of dyslexia across languages. PMID:24605099

  1. Distinct medial temporal contributions to different forms of recognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Westerberg, Carmen; Mayes, Andrew; Florczak, Susan M.; Chen, Yufen; Creery, Jessica; Parrish, Todd; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Reber, Paul J.; Paller, Ken A.

    2013-01-01

    The simplest expression of episodic memory is the experience of familiarity, the isolated recognition that something has been encountered previously. Brain structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) make essential contributions to episodic memory, but the distinct contributions from each MTL structure to familiarity are debatable. Here we used specialized tests to assess recognition impairments and their relationship to MTL integrity in people with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n=19), people with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=10), and age-matched individuals without any neurological disorder (n=20). Recognition of previously presented silhouette objects was tested in two formats—forced-choice recognition with four concurrent choices (one target and three foils) and yes/no recognition with individually presented targets and foils. Every foil was extremely similar to a corresponding target, such that forced-choice recognition could be based on differential familiarity among the choices, whereas yes/no recognition necessitated additional memory and decision factors. Only yes/no recognition was impaired in the aMCI group, whereas both forced-choice and yes/no recognition were impaired in the AD group. Magnetic resonance imaging showed differential brain atrophy, as MTL volume was reduced in the AD group but not in the aMCI group. Pulsed arterial spin-labeled scans demonstrated that MTL blood flow was abnormally increased in aMCI, which could indicate physiological dysfunction prior to the emergence of significant atrophy. Regression analyses with data from all patients revealed that regional patterns of MTL integrity were differentially related to forced-choice and yes/no recognition. Smaller perirhinal cortex volume was associated with lower forced-choice recognition accuracy, but not with lower yes/no recognition accuracy. Instead, smaller hippocampal volumes were associated with lower yes/no recognition accuracy. In sum, familiarity memory can

  2. Systemic or intra-prelimbic cortex infusion of prazosin impairs fear memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Do Monte, Fabricio H; Souza, Rimenez R; Wong, Ting T; Carobrez, Antonio de Padua

    2013-05-01

    The alpha-1 adrenergic antagonist prazosin has been used to alleviate the symptoms of PTSD, but the mechanism remains unclear. One possibility is that prazosin may disrupt fear memory reconsolidation, leading to attenuation of fear responses. To test this hypothesis, we administered a single systemic injection of prazosin during the reconsolidation of olfactory fear conditioning in rats. We found that a post-retrieval injection of prazosin disrupted subsequent retrieval of fear. Similarly, intra-prelimbic cortex infusion of prazosin during the reconsolidation period also disrupted subsequent retrieval of fear. These findings suggest that fear memory undergoes reconsolidation through activation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in the prelimbic cortex.

  3. Inactivation of the prelimbic rather than infralimbic cortex impairs acquisition and expression of formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhao-Cai; Pan, Qi; Zheng, Chun; Deng, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigm has been used to investigate the affective component of pain. Although the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been demonstrated to play an important role in the affective aspect of pain, whether the other prefrontal subdivisions are involved in pain-related aversion is unknown. The present study investigated the role of the prelimbic cortex (PL) and infralimbic cortex (IL) in the acquisition and expression of formalin-induced CPA (F-CPA) in rats. GABAA receptor agonist muscimol was bilaterally microinjected into PL/IL before or after the formalin-paired training, to explore the effect of temporary inactivation of PL/IL on the acquisition and expression of F-CPA, respectively. The results showed that inactivation of PL rather than IL impaired the acquisition and expression of F-CPA. Moreover, the PL inactivation did not block the acquisition of LiCl-induced CPA, suggesting that PL may be specifically implicated in the pain-emotion related encoding. These results indicate that PL but not IL is involved in the aversive dimension of pain. PMID:24726402

  4. Immobility behavior during the forced swim test correlates with BNDF levels in the frontal cortex, but not with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Borsoi, Milene; Antonio, Camila Boque; Viana, Alice Fialho; Nardin, Patrícia; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Rates, Stela Maris Kuze

    2015-03-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is widely used to evaluate the antidepressant-like activity of compounds and is sensitive to stimuli that cause depression-like behaviors in rodents. The immobility behavior observed during the test has been considered to represent behavioral despair. In addition, some studies suggest that the FST impairs rats' performance on cognitive tests, but these findings have rarely been explored. Thus, we investigated the effects of the FST on behavioral tests related to neuropsychiatric diseases that involve different cognitive components: novel object recognition (NOR), the object location test (OLT) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus were evaluated. The rats were forced to swim twice (15-min session followed by a 5-min session 24h later) and underwent cognitive tests 24h after the last swimming exposure. The FST impaired the rats' performance on the OLT and reduced the PPI and acoustic startle responses, whereas the NOR was not affected. The cognitive impairments were not correlated with an immobility behavior profile, but a significant negative correlation between the frontal BDNF levels and immobility behavior was identified. These findings suggest a protective role of BDNF against behavioral despair and demonstrate a deleterious effect of the FST on spatial memory and pre-attentive processes, which point to the FST as a tool to induce cognitive impairments analogous to those observed in depression and in other neuropsychiatric disorders.

  5. Intracerebral electrical stimulation of a face-selective area in the right inferior occipital cortex impairs individual face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Rossion, Bruno; Krieg, Julien; Koessler, Laurent; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Vespignani, Hervé; Jacques, Corentin; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Brissart, Hélène; Maillard, Louis

    2014-10-01

    During intracerebral stimulation of the right inferior occipital cortex, a patient with refractory epilepsy was transiently impaired at discriminating two simultaneously presented photographs of unfamiliar faces. The critical electrode contact was located in the most posterior face-selective brain area of the human brain (right "occipital face area", rOFA) as shown both by low- (ERP) and high-frequency (gamma) electrophysiological responses as well as a face localizer in fMRI. At this electrode contact, periodic visual presentation of 6 different faces by second evoked a larger electrophysiological periodic response at 6 Hz than when the same face identity was repeated at the same rate. This intracerebral EEG repetition suppression effect was markedly reduced when face stimuli were presented upside-down, a manipulation that impairs individual face discrimination. These findings provide original evidence for a causal relationship between the face-selective right inferior occipital cortex and individual face discrimination, independently of long-term memory representations. More generally, they support the functional value of electrophysiological repetition suppression effects, indicating that these effects can be used as an index of a necessary neural representation of the changing stimulus property.

  6. Cognitive Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Role of Online and Offline Processing of Single Cell Information

    PubMed Central

    Titiz, A. S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Testorf, M. E.; Holmes, G. L.; Scott, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common comorbidity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is often considered more detrimental to quality of life than seizures. While it has been previously shown that the encoding of memory during behavior is impaired in the pilocarpine model of TLE in rats, how this information is consolidated during the subsequent sleep period remains unknown. In this study, we first report marked deficits in spatial memory performance and severe cell loss in the CA1 layer of the hippocampus lower spatial coherence of firing in TLE rats. We then present the first evidence that the reactivation of behavior-driven patterns of activity of CA1 place cells in the hippocampus is intact in TLE rats. Using a template-matching method, we discovered that real-time (3–5 s) reactivation structure was intact in TLE rats. Furthermore, we estimated the entropy rate of short time scale (~250 ms) bursting activity using block entropies and found that significant, extended temporal correlations exist in both TLE and Control rats. Fitting a first order Markov Chain model to these bursting time series, we found that long sequences derived from behavior were significantly enriched in the Markov model over corresponding models fit on randomized data confirming the presence of replay in shorter time scales. We propose that the persistent consolidation of poor spatial information in both real-time and during bursting activity may contribute to memory impairments in TLE rats. PMID:24799359

  7. Impaired recognition of musical emotions and facial expressions following anteromedial temporal lobe excision.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Nathalie; Peretz, Isabelle; Hasboun, Dominique; Baulac, Michel; Samson, Séverine

    2011-10-01

    We have shown that an anteromedial temporal lobe resection can impair the recognition of scary music in a prior study (Gosselin et al., 2005). In other studies (Adolphs et al., 2001; Anderson et al., 2000), similar results have been obtained with fearful facial expressions. These findings suggest that scary music and fearful faces may be processed by common cerebral structures. To assess this possibility, we tested patients with unilateral anteromedial temporal excision and normal controls in two emotional tasks. In the task of identifying musical emotion, stimuli evoked either fear, peacefulness, happiness or sadness. Participants were asked to rate to what extent each stimulus expressed these four emotions on 10-point scales. The task of facial emotion included morphed stimuli whose expression varied from faint to more pronounced and evoked fear, happiness, sadness, surprise, anger or disgust. Participants were requested to select the appropriate label. Most patients were found to be impaired in the recognition of both scary music and fearful faces. Furthermore, the results in both tasks were correlated, suggesting a multimodal representation of fear within the amygdala. However, inspection of individual results showed that recognition of fearful faces can be preserved whereas recognition of scary music can be impaired. Such a dissociation found in two cases suggests that fear recognition in faces and in music does not necessarily involve exactly the same cerebral networks and this hypothesis is discussed in light of the current literature.

  8. Disruption of the Perineuronal Net in the Hippocampus or Medial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylin, Michael J.; Orsi, Sara A.; Moore, Anthony N.; Dash, Pramod K.

    2013-01-01

    The perineuronal net (PNN) surrounds neurons in the central nervous system and is thought to regulate developmental plasticity. A few studies have shown an involvement of the PNN in hippocampal plasticity and memory storage in adult animals. In addition to the hippocampus, plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been demonstrated to…

  9. Contralateral Disconnection of the Rat Prelimbic Cortex and Dorsomedial Striatum Impairs Cue-Guided Behavioral Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Phillip M.; Ragozzino, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Switches in reward outcomes or reward-predictive cues are two fundamental ways in which information is used to flexibly shift response patterns. The rat prelimbic cortex and dorsomedial striatum support behavioral flexibility based on a change in outcomes. The present experiments investigated whether these two brain regions are necessary for…

  10. The Role of the Right Posterior Parietal Cortex in Temporal Order Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Sung-Ho; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2009-01-01

    Perceived order of two consecutive stimuli may not correspond to the order of their physical onsets. Such a disagreement presumably results from a difference in the speed of stimulus processing toward central decision mechanisms. Since previous evidence suggests that the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a role in modulating the…

  11. Contribution of Temporal Preparation and Processing Speed to Simple Reaction Time in Persons with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvain-Roy, Stephanie; Bherer, Louis; Belleville, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    Temporal preparation was assessed in 15 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 20 persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 28 healthy older adults. Participants completed a simple reaction time task in which the preparatory interval duration varied randomly within two blocks (short versus long temporal window). Results indicated that AD and…

  12. Effects of Swimming Exercise on Limbic and Motor Cortex Neurogenesis in the Kainate-Lesion Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Gorantla, Vasavi R.; Sirigiri, Amulya; Volkova, Yulia A.; Millis, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disease and antiseizure medication is often inadequate for preventing apoptotic cell death. Aerobic swimming exercise (EX) augments neurogenesis in rats when initiated immediately in the postictal period. This study tests the hypothesis that aerobic exercise also augments neurogenesis over the long term. Male Wistar rats (age of 4 months) were subjected to chemical lesioning using KA and to an EX intervention consisting of a 30 d period of daily swimming for 15 min, in one experiment immediately after KA lesioning (immediate exposure) and in a second experiment after a 60 d period of normal activity (delayed exposure). Morphometric counting of neuron numbers (NN) and dendritic branch points and intersections (DDBPI) was performed in the CA1, CA3, and dentate regions of hippocampus, in basolateral nucleus of amygdala, and in several areas of motor cortex. EX increased NN and DDBPI in the normal control and the KA-lesioned rats in all four limbic and motor cortex areas studied, after both immediate and 60 d delayed exposures to exercise. These findings suggest that, after temporal lobe epileptic seizures in rats, swimming exercise may improve neural plasticity in areas of the brain involved with emotional regulation and motor coordination, even if the exercise treatment is delayed. PMID:27313873

  13. Differences between Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields Derived from Artificial and Natural Stimuli in the Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Laudanski, Jonathan; Edeline, Jean-Marc; Huetz, Chloé

    2012-01-01

    Spectro-temporal properties of auditory cortex neurons have been extensively studied with artificial sounds but it is still unclear whether they help in understanding neuronal responses to communication sounds. Here, we directly compared spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) obtained from the same neurons using both artificial stimuli (dynamic moving ripples, DMRs) and natural stimuli (conspecific vocalizations) that were matched in terms of spectral content, average power and modulation spectrum. On a population of auditory cortex neurons exhibiting reliable tuning curves when tested with pure tones, significant STRFs were obtained for 62% of the cells with vocalizations and 68% with DMR. However, for many cells with significant vocalization-derived STRFs (STRFvoc) and DMR-derived STRFs (STRFdmr), the BF, latency, bandwidth and global STRFs shape differed more than what would be predicted by spiking responses simulated by a linear model based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Moreover STRFvoc predicted neural responses to vocalizations more accurately than STRFdmr predicted neural response to DMRs, despite similar spike-timing reliability for both sets of stimuli. Cortical bursts, which potentially introduce nonlinearities in evoked responses, did not explain the differences between STRFvoc and STRFdmr. Altogether, these results suggest that the nonlinearity of auditory cortical responses makes it difficult to predict responses to communication sounds from STRFs computed from artificial stimuli. PMID:23209771

  14. Effects of Swimming Exercise on Limbic and Motor Cortex Neurogenesis in the Kainate-Lesion Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gorantla, Vasavi R; Sirigiri, Amulya; Volkova, Yulia A; Millis, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common neurological disease and antiseizure medication is often inadequate for preventing apoptotic cell death. Aerobic swimming exercise (EX) augments neurogenesis in rats when initiated immediately in the postictal period. This study tests the hypothesis that aerobic exercise also augments neurogenesis over the long term. Male Wistar rats (age of 4 months) were subjected to chemical lesioning using KA and to an EX intervention consisting of a 30 d period of daily swimming for 15 min, in one experiment immediately after KA lesioning (immediate exposure) and in a second experiment after a 60 d period of normal activity (delayed exposure). Morphometric counting of neuron numbers (NN) and dendritic branch points and intersections (DDBPI) was performed in the CA1, CA3, and dentate regions of hippocampus, in basolateral nucleus of amygdala, and in several areas of motor cortex. EX increased NN and DDBPI in the normal control and the KA-lesioned rats in all four limbic and motor cortex areas studied, after both immediate and 60 d delayed exposures to exercise. These findings suggest that, after temporal lobe epileptic seizures in rats, swimming exercise may improve neural plasticity in areas of the brain involved with emotional regulation and motor coordination, even if the exercise treatment is delayed.

  15. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Niu, Yanan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Baoxi; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.

  16. Transient inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex impairs performance on a working memory-dependent conditional discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Urban, Kimberly R; Layfield, Dylan M; Griffin, Amy L

    2014-12-01

    The rodent medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in working memory function; lesions and inactivation of this region have been shown to result in impairments in spatial working memory (WM) tasks. Our laboratory has developed a tactile-visual conditional discrimination (CD) task, which uses floor insert cues to signal the correct goal-arm choice in a T maze. This task can be manipulated by altering the floor insert cues to be present throughout the trial (CDSTANDARD) or to be present only at the beginning of the trial (CDWM), thus making the task either WM-independent or WM-dependent, respectively. This ability to manipulate the working memory demand of the task while holding all other task features constant allows us to rule out the possibility that confounding performance variables contribute to the observed impairment. A previous study from our lab showed that mPFC inactivation did not impair performance on CDSTANDARD, confirming that mPFC inactivation does not induce sensorimotor or motivational deficits that could impact task performance. To examine whether mPFC inactivation impairs CDWM, the current study transiently inactivated the mPFC with bilateral microinfusions of muscimol immediately prior to testing on the CDWM task. As predicted, CDWM task performance was significantly impaired during the muscimol-infusion session compared with the control saline-infusion sessions. Together with our previous demonstration that the mPFC in not required for CDSTANDARD, these results not only confirm that the mPFC is crucial for working memory, but also set the stage for using the task-comparison approach to investigate corticolimbic interactions during working memory.

  17. Motion and Actions in Language: Semantic Representations in Occipito-Temporal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Gina F.; Newling, Katherine; Jennings, Caroline; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding verbs typically activates posterior temporal regions and, in some circumstances, motion perception area V5. However, the nature and role of this activation remains unclear: does language alone indeed activate V5? And are posterior temporal representations modality-specific motion representations, or supra-modal motion-independent…

  18. Intracranial spectral amplitude dynamics of perceptual suppression in fronto-insular, occipito-temporal, and primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Juan R.; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    If conscious perception requires global information integration across active distant brain networks, how does the loss of conscious perception affect neural processing in these distant networks? Pioneering studies on perceptual suppression (PS) described specific local neural network responses in primary visual cortex, thalamus and lateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque brain. Yet the neural effects of PS have rarely been studied with intracerebral recordings outside these cortices and simultaneously across distant brain areas. Here, we combined (1) a novel experimental paradigm in which we produced a similar perceptual disappearance and also re-appearance by using visual adaptation with transient contrast changes, with (2) electrophysiological observations from human intracranial electrodes sampling wide brain areas. We focused on broadband high-frequency (50–150 Hz, i.e., gamma) and low-frequency (8–24 Hz) neural activity amplitude modulations related to target visibility and invisibility. We report that low-frequency amplitude modulations reflected stimulus visibility in a larger ensemble of recording sites as compared to broadband gamma responses, across distinct brain regions including occipital, temporal and frontal cortices. Moreover, the dynamics of the broadband gamma response distinguished stimulus visibility from stimulus invisibility earlier in anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus than in temporal regions, suggesting a possible role of fronto-insular cortices in top–down processing for conscious perception. Finally, we report that in primary visual cortex only low-frequency amplitude modulations correlated directly with perceptual status. Interestingly, in this sensory area broadband gamma was not modulated during PS but became positively modulated after 300 ms when stimuli were rendered visible again, suggesting that local networks could be ignited by top–down influences during conscious perception. PMID:25642199

  19. Does a single session of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation of inferior temporal cortex affect tinnitus perception?

    PubMed Central

    Poreisz, Csaba; Paulus, Walter; Moser, Tobias; Lang, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Background Cortical excitability changes as well as imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits play a distinct pathophysiological role in chronic tinnitus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the temporoparietal cortex was recently introduced to modulate tinnitus perception. In the current study, the effect of theta-burst stimulation (TBS), a novel rTMS paradigm was investigated in chronic tinnitus. Twenty patients with chronic tinnitus completed the study. Tinnitus severity and loudness were monitored using a tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) before each session. Patients received 600 pulses of continuous TBS (cTBS), intermittent TBS (iTBS) and intermediate TBS (imTBS) over left inferior temporal cortex with an intensity of 80% of the individual active or resting motor threshold. Changes in subjective tinnitus perception were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS). Results TBS applied to inferior temporal cortex appeared to be safe. Although half of the patients reported a slight attenuation of tinnitus perception, group analysis resulted in no significant difference when comparing the three specific types of TBS. Converting the NRS into the VAS allowed us to compare the time-course of aftereffects. Only cTBS resulted in a significant short-lasting improvement of the symptoms. In addition there was no significant difference when comparing the responder and non-responder groups regarding their anamnestic and audiological data. The TQ score correlated significantly with the VAS, lower loudness indicating less tinnitus distress. Conclusion TBS does not offer a promising outcome for patients with tinnitus in the presented study. PMID:19480651

  20. Chronic restraint stress promotes learning and memory impairment due to enhanced neuronal endoplasmic reticulum stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong-Rong; Hu, Wen; Yin, Yan-Yan; Wang, Yu-Chan; Li, Wei-Ping; Li, Wei-Zu

    2015-02-01

    Chronic stress has been implicated in many types of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In our previous study, we demonstrated that chronic restraint stress (CRS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction and oxidative damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in mice. In the present study, we investigated the effects of CRS (over a period of 8 weeks) on learning and memory impairment and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus in male mice. The Morris water maze was used to investigate the effects of CRS on learning and memory impairment. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis were also used to determine the expression levels of protein kinase C α (PKCα), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF). The results revealed that CRS significantly accelerated learning and memory impairment, and induced neuronal damage in the frontal cortex and hippocampus CA1 region. Moreover, CRS significantly increased the expression of PKCα, CHOP and MANF, and decreased that of GRP78 in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Our data suggest that exposure to CRS (for 8 weeks) significantly accelerates learning and memory impairment, and the mechanisms involved may be related to ER stress in the frontal cortex and hippocampus.

  1. Recovery of Precision Grasping after Motor Cortex Lesion does not require Forced use of the Impaired Hand in Macaca mulatta

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Warren G.; Morecraft, Robert J.; Rotella, Diane L.; Pizzimenti, Marc A.; Ge, Jizhi; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S.; Zhang, Hongyu; Soliman, Hesham; Seecharan, Dave; Edwards, Ian; McNeal, David; Nudo, Randolph J.; Cheney, Paul

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether precision grasping of small objects between the index and thumb of the impaired hand recovers without forced use after surgically placed lesions to the hand/arm areas of M1 and M1 + lateral premotor cortex (LPMC) in two monkeys. The unilateral lesions were contralateral to the monkey's preferred hand, which was established in pre-lesion testing as the hand used most often to acquire raisins in a foraging board task in which the monkey was free to use either hand to acquire the treats. The lesions initially produced a clear paresis of the contralesional hand and use of only the ipsilesional hand to acquire raisins in the foraging board task. However, beginning about 3 weeks after the lesion the monkey spontaneously began using the impaired contralesional hand in the foraging board task and increased use of that hand over the next few tests. Moreover, the monkeys clearly used precision grasp to acquire the raisins in a similar manner to pre-lesion performances, although grasp durations were longer. Although the monkeys used the contralesional hand more often than the ipsilesional hand in some post-lesion testing sessions they did not recover to use the hand as often as in pre-lesion testing when the preferred hand was used almost exclusively. These findings suggest that recovery of fine hand/digit motor function after localized damage to the lateral frontal motor areas in rhesus monkeys does not require forced use of the impaired hand. PMID:25163672

  2. A failure of left temporal cortex to specialize for language is an early emerging and fundamental property of autism.

    PubMed

    Eyler, Lisa T; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Failure to develop normal language comprehension is an early warning sign of autism, but the neural mechanisms underlying this signature deficit are unknown. This is because of an almost complete absence of functional studies of the autistic brain during early development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously observed a trend for abnormally lateralized temporal responses to language (i.e. greater activation on the right, rather than the expected left) in a small sample (n = 12) of sleeping 2-3 year olds with autism in contrast to typically developing children, a finding also reported in autistic adults and adolescents. It was unclear, however, if findings of atypical laterality would be observed in a larger sample, and at even earlier ages in autism, such as around the first birthday. Answers to these questions would provide the foundation for understanding how neurofunctional defects of autism unfold, and provide a foundation for studies using patterns of brain activation as a functional early biomarker of autism. To begin to examine these issues, a prospective, cross-sectional design was used in which brain activity was measured in a large sample of toddlers (n = 80) during the presentation of a bedtime story during natural sleep. Forty toddlers with autism spectrum disorder and 40 typically developing toddlers ranging in age between 12-48 months participated. Any toddler with autism who participated in the imaging experiment prior to final diagnosis was tracked and diagnoses confirmed at a later age. Results indicated that at-risk toddlers later diagnosed as autistic display deficient left hemisphere response to speech sounds and have abnormally right-lateralized temporal cortex response to language; this defect worsens with age, becoming most severe in autistic 3- and 4-year-olds. Typically developing children show opposite developmental trends with a tendency towards greater temporal cortex response with increasing age and maintenance of

  3. Brain Damage and Motor Cortex Impairment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Implication of Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep Desaturation

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Francois; Heraud, Nelly; Sanchez, Anthony M.J.; Tremey, Emilie; Oliver, Nicolas; Guerin, Philippe; Varray, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep desaturation may cause neuronal damage due to the withdrawal of cerebrovascular reactivity. The current study (1) assessed the prevalence of NREM sleep desaturation in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) compared a biological marker of cerebral lesion and neuromuscular function in patients with and without NREM sleep desaturation. Methods: One hundred fifteen patients with COPD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] grades 2 and 3), resting PaO2 of 60–80 mmHg, aged between 40 and 80 y, and without sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index < 15) had polysomnographic sleep recordings. In addition, twenty-nine patients (substudy) were assessed i) for brain impairment by serum S100B (biological marker of cerebral lesion), and ii) for neuromuscular function via motor cortex activation and excitability and maximal voluntary quadriceps strength measurement. Results: A total of 51.3% patients (n = 59) had NREM sleep desaturation (NREMDes). Serum S100B was higher in the NREMDes patients of the substudy (n = 14): 45.1 [Q1: 37.7, Q3: 62.8] versus 32.9 [Q1: 25.7, Q3: 39.5] pg.ml−1 (P = 0.028). Motor cortex activation and excitability were lower in NREMDes patients (both P = 0.03), but muscle strength was comparable between groups (P = 0.58). Conclusions: Over half the nonhypoxemic COPD patients exhibited NREM sleep desaturation associated with higher values of the cerebral lesion biomarker and lower neural drive reaching the quadriceps during maximal voluntary contraction. The lack of muscle strength differences between groups suggests a compensatory mechanism(s). Altogether, the results are consistent with an involvement of NREM sleep desaturation in COPD brain impairment. Clinical Trial Registration: The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01679782. Citation: Alexandre F, Heraud N, Sanchez AM, Tremey E, Oliver N, Guerin P, Varray A. Brain

  4. Featural and temporal attention selectively enhance task-appropriate representations in human primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Warren, Scott G; Yacoub, Essa; Ghose, Geoffrey M

    2014-12-12

    Our perceptions are often shaped by focusing our attention towards specific features or periods of time irrespective of location. Here we explore the physiological bases of these non-spatial forms of attention by imaging brain activity while subjects perform a challenging change-detection task. The task employs a continuously varying visual stimulus that, for any moment in time, selectively activates functionally distinct subpopulations of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons. When subjects are cued to the timing and nature of the change, the mapping of orientation preference across V1 systematically shifts towards the cued stimulus just prior to its appearance. A simple linear model can explain this shift: attentional changes are selectively targeted towards neural subpopulations, representing the attended feature at the times the feature was anticipated. Our results suggest that featural attention is mediated by a linear change in the responses of task-appropriate neurons across cortex during appropriate periods of time.

  5. Viewing the motion of human body parts activates different regions of premotor, temporal, and parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, Kylie J; Thompson, James C; Syngeniotis, Ari; Abbott, David F; Puce, Aina

    2004-05-01

    Activation of premotor and temporoparietal cortex occurs when we observe others movements, particularly relating to objects. Viewing the motion of different body parts without the context of an object has not been systematically evaluated. During a 3T fMRI study, 12 healthy subjects viewed human face, hand, and leg motion, which was not directed at or did not involve an object. Activation was identified relative to static images of the same human face, hand, and leg in both individual subject and group average data. Four clear activation foci emerged: (1) right MT/V5 activated to all forms of viewed motion; (2) right STS activated to face and leg motion; (3) ventral premotor cortex activated to face, hand, and leg motion in the right hemisphere and to leg motion in the left hemisphere; and (4) anterior intraparietal cortex (aIP) was active bilaterally to viewing hand motion and in the right hemisphere leg motion. In addition, in the group data, a somatotopic activation pattern for viewing face, hand, and leg motion occurred in right ventral premotor cortex. Activation patterns in STS and aIP were more complex--typically activation foci to viewing two types of human motion showed some overlap. Activation in individual subjects was similar; however, activation to hand motion also occurred in the STS with a variable location across subjects--explaining the lack of a clear activation focus in the group data. The data indicate that there are selective responses to viewing motion of different body parts in the human brain that are independent of object or tool use.

  6. Neural Representations of Natural and Scrambled Movies Progressively Change from Rat Striate to Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Vinken, Kasper; Van den Bergh, Gert; Vermaercke, Ben; Op de Beeck, Hans P.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the rodent has come forward as a candidate model for investigating higher level visual abilities such as object vision. This view has been backed up substantially by evidence from behavioral studies that show rats can be trained to express visual object recognition and categorization capabilities. However, almost no studies have investigated the functional properties of rodent extrastriate visual cortex using stimuli that target object vision, leaving a gap compared with the primate literature. Therefore, we recorded single-neuron responses along a proposed ventral pathway in rat visual cortex to investigate hallmarks of primate neural object representations such as preference for intact versus scrambled stimuli and category-selectivity. We presented natural movies containing a rat or no rat as well as their phase-scrambled versions. Population analyses showed increased dissociation in representations of natural versus scrambled stimuli along the targeted stream, but without a clear preference for natural stimuli. Along the measured cortical hierarchy the neural response seemed to be driven increasingly by features that are not V1-like and destroyed by phase-scrambling. However, there was no evidence for category selectivity for the rat versus nonrat distinction. Together, these findings provide insights about differences and commonalities between rodent and primate visual cortex. PMID:27146315

  7. Impaired synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex of mice with developmentally decreased number of interneurons.

    PubMed

    Konstantoudaki, X; Chalkiadaki, K; Tivodar, S; Karagogeos, D; Sidiropoulou, K

    2016-05-13

    Interneurons are inhibitory neurons, which protect neural tissue from excessive excitation. They are interconnected with glutamatergic pyramidal neurons in the cerebral cortex and regulate their function. Particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), interneurons have been strongly implicated in regulating pathological states which display deficits in the PFC. The aim of this study is to investigate the adaptations in the adult glutamatergic system, when defects in interneuron development do not allow adequate numbers of interneurons to reach the cerebral cortex. To this end, we used a mouse model that displays ~50% fewer cortical interneurons due to the Rac1 protein loss from Nkx2.1/Cre expressing cells (Rac1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice), to examine how the developmental loss of interneurons may affect basal synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity and neuronal morphology in the adult PFC. Despite the decrease in the number of interneurons, basal synaptic transmission, as examined by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from layer II networks, is not altered in the PFC of Rac1 cKO mice. However, there is decreased paired-pulse ratio (PPR) and decreased long-term potentiation (LTP), in response to tetanic stimulation, in the layer II PFC synapses of Rac1 cKO mice. Furthermore, expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subunits is decreased and dendritic morphology is altered, changes that could underlie the decrease in LTP in the Rac1 cKO mice. Finally, we find that treating Rac1 cKO mice with diazepam in early postnatal life can reverse changes in dendritic morphology observed in non-treated Rac1 cKO mice. Therefore, our data show that disruption in GABAergic inhibition alters glutamatergic function in the adult PFC, an effect that could be reversed by enhancement of GABAergic function during an early postnatal period.

  8. Dynamin1 concentration in the prefrontal cortex is associated with cognitive impairment in Lewy body dementia.

    PubMed

    Vallortigara, Julie; Rangarajan, Sindhoo; Whitfield, David; Alghamdi, Amani; Howlett, David; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Johnson, Mary; Attems, Johannes; Ballard, Clive; Thomas, Alan; O'Brien, John; Aarsland, Dag; Francis, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease Dementia (PDD) together, represent the second most common cause of dementia, after Alzheimer's disease (AD). The synaptic dysfunctions underlying the cognitive decline and psychiatric symptoms observed throughout the development of PDD and DLB are still under investigation. In this study we examined the expression level of Dynamin1 and phospho-CaMKII, key proteins of endocytosis and synaptic plasticity respectively, as potential markers of molecular processes specifically deregulated with DLB and/or PDD. In order to measure the levels of these proteins, we isolated grey matter from post-mortem prefrontal cortex area (BA9), anterior cingulated gyrus (BA24) and parietal cortex (BA40) from DLB and PDD patients in comparison to age-matched controls and a group of AD cases. Clinical and pathological data available included the MMSE score, neuropsychiatric history, and semi-quantitative scores for AD pathology (plaques - tangles) and for α-synuclein (Lewy bodies). Changes in the expression of the synaptic markers, and correlates with neuropathological features and cognitive decline were predominantly found in the prefrontal cortex. On one hand, levels of Dynamin1 were significantly reduced, and correlated with a higher rate of cognitive decline observed in cases from three dementia groups. On the other hand, the fraction of phospho-CaMKII was decreased, and correlated with a high score of plaques and tangles in BA9. Interestingly, the correlation between the rate of cognitive decline and the level of Dynamin1 remained when the analysis was restricted to the PDD and DLB cases, highlighting an association of Dynamin1 with cognitive decline in people with Lewy Body dementia.

  9. Reduced structural connectivity in ventral visual cortex in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Cibu; Avidan, Galia; Humphreys, Kate; Jung, Kwan-jin; Gao, Fuqiang; Behrmann, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging and tractography, we found that a disruption in structural connectivity in ventral occipito-temporal cortex may be the neurobiological basis for the lifelong impairment in face recognition that is experienced by individuals who suffer from congenital prosopagnosia. Our findings suggest that white-matter fibers in ventral occipito-temporal cortex support the integrated function of a distributed cortical network that subserves normal face processing.

