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Sample records for cortex magnoliae officinalis

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  2. Evaluation and discrimination of cortex Magnoliae officinalis produced in Zhejiang Province (Wen-Hou-Po) by UPLC-DAD-TOF-MS fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Yuana, Ke; Yu, Wei-Wu; Wang, Jing

    2010-10-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem TOF mass spectrometric (UPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) fingerprinting method was developed for the quality control and source discrimination of Cortex magnoliae officinalis produced in Zhejiang Province (Wen-Hou-Po). Twelve samples of Wen-Hou-Po collected from two species in five areas in Zhejiang Province of China were used to establish the fingerprint. Data were evaluated statistically using similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) in order to establish a similarity standard of fingerprint for quality control of Wen-Hou-Po, then to classify the Wen-Hou-Po samples and to identify key categorizing parameters. The similarity indexes were all above 0.95 between the reference chromatogram and that of each sample. By comparing the UV and MS data with those of the authentic standards and literature, nine main peaks in the fingerprints were identified. The result of hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the samples from two species in five areas could be divided into two distinct groups (the same as the groups of the samples divided by their species) based on their compositional fingerprints. A rapid and convenient discriminant function was then established to discriminate the species of unknown Wen-Hou-Po, and the cross validation result was 100%. In this study, the methods established are reliable, and could be used to evaluate the quality and to identify the species of Wen-Hou-Po in the future.

  3. Biosynthesis of flat silver nanoflowers: from Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract to simulation solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaolian; Huang, Jiale; Wu, Lingfeng; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2014-03-01

    Flat Ag nanoflowers were directly synthesized from the bioreduction of AgNO3 using Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract without any additional stabilizer or protective agent at room temperature. Effects of concentrations of the Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract on the Ag nanostructures were investigated. The main components containing flavone, polyphenol, protein, and reducing sugar in the plant extract were thoroughly determined before and after the reaction, and the dialysis experiments were also conducted. The results of components analysis and dialysis showed that gallic acid representing polyphenols played an important role in the biosynthesis of silver nanoplates. Trisodium citrate combined gallic acid solution, instead of Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract, was employed and successfully simulated the biosynthesis process of the flat Ag nanoflowers.

  4. Effect of Chemical Profiling Change of Processed Magnolia officinalis on the Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Honokiol and Magnolol in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiling; Wang, Zhanguo; Hua, Wan; You, Yu; Zou, Liang

    2016-08-01

    The stem of Magnoliae officinalis (MO) cortex is always preliminarily processed before being applied in traditional Chinese medicine. The definite bioavailability of honokiol (HO) and magnolol (MA) in processed MO (PMO) and the effect of chemical profiling change on the pharmacokinetics of HO and MA are always a greater challenge compared with those of MO. Compared with that of MO, the pharmacokinetic profiling of HO and MA in the PMO was significantly changed and the mean Tmax of HO and MA was increased by 31 and 50% (P < 0.05), respectively; the mean AUC0-t and Cmax of HO were increased by 36 and 24% (P < 0.05), respectively. Subsequently, the chemical profiling of MO and PMO was investigated by a simple and rapid LC-Q/TOF-MS coupled with multivariate analysis method. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the chromatographic data demonstrated that the chemical profiling of PMO was significantly different from that of MO. Eight marker components including six alkaloids (magnocurarine, magnoflorine, roemerine and three unidentified peaks) and two lignans (obovatol and MA) were screened out by partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The results indicated that the changes of eight marker components of PMO may have an effect on the pharmacokinetic profiles of HO and MA.

  5. Biological activity and toxicity of the Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson (Houpo) and its constituents

    PubMed Central

    Poivre, Mélanie; Duez, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal drugs have been used for thousands of years in Chinese pharmacopoeia. The bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson, known under the pinyin name “Houpo”, has been traditionally used in Chinese and Japanese medicines for the treatment of anxiety, asthma, depression, gastrointestinal disorders, headache, and more. Moreover, Magnolia bark extract is a major constituent of currently marketed dietary supplements and cosmetic products. Much pharmacological activity has been reported for this herb and its major compounds, notably antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and antispasmodic effects. However, the mechanisms underlying this have not been elucidated and only a very few clinical trials have been published. In vitro and in vivo toxicity studies have also been published and indicate some intriguing features. The present review aims to summarize the literature on M. officinalis bark composition, utilisation, pharmacology, and safety. PMID:28271656

  6. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively.

  7. Magnolia officinalis L. Fortified Gum Improves Resistance of Oral Epithelial Cells Against Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Walker, Joel Michael; Maitra, Amarnath; Haririan, Hady; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Dodds, Michael; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers. Ex vivo stimulation of oral epithelial cells with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis for 6[Formula: see text]h increased the mRNA expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-[Formula: see text], IL-8, MIP-1[Formula: see text], and TNF[Formula: see text]. Chewing MBE-fortified gum for 10[Formula: see text]min reduced the ex vivo LPS-induced increase of IL-8 release by 43.8 [Formula: see text] 17.1% at the beginning of the intervention. In addition, after the two-week intervention with MBE-fortified chewing gum, LPS-stimulated TNF[Formula: see text] release was attenuated by 73.4 [Formula: see text] 12.0% compared to chewing regular control gum. This increased resistance against LPS-induced inflammation suggests that MBE possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo when added to chewing gum. In contrast, the conditions used to stimulate an immune response of oral epithelial cells failed to induce oxidative stress, measured by catalase activity, or oxidative DNA damage.

  8. Nine phenylethanoid glycosides from Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits and their protective effects against free radical-induced oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lanlan; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhou, Gao; Ma, Bingxin; Mo, Qigui; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2017-01-01

    To systematically study the chemical constituents in Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits, nine phenylethanoid glycosides were isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analyses, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC correlations, and HPLC analysis of sugar residue. Nine phenylethanoid glycosides, namely, magnoloside Ia (1), magnoloside Ic (2), crassifolioside (3), magnoloside Ib (4), magnoloside IIIa (5), magnoloside IVa (6), magnoloside IIa (7), magnoloside IIb (8) and magnoloside Va (9), were first isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits alcohol extract. Free radical scavenging activities of the nine phenylethanoid glycosides were assessed using the DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Simultaneously, protective effects of all compounds against free radical-induced oxidative damage were evaluated by two different kinds of mitochondrial damage model. The protective effects were assessed by mitochondrial swelling, the formations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). All phenylethanoid glycosides showed significant protective effects. PMID:28349971

  9. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (−18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (−11%), Tension (−13%), Depression (−20%), Anger (−42%), Fatigue (−31%), and Confusion (−27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery

  10. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  11. Quality evaluation of the leaves of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun; Wu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Jin-Yu; Wu, Yan-Bin

    2016-02-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method is a simple and reliable technique to evaluate the quality of leaves of Magnolia officinalis Rehd.et Wils. var. biloba Rehd.et Wils. We used the following bioactive phenolic constituents as reference compounds: rutin, afzelin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside, honokiol and magnolol. The conditions of an Agilent 1200 HPLC were: YMC-Pack-ODS-AQ column (250 × 4.6 mm id S-5 μm, 12 nm), mobile phase acetonitrile and 0.2% phosphoric acid in a gradient elute mode, flow rate 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength 280 nm and column temperature 30°C. The analytical method was validated in terms of linearity, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery tests. While performing fingerprint analysis, we identified 11 peaks as characteristic peaks and assessed the similarities of 17 samples collected from different geological regions of China. The peak areas were used to evaluate the variation in the chemical composition of the tested samples. For this purpose, we performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the peak areas. Our results indicate that simultaneous determination of multiple ingredients could be done through chromatographic fingerprint analysis. Therefore, this high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method was readily utilized to evaluate the quality of leaves of M. officinalis var.biloba, which are used in several traditional herbal preparations.

  12. Origin and History of Magnolias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebda, R. J.; Irving, E.

    2004-12-01

    The classic disjunct distribution of living magnolias between southeast Asia and the Americas has been a puzzle for more than a century and a half. We propose a scheme for the origin and history of magnolias to explain this distribution by integrating paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, paleobotanical, and phytogeographic data. Our scheme is based on paleomagnetically determined latitudes. We assume that the moist warm temperate climate favoured by most extant magnolias has always been their preference. Molecular analyses (largely chloroplast DNA) reveal that several North American species are distinct and basal forms suggesting that magnolias likely originated in North America, a conclusion supported by the fossil record. We identify four evolutionary stages: (1) Ancestral magnolias originate in the Late Cretaceous of North America in high mid-latitudes (45° -60° N) at low altitudes under greenhouse climates. (2) During the exceptionally warm climate (super-greenhouse) of the Eocene, magnolias spread eastwards via the Iceland-Faroes isthmuses, to Europe and then across west and central Asia possibly to east Asia, still at low altitudes and high mid-latitudes. (3) With global cooling from the mid-Cenozoic, magnolias shift their core range to lower mid-latitudes (30° -45° N), become extinct in Europe and southern Siberia, breaking the once continuous distribution into two. (4) In the late Cenozoic, as ice-house conditions develop, magnolias diversify rapidly and expand southward into moist warm temperate uplands in newly uplifted mountain ranges of South and Central America, southeast Asia and the High Archipelago between southeast Asia and Australia. The late Cenozoic evolution of magnolias is characterized by the impoverishment of northerly species and diversification of southerly species. Thus, the centre of origin is not the center of diversity today. Disjunction at the generic level likely occurred as part of the mid-Tertiary southward displacement of the

  13. Chemical characterization of Magnolia biondii (Flos Magnoliae, Xin Yi).

    PubMed

    Schühly, Wolfgang; Skarbina, Jeannette; Kunert, Olaf; Nandi, Owi I; Bauer, Rudolf

    2009-02-01

    Samples of Magnolia biondii buds (Xin Yi, Flos Magnoliae) from different sources were subjected to phytochemical analysis and compared to samples of M. denudata and M. liliiflora. Among the compounds found in the flower buds of M. biondii were eight tetrahydrofurofuran lignans as well as the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide and the sesquiterpene alcohol oplodiol. A rapid TLC-method for the identification of plant material from M. biondii and its distinction from M. liliiflora was developed. Structure elucidation was carried out by means of NMR (1- and 2-D) and LC-MS.

  14. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY: Federal... Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight...

  15. Montessori for All: Magnolia Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The founders of Montessori For All, which opened Magnolia Montessori--a PK-8 public charter school in Austin, Texas--created a new school model that blends the best of authentic Montessori schooling (hands-on and self-directed learning) with best practices from high-performing charter schools (basic skills mastery to excel on standardized tests…

  16. 75 FR 5904 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR, has made this action necessary for...

  17. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project (Magnolia LNG Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Magnolia LNG, LLC (Magnolia) in...

  18. The magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Jian; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Yang; Conklin, Daniel J; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Kim, Young Heui; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental risks. Disruption in energy balance is one of these risk factors. In the present study, the preventive effect on high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice by Magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH) was compared with Magnolia officinalis extract BL153. C57BL/6J mice were fed by normal diet or by HFD with gavage-administered vehicle, BL153, low-dose MH, and high-dose MH simultaneously for 24 weeks, respectively. Either MH or BL153 slightly inhibited body-weight gain of mice by HFD feeding although the food intake had no obvious difference. Body fat mass and the epididymal white adipose tissue weight were also mildly decreased by MH or BL153. Moreover, MH significantly lowered HFD-induced plasma triglyceride, cholesterol levels and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), liver weight and hepatic triglyceride level, and ameliorated hepatic steatosis. BL153 only significantly reduced ALT and liver triglyceride level. Concurrently, low-dose MH improved HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the infiltration of mast cells in adipose tissue was decreased in MH or in BL153 treatment. These results suggested that Magnolia bioactive constituent MH might exhibit potential benefits for HFD-induced obesity by improvement of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance.

  19. In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-08-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress.

  20. 75 FR 11936 - Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, AR; Notice of Termination of... of workers of Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, Arkansas. The petitioner has requested that the...

  1. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  2. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El... 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El...

  3. Phenylethanoid glycosides in tepals of Magnolia salicifolia and their occurrence in flowers of Magnoliaceae.

    PubMed

    Porter, Elaine A; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Geoghegan, Ivey A; Larsson, Sonny; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2015-09-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides were among the major UV-absorbing components in 80% aq. CH3OH extracts of the tepals of Magnolia salicifolia (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. (Magnoliaceae; Magnolia subgenus Yulania). Structural characterisation of isolated compounds by spectroscopic and chemical methods revealed three previously unrecorded examples, yulanoside A, yulanoside B and 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, and the known compounds echinacoside and crassifolioside; chromatographic methods also identified verbascoside in the tepal extract. Yulanoside A is the first reported example of a phenylethanoid pentaglycoside, namely hydroxytyrosol 1-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl-(→4)][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}. A survey of Magnolia sensu lato and Liriodendron (the two genera of Magnoliaceae) suggested that yulanoside A and its deglucosyl derivative (yulanoside B) were a feature of the tepal chemistry of Magnolia subgenus Yulania (except Magnolia acuminata, the sole member of section Tulipastrum, which did not accumulate phenylethanoid glycosides). The two species of Liriodendron and examined examples of Magnolia subgenus Magnolia sections Magnolia and Rytidospermum (subsection Oyama) also accumulated phenylethanoid glycosides in their tepals and in these species, and in subgenus Yulania, the major compounds were one or more of echinacoside, 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, crassifolioside and verbascoside. Levels of phenylethanoid glycosides were found to be much lower in species studied from Magnolia sections Gwillimia, Macrophylla and Rytidospermum (subsection Rytidospermum), although yulanoside A was detectable in M. macrophylla and this may have some bearing on the placement of section Macrophylla, which is currently uncertain. In the isolates of yulanoside B and echinacoside, minor phenylethanoid glycosides were determined to be analogues of these compounds with β-D-xylose at C-3' of the

  4. 78 FR 56170 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; denial of application for review. SUMMARY: In...

  5. MFE/Magnolia - A joint CNES/NASA mission for the earth magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runavot, Josette; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1988-01-01

    The joint phase B study in the CNES/NASA MFE/Magnolia mission to study the earth's magnetic field are reported. The scientific objectives are summarized and the respective responsibilities of NASA and CNES are outlined. The MFE/Magnolia structure and power systems, mass and power budgets, attitude control system, instrument platform and boom, tape recorders, rf system, propellant system, and scientific instruments are described.

  6. Anticonvulsant effects of Magnolia grandiflora L. in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bastidas Ramírez, B E; Navarro Ruíz, N; Quezada Arellano, J D; Ruíz Madrigal, B; Villanueva Michel, M T; Garzón, P

    1998-06-01

    The ethyl ether (EE) and hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae) seeds, a popular plant utilized in the Mexican traditional medicine because of its antispasmodic as well as other reported pharmacological effects, were studied in adult male Wistar rats. EE and HE orally administered in a single dose of 250 mg/kg (calculated on lipidic base) and 200 mg/kg, exhibited abolition of the extensor reflex of maximal electric induced-seizure test in 50 and 40% of the experimental animals, respectively. They significantly prolonged the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital and only the ethanol extract induced hypothermia. No neurological deficit was exhibited by either extract according to the gait, stance and righting test. Although ulterior toxicological and pharmacological insight is necessary, these results suggest that the chemical constituents of this plant could have utility in the control of epileptic patients presenting convulsive seizures.