  10. Insulin-Independent GABAA Receptor-Mediated Response in the Barrel Cortex of Mice with Impaired Met Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by genetic variants, susceptibility alleles, and environmental perturbations. The autism associated gene MET tyrosine kinase has been implicated in many behavioral domains and endophenotypes of autism, including abnormal neural signaling in human sensory cortex. We investigated somatosensory thalamocortical synaptic communication in mice deficient in Met activity in cortical excitatory neurons to gain insights into aberrant somatosensation characteristic of ASD. The ratio of excitation to inhibition is dramatically increased due to decreased postsynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the trigeminal thalamocortical pathway of mice lacking active Met in the cerebral cortex. Furthermore, in contrast to wild-type mice, insulin failed to increase GABAA receptor-mediated response in the barrel cortex of mice with compromised Met signaling. Thus, lacking insulin effects may be a risk factor in ASD pathogenesis. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A proposed common cause of neurodevelopmental disorders is an imbalance in excitatory neural transmission, provided by the glutamatergic neurons, and the inhibitory signals from the GABAergic interneurons. Many genes associated with autism spectrum disorders impair synaptic transmission in the expected cell type. Previously, inactivation of the autism-associated Met tyrosine kinase receptor in GABAergic interneurons led to decreased inhibition. In thus report, decreased Met signaling in glutamatergic neurons had no effect on excitation, but decimated inhibition. Further experiments indicate that loss of Met activity downregulates GABAA receptors on glutamatergic neurons in an insulin independent manner. These data provide a new mechanism for the loss of inhibition and subsequent abnormal excitation/inhibition balance and potential molecular candidates for treatment or prevention. PMID:27030755

  11. Short-Term Memory Depends on Dissociable Medial Temporal Lobe Regions in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Das, Sandhitsu R; Mancuso, Lauren; Olson, Ingrid R; Arnold, Steven E; Wolk, David A

    2016-05-01

    Short-term memory (STM) has generally been thought to be independent of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in contrast to long-term memory (LTM). Prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a condition in which the MTL is a major early focus of pathology and LTM is thought disproportionately affected relative to STM. However, recent studies have suggested a role for the MTL in STM, particularly hippocampus, when binding of different elements is required. Other work has suggested involvement of extrahippocampal MTL structures, particularly in STM tasks that involve item-level memory. We examined STM for individual objects, locations, and object-location conjunctions in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), often associated with prodromal AD. Relative to age-matched, cognitively normal controls, MCI patients not only displayed impairment on object-location conjunctions but were similarly impaired for non-bound objects and locations. Moreover, across all participants, these conditions displayed dissociable correlations of cortical thinning along the long axis of the MTL and associated cortical nodes of anterior and posterior MTL networks. These findings support the role of the MTL in visual STM tasks and the division of labor of MTL in support of different types of memory representations, overlapping with findings in LTM.

  12. Intracerebral Glycine Administration Impairs Energy and Redox Homeostasis and Induces Glial Reactivity in Cerebral Cortex of Newborn Rats.

    PubMed

    Moura, Alana Pimentel; Parmeggiani, Belisa; Grings, Mateus; Alvorcem, Leonardo de Moura; Boldrini, Rafael Mello; Bumbel, Anna Paula; Motta, Marcela Moreira; Seminotti, Bianca; Wajner, Moacir; Leipnitz, Guilhian

    2016-11-01

    Accumulation of glycine (GLY) is the biochemical hallmark of glycine encephalopathy (GE), an aminoacidopathy characterized by severe neurological dysfunction that may lead to early death. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of a single intracerebroventricular administration of GLY on bioenergetics, redox homeostasis, and histopathology in brain of neonatal rats. Our results demonstrated that GLY decreased the activities of the respiratory chain complex IV and creatine kinase, induced reactive species generation, and diminished glutathione (GSH) levels 1, 5, and 10 days after GLY injection in cerebral cortex of 1-day-old rats. GLY also increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels 5 days after GLY infusion in this brain region. Furthermore, GLY differentially modulated the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase depending on the period tested after GLY administration. In contrast, bioenergetics and redox parameters were not altered in brain of 5-day-old rats. Regarding the histopathological analysis, GLY increased S100β staining in cerebral cortex and striatum, and GFAP in corpus callosum of 1-day-old rats 5 days after injection. Finally, we verified that melatonin prevented the decrease of complex IV and CK activities and GSH concentrations, and the increase of MDA levels and S100β staining caused by GLY. Based on our findings, it may be presumed that impairment of redox and energy homeostasis and glial reactivity induced by GLY may contribute to the neurological dysfunction observed in GE.

  13. Crossed unilateral lesions of temporal lobe structures and cholinergic cell bodies impair visual conditional and object discrimination learning in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barefoot, H C; Baker, H F; Ridley, R M

    2002-02-01

    Monkeys with excitotoxic lesions of the CA1/subiculum region in the right hemisphere and with immunotoxic lesions of the cholinergic cells of the diagonal band in the left hemisphere were impaired on a visual conditional task. In this task, correct choice of one of two objects depends on which of two background fields both objects are presented against, irrespective of the spatial positions of the objects. They were not impaired on simple object or shape discrimination tasks. The pattern of impairments is the same as that seen after bilateral excitotoxic lesions of CA1/subiculum, implying that the diagonal band lesion disables the ipsilateral CA1/subiculum. It also argues that CA1/subiculum, sustained by its cholinergic input, is necessary for some forms of nonspatial conditional learning. Addition of an inferotemporal (IT) cortical ablation to the left hemisphere did not affect simple visual discrimination learning, although all the monkeys then failed to learn a new visual conditional task. This demonstrates that intact IT cortex in only one hemisphere is sufficient to sustain simple visual discrimination learning but implies that the cholinergic input and the inferotemporal cortical input to the hippocampus both contribute to visual conditional learning. The subsequent addition of an immunotoxic lesion of the basal nucleus of Meynert in the right hemisphere resulted in an additional impairment on a difficult shape discrimination. This argues that it is the cholinergic projection to the inferotemporal cortex, rather than to the rest of the cortex, which contributes to visual discrimination learning and memory.

  14. Impaired Pitch Perception and Memory in Congenital Amusia: The Deficit Starts in the Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albouy, Philippe; Mattout, Jeremie; Bouet, Romain; Maby, Emmanuel; Sanchez, Gaetan; Aguera, Pierre-Emmanuel; Daligault, Sebastien; Delpuech, Claude; Bertrand, Olivier; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a lifelong disorder of music perception and production. The present study investigated the cerebral bases of impaired pitch perception and memory in congenital amusia using behavioural measures, magnetoencephalography and voxel-based morphometry. Congenital amusics and matched control subjects performed two melodic tasks (a…

  15. Differential Effects of Orthographic and Phonological Consistency in Cortex for Children with and without Reading Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers…

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs temporal ordering behaviours in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Patten, Anna R; Sawchuk, Scott; Wortman, Ryan C; Brocardo, Patricia S; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Christie, Brian R

    2016-02-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PNEE) causes significant deficits in functional (i.e., synaptic) plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) and cornu ammonis (CA) hippocampal sub-regions of young adult male rats. Previous research has shown that in the DG, these deficits are not apparent in age-matched PNEE females. This study aimed to expand these findings and determine if PNEE induces deficits in hippocampal-dependent behaviours in both male and female young adult rats (PND 60). The metric change behavioural test examines DG-dependent deficits by determining whether an animal can detect a metric change between two identical objects. The temporal order behavioural test is thought to rely in part on the CA sub-region of the hippocampus and determines whether an animal will spend more time exploring an object that it has not seen for a larger temporal window as compared to an object that it has seen more recently. Using the liquid diet model of FASD (where 6.6% (v/v) ethanol is provided through a liquid diet consumed ad libitum throughout the entire gestation), we found that PNEE causes a significant impairment in the temporal order task, while no deficits in the DG-dependent metric change task were observed. There were no significant differences between males and females for either task. These results indicate that behaviours relying partially on the CA-region may be more affected by PNEE than those that rely on the DG.

  17. The nature of anterograde and retrograde memory impairment after damage to the medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Smith, Christine N; Frascino, Jennifer C; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2013-11-01

    The study of anterograde and retrograde amnesia (AA and RA) in the laboratory and the clinic has provided important information about the structure and organization of memory. The severity of AA is usually correlated with the severity of RA. Nevertheless, variations in the expression of AA and RA have been reported, which presumably reflect variation in the locus and extent of brain damage. The relationship between AA and RA has rarely been described quantitatively in groups of patients where detailed anatomical information is available. We have quantified the severity of AA and RA for factual information in 11 memory-impaired patients with bilateral medial temporal lobe lesions, including 5 for whom detailed post-mortem neurohistological information was available. The findings describe an orderly relationship between AA and RA, such that patients with more severe AA also had more extensive RA. In addition, RA was measurable only after AA reached a substantial level of severity. This relationship between AA and RA in patients with identified medial temporal lobe lesions appears to describe a general principle, which applies to a range of etiologies, including traumatic amnesia, where the locus and extent of brain damage is less well understood. Whenever patients deviate substantially from the relationship described here, one should be alert to the likelihood that significant damage has occurred outside or in addition to the structures in the medial temporal lobe.

  18. Subtotal lesions of the visual cortex impair discrimination of hidden figures by cats.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, P; Overman, W; Campbell, A

    1980-04-01

    Cats with partial or nearly total ablation of areas 17, 18, and 19 were assessed on the discrimination of hidden figures and other visually guided behaviors to determine whether such insults produce deficits like those that follow lateral striate lesions in monkeys. Cats with destruction limited to the representation of central vision (Group M) were impaired at discriminating patterns complicated by extraneous cues, but they were less impaired than cats with more complete lesions (Group MS). The deficit was not a general one in visual learning since animals in both Groups M and MS learned simple pattern discriminations as rapidly as controls. It is suggested that the loss of geniculocortical functions representing central vision produces similar deficits in cats and monkeys but that to have this effect in cats, damage must extend beyond area 17.

  19. Neuronal injury in the motor cortex after chronic stroke and lower limb motor impairment: a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Alexandria M; Peters, Denise M; Vendemia, Jennifer M C; Smith, Lenwood P; Sweet, Raymond C; Baylis, Gordon C; Krotish, Debra; Fritz, Stacy L

    2014-04-01

    Many studies have examined motor impairments using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping, but few are reported regarding the corresponding relationship between cerebral cortex injury and lower limb motor impairment analyzed using this technique. This study correlated neuronal injury in the cerebral cortex of 16 patients with chronic stroke based on a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping analysis. Neuronal injury in the corona radiata, caudate nucleus and putamen of patients with chronic stroke could predict walking speed. The behavioral measure scores were consistent with motor deficits expected after damage to the cortical motor system due to stroke. These findings suggest that voxel-based lesion symptom mapping may provide a more accurate prognosis of motor recovery from chronic stroke according to neuronal injury in cerebral motor cortex.

  20. Neuronal injury in the motor cortex after chronic stroke and lower limb motor impairment: a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Alexandria M.; Peters, Denise M.; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.; Smith, Lenwood P.; Sweet, Raymond C.; Baylis, Gordon C.; Krotish, Debra; Fritz, Stacy L.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined motor impairments using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping, but few are reported regarding the corresponding relationship between cerebral cortex injury and lower limb motor impairment analyzed using this technique. This study correlated neuronal injury in the cerebral cortex of 16 patients with chronic stroke based on a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping analysis. Neuronal injury in the corona radiata, caudate nucleus and putamen of patients with chronic stroke could predict walking speed. The behavioral measure scores were consistent with motor deficits expected after damage to the cortical motor system due to stroke. These findings suggest that voxel-based lesion symptom mapping may provide a more accurate prognosis of motor recovery from chronic stroke according to neuronal injury in cerebral motor cortex. PMID:25206888

  1. Evaluative vs. trait representation in intergroup social judgments: distinct roles of anterior temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Sam J; Swencionis, Jillian K; Amodio, David M

    2012-12-01

    When interacting with someone from another social group, one's responses may be influenced by both stereotypes and evaluations. Given behavioral results suggesting that stereotypes and evaluative associations operate independently, we used fMRI to test whether these biases are mediated by distinct brain systems. White participants viewed pairs of Black or White faces and judged them based on an evaluation (who would you befriend?) or a stereotype-relevant trait (who is more likely to enjoy athletic activities?). Multi-voxel pattern analysis revealed that a predominantly occipital network represented race in a context-invariant manner. However, lateral orbitofrontal cortex preferentially represented race during friendship judgments, whereas anterior medial prefrontal cortex preferentially represented race during trait judgments. Furthermore, representation of race in left temporal pole correlated with a behavioral measure of evaluative bias during friendship judgments and, independently, a measure of stereotyping during trait judgments. Whereas early sensory regions represent race in an apparently invariant manner, representations in higher-level regions are multi-componential and context-dependent.

  2. Sparse Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields Based on Multi-Unit and High-Gamma Responses in Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jenison, Rick L.; Reale, Richard A.; Armstrong, Amanda L.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields (STRFs) were estimated from both multi-unit sorted clusters and high-gamma power responses in human auditory cortex. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings were used to measure responses to a random chord sequence of Gammatone stimuli. Traditional methods for estimating STRFs from single-unit recordings, such as spike-triggered-averages, tend to be noisy and are less robust to other response signals such as local field potentials. We present an extension to recently advanced methods for estimating STRFs from generalized linear models (GLM). A new variant of regression using regularization that penalizes non-zero coefficients is described, which results in a sparse solution. The frequency-time structure of the STRF tends toward grouping in different areas of frequency-time and we demonstrate that group sparsity-inducing penalties applied to GLM estimates of STRFs reduces the background noise while preserving the complex internal structure. The contribution of local spiking activity to the high-gamma power signal was factored out of the STRF using the GLM method, and this contribution was significant in 85 percent of the cases. Although the GLM methods have been used to estimate STRFs in animals, this study examines the detailed structure directly from auditory cortex in the awake human brain. We used this approach to identify an abrupt change in the best frequency of estimated STRFs along posteromedial-to-anterolateral recording locations along the long axis of Heschl’s gyrus. This change correlates well with a proposed transition from core to non-core auditory fields previously identified using the temporal response properties of Heschl’s gyrus recordings elicited by click-train stimuli. PMID:26367010

  3. Dissociating the Representation of Action- and Sound-Related Concepts in Middle Temporal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Markus; Trumpp, Natalie; Herrnberger, Barbel; Sim, Eun-Jin; Hoenig, Klaus; Pulvermuller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    Modality-specific models of conceptual memory propose close links between concepts and the sensory-motor systems. Neuroimaging studies found, in different subject groups, that action-related and sound-related concepts activated different parts of posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG), suggesting a modality-specific representation of conceptual…

  4. The prefrontal cortex communicates with the amygdala to impair learning after acute stress in females but not in males.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Lisa Y; Waddell, Jaylyn; Shors, Tracey J

    2010-12-01

    Acute stress exposure enhances classical eyeblink conditioning in male rats, whereas exposure to the same event dramatically impairs performance in females (Wood and Shors, 1998; Wood et al., 2001). We hypothesized that stress affects learning differently in males and females because different brain regions and circuits are being activated. In the first experiment, we determined that neuronal activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the stressful event is necessary to disrupt learning in females. In both males and females, the mPFC was bilaterally inactivated with GABA agonist muscimol before the stressor. Inactivation prevented only the impaired performance in females; it had no consequence for performance in males. However, in the second experiment, excitation of the mPFC alone with GABA antagonist picrotoxin was insufficient to elicit the stress effect that was prevented through the inactivation of this region in females. Therefore, we hypothesized that the mPFC communicates with the basolateral amygdala to disrupt learning in females after the stressor. To test this hypothesis, these structures were disconnected from each other with unilateral excitotoxic (NMDA) lesions on either the same or opposite sides of the brain. Females with contralateral lesions, which disrupt the connections on both sides of the brain, were able to learn after the stressful event, whereas those with ipsilateral lesions, which disrupt only one connection, did not learn after the stressor. Together, these data indicate that the mPFC is critically involved in females during stress to impair subsequent learning and does so via communication with the amygdala.

  5. Abstract phoneme representations in the left temporal cortex: magnetic mismatch negativity study.

    PubMed

    Shestakova, Anna; Brattico, Elvira; Huotilainen, Minna; Galunov, Valery; Soloviev, Alexei; Sams, Mikko; Ilmoniemi, Risto J; Näätänen, Risto

    2002-10-07

    We investigated the brain mechanisms enabling one automatically discriminate phoneme category irrespective of the large inter-speaker variability in the acoustic features of the voices. For this purpose, subjects were presented with 450 different speech stimuli, each uttered by a different speaker, belonging to three vowel categories, while a 306-channel magnetoencephalogram (MEG) was obtained to record the magnetic counterpart of the mismatch negativity (MMNm), elicited only when sensory memory traces for repetitive sounds are formed in the auditory cortex. Despite this wide acoustic variation, category changes elicited prominent MMNm responses, which were considerably stronger in the left than in the right hemisphere in the right-handed subjects. These results implicate the presence of long-term memory traces for vowels, which can recognize the vowel-specific invariant code enabling correct vowel percept even in the presence of realistic acoustic variation.

  6. Increasing Acetylcholine Levels in the Hippocampus or Entorhinal Cortex Reverses the Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation on Spontaneous Alternation

    PubMed Central

    Degroot, Aldemar; Parent, Marise B.

    2000-01-01

    Intra-septal infusions of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist muscimol impair learning and memory in a variety of tasks. This experiment determined whether hippocampal or entorhinal infusions of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine would reverse such impairing effects on spontaneous alternation performance, a measure of spatial working memory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given intra-septal infusions of vehicle or muscimol (1 nmole/0.5 μL) combined with unilateral intra-hippocampal or intra-entorhinal infusions of vehicle or physostigmine (10 μg/μL for the hippocampus; 7.5 μg/μL or 1.875 μg/0.25 μL for the entorhinal cortex). Fifteen minutes later, spontaneous alternation performance was assessed. The results indicated that intra-septal infusions of muscimol significantly decreased percentage-of-alternation scores, whereas intra-hippocampal or intra-entorhinal infusions of physostigmine had no effect. More importantly, intra-hippocampal or intra-entorhinal infusions of physostigmine, at doses that did not influence performance when administered alone, completely reversed the impairing effects of the muscimol infusions. These findings indicate that increasing cholinergic levels in the hippocampus or entorhinal cortex is sufficient to reverse the impairing effects of septal GABA receptor activation and support the hypothesis that the impairing effects of septal GABAergic activity involve cholinergic processes in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex. PMID:11040261

  7. Hemispheric Specialization within the Superior Anterior Temporal Cortex for Social and Nonsocial Concepts.

    PubMed

    Pobric, Gorana; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Zahn, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Studies of semantic dementia, imaging, and repetitive TMS have suggested that the bilateral anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) underpin a modality-invariant representational hub within the semantic system. Questions remain, however, regarding functional specialization across a variety of knowledge domains within the ATL region. We investigated direct evidence for the functional relevance of the superior ATL in processing social concepts. Using converging evidence from noninvasive brain stimulation and neuropsychology, we demonstrate graded differentiation of right and left superior anterior temporal areas in social cognition. Whereas the left superior ATL is necessary for processing both social and nonsocial abstract concepts, social conceptual processing predominates in the right superior ATL. This graded hemispheric specialization is mirrored in the patient results. Our data shed new light on the classic debate about hemispheric differences in semantic and social cognition. These results are considered in the context of models of semantic representation and the emerging data on connectivity for left and right ATL regions.

  8. Temporal discharge patterns evoked by rapid sequences of wide- and narrowband clicks in the primary auditory cortex of cat.

    PubMed

    Lu, T; Wang, X

    2000-07-01

    The present study investigated neural responses to rapid, repetitive stimuli in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of cats. We focused on two important issues regarding cortical coding of sequences of stimuli: temporal discharge patterns of A1 neurons as a function of inter-stimulus interval and cortical mechanisms for representing successive stimulus events separated by very short intervals. These issues were studied using wide- and narrowband click trains with inter-click intervals (ICIs) ranging from 3 to 100 ms as a class of representative sequential stimuli. The main findings of this study are 1) A1 units displayed, in response to click train stimuli, three distinct temporal discharge patterns that we classify as regions I, II, and III. At long ICIs nearly all A1 units exhibited typical stimulus-synchronized response patterns (region I) consistent with previously reported observations. At intermediate ICIs, no clear temporal structures were visible in the responses of most A1 units (region II). At short ICIs, temporal discharge patterns are characterized by the presence of either intrinsic oscillations (at approximately 10 Hz) or a change in discharge rate that was a monotonically decreasing function of ICI (region III). In some A1 units, temporal discharge patterns corresponding to region III were absent. 2) The boundary between regions I and II (synchronization boundary) had a median value of 39.8 ms ICI ([25%, 75%] = [20.4, 58. 8] ms ICI; n = 131). The median boundary between regions II and III was estimated at 6.3 ms ([25%, 75%] = [5.2, 9.7] ms ICI; n = 47) for units showing rate changes (rate-change boundary). 3) The boundary values between different regions appeared to be relatively independent of stimulus intensity (at modest sound levels) or the bandwidth of the clicks used. 4) There is a weak correlation between a unit's synchronization boundary and its response latency. Units with shorter latencies appeared to also have smaller boundary values. And 5

  9. Portosystemic hepatic encephalopathy model shows reversal learning impairment and dysfunction of neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Méndez, M; Méndez-López, M; López, L; Aller, M A; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2011-05-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication that affects attention and memory. Experimental animal models have been used to study HE, the most frequent being the portacaval shunt (PCS). In order to investigate learning impairment and brain functional alterations in this model, we assessed reversal learning and neural metabolic activity in a PCS rat model. PCS and sham-operated rats were tested for reversal learning in the Morris water maze. Brains were then processed for cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry. The PCS group had reversal learning impairment and a reduction in CO activity in the prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area and accumbens shell nucleus. These results suggest that this model of portosystemic HE shows learning impairments that could be linked to dysfunction in neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in motivated behavior.

  10. Insights on the Neuromagnetic Representation of Temporal Asymmetry in Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Anita; Supek, Selma; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Balaguer-Ballester, Emili; Rupp, André

    2016-01-01

    Communication sounds are typically asymmetric in time and human listeners are highly sensitive to this short-term temporal asymmetry. Nevertheless, causal neurophysiological correlates of auditory perceptual asymmetry remain largely elusive to our current analyses and models. Auditory modelling and animal electrophysiological recordings suggest that perceptual asymmetry results from the presence of multiple time scales of temporal integration, central to the auditory periphery. To test this hypothesis we recorded auditory evoked fields (AEF) elicited by asymmetric sounds in humans. We found a strong correlation between perceived tonal salience of ramped and damped sinusoids and the AEFs, as quantified by the amplitude of the N100m dynamics. The N100m amplitude increased with stimulus half-life time, showing a maximum difference between the ramped and damped stimulus for a modulation half-life time of 4 ms which is greatly reduced at 0.5 ms and 32 ms. This behaviour of the N100m closely parallels psychophysical data in a manner that: i) longer half-life times are associated with a stronger tonal percept, and ii) perceptual differences between damped and ramped are maximal at 4 ms half-life time. Interestingly, differences in evoked fields were significantly stronger in the right hemisphere, indicating some degree of hemispheric specialisation. Furthermore, the N100m magnitude was successfully explained by a pitch perception model using multiple scales of temporal integration of auditory nerve activity patterns. This striking correlation between AEFs, perception, and model predictions suggests that the physiological mechanisms involved in the processing of pitch evoked by temporal asymmetric sounds are reflected in the N100m. PMID:27096960

  11. Impaired behavior on real-world tasks following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Hathaway-Nepple, Julie; Anderson, Steven W

    2007-04-01

    Patients with damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortices (VMPC) commonly manifest blatant behavioral navigation defects in the real world, but it has been difficult to measure these impairments in the clinic or laboratory. Using a set of "strategy application" tasks, which were designed by Shallice and Burgess (1991) to be ecologically valid for detecting executive dysfunction, we investigated the hypothesis that VMPC damage would be associated with defective performance on such tasks, whereas damage outside the VMPC region would not. A group of 9 patients with bilateral VMPC damage was contrasted with comparison groups of participants with (a) prefrontal brain damage outside the VMPC region (n = 8); (b) nonprefrontal brain damage (n = 17); and (c) no brain damage (n = 20). We found support for the hypothesis: VMPC patients had more impaired performances on the strategy application tasks, especially on a Multiple Errands Test that required patients to execute a series of unstructured tasks in a real-world setting (shopping mall). The results are consistent with the notion that efficacious behavioral navigation is dependent on the VMPC region. However, the strategy application tasks were relatively time consuming and effortful, and their diagnostic yield over and above conventional executive functioning tests may not be sufficient to warrant their inclusion in standard clinical assessment.

  12. Impaired naming of famous musical melodies is associated with left temporal polar damage

    PubMed Central

    Belfi, Amy M.; Tranel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous research has shown that damage to the left temporal pole (LTP) is associated with impaired retrieval of words for unique entities, including names of famous people and landmarks. However, it is not known whether retrieving names for famous melodies is associated with the LTP. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that damage to the LTP would be associated with impaired naming of famous musical melodies. Method A Melody Naming Test was administered to patients with LTP damage, brain damaged comparison (BDC) patients, and normal comparison participants (NC). The test included various well known melodies (e.g., “Pop Goes the Weasel”). After hearing each melody, participants were asked to rate their familiarity with the melody and identify it by name. Results LTP patients named significantly fewer melodies than BDC and NC participants. Recognition of melodies did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions The findings suggest that LTP supports retrieval of names for famous melodies. More broadly, these results extend support for the theoretical notion that LTP is important for retrieving proper names for unique concepts, irrespectively of stimulus modality or category. PMID:24364392

  13. Leukemia inhibitory factor impairs structural and neurochemical development of rat visual cortex in vivo.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Maren; di Cristo, Graziella; Grabert, Jochen; Patz, Silke; Maffei, Lamberto; Berardi, Nicoletta; Wahle, Petra

    2017-03-01

    Minipump infusions into visual cortex in vivo at the onset of the critical period have revealed that the proinflammatory cytokine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) delays the maturation of thalamocortical projection neurons of the lateral geniculate nucleus, and tecto-thalamic projection neurons of the superior colliculus, and cortical layer IV spiny stellates and layer VI pyramidal neurons. Here, we report that P12-20 LIF infusion inhibits somatic maturation of pyramidal neurons and of all interneuron types in vivo. Likewise, DIV 12-20 LIF treatment in organotypic cultures prevents somatic growth GABA-ergic neurons. Further, while NPY expression is increased in the LIF-infused hemispheres, the expression of parvalbumin mRNA and protein, Kv3.1 mRNA, calbindin D-28k protein, and GAD-65 mRNA, but not of GAD-67 mRNA or calretinin protein is substantially reduced. Also, LIF treatment decreases parvalbumin, Kv3.1, Kv3.2 and GAD-65, but not GAD-67 mRNA expression in OTC. Developing cortical neurons are known to depend on neurotrophins. Indeed, LIF alters neurotrophin mRNA expression, and prevents the growth promoting action of neurotophin-4 in GABA-ergic neurons. The results imply that LIF, by altering neurotrophin expression and/or signaling, could counteract neurotrophin-dependent growth and neurochemical differentiation of cortical neurons.

  14. Impaired Facilitatory Mechanisms of Auditory Attention After Damage of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Buchanan, Kelly G.; Viswanath, Humsini; Black, Jessica; Scabini, Donatella; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that auditory selective attention operates via distinct facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms enabling selective enhancement and suppression of sound processing, respectively. The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a crucial role in the top-down control of selective attention. However, whether the LPFC controls facilitatory, inhibitory, or both attentional mechanisms is unclear. Facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms were assessed, in patients with LPFC damage, by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) to attended and ignored sounds with ERPs to these same sounds when attention was equally distributed to all sounds. In control subjects, we observed 2 late frontally distributed ERP components: a transient facilitatory component occurring from 150 to 250 ms after sound onset; and an inhibitory component onsetting at 250 ms. Only the facilitatory component was affected in patients with LPFC damage: this component was absent when attending to sounds delivered in the ear contralateral to the lesion, with the most prominent decreases observed over the damaged brain regions. These findings have 2 important implications: (i) they provide evidence for functionally distinct facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms supporting late auditory selective attention; (ii) they show that the LPFC is involved in the control of the facilitatory mechanisms of auditory attention. PMID:24925773

  15. Lesions to right posterior parietal cortex impair visual depth perception from disparity but not motion cues

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, David A.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Welchman, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is understood to be active when observers perceive three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, it is not clear how central this activity is in the construction of 3D spatial representations. Here, we examine whether PPC is essential for two aspects of visual depth perception by testing patients with lesions affecting this region. First, we measured subjects' ability to discriminate depth structure in various 3D surfaces and objects using binocular disparity. Patients with lesions to right PPC (N = 3) exhibited marked perceptual deficits on these tasks, whereas those with left hemisphere lesions (N = 2) were able to reliably discriminate depth as accurately as control subjects. Second, we presented an ambiguous 3D stimulus defined by structure from motion to determine whether PPC lesions influence the rate of bistable perceptual alternations. Patients' percept durations for the 3D stimulus were generally within a normal range, although the two patients with bilateral PPC lesions showed the fastest perceptual alternation rates in our sample. Intermittent stimulus presentation reduced the reversal rate similarly across subjects. Together, the results suggest that PPC plays a causal role in both inferring and maintaining the perception of 3D structure with stereopsis supported primarily by the right hemisphere, but do not lend support to the view that PPC is a critical contributor to bistable perceptual alternations. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269606

  16. Lesions to right posterior parietal cortex impair visual depth perception from disparity but not motion cues.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Aidan P; Leopold, David A; Humphreys, Glyn W; Welchman, Andrew E

    2016-06-19

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is understood to be active when observers perceive three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, it is not clear how central this activity is in the construction of 3D spatial representations. Here, we examine whether PPC is essential for two aspects of visual depth perception by testing patients with lesions affecting this region. First, we measured subjects' ability to discriminate depth structure in various 3D surfaces and objects using binocular disparity. Patients with lesions to right PPC (N = 3) exhibited marked perceptual deficits on these tasks, whereas those with left hemisphere lesions (N = 2) were able to reliably discriminate depth as accurately as control subjects. Second, we presented an ambiguous 3D stimulus defined by structure from motion to determine whether PPC lesions influence the rate of bistable perceptual alternations. Patients' percept durations for the 3D stimulus were generally within a normal range, although the two patients with bilateral PPC lesions showed the fastest perceptual alternation rates in our sample. Intermittent stimulus presentation reduced the reversal rate similarly across subjects. Together, the results suggest that PPC plays a causal role in both inferring and maintaining the perception of 3D structure with stereopsis supported primarily by the right hemisphere, but do not lend support to the view that PPC is a critical contributor to bistable perceptual alternations.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'.

  17. Disruption of primary motor cortex before learning impairs memory of movement dynamics.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrew G; Overduin, Simon A; Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Bizzi, Emilio; Press, Daniel Z

    2006-11-29

    Although multiple lines of evidence implicate the primary motor cortex (M1) in motor learning, the precise role of M1 in the adaptation to novel movement dynamics and in the subsequent consolidation of a memory of those dynamics remains unclear. Here we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to dissociate the contribution of M1 to these distinct aspects of motor learning. Subjects performed reaching movements in velocity-dependent force fields over three epochs: a null-field baseline epoch, a clockwise-field learning epoch (15 min after the baseline epoch), and a clockwise-field retest epoch (24 h after the learning epoch). Half of the subjects received 15 min of 1 Hz rTMS to M1 between the baseline and learning epochs. Subjects given rTMS performed identically to control subjects during the learning epoch. However, control subjects performed with significantly less error than rTMS subjects in the retest epoch on the following day. These results suggest that M1 is not critical to the network supporting motor adaptation per se but that, within this network, M1 may be important for initiating the development of long-term motor memories.

  18. Impaired Facilitatory Mechanisms of Auditory Attention After Damage of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Bidet-Caulet, Aurélie; Buchanan, Kelly G; Viswanath, Humsini; Black, Jessica; Scabini, Donatella; Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique; Knight, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    There is growing evidence that auditory selective attention operates via distinct facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms enabling selective enhancement and suppression of sound processing, respectively. The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) plays a crucial role in the top-down control of selective attention. However, whether the LPFC controls facilitatory, inhibitory, or both attentional mechanisms is unclear. Facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms were assessed, in patients with LPFC damage, by comparing event-related potentials (ERPs) to attended and ignored sounds with ERPs to these same sounds when attention was equally distributed to all sounds. In control subjects, we observed 2 late frontally distributed ERP components: a transient facilitatory component occurring from 150 to 250 ms after sound onset; and an inhibitory component onsetting at 250 ms. Only the facilitatory component was affected in patients with LPFC damage: this component was absent when attending to sounds delivered in the ear contralateral to the lesion, with the most prominent decreases observed over the damaged brain regions. These findings have 2 important implications: (i) they provide evidence for functionally distinct facilitatory and inhibitory mechanisms supporting late auditory selective attention; (ii) they show that the LPFC is involved in the control of the facilitatory mechanisms of auditory attention.

  19. Temporal Dynamics of L5 Dendrites in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Regulate Integration Versus Coincidence Detection of Afferent Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Zemelman, Boris V.; Johnston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Distinct brain regions are highly interconnected via long-range projections. How this inter-regional communication occurs depends not only upon which subsets of postsynaptic neurons receive input, but also, and equally importantly, upon what cellular subcompartments the projections target. Neocortical pyramidal neurons receive input onto their apical dendrites. However, physiological characterization of these inputs thus far has been exclusively somatocentric, leaving how the dendrites respond to spatial and temporal patterns of input unexplored. Here we used a combination of optogenetics with multisite electrode recordings to simultaneously measure dendritic and somatic responses to afferent fiber activation in two different populations of layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that commissural inputs evoked monosynaptic responses in both intratelencephalic (IT) and pyramidal tract (PT) dendrites, whereas monosynaptic hippocampal input primarily targeted IT, but not PT, dendrites. To understand the role of dendritic integration in the processing of long-range inputs, we used dynamic clamp to simulate synaptic currents in the dendrites. IT dendrites functioned as temporal integrators that were particularly responsive to dendritic inputs within the gamma frequency range (40–140 Hz). In contrast, PT dendrites acted as coincidence detectors by responding to spatially distributed signals within a narrow time window. Thus, the PFC extracts information from different brain regions through the combination of selective dendritic targeting and the distinct dendritic physiological properties of L5 pyramidal dendrites. PMID:25788669

  20. Stability Analysis of Attractor Neural Network Model of Inferior Temporal Cortex —Relationship between Attractor Stability and Learning Order—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomoyuki Kimoto,; Tatsuya Uezu,; Masato Okada,

    2010-06-01

    Miyashita found that the long-term memory of visual stimuli is stored in the monkey’s inferior temporal cortex and that the temporal correlation in terms of the learning order of visual stimuli is converted into spatial correlation in terms of the firing rate patterns of the neuron group. To explain Miyashita’s findings, Griniasty et al. [Neural Comput. 5 (1993) 1] and Amit et al. [J. Neurosci. 14 (1994) 6435] proposed the attractor neural network model, and the Amit model has been examined only for the stable state acquired by storing memory patterns in a fixed sequence. In the real world, however, the learning order has statistical continuity but it also has randomness, and the stability of the state changes depending on the statistical properties of learning order when memory patterns are stored randomly. In addition, it is preferable for the stable state to become an appropriate attractor that reflects the relationship between memory patterns by the statistical properties of the learning order. In this study, we examined the dependence of the stable state on the statistical properties of the learning order without modifying the Amit model. The stable state was found to change from the correlated attractor to the Hopfield or Mp attractor, which is the mixed state with all memory patterns when the rate of random learning increases. Furthermore, we found that if the statistical properties of the learning order change, the stable state can change to an appropriate attractor reflecting the relationship between memory patterns.

  1. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex inactivation impairs impulse control but does not affect delay-discounting in rats.

    PubMed

    Feja, Malte; Koch, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Maladaptive levels of impulsivity are found in several neuropsychiatric disorders, such as ADHD, addiction, aggression and schizophrenia. Intolerance to delay-of-gratification, or delay-discounting, and deficits in impulse control are dissociable forms of impulsivity top-down controlled by the prefrontal cortex, with the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) suggested to be critically involved. The present study used transient inactivation of the rats' vmPFC via bilateral microinfusion of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol (0.05, 0.5 μg/0.3 μl) to analyse its relevance for impulse control in a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) and delay-discounting in a Skinner box. Intra-vmPFC injection of low-dose muscimol impaired impulse control indicated by enhanced premature responding in the 5-CSRTT, while flattening the delay-dependent shift in the preference of the large reward in the delay-discounting task. Likewise, high-dose muscimol did not affect delay-discounting, though raising the rate of omissions. On the contrary, 5-CSRTT performance was characterised by deficits in impulse and attentional control. These data support the behavioural distinction of delay-discounting and impulse control on the level of the vmPFC in rats. Reversible inactivation with muscimol revealed an obvious implication of the vmPFC in the modulation of impulse control in the 5-CSRTT. By contrast, delay-discounting processes seem to be regulated by other neuronal pathways, with the vmPFC playing, if at all, a minor role.

  2. Damage to posterior parietal cortex impairs two forms of relational learning.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Siobhan; Bucci, David J

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a component of a major cortico-hippocampal circuit that is involved in relational learning, yet the specific contribution of PPC to hippocampal-dependent learning is unresolved. To address this, two experiments were carried out to test the effects of PPC damage on tasks that involve forming associations between multiple sensory stimuli. In Experiment 1, sham or electrolytic lesions of the PPC were made before rats were tested on a three-phase sensory preconditioning task. During the first phase, half of the training trials consisted of pairings of an auditory stimulus followed by a light. During the other trials, a second auditory stimulus was presented alone. In the next phase of training, the same light was paired with food, but no auditory stimuli were presented. During the final phase of the procedure both auditory stimuli were presented in the absence of reinforcement during a single test session. As is typically observed during the test session, control rats exhibited greater conditioned responding to the auditory cue that was previously paired with light compared to the unpaired cue. In contrast, PPC-lesioned rats responded equally to both auditory cues. In Experiment 2, PPC-lesioned and control rats were trained in a compound feature negative discrimination task consisting of reinforced presentations of a tone-alone and non-reinforced simultaneous presentations of a light-tone compound stimulus. Control rats but not rats with damage to the PPC successfully learned the discrimination. Collectively, these results support the idea that the PPC contributes to relational learning involving multimodal sensory stimuli, perhaps by regulating the attentional processing of conditioned stimuli.

  3. Differential representation of spectral and temporal information by primary auditory cortex neurons in awake cats: relevance to auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Masashi; Chimoto, Sohei; Qin, Ling; Sato, Yu

    2009-04-10

    We investigated how the primary auditory cortex (AI) neurons encode the two major requisites for auditory scene analysis, i.e., spectral and temporal information. Single-unit activities in awake cats AI were studied by presenting 0.5-s-long tone bursts and click trains. First of all, the neurons (n=92) were classified into 3 types based on the time-course of excitatory responses to tone bursts: 1) phasic cells (P-cells; 26%), giving only transient responses; 2) tonic cells (T-cells; 34%), giving sustained responses with little or no adaptation; and 3) phasic-tonic cells (PT-cells; 40%), giving sustained responses with some tendency of adaptation. Other tone-response variables differed among cell types. For example, P-cells showed the shortest latency and smallest spiking jitter while T-cells had the sharpest frequency tuning. PT-cells generally fell in the intermediate between the two extremes. Click trains also revealed between-neuron-type differences for the emergent probability of excitatory responses (P-cells>PT-cells>T-cells) and their temporal features. For example, a substantial fraction of P-cells conducted stimulus-locking responses, but none of the T-cells did. f(r)-dependency characteristics of the stimulus locking resembled that reported for "comodulation masking release," a behavioral model of auditory scene analysis. Each type neurons were omnipresent throughout the AI and none of them showed intrinsic oscillation. These findings suggest that: 1) T-cells preferentially encode spectral information with a rate-place code and 2) P-cells preferentially encode acoustic transients with a temporal code whereby rate-place coded information is potentially bound for scene analysis.

  4. Hypo-metabolism of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex associated with working memory impairment in 18 cases of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mazgaj, Robert; Tal, Assaf; Goetz, Raymond; Lazar, Mariana; Rothman, Karen; Messinger, Julie Walsh; Malaspina, Dolores; Gonen, Oded

    2016-03-01

    Working memory (Work-Mem), the capacity to hold and manipulate information, activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), especially its caudal subregion. Impaired Work-Mem and structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC are reported in schizophrenia. This study aims to elucidate the pathogenesis of Work-Mem dysfunction in schizophrenia by comparing metabolite concentrations across ACC subregions. This retrospective study of 18 schizophrenia cases and 10 matched controls used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H-MRSI, TR/TE = 1800/35 ms, 0.5 cm(3) spatial resolution) to test whether the Work-Mem Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, third edition is associated with differences in the rostral to caudal ACC ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and creatine (Cr). Higher caudal:rostral ACC Cr (but not NAA) concentrations were associated with decreased Work-Mem Index in cases (r = -0.6, p = 0.02), with a similar trend in controls (r = -0.56, p = 0.10), although caudal:rostral ACC Cr correlated with NAA in cases and controls (r = 0.67 and 0.62, p < 0.05 for both). NAA and Cr ratios did not correlate with myo-inositol, excluding gliosis as the underlying process. Subjects' sex and age had no effects on these relationships. The findings suggest that rostral ACC energy hypo-metabolism, possibly arising from neurodevelopmental processes, is associated with working memory impairment in schizophrenia. Changes in the rostral (not the expected caudal) subregion underscore the interconnections between the ACC subregions and may offer laboratory markers for treatment trials, etiology studies, and perhaps even enhanced identification of prodromal "at risk" subjects.

  5. Increased Low-Frequency Oscillation Amplitude of Sensorimotor Cortex Associated with the Severity of Structural Impairment in Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fuqing; Gong, Honghan; Liu, Xiaojia; Wu, Lin; Luk, Keith Dip-Kei; Hu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Decreases in metabolites and increased motor-related, but decreased sensory-related activation of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) have been observed in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM) using advanced MRI techniques. However, the nature of intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC, and the relationship between cerebral function and structural damage of the spinal cord in patients with CM are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess intrinsic neuronal activity by calculating the regional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF) using resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), and correlations with clinical and imaging indices. Nineteen patients and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects underwent rs-fMRI scans. ALFF measurements were performed in the SMC, a key brain network likely to impaired or reorganized patients with CM. Compared with healthy subjects, increased amplitude of cortical low-frequency oscillations (LFO) was observed in the right precentral gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, increased z-ALFF values in the right precentral gyrus and right postcentral gyrus correlated with decreased fractional anisotropy values at the C2 level, which indicated increased intrinsic neuronal activity in the SMC corresponding to the structural impairment in the spinal cord of patients with CM. These findings suggest a complex and diverging relationship of cortical functional reorganization and distal spinal anatomical compression in patients with CM and, thus, add important information in understanding how spinal cord integrity may be a factor in the intrinsic covariance of spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations of BOLD signals involved in cortical plasticity. PMID:25111566

  6. Color-tuned neurons are spatially clustered according to color preference within alert macaque posterior inferior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Conway, Bevil R; Tsao, Doris Y

    2009-10-20

    Large islands of extrastriate cortex that are enriched for color-tuned neurons have recently been described in alert macaque using a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and single-unit recording. These millimeter-sized islands, dubbed "globs," are scattered throughout the posterior inferior temporal cortex (PIT), a swath of brain anterior to area V3, including areas V4, PITd, and posterior TEO. We investigated the micro-organization of neurons within the globs. We used fMRI to identify the globs and then used MRI-guided microelectrodes to test the color properties of single glob cells. We used color stimuli that sample the CIELUV perceptual color space at regular intervals to test the color tuning of single units, and make two observations. First, color-tuned neurons of various color preferences were found within single globs. Second, adjacent glob cells tended to have the same color tuning, demonstrating that glob cells are clustered by color preference and suggesting that they are arranged in color columns. Neurons separated by 50 microm, measured parallel to the cortical sheet, had more similar color tuning than neurons separated by 100 microm, suggesting that the scale of the color columns is <100 microm. These results show that color-tuned neurons in PIT are organized by color preference on a finer scale than the scale of single globs. Moreover, the color preferences of neurons recorded sequentially along a given electrode penetration shifted gradually in many penetrations, suggesting that the color columns are arranged according to a chromotopic map reflecting perceptual color space.

  7. Auditory Temporal Structure Processing in Dyslexia: Processing of Prosodic Phrase Boundaries Is Not Impaired in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiser, Eveline; Kjelgaard, Margaret; Christodoulou, Joanna A.; Cyr, Abigail; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Reading disability in children with dyslexia has been proposed to reflect impairment in auditory timing perception. We investigated one aspect of timing perception--"temporal grouping"--as present in prosodic phrase boundaries of natural speech, in age-matched groups of children, ages 6-8 years, with and without dyslexia. Prosodic phrase…

  8. A Pencil Rescues Impaired Performance on a Visual Discrimination Task in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knutson, Ashley R.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    We tested proposals that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support not just memory but certain kinds of visual perception as well. Patients with hippocampal lesions or larger MTL lesions attempted to identify the unique object among twin pairs of objects that had a high degree of feature overlap. Patients were markedly impaired under the more…

  9. Matching categorical object representations in inferior temporal cortex of man and monkey.

    PubMed

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Mur, Marieke; Ruff, Douglas A; Kiani, Roozbeh; Bodurka, Jerzy; Esteky, Hossein; Tanaka, Keiji; Bandettini, Peter A

    2008-12-26

    Inferior temporal (IT) object representations have been intensively studied in monkeys and humans, but representations of the same particular objects have never been compared between the species. Moreover, IT's role in categorization is not well understood. Here, we presented monkeys and humans with the same images of real-world objects and measured the IT response pattern elicited by each image. In order to relate the representations between the species and to computational models, we compare response-pattern dissimilarity matrices. IT response patterns form category clusters, which match between man and monkey. The clusters correspond to animate and inanimate objects; within the animate objects, faces and bodies form subclusters. Within each category, IT distinguishes individual exemplars, and the within-category exemplar similarities also match between the species. Our findings suggest that primate IT across species may host a common code, which combines a categorical and a continuous representation of objects.

  10. Unilateral Auditory Cortex Lesions Impair or Improve Discrimination Learning of Amplitude Modulated Sounds, Depending on Lesion Side

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Holger; Deutscher, Anke; Tziridis, Konstantin; Scheich, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental principle of brain organization is bilateral symmetry of structures and functions. For spatial sensory and motor information processing, this organization is generally plausible subserving orientation and coordination of a bilaterally symmetric body. However, breaking of the symmetry principle is often seen for functions that depend on convergent information processing and lateralized output control, e.g. left hemispheric dominance for the linguistic speech system. Conversely, a subtle splitting of functions into hemispheres may occur if peripheral information from symmetric sense organs is partly redundant, e.g. auditory pattern recognition, and therefore allows central conceptualizations of complex stimuli from different feature viewpoints, as demonstrated e.g. for hemispheric analysis of frequency modulations in auditory cortex (AC) of mammals including humans. Here we demonstrate that discrimination learning of rapidly but not of slowly amplitude modulated tones is non-uniformly distributed across both hemispheres: While unilateral ablation of left AC in gerbils leads to impairment of normal discrimination learning of rapid amplitude modulations, right side ablations lead to improvement over normal learning. These results point to a rivalry interaction between both ACs in the intact brain where the right side competes with and weakens learning capability maximally attainable by the dominant left side alone. PMID:24466338

  11. [The postnatal development of the lamina V pyramidal cells in the temporal cortex of the albino rat].

    PubMed

    Nicolai, B

    1981-01-01

    1. The development of layer V pyramidal neurons is analysed quantitatively in albino rat temporal ("auditory") cortex from the 1st to the 90th postnatal days (12 stages). The length of apical dendrites, the number of primary dendrites and the total amount of apical dendrite spines are registered in Golgi-Cox preparations (55 animals). The diameters of the nucleus, length and width of the perikaryon and the relation between nucleus and perikaryon are measured in Nissl-series (45 animals). 2. Two types of development can be recognised by the examined parameters: --Length of apical dendrites, number of primary dendrites and of apical dendrite spines aspire more or less continuously to a maximum value. --Sizes of nucleus and perikaryon show intermediately a higher value than the terminal one ("overshooting growth"). 3. The postnatal development of the parameters suggests that the dendritic growth (also after initiated phase) starts from the perikaryon and relates with dendritic neuroplasmic flow. 4. In order to give general statements about the evolution of layer V pyramidal neuron's rates of growth are counted and their degree of maturity is determined. The biggest rates of growth are reached up to the 12th day post partum. At this time the pyramidal neurons have a relatively high degree of maturity. 5. There are two periods with especially marked alterations of structure of the layer V pyramidal neurons. These alterations are regarded as morphokineses according to Scharf. I. The morphological changes between the 8th and the 12th day are regarded as "morphokinesis as a reaction to planned crises" (2.2., according to Scharf 1970). In this case the critical situation is the beginning of hearing of the young rats, which is to be prepared. II. The morphological changes between the 24th and 36th day take place in the critical period of primary socialization (Scott et al. 1974). This could be understood as "morphokinesis as a reaction to environmental influences" (2

  12. Imaging the Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Supragranular Activity in the Rat Somatosensory Cortex in Response to Stimulation of the Paws

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Botello, M. L.; Aguilar, J.; Foffani, G.

    2012-01-01

    We employed voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of the responses of the supragranular somatosensory cortex to stimulation of the four paws in urethane-anesthetized rats. We obtained the following main results. (1) Stimulation of the contralateral forepaw evoked VSD responses with greater amplitude and smaller latency than stimulation of the contralateral hindpaw, and ipsilateral VSD responses had a lower amplitude and greater latency than contralateral responses. (2) While the contralateral stimulation initially activated only one focus, the ipsilateral stimulation initially activated two foci: one focus was typically medial to the focus activated by contralateral stimulation and was stereotaxically localized in the motor cortex; the other focus was typically posterior to the focus activated by contralateral stimulation and was stereotaxically localized in the somatosensory cortex. (3) Forepaw and hindpaw somatosensory stimuli activated large areas of the sensorimotor cortex, well beyond the forepaw and hindpaw somatosensory areas of classical somatotopic maps, and forepaw stimuli activated larger cortical areas with greater activation velocity than hindpaw stimuli. (4) Stimulation of the forepaw and hindpaw evoked different cortical activation dynamics: forepaw responses displayed a clear medial directionality, whereas hindpaw responses were much more uniform in all directions. In conclusion, this work offers a complete spatio-temporal map of the supragranular VSD cortical activation in response to stimulation of the paws, showing important somatotopic differences between contralateral and ipsilateral maps as well as differences in the spatio-temporal activation dynamics in response to forepaw and hindpaw stimuli. PMID:22829873

  13. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bales, Michelle B; Schier, Lindsey A; Blonde, Ginger D; Spector, Alan C

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001) in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006) in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  14. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michelle B.; Schier, Lindsey A.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001) in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006) in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  15. Impaired perception of temporal fine structure and musical timbre in cochlear implant users.

    PubMed

    Heng, Joseph; Cantarero, Gabriela; Elhilali, Mounya; Limb, Charles J

    2011-10-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users demonstrate severe limitations in perceiving musical timbre, a psychoacoustic feature of sound responsible for 'tone color' and one's ability to identify a musical instrument. The reasons for this limitation remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the relative contributions of temporal envelope and fine structure for timbre judgments, in light of the fact that speech processing strategies employed by CI systems typically employ envelope extraction algorithms. We synthesized "instrumental chimeras" that systematically combined variable amounts of envelope and fine structure in 25% increments from two different source instruments with either sustained or percussive envelopes. CI users and normal hearing (NH) subjects were presented with 150 chimeras and asked to determine which instrument the chimera more closely resembled in a single-interval two-alternative forced choice task. By combining instruments with similar and dissimilar envelopes, we controlled the valence of envelope for timbre identification and compensated for envelope reconstruction from fine structure information. Our results show that NH subjects utilize envelope and fine structure interchangeably, whereas CI subjects demonstrate overwhelming reliance on temporal envelope. When chimeras were created from dissimilar envelope instrument pairs, NH subjects utilized a combination of envelope (p = 0.008) and fine structure information (p = 0.009) to make timbre judgments. In contrast, CI users utilized envelope information almost exclusively to make timbre judgments (p < 0.001) and ignored fine structure information (p = 0.908). Interestingly, when the value of envelope as a cue was reduced, both NH subjects and CI users utilized fine structure information to make timbre judgments (p < 0.001), although the effect was quite weak in CI users. Our findings confirm that impairments in fine structure processing underlie poor perception of musical timbre in CI

  16. Activation of right fronto-temporal cortex characterizes the 'living' category in semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Leube, D T; Erb, M; Grodd, W; Bartels, M; Kircher, T T

    2001-12-01

    It is a vital ability for humans to distinguish between living and non-living objects. Whether the semantic features of these two classes of objects are represented in distinct brain areas, is unknown. In our study, words belonging to the categories 'living' and 'non-living' were presented visually to twelve right-handed volunteers, while brain activation was measured with event-related fMRI. Subjects had to judge whether the item belonged to one of these categories. Common areas of activation (P<0.05, corrected) during processing of both categories include the inferior occipital gyri bilaterally (BA 17/18), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) and left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40). During processing of 'living' minus 'non-living' items, signal changes (P<0.05, corrected) were present in the the right inferior frontal (BA 47), middle temporal (BA 21) and fusiform gyrus (BA 19). Our results are in line with findings from patients with a deficit in semantic processing of living things, who specifically suffer from right hemispheric lesions.

  17. Functional plasticity in ventral temporal cortex following cognitive rehabilitation of a congenital prosopagnosic.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph M; Bentin, Shlomo; Robertson, Lynn C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2007-11-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) to measure neural changes associated with training configural processing in congenital prosopagnosia, a condition in which face identification abilities are not properly developed in the absence of brain injury or visual problems. We designed a task that required discriminating faces by their spatial configuration and, after extensive training, prosopagnosic MZ significantly improved at face identification. Event-related potential results revealed that although the N170 was not selective for faces before training, its selectivity after training was normal. fMRI demonstrated increased functional connectivity between ventral occipital temporal face-selective regions (right occipital face area and right fusiform face area) that accompanied improvement in face recognition. Several other regions showed fMRI activity changes with training; the majority of these regions increased connectivity with face-selective regions. Together, the neural mechanisms associated with face recognition improvements involved strengthening early face-selective mechanisms and increased coordination between face-selective and nonselective regions, particularly in the right hemisphere.

  18. Selective Attention to Semantic and Syntactic Features Modulates Sentence Processing Networks in Anterior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rogalsky, Corianne

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified an anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region that responds preferentially to sentence-level stimuli. It is unclear, however, whether this activity reflects a response to syntactic computations or some form of semantic integration. This distinction is difficult to investigate with the stimulus manipulations and anomaly detection paradigms traditionally implemented. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study addresses this question via a selective attention paradigm. Subjects monitored for occasional semantic anomalies or occasional syntactic errors, thus directing their attention to semantic integration, or syntactic properties of the sentences. The hemodynamic response in the sentence-selective ATL region (defined with a localizer scan) was examined during anomaly/error-free sentences only, to avoid confounds due to error detection. The majority of the sentence-specific region of interest was equally modulated by attention to syntactic or compositional semantic features, whereas a smaller subregion was only modulated by the semantic task. We suggest that the sentence-specific ATL region is sensitive to both syntactic and integrative semantic functions during sentence processing, with a smaller portion of this area preferentially involved in the later. This study also suggests that selective attention paradigms may be effective tools to investigate the functional diversity of networks involved in sentence processing. PMID:18669589

  19. From sensorimotor learning to memory cells in prefrontal and temporal association cortex: a neurocomputational study of disembodiment.

    PubMed

    Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Garagnani, Max

    2014-08-01

    Memory cells, the ultimate neurobiological substrates of working memory, remain active for several seconds and are most commonly found in prefrontal cortex and higher multisensory areas. However, if correlated activity in "embodied" sensorimotor systems underlies the formation of memory traces, why should memory cells emerge in areas distant from their antecedent activations in sensorimotor areas, thus leading to "disembodiment" (movement away from sensorimotor systems) of memory mechanisms? We modelled the formation of memory circuits in six-area neurocomputational architectures, implementing motor and sensory primary, secondary and higher association areas in frontotemporal cortices along with known between-area neuroanatomical connections. Sensorimotor learning driven by Hebbian neuroplasticity led to formation of cell assemblies distributed across the different areas of the network. These action-perception circuits (APCs) ignited fully when stimulated, thus providing a neural basis for long-term memory (LTM) of sensorimotor information linked by learning. Subsequent to ignition, activity vanished rapidly from APC neurons in sensorimotor areas but persisted in those in multimodal prefrontal and temporal areas. Such persistent activity provides a mechanism for working memory for actions, perceptions and symbols, including short-term phonological and semantic storage. Cell assembly ignition and "disembodied" working memory retreat of activity to multimodal areas are documented in the neurocomputational models' activity dynamics, at the level of single cells, circuits, and cortical areas. Memory disembodiment is explained neuromechanistically by APC formation and structural neuroanatomical features of the model networks, especially the central role of multimodal prefrontal and temporal cortices in bridging between sensory and motor areas. These simulations answer the "where" question of cortical working memory in terms of distributed APCs and their inner structure

  20. Corresponding ECoG and fMRI category-selective signals in human ventral temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Corentin; Witthoft, Nathan; Weiner, Kevin S.; Foster, Brett L.; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Hermes, Dora; Miller, Kai J.; Parvizi, Josef; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2015-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrocorticography (ECoG) research have been influential in revealing the functional characteristics of category-selective responses in human ventral temporal cortex (VTC). One important, but unanswered, question is how these two types of measurements might be related with respect to the VTC. Here we examined which components of the ECoG signal correspond to the fMRI response, by using a rare opportunity to measure both fMRI and ECoG responses from the same individuals to images of exemplars of various categories including faces, limbs, cars and houses. Our data reveal three key findings. First, we discovered that the coupling between fMRI and ECoG responses is frequency and time dependent. The strongest and most sustained correlation is observed between fMRI and high frequency broadband (HFB) ECoG responses (30–160hz). In contrast, the correlation between fMRI and ECoG signals in lower frequency bands is temporally transient, where the correlation is initially positive, but then tapers off or becomes negative. Second, we find that the strong and positive correlation between fMRI and ECoG signals in all frequency bands emerges rapidly around 100ms after stimulus onset, together with the onset of the first stimulus-driven neural signals in VTC. Third, we find that the spatial topology and representational structure of category-selectivity in VTC reflected in ECoG HFB responses mirrors the topology and structure observed with fMRI. These findings of a strong and rapid coupling between fMRI and HFB responses validate fMRI measurements of functional selectivity with recordings of direct neural activity and suggest that fMRI category-selective signals in VTC are associated with feed-forward neural processing. PMID:26212070

  1. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Induces Intrinsic Alterations in Na Channel Gating in Layer II Medial Entorhinal Cortex Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hargus, Nicholas J.; Merrick, Ellen C.; Nigam, Aradhya; Kalmar, Christopher L.; Baheti, Aparna R.; Bertram, Edward H.; Patel, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of adult epilepsy involving the limbic structures of the temporal lobe. Layer II neurons of the entorhinal cortex (EC) form the major excitatory input into the hippocampus via the perforant path and consist of non-stellate and stellate neurons. These neurons are spared and hyper-excitable in TLE. The basis for the hyper-excitability is likely multifactorial and may include alterations in intrinsic properties. In a rat model of TLE, medial EC (mEC) non-stellate and stellate neurons had significantly higher action potential (AP) firing frequencies than in control. The increase remained in the presence of synaptic blockers, suggesting intrinsic mechanisms. Since sodium (Na) channels play a critical role in AP generation and conduction we sought to determine if Na channel gating parameters and expression levels were altered in TLE. Na channel currents recorded from isolated mEC TLE neurons revealed increased Na channel conductances, depolarizing shifts in inactivation parameters and larger persistent (INaP) and resurgent (INaR) Na currents. Immunofluorescence experiments revealed increased staining of Nav1.6 within the axon initial segment and Nav1.2 within the cell bodies of mEC TLE neurons. These studies provide support for additional intrinsic alterations within mEC layer II neurons in TLE and implicate alterations in Na channel activity and expression, in part, for establishing the profound increase in intrinsic membrane excitability of mEC layer II neurons in TLE. These intrinsic changes, together with changes in the synaptic network, could support seizure activity in TLE. PMID:20946956

  2. The temporal dynamics of implicit processing of non-letter, letter, and word-forms in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G; Liotti, Mario; Perez, Ricardo; Fox, Sarabeth P; Woldorff, Marty G

    2009-01-01

    The decoding of visually presented line segments into letters, and letters into words, is critical to fluent reading abilities. Here we investigate the temporal dynamics of visual orthographic processes, focusing specifically on right hemisphere contributions and interactions between the hemispheres involved in the implicit processing of visually presented words, consonants, false fonts, and symbolic strings. High-density EEG was recorded while participants detected infrequent, simple, perceptual targets (dot strings) embedded amongst a of character strings. Beginning at 130 ms, orthographic and non-orthographic stimuli were distinguished by a sequence of ERP effects over occipital recording sites. These early latency occipital effects were dominated by enhanced right-sided negative-polarity activation for non-orthographic stimuli that peaked at around 180 ms. This right-sided effect was followed by bilateral positive occipital activity for false-fonts, but not symbol strings. Moreover the size of components of this later positive occipital wave was inversely correlated with the right-sided ROcc180 wave, suggesting that subjects who had larger early right-sided activation for non-orthographic stimuli had less need for more extended bilateral (e.g., interhemispheric) processing of those stimuli shortly later. Additional early (130-150 ms) negative-polarity activity over left occipital cortex and longer-latency centrally distributed responses (>300 ms) were present, likely reflecting implicit activation of the previously reported 'visual-word-form' area and N400-related responses, respectively. Collectively, these results provide a close look at some relatively unexplored portions of the temporal flow of information processing in the brain related to the implicit processing of potentially linguistic information and provide valuable information about the interactions between hemispheres supporting visual orthographic processing.

  3. Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexico-semantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Matthew K.; Ramirez, Naja Ferjan; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E.; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Halgren, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) Is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere fronto-temporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexico-semantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left fronto-temporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexico-semantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are utilized for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for re-wiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex. PMID:22787055

  4. Assessing a Metacognitive Account of Associative Memory Impairments in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Steven; Souchay, Céline; Moulin, Chris J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has pointed to a deficit in associative recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Associative recognition tasks require discrimination between various combinations of words which have and have not been seen previously (such as old-old or old-new pairs). People with TLE tend to respond to rearranged old-old pairs as if they are “intact” old-old pairs, which has been interpreted as a failure to use a recollection strategy to overcome the familiarity of two recombined words into a new pairing. We examined this specific deficit in the context of metacognition, using postdecision confidence judgements at test. We expected that TLE patients would show inappropriate levels of confidence for associative recognition. Although TLE patients reported lower confidence levels in their responses overall, they were sensitive to the difficulty of varying pair types in their judgements and gave significantly higher confidence ratings for their correct answers. We conclude that a strategic deficit is not at play in the associative recognition of people with TLE, insofar as they are able to monitor the status of their memory system. This adds to a growing body of research suggesting that recollection is impaired in TLE, but not metacognition. PMID:27721992

  5. Word reading and posterior temporal dysfunction in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Peeters, Ronald; Dupont, Patrick; Van Hecke, Paul; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2007-03-01

    Patient studies that combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with chronometric analysis of language dysfunction may reveal the critical contribution of brain areas to language processes as well as shed light on disease pathogenesis. In amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease, we examined whether the brain system for associative-semantic judgments with words or with pictures is affected and how this relates to off-line chronometric analysis of word reading and picture naming. A consecutive memory clinic-based series of 13 amnestic MCI patients as well as 13 matched controls participated. One area, the lower bank of the posterior third of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS), showed a significant group-by-task interaction: In controls, it was activated during the associative-semantic condition with words compared with the visuoperceptual control condition but not when the same tasks were compared with pictures as input. In MCI, this word-specific activation was significantly reduced. Response amplitude correlated (r = 0.90) with the steepness of the slope of the time-accuracy curve for word reading. Our data provide converging evidence for a critical contribution of the lower bank of the left posterior STS to mapping word form onto word meaning (lexical-semantic retrieval).

  6. The perirhinal cortex and conceptual processing: Effects of feature-based statistics following damage to the anterior temporal lobes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Clarke, Alex; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2015-01-01

    The anterior temporal lobe (ATL) plays a prominent role in models of semantic knowledge, although it remains unclear how the specific subregions within the ATL contribute to semantic memory. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, like semantic dementia, have widespread damage to the ATL thus making inferences about the relationship between anatomy and cognition problematic. Here we take a detailed anatomical approach to ask which substructures within the ATL contribute to conceptual processing, with the prediction that the perirhinal cortex (PRc) will play a critical role for concepts that are more semantically confusable. We tested two patient groups, those with and without damage to the PRc, across two behavioural experiments – picture naming and word–picture matching. For both tasks, we manipulated the degree of semantic confusability of the concepts. By contrasting the performance of the two groups, along with healthy controls, we show that damage to the PRc results in worse performance in processing concepts with higher semantic confusability across both experiments. Further by correlating the degree of damage across anatomically defined regions of interest with performance, we find that PRc damage is related to performance for concepts with increased semantic confusability. Our results show that the PRc supports a necessary and crucial neurocognitve function that enables fine-grained conceptual processes to take place through the resolution of semantic confusability. PMID:25637774

  7. Spatial and temporal hemodynamic study of human primary visual cortex using simultaneous functional MRI and diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Toronov, Vladislav Y.; Webb, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    The blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI and near infrared optical tomography have been widely used to investigate the hemodynamic response to functional stimulation in the human brain. In this paper, we present a complete methodology of integrating the two imaging modalities to study the underlying physiological mechanism of hemodynamic response in the human primary visual cortex. The integration was made feasible thanks to the development of an MRI-compatible optical probe. The optical imaging was conducted using a frequency-domain near infrared spectrometer. The 3-dimentional optical image reconstruction was based on diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using the perturbative approach. The sensitivity function of the forward problem was obtained using Monte Carlo method. From our preliminary observation, the spatial activation pattern of deoxyhemoglobin is consistent with the BOLD signal map. The patterns of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin are very similar. The temporal hemodynamic response shows an increased total hemoglobin concentration, which indicates an increment of cerebral blood volume (CBV) during physiological activation. PMID:17282286

  8. Patterns of spatio-temporal correlations in the neural activity of the cat motor cortex during trained forelimb movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumya; Putrino, David; Burro, Bianca; Ring, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    In order to study how neurons in the primary motor cortex (MI) are dynamically linked together during skilled movement, we recorded simultaneously from many cortical neurons in cats trained to perform a reaching and retrieval task using their forelimbs. Analysis of task-related spike activity in the MI of the hemisphere contralateral to the reaching forelimb (in identified forelimb or hindlimb representations) recorded through chronically implanted microwires, was followed by pairwise evaluation of temporally correlated activity in these neurons during task performance using shuffle corrected cross-correlograms. Over many months of recording, a variety of task-related modulations of neural activities were observed in individual efferent zones. Positively correlated activity (mainly narrow peaks at zero or short latencies) was seen during task performance frequently between neurons recorded within the forelimb representation of MI, rarely within the hindlimb area of MI, and never between forelimb and hindlimb areas. Correlated activity was frequently observed between neurons with different patterns of task-related activity or preferential activity during different task elements (reaching, feeding, etc.), and located in efferent zones with dissimilar representation as defined by intracortical microstimulation. The observed synchronization of action potentials among selected but functionally varied groups of MI neurons possibly reflects dynamic recruitment of network connections between efferent zones during skilled movement.

  9. Bodies are Represented as Wholes Rather Than Their Sum of Parts in the Occipital-Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2016-02-01

    Behavioral studies suggested that bodies are represented as wholes rather than in a part-based manner. However, neural selectivity for body stimuli is found for both whole bodies and body parts. It is therefore undetermined whether the neural representation of bodies is configural or part-based. We used functional MRI to test the role of first-order configuration on body representation in the human occipital-temporal cortex by comparing the response to a whole body versus the sum of its parts. Results show that body-selective areas, whether defined by selectivity to headless bodies or body parts, preferred whole bodies over their sum of parts and successfully decoded body configuration. This configural representation was specific to body stimuli and not found for faces. In contrast, general object areas showed no preference for wholes over parts and decoded the configuration of both bodies and faces. Finally, whereas effects of inversion on configural face representation were specific to face-selective mechanisms, effects of body inversion were not unique to body-selective mechanisms. We conclude that the neural representation of body parts is strengthened by their arrangement into an intact body, thereby demonstrating a central role of first-order configuration in the neural representation of bodies in their category-selective areas.