  7. [Similarity between leaves of Nauclea officinalis and stems of Nauclea officinalis].

    PubMed

    Lian, Yuan-pei; Xie, Da-wen; Yuan, Shao-wei; Li, Yan-jing; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Xiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    The study is to develop a method to determine 3 batches leaves of Nauclea officinalis and stems of N. officinalis by HPLC. The differences between strictosamide contents and fingerprints was compared, then chromatographic peak of fingerprints was validated with the assistance of LC-MS. The strictosamide contents in stems of N. officinalis were higher than leaves of N. officinalis. The main chemical composition in leaves of N. officinalis and stems of N. officinalis were alkaloid which revealed by LC-MS. There are 7 chemical compositions were same between them, but the chemical composition in leaves of N. officinalis is more than stems of N. officinalis. This provides a scientific basis for the development of the potential medicinal value of leaves of N. officinalis and the sustainable utilization of N. officinalis.

  8. Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood.

  9. Extracts of Magnolia Species-Induced Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuezhong; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Wanqing; Gao, Ling; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Cai, Lu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-09-24

    Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney.

  10. Extracts of Magnolia Species-Induced Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuezhong; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Wanqing; Gao, Ling; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Cai, Lu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney. PMID:27669240

  11. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  12. Inhibitory Effect of a Hot-Water Extract of Leaves of Japanese Big-Leaf Magnolia (Magnolia obovata) on Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Mouse Pups

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Tomono, Takuma; Hamauzu, Yasunori; Tanaka, Katsumi; Yasui, Hisako

    2014-01-01

    The leaf of Japanese big-leaf magnolia (Magnolia obovata Thunb.) has long been used as a natural packaging material for traditional foods in Japan. However, many of the physiological functions of the leaves against oral infection and resultant illness remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a hot-water extract of the leaves of Magnolia obovata on diarrhea induced by rotavirus (RV), a major cause of acute diarrhea. RV strain SA11 was mixed with the M. obovata leaf extract and inoculated orally to neonatal BALB/c mouse pups. Simultaneous inoculation of SA11 with the extract significantly decreased the incidence of diarrhea. In addition, the extract significantly inhibited cytopathic effects and mRNA expression of viral proteins in SA11-infected MA104 cells. Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin and rutin, were strongly suggested to be major anti-RV agents in the extract by serial solvent extraction and reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Our results suggest that the hot-water extract of M. obovata leaves can be used as a medicine or food additive to prevent and ameliorate RV-induced diarrhea in individuals that may have difficulty in benefitting from the RV vaccines. PMID:25580150

  13. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  14. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition from flower and leaf of Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Fei; Ren, Fan; Liu, Xiong-Min; Lai, Fang; Ma, Li

    2016-07-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. were obtained using hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 31, 27 and 26 constituents were identified in the oils from male flower, female flower and leaf of M. kwangsiensis, and they comprised 99.2, 98.5 and 96.2% of the oils, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the oils and accounted for 48.3% of male flower oil, 54.0% of female flower oil and 44.6% of leaf oil. The compositions of flower oils were quite similar but with different content, and were different from those of leaf oil.

  15. [Comparison of total phenol of magnolia solid dispersion prepared by different methods].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Di, Liu-qing; Li, Jun-song; Kang, An; Qian, Jing; Wang, Deng-jie

    2015-11-01

    To compare the difference of total phenol of magnolia solid dispersion prepared by different methods. Hot melt extrusion, solvent evaporation method, and fusion-cooling method were used to prepare total phenol of Magnolia accessory solid dispersion, Plastone S-630 and HPC. The drug dispersion state in the prepared solid dispersion was evaluated with DSC and X-ray diffraction; FT-IR method was used to analyze the possible connections between drug and accessories. Finally, accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test was use to compare the stability differences between these three processes. The results of DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that all of the drug in solid dispersion processed by three processes can exist in amorphous form; FT-IR results also could not distinguish the difference between the three processes; accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test showed the stability of solid dispersion prepared by HPC was better than Plastone S-630, and the same kinds of materials solid dispersion prepared by hot melt extrusion showed a better stability than the other two processes.

  16. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Pineda-López, María del Rosario

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about the ecology and demography of the genus Magnolia. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. is an endangered species endemic to Mexico. Two contrasting populations of M. dealbata (one from the grasslands and other from a secondary cloud forest) were studied. We asked the following questions: (a) Are size structure (diameter at breast height, DBH) and infrutescence production significantly different between the two populations? (b) What are the populations' growth rates (lambda) based on an initial 1987 study? (c) Are the associated species diversity indices of these M. dealbata populations significantly different? The results show no significant differences between the population size structure (p=.094); the growth rates of the populations were 0.992 in grassland and 1.053 in secondary cloud forest. The number of infrutescences produced in year 2001 and DBH relationship were significantly linear (p<.001) in both populations, and there was no significant difference (p>.01) between their slopes. The diversity indices were not significantly different (p>.05), and only 54% of the species were common to both sites. Our study suggests that both populations are relatively stable and that the management history could impact more on the species composition than on the diversity indices.

  17. Insecticidal activity of raw ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata Zucc on a tephritid pest.

    PubMed

    Flores-Estévez, Norma; Vasquez-Morales, Suria G; Cano-Medina, Tomás; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata (Zucc.) (Magnoliaceae); leaves, bark, seeds, sarcotesta and flowers were evaluated for insecticidal activity against adults of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using feeding bioassays composed from sugar-extract mixtures, only the extract from sarcotesta indicated insecticidal activity against the flies. The extracts from the other four plant tissues (leaves, bark, seeds and flowers) did not manifest any biological activity. The most effective extract was obtained from oven-dried sarcotesta, whereas extracts from fresh sarcotesta were inactive. Our results suggest that M. dealbata sarcotesta contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against A. ludens adults. These metabolites are as potent as natural pyrethins and represent a potential substance for controlling this type of pest.

  18. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  19. Honokiol, a Lignan Biphenol Derived from the Magnolia Tree, Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Infection.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Chen, Siang-Jyun; Wu, Huey-Nan; Ping, Yueh-Hsin; Lin, Ching-Yen; Shiuan, David; Chen, Chi-Long; Lee, Ying-Ray; Huang, Kao-Jean

    2015-09-10

    Dengue is the most widespread arbovirus infection and poses a serious health and economic issue in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently no licensed vaccine or compounds can be used to prevent or manage the severity of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Honokiol, a lignan biphenol derived from the Magnolia tree, is commonly used in Eastern medicine. Here we report that honokiol has profound antiviral activity against serotype 2 DENV (DENV-2). In addition to inhibiting the intracellular DENV-2 replicon, honokiol was shown to suppress the replication of DENV-2 in baby hamster kidney (BHK) and human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells. At the maximum non-toxic dose of honokiol treatment, the production of infectious DENV particles was reduced >90% in BHK and Huh7 cells. The underlying mechanisms revealed that the expression of DENV-2 nonstructural protein NS1/NS3 and its replicating intermediate, double-strand RNA, was dramatically reduced by honokiol treatment. Honokiol has no effect on the expression of DENV putative receptors, but may interfere with the endocytosis of DENV-2 by abrogating the co-localization of DENV envelope glycoprotein and the early endosomes. These results indicate that honokiol inhibits the replication, viral gene expression, and endocytotic process of DENV-2, making it a promising agent for chemotherapy of DENV infection.

  20. Thermogenesis, Flowering and the Association with Variation in Floral Odour Attractants in Magnolia sprengeri (Magnoliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruohan; Xu, Sai; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yiyuan; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. is an ornamentally and ecologically important tree that blooms at cold temperatures in early spring. In this study, thermogenesis and variation in the chemical compounds of floral odours and insect visitation in relation to flowering cycles were studied to increase our understanding of the role of floral thermogenesis in the pollination biology of M. sprengeri. There were five distinct floral stages across the floral cycle of this species: pre-pistillate, pistillate, pre-staminate, staminate and post-staminate. Floral thermogenesis during anthesis and consisted of two distinct peaks: one at the pistillate stage and the other at the staminate stage. Insects of five families visited M. sprengeri during the floral cycle, and sap beetles (Epuraea sp., Nitidulidae) were determined to be the most effective pollinators, whereas bees (Apis cerana, Apidae) were considered to be occasional pollinators. A strong fragrance was released during thermogenesis, consisting of 18 chemical compounds. Although the relative proportions of these compounds varied at different floral stages across anthesis, linalool, 1-iodo-2-methylundecane and 2,2,6-trimethyl-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-ol were dominant. Importantly, we found that the floral blends released during the pistillate and staminate stages were very similar, and coincided with flower visitation by sap beetles and the two thermogenic episodes. Based on these results, we propose that odour acts as a signal for a reward (pollen) and that an odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers occurs during the pistillate stage. PMID:24922537

  1. Two-stage fermentation process for enhanced mannitol production using Candida magnoliae mutant R9.

    PubMed

    Savergave, Laxman S; Gadre, Ramchandra V; Vaidya, Bhalchandra K; Jogdand, Vitthal V

    2013-02-01

    Mutants of Candida magnoliae NCIM 3470 were generated by treatment of ultra-violet radiations, ethyl methyl sulphonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutants with higher reductase activity were screened by means of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride agar plate assay. Among the screened mutants, the mutant R9 produced maximum mannitol (i.e. 46 g l(-1)) in liquid fermentation medium containing 250 g l(-1) glucose and hence was selected for further experiments. Preliminary optimization studies were carried out on shake-flask level which increased the mannitol production to 60 g l(-1) in liquid fermentation medium containing 300 g l(-1) glucose. A two-stage fermentation process comprising of growth phase and production phase was employed. During the growth phase, glucose was supplemented and aerobic conditions were maintained. Thereafter, the production phase was initiated by supplementing fructose and switching to anaerobic conditions by discontinuing aeration and decreasing the speed of agitation. The strategy of two-stage fermentation significantly enhanced the production of mannitol up to 240 g l(-1), which is the highest among all fermentative production processes and corresponds to 81 % yield and 4 g l(-1 )h(-1) productivity without formation of any by-product.

  2. Furfural and glucose can enhance conversion of xylose to xylitol by Candida magnoliae TISTR 5663.

    PubMed

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Lee, Wen-Chien; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2017-01-10

    Xylitol production from xylose by the yeast Candida magnoliae TISTR 5663 was enhanced by supplementing the fermentation medium with furfural (300mg/L) and glucose (3g/L with an initial mass ratio of glucose to xylose of 1:10) together under oxygen limiting conditions. In the presence of furfural and glucose, the final concentration of xylitol was unaffected relative to control cultures but the xylitol yield on xylose increased by about 5%. Supplementation of the culture medium with glucose alone at an initial concentration of 3g/L, stimulated the volumetric and specific rates of xylose consumption and the rate of xylitol production from xylose. In a culture medium containing 30g/L xylose, 300mg/L furfural and 3g/L glucose, the volumetric production rate of xylitol was 1.04g/L h and the specific production rate was 0.169g/g h. In the absence of furfural and glucose, the volumetric production rate of xylitol was ∼35% lower and the specific production rate was nearly 30% lower. In view of these results, xylose-containing lignocellulosic hydrolysates contaminated with furfural can be effectively used for producing xylitol by fermentation so long as the glucose-to-xylose mass ratio in the hydrolysate does not exceed 1:10 and the furfural concentration is ≤300mg/L.

  3. Production of honokiol and magnolol in suspension cultures of Magnolia dealbata Zucc.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chivez, Marco; Garduñ-Ramírez, Maria Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martin; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2009-07-01

    Honokiol and magnolol, important anxiolytic and anti-cancer agents, have been produced in cell-suspension cultures of the endangered Mexican plant Magnolia dealbata Zucc. In vitro cultures of the plant were established, and the accumulation of honokiol and magnolol in callus and cell-suspension cultures was measured. Leaf samples were the best explants for callus establishment and metabolite production, and Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L kinetin yielded 2.3 mg/g of honokiol and 5.9 mg/g of magnolol. Bacterial and fungal contamination was inhibited with a multiple-step tissue sterilization procedure. Oxidation was inhibited with 1 g/L activated charcoal. Cell-suspension batch cultures derived from friable callus obtained from leaves of this species were grown for 30 days in shaker flasks containing Murashige and Skoog medium. Throughout the growth cycle, honokiol and magnolol levels, fresh and dry weight, and sucrose uptake were determined. The effects of carbon source concentration on biomass accumulation and the synthesis of bioactive compounds were studied. By using 3 mL of inocula supplemented with 3% (w/v) sucrose, maximum yields of honokiol (8.1 mg/g) and magnolol (13.4 mg/g) were obtained after 25 days. These yields were 300% and 382%, respectively, of the yields of honokiol and magnolol obtained from field-grown plants.

  4. Thermogenesis, flowering and the association with variation in floral odour attractants in Magnolia sprengeri (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruohan; Xu, Sai; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yiyuan; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. is an ornamentally and ecologically important tree that blooms at cold temperatures in early spring. In this study, thermogenesis and variation in the chemical compounds of floral odours and insect visitation in relation to flowering cycles were studied to increase our understanding of the role of floral thermogenesis in the pollination biology of M. sprengeri. There were five distinct floral stages across the floral cycle of this species: pre-pistillate, pistillate, pre-staminate, staminate and post-staminate. Floral thermogenesis during anthesis and consisted of two distinct peaks: one at the pistillate stage and the other at the staminate stage. Insects of five families visited M. sprengeri during the floral cycle, and sap beetles (Epuraea sp., Nitidulidae) were determined to be the most effective pollinators, whereas bees (Apis cerana, Apidae) were considered to be occasional pollinators. A strong fragrance was released during thermogenesis, consisting of 18 chemical compounds. Although the relative proportions of these compounds varied at different floral stages across anthesis, linalool, 1-iodo-2-methylundecane and 2,2,6-trimethyl-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-ol were dominant. Importantly, we found that the floral blends released during the pistillate and staminate stages were very similar, and coincided with flower visitation by sap beetles and the two thermogenic episodes. Based on these results, we propose that odour acts as a signal for a reward (pollen) and that an odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers occurs during the pistillate stage.

  5. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of an anthocyanin synthase gene from Magnolia sprengeri Pamp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shou-Guo; Li, Shan-Ju; Kang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin synthase (ANS), which catalyzes the conversion of colorless leucoanthocyanins into colored anthocyanins, is a key enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. It plays important roles in plant development and defense. An ANS gene designated as MsANS was cloned from Magnolia sprengeri using rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends technology. The full-length MsANS is 1171-bp long and contains a 1080-bp open reading frame encoding a 360 amino acid polypeptide. In a sequence alignment analysis, the deduced MsANS protein showed high identity to ANS proteins from other plants: Prunus salicina var. cordata (74 % identity), Ampelopsis grossedentata (74 % identity), Pyrus communis (73 % identity), and Prunus avium (73 % identity). A structural analysis showed that MsANS belongs to 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygenase family because it contains three binding sites for 2OG. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the transcript level of MsANS was 26-fold higher in red petals than in white petals. The accumulation of anthocyanins in petals of white, pink, and red M. sprengeri flowers was analyzed by HPLC. The main anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-o-glucoside chloride, and the red petals contained the highest concentration of this pigment.