  10. Specific impairment of "what-where-when" episodic-like memory in experimental models of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Inostroza, Marion; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; Laurent, François; Cid, Elena; de la Prida, Liset Menendez

    2013-11-06

    Episodic memory deficit is a common cognitive disorder in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, no animal model of TLE has been shown to specifically replicate this cognitive dysfunction, which has limited its translational appeal. Here, using a task that tests for nonverbal correlates of episodic-like memory in rats, we show that kainate-treated TLE rats exhibit a selective impairment of the "what-where-when" memory while preserving other forms of hippocampal-dependent memories. Assisted by multisite silicon probes, we recorded from the dorsal hippocampus of behaving animals to control for seizure-related factors and to look for electrophysiological signatures of cognitive impairment. Analyses of hippocampal local field potentials showed that both the power of theta rhythm and its coordination across CA1 and the DG-measured as theta coherence and phase locking-were selectively disrupted. This disruption represented a basal condition of the chronic epileptic hippocampus that was linked to different features of memory impairment. Theta power was more correlated with the spatial than with the temporal component of the task, while measures of theta coordination correlated with the temporal component. We conclude that episodic-like memory, as tested in the what-where-when task, is specifically affected in experimental TLE and that the impairment of hippocampal theta activity might be central to this dysfunction.

  11. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects.

    PubMed

    Kivisaari, Sasa L; Tyler, Lorraine K; Monsch, Andreas U; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2012-12-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer's disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  12. Prefrontal cortex and mediodorsal thalamus reduced connectivity is associated with spatial working memory impairment in rats with inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Sousa, Mafalda; Vieira, Joana B; Lima, Deolinda; Galhardo, Vasco

    2013-11-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the mediodorsal thalamus (MD) form interconnected neural circuits that are important for spatial cognition and memory, but it is not known whether the functional connectivity between these areas is affected by the onset of an animal model of inflammatory pain. To address this issue, we implanted 2 multichannel arrays of electrodes in the mPFC and MD of adult rats and recorded local field potential activity during a food-reinforced spatial working memory task. Recordings were performed for 3weeks, before and after the establishment of the pain model. Our results show that inflammatory pain caused an impairment of spatial working memory performance that is associated with changes in the activity of the mPFC-MD circuit; an analysis of partial directed coherence between the areas revealed a global decrease in the connectivity of the circuit. This decrease was observed over a wide frequency range in both the frontothalamic and thalamofrontal directions of the circuit, but was more evident from MD to mPFC. In addition, spectral analysis revealed significant oscillations of power across frequency bands, namely with a strong theta component that oscillated after the onset of the painful condition. Finally, our data revealed that chronic pain induces an increase in theta/gamma phase coherence and a higher level of mPFC-MD coherence, which is partially conserved across frequency bands. The present results demonstrate that functional disturbances in mPFC-MD connectivity are a relevant cause of deficits in pain-related working memory.

  13. Impairment of contextual conditioned fear extinction after microinjection of alpha-1-adrenergic blocker prazosin into the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Do-Monte, Fabrício H M; Allensworth, Melody; Carobrez, Antônio P

    2010-07-29

    Long-lasting memories of aversive or stressful events have been associated with the noradrenergic system activation. Alpha-1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin has successfully been used in the last years to treat anxiety disorders related to aversive memories recurrence in humans. Contextual conditioned fear extinction paradigm in rats has been used to better understand the mechanisms involved in the attenuation of defensive behaviour after a traumatic situation. Here we investigated the effects of systemic administration of prazosin in the fear extinction processes. Rats were previously paired in a contextual fear conditioning box (1 footshock, 1 mA, 2s duration), further returning to the same box during three consecutive days receiving an intraperitoneal injection of vehicle or prazosin 30 min before (acquisition of extinction; 0.1 or 0.5mg/kg) or immediately after (consolidation of extinction, 0.5 or 1.5mg/kg) each extinction session (10 min). On the last day, all animals were re-exposed undrugged to the apparatus. Since the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been described as a key structure in the modulation of conditioned fear extinction, the effects of intra-mPFC microinjection (0.2 microl per side) of vehicle (PBS) or prazosin (0.75 or 2.5 nmol) in the acquisition of fear extinction (10 min before extinction session 1) were further evaluated. Subjects were drug-free re-exposed to the same box in the next day (extinction session 2). The percentage of freezing time was used as the memory retention parameter. The results showed that either systemic or intra-mPFC-alpha-1-adrenergic blockade increased the freezing time in the last extinction sessions, suggesting impairment of the extinction of contextual conditioned fear in rats.

  14. Behavioral measures of cochlear compression and temporal resolution as predictors of speech masking release in hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Gregan, Melanie J; Nelson, Peggy B; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2013-10-01

    Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners often show less masking release (MR) than normal-hearing listeners when temporal fluctuations are imposed on a steady-state masker, even when accounting for overall audibility differences. This difference may be related to a loss of cochlear compression in HI listeners. Behavioral estimates of compression, using temporal masking curves (TMCs), were compared with MR for band-limited (500-4000 Hz) speech and pure tones in HI listeners and age-matched, noise-masked normal-hearing (NMNH) listeners. Compression and pure-tone MR estimates were made at 500, 1500, and 4000 Hz. The amount of MR was defined as the difference in performance between steady-state and 10-Hz square-wave-gated speech-shaped noise. In addition, temporal resolution was estimated from the slope of the off-frequency TMC. No significant relationship was found between estimated cochlear compression and MR for either speech or pure tones. NMNH listeners had significantly steeper off-frequency temporal masking recovery slopes than did HI listeners, and a small but significant correlation was observed between poorer temporal resolution and reduced MR for speech. The results suggest either that the effects of hearing impairment on MR are not determined primarily by changes in peripheral compression, or that the TMC does not provide a sufficiently reliable measure of cochlear compression.

  15. Dysregulation of Autophagy, Mitophagy, and Apoptotic Genes in the Medial Temporal Lobe Cortex in an Ischemic Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Kocki, Janusz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Petniak, Alicja; Gil-Kulik, Paulina; Januszewski, Sławomir; Bogucki, Jacek; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda; Brzozowska, Judyta; Czuczwar, Stanisław J.; Pluta, Ryszard

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic brain damage is a pathological incident that is often linked with medial temporal lobe cortex injury and finally its atrophy. Post-ischemic brain injury associates with poor prognosis since neurons of selectively vulnerable ischemic brain areas are disappearing by apoptotic program of neuronal death. Autophagy has been considered, after brain ischemia, as a guardian against neurodegeneration. Consequently, we have examined changes in autophagy (BECN 1), mitophagy (BNIP 3), and apoptotic (caspase 3) genes in the medial temporal lobe cortex with the use of quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR following transient 10-min global brain ischemia in rats with survival 2, 7, and 30 days. The intense significant overexpression of BECN 1 gene was noted on the 2nd day, while on days 7–30 the expression of this gene was still upregulated. BNIP 3 gene was downregulated on the 2nd day, but on days 7–30 post-ischemia, there was a significant reverse tendency. Caspase 3 gene, associated with apoptotic neuronal death, was induced in the same way as BNIP 3 gene after brain ischemia. Thus, the demonstrated changes indicate that the considerable dysregulation of expression of BECN 1, BNIP 3, and caspase 3 genes may be connected with a response of neuronal cells in medial temporal lobe cortex to transient complete brain ischemia. PMID:27472881

  16. The ACE inhibitor ( sup 3 H)SQ29,852 identifies a high affinity recognition site located in the human temporal cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, N.M.; Costall, B.; Egli, P.; Horovitz, Z.P.; Ironside, J.W.; Naylor, R.J.; Williams, T.J. )

    1990-07-01

    The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 identified a single high affinity recognition site (defined by 10.0 microM captopril) in the human temporal cortex (pKD 8.62 +/- 0.03; Bmax 248 +/- 24 fmol mg-1 protein, mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4). ACE inhibitors and thiorphan competed to a similar level for the ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 binding site in the human temporal cortex with a rank order of affinity (pKi values mean +/- S.E.M., n = 3), lisinopril (9.49 +/- 0.02), captopril (9.16 +/- 0.08), SQ29,852 (8.58 +/- 0.04), epicaptopril (7.09 +/- 0.08), fosinopril (7.08 +/- 0.05) and thiorphan (6.40 +/- 0.04). Since this rank order of affinity is similar to the affinity of these compounds to inhibit brain ACE activity it is concluded that ({sup 3}H)SQ29,852 selectively labels the inhibitor recognition site of ACE in the human temporal cortex.

  17. Impaired cerebral blood flow networks in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: A graph theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Sone, Daichi; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Ota, Miho; Maikusa, Norihide; Kimura, Yukio; Sumida, Kaoru; Yokoyama, Kota; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Watanabe, Masako; Watanabe, Yutaka; Okazaki, Mitsutoshi; Sato, Noriko

    2016-09-01

    Graph theory is an emerging method to investigate brain networks. Altered cerebral blood flow (CBF) has frequently been reported in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but graph theoretical findings of CBF are poorly understood. Here, we explored graph theoretical networks of CBF in TLE using arterial spin labeling imaging. We recruited patients with TLE and unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) (19 patients with left TLE, and 21 with right TLE) and 20 gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects. We obtained all participants' CBF maps using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling and analyzed them using the Graph Analysis Toolbox (GAT) software program. As a result, compared to the controls, the patients with left TLE showed a significantly low clustering coefficient (p=0.024), local efficiency (p=0.001), global efficiency (p=0.010), and high transitivity (p=0.015), whereas the patients with right TLE showed significantly high assortativity (p=0.046) and transitivity (p=0.011). The group with right TLE also had high characteristic path length values (p=0.085), low global efficiency (p=0.078), and low resilience to targeted attack (p=0.101) at a trend level. Lower normalized clustering coefficient (p=0.081) in the left TLE and higher normalized characteristic path length (p=0.089) in the right TLE were found also at a trend level. Both the patients with left and right TLE showed significantly decreased clustering in similar areas, i.e., the cingulate gyri, precuneus, and occipital lobe. Our findings revealed differing left-right network metrics in which an inefficient CBF network in left TLE and vulnerability to irritation in right TLE are suggested. The left-right common finding of regional decreased clustering might reflect impaired default-mode networks in TLE.

  18. Impairment of exploratory behavior and spatial memory in adolescent rats in lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Kalemenev, S V; Zubareva, O E; Frolova, E V; Sizov, V V; Lavrentyeva, V V; Lukomskaya, N Ya; Kim, K Kh; Zaitsev, A V; Magazanik, L G

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in six-week -old rats has been studied in the lithium-pilocarpine model of adolescent temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The pilocarpine-treated rats (n =21) exhibited (a) a decreased exploratory activity in comparison with control rats (n = 20) in the open field (OP) test and (b) a slower extinction of exploratory behavior in repeated OP tests. The Morris Water Maze (MWM) test showed that the effect of training was less pronounced in the pilocarpine-treated rats, which demonstrated disruption of predominantly short-term memory. Therefore, our study has shown that lithium-pilocarpine seizures induce substantial changes in exploratory behavior and spatial memory in adolescent rats. OP and MWM tests can be used in the search of drugs reducing cognitive impairments associated with temporal lobe epilepsy.

  19. Cued Memory Retrieval Exhibits Reinstatement of High Gamma Power on a Faster Timescale in the Left Temporal Lobe and Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Robert B; Shaikhouni, Ammar; Arai, Jennifer; Inati, Sara K; Zaghloul, Kareem A

    2017-03-23

    Converging evidence suggests that reinstatement of neural activity underlies our ability to successfully retrieve memories. However, the temporal dynamics of reinstatement in the human cortex remain poorly understood. One possibility is that neural activity during memory retrieval, like replay of spiking neurons in the hippocampus, occurs at a faster timescale than during encoding. We tested this hypothesis in 34 participants who performed a verbal episodic memory task while we recorded high gamma (62-100 Hz) activity from subdural electrodes implanted for seizure monitoring. We show that reinstatement of distributed patterns of high gamma activity occurs faster than during encoding. Using a time-warping algorithm, we quantify the timescale of the reinstatement and identify brain regions that show significant timescale differences between encoding and retrieval. Our data suggest that temporally compressed reinstatement of cortical activity is a feature of cued memory retrieval.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTWe show that cued memory retrieval reinstates neural activity on a faster timescale than was present during encoding. Our data therefore provide a link between reinstatement of neural activity in the cortex and spontaneous replay of cortical and hippocampal spiking activity, which also exhibits temporal compression, and suggest that temporal compression may be a universal feature of memory retrieval.

  20. Perception of Temporal Order Is Impaired during the Time Course of the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spalek, Thomas M.; Lagroix, Hayley E. P.; Yanko, Matthew R.; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Identification accuracy for the second of two target (T2) is impaired when presented shortly after the first (T1). Does this attentional blink (AB) also impair the perception of the order of presentation? In four experiments, three letter targets (T1, T2, T3) were inserted in a stream of digit distractors displayed in rapid serial visual…

  1. Impaired Spatio-Temporal Predictive Motor Timing Associated with Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 6

    PubMed Central

    Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Abdelgabar, Abdel R.; Owens, Cullen B.; Picard, Samuel; Willems, Jessica; Boele, Henk-Jan; Gazzola, Valeria; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Many daily life activities demand precise integration of spatial and temporal information of sensory inputs followed by appropriate motor actions. This type of integration is carried out in part by the cerebellum, which has been postulated to play a central role in learning and timing of movements. Cerebellar damage due to atrophy or lesions may compromise forward-model processing, in which both spatial and temporal cues are used to achieve prediction for future motor states. In the present study we sought to further investigate the cerebellar contribution to predictive and reactive motor timing, as well as to learning of sequential order and temporal intervals in these tasks. We tested patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) and healthy controls for two related motor tasks; one requiring spatio-temporal prediction of dynamic visual stimuli and another one requiring reactive timing only. We found that healthy controls established spatio-temporal prediction in their responses with high temporal precision, which was absent in the cerebellar patients. SCA6 patients showed lower predictive motor timing, coinciding with a reduced number of correct responses during the ‘anticipatory’ period on the task. Moreover, on the task utilizing reactive motor timing functions, control participants showed both sequence order and temporal interval learning, whereas patients only showed sequence order learning. These results suggest that SCA6 affects predictive motor timing and temporal interval learning. Our results support and highlight cerebellar contribution to timing and argue for cerebellar engagement during spatio-temporal prediction of upcoming events. PMID:27571363

  2. Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Matthew K; Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Torres, Christina; Travis, Katherine E; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I; Halgren, Eric

    2012-07-11

    Congenitally deaf individuals receive little or no auditory input, and when raised by deaf parents, they acquire sign as their native and primary language. We asked two questions regarding how the deaf brain in humans adapts to sensory deprivation: (1) is meaning extracted and integrated from signs using the same classical left hemisphere frontotemporal network used for speech in hearing individuals, and (2) in deafness, is superior temporal cortex encompassing primary and secondary auditory regions reorganized to receive and process visual sensory information at short latencies? Using MEG constrained by individual cortical anatomy obtained with MRI, we examined an early time window associated with sensory processing and a late time window associated with lexicosemantic integration. We found that sign in deaf individuals and speech in hearing individuals activate a highly similar left frontotemporal network (including superior temporal regions surrounding auditory cortex) during lexicosemantic processing, but only speech in hearing individuals activates auditory regions during sensory processing. Thus, neural systems dedicated to processing high-level linguistic information are used for processing language regardless of modality or hearing status, and we do not find evidence for rewiring of afferent connections from visual systems to auditory cortex.

  3. Temporal Processing Impairment in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jia; Yang, Bin-rang; Zou, Xiao-bing; Jing, Jin; Pen, Gang; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Chan, Raymond C. K.

    2012-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate temporal processing in Chinese children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD) using time production, time reproduction paradigm and duration discrimination tasks. A battery of tests specifically designed to measure temporal processing was administered to 94 children with ADHD and 100…

  4. Functional specialization and convergence in the occipito-temporal cortex supporting haptic and visual identification of human faces and body parts: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Ryo; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Kochiyama, Takanori; Lederman, Susan J

    2009-10-01

    Humans can recognize common objects by touch extremely well whenever vision is unavailable. Despite its importance to a thorough understanding of human object recognition, the neuroscientific study of this topic has been relatively neglected. To date, the few published studies have addressed the haptic recognition of nonbiological objects. We now focus on haptic recognition of the human body, a particularly salient object category for touch. Neuroimaging studies demonstrate that regions of the occipito-temporal cortex are specialized for visual perception of faces (fusiform face area, FFA) and other body parts (extrastriate body area, EBA). Are the same category-sensitive regions activated when these components of the body are recognized haptically? Here, we use fMRI to compare brain organization for haptic and visual recognition of human body parts. Sixteen subjects identified exemplars of faces, hands, feet, and nonbiological control objects using vision and haptics separately. We identified two discrete regions within the fusiform gyrus (FFA and the haptic face region) that were each sensitive to both haptically and visually presented faces; however, these two regions differed significantly in their response patterns. Similarly, two regions within the lateral occipito-temporal area (EBA and the haptic body region) were each sensitive to body parts in both modalities, although the response patterns differed. Thus, although the fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipito-temporal cortex appear to exhibit modality-independent, category-sensitive activity, our results also indicate a degree of functional specialization related to sensory modality within these structures.

  5. Temporal Masking Contributions of Inherent Envelope Fluctuations for Listeners with Normal and Impaired Hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svec, Adam

    Gaussian noise (GN) simultaneous maskers yield higher masked thresholds for pure tones than low-fluctuation noise (LFN) simultaneous maskers for listeners with normal hearing. This increased residual masking is thought to be due to inherent fluctuations in the temporal envelope of Gaussian noise, but these masking effects using forward maskers have been previously unexamined. Because differences in forward masking due to age and hearing loss are known, the first study measured forward-masked detection thresholds for younger and older adults with normal hearing (NH) and older adults with hearing loss (HI) for a 4000 Hz pure-tone probe at a single masker-probe delay in narrowband noises with maximal (GN) or minimal (LFN) inherent envelope fluctuations. As predicted, results suggested that no effect of age was observed. Surprisingly, forward-masked threshold differences between GN and LFN, an estimate of the magnitude of the effect of inherent masker envelope fluctuations, were not significantly different for older HI listeners compared to younger or older NH listeners. Due to the surprising similarities between listeners with normal and impaired hearing, the second study was designed to assess effects of hearing loss on the slopes and magnitudes of recovery from forward maskers that varied in inherent envelope fluctuations for masker-probe delays of 25, 50, and 75 ms. In addition to measuring these effects centered at 4000 Hz, forward-masked thresholds were also measured at 2000 Hz, a region of better hearing for the HI listeners. As hypothesized, regardless of masker fluctuations, slopes of recovery from forward masking were shallower for HI than NH listeners in all conditions. At 4000 Hz, additional residual masking was greater in HI than NH listeners at the longest masker-probe delays; whereas, no differences in additional residual masking between HI and NH listeners were observed for 2000 Hz. These results suggest that the masking effects from inherent envelope

  6. Similarity-Based Fusion of MEG and fMRI Reveals Spatio-Temporal Dynamics in Human Cortex During Visual Object Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Cichy, Radoslaw Martin; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Oliva, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Every human cognitive function, such as visual object recognition, is realized in a complex spatio-temporal activity pattern in the brain. Current brain imaging techniques in isolation cannot resolve the brain's spatio-temporal dynamics, because they provide either high spatial or temporal resolution but not both. To overcome this limitation, we developed an integration approach that uses representational similarities to combine measurements of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to yield a spatially and temporally integrated characterization of neuronal activation. Applying this approach to 2 independent MEG–fMRI data sets, we observed that neural activity first emerged in the occipital pole at 50–80 ms, before spreading rapidly and progressively in the anterior direction along the ventral and dorsal visual streams. Further region-of-interest analyses established that dorsal and ventral regions showed MEG–fMRI correspondence in representations later than early visual cortex. Together, these results provide a novel and comprehensive, spatio-temporally resolved view of the rapid neural dynamics during the first few hundred milliseconds of object vision. They further demonstrate the feasibility of spatially unbiased representational similarity-based fusion of MEG and fMRI, promising new insights into how the brain computes complex cognitive functions. PMID:27235099

  7. Post-Learning Infusion of Anisomycin into the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Impairs Instrumental Acquisition through an Effect on Reinforcer Valuation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonkman, Sietse; Everitt, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of the rodent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, but it is not clear if the ACC is important for the acquisition of a simple instrumental response. Here, it was demonstrated that post-session infusions of anisomycin into the rat ACC completely prevented the acquisition of…

  8. Following Eye Gaze Activates a Patch in the Posterior Temporal Cortex That Is not Part of the Human “Face Patch” System

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, Kira; Dicke, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Humans follow another person’s eye gaze to objects of interest to the other, thereby establishing joint attention, a first step toward developing a theory of the other’s mind. Previous functional MRI studies agree that a “gaze-following patch” (GFP) of cortex close to the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) is specifically implicated in eye gaze-following. The location of the GFP is in the vicinity of the posterior members of the core face-processing system that consists of distinct patches in ventral visual cortex, the STS, and frontal cortex, also involved in processing information on the eyes. To test whether the GFP might correspond to one of the posterior face patches, we compared the pattern of blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) imaging contrasts reflecting the passive vision of static faces with the one evoked by shifts of attention guided by the eye gaze of others. The viewing of static faces revealed the face patch system. On the other hand, eye gaze-following activated a cortical patch (the GFP) with its activation maximum separated by more than 24 mm in the right and 19 mm in the left hemisphere from the nearest face patch, the STS face area (FA). This segregation supports a distinct function of the GFP, different from the elementary processing of facial information. PMID:28374010

  9. Acute ozone (O3) -induced impairment of glucose regulation: Age-related and temporal changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    O3 is associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects in humans and is thought to produce metabolic effects, such as insulin resistance. Recently, we showed that episodic O3 exposure increased insulin levels in aged rats. We hypothesized that O3 exposure could impair gluc...

  10. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  11. Individual Sensitivity to Spectral and Temporal Cues in Listeners with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souza, Pamela E.; Wright, Richard A.; Blackburn, Michael C.; Tatman, Rachael; Gallun, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present study was designed to evaluate use of spectral and temporal cues under conditions in which both types of cues were available. Method: Participants included adults with normal hearing and hearing loss. We focused on 3 categories of speech cues: static spectral (spectral shape), dynamic spectral (formant change), and temporal…

  12. Inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or the medial prefrontal cortex impairs retrieval but has differential effect on spatial memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Janine I; Köhler, Cristiano A; Radiske, Andressa; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-11-01

    Active memories can incorporate new information through reconsolidation. However, the notion that memory retrieval is necessary for reconsolidation has been recently challenged. Non-reinforced retrieval induces hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-dependent reconsolidation of spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that the effect of protein synthesis inhibition on this process is abolished when retrieval of the learned spatial preference is hindered through mPFC inactivation but not when it is blocked by deactivation of dorsal CA1. Our results do not fully agree with the hypothesis that retrieval is unneeded for reconsolidation. Instead, they support the idea that a hierarchic interaction between the hippocampus and the mPFC controls spatial memory in the MWM, and indicate that this cortex is sufficient to retrieve the information essential to reconsolidate the spatial memory trace, even when the hippocampus is inactivated.

  13. Morphology and kainate-receptor immunoreactivity of identified neurons within the entorhinal cortex projecting to superior temporal sulcus in the cynomolgus monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, P. F.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    Projections of the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus are well known from the classical studies of Cajal (Ramon y Cajal, 1904) and Lorente de No (1933). Projections from the entorhinal cortex to neocortical areas are less well understood. Such connectivity is likely to underlie the consolidation of long-term declarative memory in neocortical sites. In the present study, a projection arising in layer V of the entorhinal cortex and terminating in a polymodal association area of the superior temporal gyrus has been identified with the use of retrograde tracing. The dendritic arbors of neurons giving rise to this projection were further investigated by cell filling and confocal microscopy with computer reconstruction. This analysis demonstrated that the dendritic arbor of identified projection neurons was largely confined to layer V, with the exception of a solitary, simple apical dendrite occasionally ascending to superficial laminae but often confined to the lamina dissecans (layer IV). Finally, immunoreactivity for glutamate-receptor subunit proteins GluR 5/6/7 of the dendritic arbor of identified entorhinal projection neurons was examined. The solitary apical dendrite of identified entorhinal projection neurons was prominently immunolabeled for GluR 5/6/7, as was the dendritic arbor of basilar dendrites of these neurons. The restriction of the large bulk of the dendritic arbor of identified entorhinal projection neurons to layer V implies that these neurons are likely to be heavily influenced by hippocampal output arriving in the deep layers of the entorhinal cortex. Immunoreactivity for GluR 5/6/7 throughout the dendritic arbor of such neurons indicates that this class of glutamate receptor is in a position to play a prominent role in mediating excitatory neurotransmission within hippocampal-entorhinal circuits.

  14. Removal of Perineuronal Nets in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex Impairs the Acquisition and Reconsolidation of a Cocaine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference Memory

    PubMed Central

    Slaker, Megan; Churchill, Lynn; Todd, Ryan P.; Blacktop, Jordan M.; Zuloaga, Damian G.; Raber, Jacob; Darling, Rebecca A.; Brown, Travis E.

    2015-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) critically contribute to cocaine-seeking behavior in humans and rodents. Activity of these neurons is significantly modulated by GABAergic, parvalbumin-containing, fast-spiking interneurons, the majority of which are enveloped by specialized structures of extracellular matrix called perineuronal nets (PNNs), which are integral to the maintenance of many types of plasticity. Using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we found that removal of PNNs primarily from the prelimbic region of the mPFC of adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats impaired the acquisition and reconsolidation of a cocaine-induced CPP memory. This impairment was accompanied by a decrease in the number of c-Fos-positive cells surrounded by PNNs. Following removal of PNNs, the frequency of inhibitory currents in mPFC pyramidal neurons was decreased; but following cocaine-induced CPP, both frequency and amplitude of inhibitory currents were decreased. Our findings suggest that cocaine-induced plasticity is impaired by removal of prelimbic mPFC PNNs and that PNNs may be a therapeutic target for disruption of cocaine CPP memories. PMID:25762666

  15. Temporal lobe epilepsy: its association with psychiatric impairment and appropriate dental management.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, A H; Cummings, J L

    1989-09-01

    Temporal lobe seizures are manifested by aberrant experiences, automatic behavior, or both. In addition, approximately 40% of the patients who have had the disease for more than 15 years exhibit significant personality disorders, mood changes, or psychoses in the periods between seizures (interictal phase). Recognition that these characterologic manifestations are components of the underlying neurologic disorder allows for a more rational approach to the provision of dental care.

  16. Heightened emotional contagion in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease is associated with temporal lobe degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Virginia E.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Seeley, William W.; Kramer, Joel H.; Miller, Bruce L.; Rankin, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Emotional changes are common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Intrinsic connectivity imaging studies suggest that default mode network degradation in AD is accompanied by the release of an emotion-relevant salience network. We investigated whether emotional contagion, an evolutionarily conserved affect-sharing mechanism, is higher in MCI and AD secondary to biological alterations in neural networks that support emotion. We measured emotional contagion in 237 participants (111 healthy controls, 62 patients with MCI, and 64 patients with AD) with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Personal Distress subscale. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale. Participants underwent structural MRI, and voxel-based morphometry was used to relate whole-brain maps to emotional contagion. Analyses of covariance found significantly higher emotional contagion at each stage of disease progression [controls < MCI (P < 0.01) and MCI < AD (P < 0.001)]. Depressive symptoms were also higher in patients compared with controls [controls < MCI (P < 0.01) and controls < AD (P < 0.0001)]. Higher emotional contagion (but not depressive symptoms) was associated with smaller volume in right inferior, middle, and superior temporal gyri (PFWE < 0.05); right temporal pole, anterior hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus; and left middle temporal gyrus (all P < 0.001, uncorrected). These findings suggest that in MCI and AD, neurodegeneration of temporal lobe structures important for affective signal detection and emotion inhibition are associated with up-regulation of emotion-generating mechanisms. Emotional contagion, a quantifiable index of empathic reactivity that is present in other species, may be a useful tool with which to study emotional alterations in animal models of AD. PMID:23716653

  17. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  18. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI.

  19. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure leads to alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor within the frontal cortex and impaired behavioral flexibility in both adolescent and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Gina M; Lew, Brandon J; Vedder, Lindsey C; Savage, Lisa M

    2017-04-21

    Chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol (EtOH; CIE) that produces binge-like levels of intoxication has been associated with age-dependent deficits in cognitive functioning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIE (5g/kg, 25% EtOH, 13 intragastric gavages) beginning at three ages: early adolescence (postnatal day [PD] 28), mid-adolescence (PD35) and adulthood (PD72). In experiment 1, rats were behaviorally tested following CIE. Spatial memory was not affected by CIE, but adult CIE rats were impaired at acquiring a non-spatial discrimination task and subsequent reversal tasks. Rats exposed to CIE during early or mid-adolescence were impaired on the first reversal, demonstrating transient impairment in behavioral flexibility. Blood EtOH concentrations negatively correlated with performance on reversal tasks. Experiment 2 examined changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels within the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus (HPC) at four time points: during intoxication, 24 h after the final EtOH exposure (acute abstinence), 3 weeks following abstinence (recovery) and after behavioral testing. HPC BDNF levels were not affected by CIE at any time point. During intoxication, BDNF was suppressed in the FC, regardless of the age of exposure. However, during acute abstinence, reduced FC BDNF levels persisted in early adolescent CIE rats, whereas adult CIE rats displayed an increase in BDNF levels. Following recovery, neurotrophin levels in all CIE rats recovered. Our results indicate that intermittent binge-like EtOH exposure leads to acute disruptions in FC BDNF levels and long-lasting behavioral deficits. However, the type of cognitive impairment and its duration differ depending on the age of exposure.

  20. Isolation rearing impairs wound healing and is associated with increased locomotion and decreased immediate early gene expression in the medial prefrontal cortex of juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Levine, J B; Leeder, A D; Parekkadan, B; Berdichevsky, Y; Rauch, S L; Smoller, J W; Konradi, C; Berthiaume, F; Yarmush, M L

    2008-01-24

    In addition to its maladaptive effects on psychiatric function, psychosocial deprivation impairs recovery from physical illness. Previously, we found that psychosocial deprivation, modeled by isolation rearing, depressed immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and increased locomotion in the open field test [Levine JB, Youngs RM, et al. (2007) Isolation rearing and hyperlocomotion are associated with reduced immediate early gene expression levels in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience 145(1):42-55]. In the present study, we examined whether similar changes in behavior and gene expression are associated with the maladaptive effects of psychosocial deprivation on physical injury healing. After weaning, anesthetized rats were subjected to a 20% total body surface area third degree burn injury and were subsequently either group or isolation reared. After 4 weeks of either isolation or group rearing (a period that encompasses post-wearing and early adolescence), rats were killed, and their healing and gene expression in the mPFC were assessed. Locomotion in the open field test was examined at 3 weeks post-burn injury. We found that: 1) gross wound healing was significantly impaired in isolation-reared rats compared with group-reared rats, 2) locomotion was increased and IEG expression was suppressed for isolation-reared rats during burn injury healing, 3) the decreased activity in the open field and increased IEG expression was greater for burn injury healing group-reared rats than for uninjured group-reared rats, 4) the degree of hyperactivity and IEG suppression was relatively similar between isolation-reared rats during burn injury compared with uninjured isolation-reared rats. Thus, in the mPFC, behavioral hyperactivity to novelty (the open field test) along with IEG suppression may constitute a detectable biomarker of isolation rearing during traumatic physical injury. Implications of the findings for understanding

  1. Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Lesemann, Anne; Fabian, Sonja; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies in older adults suggested beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation, aerobic exercise, or cognitive stimulation on brain structure and function. However, combined effects of these interventions in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are unknown. Using a randomized interventional design, we evaluated the effect of combined omega-3 FA supplementation, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation (target intervention) versus omega-3 FA supplementation and non-aerobic exercise (control intervention) on cognitive function and gray matter volume in patients with MCI. Moreover, we analyzed potential vascular, metabolic or inflammatory mechanisms underlying these effects. Twenty-two MCI patients (8 females; 60-80years) successfully completed six months of omega-3 FA intake, aerobic cycling training and cognitive stimulation (n=13) or omega-3 FA intake and non-aerobic stretching and toning (n=9). Before and after the interventions, cognitive performance, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 3T (n=20), intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery and serum markers of glucose control, lipid and B-vitamin metabolism, and inflammation were assessed. Intervention-related changes in gray matter volume of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain regions, i.e., frontal, parietal, temporal and cingulate cortex were examined using voxel-based morphometry of high resolution T1-weighted images. After the intervention period, significant differences emerged in brain structure between groups: Gray matter volume decreased in the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex of patients in the control intervention, while gray matter volume in these areas was preserved or even increased after the target intervention. Decreases in homocysteine levels in the target intervention group were associated with increases in gray matter volume in the middle frontal cortex (p=0.010). No significant differences in cognitive performance or

  2. RBANS Memory Indices Are Related to Medial Temporal Lobe Volumetrics in Healthy Older Adults and Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    England, Heather B.; Gillis, M. Meredith; Hampstead, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study (i) determined whether NeuroQuant® volumetrics are reflective of differences in medial temporal lobe (MTL) volumes between healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and (ii) examined the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. Forty-three healthy older adults and 57 MCI patients completed the RBANS and underwent structural MRI. Hippocampal and inferior lateral ventricle (ILV) volumes were obtained using NeuroQuant®. Results revealed significantly smaller hippocampal and larger ILV volumes in MCI patients. MTL volumes were significantly related to the RBANS Immediate and Delayed Memory and Language indices but not the Attention or Visuoconstruction indices; findings that demonstrate anatomical specificity. Following discriminant function analysis, we calculated a cutpoint that may prove clinically useful for integrating MTL volumes into the diagnosis of MCI. These findings demonstrate the potential clinical utility of NeuroQuant® and are the first to document the relationship between RBANS indices and MTL volumes. PMID:24709384

  3. Imidacloprid toxicity impairs spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chun-Jen; Lin, Ching-Lung; Lin, Tian-Yu; Wang, Sheue-Er; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2016-04-13

    It has been reported that the decimation of honey bees was because of pesticides of imidacloprid. The imidacloprid is a wildly used neonicotinoid insecticide. However, whether imidacloprid toxicity interferes with the spatial memory of echolocation bats is still unclear. Thus, we compared the spatial memory of Formosan leaf-nosed bats, Hipposideros terasensis, before and after chronic treatment with a low dose of imidacloprid. We observed that stereotyped flight patterns of echolocation bats that received chronic imidacloprid treatment were quite different from their originally learned paths. We further found that neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas of echolocation bats that received imidacloprid treatment was significantly enhanced in comparison with echolocation bats that received sham treatment. Thus, we suggest that imidacloprid toxicity may interfere with the spatial memory of echolocation bats through neural apoptosis in hippocampal CA1 and medial entorhinal cortex areas. The results provide direct evidence that pesticide toxicity causes a spatial memory disorder in echolocation bats. This implies that agricultural pesticides may pose severe threats to the survival of echolocation bats.