  6. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

    2002-07-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.

  7. Alternative splicing of the AGAMOUS orthologous gene in double flower of Magnolia stellata (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Ma, Jiang; Song, Yi; Chen, Fa-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Magnolia stellata is a woody ornamental shrub with more petaloid tepals than related plants from family Magnoliaceae. Recent studies revealed that expression changes in an AGAMOUS (AG) orthologous gene could resulted in double flowers with increased numbers of petals. We isolated three transcripts encoding different isoforms of a single AG orthologous gene, MastAG, mastag_2 and mastag_3, from M. stellata. Sequence alignments and Southern blot analyses suggested that MastAG was a single-copy gene in M. stellata genomes, and that mastag_2 and mastag_3 were abnormally spliced isoforms of MastAG. An 144bp exon skipping in MastAG results in the truncated mastag_2 protein lacking the completely I domain and 18 aa of the K1 subdomain, whereas an 165bp exon skipping of MastAG produces a truncated mastag_3 protein lacking 6 aa of the K3 subdomain and the completely C terminal region. Expression analyses showed that three alternative splicing (AS) isoforms expressed only in developing stamens and carpels. Functional analyses revealed that MastAG could mimic the endogenous AG to specify carpel identity, but failed to regulate stamen development in an Arabidopsis ag-1 mutant. Moreover, the key domain or subdomain deletions represented by mastag_2 and mastag_3 resulted in loss of C-function. However, ectopic expression of mastag_2 in Arabidopsis produced flowers with sepals converted into carpeloid organs, but without petals and stamens, whereas ectopic expression of mastag_3 in Arabidopsis could mimic the flower phenotype of the ag mutant and produced double flowers with homeotic transformation of stamens into petals and carpels into another ag flower. Our results also suggest that mastag_3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create multi-petal phenotypes in commercial ornamental cultivars.

  8. Melissa officinalis L: A Review Study With an Antioxidant Prospective.

    PubMed

    Miraj, Sepide; Rafieian-Kopaei; Kiani, Sara

    2016-09-11

    Melissa officinalis is a plant cultivated in some parts of Iran. The leaves of lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L (Lamiaceae), are used in Iranian folk medicine for their digestive, carminative, antispasmodic, sedative, analgesic, tonic, and diuretic properties, as well as for functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review article was aimed not only to introduce Melissa officinalis (its growth condition, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages) but also to overview its antioxidant properties in detail. This review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases up to 2016. The search terms used were "Melissa officinalis L," "antioxidant properties," oxidative stress," "oxidative damage", "ROS." Articles whose full texts were not available were excluded from the study. In this study, firstly, traditional usage of this herb was reviewed, including antimicrobial activity (antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, etc), antispasmodic, and insomnia properties. Then, its antioxidant properties were overviewed. Various studies have shown that Melissa officinalis L possesses high amount of antioxidant activity through its chemical compounds including high amount of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid, phenolic contents. Many studies confirmed the antioxidative effects of Melissa officinalis; thus, its effect in preventing and treating oxidative stress-related diseases might be reliable.

  9. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

    2010-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders.

  10. Effect of a sugar-free chewing gum containing magnolia bark extract on different variables related to caries and gingivitis: a randomized controlled intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Campus, G; Cagetti, M G; Cocco, F; Sale, S; Sacco, G; Strohmenger, L; Lingström, P

    2011-01-01

    The effect of magnolia bark extract (MBE) on different variables related to caries and gingivitis administered daily through a sugar-free chewing gum was evaluated. The study was performed with healthy adult volunteers at high risk for caries as a randomized double-blind interventional study. 120 subjects with a salivary mutans streptococci (MS) concentration ≥10(5) CFU/ml and presence of bleeding on probing >25% were enrolled and divided into three groups: magnolia, xylitol and control. The study design included examinations at baseline, after 7 days, after 30 days of gum use and 7 days after the end of gum use. Plaque pH was assessed using the strip method following a sucrose challenge. Area under the curve (AUC(5.7) and AUC(6.2)) was recorded. Whole saliva was collected and the number of salivary MS (CFU/ml) was counted. Bleeding on probing was recorded as a proxy of dental plaque. Data were analyzed using ANOVA repeated measures. Magnolia gum significantly reduced plaque acidogenicity, MS salivary concentration and gingival bleeding compared to xylitol and control gums. Subjects from the magnolia and xylitol groups showed both MS concentration (p = 0.01 and 0.06, respectively) and AUC(5.7) (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) to be significantly lower compared to baseline. Thirty-day use of a chewing gum containing MBE showed beneficial effects on oral health, including reduction of salivary MS, plaque acidogenicity and bleeding on probing.

  11. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities.

  12. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  13. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), α-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588

  14. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  15. Effects of constituents from the bark of Magnolia obovata on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Kageura, T; Oda, M; Morikawa, T; Sakamoto, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    2001-06-01

    The methanolic extract from a Japanese herbal medicine, the bark of Magnolia obovata, was found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. By bioassay-guided separation, three neolignans (magnolol, honokiol, obovatol) and three sesquiterpenes (alpha-eudesmol, beta-eudesmol, gamma-eudesmol) were obtained as active constituents. A trineolignan (magnolianin), a phenylpropanoid glycoside (syringin), lignan glycosides (liriodendrin, (+)-syringaresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside) and a sesquiterpene (caryophyllene oxide) did not show any activity. On the other hand, sesquiterpene-neolignans (eudesmagnolol, clovanemagnolol, caryolanemagnolol, eudeshonokiol A, eudesobovatol A) showed the strong cytotoxic effects. Active constituents (magnolol, honokiol, obovatol) showed weak inhibition for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) enzyme activity, but potent inhibition of iNOS induction and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

  16. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  17. Steroidal saponins from roots of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2006-02-01

    Sarsasapogenin M (1) and sarsasapogenin N (2), two new oligospirostanosides with a unique aglycone moiety, (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta, 17alpha-diol, along with seven known compounds (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-5beta-furost-20 (22)-ene-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6), yamogenin (7), beta-sitosterol (8), and sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (9) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  18. Analysis of lignans in Magnoliae Flos by turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Chen, Cen; Ye, Xiaolan; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Fuhai

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a method coupling turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for analyzing the lignans in Magnoliae Flos. By the online pretreatment of turbulent flow chromatography solid-phase extraction, the impurities removal and analytes concentration were automatically processed, and the lignans were separated rapidly and well. Seven lignans of Magnoliae Flos including epieudesmin, magnolin, 1-irioresinol-B-dimethyl ether, epi-magnolin, fargesin aschantin, and demethoxyaschantin were identified by comparing their retention behavior, UV spectra, and mass spectra with those of reference substances or literature data. The developed method was validated, and the good results showed that the method was not only automatic and rapid, but also accurate and reliable. The turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method holds a high potential to become an effective method for the quality control of lignans in Magnoliae Flos and a useful tool for the analysis of other complex mixtures.

  19. Simulation of the interaction of karstic lakes Magnolia and Brooklyn with the upper Floridan Aquifer, southwestern Clay County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stage of Lake Brooklyn, in southwestern Clay County, Florida, has varied over a range of 27 feet since measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey began in July 1957. The large stage changes have been attributed to the relation between highly transient surface-water inflow to the lake and subsurface conduits of karstic origin that permit a high rate of leakage from the lake to the Upper Floridan aquifer. After the most recent and severe stage decline (1990-1994), the U.S. Geological Survey began a study that entailed the use of numerical ground-water flow models to simulate the interaction of the lake with the Upper Floridan aquifer and the large fluctuations of stage that were a part of that process. A package (set of computer programs) designed to represent lake/aquifer interaction in the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-96) and the Three-Dimensional Method-of-Characteristics Solute-Transport Model (MOC3D) simulators was prepared as part of this study, and a demonstration of its capability was a primary objective of the study. (Although the official names are Brooklyn Lake and Magnolia Lake (Florida Geographic Names), in this report the local names, Lake Brooklyn and Lake Magnolia, are used.) In the simulator of lake/aquifer interaction used in this investigation, the stage of each lake in a simulation is updated in successive time steps by a budget process that takes into account ground-water seepage, precipitation upon and evaporation from the lake surface, stream inflows and outflows, overland runoff inflows, and augmentation or depletion by artificial means. The simulator was given the capability to simulate both the division of a lake into separate pools as lake stage falls and the coalescence of several pools into a single lake as the stage rises. This representational capability was required to simulate Lake Brooklyn, which can divide into as many as 10 separate pools at sufficiently low stage. In the

  20. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing.

  1. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  2. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  3. First in vitro norlignan formation with Asparagus officinalis enzyme preparation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiro; Nakatsubo, Tomoyuki; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Shimada, Mikio

    2002-05-21

    We report for the first time that an enzyme preparation from fungal-elicited Asparagus officinalis cultured cells catalyses the formation of a norlignan, (Z)-hinokiresinol, from two non-identical phenylpropanoid monomers, 4-coumaryl alcohol and 4-coumaroyl CoA, and from a dimer, 4-coumaryl 4-coumarate, without any additional cofactors.

  4. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  5. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  6. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

    2010-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis.

  7. Volatile Compounds with Characteristic Odor of Essential Oil from Magnolia obovata Leaves by Hydrodistillation and Solvent-assisted Flavor Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakashima, Yoshimi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the volatile compounds with characteristic odor of essential oil from the leaves of Magnolia obovata by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) method. Eighty-seven compounds, representing 98.0% of the total oil, were identified using HD. The major compounds of HD oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (23.7%), α-humulene (11.6%), geraniol (9.1%), and borneol (7.0%). In SAFE oil, fifty-eight compounds, representing 99.7% of the total oil, were identified. The main compounds of SAFE oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (48.9%), α-humulene (15.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%). In this study, we newly identified eighty-five compounds of the oils from M. obovata leaves. These oils were also subjected to aroma evaluation by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, twenty-four (HD) and twenty-five (SAFE) aroma-active compounds were detected. (E)-β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, linalool, geraniol, 1,8-cineole, and bicyclogermacrene were found to impart the characteristic odor of M. obovata leaves. These results imply that the oils of M. obovata leaves must be investigated further to clarify their potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Magnolia Extract (BL153) Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wenpeng; Wang, Yangwei; Chen, Qiang; Sun, Weixia; Cai, Lu; Tan, Yi; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Kim, Young Heui

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153) for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD). Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and hexokinase II (HK II) expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney. PMID:24381715

  9. Anti-biofilm and bactericidal effects of magnolia bark-derived magnolol and honokiol on Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Takenaka, Shoji; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Okiji, Takashi; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects people of all ages and is a worldwide health concern. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium because of its ability to form biofilm and induce an acidic environment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of magnolol and honokiol, the main constituents of the bark of magnolia plants, toward planktonic cell and biofilm of S. mutans were examined and compared with those of chlorhexidine. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of magnolol, honokiol and chlorhexidine for S. mutans were 10, 10 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, each agent showed bactericidal activity against S. mutans planktonic cells and inhibited biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol (50 µg/mL) had greater bactericidal activity against S. mutans biofilm than honokiol (50 µg/mL) and chlorhexidine (500 µg/mL) at 5 min after exposure, while all showed scant activity against biofilm at 30 s. Furthermore; chlorhexidine (0.5-500 µg/mL) exhibited high cellular toxicity for the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 at 1 hr, whereas magnolol (50 µg/mL) and honokiol (50 µg/mL) did not. Thus; it was found that magnolol has antimicrobial activities against planktonic and biofilm cells of S. mutans. Magnolol may be a candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human dopaminergic cell line, SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) has been reported to have various pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of R. officinalis extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by treatment with R. officinalis. Moreover, R. officinalis was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic cell death induced by H2O2. R. officinalis extract effectively suppressed the up-regulation of Bax, Bak, Caspase-3 and -9, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with R. officinalis significantly attenuated the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings indicate that R. officinalis is able to protect the neuronal cells against H2O2-induced injury and suggest that R. officinalis might potentially serve as an agent for prevention of several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  11. Characterization of the interaction between the dark septate fungus Phialocephala fortinii and Asparagus officinalis roots.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Nassuth, A; Peterson, R L

    2001-08-01

    Phialocephala fortinii Wang & Wilcox is a member of root-inhabiting fungi known collectively as dark septate endophytes (DSE). Although very common and distributed worldwide, few studies have documented their interaction with roots on a structural basis. The objective of this study was to determine the early colonization events and formation of microsclerotia of P. fortinii in roots of Asparagus officinalis L., a species known to have DSE. A loose network of hyphae accumulated at the root surface, and coils formed around root hairs and external to epidermal cells overlying short cells of the dimorphic, suberized exodermis. Root penetration occurred via swollen, appressorium-like structures into epidermal cells where coiling of hyphae occurred along the periphery of the cells. Hyphae penetrated from the epidermis into short exodermal cells and from these into cortical cells. Hyphae colonized the cortex up to the endodermis and sometimes entered the vascular cylinder. Some root tips were colonized as well. Microsclerotia in epidermal and exodermal short cells accumulated glycogen, protein, and polyphosphate. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on distinct bodies visible in microsclerotial hyphae revealed high levels of phosphorus.

  12. Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of oral and topical application of Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The parameters assessed were the days needed for re-epithelization and percentage of wound closure. The hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the granuloma tissue of the wound was also measured. The percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the control group showed only 51.1% on the eighth day of wounding (p < .01). The days needed for re-epithelization were 17.7 for the control animals; extract treatment at a dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg b.wt reduced the period to 14 and 13 days, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the extract-treated group compared with the untreated animals. The data indicate potent wound healing activity ofC. officinalis extract.

  13. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  14. Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers.

  15. [Type I and type IV sensitization to Asparagus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Rieker, J; Ruzicka, T; Neumann, N J; Bielicky, P; Homey, B

    2004-04-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis),a member of the Liliaceae family, is a popular vegetable, most commonly eaten in May. A 55-year-old cook presented with seasonal (always in May) recurrent dyshidrosiform hand eczema which prevented him from working. He also reported developing dyspnea and dysphagia after consuming asparagus. Diagnostic allergy testing revealed positive reactions against asparagus in prick-to-prick and epicutaneous patch tests.

  16. Chromosome number and ploidy level of balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kittler, J; Schrader, O; Kästner, U; Marthe, F

    2015-01-01

    Die wachsende Bedeutung von Zitronenmelisse (Melissa officinalis L.) führt zur Ausdehnung des hierfür erforderlichen Anbauumfanges. Ein verbesserter Kenntnisstand der Genomstruktur, der Chromosomenzahl und der hiermit in Zusammenhang stehenden taxonomischen Struktur der Melisse sind unerlässliche Voraussetzungen für verbesserte, neue Sorten.Eine Kollektion von 40 Melisseherkünften (M. officinalis) wurde durchflusszytometrisch und durch FISH (18/25S and 5S rDNA) untersucht, um den Ploidiegrad und die Chromosomenzahl zu ermitteln. Drei unterschiedliche Typen wurden konnten bestimmt werden: diploide Genotypen mit 2n = 2× = 32 Chromosomen; tetraploide mit 2n = 4× = 64 Chromosomen und triploide mit 2n = 3× = 48 Chromosomen. Die haploide Chromosomenzahl ist mit x = 16 anzunehmen. Die erstmalig beschriebenen triploiden Herkünfte sind steril aber zytologisch und morphologisch über viele Jahre stabil. Sie zeigen eine bessere Winterhärte und einen schnelleren Wiederaufwuchs nach Ernteschnitten, wie auch größere Blätter und Internodien.Die Basischromosomenzahl von x = 16 wird erstmalig für die Art M. officinalis beschrieben.

  17. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser

    PubMed Central

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student’s t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

  18. An integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus for the extraction of essential oils from herb materials and its application in Flos Magnoliae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhui; Li, Boxia; Duan, Haogang; Wu, Xin'an; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    A large number of herb materials contain essential oils with extensive bioactivities. In this work, an integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction (ISDE) apparatus was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, the performance of ISDE was evaluated for the extraction of essential oil from Flos Magnoliae and compared with conventional techniques including steam distillation (SD) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). According to the product yield, the time consumed and the composition of oil, the essential oils isolated by ISDE were better than that obtained by SD and similar to those obtained by SDE. ISDE was also better than SDE due to its simple operation and lower consumption of energy and organic solvent.

  19. Two ancestral APETALA3 homologs from the basal angiosperm Magnolia wufengensis (Magnoliaceae) can affect flower development of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Danlong; Liu, Zhixiong; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Jiang; Han, Yiyang; Chen, Faju

    2014-03-01

    APETALA3 (AP3) homologs are involved in specifying petal and stamen identities in core eudicot model organisms. In order to investigate the functional conservation of AP3 homologs between core eudicots and basal angiosperm, we isolated and identified two AP3 homologs from Magnolia wufengensis, a woody basal angiosperm belonging to the family Magnoliaceae. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that both genes are clade members of the paleoAP3 lineage. Moreover, a highly conserved motif of paleoAP3 is found in the C-terminal regions of MAwuAP3_1/2 proteins, but the PI-derived motif, usually present in AP3/DEF-like lineage members, is missing. Semi-quantitative and real time PCR analyses showed that the expression of MAwuAP3_1/2 was restricted to tepals and stamens. However, the MAwuAP3_1 expression was maintained at a high level during the rapid increased in size of tepals and stamens, while MAwuAP3_2 mRNA was only detected at the early stage of tepal and stamen development. Furthermore, the expression of MAwuAP3_1/2 in transgenic Arabidopsis causes phenotypic changes which partly resemble those caused by ectopic expressions of the endogenous AP3 gene. Moreover, the 35S::MAwuAP3_1/2 transgenic Arabidopsis can be used partially to rescue the loss-of-function ap3 mutant (ap3-3) of Arabidopsis. These findings call for a more comprehensive understanding of the B-functional evolution from basal angiosperm to core eudicot clades.

  20. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD).

  1. Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Michał; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

    2013-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain.

  2. Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Posadas, S J; Caz, V; Largo, C; De la Gándara, B; Matallanas, B; Reglero, G; De Miguel, E

    2009-01-01

    Rosemary leaves, "Rosmarinus officinalis", possess a variety of antioxidant, anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We hypothesized that rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats. This work evaluates whether supplementing their diet with supercritical fluid (SFE) rosemary extract containing 20% antioxidant carnosic acid (CA) reduces oxidative stress in aged rats. Aged Wistar rats (20 months old) were included in the study. Rats were fed for 12 weeks with a standard kibble (80%) supplemented with turkey breast (20%) containing none or one of two different SFE rosemary concentrations (0.2% and 0.02%). After sacrifice, tissue samples were collected from heart and brain (cortex and hippocampus). Enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were quantitatively analyzed. Lipid peroxidation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined. Rosemary decreased lipid peroxidation in both brain tissues. The levels of catalase activities in heart and cortex were decreased in the rosemary-treated groups. The SFE rosemary-treated rats presented lower NOS levels in heart and lower ROS levels in hippocampus than the control rats. Supplementing the diet of aged rats with SFE rosemary extract produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and ROS levels that was significant for catalase activity in heart and brain, NOS in heart, and LPO and ROS levels in different brain tissues. These observations suggest that the rosemary supplement improved the oxidative stress status in old rats.

  3. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration. PMID:27239217

  4. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration.

  5. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in

  6. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  7. Fleshy seeds form in the basal Angiosperm Magnolia grandiflora and several MADS-box genes are expressed as fleshy seed tissues develop.

    PubMed

    Lovisetto, Alessandro; Masiero, Simona; Rahim, Md Abdur; Mendes, Marta Adelina Miranda; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    One successful mechanism of seed dispersal in plants involves production of edible fleshy structures which attract frugivorous animals and transfer this task to them. Not only Angiosperms but also Gymnosperms may use the fleshy fruit habit for seed dispersal, and a similar suite of MADS-box genes may be expressed as these structures form. Magnolia grandiflora produces dry follicles which, at maturity, open to reveal brightly colored fleshy seeds. This species thus also employs endozoochory for seed dispersal, although it produces dry fruits. Molecular analysis reveals that genes involved in softening and color changes are expressed at late stages of seed development, when the fleshy seed sarcotesta softens and accumulates carotenoids. Several MADS-box genes have also been studied and results highlight the existence of a basic genetic toolkit which may be common to all fleshy fruit-like structures, independently of their anatomic origin. According to their expression patterns, one of two AGAMOUS genes and the three SEPALLATA genes known so far in Magnolia are of particular interest. Duplication of AGAMOUS already occurs in both Nymphaeales and Magnoliids, although the lack of functional gene analysis prevents comparisons with known duplications in the AGAMOUS lineage of core Eudicots.

  8. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    De Franciscis, Pasquale; Grauso, Flavio; Luisi, Anna; Schettino, Maria Teresa; Torella, Marco; Colacurci, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness for vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders plus the long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination of agnus-castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli were assessed in postmenopausal women. A controlled study was carried out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with a formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group) at the dosage recommended. The Kuppermann index, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) were determined at baseline, three, six and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. One hundred and eighty women were enrolled in the study (100 in the ESP group and 80 in the C group). At the end of the treatment, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. The Kuppermann index and particularly the tendency for hot flashes progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. At the same time, a significant increase in sleep quality and psychophysical wellness parameters was observed in the ESP versus C groups. No adverse events were observed. Agnus-castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. The endometrium, mammary glands and liver function were unaffected after 12 months of treatment. PMID:28208808

  9. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    De Franciscis, Pasquale; Grauso, Flavio; Luisi, Anna; Schettino, Maria Teresa; Torella, Marco; Colacurci, Nicola

    2017-02-13

    The effectiveness for vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders plus the long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination of agnus-castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli were assessed in postmenopausal women. A controlled study was carried out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with a formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group) at the dosage recommended. The Kuppermann index, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) were determined at baseline, three, six and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. One hundred and eighty women were enrolled in the study (100 in the ESP group and 80 in the C group). At the end of the treatment, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. The Kuppermann index and particularly the tendency for hot flashes progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. At the same time, a significant increase in sleep quality and psychophysical wellness parameters was observed in the ESP versus C groups. No adverse events were observed. Agnus-castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. The endometrium, mammary glands and liver function were unaffected after 12 months of treatment.

  10. Loss of two introns from the Magnolia tripetala mitochondrial cox2 gene implicates horizontal gene transfer and gene conversion as a novel mechanism of intron loss.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Nancy J; Schmidt, Derek W; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2012-10-01

    Intron loss is often thought to occur through retroprocessing, which is the reverse transcription and genomic integration of a spliced transcript. In plant mitochondria, several unambiguous examples of retroprocessing are supported by the parallel loss of an intron and numerous adjacent RNA edit sites, but in most cases, the evidence for intron loss via retroprocessing is weak or lacking entirely. To evaluate mechanisms of intron loss, we designed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay to detect recent intron losses from the mitochondrial cox2 gene within genus Magnolia, which was previously suggested to have variability in cox2 intron content. Our assay showed that all 22 examined species have a cox2 gene with two introns. However, one species, Magnolia tripetala, contains an additional cox2 gene that lacks both introns. Quantitative PCR showed that both M. tripetala cox2 genes are present in the mitochondrial genome. Although the intronless gene has lost several ancestral RNA edit sites, their distribution is inconsistent with retroprocessing models. Instead, phylogenetic and gene conversion analyses indicate that the intronless gene was horizontally acquired from a eudicot and then underwent gene conversion with the native intron-containing gene. The models are presented to summarize the roles of horizontal gene transfer and gene conversion as a novel mechanism of intron loss.

  11. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis.

  12. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.

  13. Honokiol and magnolol production by in vitro micropropagated plants of Magnolia dealbata, an endangered endemic Mexican species.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martín; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    An efficient protocol for the in vitro propagation of Magnolia dealbata Zucc., an important medicinal plant that is the source of the anxiolytic and anticancer compounds honokiol and magnolol, was established. This plant is wild-crafted, and conservationists have expressed concerns with regard to the sustainability of production. In the present work, two factors were found to be of importance for the regeneration of M. dealbata and the production of honokiol and magnolol. These factors were the type of explants and the combination and concentration of plant-growth regulators. Green, compact, nodular organogenic callus was obtained from leaf explants in a medium fortified with Murashige and Skoog salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.5 mg/L kinetin. Shoots multiplication from callus cultures was achieved in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.5 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). Phenol secretion was controlled by the addition of 250 mg/L of activated charcoal. For rooting, shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with several auxins. After root induction, the plants were hardened in earthen pots containing sand, soil, and vermiculite. The contents of honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were determined in different plant materials by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection techniques. This analysis revealed that the honokiol and magnolol content in aerial and underground parts of micropropagated M. dealbata were higher than that observed in wild plants (both 6 months old). Our results suggest that conservation of M. dealbata is possible by means of in vitro multiplication of leaf-derived callus. The usefulness of M. dealbata regeneration and production of HK and MG may be attributed to the proper selection of explant sourcing and identification of the correct growth medium to support adequate growth. This careful selection of explants and growth medium leads to a very useful source of plant material for

  14. Isolation of alpha-glusosidase inhibitors from hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Chikako; Amano, Midori; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Mizutani, Junya

    2004-01-01

    alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was found in aqueous methanol extracts of dried hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) leaves. Active principles against alpha-glucosidase, prepared from rat small intestine acetone powders, were isolated and characterized. The structures of these isolated compounds were determined to be (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol-9-O-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by analysis of physical and spectroscopic data (FDMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC experiments) together with chemical syntheses.

  15. Use of Systemic Rosmarinus Officinalis to Enhance the Survival of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps

    PubMed Central

    İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918

  16. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  17. The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N

    2011-04-01

    Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior.

  18. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H.; Lopez, Elizabeth M.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-kaf, Ali G.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. PMID:28273883

  19. Studies on spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Calendula officinalis flowers.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Samra; Janbaz, Khalid H; Jabeen, Qaiser; Gilani, Anwar H

    2006-10-01

    The aqueous-ethanol extract of Calendula officinalis flowers (Co.Cr) was studied for its possible spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects in isolated gut preparations. In rabbit jejunum, Co.Cr caused a dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous and K+-induced contractions, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). In a few preparations, a mild non-reproducible spasmogenic effect was observed at lower doses, followed by relaxation. The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Co.Cr produced a dose-dependent rightward shift in the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that of verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic activity of the plant was concentrated in its organic fractions. The aqueous fraction exhibited a marked atropine sensitive spasmogenic effect but was found to be devoid of any spasmolytic effect. These data indicate that the crude extract of Calendula officinalis flowers contains both spasmolytic and spasmogenic constituents, exhibiting these effects through calcium channel blocking and cholinergic activities and this study provides a scientific base for its traditional use in abdominal cramps and constipation.

  20. Effects of Morinda officinalis Polysaccharide on Experimental Varicocele Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihong; Zhao, Xiaozhen; Wang, Feng; Lin, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Morinda officinalis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang for a long time in China. In this study, the effects of M. officinalis Polysaccharide (MOP) on experimental varicocele adolescent rats were investigated. The result showed that varicocele destroyed the structure of the seminiferous epithelium and decreased the TJ protein expression (Occludin, Claudin-11, and ZO-1), testosterone (T) concentration in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum levels of inhibin B (INHB), while increasing the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α) in the left testicular tissue, as well as serum levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and antisperm antibody (AsAb). MOP repaired the damaged seminiferous epithelium and TJ and reduced the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α) as well as serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, and AsAb, while upregulating TJ protein expression, T level in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum INHB levels. In summary, we conclude that MOP promotes spermatogenesis and counteracts the varicocele-induced damage to the seminiferous epithelium and TJ, probably via decreasing cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α) levels and regulating the abnormal sex hormones levels in experimental varicocele rats. PMID:28090212

  1. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth.

  2. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Majiene, Daiva

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80-130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM-200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  3. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  4. Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, Keri V

    2005-01-01

    The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

  5. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day(-1)). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (-70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (-59 and -56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (-12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

  6. Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Anila, L; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels.

  7. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis.

  8. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Samojlik, Isidora; Jovin, Emilija

    2007-09-19

    The essential oils of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and 6 fungi, including Candida albicans and 5 dermatomycetes. The most important antibacterial activity of both essential oils was expressed on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, and Shigella sonei. A significant rate of antifungal activity, especially of essential oil of rosemary, was also exhibited. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with the effect on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H2O2 systems of induction. Investigated essential oils reduced the DPPH radical formation (IC50 = 3.82 microg/mL for rosemary and 1.78 microg/mL for sage) in a dose-dependent manner. Strong inhibition of LP in both systems of induction was especially observed for the essential oil of rosemary.

  10. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile.

  11. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumour cells of the essential oil from flowers of Magnolia grandiflora cultivated in Iran.

    PubMed

    Morshedloo, Mohammad Reza; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-16

    Magnolia grandiflora (Magnoliaceae) is an evergreen tree with fragrant and showy flowers native to southeastern USA but widely cultivated all over the world and used in cosmetics industry in treatment of skin diseases. Here, we report on the chemical analysis of the essential oil obtained from flowers of plants cultivated in Iran, together with the evaluation of its antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The essential oil composition was dominated by bioactive sesquiterpenes, namely β-elemene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D and (E)-caryophyllene. The oil exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity towards the [Formula: see text] radical, and mild non-selective inhibitory effects against A375, MDA-MB 231 and T98 G tumour cell lines. The latter were influenced by the presence of the anticancer β-elemene. These results provided new insights for potential application of M. grandiflora volatile oil in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry where only the non-volatile magnolol and honokiol have hitherto been fully exploited.