  4. Aging impairs deliberation and behavioral flexibility in inter-temporal choice

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Yannick-André; Seeland, Kelsey D.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Inter-temporal choice depends on multiple, interacting systems, some of which may be compromised with age. Some of these systems may be responsible for ongoing trial-by-trial choice strategies. Some may represent the consequences of action. Some may be necessary for the coupling between anticipated consequences and strategies currently in use, flexibly guiding behavior. When faced with a difficult decision, rats will orient back and forth, a behavior termed “vicarious trial and error” (VTE). Recent experiments have linked the occurrence of VTE to hippocampal search processes and behavioral flexibility. We tested 5 month (n = 6), 9 month (n = 8) and over-27 month-old (n = 10) rats on a Spatial Adjusting Delay Discounting task to examine how aging impacted lap-by-lap strategies and VTE during inter-temporal choice. Rats chose between spatially separated food goals that provided a smaller-sooner or larger-later reward. On each lap, the delay to the larger-later reward was adjusted as a function of the rat's decisions, increasing by 1 s after delayed-side choices and decreasing by 1 s after non-delayed side choices. The strategies that aged rats used differed from those used in young and adult rats. Moreover, aged rats produced reliably more VTE behaviors, for protracted periods of time, uncoupled from behavioral flexibility. PMID:25870560

  5. Reverberation impairs brainstem temporal representations of voiced vowel sounds: challenging “periodicity-tagged” segregation of competing speech in rooms

    PubMed Central

    Sayles, Mark; Stasiak, Arkadiusz; Winter, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system typically processes information from concurrently active sound sources (e.g., two voices speaking at once), in the presence of multiple delayed, attenuated and distorted sound-wave reflections (reverberation). Brainstem circuits help segregate these complex acoustic mixtures into “auditory objects.” Psychophysical studies demonstrate a strong interaction between reverberation and fundamental-frequency (F0) modulation, leading to impaired segregation of competing vowels when segregation is on the basis of F0 differences. Neurophysiological studies of complex-sound segregation have concentrated on sounds with steady F0s, in anechoic environments. However, F0 modulation and reverberation are quasi-ubiquitous. We examine the ability of 129 single units in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of the anesthetized guinea pig to segregate the concurrent synthetic vowel sounds /a/ and /i/, based on temporal discharge patterns under closed-field conditions. We address the effects of added real-room reverberation, F0 modulation, and the interaction of these two factors, on brainstem neural segregation of voiced speech sounds. A firing-rate representation of single-vowels' spectral envelopes is robust to the combination of F0 modulation and reverberation: local firing-rate maxima and minima across the tonotopic array code vowel-formant structure. However, single-vowel F0-related periodicity information in shuffled inter-spike interval distributions is significantly degraded in the combined presence of reverberation and F0 modulation. Hence, segregation of double-vowels' spectral energy into two streams (corresponding to the two vowels), on the basis of temporal discharge patterns, is impaired by reverberation; specifically when F0 is modulated. All unit types (primary-like, chopper, onset) are similarly affected. These results offer neurophysiological insights to perceptual organization of complex acoustic scenes under realistically challenging listening

  6. Inferior-frontal cortex phase synchronizes with the temporal-parietal junction prior to successful change detection.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Cristiano; Kaping, Daniel; Westendorff, Stephanie; Valiante, Taufik A; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2015-10-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are believed to be core structures of human brain networks that activate when sensory top-down expectancies guide goal directed behavior and attentive perception. But it is unclear how activity in IFG and TPJ coordinates during attention demanding tasks and whether functional interactions between both structures are related to successful attentional performance. Here, we tested these questions in electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in human subjects using a visual detection task that required sustained attentional expectancy in order to detect non-salient, near-threshold visual events. We found that during sustained attention the successful visual detection was predicted by increased phase synchronization of band-limited 15-30 Hz beta band activity that was absent prior to misses. Increased beta-band phase alignment during attentional engagement early during the task was restricted to inferior and lateral prefrontal cortex, but with sustained attention it extended to long-range IFG-TPJ phase synchronization and included superior prefrontal areas. In addition to beta, a widely distributed network of brain areas comprising the occipital cortex showed enhanced and reduced alpha band phase synchronization before correct detections. These findings identify long-range phase synchrony in the 15-30 Hz beta band as the mesoscale brain signal that predicts the successful deployment of attentional expectancy of sensory events. We speculate that localized beta coherent states in prefrontal cortex index 'top-down' sensory expectancy whose coupling with TPJ subregions facilitates the gating of relevant visual information.

  7. Impaired cognitive ability and anxiety-like behavior following acute seizures in the Theiler's virus model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Umpierre, Anthony D; Remigio, Gregory J; Dahle, E Jill; Bradford, Kate; Alex, Anitha B; Smith, Misty D; West, Peter J; White, H Steve; Wilcox, Karen S

    2014-04-01

    Viral infection of the CNS can result in encephalitis and acute seizures, increasing the risk for later-life epilepsy. We have previously characterized a novel animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy that recapitulates key sequela in the development of epilepsy following viral infection. C57BL/6J mice inoculated with the Daniel's strain of Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV; 3×10(5) PFU, i.c.) display acute limbic seizures that secondarily generalize. A majority of acutely seized animals develop spontaneous seizures weeks to months later. As part of our investigation, we sought to assess behavioral comorbidity following TMEV inoculation. Anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment, and certain psychoses are diagnosed in persons with epilepsy at rates far more frequent than in the general population. We used a battery of behavioral tests to assess anxiety, depression, cognitive impairment, and general health in acutely seized animals inoculated with TMEV and compared behavioral outcomes against age-matched controls receiving a sham injection. We determined that TMEV-seized animals are less likely to move through the exposed center of an open field and are less likely to enter into the lighted half of a light/dark box; both behaviors may be indicative of anxiety-like behavior. TMEV-seized animals also display early and persistent reductions in novel object exploration during novel object place tasks and do not improve in their ability to find a hidden escape platform in Morris water maze testing, indicative of impairment in episodic and spatial memory, respectively. Cresyl violet staining at 35 and 250 days after injection reveals bilateral reductions in hippocampal area, with extensive sclerosis of CA1 evident bilaterally along the rostral-caudal axis. Early and persistent behavioral changes in the TMEV model provide surrogate markers for assessing disease progression as well as endpoints in screening for the efficacy of novel compounds to manage both

  8. Combined rTMS treatment targeting the Anterior Cingulate and the Temporal Cortex for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Lehner, Astrid; Schlee, Winfried; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Landgrebe, Michael; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a tinnitus treatment option. Promising results have been obtained by consecutive stimulation of lateral frontal and auditory brain regions. We investigated a combined stimulation paradigm targeting the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with double cone coil rTMS, followed by stimulation of the temporo-parietal junction area with a figure-of-eight coil. The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind pilot trial in 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We compared mediofrontal stimulation with double-cone-coil, (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by left temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz) to left dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz). The stimulation was feasible with comparable dropout rates in both study arms; no severe adverse events were registered. Responder rates did not differ in both study arms. There was a significant main effect of time for the change in the TQ score, but no significant time x group interaction. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of combined mediofrontal/temporoparietal-rTMS-stimulation with double cone coil in tinnitus patients but failed to show better outcome compared to an actively rTMS treated control group. PMID:26667790

  9. A case for conflict across multiple domains: Memory and language impairments following damage to ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Jared M.; Kan, Irene P.; Trueswell, John C.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with focal lesions to the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG; BA 44/45) exhibit difficulty with language production and comprehension tasks, although the nature of their impairments has been somewhat difficult to characterize. No reported cases suggest that these patients are Broca's aphasics in the classic agrammatic sense. Recent case studies, however, do reveal a consistent pattern of deficit regarding their general cognitive processes: They are reliably impaired on tasks in which conflicting representations must be resolved by implementing top-down cognitive control (e.g., Stroop; memory tasks involving proactive interference). In the present study, we ask whether the language production and comprehension impairments displayed by a patient with circumscribed LIFG damage can best be understood within a general conflict resolution deficit account. We focus on one patient in particular—patient I.G.—and discuss the implications for language processing abilities as a consequence of a general cognitive control disorder. We compared I.G. and other frontal patients to age-matched control participants across four experiments. Experiment 1 tested participants’ general conflict resolution abilities within a modified working memory paradigm in an attempt to replicate prior case study findings. We then tested language production abilities on tasks of picture naming (Experiment 2) and verbal fluency (Experiment 3), tasks that generated conflict at the semantic and/or conceptual levels. Experiment 4 tested participants’ sentence processing and comprehension abilities using both online (eye movement) and offline measures. In this task, participants carried out spoken instructions containing a syntactic ambiguity, in which early interpretation commitments had to be overridden in order to recover an alternative, intended analysis of sentence meaning. Comparisons of I.G.'s performance with frontal and healthy control participants supported the following claim: I

  10. Single exposure to cocaine impairs aspartate uptake in the pre-frontal cortex via dopamine D1-receptor dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sathler, Matheus Figueiredo; Stutz, Bernardo; Martins, Robertta Silva; Dos Santos Pereira, Maurício; Pecinalli, Ney Roner; Santos, Luis E; Taveira-da-Silva, Rosilane; Lowe, Jennifer; de Freitas, Isis Grigorio; de Melo Reis, Ricardo Augusto; Manhães, Alex C; Kubrusly, Regina C C

    2016-08-04

    Dopamine and glutamate play critical roles in the reinforcing effects of cocaine. We demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal administration of cocaine induces a significant decrease in [(3)H]-d-aspartate uptake in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC). This decrease is associated with elevated dopamine levels, and requires dopamine D1-receptor signaling (D1R) and adenylyl cyclase activation. The effect was observed within 10min of cocaine administration and lasted for up to 30min. This rapid response is related to D1R-mediated cAMP-mediated activation of PKA and phosphorylation of the excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT1, EAAT2 and EAAT3. We also demonstrated that cocaine exposure increases extracellular d-aspartate, l-glutamate and d-serine in the PFC. Our data suggest that cocaine activates dopamine D1 receptor signaling and PKA pathway to regulate EAATs function and extracellular EAA level in the PFC.

  11. Spatio-temporal characteristics of cerebral blood volume changes in different microvascular compartments evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation in rat somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Qingming; Luo, Weihua; Chen, Shangbin; Chen, Haiying; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2003-10-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of changes in cerebral blood volume associated with neuronal activity were investigated in the hindlimb somatosensory cortex of α-chloralose/urethan anesthetized rats (n=10) with optical imaging at 570nm through a thinned skull. Activation of cortex was carried out by electrical stimulation of the contralateral sciatic nerve with 5Hz, 0.3V pulses (0.5ms) for duration of 2s. The stimulation evoked a monophasic optical reflectance decrease at cortical parenchyma and arteries sites rapidly after the onset of stimulation, whereas no similar response was observed at vein compartments. The optical signal changes reached 10% of the peak response 0.70+/-0.32s after stimulation onset and no significant time lag in this 10% start latency time was observed between the response at cortical parenchyma and arteries compartments. The evoked optical reflectance decrease reached the peak (0.25%+/-0.047%)2.66+/-0.61s after the stimulus onset at parenchyma site, 0.40+/-0.20s earlier (P<0.05) than that at arteries site (0.50%+/-0.068% 3.06+/-0.70s). Variable location within the cortical parenchyma and arteries compartment themselves didn"t affect the temporal characteristics of the evoked signal significantly. These results suggest that the sciatic nerve stimulation evokes a local blood volume increase at both capillaries (cortical parenchyma) and arterioles rapidly after the stimulus onset but the evoked blood volume increase in capillaries could not be entirely accounted for by the dilation of arterioles.

  12. How do we infer others' goals from non-stereotypic actions? The outcome of context-sensitive inferential processing in right inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Liepelt, Roman; Von Cramon, D Yves; Brass, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    Humans permanently monitor others' behaviour and reason about their goals and intentions. Recent studies provided evidence suggesting that a very simple mechanism might underlie these functions. When observing stereotypic actions of others, goal inference seems to work through internal simulation of these actions in the self. However, less is known about the functional mechanisms and brain areas that are involved in inferring goals from others' actions when these actions are not stereotypic. Here we investigated the neural processes that are involved in goal inference processing of simple, non-stereotypic actions using functional brain imaging. We developed a paradigm in which we compared four simple finger lifting movements that differed in plausibility and intentionality as varied by action context. We found three regions that seem to be involved in goal inference processing of non-stereotypic implausible actions: (1) The superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right inferior parietal cortex, at the junction with the posterior temporal cortex (TPJ), and (3) the angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule. In line with teleological reasoning accounts of action understanding, inferring others' goals from non-stereotypic actions seems to be the outcome of context-sensitive inferential processing. In agreement with previous findings, we found the mirror system to be more strongly activated for intentionally produced actions [Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J.C., Rizzolatti, G., 2005. Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol. 3, e79.], indicating an involvement of the IFG in representing intentional actions. Our findings support the idea that goal inference processing for non-stereotypic actions is primarily mediated by reasoning about action and context rather than by a direct mapping process via the mirror system.

  13. The retrosplenial cortex and object recency memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Powell, Anna L; Vann, Seralynne D; Olarte-Sánchez, Cristian M; Kinnavane, Lisa; Davies, Moira; Amin, Eman; Aggleton, John P; Nelson, Andrew J D

    2017-04-10

    It has been proposed that the retrosplenial cortex forms part of a "where/when" information network. The present study focussed on the related issue of whether retrosplenial cortex also contributes to "what/when" information, by examining object recency memory. In Experiment 1, rats with retrosplenial lesions were found to be impaired at distinguishing the temporal order of objects presented in a continuous series ('Within-Block' condition). The same lesioned rats could, however, distinguish between objects that had been previously presented in one of two discrete blocks ('Between-Block' condition). Experiment 2 used intact rats to map the expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos in retrosplenial cortex following performance of a between-block, recency discrimination. Recency performance correlated positively with levels of c-fos expression in both granular and dysgranular retrosplenial cortex (areas 29 and 30). Expression of c-fos in the granular retrosplenial cortex also correlated with prelimbic cortex and ventral subiculum c-fos activity, the latter also correlating with recency memory performance. The combined findings from both experiments reveal an involvement of the retrosplenial cortex in temporal order memory, which includes both between-block and within-block problems. The current findings also suggest that the rat retrosplenial cortex comprises one of a group of closely interlinked regions that enable recency memory, including the hippocampal formation, medial diencephalon, and medial frontal cortex. In view of the well-established importance of the retrosplenial cortex for spatial learning, the findings support the notion that, with its frontal and hippocampal connections, retrosplenial cortex has a key role for both what/when and where/when information. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Hiding in plain view: lesions of the medial temporal lobe impair on-line representation

    PubMed Central

    Warren, David E.; Duff, Melissa C.; Jensen, Unni; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J.

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus is necessary for the normal formation of enduring declarative memories, but its role in cognitive processes spanning short intervals is less well understood. Within the last decade several reports have described modest behavioral deficits in MTL-lesion patients when they perform tasks that do not seem likely to rely on enduring memory. An intriguing but sparsely-tested implication of such results is that the MTL is involved in the on-line representation of information, possibly of an associative/relational nature, irrespective of delay. We administered several tests that simultaneously presented all information necessary for accurate responses to a group of MTL-lesion patients with severe declarative memory deficits but otherwise normal cognition, and to matched brain-damaged and healthy comparison participants. MTL-lesion patients performed less well than either comparison group in the Hooper Visual Organization Test, and several patients performed outside the normal range on the Overlapping Figures Test. A novel follow-up borrowing characteristics of the Overlapping Figures Test revealed impaired identification of novel items by MTL-lesion patients when target items were obscured by distracters, and two additional novel tests of fragmented object identification further implicated the hippocampus/MTL in the integration of information across very brief intervals. These findings suggest that MTL structures including the hippocampus contribute similarly to cognition irrespective of timescale. PMID:22180166

  15. Sevoflurane anesthesia induces neither contextual fear memory impairment nor alterations in local population connectivity of medial prefrontal cortex local field potentials networks in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinyu; Zhang, Qian; Tian, Xin; Wang, Guolin

    2016-08-01

    Sevoflurane has been found to increase apoptosis and pathologic markers associated with Alzheimer disease, provoking concern over their potential contribution to postoperative cognitive dysfunction. This study aimed to determine the effects of sevoflurane on contextual fear memory of aged rats and to characterize local population connectivity of local field potentials (LFPs) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of aged rats during contextual fear memory. Eighteen-month-old male SD rats were implanted with one multichannel electrode array in mPFC. The aged rats were divided into control group, sevoflurane group (1 MAC sevoflurane for 2 h) and surgical group with 1.0 MAC sevoflurane for 2 h. We then assessed the effect of the anesthesia on contextual fear memory, and alterations in the local population connectivity of mPFC LFP networks by partial directed coherence (PDC). Surgery impaired contextual fear memory and reduced local population connectivity of mPFC LFP networks in aged rats at day 1 after the surgery and anesthesia. 1 MAC Sevoflurane anesthesia induced neither contextual fear memory impairment nor alterations in local population connectivity of mPFC LFP networks in aged rats when tested 1, 7, 15 and 30 days after exposure (P > 0.05). PDC values of theta band mPFC LFPs became strongly increased during contextual fear memory at 1, 7, 15, and 30 days after anesthesia. Our results suggest that 1 MAC sevoflurane anesthesia does not induce contextual fear memory impairment in aged rats and suggest that the increased local population connectivity in theta bands LFPs of mPFC plays a role in contextual fear memory.

  16. Monocular inhibition reveals temporal and spatial changes in gene expression in the primary visual cortex of marmoset

    PubMed Central

    Nakagami, Yuki; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the time course of the expression of several activity-dependent genes evoked by visual inputs in the primary visual cortex (V1) in adult marmosets. In order to examine the rapid time course of activity-dependent gene expression, marmosets were first monocularly inactivated by tetrodotoxin (TTX), kept in darkness for two days, and then exposed to various length of light stimulation. Activity-dependent genes including HTR1B, HTR2A, whose activity-dependency were previously reported by us, and well-known immediate early genes (IEGs), c-FOS, ZIF268, and ARC, were examined by in situ hybridization. Using this system, first, we demonstrated the ocular dominance type of gene expression pattern in V1 under this condition. IEGs were expressed in columnar patterns throughout layers II–VI of all the tested monocular marmosets. Second, we showed the regulation of HTR1B and HTR2A expressions by retinal spontaneous activity, because HTR1B and HTR2A mRNA expressions sustained a certain level regardless of visual stimulation and were inhibited by a blockade of the retinal activity with TTX. Third, IEGs dynamically changed its laminar distribution from half an hour to several hours upon a stimulus onset with the unique time course for each gene. The expression patterns of these genes were different in neurons of each layer as well. These results suggest that the regulation of each neuron in the primary visual cortex of marmosets is subjected to different regulation upon the change of activities from retina. It should be related to a highly differentiated laminar structure of marmoset visual systems, reflecting the functions of the activity-dependent gene expression in marmoset V1. PMID:23576954

  17. Monocular inhibition reveals temporal and spatial changes in gene expression in the primary visual cortex of marmoset.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Yuki; Watakabe, Akiya; Yamamori, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the time course of the expression of several activity-dependent genes evoked by visual inputs in the primary visual cortex (V1) in adult marmosets. In order to examine the rapid time course of activity-dependent gene expression, marmosets were first monocularly inactivated by tetrodotoxin (TTX), kept in darkness for two days, and then exposed to various length of light stimulation. Activity-dependent genes including HTR1B, HTR2A, whose activity-dependency were previously reported by us, and well-known immediate early genes (IEGs), c-FOS, ZIF268, and ARC, were examined by in situ hybridization. Using this system, first, we demonstrated the ocular dominance type of gene expression pattern in V1 under this condition. IEGs were expressed in columnar patterns throughout layers II-VI of all the tested monocular marmosets. Second, we showed the regulation of HTR1B and HTR2A expressions by retinal spontaneous activity, because HTR1B and HTR2A mRNA expressions sustained a certain level regardless of visual stimulation and were inhibited by a blockade of the retinal activity with TTX. Third, IEGs dynamically changed its laminar distribution from half an hour to several hours upon a stimulus onset with the unique time course for each gene. The expression patterns of these genes were different in neurons of each layer as well. These results suggest that the regulation of each neuron in the primary visual cortex of marmosets is subjected to different regulation upon the change of activities from retina. It should be related to a highly differentiated laminar structure of marmoset visual systems, reflecting the functions of the activity-dependent gene expression in marmoset V1.

  18. Increased expression of interleukin 17 in the cortex and hippocampus from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    He, Jiao-Jiang; Sun, Fei-Ji; Wang, Yu; Luo, Xiao-Qin; Lei, Peng; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Di; Li, Zhi-Yun; Yang, Hui

    2016-09-15

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common form of focal epilepsies in adults and proinflammatory cytokines have long been thought to play an important role in pathogenesis and epileptogenicity. In the present study, we investigated the levels and expression patterns of the interleukin 17 (IL-17) system in temporal neocortex and hippocampus from 24 patients with MTLE and 8 control (Ctr) samples. We found that IL-17 and IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) were clearly upregulated in MTLE at both mRNA and protein levels, compared with Ctr. Immunostaining indicated that neurons, astrocytes, microglia and endothelial cells of blood vessels are the major sources of IL-17. These findings suggest that IL-17 system may be involved in the pathogenesis and epileptogenicity of MTLE.

  19. Post-learning infusion of anisomycin into the anterior cingulate cortex impairs instrumental acquisition through an effect on reinforcer valuation.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sietse; Everitt, Barry J

    2009-11-01

    The integrity of the rodent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, but it is not clear if the ACC is important for the acquisition of a simple instrumental response. Here, it was demonstrated that post-session infusions of anisomycin into the rat ACC completely prevented the acquisition of instrumental responding. The experimental use of post-session intracranial infusions of plasticity inhibitors is assumed to affect local consolidation of plasticity, but not behavioral task performance. However, in associative appetitive conditioning, post-session intracranial infusion of pharmaco-active compounds could actually interfere with subsequent task performance indirectly through retrospective effects on the valuation of ingested rewards. Thus, it was subsequently demonstrated that the intracranial infusion of anisomycin into the ACC after sucrose pellet consumption significantly reduced subsequent pellet consumption, suggesting that the infusion of anisomycin into the ACC produced conditioned taste avoidance. In the third experiment, an innovative procedure was introduced that dissociated the effects of intracranial infusions after conditioning sessions on task-learning and unconditioned stimulus valuation. With this procedure, the infusion of anisomycin into the ACC after instrumental sessions did not affect instrumental reinforcer valuation or the acquisition of instrumental responding, suggesting that plasticity in the ACC is not necessary for the acquisition of instrumental behavior.

  20. Synaptic Impairment in Layer 1 of the Prefrontal Cortex Induced by Repeated Stress During Adolescence is Reversed in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Muñoz Carvajal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, some of which involve dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). There is a higher prevalence of these chronic stress-related psychiatric disorders during adolescence, when the PFC has not yet fully matured. In the present work we studied the effect of repeated stress during adolescence on synaptic function in the PFC in adolescence and adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to seven consecutive days of restraint stress. Afterward, both synaptic transmission and short- and long-term synaptic plasticity were evaluated in layer 1 of medial-PFC (mPFC) slices from adolescent and adult rats. We found that repeated stress significantly reduced the amplitude of evoked field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mPFC. Isolation of excitatory transmission reveled that lower-amplitude fEPSPs were associated with a reduction in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated transmission. We also found that repeated stress significantly decreased long-term depression (LTD). Interestingly, AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated transmission and LTD were recovered in adult animals that experienced a three-week stress-free recovery period. The data indicates that the changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mPFC induced by repeated stress during adolescence are reversed in adulthood after a stress-free period. PMID:26617490

  1. Molecular and Electrophysiological Characterization of GABAergic Interneurons Expressing the Transcription Factor COUP-TFII in the Adult Human Temporal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Varga, Csaba; Tamas, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Olah, Szabolcs; Somogyi, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Transcription factors contribute to the differentiation of cortical neurons, orchestrate specific interneuronal circuits, and define synaptic relationships. We have investigated neurons expressing chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), which plays a role in the migration of GABAergic neurons. Whole-cell, patch-clamp recording in vitro combined with colocalization of molecular cell markers in the adult cortex differentiates distinct interneurons. The majority of strongly COUP-TFII-expressing neurons were in layers I-III. Most calretinin (CR) and/or cholecystokinin- (CCK) and/or reelin-positive interneurons were also COUP-TFII-positive. CR-, CCK-, or reelin-positive neurons formed 80%, 20%, or 17% of COUP-TFII-positive interneurons, respectively. About half of COUP-TFII-/CCK-positive interneurons were CR-positive, a quarter of them reelin-positive, but none expressed both. Interneurons positive for COUP-TFII fired irregular, accommodating and adapting trains of action potentials (APs) and innervated mostly small dendritic shafts and rarely spines or somata. Paired recording showed that a calretinin-/COUP-TFII-positive interneuron elicited inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in a reciprocally connected pyramidal cell. Calbindin, somatostatin, or parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons and most pyramidal cells express no immunohistochemically detectable COUP-TFII. In layers V and VI, some pyramidal cells expressed a low level of COUP-TFII in the nucleus. In conclusion, COUP-TFII is expressed in a diverse subset of GABAergic interneurons predominantly innervating small dendritic shafts originating from both interneurons and pyramidal cells.

  2. Temporal Dynamics of Acute Stress-Induced Dendritic Remodeling in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and the Protective Effect of Desipramine.

    PubMed

    Nava, Nicoletta; Treccani, Giulia; Alabsi, Abdelrahman; Kaastrup Mueller, Heidi; Elfving, Betina; Popoli, Maurizio; Wegener, Gregers; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2015-11-01

    Stressful events are associated with increased risk of mood disorders. Volumetric reductions have been reported in brain areas critical for the stress response, such as medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and dendritic remodeling has been proposed as an underlying factor. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects of acute stress on dendritic remodeling within the prelimbic (PL) region of the PFC, and whether treatment with the antidepressant desipramine (DMI) may interfere. Rodents were subjected to foot-shock stress: dendritic length and spine density were analyzed 1 day, 7 days, and 14 days after stress. Acute stress produced increased spine density and decreased cofilin phosphorylation at 1 day, paralleled with dendritic retraction. An overall shift in spine population was observed at 1 day, resulting in a stress-induced increase in small spines. Significant atrophy of apical dendrites was observed at 1 day, which was prevented by chronic DMI, and at 14 days after stress exposure. Chronic DMI resulted in dendritic elaboration at 7 days but did not prevent the effects of FS-stress. Collectively, these data demonstrate that 1) acute stressors may induce rapid and sustained changes of PL neurons; and 2) chronic DMI may protect neurons from rapid stress-induced synaptic changes.

  3. mGluR1, but not mGluR5, activates feed-forward inhibition in the medial prefrontal cortex to impair decision making

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility depends on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We showed previously that impaired decision making in pain results from amygdala-driven inhibition of medial PFC neurons, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. Using whole cell patch clamp in rat brain slices and a cognitive behavioral task, we tested the hypothesis that group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) activate feed-forward inhibition to decrease excitability and output function of PFC pyramidal cells, thus impairing decision making. Polysynaptic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were evoked in layer V pyramidal cells by stimulating presumed amygdala afferents. An mGluR1/5 agonist [(S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine, DHPG] increased synaptic inhibition more strongly than excitatory transmission. The facilitatory effects were blocked by an mGluR1 [(S)-(+)-α-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid, LY367385], but not mGluR5, antagonist, 3-[(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl]pyridine. IPSCs were blocked by bicuculline and decreased by 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium salt (NBQX). Facilitation of synaptic inhibition by DHPG was glutamate driven because it was blocked by NBQX. DHPG increased frequency but not amplitude of spontaneous IPSCs; consistent with action potential-dependent synaptic inhibition, tetrodotoxin (TTX) prevented the facilitatory effects. DHPG decreased synaptically evoked spikes (E-S coupling) and depolarization-induced spiking [frequency-current (f-I) relationship]. This effect was indirect, resulting from glutamate-driven synaptic inhibition, because it persisted when a G protein blocker was included in the pipette but was blocked by GABAA receptor antagonists and NBQX. In contrast, DHPG increased E-S coupling and f-I relationships in mPFC interneurons through a presynaptic action, further supporting the concept of feed

  4. Neural activity in macaque parietal cortex reflects temporal integration of visual motion signals during perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Huk, Alexander C; Shadlen, Michael N

    2005-11-09

    Decision-making often requires the accumulation and maintenance of evidence over time. Although the neural signals underlying sensory processing have been studied extensively, little is known about how the brain accrues and holds these sensory signals to guide later actions. Previous work has suggested that neural activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of the monkey brain reflects the formation of perceptual decisions in a random dot direction-discrimination task in which monkeys communicate their decisions with eye-movement responses. We tested the hypothesis that decision-related neural activity in LIP represents the time integral of the momentary motion "evidence." By briefly perturbing the strength of the visual motion stimulus during the formation of perceptual decisions, we tested whether this LIP activity reflected a persistent, integrated "memory" of these brief sensory events. We found that the responses of LIP neurons reflected substantial temporal integration. Brief pulses had persistent effects on both the monkeys' choices and the responses of neurons in LIP, lasting up to 800 ms after appearance. These results demonstrate that LIP is involved in neural time integration underlying the accumulation of evidence in this task. Additional analyses suggest that decision-related LIP responses, as well as behavioral choices and reaction times, can be explained by near-perfect time integration that stops when a criterion amount of evidence has been accumulated. Temporal integration may be a fundamental computation underlying higher cognitive functions that are dissociated from immediate sensory inputs or motor outputs.

  5. Molecular and Electrophysiological Characterization of GABAergic Interneurons Expressing the Transcription Factor COUP-TFII in the Adult Human Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Csaba; Tamas, Gabor; Barzo, Pal; Olah, Szabolcs; Somogyi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors contribute to the differentiation of cortical neurons, orchestrate specific interneuronal circuits, and define synaptic relationships. We have investigated neurons expressing chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII), which plays a role in the migration of GABAergic neurons. Whole-cell, patch-clamp recording in vitro combined with colocalization of molecular cell markers in the adult cortex differentiates distinct interneurons. The majority of strongly COUP-TFII-expressing neurons were in layers I–III. Most calretinin (CR) and/or cholecystokinin- (CCK) and/or reelin-positive interneurons were also COUP-TFII-positive. CR-, CCK-, or reelin-positive neurons formed 80%, 20%, or 17% of COUP-TFII-positive interneurons, respectively. About half of COUP-TFII-/CCK-positive interneurons were CR-positive, a quarter of them reelin-positive, but none expressed both. Interneurons positive for COUP-TFII fired irregular, accommodating and adapting trains of action potentials (APs) and innervated mostly small dendritic shafts and rarely spines or somata. Paired recording showed that a calretinin-/COUP-TFII-positive interneuron elicited inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) in a reciprocally connected pyramidal cell. Calbindin, somatostatin, or parvalbumin-immunoreactive interneurons and most pyramidal cells express no immunohistochemically detectable COUP-TFII. In layers V and VI, some pyramidal cells expressed a low level of COUP-TFII in the nucleus. In conclusion, COUP-TFII is expressed in a diverse subset of GABAergic interneurons predominantly innervating small dendritic shafts originating from both interneurons and pyramidal cells. PMID:25787832

  6. Impaired personal trait knowledge, but spared other-person trait knowledge, in an individual with bilateral damage to the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Marquine, María J; Grilli, Matthew D; Rapcsak, Steven Z; Kaszniak, Alfred W; Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Glisky, Elizabeth L

    2016-08-01

    Functional neuroimaging has revealed that in healthy adults retrieval of personal trait knowledge is associated with increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Separately, neuropsychology has shown that the self-referential nature of memory can be disrupted in individuals with mPFC lesions. However, it remains unclear whether damage to the mPFC impairs retrieval of personal trait knowledge. Therefore, in this neuropsychological case study we investigated the integrity of personal trait knowledge in J.S., an individual who sustained bilateral damage to the mPFC as a result of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. We measured both accuracy and consistency of J.S.'s personal trait knowledge as well as his trait knowledge of another, frequently seen person, and compared his performance to a group of healthy adults. Findings revealed that J.S. had severely impaired accuracy and consistency of his personal trait knowledge relative to control participants. In contrast, J.S.'s accuracy and consistency of other-person trait knowledge was intact in comparison to control participants. Moreover, J.S. showed a normal positivity bias in his trait ratings. These results, albeit based on a single case, implicate the mPFC as critical for retrieval of personal trait knowledge. Findings also cast doubt on the likelihood that the mPFC, in particular the ventral mPFC, is necessary for storage and retrieval of trait knowledge of other people. Therefore, this case study adds to a growing body of evidence that mPFC damage can disrupt the link between self and memory.

  7. Age-related spatial cognitive impairment is correlated with a decrease in ChAT in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and forebrain of SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Hong; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2009-05-01

    At present, the mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders remain unclear. The senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) prone/8 (P8) has been proposed as a useful model for the study of aging, and SAM resistant/1 (R1) is its control as a normal aging strain. The purpose of this study was to investigate choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in SAM brain. The age-related decline of learning and memory ability in P8 mice (4, 8 and 12 months old, n=10 for each group) was proved in Morris water maze test (MWM). After the behavioral test, protein and mRNA levels of ChAT were determined in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and forebrain by means of immunostaining, Western blotting, and real time quantitative PCR (QPCR). Comparing with 4-month-old P8 and R1, 8- and 12-month-old P8 showed age-related cognitive impairment in MWM test. The latencies of the 4-month-old P8 in a hidden platform trial were significantly shorter, and the retention time was significantly longer than that of the older P8 groups. In addition, significantly low level of ChAT protein was observed in older P8 groups. Comparing with the 4-month-old P8, ChAT mRNA in the 12-month-old P8 declined significantly in all three regions of P8 brain. Pearson correlation test showed that the latencies in the MWM were positively correlated with the level of ChAT in P8. Such phenomenon could not be detected in normal aging R1 mice. These findings suggest that the decrease of ChAT in P8 mice was responsible for the age-related learning and memory impairments in some sense.