  12. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  13. DNA sequences from Miocene fossils: an ndhF sequence of Magnolia latahensis (Magnoliaceae) and an rbcL sequence of Persea pseudocarolinensis (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Suh, Youngbae

    2004-04-01

    We report a partial ndhF sequence (1528 bp) of Magnolia latahensis and a partial rbcL sequence (699 bp) of Persea pseudocarolinensis from the Clarkia fossil beds of Idaho, USA (Miocene; 17-20 million years [my] BP). The ndhF sequence from M. latahensis was identical to those of extant M. grandiflora, M. schiediana, M. guatemalensis, and M. tamaulipana. Parsimony analysis of the ndhF sequence of M. latahensis and previously reported ndhF sequences for Magnoliaceae placed M. latahensis within Magnolia as a member of the Theorhodon clade. This result is reasonable considering that: (1) the morphology of M. latahensis is very similar to that of extant M. grandiflora, and (2) a recent molecular phylogenetic study of Magnoliaceae showed that the maximum sequence divergence of ndhF among extant species is very low (1.05% in subfamily Magnolioideae) compared with other angiosperm families. We reanalyzed the previously reported rbcL sequence of M. latahensis with sequences for all major lineages of extant Magnoliales and Laurales. This sequence is sister to Liriodendron, rather than grouped with a close relative of M. grandiflora as predicted by morphology and the results of the ndhF analysis, possibly due to a few erroneous base calls in the sequences. The rbcL sequence of P. pseudocarolinensis differed from rbcL of extant Persea species by 3-6 nucleotides and from rbcL of extant Sassafras albidum by two nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences for all major lineages of Magnoliales and Laurales placed the fossil P. pseudocarolinensis within Lauraceae and as sister to S. albidum. These results reinforce the suggestion that Clarkia and other similar sites hold untapped potential for molecular analysis of fossils.

  14. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway. PMID:26884941

  15. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo. PMID:27898027

  16. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Kondo, Shinji; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis), a culinary aromatic and medicinal plant, is very rich in polyphenols and flavonoids with high antioxidant properties. This plant was reported to exert multiple benefits for neuronal system and alleviate mood disorder. In our previous study, we demonstrated that R. officinalis and its active compounds, luteolin (Lut), carnosic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA), exhibited neurotrophic effects and improved cholinergic functions in PC12 cells in correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study was conducted to evaluate and understand the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis using tail suspension test (TST) in ICR mice and PC12 cells as in vitro neuronal model. Proteomics analysis of PC12 cells treated with R. officinalis polyphenols (ROP) Lut, CA, and RA revealed a significant upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) two major genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic pathway regulations. Moreover, ROP were demonstrated to protect neuronal cells against corticosterone-induced toxicity. These results were concordant with decreasing immobility time in TST and regulation of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine) and gene expression in mice brain like TH, PC and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1). To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism behind the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis and its major active compounds.

  17. Toxicological studies on hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erick J R; Gonçalves, Eduardo S; Aguiar, Fábio; Evêncio, Liriane B; Lyra, Mariana M A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Wanderley, Almir G

    2007-04-01

    The hydroalcohol extract (HAE) of Calendula officinalis L. was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in rats and mice and for the subacute effect on hematological, biochemical and morphologic parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, HAE failed to cause death in the animals after administration of oral doses up to 5.0 g/kg. Oral treatment with HAE at 0.025, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg did not induce hematological alterations when compared with the control group. In the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and in alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Morphological examination of the brain, kidney and heart did not show any alteration. However, inflammatory sites were found in the lung and liver, which were associated, respectively, with oral gavage and a possible hepatotoxic effect. HAE was non-toxic in rats, although there was evidence of renal and liver overload.

  18. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  19. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time.

  20. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-10

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina).

  1. Sterols and triterpenes in cell culture of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Zuzanna; Wysokińska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures from hypocotyl-derived callus of Hyssopus officinalis were found to produce two sterols i. e. beta-sitosterol (1) and stigmasterol (2), as well as several known pentacyclic triterpenes with an oleanene and ursene skeleton. The triterpenes were identified as oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), and 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (8). Compounds 5-8 were isolated as their acetates (6, 8) or bromolactone acetates (5, 7).

  2. Flavonoids from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Patora, Jolanta; Klimek, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Six flavonoids have been isolated from the leaves of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data (UV, 1R, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FAB MS) as luteolin, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-Obeta-D-glucuronopyranoside. The last three glycosides have been found in lemon balm for the first time and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside is a new compound found in plants.

  3. Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM).

  4. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move.

  5. Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Sedative Activities of Verbena officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Khan, Arif-ullah; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2016-01-01

    We describe different neuropharmacological effects of Verbena officinalis crude extract (Vo.Cr). Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, elevated plus maze, light–dark box (LDB), open field and thiopental-induced sleeping test models were employed to evaluate Vo.Cr actions in mice. Vo.Cr dose-dependently (100–500 mg/Kg) delayed onset time of myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, while decreased duration of tonic-clonic seizures (P < 0.05, P < 0.001 vs. saline group). Vo.Cr at 100 and 300–500 mg/Kg doses reduced animals’ mortality in PTZ-induced seizures test to 75 and 0%, respectively. Vo.Cr (50–300 mg/Kg) significantly increased time spent and number of entries into open arms, while decreased time spent and number of entries into closed arms (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 vs. saline group), measured in elevated plus maze. Vo.Cr (50–300 mg/Kg) increased time spent in light compartment, while decreased time spent in dark compartment (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 vs. saline group) in LDB, like caused by diazepam. In open field test, Vo.Cr decreased number of ambulations and rearings frequencies, while increased the number of central squares crossings. In thiopental-induced sleeping test, Vo.Cr (50–300 mg/Kg) decreased onset time of sleep, while increased the duration of sleep (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 vs. saline group). These results indicate that Verbena officinalis possess anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and sedative activities, which provides scientific background for its medicinal application in various neurological ailments, such as epilepsy, anxiety, and insomnia. PMID:28066246

  6. Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice.

    PubMed

    Palit, P; Furman, B L; Gray, A I

    1999-11-01

    Galega officinalis (galega, Goat's Rue, French Lilac) is well known for its hypoglycaemic action and has been used as part of a plant mixture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. During pharmacological investigations of an ethanolic extract of a powdered mixture of equal proportions of G. officinalis, Cressa cretica, Mangifera indica and Syzygium jambolanum, a weight reducing effect of galega was discovered. In this study we have investigated the novel weight reducing effect of galega in mice. Galega herb (10% w/w in the diet) caused a significant reduction in body weight in both normal and genetically obese (ob/ob) animals treated for 28 days when compared with respective controls (P < 0.01). In normal mice, the weight loss was reversible and initially associated with a transient reduction in food intake but was then maintained even in the presence of increased eating above the control level. Pair-fed normal mice receiving galega for seven days also showed significant weight loss (P < 0.01, compared with the control) in the presence of increasing food intake. In sharp contrast, weight loss in galega-treated ob/ob mice was accompanied by a persistent reduction in food intake over the 28-day treatment period. Post-mortem examinations of all galega-treated mice revealed a striking absence of body fat. Serum glucose was significantly reduced in both strains of mice receiving galega for 28 days (P < 0.01), whereas serum insulin was significantly reduced only in obese mice (P < 0.01). In summary, together with its established hypoglycaemic effects, galega has a novel weight reducing action that, in normal mice, is largely independent of a reduction in food intake. The mechanism of the weight reducing action of galega is unclear but involves loss of body fat.

  7. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    PubMed

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  8. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-10-29

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.

  9. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced—Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age. PMID:27775613

  10. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced-Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-10-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn(2+) ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O₂(•-) production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age.

  11. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  12. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs.

  13. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

  14. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-18

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg · mL(-1) for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant.

  15. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  16. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    PubMed

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  17. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-10-01

    Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa

  18. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  19. MYB transcription factor gene involved in sex determination in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohji; Shigenobu, Shuji; Fujii, Sota; Ueda, Kazuki; Murata, Takanori; Sakamoto, Ai; Wada, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Kanno, Akira; Ozaki, Yukio; Takayama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males. MSE1 exhibits tight linkage with the Y chromosome, specific expression in early anther development and loss of function on the X chromosome. Knockout of the MSE1 orthologue in Arabidopsis induces male sterility. Thus, MSE1 acts in sex determination in A. officinalis.

  20. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  1. CX-516 Cortex pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Danysz, Wojciech

    2002-07-01

    CX-516 is one of a series of AMPA modulators under development by Cortex, in collaboration with Shire and Servier, for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [234221]. By June 2001, CX-516 was in phase II trials for both schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [412513]. A phase II trial in fragile X syndrome and autism was expected to start in May 2002 [449861]. In October 2001, Cortex was awarded a Phase II SBIR grant of $769,818 from the National Institutes of Mental Health to investigate the therapeutic potential of AMPAkines in schizophrenia. This award was to support a phase IIb study of CX-516 as a combination therapy in schizophrenia patients concomitantly treated with olanzapine. The trial was to enroll 80 patients and employ a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in which the placebo group was to receive olanzapine plus placebo and the active group was to receive olanzapine plus CX-516 [425982]. In April 2000, Shire and Cortex signed an option agreement in which Shire was to evaluate CX-516for the treatment of ADHD. Under the terms of the agreement, Shire would undertake a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of CX-516 involving ADHD patients. If the study proved effective, Shire would have the right to convert its option into an exclusive worldwide license for the AMPAkines for ADHD under a development and licensing agreement. Should Shire elect to execute this agreement, Shire would bear all future developmental costs [363618]. By February 2002, Cortex and Servier had revealed their intention to begin enrolment for an international study of an AMPAkine compound as a potential treatment for MCI in the near future. Assuming enrollment proceeded as anticipated, results were expected during the second quarter of 2003 [439301]. By May 2002, phase II trials were underway [450134]. In March 2002, Cortex was awarded extended funding under the

  2. Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) Effects on Heart Electrical System

    PubMed Central

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. Objectives: ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Results: Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P < 0.05 for M50 and M100 groups and P < 0.01 for M200 group versus the control group, respectively), prolonged QTc and JT intervals (P < 0.01 for different M groups versus the control group) and prolonged TpTe interval (P < 0.001 when M groups compared with the control group) of ECG. However, different doses of the extract had no significant effect on RR interval, PR interval, amplitudes of ECG waves, heart rate and blood pressure. Conclusions: For the first time, this study revealed that consumption of Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes. PMID:26396973

  3. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti

  4. Genome-wide identification and validation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufen; Zhang, Guojun; Li, Xu; Wang, Lianjun; Yuan, Jinhong; Deng, Chuanliang; Gao, Wujun

    2016-06-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), an important vegetable cultivated worldwide, can also serve as a model dioecious plant species in the study of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. However, limited DNA marker resources have been developed and used for this species. To expand these resources, we examined the DNA sequences for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 163,406 scaffolds representing approximately 400 Mbp of the A. officinalis genome. A total of 87,576 SSRs were identified in 59,565 scaffolds. The most abundant SSR repeats were trinucleotide and tetranucleotide, accounting for 29.2 and 29.1% of the total SSRs, respectively, followed by di-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octanucleotides. The AG motif was most common among dinucleotides and was also the most frequent motif in the entire A. officinalis genome, representing 14.7% of all SSRs. A total of 41,917 SSR primers pairs were designed to amplify SSRs. Twenty-two genomic SSR markers were tested in 39 asparagus accessions belonging to ten cultivars and one accession of Asparagus setaceus for determination of genetic diversity. The intra-species polymorphism information content (PIC) values of the 22 genomic SSR markers were intermediate, with an average of 0.41. The genetic diversity between the ten A. officinalis cultivars was low, and the UPGMA dendrogram was largely unrelated to cultivars. It is here suggested that the sex of individuals is an important factor influencing the clustering results. The information reported here provides new information about the organization of the microsatellites in A. officinalis genome and lays a foundation for further genetic studies and breeding applications of A. officinalis and related species.

  5. Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-06-01

    Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status.

  6. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease.

  7. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Flavonoid pattern of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) unifloral honey.

    PubMed

    Kenjerić, Daniela; Mandić, Milena L; Primorac, Ljiljana; Čačić, Frane

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine the flavonoids in monofloral sage (Salvia officinalis L.) honey which is characteristic and specific for the area of Croatian coast and islands. For that purpose 38 sage honey samples from two production seasons were analysed. After specific pollen content determination, and analyses of selected physicochemical parameters which confirmed that samples are in compliance with national and international regulations and can be regarded as unifloral sage honeys, flavonoid fraction was isolated and analysed using RP-HPLC/DAD method. The HPLC analysis showed that all examined sage honey samples contain quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), as well as p-coumaric (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid). Total amount of identified flavonoids varied from 109.4μg/100g of honey to 589.9μg/100g of honey, with the average of 288.5μg/100g of honey. All analysed honey samples showed common and specific flavonoid profile which could be the basis for differentiating sage from other monofloral honeys.

  9. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  10. [Diuretic activity of the infusion of flowers from Lavandula officinalis].

    PubMed

    Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A

    2001-01-01

    The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender.

  11. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  12. Saccadic Movement Strategy in Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Helmer, Desiree; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Frederike D.

    2017-01-01

    Most moving animals segregate their locomotion trajectories in short burst like rotations and prolonged translations, to enhance distance information from optic flow, as only translational, but not rotational optic flow holds distance information. Underwater, optic flow is a valuable source of information as it is in the terrestrial habitat, however, so far, it has gained only little attention. To extend the knowledge on underwater optic flow perception and use, we filmed the movement pattern of six common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) with a high speed camera in this study. In the subsequent analysis, the center of mass of the cuttlefish body was manually traced to gain thrust, slip, and yaw of the cuttlefish movements over time. Cuttlefish indeed performed short rotations, saccades, with rotational velocities up to 343°/s. They clearly separated rotations from translations in line with the saccadic movement strategy documented for animals inhabiting the terrestrial habitat as well as for the semiaquatic harbor seals before. However, this separation only occurred during fin motion. In contrast, during jet propelled swimming, the separation between rotational and translational movements and thus probably distance estimation on the basis of the optic flow field is abolished in favor of high movement velocities. In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that an aquatic invertebrate, the cuttlefish, adopts a saccadic movement strategy depending on the behavioral context that could enhance the information gained from optic flow. PMID:28105017

  13. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface.

  14. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  15. A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Aleksić, Jelena M; Stojanović, Danilo; Banović, Bojana; Jančić, Radiša

    2012-12-01

    We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 μg DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals.