  8. Neonatal alcohol exposure reduces number of parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and impairs passive avoidance acquisition in mice deficits not rescued from exercise.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Hernandez, I J; Krebs, C P; Bucko, P J; Rhodes, J S

    2017-04-06

    Developmental alcohol exposure causes a host of cognitive and neuroanatomical abnormalities, one of which is impaired executive functioning resulting from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) damage. This study determined whether third-trimester equivalent alcohol exposure reduced the number of mPFC GABAergic parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons, hypothesized to play an important role in local inhibition of the mPFC. The impact on passive avoidance learning and the therapeutic role of aerobic exercise in adulthood was also explored. Male C57BL/6J mice received either saline or 5g/kg ethanol (two doses, two hours apart) on PD5, 7, and 9. On PD35, animals received a running wheel or remained sedentary for 48days before behavioral testing and perfusion on PD83. The number of PV+ interneurons was stereologically measured in three separate mPFC subregions: infralimbic, prelimbic and anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). Neonatal alcohol exposure decreased number of PV+ interneurons and volume of the ACC, but the other regions of the mPFC were spared. Alcohol impaired acquisition, but not retrieval of passive avoidance, and had no effect on motor performance on the rotarod. Exercise had no impact on PV+ cell number, mPFC volume, or acquisition of passive avoidance, but enhanced retrieval in both control and alcohol-exposed groups, and enhanced rotarod performance in the control mice. Results support the hypothesis that part of the behavioral deficits associated with developmental alcohol exposure are due to reduced PV+ interneurons in the ACC, but unfortunately exercise does not appear to be able to reverse any of these deficits.

  9. Secretion-Positive LGI1 Mutations Linked to Lateral Temporal Epilepsy Impair Binding to ADAM22 and ADAM23 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dazzo, Emanuela; Belluzzi, Elisa; Malacrida, Sandro; Vitiello, Libero; Greggio, Elisa; Tosatto, Silvio C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADTLE) is a focal epilepsy syndrome caused by mutations in the LGI1 gene, which encodes a secreted protein. Most ADLTE-causing mutations inhibit LGI1 protein secretion, and only a few secretion-positive missense mutations have been reported. Here we describe the effects of four disease-causing nonsynonymous LGI1 mutations, T380A, R407C, S473L, and R474Q, on protein secretion and extracellular interactions. Expression of LGI1 mutant proteins in cultured cells shows that these mutations do not inhibit protein secretion. This finding likely results from the lack of effects of these mutations on LGI1 protein folding, as suggested by 3D protein modelling. In addition, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that all four mutations significantly impair interaction of LGI1 with the ADAM22 and ADAM23 receptors on the cell surface. These results support the existence of a second mechanism, alternative to inhibition of protein secretion, by which ADLTE-causing LGI1 mutations exert their loss-of-function effect extracellularly, and suggest that interactions of LGI1 with both ADAM22 and ADAM23 play an important role in the molecular mechanisms leading to ADLTE. PMID:27760137

  10. Relationships between Personality Traits, Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy, and White Matter Lesion in Subjects Suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Duron, Emmanuelle; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Bounatiro, Samira; Ben Ahmed, Sana; Seux, Marie-Laure; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Viollet, Cécile; Epelbaum, Jacques; Martel, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous cognitive status that can be a prodromal stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). It is particularly relevant to focus on prodromal stages of AD such as MCI, because patho-physiological abnormalities of AD start years before the dementia stage. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy resulting from AD lesions and cerebrovascular lesions [i.e., white matter lesions (WML), lacunar strokes, and strokes] are often revealed concurrently on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in MCI subjects. Personality changes have been reported to be associated with MCI status and early AD. More specifically, an increase in neuroticism and a decrease in conscientiousness have been reported, suggesting that higher and lower scores, respectively, in neuroticism and conscientiousness are associated with an increased risk of developing the disease. However, personality changes have not been studied concomitantly with pathological structural brain alterations detected on MRI in patients suffering from MCI. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between MTL atrophy, WML, lacunar strokes, and personality traits in such patients. The severity of WML was strongly associated with lower levels of conscientiousness and higher levels of neuroticism. Conversely, no association was detected between personality traits and the presence of lacunar strokes or MTL atrophy. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that personality changes occurring in a MCI population, at high risk of AD, are associated with WML, which can induce executive dysfunctions, rather than with MTL atrophy. PMID:25120483

  11. Prefrontal cortex lesions and scopolamine impair attention performance of C57BL/6 mice in a novel 2-choice visual discrimination task.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Gregory M; Shelton, Delia; McKinney, A P; Caniga, Michael; Marcus, Jacob N; Ferguson, Mitchell T; Kornecook, Thomas J; Dodart, Jean-Cosme

    2009-12-01

    Sustained attention is defined as the ability or capacity to remain focused on the occurrence of rare events over long periods of time. We describe here the development of a novel, operant-based attention task that can be learned by mice in 8-10 days. Mice were trained on a 2-choice visual discrimination task in an operant chamber, wherein the correct response on any given trial was a lever-press cued by a stimulus light. Upon reaching a criterion of greater than 80% correct responses, all subjects were tested in a mixed-trial attention paradigm combining four different stimulus durations within a single session (0.5, 1, 2, or 10 s). During attention testing, the percentage of correct responses decreased as a function of stimulus duration, indicating a performance decrement which parallels increasing attentional demand within the task. Pretreatment with the muscarinic-receptor antagonist scopolamine yielded a reliable, dose-dependent performance deficit whereas nicotine treatment improved the percentage of correct responses during trials with the greatest attentional demand. Moreover, medial prefrontal cortex lesions impaired attention performance without affecting acquisition or retention of the discrimination rule. These results underscore the utility of this task as a novel means of assessing attentional processes in mice in a relatively high-throughput manner.

  12. Temporal Cortex Activation to Audiovisual Speech in Normal-Hearing and Cochlear Implant Users Measured with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijt, Luuk P. H.; van Opstal, A. John; Mylanus, Emmanuel A. M.; Straatman, Louise V.; Hu, Hai Yin; Snik, Ad F. M.; van Wanrooij, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Speech understanding may rely not only on auditory, but also on visual information. Non-invasive functional neuroimaging techniques can expose the neural processes underlying the integration of multisensory processes required for speech understanding in humans. Nevertheless, noise (from functional MRI, fMRI) limits the usefulness in auditory experiments, and electromagnetic artifacts caused by electronic implants worn by subjects can severely distort the scans (EEG, fMRI). Therefore, we assessed audio-visual activation of temporal cortex with a silent, optical neuroimaging technique: functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Methods: We studied temporal cortical activation as represented by concentration changes of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin in four, easy-to-apply fNIRS optical channels of 33 normal-hearing adult subjects and five post-lingually deaf cochlear implant (CI) users in response to supra-threshold unisensory auditory and visual, as well as to congruent auditory-visual speech stimuli. Results: Activation effects were not visible from single fNIRS channels. However, by discounting physiological noise through reference channel subtraction (RCS), auditory, visual and audiovisual (AV) speech stimuli evoked concentration changes for all sensory modalities in both cohorts (p < 0.001). Auditory stimulation evoked larger concentration changes than visual stimuli (p < 0.001). A saturation effect was observed for the AV condition. Conclusions: Physiological, systemic noise can be removed from fNIRS signals by RCS. The observed multisensory enhancement of an auditory cortical channel can be plausibly described by a simple addition of the auditory and visual signals with saturation. PMID:26903848

  13. Abnormal development of sensory-motor, visual temporal and parahippocampal cortex in children with learning disabilities and borderline intellectual functioning.

    PubMed

    Baglio, Francesca; Cabinio, Monia; Ricci, Cristian; Baglio, Gisella; Lipari, Susanna; Griffanti, Ludovica; Preti, Maria G; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Zanette, Michela; Blasi, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is a condition characterized by an intelligence quotient (IQ) between 70 and 85. BIF children present with cognitive, motor, social, and adaptive limitations that result in learning disabilities and are more likely to develop psychiatric disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to investigate brain morphometry and its relation to IQ level in BIF children. Thirteen children with BIF and 14 age- and sex-matched typically developing (TD) children were enrolled. All children underwent a full IQ assessment (WISC-III scale) and a magnetic resonance (MR) examination including conventional sequences to assess brain structural abnormalities and high resolution 3D images for voxel-based morphometry analysis. To investigate to what extent the group influenced gray matter (GM) volumes, both univariate and multivariate generalized linear model analysis of variance were used, and the varimax factor analysis was used to explore variable correlations and clusters among subjects. Results showed that BIF children, compared to controls have increased regional GM volume in bilateral sensorimotor and right posterior temporal cortices and decreased GM volume in the right parahippocampal gyrus. GM volumes were highly correlated with IQ indices. The present work is a case study of a group of BIF children showing that BIF is associated with abnormal cortical development in brain areas that have a pivotal role in motor, learning, and behavioral processes. Our findings, although allowing for little generalization to the general population, contribute to the very limited knowledge in this field. Future longitudinal MR studies will be useful in verifying whether cortical features can be modified over time even in association with rehabilitative intervention.

  14. The anterior temporal cortex is a primary semantic source of top-down influences on object recognition.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Rocco; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    Perception emerges from a dynamic interplay between feed-forward sensory input and feedback modulation along the cascade of neural processing. Prior knowledge, a major form of top-down modulatory signal, benefits perception by enabling efficacious inference and resolving ambiguity, particularly under circumstances of degraded visual input. Despite semantic information being a potentially critical source of this top-down influence, to date, the core neural substrate of semantic knowledge (the anterolateral temporal lobe - ATL) has not been considered as a key component of the feedback system. Here we provide direct evidence of its significance for visual cognition - the ATL underpins the semantic aspect of object recognition, amalgamating sensory-based (amount of accumulated sensory input) and semantic-based (representational proximity between exemplars and typicality of appearance) influences. Using transcranial theta-burst stimulation combined with a novel visual identification paradigm, we demonstrate that the left ATL contributes to discrimination between visual objects. Crucially, its contribution is especially vital under situations where semantic knowledge is most needed for supplementing deficiency of input (brief visual exposure), discerning analogously-coded exemplars (close representational distance), and resolving discordance (target appearance violating the statistical typicality of its category). Our findings characterise functional properties of the ATL in object recognition: this neural structure is summoned to augment the visual system when the latter is overtaxed by challenging conditions (insufficient input, overlapped neural coding, and conflict between incoming signal and expected configuration). This suggests a need to revisit current theories of object recognition, incorporating the ATL that interfaces high-level vision with semantic knowledge.

  15. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats.

  16. Energy Drink Administration in Combination with Alcohol Causes an Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in the Hippocampus and Temporal Cortex of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alfonso; Treviño, Samuel; Guevara, Jorge; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Brambila, Eduardo; Espinosa, Blanca; Moreno-Rodríguez, Albino; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Peña-Rosas, Ulises; Venegas, Berenice; Handal-Silva, Anabella; Morán-Perales, José Luis; Flores, Gonzalo; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Energy drinks (EDs) are often consumed in combination with alcohol because they reduce the depressant effects of alcohol. However, different researches suggest that chronic use of these psychoactive substances in combination with alcohol can trigger an oxidative and inflammatory response. These processes are regulated by both a reactive astrogliosis and an increase of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, and iNOS, causing cell death (apoptosis) at the central and peripheral nervous systems. Currently, mechanisms of toxicity caused by mixing alcohol and ED in the brain are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the effect of chronic alcohol consumption in combination with ED on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in the temporal cortex (TCx) and hippocampus (Hp) of adult rats (90 days old). Our results demonstrated that consuming a mixture of alcohol and ED for 60 days induced an increase in reactive gliosis, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS, reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, in the TCx and Hp. We also found immunoreactivity to caspase-3 and a decrease of synaptophysin in the same brain regions. The results suggested that chronic consumption of alcohol in combination with ED causes an inflammatory response and oxidative stress, which induced cell death via apoptosis in the TCx and Hp of the adult rats. PMID:27069534

  17. The effects of prefrontal cortex transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on food craving and temporal discounting in women with frequent food cravings.

    PubMed

    Kekic, Maria; McClelland, Jessica; Campbell, Iain; Nestler, Steffen; Rubia, Katya; David, Anthony S; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    Bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorder, and some forms of obesity are characterised by compulsive overeating that is often precipitated by food craving. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been used to suppress food cravings, but there is insufficient evidence to support its application in clinical practice. Furthermore, the potential moderating role of impulsivity has not been considered. This study used a randomised within-subjects crossover design to examine whether a 20-minute session of sham-controlled bilateral tDCS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (anode right/cathode left) would transiently modify food cravings and temporal discounting (TD; a measure of choice impulsivity) in 17 healthy women with frequent food cravings. Whether the effects of tDCS on food craving were moderated by individual differences in TD behaviour was also explored. Participants were exposed to food and a film of people eating, and food cravings and TD were assessed before and after active and sham stimulation. Craving for sweet but not savoury foods was reduced following real tDCS. Participants that exhibited more reflective choice behaviour were more susceptible to the anti-craving effects of tDCS than those that displayed more impulsive choice behaviour. No differences were seen in TD or food consumption after real versus sham tDCS. These findings support the efficacy of tDCS in temporarily lowering food cravings and identify the moderating role of TD behaviour.

  18. Increased densities of nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons in the temporal cortex and the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of polytoxicomanic heroin overdose victims: possible implications for heroin neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Trübner, Kurt; Krebs, Philipp; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bielau, Hendrik; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Heroin is one of the most dangerous drugs of abuse, which may exert various neurotoxic actions on the brain (such as gray matter loss, neuronal apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, synaptic defects, depression of adult neurogenensis, as well as development of spongiform leucoencephalopathy). Some of these toxic effects are probably mediated by the gas nitric oxide (NO). We studied by morphometric analysis the numerical density of neurons expressing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in cortical and hypothalamic areas of eight heroin overdose victims and nine matched controls. Heroin addicts showed significantly increased numerical densities of nNOS immunoreactive cells in the right temporal cortex and the left paraventricular nucleus. Remarkably, in heroin abusers, but not in controls, we observed not only immunostained interneurons, but also cortical pyramidal cells. Given that increased cellular expression of nNOS was accompanied by elevated NO generation in brains of heroin addicts, these elevated levels of NO might have contributed to some of the known toxic effects of heroin (for example, reduced adult neurogenesis, mitochondrial pathology or disturbances in synaptic functioning).

  19. Temporal Fine-Structure Coding and Lateralized Speech Perception in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Julie H.; Laugesen, Søren; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen N.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between speech perception performance in spatially complex, lateralized listening scenarios and temporal fine-structure (TFS) coding at low frequencies. Young normal-hearing (NH) and two groups of elderly hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with mild or moderate hearing loss above 1.5 kHz participated in the study. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were estimated in the presence of either speech-shaped noise, two-, four-, or eight-talker babble played reversed, or a nonreversed two-talker masker. Target audibility was ensured by applying individualized linear gains to the stimuli, which were presented over headphones. The target and masker streams were lateralized to the same or to opposite sides of the head by introducing 0.7-ms interaural time differences between the ears. TFS coding was assessed by measuring frequency discrimination thresholds and interaural phase difference thresholds at 250 Hz. NH listeners had clearly better SRTs than the HI listeners. However, when maskers were spatially separated from the target, the amount of SRT benefit due to binaural unmasking differed only slightly between the groups. Neither the frequency discrimination threshold nor the interaural phase difference threshold tasks showed a correlation with the SRTs or with the amount of masking release due to binaural unmasking, respectively. The results suggest that, although HI listeners with normal hearing thresholds below 1.5 kHz experienced difficulties with speech understanding in spatially complex environments, these limitations were unrelated to TFS coding abilities and were only weakly associated with a reduction in binaural-unmasking benefit for spatially separated competing sources. PMID:27601071

  20. Spatial release from masking in normally hearing and hearing-impaired listeners as a function of the temporal overlap of competing talkersa

    PubMed Central

    Best, Virginia; Mason, Christine R.; Kidd, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Listeners with sensorineural hearing loss are poorer than listeners with normal hearing at understanding one talker in the presence of another. This deficit is more pronounced when competing talkers are spatially separated, implying a reduced “spatial benefit” in hearing-impaired listeners. This study tested the hypothesis that this deficit is due to increased masking specifically during the simultaneous portions of competing speech signals. Monosyllabic words were compressed to a uniform duration and concatenated to create target and masker sentences with three levels of temporal overlap: 0% (non-overlapping in time), 50% (partially overlapping), or 100% (completely overlapping). Listeners with hearing loss performed particularly poorly in the 100% overlap condition, consistent with the idea that simultaneous speech sounds are most problematic for these listeners. However, spatial release from masking was reduced in all overlap conditions, suggesting that increased masking during periods of temporal overlap is only one factor limiting spatial unmasking in hearing-impaired listeners. PMID:21428524

  1. A Single Neonatal Injection of Ethinyl Estradiol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning and Reduces Expression of Estrogen Receptor α in the Hippocampus and Cortex of Adult Female Rats.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tatsuomi; Nakamura, Takahiro J; Komine, Chiaki; Goto, Yoshikuni; Mizoguchi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Midori; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Kawaguchi, Maiko

    2016-01-01

    Although perinatal exposure of female rats to estrogenic compounds produces irreversible changes in brain function, it is still unclear how the amount and timing of exposure to those substances affect learning function, or if exposure alters estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in the hippocampus and cortex. In adult female rats, we investigated the effects of neonatal exposure to a model estrogenic compound, ethinyl estradiol (EE), on passive avoidance learning and ERα expression. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats were subcutaneously injected with oil, 0.02 mg/kg EE, 2 mg/kg EE, or 20 mg/kg 17β-estradiol within 24 h after birth. All females were tested for passive avoidance learning at the age of 6 weeks. Neonatal 0.02 mg/kg EE administration significantly disrupted passive avoidance compared with oil treatment in gonadally intact females. In a second experiment, another set of experimental females, treated as described above, was ovariectomized under pentobarbital anesthesia at 10 weeks of age. At 15-17 weeks of age, half of each group received a subcutaneous injection of 5 μg estradiol benzoate a day before the passive avoidance learning test. Passive avoidance learning behavior was impaired by the 0.02 mg/kg EE dose, but notably only in the estradiol benzoate-injected group. At 17-19 weeks of age, hippocampal and cortical samples were collected from rats with or without the 5 μg estradiol benzoate injection, and western blots used to determine ERα expression. A significant decrease in ERα expression was observed in the hippocampus of the estradiol-injected, neonatal EE-treated females. The results demonstrated that exposure to EE immediately after birth decreased learning ability in adult female rats, and that this may be at least partly mediated by the decreased expression of ERα in the hippocampus.

  2. Using vitamin E to prevent the impairment in behavioral test, cell loss and dendrite changes in medial prefrontal cortex induced by tartrazine in rats.

    PubMed

    Rafati, Ali; Nourzei, Nasrin; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Tartrazine is a food color that may adversely affect the nervous system. Vitamin E is a neuro-protective agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tartrazine and vitamin E on the performance of rats in memory and learning tests as well as the structure of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). The rats were first divided into seven groups which received the followings for a period of seven weeks: distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), a low dose (50mg/kg/day) and a high dose (50mg/kg/day) of tartrazine with and without vitamin E. Behavioral tests were conducted and the brain was extracted for stereological methods The high dose of tartrazine decreased the exploration time of novel objects (P<0.01). The low and high doses of tartrazine led into an increase in working and reference memory errors in acquisition and retention phases (eight-arm radial maze) compared to distilled water group (P<0.01). Additionally, the high dose of tartrazine induced a reduction in the volume of mPFC (∼13%) and its subdivision. Not only that, but the number of neurons and glial cells (∼14%) as well as the mushroom and thin spines per dendrite length declined. The length of dendrites per neuron also reduced in comparison to the distilled water group (P<0.01). Nonetheless, concomitant treatment of the rats with vitamin E plus tartrazine prevented the above-mentioned changes. An acceptable daily dose of tartrazine could induce impairment in spatial memory and dendrite structure. Moreover, a high dose of tartrazine may defect the visual memory, mPFC structure, the spatial memory and also cause dendrite changes. Vitamin E could prevent the behavioral and structural changes.

  3. A Single Neonatal Injection of Ethinyl Estradiol Impairs Passive Avoidance Learning and Reduces Expression of Estrogen Receptor α in the Hippocampus and Cortex of Adult Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiga, Tatsuomi; Nakamura, Takahiro J.; Komine, Chiaki; Goto, Yoshikuni; Mizoguchi, Yasushi; Yoshida, Midori; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Kawaguchi, Maiko

    2016-01-01

    Although perinatal exposure of female rats to estrogenic compounds produces irreversible changes in brain function, it is still unclear how the amount and timing of exposure to those substances affect learning function, or if exposure alters estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in the hippocampus and cortex. In adult female rats, we investigated the effects of neonatal exposure to a model estrogenic compound, ethinyl estradiol (EE), on passive avoidance learning and ERα expression. Female Wistar-Imamichi rats were subcutaneously injected with oil, 0.02 mg/kg EE, 2 mg/kg EE, or 20 mg/kg 17β-estradiol within 24 h after birth. All females were tested for passive avoidance learning at the age of 6 weeks. Neonatal 0.02 mg/kg EE administration significantly disrupted passive avoidance compared with oil treatment in gonadally intact females. In a second experiment, another set of experimental females, treated as described above, was ovariectomized under pentobarbital anesthesia at 10 weeks of age. At 15–17 weeks of age, half of each group received a subcutaneous injection of 5 μg estradiol benzoate a day before the passive avoidance learning test. Passive avoidance learning behavior was impaired by the 0.02 mg/kg EE dose, but notably only in the estradiol benzoate-injected group. At 17–19 weeks of age, hippocampal and cortical samples were collected from rats with or without the 5 μg estradiol benzoate injection, and western blots used to determine ERα expression. A significant decrease in ERα expression was observed in the hippocampus of the estradiol-injected, neonatal EE-treated females. The results demonstrated that exposure to EE immediately after birth decreased learning ability in adult female rats, and that this may be at least partly mediated by the decreased expression of ERα in the hippocampus. PMID:26741502

  4. Perceptual and cognitive visual functions of parietal and temporal cortices in the cat.

    PubMed

    Lomber, S G; Payne, B R; Cornwell, P; Long, K D

    1996-01-01

    We used reversible cooling deactivation to compare the functions of cortices lining the middle suprasylvian (MS) sulcus and forming the ventral portion of the posterior suprasylvian (vPS) gyrus. A battery of attentional, motion and mnemonic processing tasks were used and performance was examined during deactivation of each region. The results show a clear dissociation of functions. Deactivation of MS cortex resulted in profound deficits on a visual orienting task and on the discrimination of direction of motion, whereas deactivation of vPS cortex severely impaired both retention and learning of novel and overlearned object discriminations. In addition, deactivation of either MS or vPS cortex impaired discrimination of learned patterns when components of the patterns were in motion, whereas only deactivation of vPS cortex impaired the discrimination when all components were static. Together, these results show that a region of parietal cortex contributes to the processing of visual motion and to attentional processes, whereas a region of temporal cortex contributes to the learning and recognition of three-dimensional objects and two-dimensional patterns. This functional dissociation is linked to differences in underlying visual pathways, which have many features in common with the parietal and temporal visual processing streams previously identified in monkeys and humans. Furthermore, the broad similarity in neural operations carried out in parietal and temporal cortices of cats, monkeys and humans suggests the existence of a common plan for cortical processing machinery within mammals with well developed cerebral cortices.

  5. Verbal Dominant Memory Impairment and Low Risk for Post-operative Memory Worsening in Both Left and Right Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    KHALIL, Amr Farid; IWASAKI, Masaki; NISHIO, Yoshiyuki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative memory changes after temporal lobe surgery have been established mainly by group analysis of cognitive outcome. This study investigated individual patient-based memory outcome in surgically-treated patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). This study included 84 consecutive patients with intractable TLE caused by unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) who underwent epilepsy surgery (47 females, 41 left [Lt] TLE). Memory functions were evaluated with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised before and at 1 year after surgery. Pre-operative memory function was classified into three patterns: verbal dominant memory impairment (Verb-D), visual dominant impairment (Vis-D), and no material-specific impairment. Post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory indices were classified into meaningful improvement, worsening, or no significant changes. Pre-operative patterns and post-operative changes in verbal and visual memory function were compared between the Lt and right (Rt) TLE groups. Pre-operatively, Verb-D was the most common type of impairment in both the Lt and Rt TLE groups (65.9 and 48.8%), and verbal memory indices were lower than visual memory indices, especially in the Lt compared with Rt TLE group. Vis-D was observed only in 11.6% of Rt and 7.3% of Lt TLE patients. Post-operatively, meaningful improvement of memory indices was observed in 23.3–36.6% of the patients, and the memory improvement was equivalent between Lt and Rt TLE groups and between verbal and visual materials. In conclusion, Verb-D is most commonly observed in patients with both the Lt and Rt TLE associated with HS. Hippocampectomy can improve memory indices in such patients regardless of the side of surgery and the function impaired. PMID:27250575

  6. Déjà vu in unilateral temporal-lobe epilepsy is associated with selective familiarity impairments on experimental tasks of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Martin, Chris B; Mirsattari, Seyed M; Pruessner, Jens C; Pietrantonio, Sandra; Burneo, Jorge G; Hayman-Abello, Brent; Köhler, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    In déjà vu, a phenomenological impression of familiarity for the current visual environment is experienced with a sense that it should in fact not feel familiar. The fleeting nature of this phenomenon in daily life, and the difficulty in developing experimental paradigms to elicit it, has hindered progress in understanding déjà vu. Some neurological patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) consistently experience déjà vu at the onset of their seizures. An investigation of such patients offers a unique opportunity to shed light on its possible underlying mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to determine whether unilateral TLE patients with déjà vu (TLE+) show a unique pattern of interictal memory deficits that selectively affect familiarity assessment. In Experiment 1, we employed a Remember-Know paradigm for categorized visual scenes and found evidence for impairments that were limited to familiarity-based responses. In Experiment 2, we administered an exclusion task for highly similar categorized visual scenes that placed both recognition processes in opposition. TLE+ patients again displayed recognition impairments, and these impairments spared their ability to engage recollective processes so as to counteract familiarity. The selective deficits we observed in TLE+ patients contrasted with the broader pattern of recognition-memory impairments that was present in a control group of unilateral patients without déjà vu (TLE-). MRI volumetry revealed that ipsilateral medial temporal structures were less broadly affected in TLE+ than in TLE- patients, with a trend for more focal volume reductions in the rhinal cortices of the TLE+ group. The current findings establish a first empirical link between déjà vu in TLE and processes of familiarity assessment, as defined and measured in current cognitive models. They also reveal a pattern of selectivity in recognition impairments that is rarely observed and, thus, of significant theoretical interest to

  7. Functional inhibition of the human middle temporal cortex affects non-visual motion perception: a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study during tactile speed discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Basso, Demis; Sani, Lorenzo; Bonino, Daniela; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro; Miniussi, Carlo

    2011-02-01

    The visual motion-responsive middle temporal complex (hMT+) is activated during tactile and aural motion discrimination in both sighted and congenitally blind individuals, suggesting a supramodal organization of this area. Specifically, non-visual motion processing has been found to activate the more anterior portion of the hMT+. In the present study, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was used to determine whether this more anterior portion of hMT+ truly plays a functional role in tactile motion processing. Sixteen blindfolded, young, healthy volunteers were asked to detect changes in the rotation velocity of a random Braille-like dot pattern by using the index or middle finger of their right hand. rTMS was applied for 600 ms (10 Hz, 110% motor threshold), 200 ms after the stimulus onset with a figure-of-eight coil over either the anterior portion of hMT+ or a midline parieto-occipital site (as a control). Accuracy and reaction times were significantly impaired only when TMS was applied on hMT+, but not on the control area. These results indicate that the recruitment of hMT+ is necessary for tactile motion processing, and thus corroborate the hypothesis of a 'supramodal' functional organization for this sensory motion processing area.

  8. Examining Brain-Cognition Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract: Brain Activation in the Left Temporal and Left Prefrontal Cortex in an Object Working Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, R. B.; Pipingas, A.; Song, J.; Camfield, D. A.; Nathan, P. J.; Stough, C.

    2011-01-01

    Ginkgo Biloba extract (GBE) is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms of age related cognitive impairment, with preclinical evidence pointing to a pro-cholinergic effect. While a number of behavioral studies have reported improvements to working memory (WM) associated with GBE, electrophysiological studies of GBE have typically been limited to recordings during a resting state. The current study investigated the chronic effects of GBE on steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) topography in nineteen healthy middle-aged (50-61 year old) male participants whilst completing an object WM task. A randomized double-blind crossover design was employed in which participants were allocated to receive 14 days GBE and 14 days placebo in random order. For both groups, SSVEP was recorded from 64 scalp electrode sites during the completion of an object WM task both pre- and 14 days post-treatment. GBE was found to improve behavioural performance on the WM task. GBE was also found to increase the SSVEP amplitude at occipital and frontal sites and increase SSVEP latency at left temporal and left frontal sites during the hold component of the WM task. These SSVEP changes associated with GBE may represent more efficient processing during WM task completion. PMID:21941584

  9. Insights into the nature of fronto-temporal interactions from a biconditional discrimination task in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Easton, Alexander; Gaffan, David

    2002-10-17

    Previous work in monkeys has shown that both frontal and inferior temporal cortices are required to solve visual learning tasks. When communication between these cortical areas is prevented within the same hemisphere by crossed lesions of the frontal cortex in one hemisphere and the inferior temporal cortex in the opposite hemisphere, most learning tasks are impaired, but learning of object-reward associations is unimpaired. The current experiment aims to understand further the role of the interaction between the frontal and inferior temporal cortices in learning tasks. We trained monkeys on a biconditional discrimination task, in which different visual cues guided behaviour towards choice objects. One visual cue predicted immediate delivery of reward to a correct response, the other visual cue predicted a delayed delivery of reward to a correct response. Pre-operative behavioural data clearly shows that the monkeys form expectations of the reward outcome for the individual cues and choice objects. Crossed lesions of frontal and inferior temporal cortices, however, produce no impairment on this task. The result suggests (in combination with previous experiments) that task difficulty does not determine the reliance of a task on interactions between the frontal cortex and the inferior temporal cortex within the same hemisphere. Instead, we propose that tasks that can be solved by using expectation of the reward outcome do not require interaction of frontal and inferior temporal cortices within the same hemisphere. The results are discussed in the context of other data on frontal interactions with inferior temporal cortex in learning tasks.

  10. The Influence of Cochlear Mechanical Dysfunction, Temporal Processing Deficits, and Age on the Intelligibility of Audible Speech in Noise for Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Peter T.; Pérez-González, Patricia; Kalluri, Sridhar; Blanco, José L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relative importance of cochlear mechanical dysfunction, temporal processing deficits, and age on the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to understand speech in noisy backgrounds. Sixty-eight listeners took part in the study. They were provided with linear, frequency-specific amplification to compensate for their audiometric losses, and intelligibility was assessed for speech-shaped noise (SSN) and a time-reversed two-talker masker (R2TM). Behavioral estimates of cochlear gain loss and residual compression were available from a previous study and were used as indicators of cochlear mechanical dysfunction. Temporal processing abilities were assessed using frequency modulation detection thresholds. Age, audiometric thresholds, and the difference between audiometric threshold and cochlear gain loss were also included in the analyses. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relative importance of the various factors for intelligibility. Results showed that (a) cochlear gain loss was unrelated to intelligibility, (b) residual cochlear compression was related to intelligibility in SSN but not in a R2TM, (c) temporal processing was strongly related to intelligibility in a R2TM and much less so in SSN, and (d) age per se impaired intelligibility. In summary, all factors affected intelligibility, but their relative importance varied across maskers. PMID:27604779

  11. [Quantitative evaluation of inhibitory effects of epileptic spikes on theta rhythms in the network of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Ge, Man-Ling; Guo, Jun-Dan; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Ji-Chang; Fu, Xiao-Xuan; Chen, Yu-Min

    2017-02-25

    Epileptic spike is an indicator of hyper-excitability and hyper-synchrony in the neural networks. The inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms (4-8 Hz) might be helpful to understand the mechanism of epileptic damage on the cognitive functions. To quantitatively evaluate the inhibitory effects of spikes on theta rhythms, intracerebral electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings with both sporadic spikes (SSs) and spike-free transient period between adjacent spikes were selected in 4 patients in the status of rapid eyes movement (REM) sleep with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) under the pre-surgical monitoring. The electrodes of hippocampal CA3 and entorhinal cortex (EC) were employed, since CA3 and EC built up one of key loops to investigate cognition and epilepsy. These SSs occurred only in CA3, only in EC, or in both CA3 and EC synchronously. Theta power was respectively estimated around SSs and during the spike-free transient period by Gabor wavelet transform and Hilbert transform. The intermittent extent was then estimated to represent for the loss of theta rhythms during the spike-free transient period. The following findings were obtained: (1) The prominent rhythms were in theta frequency band; (2) The spikes could transiently reduce theta power, and the inhibitory effect was severer around SSs in both CA3 and EC synchronously than that around either SSs only in EC or SSs only in CA3; (3) During the spike-free transient period, theta rhythms were interrupted with the intermittent theta rhythms left and theta power level continued dropping, implying the inhibitory effect was sustained. Additionally, the intermittent extent of theta rhythms was converged to the inhibitory extent around SSs; (4) The average theta power level during the spike-free transient period might not be in line with the inhibitory extent of theta rhythms around SSs. It was concluded that the SSs had negative effects on theta rhythms transiently and directly, the inhibitory effects aroused by

  12. Cognitive impairment related changes in the elemental concentration in the brain of old rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpa, R. F. B.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.; do Carmo, M. G. T.; Rocha, M. S.; Rodrigues, L. C.; Moreira, S.; Martinez, A. M. B.