  16. Genomic organization of the AODEF gene in Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuro; Suzuki, Go; Ochiai, Toshinori; Nakada, Mutsumi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira

    2005-04-01

    The perianths of Liliaceae plants, such as lily and tulip, have two whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, which are called tepals. According to the modified ABC model proposed in tulip, the class B genes are expressed in whorl 1 as well as whorls 2 and 3, so that the organs of whorls 1 and 2 have the same petaloid structure. The floral structure of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is similar to that of Liliaceae plants, however, the expression of B-class genes (AODEF, AOGLOA, AOGLOB) was not found in whorl 1, but was confined to whorls 2 and 3. This result does not support the modified ABC model in asparagus. In order to gain a better understanding of asparagus flower development, we have characterized a genomic clone of the AODEF gene. We compared the genomic organization and promoter sequence of AODEF with three well-studied DEF-like genes, DEFICIENS (Antirrhinum), APETALA3 (Arabidopsis), and OSMADS16 (rice). Exon-intron structures of these genes are well-conserved except for the large fifth intron in the AODEF gene and the OSMADS16 gene. Putative cis-elements including CArG-boxes were found in the promoter region and forty-two microsatellites were found in the AODEF genomic sequence.

  17. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  18. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora, Chrysactinia mexicana, and Schinus molle found in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; González González, Gloria María; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora and Chrysactinia mexicana leaves, and from Schinus molle leaves and fruit, were characterized by gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight compounds from M. grandiflora leaves were identified (representing 93.6% of the total area of the gas chromatogram), with the major component being bornyl acetate (20.9%). Colorless and yellow oils were obtained from the C. mexicana leaves with 18 (86.7%) and 11 (100%) compounds identified, respectively. In both fractions, the principal component was sylvestrene (36.8% and 41.1%, respectively). The essential oils ofS. molle leaves and fruit were each separated into colorless and yellow fractions, in which 14 (98.2) and 20 (99.8%) compounds were identified. The main component was alpha-phellandrene in all fractions (between 32.8% and 45.0%). The M. grandiflora oil displayed antifungal activity against five dermatophyte strains. The oils from S. molle and M. grandiflora leaves had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, which cause skin infections that potentially may lead to sepsis. However, the antioxidant activities of all oils were small (half maximal effective concentration values >250 microg/mL).

  19. Pollen flow and effects of population structure on selfing rates and female and male reproductive success in fragmented Magnolia stellata populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragmentation of plant populations may affect mating patterns and female and male reproductive success. To improve understanding of fragmentation effects on plant reproduction, we investigated the pollen flow patterns in six adjacent local populations of Magnolia stellata, an insect-pollinated, threatened tree species in Japan, and assessed effects of maternal plant (genet) size, local genet density, population size and neighboring population size on female reproductive success (seed production rates), and effects of mating distance, paternal genet size, population size and separation of populations on male reproductive success. Results The seed production rate, i.e. the proportion of ovules that successfully turned into seeds, varied between 1.0 and 6.5%, and increased with increasing population size and neighboring population size, and with decreasing maternal genet size and local genet density. The selfing rate varied between 3.6 and 28.9%, and increased with increasing maternal genet size and with declining local genet density. Male reproductive success increased with increasing paternal genet size, and decreased with increasing mating distance and separation of population. Pollen flow between the populations was low (6.1%) and highly leptocurtic. Conclusions Our results indicate that habitat fragmentation, separation and reduced size of populations, affected mating patterns and reproductive success of M. stellata. Local competition for pollinators and plant display size were likely to alter the reproductive success. PMID:23517612

  20. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

  1. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2007-01-01

    Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

  2. A putative MYB35 ortholog is a candidate for the sex-determining genes in Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Kohei; Ide, Mayui; Hayashi, Masato; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus) is a dioecious perennial crop. For agricultural production of A. officinalis, male plants have advantages over female plants. The dioecism of A. officinalis is determined by the single dominant masculinizing M locus, which is involved in tapetal cell development in stamens, but thus far no specific M locus genes have been identified. We re-analyzed previously published RNA-Seq data for the A. officinalis transcriptome, cloned some genes, and discovered that a putative ortholog of MYB35, which is indispensable for tapetal cell development in Arabidopsis thaliana, is absent in the genome of female plants in A. officinalis. In a reverse transcription-PCR analysis, this gene (AoMYB35) exhibited strong expression in stamens in male flowers at an early developmental stage. In an in situ hybridization analysis, AoMYB35 mRNA was detected in tapetal cells in young male flowers. GFP-fused AoMYB35 was detected in the nucleus when expressed in onion epidermal cells. These results suggest that AoMYB35 is a male-specific gene encoding a putative transcription factor that acts in tapetal cells at an early stage of flower development in A. officinalis. Together, the results support the idea that AoMYB35 is a candidate for one of the M locus genes in A. officinalis. PMID:28176806

  3. A putative MYB35 ortholog is a candidate for the sex-determining genes in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Kohei; Ide, Mayui; Hayashi, Masato; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-08

    Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus) is a dioecious perennial crop. For agricultural production of A. officinalis, male plants have advantages over female plants. The dioecism of A. officinalis is determined by the single dominant masculinizing M locus, which is involved in tapetal cell development in stamens, but thus far no specific M locus genes have been identified. We re-analyzed previously published RNA-Seq data for the A. officinalis transcriptome, cloned some genes, and discovered that a putative ortholog of MYB35, which is indispensable for tapetal cell development in Arabidopsis thaliana, is absent in the genome of female plants in A. officinalis. In a reverse transcription-PCR analysis, this gene (AoMYB35) exhibited strong expression in stamens in male flowers at an early developmental stage. In an in situ hybridization analysis, AoMYB35 mRNA was detected in tapetal cells in young male flowers. GFP-fused AoMYB35 was detected in the nucleus when expressed in onion epidermal cells. These results suggest that AoMYB35 is a male-specific gene encoding a putative transcription factor that acts in tapetal cells at an early stage of flower development in A. officinalis. Together, the results support the idea that AoMYB35 is a candidate for one of the M locus genes in A. officinalis.

  4. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.

    PubMed

    Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

    2011-07-01

    Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel.

  5. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  6. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

  7. Mitochondrial dynamics underlying thermal plasticity of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) hearts.

    PubMed

    Oellermann, Michael; Pörtner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

    2012-09-01

    In the eurythermal cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, performance depends on hearts that ensure systemic oxygen supply over a broad range of temperatures. We therefore aimed to identify adjustments in energetic cardiac capacity and underlying mitochondrial function supporting thermal acclimation and adaptation that could be crucial for the cuttlefish's competitive success in variable environments. Two genetically distinct cuttlefish populations were acclimated to 11, 16 and 21°C. Subsequently, skinned and permeabilised heart fibres were used to assess mitochondrial functioning by means of high-resolution respirometry and a substrate-inhibitor protocol, followed by measurements of cardiac citrate synthase and cytosolic enzyme activities. Temperate English Channel cuttlefish had lower mitochondrial capacities but larger hearts than subtropical Adriatic cuttlefish. Warm acclimation to 21°C decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in Adriatic cuttlefish and increased complex IV activity in English Channel cuttlefish. However, compensation of mitochondrial capacities did not occur during cold acclimation to 11°C. In systemic hearts, the thermal sensitivity of mitochondrial substrate oxidation was high for proline and pyruvate but low for succinate. Oxygen efficiency of catabolism rose as temperature changed from 11 to 21°C via shifts to oxygen-conserving oxidation of proline and pyruvate and via reduced relative proton leak. The changes observed for substrate oxidation, mitochondrial complexes, relative proton leak and heart mass improve energetic efficiency and essentially seem to extend tolerance to high temperatures and reduce associated tissue hypoxia. We conclude that cuttlefish sustain cardiac performance and, thus, systemic oxygen delivery over short- and long-term changes of temperature and environmental conditions by multiple adjustments in cellular and mitochondrial energetics.

  8. Orientation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: response versus place learning.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Boal, Jean Geary; Dickel, Ludovic

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mammals, birds and fish use comparable spatial learning strategies. Unfortunately, except in insects, few studies have investigated spatial learning mechanisms in invertebrates. Our study aimed to identify the strategies used by cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to solve a spatial task commonly used with vertebrates. A new spatial learning procedure using a T-maze was designed. In this maze, the cuttlefish learned how to enter a dark and sandy compartment. A preliminary test confirmed that individual cuttlefish showed an untrained side-turning preference (preference for turning right or left) in the T-maze. This preference could be reliably detected in a single probe trial. In the following two experiments, each individual was trained to enter the compartment opposite to its side-turning preference. In Experiment 1, distal visual cues were provided around the maze. In Experiment 2, the T-maze was surrounded by curtains and two proximal visual cues were provided above the apparatus. In both experiments, after acquisition, strategies used by cuttlefish to orient in the T-maze were tested by creating a conflict between the formerly rewarded algorithmic behaviour (turn, response learning) and the visual cues identifying the goal (place learning). Most cuttlefish relied on response learning in Experiment 1; the two strategies were used equally often in Experiment 2. In these experiments, the salience of cues provided during the experiment determined whether cuttlefish used response or place learning to solve this spatial task. Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence of multiple spatial strategies in cuttlefish that appear to closely parallel those described in vertebrates.

  9. How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms.

  10. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity.

  11. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  12. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

    2008-02-29

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections.

  13. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control.

  14. Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

    1994-06-01

    Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions.

  15. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis.

  16. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  17. Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

    2004-02-20

    The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample.

  18. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  19. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  20. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  1. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  2. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

    2009-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use.

  3. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

  4. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  5. Honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, inhibits photocarcinogenesis by targeting UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and cell cycle regulators: development of topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-11-01

    To develop newer and more effective chemopreventive agents for skin cancer, we assessed the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis using the SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical treatment of mice with honokiol in a hydrophilic cream-based topical formulation before or after UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation resulted in a significant protection against photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor multiplicity (28-60%, P < 0.05 to <0.001) and tumor volume per tumor-bearing mouse (33-80%, P < 0.05 to 0.001, n = 20). Honokiol also inhibited and delayed the malignant progression of papillomas to carcinomas. To investigate the in vivo molecular targets of honokiol efficacy, tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice were analyzed for inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and survival signals using immunostaining, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with honokiol significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E(2) (P < 0.001), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.001) in the skin as well as in skin tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that honokiol: (i) inhibited the levels of cyclins D1, D2 and E and associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)2, CDK4 and CDK6, (ii) upregulated Cip/p21 and Kip/p27 and (iii) inhibited the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in UVB-induced skin tumors. Together, our results indicate that honokiol holds promise for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer by targeting inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and cell survival signals in UVB-exposed skin.

  6. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  7. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  8. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Gu, Yinghong; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wei, Changhe; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-12-10

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future.

  9. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, P S; Kokila, T; Geetha, D

    2015-05-05

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  11. [AntI-inflammatory, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of flavonoid-containing extract of Gratiola officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Polukonova, N V; Navolokin, N A; Raĭkova, S V; Masliakova, G N; Bucharskaia, A B; Durnova, N A; Shub, G M

    2015-01-01

    The extract of Gratiola officinalis L. has been obtained by an original method ensuring the maximum yield of flavonoids. The extract simultaneously exhibits high anti-inflammatory activity, selective antimicrobial properties (with respect to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not to conditionally pathogenic E. coli) and antipyretic effect (observed for the first time in Gratiola officinalis L. preparations). Advantages of the proposed preparation are low toxicity, availability of the raw material, and broad spectrum of therapeutic effects.

  12. Chemosensory Learning in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is a primary reinforcer. Olfactory–taste and visual–taste association learning takes place in the primate including human orbitofrontal cortex to build representations of flavor. Rapid reversal of this learning can occur using a rule-based learning system that can be reset when an expected taste or flavor reward is not obtained, that is by negative reward prediction error, to which a population of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex responds. The representation in the orbitofrontal cortex but not the primary taste or olfactory cortex is of the reward value of the visual/olfactory/taste input as shown by devaluation experiments in which food is fed to satiety, and by correlations of the activations with subjective pleasantness ratings in humans. Sensory-specific satiety for taste, olfactory, visual, and oral somatosensory inputs produced by feeding a particular food to satiety is implemented it is proposed by medium-term synaptic adaptation in the orbitofrontal cortex. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions, modulate the representation of the reward value of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and this effect is learned it is proposed by associative modification of top-down synapses onto neurons activated by bottom-up taste and olfactory inputs when both are active in the orbitofrontal cortex. A similar associative synaptic learning process is proposed to be part of the mechanism for the top-down attentional control to the reward value vs. the sensory properties such as intensity of taste and olfactory inputs in the orbitofrontal cortex, as part of a biased activation theory of selective attention. PMID:21954379

  13. MRI volumetry of prefrontal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheline, Yvette I.; Black, Kevin J.; Lin, Daniel Y.; Pimmel, Joseph; Wang, Po; Haller, John W.; Csernansky, John G.; Gado, Mokhtar; Walkup, Ronald K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex volumetry by brain magnetic resonance (MR) is required to estimate changes postulated to occur in certain psychiatric and neurologic disorders. A semiautomated method with quantitative characterization of its performance is sought to reliably distinguish small prefrontal cortex volume changes within individuals and between groups. Stereological methods were tested by a blinded comparison of measurements applied to 3D MR scans obtained using an MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate prefrontal cortex volumes on a graphic workstation, after the images are scaled from 16 to 8 bits using a histogram method. In addition images were resliced into coronal sections perpendicular to the bicommissural plane. Prefrontal cortex volumes were defined as all sections of the frontal lobe anterior to the anterior commissure. Ventricular volumes were excluded. Stereological measurement yielded high repeatability and precision, and was time efficient for the raters. The coefficient of error was cortex boundaries on 3D images was critical to obtaining accurate measurements. MR prefrontal cortex volumetry by stereology can yield accurate and repeatable measurements. Small frontal lobe volume reductions in patients with brain disorders such as depression and schizophrenia can be efficiently assessed using this method.

  14. In vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine)--a potential biotechnological rich source of therapeutically important phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Halina

    2012-04-01

    The contents of free phenolic acids and cinnamic acid were determined using an HPLC method in methanolic extracts from biomass of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) at different stages of organogenesis, cultured in vitro on a few variants of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing different concentrations of plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/l) and in extracts from overground parts of plants growing in vivo. Six of 12 analysed compounds were detected in all extracts: chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, salicylic and syringic acids. Total contents of the examined metabolites in biomass of shoot-differentiating callus culture cultivated on six MS medium variants were dependent on concentrations of growth regulators in the media and ranged from 14.90 to 60.05 mg/100 g d.w. Total contents of the compounds in biomass extracts from undifferentiating callus culture maintained only on two of six MS medium variants were higher and amounted to 74.54 and 78.24 mg/100 g d.w. Maximum total contents of phenolic acids in both types of in vitro cultures were greater than in fruits (55.73 mg/100 g d.w.) and leaves (4.55 mg/100 g d.w.) of plants gowning in vivo. Chlorogenic acid and salicylic acid were the main compounds identified in biomass extracts of shoot-differentiating callus cultures (max 22.60 and 21.17 mg/100 g d.w., respectively), while chlorogenic acid (max 38.43 mg/100 g d.w.) and protocatechuic acid (max 20.95 mg/100 g d.w.) prevailed in the extracts from undifferentiating callus cultures. Other compounds dominated in fruits, namely p-coumaric acid (23.36 mg/100 g d.w.) and syringic acid (14.96 mg/100 g d.w.). This is the first report on biochemical potential of cells from S. chinensis in vitro cultures to produce the biologically active phenolic acids. These are the first results on the analysis of this group of metabolites in overground parts of

  15. Growth Inhibitory, Bactericidal, and Morphostructural Effects of Dehydrocostus Lactone from Magnolia sieboldii Leaves on Antibiotic-Susceptible and -Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Song, Ha Eun; Lee, Haeng-Byung; Kim, Cheol-Soo; Koketsu, Mamoru; Thi My Ngan, Luong; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with various diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as gastric inflammation and duodenal and gastric ulcers. The aim of the study was to assess anti-H. pylori effects of the sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone (DCL) from Magnolia sieboldii leaves, compared to commercial pure DCL, two previously known sesquiterpene lactones (costunolide and parthenolide), (–)-epigallocatechin gallate, and four antibiotics. The antibacterial activity of natural DCL toward antibiotic-susceptible H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 700824 strains (MIC, 4.9 and 4.4 mg/L) was similar to that of commercial DCL and was more effective than costunolide, parthenolide, and EGCG. The activity of DCL was slightly lower than that of metronidazole (MIC, 1.10 and 1.07 mg/L). The antibacterial activity of DCL was virtually identical toward susceptible and resistant strains, even though resistance to amoxicillin (MIC, 11.1 mg/L for PED 503G strain), clarithromycin (49.8 mg/L for PED 3582GA strain), metronidazole (21.6 mg/L for H. pylori ATCC 43504 strain; 71.1 mg/L for 221 strain), or tetracycline (14.2 mg/L for B strain) was observed. This finding indicates that DCL and the antibiotics do not share a common mode of action. The bactericidal activity of DCL toward H. pylori ATCC 43504 was not affected by pH values examined (4.0–7.0). DCL caused considerable conversion to coccoid form (94 versus 49% at 8 and 4 mg/L of DCL for 48 h). The Western blot analysis revealed that urease subunits (UreA and UreB) of H. pylori ATCC 43504 were not affected by 10 mM of DCL, whereas UreA monomer band completely disappeared at 0.1 mM of (–)-epigallocatechin gallate. Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on M. sieboldii leaf-derived materials containing DCL as potential antibacterial products or a lead molecule for the prevention or eradication of drug-resistant H. pylori. PMID:24747984

  16. Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (ε=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (ε=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases.

  17. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  18. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  19. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  20. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals.

  1. Two new phenolic compounds and antitumor activities of asparinin A from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Le; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2017-02-01

    Two new phenolic acid compounds, asparoffin C (1) and asparoffin D (2), together with four known compounds, asparenyol (3), gobicusin B (4), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxy-4-[5-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl] phenol (5), and asparinin A (6), have been isolated from the stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods (MS and 1D and 2D NMR). Compound 6 has obvious antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.

  2. Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component.

  3. Distribution of flavone glycoside diosmin in Hyssopus officinalis plants: changes during growth.

    PubMed

    Marin, F R; Ortuño, A; Benavente-Garcia, O; Del Rio, J A

    1998-03-01

    A study of the flavonoid composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) plants using high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of diosmin as the major flavone. The maximum levels of this secondary compound are located in sepals and leaves, which represent 51 and 40.5%, respectively, of the total content of diosmin in whole plant. The presence of isoferulyl D-glucose ester in this plant material was also revealed.

  4. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  5. Antioxidative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to its main components.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Wu, N; Zu, Y G; Fu, Y J

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to three of its main components (1,8-cineole, α-pinene, β-pinene). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 19 compounds, representing 97.97% of the oil, the major constituents of the oil were described as 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%) and β-pinene (6.71%). The oil and the components were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and β-carotene bleaching test. In the DPPH test system, free radical-scavenging activity of R. officinalis L. essential oil, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene were determined to be 62.45%±3.42%, 42.7%±2.5%, 45.61%±4.23% and 46.21%±2.24% (v/v), respectively. In the β-carotene bleaching test system, we tested series concentration of samples to show the antioxidant activities of the oil and its main components, whereas the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC50) values of R. officinalis L. essential oil, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene were 2.04%±0.42%, 4.05%±0.65%, 2.28%±0.23% and 2.56%±0.16% (v/v), respectively. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both systems, and the antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were mostly related to their concentrations. Antioxidant activities of the synthetic antioxidant, ascorbic acid and BHT, were also determined in parallel experiments as positive control.

  6. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  7. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1α), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

  8. Melissa officinalis Acidic Fraction Protects Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons Against Beta Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Soodi, Maliheh; Dashti, Abolfazl; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Akbari, Shole; Ataei, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Extracellular deposition of the beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), leads to oxidative damage and apoptosis in neurons. Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family that has neuroprotective activity. In the present study we have investigated the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis on Aβ-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Additionally, we investigated a possible role of the nicotinic receptor. Materials and Methods This study was an in vitro experimental study performed on mice cultured CGNs. CGNs were pre-incubated with different concentrations of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis for 24 hours, followed by incubation with Aβ for an additional 48 hours. CGNs were also pre-incubated with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis and mecamylamin, followed by incubation with Aβ. We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to measure cell viability. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipidperoxidation, and caspase-3 activity were measured after incubation. Hochst/annexin Vfluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Results The acidic fraction could protect CGNs from Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Mecamylamine did not abolish the protective effect of the acidic fraction. AChE activity, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity increased after Aβ incubation. Preincubation with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis ameliorated these factors and decreased the number of apoptotic cells. Conclusion Our results indicated that the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis was not mediated through nicotinic receptors. This fraction could protect CGNs through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID

  9. Valeriana officinalis does not alter the orofacial dyskinesia induced by haloperidol in rats: role of dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Fachinetto, Roselei; Villarinho, Jardel G; Wagner, Caroline; Pereira, Romaiana P; Avila, Daiana Silva; Burger, Marilise E; Calixto, João Batista; Rocha, João B T; Ferreira, Juliano

    2007-10-01

    Chronic treatment with classical neuroleptics in humans can produce a serious side effect, known as tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we examined the effects of V. officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol. Adult male rats were treated during 12 weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg, i.m., each 28 days) and with V. officinalis (in the drinking water). Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor activity and plus maze performance were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment produced VCM in 40% of the treated rats and the concomitant treatment with V. officinalis did not alter either prevalence or intensity of VCMs. The treatment with V. officinalis increased the percentage of the time spent on open arm and the number of entries into open arm in the plus maze test. Furthermore, the treatment with haloperidol and/or V. officinalis decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test. We did not find any difference among the groups when oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal slices and V. officinalis was not able to prevent this effect. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism involving the reduction of dopamine transport in the maintenance of chronic VCMs in rats. Furthermore, chronic treatment with V. officinalis seems not produce any oxidative damage to central nervous system (CNS), but it also seems to be devoid of action to prevent VCM, at least in the dose used in this study.

  10. Saponaria officinalis L. extract: Surface active properties and impact on environmental bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Pacholak, Amanda; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Marczak, Łukasz; Jarzębski, Maciej; Kaczorek, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    Plant-derived surfactants are characterised by low toxicity, high biodegradability and environmental compatibility. They therefore have many applications; for instance, they can be used in bioremediation to accelerate biodegradation processes, especially of hydrophobic pollutants. This paper analyses the properties of an extract from Saponaria officinalis L. containing saponins and its impact on bacterial strains isolated from soil, as well as its potential for application in hydrocarbon bioremediation. The tested extract from Saponaria officinalis L. contains gypsogenin, hederagenin, hydroxyhederagenin and quillaic acid aglycone structures and demonstrates good emulsification properties. Contact with the extract led to modification of bacterial cell surface properties. A decrease in cell surface hydrophobicity and an increase in membrane permeability were recorded in the experiments. An increase of up to 63% in diesel oil biodegradation was also recorded for Pseudomonas putida DA1 on addition of 1gL(-1) of saponins from Saponaria officinalis L. Saponaria extract showed no toxic impact on the tested environmental bacterial strains at the concentration used in the biodegradation process.

  11. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  12. The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.

    PubMed

    Kurzawińska, H; Duda-Surman, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability.

  13. Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis.

  14. Antioxidant evaluation for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis edible wild plants in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Damiri, Basma; Abualhasan, Murad N

    2016-01-01

    Natural plants products are one of the famous and commonly utilized remedies used in fighting diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant activity of plants commonly used in Palestine (Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis). Free radical scavenging activity method was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate. The result show that the overall antioxidant activity of Rumex cyprius was the highest among the plants, followed by Urtica urens, and Borago officinalis; respectively. The (IC(50)) values of the methanolic extracts were 29.70±0.60μg/ml, 5.07±0.49μg/ml, 39.92± 0.52 μg/ml for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis respectively. The results of this study revealed that these edible plants have high antioxidant activity and therefore they can provide natural sources of antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer. These exhibited properties propose that such plants extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries and further characterization of Rumex cyprius constituents is needed.

  15. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. Discussion: The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats. PMID:26649166

  16. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and HIF-1α mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1α gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury. PMID:23351182

  17. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  18. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  19. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients.

  20. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabèt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2009-11-01

    The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes.

  1. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer.

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Zingiber Officinalis on Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Cisplatin Based Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

  3. Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements.

    PubMed

    Poltanov, Eugeny A; Shikov, Alexander N; Dorman, H J Damien; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Tikhonov, Vladimir P; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2009-09-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) (Euphorbiaceae) has a distinguished history in Ayurveda medicine and is ascribed a number of medicinal properties and as a dietary supplement, its use is increasing in Western countries. It is thought that its beneficial properties are a function of its antioxidant potency. The study investigated the chemistry and antioxidant properties of four commercial E. officinalis fruit extracts in order to determine if there are any qualitative-quantitative differences. All extracts produced positive responses in the total phenol, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. The presence of predominantly (poly)phenolic analytes, e.g. ellagic and gallic acids and corilagin, was confirmed by RP-HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection. Despite ascorbic acid being a major constituent of E. officinalis fruits, the furanolactone could not be identified in one of the samples. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of antioxidative efficacy. The extract designated IG-3 was consistently amongst the most effective extracts in the iron(III) reduction and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays while the extract designated IG-1 demonstrated the best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. All extracts appeared to be incapable of chelating iron(II) at realistic concentrations.

  4. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    PubMed

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  5. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Sajjadi, Seyyed Ebrahim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Montazeri, Hossein; Samani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Cells were incubated with H2O2 (0.5 mM, 2 h) after pretreatment with M. officinalis extract (25-500 μg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with M. officinalis extract at the concentrations of 100-500 μg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to H2O2 significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of M. officinalis against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity, this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27920820

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species.

  7. Development of adrenal cortex zonation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yewei; Lerario, Antonio M; Rainey, William; Hammer, Gary D

    2015-06-01

    The human adult adrenal cortex is composed of the zona glomerulosa (zG), zona fasciculata (zF), and zona reticularis (zR), which are responsible for production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrenal androgens, respectively. The final completion of cortical zonation in humans does not occur until puberty with the establishment of the zR and its production of adrenal androgens; a process called adrenarche. The maintenance of the adrenal cortex involves the centripetal displacement and differentiation of peripheral Sonic hedgehog-positive progenitors cells into zG cells that later transition to zF cells and subsequently zR cells.

  8. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  9. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay.

  10. Population coding in somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rasmus S; Panzeri, Stefano; Diamond, Mathew E

    2002-08-01

    Computational analyses have begun to elucidate which components of somatosensory cortical population activity may encode basic stimulus features. Recent results from rat barrel cortex suggest that the essence of this code is not synergistic spike patterns, but rather the precise timing of single neuron's first post-stimulus spikes. This may form the basis for a fast, robust population code.

  11. The rat cortex in stereotaxic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Schober, W

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of Nissl-preparations the cortex of albino rats has been mapped cytoarchitectonically. 13 frontal sections through the cortex are illustrated with coordinates. Therewith exists a stereotaxic atlas of the cortex of the rat and one can realize exactly experimental investigations in the different cortical areas.

  12. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  13. The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2013-05-03

    The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field.

  14. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

    2015-04-01

    Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p < 0.05). The results revealed that the topical use of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability.

  15. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

  16. Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ∼24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs.

  17. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    PubMed

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  18. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

    2009-11-11

    The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries.

  19. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  20. Two new flavonoid glycosides from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside (1) and quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with nine known flavonoids were isolated from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis L. cultivated in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. All structures were characterized by the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Their potent free radical scavenging activity against the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was evaluated.

  1. Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-α/β-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 μmol/L.

  2. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study.

  3. Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis L. and Their Biological Activities Related to Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chlebek, Jakub; Novák, Zdeněk; Kassemová, Dominika; Šafratová, Marcela; Kostelník, Jan; Malý, Lukáš; Ločárek, Miroslav; Opletal, Lubomír; Hošt'álková, Anna; Hrabinová, Martina; Kuneš, Jiří; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Nováková, Lucie; Macáková, Kateřina; Hulcová, Daniela; Solich, Petr; Pérez Martín, Concepción; Jun, Daniel; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Two new isoquinoline alkaloids, named fumaranine (2) and fumarostrejdine (10), along with 18 known alkaloids were isolated from aerial parts of Fumaria officinalis. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of the new compound 2 was determined by comparing its circular dichroism spectra with those of known analogs. Compounds isolated in sufficient amounts were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitory activities. Parfumidine (8) and sinactine (15) exhibited potent POP inhibition activities (IC50 99±5 and 53±2 μM, resp.).

  4. In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2011-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 μg/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000 μg/mL. The IC₅₀ of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9 μg/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection.

  5. Antiproliferative effects of extracts from Salvia officinalis L. and Saliva miltiorrhiza Bunge on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Salvia species have been used as valuable medicinal and herbal plant in many countries. Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used in traditional medicine for a long time. In the present study, cytotoxicity of ethanol and acetone extracts prepared from leaves and roots of two Salvia species was investigated using hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and normal human liver cells (WRL-68). The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative abilities of the extracts were evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTS assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, the cellular ATP level, morphological changes using an inverted microscope, and apoptosis using flow cytometry. The results indicated that ethanol and acetone extracts of leaves and roots of S. officinalis (SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E and SO-R-A, respectively) and ethanol and acetone extracts of roots of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-R-E and SM-R-A, respectively) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the concentration was less than 150μg/mL. The cytotoxity of SO-L-E, SO-R-E and SO-R-A were significantly less in WRL-68 when compared to HepG2 cells in vitro. The increase of LDH leakage, decrease of ATP and the changes in morphology of HepG2 cells further confirmed the cytotoxic effect of these extracts to HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E ethanol extract of leaves of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-L-E) and SM-R-E were able to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. This study shows the potential of the extracts to be used in the prevention and/or treatment of liver cancer or as ingredients in functional foods and provides scientific support for development and utilization of S. officinalis and S. miltiorrhiza, especially the roots of S. officinalis.