    2006-11-01

    In order to evaluate the elemental concentration as a function of learning and memory deficiency, six different structures of the brain were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). To evaluate the cognitive processes, the animals were tested in an adaptation of the Morris water maze. After the test, the animals were divided into two groups: cognitively healthy (control group) and cognitively impaired. The measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. The following elements were identified: Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. K concentration was higher in all regions of the brain studied for control group than the cognitively impaired group. Moreover, the control group presented higher levels for P and Fe in the entorhinal cortex, in the temporal cortex (only P), in the hypothalamus and in the thalamus, than the cognitively impaired group. Br concentration in the animals which presented cognitive impairment was three times larger in the hypothalamus and thalamus, twice larger in temporal cortex and higher in visual cortex than the cognitively healthy group. Cu was more remarkable in the hippocampus and hypothalamus from the animals with cognitive impairment than the control group. We observed that the cognitively impaired group presented highest concentrations of Br and Cu in certain areas than the control group, on the other hand, this group presented highest levels of K for all brain areas studied.

  13. Impairments in speech and nonspeech sound categorization in children with dyslexia are driven by temporal processing difficulties.

    PubMed

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Luts, Heleen; Poelmans, Hanne; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquière, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Auditory processing problems in persons with dyslexia are still subject to debate, and one central issue concerns the specific nature of the deficit. In particular, it is questioned whether the deficit is specific to speech and/or specific to temporal processing. To resolve this issue, a categorical perception identification task was administered in thirteen 11-year old dyslexic readers and 25 matched normal readers using 4 sound continua: (1) a speech contrast exploiting temporal cues (/bA/-/dA/), (2) a speech contrast defined by nontemporal spectral cues (/u/-/y/), (3) a nonspeech temporal contrast (spectrally rotated/bA/-/da/), and (4) a nonspeech nontemporal contrast (spectrally rotated/u/-/y/). Results indicate that children with dyslexia are less consistent in classifying speech and nonspeech sounds on the basis of rapidly changing (i.e., temporal) information whereas they are unimpaired in steady-state speech and nonspeech sounds. The deficit is thus restricted to categorizing sounds on the basis of temporal cues and is independent of the speech status of the stimuli. The finding of a temporal-specific but not speech-specific deficit in children with dyslexia is in line with findings obtained in adults using the same paradigm (Vandermosten et al., 2010, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107: 10389-10394). Comparison of the child and adult data indicates that the consistency of categorization considerably improves between late childhood and adulthood, particularly for the continua with temporal cues. Dyslexic and normal readers show a similar developmental progress with the dyslexic readers lagging behind both in late childhood and in adulthood.

  14. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    PubMed

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  15. Impaired Tuning of a Fast Occipito-Temporal Response for Print in Dyslexic Children Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Urs; Brem, Silvia; Bucher, Kerstin; Kranz, Felicitas; Benz, Rosmarie; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Brandeis, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is defined as a disorder of learning to read. It is thus critical to examine the neural processes that impair learning to read during the early phase of reading acquisition, before compensatory mechanisms are adapted by older readers with dyslexia. Using electroencephalography-based event-related imaging, we investigated how…

  16. Hearing shapes our perception of time: temporal discrimination of tactile stimuli in deaf people.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Cecchetto, Carlo; Geraci, Carlo; Maravita, Angelo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Papagno, Costanza

    2012-02-01

    Confronted with the loss of one type of sensory input, we compensate using information conveyed by other senses. However, losing one type of sensory information at specific developmental times may lead to deficits across all sensory modalities. We addressed the effect of auditory deprivation on the development of tactile abilities, taking into account changes occurring at the behavioral and cortical level. Congenitally deaf and hearing individuals performed two tactile tasks, the first requiring the discrimination of the temporal duration of touches and the second requiring the discrimination of their spatial length. Compared with hearing individuals, deaf individuals were impaired only in tactile temporal processing. To explore the neural substrate of this difference, we ran a TMS experiment. In deaf individuals, the auditory association cortex was involved in temporal and spatial tactile processing, with the same chronometry as the primary somatosensory cortex. In hearing participants, the involvement of auditory association cortex occurred at a later stage and selectively for temporal discrimination. The different chronometry in the recruitment of the auditory cortex in deaf individuals correlated with the tactile temporal impairment. Thus, early hearing experience seems to be crucial to develop an efficient temporal processing across modalities, suggesting that plasticity does not necessarily result in behavioral compensation.

  17. Chronic Treatment with a Clinically Relevant Dose of Methylphenidate Increases Glutamate Levels in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Impairs Glutamatergic Homeostasis in Prefrontal Cortex of Juvenile Rats.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Felipe; Pierozan, Paula; Rodrigues, André F; Biasibetti, Helena; Coelho, Daniella M; Mussulini, Ben Hur; Pereira, Mery S L; Parisi, Mariana M; Barbé-Tuana, Florencia; de Oliveira, Diogo L; Vargas, Carmen R; Wyse, Angela T S

    2016-05-01

    The understanding of the consequences of chronic treatment with methylphenidate is very important since this psychostimulant is extensively prescribed to preschool age children, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying the persistent changes in behavior and neuronal function related with the use of methylphenidate. In this study, we initially investigate the effect of early chronic treatment with methylphenidate on amino acids profile in cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex of juvenile rats, as well as on glutamatergic homeostasis, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function, and balance redox in prefrontal cortex of rats. Wistar rats at early age received intraperitoneal injections of methylphenidate (2.0 mg/kg) or an equivalent volume of 0.9% saline solution (controls), once a day, from the 15th to the 45th day of age. Twenty-four hours after the last injection, the animals were decapitated and the cerebrospinal fluid and prefrontal cortex were obtained. Results showed that methylphenidate altered amino acid profile in cerebrospinal fluid, increasing the levels of glutamate. Glutamate uptake was decreased by methylphenidate administration, but GLAST and GLT-1 were not altered by this treatment. In addition, the astrocyte marker GFAP was not altered by MPH. The activity and immunocontent of catalytic subunits (α1, α2, and α3) of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were decreased in prefrontal cortex of rats subjected to methylphenidate treatment, as well as changes in α1 and α2 gene expression of catalytic α subunits of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase were also observed. CAT activity was increased and SOD/CAT ratio and sulfhydryl content were decreased in rat prefrontal cortex. Taken together, our results suggest that chronic treatment with methylphenidate at early age induces excitotoxicity, at least in part, due to inhibition of glutamate uptake probably caused by disturbances in the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase function and/or in protein damage observed in the prefrontal cortex.

  18. Impaired Facial Expression Recognition in Children with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Impact of Early Seizure Onset on Fear Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golouboff, Nathalie; Fiori, Nicole; Delalande, Olivier; Fohlen, Martine; Dellatolas, Georges; Jambaque, Isabelle

    2008-01-01

    The amygdala has been implicated in the recognition of facial emotions, especially fearful expressions, in adults with early-onset right temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The present study investigates the recognition of facial emotions in children and adolescents, 8-16 years old, with epilepsy. Twenty-nine subjects had TLE (13 right, 16 left) and…

  19. Impairments in Speech and Nonspeech Sound Categorization in Children with Dyslexia Are Driven by Temporal Processing Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandermosten, Maaike; Boets, Bart; Luts, Heleen; Poelmans, Hanne; Wouters, Jan; Ghesquiere, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Auditory processing problems in persons with dyslexia are still subject to debate, and one central issue concerns the specific nature of the deficit. In particular, it is questioned whether the deficit is specific to speech and/or specific to temporal processing. To resolve this issue, a categorical perception identification task was administered…

  20. Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist, ameliorates aberrant lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to blockade of N-methy-D-aspartate receptors; Toward the therapeutics of cognitive impairment of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Takashi; Matsuoka, Tadasu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Augmentation therapy with serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor partial agonists has been suggested to improve cognitive impairment in patients with schizophrenia. Decreased activity of prefrontal cortex may provide a basis for cognitive deficits of the disease. Lactate plays a significant role in the supply of energy to the brain, and glutamatergic neurotransmission contributes to lactate production. Objectives and methods: The purposes of this study were to examine the effect of repeated administration (once a daily for 4 days) of tandospirone (0.05 or 5 mg/kg) on brain energy metabolism, as represented by extracellular lactate concentration (eLAC) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of a rat model of schizophrenia. Results: Four-day treatment with MK-801, an NMDA-R antagonist, prolonged eLAC elevation induced by foot-shock stress (FS). Co-administration with the high-dose tandospirone suppressed prolonged FS-induced eLAC elevation in rats receiving MK-801, whereas tandospirone by itself did not affected eLAC increment. Conclusions: These results suggest that stimulation of 5-HT1A receptors ameliorates abnormalities of energy metabolism in the mPFC due to blockade of NMDA receptors. These findings provide a possible mechanism, based on brain energy metabolism, by which 5-HT1A agonism improve cognitive impairment of schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:25232308

  1. α₄β₂ Nicotinic receptor stimulation of the GABAergic system within the orbitofrontal cortex ameliorates the severe crossmodal object recognition impairment in ketamine-treated rats: implications for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Cloke, Jacob M; Winters, Boyer D

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with atypical multisensory integration. Rats treated sub-chronically with NMDA receptor antagonists to model schizophrenia are severely impaired on a tactile-to-visual crossmodal object recognition (CMOR) task, and this deficit is reversed by systemic nicotine. The current study assessed the receptor specificity of the ameliorative effect of nicotine in the CMOR task, as well as the potential for nicotinic receptor (nAChR) interactions with GABA and glutamate. Male Long-Evans rats were treated sub-chronically for 10 days with ketamine or saline and then tested on the CMOR task after a 10-day washout. Systemic nicotine given before the sample phase of the CMOR task reversed the ketamine-induced impairment, but this effect was blocked by co-administration of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline at a dosage that itself did not cause impairment. Pre-sample systemic co-administration of the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 did not block the remediating effect of nicotine in ketamine-treated rats. The selective α7 nAChR agonist GTS-21 and α4β2 nAChR agonist ABT-418 were also tested, with only the latter reversing the ketamine impairment dose-dependently; bicuculline also blocked this effect. Similarly, infusions of nicotine or ABT-418 into the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) reversed the CMOR impairment in ketamine-treated rats, and systemic bicuculline blocked the effect of intra-OFC ABT-418. These results suggest that nicotine-induced agonism of α4β2 nAChRs within the OFC ameliorates CMOR deficits in ketamine-treated rats via stimulation of the GABAergic system. The findings of this research may have important implications for understanding the nature and potential treatment of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  2. Impaired fear extinction retention and increased anxiety-like behaviours induced by limited daily access to a high-fat/high-sugar diet in male rats: Implications for diet-induced prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathryn D; Reichelt, Amy C

    2016-12-01

    Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet. The HFHS-fed rats displayed diet-induced changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function which were detected by altered expression of GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons and the stable transcription factor ΔFosB which accumulates in the PFC in response to chronic stimuli. Immunohistochemical analyses of the medial PFC revealed that animals fed the HFHS diet had fewer parvalbumin-expressing cells and increased levels of FosB/ΔFosB expression in the infralimbic cortex, a region implicated in the consolidation of fear extinction. There was a trend towards increased IBA-1 immunoreactivity, a marker of microglial activation, in the infralimbic cortex after HFHS diet exposure but expression of the extracellular glycoprotein reelin was unaffected. These findings demonstrate that a HFHS diet during adolescence is associated with reductions of prefrontal parvalbumin neurons and impaired fear inhibition in adulthood. Adverse effects of HFHS diets on the mechanisms of fear regulation may precipitate a vulnerability in obese individuals to the development of anxiety disorders.

  3. Inactivation of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Impairs Extinction of Rabbit Jaw Movement Conditioning and Prevents Extinction-Related Inhibition of Hippocampal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Amy L.; Berry, Stephen D.

    2004-01-01

    Although past research has highlighted the involvement of limbic structures such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hippocampus in learning, few have addressed the nature of their interaction. The current study of rabbit jaw movement conditioning used a combination of reversible lesions and electrophysiology to examine the involvement of…

  4. The brain map of gait variability in aging, cognitive impairment and dementia-A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Chastan, Nathalie; Bair, Woei-Nan; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A

    2017-03-01

    While gait variability may reflect subtle changes due to aging or cognitive impairment (CI), associated brain characteristics remain unclear. We summarize structural and functional neuroimaging findings associated with gait variability in older adults with and without CI and dementia. We identified 17 eligible studies; all were cross-sectional; few examined multiple brain areas. In older adults, temporal gait variability was associated with structural differences in medial areas important for lower limb coordination and balance. Both temporal and spatial gait variability were associated with structural and functional differences in hippocampus and primary sensorimotor cortex and structural differences in anterior cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, association tracts, and posterior thalamic radiation. In CI or dementia, some associations were found in primary motor cortex, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia. In older adults, gait variability may be associated with areas important for sensorimotor integration and coordination. To comprehend the neural basis of gait variability with aging and CI, longitudinal studies of multiple brain areas are needed.

  5. Impairment of holistic face perception following right occipito-temporal damage in prosopagnosia: converging evidence from gaze-contingency.

    PubMed

    Van Belle, Goedele; Busigny, Thomas; Lefèvre, Philippe; Joubert, Sven; Felician, Olivier; Gentile, Francesco; Rossion, Bruno

    2011-09-01

    Gaze-contingency is a method traditionally used to investigate the perceptual span in reading by selectively revealing/masking a portion of the visual field in real time. Introducing this approach in face perception research showed that the performance pattern of a brain-damaged patient with acquired prosopagnosia (PS) in a face matching task was reversed, as compared to normal observers: the patient showed almost no further decrease of performance when only one facial part (eye, mouth, nose, etc.) was available at a time (foveal window condition, forcing part-based analysis), but a very large impairment when the fixated part was selectively masked (mask condition, promoting holistic perception) (Van Belle, De Graef, Verfaillie, Busigny, & Rossion, 2010a; Van Belle, De Graef, Verfaillie, Rossion, & Lefèvre, 2010b). Here we tested the same manipulation in a recently reported case of pure prosopagnosia (GG) with unilateral right hemisphere damage (Busigny, Joubert, Felician, Ceccaldi, & Rossion, 2010). Contrary to normal observers, GG was also significantly more impaired with a mask than with a window, demonstrating impairment with holistic face perception. Together with our previous study, these observations support a generalized account of acquired prosopagnosia as a critical impairment of holistic (individual) face perception, implying that this function is a key element of normal human face recognition. Furthermore, the similar behavioral pattern of the two patients despite different lesion localizations supports a distributed network view of the neural face processing structures, suggesting that the key function of human face processing, namely holistic perception of individual faces, requires the activity of several brain areas of the right hemisphere and their mutual connectivity.

  6. Treatment for Alexia with Agraphia Following Left Ventral Occipito-Temporal Damage: Strengthening Orthographic Representations Common to Reading and Spelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Esther S.; Rising, Kindle; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Damage to left ventral occipito-temporal cortex can give rise to written language impairment characterized by pure alexia/letter-by-letter (LBL) reading, as well as surface alexia and agraphia. The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic effects of a combined treatment approach to address concurrent LBL reading with surface…

  7. Discrepancy in Expression of β-Secretase and Amyloid-β Protein Precursor in Alzheimer-Related Genes in the Rat Medial Temporal Lobe Cortex Following Transient Global Brain Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Pluta, Ryszard; Kocki, Janusz; Ułamek-Kozioł, Marzena; Petniak, Alicja; Gil-Kulik, Paulina; Januszewski, Sławomir; Bogucki, Jacek; Jabłoński, Mirosław; Brzozowska, Judyta; Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Czuczwar, Stanisław J

    2016-01-01

    Brain ischemia may be causally related with Alzheimer's disease. Presumably, β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor gene expression changes may be associated with Alzheimer's disease neuropathology. Consequently, we have examined quantitative changes in both β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes in the medial temporal lobe cortex with the use of quantitative rtPCR analysis following 10-min global brain ischemia in rats with survival of 2, 7, and 30 days. The greatest significant overexpression of β-secretase gene was noted on the 2nd day, while on days 7-30 the expression of this gene was only modestly downregulated. Amyloid-β protein precursor gene was downregulated on the 2nd day, but on days 7-30 postischemia, there was a significant reverse tendency. Thus, the demonstrated alterations indicate that the considerable changes of expression of β-secretase and amyloid-β protein precursor genes may be connected with a response of neurons in medial temporal lobe cortex to transient global brain ischemia. Finally, the ischemia-induced gene changes may play a key role in a late and slow onset of Alzheimer-type pathology.

  8. Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects.

    PubMed

    McLelland, Victoria C; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia-a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage-showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information.

  9. Stimulus familiarity modulates functional connectivity of the perirhinal cortex and anterior hippocampus during visual discrimination of faces and objects

    PubMed Central

    McLelland, Victoria C.; Chan, David; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is involved in perception as well as in declarative memory. Amnesic patients with focal MTL lesions and semantic dementia patients showed perceptual deficits when discriminating faces and objects. Interestingly, these two patient groups showed different profiles of impairment for familiar and unfamiliar stimuli. For MTL amnesics, the use of familiar relative to unfamiliar stimuli improved discrimination performance. By contrast, patients with semantic dementia—a neurodegenerative condition associated with anterolateral temporal lobe damage—showed no such facilitation from familiar stimuli. Given that the two patient groups had highly overlapping patterns of damage to the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal pole, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying their performance discrepancy were unclear. Here, we addressed this question with a multivariate reanalysis of the data presented by Barense et al. (2011), using functional connectivity to examine how stimulus familiarity affected the broader networks with which the perirhinal cortex, hippocampus, and temporal poles interact. In this study, healthy participants were scanned while they performed an odd-one-out perceptual task involving familiar and novel faces or objects. Seed-based analyses revealed that functional connectivity of the right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus was modulated by the degree of stimulus familiarity. For familiar relative to unfamiliar faces and objects, both right perirhinal cortex and right anterior hippocampus showed enhanced functional correlations with anterior/lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, and medial/lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in order to benefit from stimulus familiarity, it is necessary to engage not only the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus, but also a network of regions known to represent semantic information. PMID:24624075

  10. Behavioral cartography of visual functions in cat parietal cortex: areal and laminar dissociations.

    PubMed

    Lomber, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to: (1) compare and contrast the relative contributions that the four principle regions in cat extrastriate parietal cortex make to a battery of visual tasks which require motion, spatial, or attentional processing; and (2) examine the laminar parcellation of visual behaviors within one of these parietal regions which mediates multiple visual behaviors. We examined a battery of visual tasks presumed to be mediated by parietal cortex, including direction of motion, differential motion, and landmark discriminations, and visual orienting to moving stimuli. As a control, we also examined performance on form (pattern and object) recognition tasks mediated by the temporal processing stream. The four regions of parietal cortex we examined included the: middle suprasylvian (MS) gyrus (area 7), anterior middle suprasylvian (aMS) sulcus (AMLS, ALLS), posterior middle suprasylvian (pMS) sulcus (PMLS, PLLS), and the dorsal posterior suprasylvian (dPS) gyrus (area 21a). The contributions made to each of the six different behavioral tasks was examined before, during, and after reversible cooling deactivation of each cortical area. Deactivation of pMS sulcal cortex resulted in deficits on all four tasks that required motion, spatial or attentional processing. Deactivation of aMS sulcal cortex resulted in deficits on only tasks that required motion processing. Deactivation of neither aMS nor pMS sulcal cortex yielded any deficits on the form recognition tasks. In contrast, deactivation of dPS cortex only produced deficits on the form recognition tasks. This finding confirmed our early hypothesis that dPS cortex is a key component of the temporal, and not the parietal, processing stream. Regardless of the task, no deficits were identified on any of the six tasks during deactivation of the MS gyrus. We then more closely examined pMS sulcal cortex to determine if its multiple functions could be dissociated on a laminar level. We found that cooling

  11. D1, but not D2, receptor blockade within the infralimbic and medial orbitofrontal cortex impairs cocaine seeking in a region-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Caitlin V; Gutman, Andrea L; Worth, Wensday R; LaLumiere, Ryan T

    2016-08-31

    Evidence suggests that the infralimbic cortex (IL), a subregion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), suppresses cocaine-seeking behavior in a self-administration paradigm, whereas the more anterior vmPFC subregion, the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), has received very little attention in this regard. Despite the established dopaminergic innervation of the vmPFC, whether dopamine receptor blockade in each subregion alters the reinstatement of cocaine seeking is unclear. To address this issue, male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent 2 weeks of cocaine self-administration, followed by extinction training and reinstatement testing. Immediately prior to each reinstatement test, rats received microinjections of the D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390, the D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride or their respective vehicles. D1 receptor blockade in the IL reduced cued reinstatement but had no effect on cocaine prime and cue + cocaine-prime reinstatement, whereas D2 receptor blockade in the IL had no effect on reinstatement. For the mOFC, however, D1 receptor blockade reduced cocaine seeking in all reinstatement types, whereas blocking D2 receptors in the mOFC had no effect on any form of cocaine seeking. These findings suggest different roles for D1 receptors in the IL versus the mOFC in regulating cocaine-seeking behavior. Moreover, even as previous work indicates that IL inactivation does not affect reinstatement but, rather, induces cocaine seeking during extinction, the present findings suggest that dopamine receptor activation in the IL is necessary for cocaine seeking under some circumstances.

  12. Susceptibility of Primary Sensory Cortex to Spreading Depolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Volodymyr B.; Middleton, Natalie A.; Theriot, Jeremy J.; Parker, Patrick D.; Abdullah, Osama M.; Ju, Y. Sungtaek; Hartings, Jed A.

    2016-01-01

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are recognized as actors in neurological disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Migraine aura involves sensory percepts, suggesting that sensory cortices might be intrinsically susceptible to SDs. We used optical imaging, MRI, and field potential and potassium electrode recordings in mice and electrocorticographic recordings in humans to determine the susceptibility of different brain regions to SDs. Optical imaging experiments in mice under isoflurane anesthesia showed that both cortical spreading depression and terminal anoxic depolarization arose preferentially in the whisker barrel region of parietal sensory cortex. MRI recordings under isoflurane, ketamine/xylazine, ketamine/isoflurane, and urethane anesthesia demonstrated that the depolarizations did not propagate from a subcortical source. Potassium concentrations showed larger increases in sensory cortex, suggesting a mechanism of susceptibility. Sensory stimulation biased the timing but not the location of depolarization onset. In humans with TBI, there was a trend toward increased incidence of SDs in parietal/temporal sensory cortex compared with other regions. In conclusion, SDs are inducible preferentially in primary sensory cortex in mice and most likely in humans. This tropism can explain the predominant sensory phenomenology of migraine aura. It also demonstrates that sensory cortices are vulnerable in brain injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Spreading depolarizations (SDs) are involved in neurologic disorders as diverse as migraine and traumatic brain injury. In migraine, the nature of aura symptoms suggests that sensory cortex may be preferentially susceptible. In brain injury, SDs occur at a vulnerable time, during which the issue of sensory stimulation is much debated. We show, in mouse and human, that sensory cortex is more susceptible to SDs. We find that sensory stimulation biases the timing but not the location of the depolarizations

  13. The anterior temporal lobes are critically involved in acquiring new conceptual knowledge: evidence for impaired feature integration in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Evans, Gemma A L; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from multiple neuroscience techniques indicates that regions within the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are a critical node in the neural network for representing conceptual knowledge, yet their function remains elusive. The hub-and-spoke model holds that ATL regions act as a transmodal conceptual hub, distilling the various sensory-motor features of objects and words into integrated, coherent conceptual representations. Single-cell recordings in monkeys suggest that the ATLs are critically involved in visual associative learning; however, investigations of this region in humans have focused on existing knowledge rather than learning. We studied acquisition of new concepts in semantic dementia patients, who have cortical damage centred on the ventrolateral aspects of the ATLs. Patients learned to assign abstract visual stimuli to two categories. The categories conformed to a family resemblance structure in which no individual stimulus features were fully diagnostic; thus the task required participants to form representations that integrate multiple features into a single concept. Patients were unable to do this, instead responding only on the basis of individual features. The study reveals that integrating disparate sources of information into novel coherent concepts is a critical computational function of the ATLs. This explains the central role of this region in conceptual representation and the catastrophic breakdown of concepts in semantic dementia.

  14. Strategic processing and memory for temporal order in patients with frontal lobe lesions.

    PubMed

    Mangels, J A

    1997-04-01

    This study evaluated whether deficits in memory for temporal order in patients with frontal lobe lesions result from impaired automatic encoding of temporal information or are secondary to deficits in effortful processes, such as the use of organizational strategies and control of interference. Patients with lesions in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and control participants were tested on temporal order reconstruction of semantically related and unrelated word lists learned under intentional or incidental conditions. Memory for temporal order in patients with frontal lobe lesions was sensitive to semantic relatedness but not to intention to learn. Tests of item free recall and recognition using similar encoding manipulations indicated that order performance in these patients was dissociable from item memory. Results indicate that automatic processing of temporal information is intact in patients with frontal lobe lesions but that strategic processing of this information is impaired.

  15. Response of the medial temporal lobe network in amnestic mild cognitive impairment to therapeutic intervention assessed by fMRI and memory task performance

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Arnold; Albert, Marilyn S.; Krauss, Gregory; Speck, Caroline L.; Gallagher, Michela

    2015-01-01

    Studies of individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have detected hyperactivity in the hippocampus during task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Such elevated activation has been localized to the hippocampal dentate gyrus/CA3 (DG/CA3) during performance of a task designed to detect the computational contributions of those hippocampal circuits to episodic memory. The current investigation was conducted to test the hypothesis that greater hippocampal activation in aMCI represents a dysfunctional shift in the normal computational balance of the DG/CA3 regions, augmenting CA3-driven pattern completion at the expense of pattern separation mediated by the dentate gyrus. We tested this hypothesis using an intervention based on animal research demonstrating a beneficial effect on cognition by reducing excess hippocampal neural activity with low doses of the atypical anti-epileptic levetiracetam. In a within-subject design we assessed the effects of levetiracetam in three cohorts of aMCI participants, each receiving a different dose of levetiracetam. Elevated activation in the DG/CA3 region, together with impaired task performance, was detected in each aMCI cohort relative to an aged control group. We observed significant improvement in memory task performance under drug treatment relative to placebo in the aMCI cohorts at the 62.5 and 125 mg BID doses of levetiracetam. Drug treatment in those cohorts increased accuracy dependent on pattern separation processes and reduced errors attributable to an over-riding effect of pattern completion while normalizing fMRI activation in the DG/CA3 and entorhinal cortex. Similar to findings in animal studies, higher dosing at 250 mg BID had no significant benefit on either task performance or fMRI activation. Consistent with predictions based on the computational functions of the DG/CA3 elucidated in basic animal research, these data support a dysfunctional encoding mechanism detected by fMRI in

  16. Impaired reelin processing and secretion by Cajal-Retzius cells contributes to granule cell dispersion in a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Duveau, Venceslas; Madhusudan, Amrita; Caleo, Matteo; Knuesel, Irene; Fritschy, Jean-Marc

    2011-09-01

    Cajal-Retzius cells play a crucial role during ontogeny in regulating cortical lamination via release of reelin. In adult brain, they comprise small calretinin-positive interneurons located in the marginal zone of the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampal fissure. Alterations of reelin signaling or expression have been involved in major neurological disorders, and they underlie granule cell dispersion (GCD) in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated in a mouse model of TLE the contribution of Cajal-Retzius cells to reelin production in epileptic hippocampus and the molecular mechanisms underlying GCD. Following unilateral intrahippocampal Kainic acid injection in adult mice to induce an epileptic focus, we observed that Cajal-Retzius cells gradually became strongly immunopositive for reelin, due to intracellular accumulation. This phenotype resembled the morphology of Cajal-Retzius cells in reeler Orleans (reln (orl/orl) ) mice, which express a secretion-deficient 310-kDa reelin fragment. The possibility that GCD might result from abnormal reelin processing in Cajal-Retzius cells, leading to a lack of reelin secretion, was confirmed by KA injection in reln (orl/+) mice, which induced severe GCD. Furthermore, Western blot analysis in KA-treated wildtype mice revealed increased production of ∼300-kDa reelin fragments, confirming abnormal proteolytic processing. This effect was not seen upon treatment with Botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT/E), which prevents GCD in KA-lesioned hippocampus by chronic blockade of synaptic transmission. Furthermore, BoNT/E blocked upregulation of TrkB in Cajal-Retzius cells, suggesting that production of truncated reelin in KA-treated hippocampus is activity-dependent and regulated by BDNF. Altogether, these data reveal that GCD results from abnormal reelin processing in Cajal-Retzius cells under the control of BDNF. Our findings highlight the critical role played by Cajal-Retzius cells for hippocampal neuronal

  17. TOP-DOWN CONTROL OF MOTOR CORTEX ENSEMBLES BY DORSOMEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Laubach, Mark

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is critical for the temporal control of behavior. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex might alter neuronal activity in areas such as motor cortex to inhibit temporally inappropriate responses. We tested this hypothesis by recording from neuronal ensembles in rodent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during a delayed-response task. One-third of dorsomedial prefrontal neurons were significantly modulated during the delay period. The activity of many of these neurons was predictive of premature responding. We then reversibly inactivated dorsomedial prefrontal cortex while recording ensemble activity in motor cortex. Inactivation of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reduced delay-related firing, but not response-related firing, in motor cortex. Finally, we made simultaneous recordings in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and motor cortex and found strong delay-related temporal correlations between neurons in the two cortical areas. These data suggest that functional interactions between dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and motor cortex might serve as a top-down control signal that inhibits inappropriate responding. PMID:17145511

  18. Temporal and spatial dynamics of nrf2-antioxidant response elements mediated gene targets in cortex and hippocampus after controlled cortical impact traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Darren M; Wang, Juan A; Buchanan, Ashley K; Hall, Edward D

    2014-07-01

    The pathophysiological importance of oxidative damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been extensively demonstrated. The transcription factor nuclear factor erythoid related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediates antioxidant and cytoprotective genes by binding to antioxidant response elements (ARE) present in nuclear DNA. In this study, we characterized the time course of Nrf2-ARE-mediated expression in the cortex and hippocampus using a unilateral controlled cortical impact model of focal TBI. Ipsilateral hippocampal and cortical tissue was collected for Western-blot protein analysis (n=6/group) or quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for mRNA (n=3/group) at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h or 1 week post-injury. Multiple genes mediated by Nrf2-ARE were altered post-TBI. Specifically, Nrf2 mRNA increased significantly post-TBI at 48 and 72 h in the cortex and at 48 and 72 h and 1 week in the hippocampus with a coincident increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein mRNA, thereby implying this response is likely occurring in astrocytes. Presumably linked to Nrf2 activation, heme-oxygenase-1, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-quinone-oxidoreductase 1, glutathione reductase, and catalase mRNA overlap throughout the post-injury time course. This study demonstrates the first evidence of such changes during the first week after focal TBI and that increases in expression of some Nrf2-ARE-mediated cytoprotective genes are not observed until 24-48 h post-injury. Unfortunately, this does not precede, but rather coincides with, the occurrence of lipid peroxidative damage. This is the first known comparison between the time course of peroxidative damage and that of Nrf2-ARE activation during the first week post-TBI. These results underscore the necessity to discover pharmacological agents to accelerate and amplify Nrf2-ARE-mediated expression early post-TBI.

  19. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Human Intention Understanding in Temporo-Parietal Cortex: A Combined EEG/fMRI Repetition Suppression Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Thompson, James C.; Parasuraman, Raja; Grafton, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Inferring the intentions of other people from their actions recruits an inferior fronto-parietal action observation network as well as a putative social network that includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). However, the functional dynamics within and among these networks remains unclear. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and high-density electroencephalogram (EEG), with a repetition suppression design, to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of decoding intentions. Suppression of fMRI activity to the repetition of the same intention was observed in inferior frontal lobe, anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), and right STS. EEG global field power was reduced with repeated intentions at an early (starting at 60 ms) and a later (∼330 ms) period after the onset of a hand-on-object encounter. Source localization during these two intervals involved right STS and aIPS regions highly consistent with RS effects observed with fMRI. These results reveal the dynamic involvement of temporal and parietal networks at multiple stages during the intention decoding and without a strict segregation of intention decoding between these networks. PMID:19750227

  20. Consonant identification in noise using Hilbert-transform temporal fine-structure speech and recovered-envelope speech for listeners with normal and impaired hearinga)

    PubMed Central

    Léger, Agnès C.; Reed, Charlotte M.; Desloge, Joseph G.; Swaminathan, Jayaganesh; Braida, Louis D.

    2015-01-01

    Consonant-identification ability was examined in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners in the presence of steady-state and 10-Hz square-wave interrupted speech-shaped noise. The Hilbert transform was used to process speech stimuli (16 consonants in a-C-a syllables) to present envelope cues, temporal fine-structure (TFS) cues, or envelope cues recovered from TFS speech. The performance of the HI listeners was inferior to that of the NH listeners both in terms of lower levels of performance in the baseline condition and in the need for higher signal-to-noise ratio to yield a given level of performance. For NH listeners, scores were higher in interrupted noise than in steady-state noise for all speech types (indicating substantial masking release). For HI listeners, masking release was typically observed for TFS and recovered-envelope speech but not for unprocessed and envelope speech. For both groups of listeners, TFS and recovered-envelope speech yielded similar levels of performance and consonant confusion patterns. The masking release observed for TFS and recovered-envelope speech may be related to level effects associated with the manner in which the TFS processing interacts with the interrupted noise signal, rather than to the contributions of TFS cues per se. PMID:26233038

  1. Impaired motor learning attributed to altered AMPA receptor function in the cerebellum of rats with temporal lobe epilepsy: ameliorating effects of Withania somnifera and withanolide A.

    PubMed

    Soman, Smijin; Anju, T R; Jayanarayanan, S; Antony, Sherin; Paulose, C S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Withania somnifera (WS) extract, withanolide A (WA), and carbamazepine (CBZ) on cerebellar AMPA receptor function in pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, motor learning deficit was studied by rotarod test, grid walk test, and narrow beam test. Motor learning was significantly impaired in rats with epilepsy. The treatment with WS and WA significantly reversed the motor learning deficit in rats with epilepsy when compared with control rats. There was an increase in glutamate content and IP3 content observed in rats with epilepsy which was reversed in WS- and WA-treated rats with epilepsy. alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor dysfunction was analyzed using radiolabeled AMPA receptor binding assay, AMPA receptor mRNA expression, and immunohistochemistry using anti-AMPA receptor antibody. Our results suggest that there was a decrease in Bmax, mRNA expression, and AMPA receptor expression indicating AMPA receptor dysfunction, which is suggested to have contributed to the motor learning deficit observed in rats with epilepsy. Moreover, treatment with WS and WA resulted in physiological expression of AMPA receptors. There was also alteration in GAD and GLAST expression which supplemented the increase in extracellular glutamate. The treatment with WS and WA reversed the GAD and GLAST expression. These findings suggest that WS and WA regulate AMPA receptor function in the cerebellum of rats with TLE, which has therapeutic application in epilepsy.

  2. A retroactive spatial cue improved VSTM capacity in mild cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe amnesia but not in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey; Pun, Carson; Smith, Victoria M; Ferber, Susanne; Barense, Morgan D

    2015-10-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a vital cognitive ability, connecting visual input with conscious awareness. VSTM performance declines with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and medial temporal lobe (MTL) amnesia. Many studies have shown that providing a spatial retrospective cue ("retrocue") improves VSTM capacity estimates for healthy young adults. However, one study has demonstrated that older adults are unable to use a retrocue to inhibit irrelevant items from memory. It is unknown whether patients with MCI and MTL amnesia will be able to use a retrocue to benefit their memory. We administered a retrocue and a baseline (simultaneous cue, "simucue") task to young adults, older adults, MCI patients, and MTL cases. Consistent with previous findings, young adults showed a retrocue benefit, whereas healthy older adults did not. In contrast, both MCI patients and MTL cases showed a retrocue benefit--the use of a retrocue brought patient performance up to the level of age-matched controls. We speculate that the patients were able to use the spatial information from the retrocue to reduce interference and facilitate binding items to their locations.

  3. T’ain’t what you say, it’s the way that you say it – left insula and inferior frontal cortex work in interaction with superior temporal regions to control the performance of vocal impersonations

    PubMed Central

    McGettigan, Carolyn; Eisner, Frank; Agnew, Zarinah K; Manly, Tom; Wisbey, Duncan; Scott, Sophie K

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the study of human identity perception has focused on faces, but the voice is also central to our expressions and experiences of identity (P. Belin, Fecteau, & Bedard, 2004). Our voices are highly flexible and dynamic; talkers speak differently depending on their health, emotional state, and the social setting, as well as extrinsic factors such as background noise. However, to date, there have been no studies of the neural correlates of identity modulation in speech production. In the current fMRI experiment, we measured the neural activity supporting controlled voice change in adult participants performing spoken impressions. We reveal that deliberate modulation of vocal identity recruits the left anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus, supporting the planning of novel articulations. Bilateral sites in posterior superior temporal/inferior parietal cortex and a region in right mid/anterior superior temporal sulcus showed greater responses during the emulation of specific vocal identities than for impressions of generic accents. Using functional connectivity analyses, we describe roles for these three sites in their interactions with the brain regions supporting speech planning and production. Our findings mark a significant step toward understanding the neural control of vocal identity, with wider implications for the cognitive control of voluntary motor acts. PMID:23691984

  4. The Effects of Sesquiterpenes-Rich Extract of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. on Amyloid-β-Induced Cognitive Impairment and Neuronal Abnormalities in the Cortex and Hippocampus of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shao-Huai; Zhao, Xu; Liu, Bing; Li, Huan; Liu, Ai-Jing; Wu, Bo; Bi, Kai-Shun

    2014-01-01

    As a kind of medicine which can also be used as food, Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. has a long clinical history in China. A variety of studies demonstrated the significant neuroprotective activity effects of chloroform (CF) extract from the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla. In order to further elucidate the possible mechanisms of CF extract which mainly contains sesquiterpenes with neuroprotection on the cognitive ability, mice were injected with Aβ1−42 and later with CF in this study. The results showed that the long-term treatment of CF enhanced the cognitive performances in behavior tests, increased activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and amyloid-β (Aβ), and reversed the activation of microglia, degeneration of neuronal acidophilia, and nuclear condensation in the cortex and hippocampus. These results demonstrate that CF ameliorates learning and memory deficits by attenuating oxidative stress and regulating the activation of microglia and degeneration of neuronal acidophilia to reinforce cholinergic functions. PMID:25180067

  5. Father absence in the monogamous california mouse impairs social behavior and modifies dopamine and glutamate synapses in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bambico, Francis R; Lacoste, Baptiste; Hattan, Patrick R; Gobbi, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    The role of the father in psycho-affective development is indispensable. Yet, the neurobehavioral effects of paternal deprivation (PD) are poorly understood. Here, we examined the behavioral consequences of PD in the California mouse, a species displaying monogamous bonding and biparental care, and assessed its impact on dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate (GLU) transmission in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In adult males, deficits in social interaction were observed, when a father-deprived (PD) mouse was matched with a PD partner. In adult females, deficits were observed when matching a PD animal with a non-PD control, and when matching 2 PD animals. PD also increased aggression in females. Behavioral abnormalities in PD females were associated with a sensitized response to the locomotor-activating effect of amphetamine. Following immunocytochemical demonstration of DA, 5-HT, and GLU innervations in the mPFC, we employed in vivo electrophysiology and microiontophoresis, and found that PD attenuated the basal activity of low-spiking pyramidal neurons in females. PD decreased pyramidal responses to DA in females, while enhancing responses to NMDA in both sexes. We thus demonstrate that, during critical neurodevelopmental periods, PD leads to sex-dependent abnormalities in social and reward-related behaviors that are associated with disturbances in cortical DA and GLU neurotransmission.

  6. Polysialic Acid Acute Depletion Induces Structural Plasticity in Interneurons and Impairs the Excitation/Inhibition Balance in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Organotypic Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Pérez-Rando, Marta; Vidueira, Sandra; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The structure and function of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is affected in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and major depression. Recent studies suggest that imbalances between excitatory and inhibitory activity (E/I) may be responsible for this cortical dysfunction and therefore, may underlie the core symptoms of these diseases. This E/I imbalance seems to be correlated with alterations in the plasticity of interneurons but there is still scarce information on the mechanisms that may link these phenomena. The polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) is a good candidate, because it modulates the neuronal plasticity of interneurons and its expression is altered in schizophrenia and major depression. To address this question, we have developed an in vitro model using mPFC organotypic cultures of transgenic mice displaying fluorescent spiny interneurons. After enzymatic depletion of PSA, the spine density of interneurons, the number of synaptic puncta surrounding pyramidal neuron somata and the E/I ratio were strongly affected. These results point to the polysialylation of NCAM as an important factor in the maintenance of E/I balance and the structural plasticity of interneurons. This may be particularly relevant for better understanding the etiology of schizophrenia and major depression. PMID:27445697

  7. Calretinin, parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive interneurons in perirhinal cortex and temporal area Te3V of the rat brain: qualitative and quantitative analyses.

    PubMed

    Barinka, Filip; Salaj, Martin; Rybář, Jan; Krajčovičová, Eva; Kubová, Hana; Druga, Rastislav

    2012-02-03

    The perirhinal cortex (PRC) composed of areas 35 and 36 forms an important route for activity transfer between the hippocampus-entorhinal cortex and neocortex. Its function in memory formation and consolidation as well as in the initiation and spreading of epileptic activity was already partially elucidated. We studied the general pattern of calretinin (CR), parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) immunoreactivity and its corrected relative optical density (cROD) as well as morphological features and density of CR and PV immunoreactive (CR+, PV+) interneurons in the rat PRC. Neighboring neocortical association area Te3V was analyzed as well. The PRC differed from the Te3V in higher CR and lower PV overall immunoreactivity level. On CR immunostained sections, the difference between high cROD value in area 35 and low cROD value in area Te3V reached statistical significance (p<0.05). The pattern of CB immunoreactivity was similar to that of the neocortex. Vertically oriented bipolar neurons were the most common morphological type of CR+ neurons, multipolar neuronal morphology was typical among PV+ neurons and vertically oriented bipolar neurons and multipolar neurons were approximately equally frequent among CB+ neurons. The density of CR+ and PV+ neurons was stereologically measured. While the density of PV+ neurons was not significantly different in PRC when compared to Te3V, density of CR+ neurons in area 35 was significantly higher by comparison with Te3V (p<0.05). Further, the overall neuronal density was measured on Nissl stained sections and the proportion of CR+ and PV+ interneurons was expressed as a percentage of the total neurons counts. The percentage of CR+ interneurons was higher in area 35 by comparison with area Te3 (p<0.05), while the percentage of PV+ interneurons did not significantly differ among the examined areas. In conclusion, the PRC possesses specific interneuronal equipment with unusually high proportion of CR+ interneurons, what might be of

  8. Extensive Lesions in the Gustatory Cortex in the Rat Do Not Disrupt the Retention of a Presurgically Conditioned Taste Aversion and Do Not Impair Unconditioned Concentration-Dependent Licking of Sucrose and Quinine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Although damage to gustatory cortex (GC) in the rat has been reported to severely impair, if not eliminate, retention of a presurgically conditioned taste aversion (CTA), it has equivocal effects on taste preference as measured by intake tests. Because intake tests can be influenced by nongustatory (e.g., postingestive) factors, we employed the brief-access taste test to assess the effects of ibotenic acid–induced lesions targeting the GC on unconditioned licking to a sucrose and then a quinine concentration series in a specialized lickometer. As a functional lesion assessment, a presurgical CTA to 0.1M NaCl was established in thirsty rats by following 15-min intake with intraperitoneal administration of either LiCl (or NaCl for control) on 2 occasions. Both conditioned sham-operated (SHAM) rats and rats with histologically confirmed extensive damage to the GC (GCX) avoided a NaCl concentration series relative to unconditioned controls in a postsurgical brief-access CTA test, with no difference between the surgical groups in their responses to NaCl or similar concentrations of KCl. GCX rats also did not differ from SHAM rats in the EC50 of concentration–response functions for sucrose or quinine. Clearly, the critical cortical area required for the retention of a presurgical CTA falls outside of the extensive area of damage, which was well centered within the conventionally defined gustatory zone of the insular cortex. The absence of an effect on unconditioned responsiveness to sucrose and quinine suggests that the damaged region is also unnecessary for the normal expression of affective licking responses to tastants. PMID:24226296

  9. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage does not impair the development and use of common ground in social interaction: implications for cognitive theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rupa; Tranel, Daniel; Duff, Melissa C

    2012-01-01

    During conversation, interactants draw on their shared communicative context and history ("common ground") to help decide what to say next, tailoring utterances based on their knowledge of what the listener knows. The use of common ground draws on an understanding of the thoughts and feelings of others to create and update a model of what is known by the other person, employing cognitive processes such as theory of mind. We tested the hypothesis that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), a neural region involved in processing and interpreting social and emotional information, would be critical for the development and use of common ground. We studied seven patients with bilateral vmPFC damage and seven age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy comparison participants, each interacting with a familiar partner. Across 24 trials, participants verbally directed their partners how to arrange a set of 12 abstract tangram cards. Our hypothesis was not supported: the vmPFC and healthy comparison groups showed similar development and use of common ground, evident in reduction in time and words used to describe the cards, similar increases in the use of definite references (e.g., the horse), and comparable use of verbal play (playful language) in their interactions. These results argue against the idea that the vmPFC is critical for the development and use of common ground in social interaction. We propose that a cognitive and neuroanatomical bifurcation in theory of mind processes may explain this outcome. The vmPFC may be important for affective theory of mind (the ability to understand another's feelings); however, the development and use of common ground in social interaction may place higher demands on the ability to understand another's knowledge, or cognitive theory of mind, which may not require the vmPFC.

  10. Periadolescent exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 impairs the functional maturation of local GABAergic circuits in the adult prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Thomases, Daniel R; Cass, Daryn K; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2013-01-02

    A developmental disruption of prefrontal cortical inhibitory circuits is thought to contribute to the adolescent onset of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. However, the developmental mechanisms underlying such a disruption remain elusive. The goal of this study is to examine how repeated exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) during periadolescence [from postnatal day 35 (P35) to P40] impacts the normative development of local prefrontal network response in rats. In vivo electrophysiological analyses revealed that MK-801 administration during periadolescence elicits an enduring disinhibited prefrontal local field potential (LFP) response to ventral hippocampal stimulation at 20 Hz (beta) and 40 Hz (gamma) in adulthood (P65-P85). Such a disinhibition was not observed when MK-801 was given during adulthood, indicating that the periadolescent transition is indeed a sensitive period for the functional maturation of prefrontal inhibitory control. Accordingly, the pattern of prefrontal LFP disinhibition induced by periadolescent MK-801 treatment resembles that observed in the normal P30-P40 prefrontal cortex (PFC). Additional pharmacological manipulations revealed that these developmentally immature prefrontal responses can be mimicked by single microinfusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist picrotoxin into the normal adult PFC. Importantly, acute administration of the GABA(A)-positive allosteric modulator Indiplon into the PFC reversed the prefrontal disinhibitory state induced by periadolescent MK-801 to normal levels. Together, these results indicate a critical role of NMDA receptors in regulating the periadolescent maturation of GABAergic networks in the PFC and that pharmacologically induced augmentation of local GABA(A)-receptor-mediated transmission is sufficient to overcome the disinhibitory prefrontal state associated with the periadolescent MK-801 exposure.

  11. Functional Changes in the Human Auditory Cortex in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Profant, Oliver; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Balogová, Zuzana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Jilek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years) and compared the results with young subjects (cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC) leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing. PMID:25734519

  12. Functional changes in the human auditory cortex in ageing.

    PubMed

    Profant, Oliver; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Balogová, Zuzana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Jilek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years) and compared the results with young subjects (cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC) leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing.

  13. Selective Blockade of Dopamine D3 Receptors Enhances while D2 Receptor Antagonism Impairs Social Novelty Discrimination and Novel Object Recognition in Rats: A Key Role for the Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Watson, David JG; Loiseau, Florence; Ingallinesi, Manuela; Millan, Mark J; Marsden, Charles A; Fone, Kevin CF

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine D3 receptor antagonists exert pro-cognitive effects in both rodents and primates. Accordingly, this study compared the roles of dopamine D3 vs D2 receptors in social novelty discrimination (SND), which relies on olfactory cues, and novel object recognition (NOR), a visual-recognition task. The dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, S33084 (0.04–0.63 mg/kg), caused a dose-related reversal of delay-dependent impairment in both SND and NOR procedures in adult rats. Furthermore, mice genetically deficient in dopamine D3 receptors displayed enhanced discrimination in the SND task compared with wild-type controls. In contrast, acute treatment with the preferential dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, L741,626 (0.16–5.0 mg/kg), or with the dopamine D3 agonist, PD128,907 (0.63–40 μg/kg), caused a dose-related impairment in performance in rats in both tasks after a short inter-trial delay. Bilateral microinjection of S33084 (2.5 μg/side) into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats increased SND and caused a dose-related (0.63–2.5 μg/side) improvement in NOR, while intra-striatal injection (2.5 μg/side) had no effect on either. In contrast, bilateral microinjection of L741,626 into the PFC (but not striatum) caused a dose-related (0.63–2.5 μg/side) impairment of NOR. These observations suggest that blockade of dopamine D3 receptors enhances both SND and NOR, whereas D3 receptor activation or antagonism of dopamine D2 receptor impairs cognition in these paradigms. Furthermore, these actions are mediated, at least partly, by the PFC. These data have important implications for exploitation of dopaminergic mechanisms in the treatment of schizophrenia and other CNS disorders, and support the potential therapeutic utility of dopamine D3 receptor antagonism. PMID:22030711

  14. Impaired functional differentiation for categories of objects in the ventral visual stream: A case of developmental visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Martinaud, Olivier; Pouliquen, Dorothée; Parain, Dominique; Goldenberg, Alice; Gérardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier; Altarelli, Irène; Ramus, Franck; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Cohen, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We report the case of a 14-year-old girl suffering from severe developmental visual impairment along with delayed language and cognitive development, and featuring a clear-cut dissociation between spared dorsal and impaired ventral visual pathways. Visual recognition of objects, including faces and printed words, was affected. In contrast, movement perception and visually guided motor control were preserved. Structural MRI was normal on inspection, but Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) revealed reduced grey matter density in the mesial occipital and ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Functional MRI during the perception of line drawings uncovered impaired differentiation which is normally observed at even younger ages: no local category preferences could be identified within the occipito-temporal cortex for faces, houses, words or tools. In contrast, movement-related activations appeared to be normal. Finally, those abnormalities evolved on the background of chronic bilateral occipital epileptic activity, including continuous spike-wave discharges during sleep, which may be considered as the primary cause of non-specific intellectual disability and visual impairment.

  15. The medial prefrontal cortex-lateral entorhinal cortex circuit is essential for episodic-like memory and associative object-recognition.

    PubMed

    Chao, Owen Y; Huston, Joseph P; Li, Jay-Shake; Wang, An-Li; de Souza Silva, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex directly projects to the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC), an important substrate for engaging item-associated information and relaying the information to the hippocampus. Here we ask to what extent the communication between the prefrontal cortex and LEC is critically involved in the processing of episodic-like memory. We applied a disconnection procedure to test whether the interaction between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and LEC is essential for the expression of recognition memory. It was found that male rats that received unilateral NMDA lesions of the mPFC and LEC in the same hemisphere, exhibited intact episodic-like (what-where-when) and object-recognition memories. When these lesions were placed in the opposite hemispheres (disconnection), episodic-like and associative memories for object identity, location and context were impaired. However, the disconnection did not impair the components of episodic memory, namely memory for novel object (what), object place (where) and temporal order (when), per se. Thus, the present findings suggest that the mPFC and LEC are a critical part of a neural circuit that underlies episodic-like and associative object-recognition memory.

  16. The temporal limits of cognitive change from music therapy in elderly persons with dementia or dementia-like cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bruer, Robert A; Spitznagel, Edward; Cloninger, C Robert

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the temporal limits of cognitive change from an intention-to-treat with group music therapy. Elderly cognitively-impaired psychiatric inpatients (N = 28) participated in an 8-week randomized control trial using a crossover design. Once a week, subjects were assigned either to music therapy or a control treatment (age-appropriate movie). The Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) assessed cognition 3 times every week: prior to the intervention, immediately after the mid-afternoon intervention, and the morning following the intervention. Comparisons between conditions included weekly changes in individual subject's MMSE scores from weekly baseline to both the 2 follow-ups and the following week's baseline. Significant next morning improvements in MMSE scores were found within intent-to-treat music therapy cases as compared to control cases. While all the subjects in this study were cognitively impaired, only 17 had been formally diagnosed with dementia. Based on a Cochrane Collaboration suggestion that music therapy studies within geriatric populations look specifically at the treatment of dementia, a final generalized estimating equation model considered only the change within the 17 dementia-diagnosed subjects. Immediately after the intervention, MMSE scores in the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to music therapy improved 2.00 points compared to the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to the control group (Z = 1.99, p < .05). Next-day MMSE test scores in the dementia-diagnosed subjects assigned to music therapy showed average improvements of 3.69 points compared to the control subjects (Z = 3.38, p < .001). By the following week, no significant cognitive differences remained between the two groups. It was concluded that a reasonable music therapy intervention facilitated by a trained and accredited music therapist significantly improved next-morning cognitive functioning among dementia patients. With many music therapists working in geriatric

  17. Frontal cortex ablation reversibly decreases striatal zif/268 and junB expression: temporal correspondence with sensory neglect and its spontaneous recovery.

    PubMed

    Vargo, J M; Marshall, J F

    1996-04-01

    This study's goal is to identify subcortical adaptations that may contribute to recovery of function following cortical injury. After unilateral aspiration of the medial agranular region of frontal cortex (AGm), rats demonstrate neglect of contralateral stimuli and recover within 3-4 weeks. Previous studies indicate that compensatory neural alterations involving dopamine (DA) occur following this cortical injury and that recovery from neglect produced by frontal injury is accompanied by normalization of glucose utilization within subcortical structures including the basal ganglia. The current study examined Zif and JunB, IEG protein products constitutively expressed in striatum, rendering it possible to investigate the effects of unilateral AGm ablation on striatal function during unstimulated as well as amphetamine-stimulated conditions. Five days after surgery, when contralateral neglect was still evident, the numbers of Zif-like or Jun-like immunoreactive (IR) nuclei in the ipsilateral striata of AGm-ablated rats were reduced. These lesion effects were similar for both constitutive and amphetamine-stimulated IEG expression and were restricted to the dorsolateral caudate-putamen, where excitatory input from AGm is most dense. In contrast, 3 or more weeks after AGm ablation, in rats demonstrating recovery, normal striatal Zif- and JunB-like immunoreactivity occurred. Thus, striatal zif/268 and junB expression is reduced 5 days after AGm injury in rats demonstrating neglect and normalized 3 or more weeks later in recovered rats. These findings indicate that adaptations involving the striatal medium spiny neuron, a site of convergence of cortical glutamatergic and nigral dopaminergic afferents, may contribute to behavioral recovery following neocortical injury.

  18. Excitability of the Motor Cortex Ipsilateral to the Moving Body Side Depends on Spatio-Temporal Task Complexity and Hemispheric Specialization

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Femke E.; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Unilateral movements are mainly controlled by the contralateral hemisphere, even though the primary motor cortex ipsilateral (M1ipsi) to the moving body side can undergo task-related changes of activity as well. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether representations of the wrist flexor (FCR) and extensor (ECR) in M1ipsi would be modulated when unilateral rhythmical wrist movements were executed in isolation or in the context of a simple or difficult hand-foot coordination pattern, and whether this modulation would differ for the left versus right hemisphere. We found that M1ipsi facilitation of the resting ECR and FCR mirrored the activation of the moving wrist such that facilitation was higher when the homologous muscle was activated during the cyclical movement. We showed that this ipsilateral facilitation increased significantly when the wrist movements were performed in the context of demanding hand-foot coordination tasks whereas foot movements alone influenced the hand representation of M1ipsi only slightly. Our data revealed a clear hemispheric asymmetry such that MEP responses were significantly larger when elicited in the left M1ipsi than in the right. In experiment 2, we tested whether the modulations of M1ipsi facilitation, caused by performing different coordination tasks with the left versus right body sides, could be explained by changes in short intracortical inhibition (SICI). We found that SICI was increasingly reduced for a complex coordination pattern as compared to rest, but only in the right M1ipsi. We argue that our results might reflect the stronger involvement of the left versus right hemisphere in performing demanding motor tasks. PMID:21408031

  19. Speech-evoked activation in adult temporal cortex measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS): Are the measurements reliable?

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Ian M; Anderson, Carly A; Kitterick, Pádraig T; Hartley, Douglas E H

    2016-09-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a silent, non-invasive neuroimaging technique that is potentially well suited to auditory research. However, the reliability of auditory-evoked activation measured using fNIRS is largely unknown. The present study investigated the test-retest reliability of speech-evoked fNIRS responses in normally-hearing adults. Seventeen participants underwent fNIRS imaging in two sessions separated by three months. In a block design, participants were presented with auditory speech, visual speech (silent speechreading), and audiovisual speech conditions. Optode arrays were placed bilaterally over the temporal lobes, targeting auditory brain regions. A range of established metrics was used to quantify the reproducibility of cortical activation patterns, as well as the amplitude and time course of the haemodynamic response within predefined regions of interest. The use of a signal processing algorithm designed to reduce the influence of systemic physiological signals was found to be crucial to achieving reliable detection of significant activation at the group level. For auditory speech (with or without visual cues), reliability was good to excellent at the group level, but highly variable among individuals. Temporal-lobe activation in response to visual speech was less reliable, especially in the right hemisphere. Consistent with previous reports, fNIRS reliability was improved by averaging across a small number of channels overlying a cortical region of interest. Overall, the present results confirm that fNIRS can measure speech-evoked auditory responses in adults that are highly reliable at the group level, and indicate that signal processing to reduce physiological noise may substantially improve the reliability of fNIRS measurements.

  20. Morphogenetic and Histogenetic Roles of the Temporal-Spatial Organization of Cell Proliferation in the Vertebrate Corticogenesis as Revealed by Inter-specific Analyses of the Optic Tectum Cortex Development

    PubMed Central

    Rapacioli, Melina; Palma, Verónica; Flores, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system areas displaying the highest structural and functional complexity correspond to the so called cortices, i.e., concentric alternating neuronal and fibrous layers. Corticogenesis, i.e., the development of the cortical organization, depends on the temporal-spatial organization of several developmental events: (a) the duration of the proliferative phase of the neuroepithelium, (b) the relative duration of symmetric (expansive) versus asymmetric (neuronogenic) sub phases, (c) the spatial organization of each kind of cell division, (e) the time of determination and cell cycle exit and (f) the time of onset of the post-mitotic neuronal migration and (g) the time of onset of the neuronal structural and functional differentiation. The first five events depend on molecular mechanisms that perform a fine tuning of the proliferative activity. Changes in any of them significantly influence the cortical size or volume (tangential expansion and radial thickness), morphology, architecture and also impact on neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis affecting the cortical wiring. This paper integrates information, obtained in several species, on the developmental roles of cell proliferation in the development of the optic tectum (OT) cortex, a multilayered associative area of the dorsal (alar) midbrain. The present review (1) compiles relevant information on the temporal and spatial organization of cell proliferation in different species (fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals), (2) revises the main molecular events involved in the isthmic organizer (IsO) determination and localization, (3) describes how the patterning installed by IsO is translated into spatially organized neural stem cell proliferation (i.e., by means of growth factors, receptors, transcription factors, signaling pathways, etc.) and (4) describes the morpho- and histogenetic effect of a spatially organized cell proliferation in the above mentioned species. A brief section on the OT evolution is

  1. Morphogenetic and Histogenetic Roles of the Temporal-Spatial Organization of Cell Proliferation in the Vertebrate Corticogenesis as Revealed by Inter-specific Analyses of the Optic Tectum Cortex Development.

    PubMed

    Rapacioli, Melina; Palma, Verónica; Flores, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system areas displaying the highest structural and functional complexity correspond to the so called cortices, i.e., concentric alternating neuronal and fibrous layers. Corticogenesis, i.e., the development of the cortical organization, depends on the temporal-spatial organization of several developmental events: (a) the duration of the proliferative phase of the neuroepithelium, (b) the relative duration of symmetric (expansive) versus asymmetric (neuronogenic) sub phases, (c) the spatial organization of each kind of cell division, (e) the time of determination and cell cycle exit and (f) the time of onset of the post-mitotic neuronal migration and (g) the time of onset of the neuronal structural and functional differentiation. The first five events depend on molecular mechanisms that perform a fine tuning of the proliferative activity. Changes in any of them significantly influence the cortical size or volume (tangential expansion and radial thickness), morphology, architecture and also impact on neuritogenesis and synaptogenesis affecting the cortical wiring. This paper integrates information, obtained in several species, on the developmental roles of cell proliferation in the development of the optic tectum (OT) cortex, a multilayered associative area of the dorsal (alar) midbrain. The present review (1) compiles relevant information on the temporal and spatial organization of cell proliferation in different species (fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals), (2) revises the main molecular events involved in the isthmic organizer (IsO) determination and localization, (3) describes how the patterning installed by IsO is translated into spatially organized neural stem cell proliferation (i.e., by means of growth factors, receptors, transcription factors, signaling pathways, etc.) and (4) describes the morpho- and histogenetic effect of a spatially organized cell proliferation in the above mentioned species. A brief section on the OT evolution is

  2. Temporal changes in the calcium-dependence of the histamine H1-receptor-stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation in guinea-pig cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, J.; Brown, A. M.; Hill, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. 2-Chloroadenosine (2CA) causes a maintained rise in adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) content of guinea-pig cerebral cortical slices which is augmented by addition of histamine. We have investigated the temporal profile of the sensitivity of this response to calcium. 2. Rapid removal of extracellular calcium with EGTA (5 mM) at 2CA (30 microM)-induced steady state caused a slight increase in the cyclic AMP response to 2CA alone and completely abolished the augmentation produced by histamine (0.1 mM) added 20 min later. When EGTA was added only 2 min before histamine, the augmentation was reduced by 72%. 3. The calcium sensitivity of the histamine response was also indicated in studies in which EGTA was added 1 or 3 min after histamine at 2CA-induced steady state. Following addition of EGTA at either of these times, the augmentation was not maintained. 4. When calcium was rapidly removed with EGTA once a steady state level of cyclic AMP had been achieved with histamine, the augmentation response was maintained. This was despite the fact that EGTA had a similar effect on both extracellular free calcium and tissue calcium content when it was applied before or after histamine. 5. The 2CA response was augmented by phorbol esters (which mimic the actions of diacylglycerol) in a calcium-independent manner. 6. These results suggest that calcium is important for the initiation and early stages of the histamine-induced augmentation response. The apparent lack of calcium sensitivity of the response at later stages could mean that calcium is not involved in the maintenance of the response or that the intracellular machinery involved in the augmentation process becomes more sensitive to calcium as the response progresses, such that it becomes able to operate at a much lower level of intracellular calcium. A possible role for diacylglycerol in the maintenance of the response is discussed. PMID:2558762

  3. Hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, and complex visual discriminations in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Hales, Jena B.; Broadbent, Nicola J.; Velu, Priya D.

    2015-01-01

    Structures in the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex, are known to be essential for the formation of long-term memory. Recent animal and human studies have investigated whether perirhinal cortex might also be important for visual perception. In our study, using a simultaneous oddity discrimination task, rats with perirhinal lesions were impaired and did not exhibit the normal preference for exploring the odd object. Notably, rats with hippocampal lesions exhibited the same impairment. Thus, the deficit is unlikely to illuminate functions attributed specifically to perirhinal cortex. Both lesion groups were able to acquire visual discriminations involving the same objects used in the oddity task. Patients with hippocampal damage or larger medial temporal lobe lesions were intact in a similar oddity task that allowed participants to explore objects quickly using eye movements. We suggest that humans were able to rely on an intact working memory capacity to perform this task, whereas rats (who moved slowly among the objects) needed to rely on long-term memory. PMID:25593294

  4. Contributions of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex to rapid visuomotor learning in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianming; Bavley, Rachel L; Fomalont, Kevin; Blomstrom, Kevin J; Mitz, Andrew R; Turchi, Janita; Rudebeck, Peter H; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2014-09-01

    The hippocampus and adjacent structures in the medial temporal lobe are essential for establishing new associative memories. Despite this knowledge, it is not known whether the hippocampus proper is essential for establishing such memories, nor is it known whether adjacent regions like the entorhinal cortex might contribute. To test the contributions of these regions to the formation of new associative memories, we trained rhesus monkeys to rapidly acquire arbitrary visuomotor associations, i.e., associations between visual stimuli and spatially directed actions. We then assessed the effects of reversible inactivations of either the hippocampus (Experiment 1) or entorhinal cortex (Experiment 2) on the within-session rate of learning. For comparison, we also evaluated the effects of the inactivations on performance of problems of the same type that had been well learned prior to any inactivations. We found that inactivation of the entorhinal cortex but not hippocampus produced impairments in acquiring novel arbitrary associations. The impairment did not extend to the familiar, previously established associations. These data indicate that the entorhinal cortex is causally involved in establishing new associations, as opposed to retrieving previously learned associations. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Thinking after Drinking: Impaired Hippocampal-Dependent Cognition in Human Alcoholics and Animal Models of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol. Additional studies from preclinical models are discussed to support clinical findings. Finally, the unique cellular composition of the hippocampus and cognitive impairment dependent on the hippocampus is highlighted in the context of alcohol dependence. PMID:27746746

  6. Dopamine D1 receptor activity modulates object recognition memory consolidation in the perirhinal cortex but not in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Balderas, Israela; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that distributed neuronal networks in the medial temporal lobe process different characteristics of a recognition event; the hippocampus has been associated with contextual recollection while the perirhinal cortex has been linked with familiarity. Here we show that D1 dopamine receptor activity in these two structures participates differentially in object recognition memory consolidation. The D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 was infused bilaterally 15 min before a 5 min sample phase in either rats' perirhinal cortex or dorsal hippocampus, and they were tested 90 min for short-term memory or 24 h later for long-term memory. SCH23390 impaired long-term memory when infused in the perirhinal cortex but not when infused in the hippocampus. Conversely, when the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 was infused 10 min before a 3 min sample phase in the perirhinal cortex, long-term memory was enhanced, however, this was not observed when the D1 agonist was infused in the hippocampus. Short-term memory was spared when SCH23390 or SKF38393 were infused in the perirhinal cortex or the dorsal hippocampus suggesting that acquisition was unaffected. These results suggest that dopaminergic transmission in these medial temporal lobe structures have a differential involvement in object recognition memory consolidation.

  7. Stereopsis after unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy. Dissociation between local and global measures.

    PubMed

    Ptito, A; Zatorre, R J; Larson, W L; Tosoni, C

    1991-06-01

    In man, an impairment in stereopsis may occur following damage outside the occipital lobes. If local and global stereopsis can be dissociated, this may imply that different mechanisms mediate these functions. We tested 44 patients with unilateral anterior temporal lobe excisions and 23 normal control subjects on two tasks. In the local stereopsis task, subjects indicated which of two pins varying in disparity between 4 and 512 s of arc was closer. Results showed no threshold impairment in any group. In the global stereopsis task, random-dot stereograms varying in binocular correlation were presented in random order, and subjects indicated if the squares perceived in depth were in front of or behind the screen. At binocular correlations between 50% and 70%, left and right temporal lobectomy resulted in a deficit, which was more marked following right-sided excisions. These results are concordant with earlier work (Ptito and Zatorre, 1988), and with other evidence of a right hemisphere superiority in treating binocular depth information. Moreover, the fact that global stereopsis is impaired in the presence of intact local stereopsis suggests that closely related but not identical mechanisms are involved, and fits the notion that there is a hierarchical organization of the visual pathways originating in the striate cortex leading into temporal cortex. Global stereopsis would thus be mediated in temporal lobe areas that receive information about local disparities from more posterior regions.

  8. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors.

  9. Semantics of the visual environment encoded in parahippocampal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Michael F.; Price, Amy Rose; Peelle, Jonathan E.; Grossman, Murray