  6. Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-Feng; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2008-06-01

    One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells.

  7. A new steroidal saponin from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhouxuan; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2010-04-01

    Yamogenin II (1), a new steroidal saponin with a unique aglycone moiety, and (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L. The structure of 1 was assessed by spectroscopial analysis as (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta,21-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  8. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive.

  9. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole.

  11. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  12. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  13. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-03-05

    In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC₅₀) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations.

  14. Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

  15. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  16. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05). Most of the chemical treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concentrations, with the root Cd concentration being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concentration. Almost all of the investigated chemical treatments containing SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05). The application of EGTA alone led to an observed total Cd increase of up to 217%. This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chemical enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.

  17. Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-03-01

    Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals.

  18. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  19. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-01

    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  20. Muscle relaxing activity of Hyssopus officinalis essential oil on isolated intestinal preparations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Battinelli, Lucia; Daniele, Claudia; Melchioni, Cristiana; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2002-03-01

    The muscle relaxing activity of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) and some of its main components (isopinocamphone, limonene and beta-pinene) was studied on isolated preparations of guinea-pig and rabbit intestine. The essential oil and isopinocamphone inhibited the acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 42.4 microg/ml and 61.9 microg/ml to acetylcholine; 48.3 microg/ml and 70.4 microg/ml to BaCl2) whereas limonene or beta-pinene left tissue contraction unchanged. In guinea-pig ileum H. officinalis essential oil also blocked the contractions induced by CaCl2. In isolated rabbit jejunum the essential oil reduced the amplitude of spontaneous movements and decreased the basal tone; neither haemoglobin, methylene blue, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or propranolol blocked the myorelaxant effect.

  1. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.

  2. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis.

  3. Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2010-08-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns.

  4. Combined Administration of Melissa officinalis and Boswellia serrata Extracts in an Animal Model of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Takht Firozeh, Sayyed Mehdi; Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Tamtaji, Omid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Boswellia serrata and Melissa officinalis is traditionally used for its memory enhancing effects. Objectives In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of combined form of these extracts on memory improvement of scopolamine treated rats by the Morris water maze method. Materials and Methods Two groups (group 1 and 2) of animals were pretreated with combined extracts of B. serrata and M. officinalis (200, 400 mg/Kg body weight) for four weeks and then, 30 minutes before starting the experiment scopolamine was injected (0.1 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to pretreated animals. The control group was the animals that were injected by scopolamine and pre treated with distilled water (group 3). The normal group was treated with distilled water alone (group 4). Results For time spent and distance, there was no substantial difference between groups 1, 2 and 4, while they had statistical difference with group 3 (P = 0.001). The spatial memory evaluation showed no significant difference between treated groups and normal group. Conclusions Therefore, the combination of the two extracts had the ability to improve memory as its traditional use. PMID:27822272

  5. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  6. Genotypic Variation in a Breeding Population of Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Jahufer, M. Z. Z.; Wu, Fan; Di, Hongyan; Zhang, Daiyu; Meng, Xuanchen; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Yellow sweet clover is a widely spread legume species that has potential to be used as a forage crop in Western China. However, limited information is available on the genetic variation for herbage yield, key morphological traits, and coumarin content. In this study, 40 half sib (HS) families of M. officinalis were evaluated for genotypic variation and phenotypic and genotypic correlation for the traits: LS (leaf to stem ratio), SV (spring vigor), LA (leaf area), PH (plant height), DW (herbage dry weight), SD (stem diameter), SN (stem number), Cou (coumarin content), SY (seed yield), across two locations, Yuzhong and Linze, in Western China. There was significant (P < 0.05) genotypic variation among the HS families for all traits. There was also significant (P < 0.05) genotype-by-environment interaction for the traits DW, PH, SD, SN, and SV. The estimates of HS family mean repeatability across two locations ranged from 0.32 for SN to 0.89 for LA. Pattern analysis generated four HS family groups where group 3 consisted of families with above average expression for DW and below average expression for Cou. The breeding population developed by polycrossing the selected HS families within group 3 will provide a significant breeding pool for M. officinalis cultivar development in China. PMID:27462321

  7. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  8. Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk, Izabela; Królicka, Aleksandra; Wysokińska, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Shoots of Salvia officinalis, a medicinally important plant, were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains ATCC 15834 and A4 which led to the induction of hairy roots in 57% and 37% of the explants, respectively. Seven lines of hairy roots were established in WP liquid medium under light and dark conditions. The transformed nature of the root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using rolB and rolC specific primers. Transformed root cultures of Salvia officinalis showed variations in biomass and rosmarinic acid production depending on the bacterial strain used for transformation and the root line analyzed. Both parameters (growth and rosmarinic acid content) of ATCC 15834-induced lines were significantly higher than the A4-induced lines. The maximum accumulation of rosmarinic acid (about 45 mg g(-1) of dry weight) was achieved by hairy root line 1 (HR-1) at the end of the culture period (45-50 days). The level was significantly higher than that found in untransformed root culture (19 mg g(-10 of dry wt).

  9. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    PubMed

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study.

  10. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  11. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle.

  12. Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

    2008-10-01

    Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask.

  13. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingsheng; Kennedy, John F; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Bing; Peng, Youshun; Huang, Yunxiang

    2011-08-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Asparagus officinalis. A novel ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technology was applied for the polysaccharide extraction. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic power, extraction time and the liquid-solid ratio to obtain a high polysaccharide yield. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 600 W, extraction time was 46 min, the liquid-solid ratio was 35 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 3.134%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. The average molecular weight of A. officinalis polysaccharide was about 6.18×10(4) Da. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in a ratio of 2.18:1.86:1.50:0.98:1.53. Compared with hot water extraction (HWE), UCE showed time-saving, higher yield and no influence on the structure of asparagus polysaccharides. The results indicated that ultrasonic circulating extraction technology could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides.

  14. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  15. Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.

  16. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bakirel, Tülay; Bakirel, Utku; Keleş, Oya Ustüner; Ulgen, Sinem Güneş; Yardibi, Hasret

    2008-02-28

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, hypoglycaemic effects of oral administration of various doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract were examined in normoglycaemic and glucose-hyperglycaemic rabbits. Optimal effect was observed in both of the animal groups with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. In another part of experiments, acute effect of various doses of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on blood glucose and serum insulin levels was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The last set of experiments designed to investigate the subacute effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on repeated administration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, antihyperglycaemic effect of extract was accompanied by a significant increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, during 1 week of treatment of diabetic rabbits with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract showed that the extract possessed a capability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and activate the antioxidant enzymes. It was concluded that probably, due to its potent antioxidant properties, the Rosmarinus officinalis extract exerts remarkable antidiabetogenic effect.

  17. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

    2014-01-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  18. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-11-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation.

  19. Effect of Melissa officinalis Capsule on the Intensity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms in High School Girl Students

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Dehghani, Mansoore; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Tavakoli, Pouran; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies are conducted on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). However, a few herbal surveys exist on the treatment of PMS in Iran. Due to the sedative effects of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis), this question comes to mind that “can it be used in the treatment of PMS symptoms?” Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the effect of M. officinalis capsule on the intensity of PMS in high-school girls. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 100 high school girls from 2013 to 2014. The intervention group (n = 50) received 1200 mg of M. officinalis essence daily from the first to the last day of their menstrual cycle for three consecutive cycles. The second group (n = 50) received the placebo. The premenstrual symptoms screening tool was used to assess the intensity of PMS symptoms in the two groups before and one, two, and three months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The results of repeated measures test revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in PMS symptoms. Overall, the mean score of PMS intensity in the intervention group was 42.56 + 15.73 before the intervention and changed to 32.72 ± 13.24, 30.02 ± 12.08, and 13.90 ± 10.22 at the three consecutive months after the intervention, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusions: M. officinalis capsules were effective in reduction of the PMS symptoms. Yet, application of this medication requires further investigations. PMID:26339667

  20. Multimap formation in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rishabh; Millin, Rachel; Mel, Bartlett W.

    2015-01-01

    An extrastriate visual area such as V2 or V4 contains neurons selective for a multitude of complex shapes, all sharing a common topographic organization. Simultaneously developing multiple interdigitated maps—hereafter a “multimap”—is challenging in that neurons must compete to generate a diversity of response types locally, while cooperating with their dispersed same-type neighbors to achieve uniform visual field coverage for their response type at all orientations, scales, etc. Previously proposed map development schemes have relied on smooth spatial interaction functions to establish both topography and columnar organization, but by locally homogenizing cells' response properties, local smoothing mechanisms effectively rule out multimap formation. We found in computer simulations that the key requirements for multimap development are that neurons are enabled for plasticity only within highly active regions of cortex designated “learning eligibility regions” (LERs), but within an LER, each cell's learning rate is determined only by its activity level with no dependence on location. We show that a hybrid developmental rule that combines spatial and activity-dependent learning criteria in this way successfully produces multimaps when the input stream contains multiple distinct feature types, or in the degenerate case of a single feature type, produces a V1-like map with “salt-and-pepper” structure. Our results support the hypothesis that cortical maps containing a fine mixture of different response types, whether in monkey extrastriate cortex, mouse V1 or elsewhere in the cortex, rather than signaling a breakdown of map formation mechanisms at the fine scale, are a product of a generic cortical developmental scheme designed to map cells with a diversity of response properties across a shared topographic space. PMID:26641946

  1. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  2. The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2α-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2α-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake.

  3. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-10-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

  4. Normalization in human somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Arnedo, Vanessa; Offen, Shani; Heeger, David J; Grant, Arthur C

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activity in human somatosensory cortex and to test for cross-digit suppression. Subjects received stimulation (vibration of varying amplitudes) to the right thumb (target) with or without concurrent stimulation of the right middle finger (mask). Subjects were less sensitive to target stimulation (psychophysical detection thresholds were higher) when target and mask digits were stimulated concurrently compared with when the target was stimulated in isolation. fMRI voxels in a region of the left postcentral gyrus each responded when either digit was stimulated. A regression model (called a forward model) was used to separate the fMRI measurements from these voxels into two hypothetical channels, each of which responded selectively to only one of the two digits. For the channel tuned to the target digit, responses in the left postcentral gyrus increased with target stimulus amplitude but were suppressed by concurrent stimulation to the mask digit, evident as a shift in the gain of the response functions. For the channel tuned to the mask digit, a constant baseline response was evoked for all target amplitudes when the mask was absent and responses decreased with increasing target amplitude when the mask was concurrently presented. A computational model based on divisive normalization provided a good fit to the measurements for both mask-absent and target + mask stimulation. We conclude that the normalization model can explain cross-digit suppression in human somatosensory cortex, supporting the hypothesis that normalization is a canonical neural computation.

  5. TOP-DOWN CONTROL OF MOTOR CORTEX ENSEMBLES BY DORSOMEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Laubach, Mark

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is critical for the temporal control of behavior. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex might alter neuronal activity in areas such as motor cortex to inhibit temporally inappropriate responses. We tested this hypothesis by recording from neuronal ensembles in rodent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during a delayed-response task. One-third of dorsomedial prefrontal neurons were significantly modulated during the delay period. The activity of many of these neurons was predictive of premature responding. We then reversibly inactivated dorsomedial prefrontal cortex while recording ensemble activity in motor cortex. Inactivation of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reduced delay-related firing, but not response-related firing, in motor cortex. Finally, we made simultaneous recordings in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and motor cortex and found strong delay-related temporal correlations between neurons in the two cortical areas. These data suggest that functional interactions between dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and motor cortex might serve as a top-down control signal that inhibits inappropriate responding. PMID:17145511

  6. A dual and opposite effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract: chemoprotector and promoter in a rat hepatocarcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Farias, L M; Pérez-Carreón, J I; Arce-Popoca, E; Fattel-Fazenda, S; Alemán-Lazarini, L; Hernández-García, S; Salcido-Neyoy, M; Cruz-Jiménez, F G; Camacho, J; Villa-Treviño, S

    2006-02-01

    Calendula officinalis extracts have protective and cytotoxic effects. We previously reported the dual activity of C. officinalis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. At nM concentrations it was anti-genotoxic while at microM concentrations it exhibited genotoxic effects. Here we tested the activity of Calendula officinalis in vivo in male Fischer 344 rats initiated with N-nitrosodiethylamine, promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 70 % partially hepatectomized. Liver gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase positively altered hepatocyte foci 25 days after initiation were our end point. The protective effect of C. officinalis started at 0.1 mg/kg concentration, increased at 0.5 mg/kg and reached its maximum at 2.5 mg/kg, when it decreased the area and number of altered foci by 55 % and 49 %, respectively, in comparison with rats treated only with carcinogen. At 5 mg/kg the number and area of altered hepatocyte foci were still lower, but almost reached the figures of carcinogen-treated rats. Ten and 20 mg/kg doses produced a notorious increment in the area and number of altered hepatic foci, and at 40 mg/kg of extract the increment was 40 % and 53 %, respectively. Additionally, when 2-acetylaminofluorene was substituted by a 40 mg/kg C. officinalis extract, a promoting effect was observed with increments of 175 % and 266 % in area and number of altered hepatocyte foci with respect to controls. When N-nitrosodiethylamine was substituted by 40 mg/kg of extract, the latter did not show initiator activity. In summary, we showed a protecting activity of C. officinalis at low doses, but doses above 10 mg/kg increased altered hepatocyte foci. This dual effect is an example of the phenomenon of hormesis. Furthermore, 40 mg/kg of dry weight extract administered instead of 2-acetylaminofluorene induced a clear promoting activity. These in vivo results are similar and consistent with those reported by us in primary rat liver cell cultures.

  7. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  8. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury.

  9. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  10. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) as a potential therapeutic plant in metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Shirani, Kobra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of complex coexisting cardiometabolic risk factors such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, abdominal obesity, coagulopathies, and hypertension that raise the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of herbs and natural compounds in prevention and treatment of diseases and a large number of published articles have focused on this issue. Rosmarinus officinalis L. or rosemary (Lamiaceae) is a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals having significant anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-thrombotic, hepatoprotective, and hypocholesterolemic effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interesting pharmacological effects of rosemary, and its active compounds, and the related mechanisms in the management of metabolic syndrome that are documented in in vitro and in vivo studies.

  11. Antibacterial effects of biosynthesized MgO nanoparticles using ethanolic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Kalimuthan; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium oxides nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Mg(NO3)(2)·6H2O through a simple greener route using fruit extract (Emblica officinalis). The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The XRD pattern shows the face centered cubic structure with 27 nm of crystalline size of MgO nanoparticles was confirmed by the Debye-Scherrer's Formula. The spherical in shape of MgO nanoparticles is confirmed by SEM analysis. MgO nanoparticles treated cotton fabric produced stronger antibacterial activity. These types of treated fabrics are used in medical application.

  12. Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity.

  13. Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

    PubMed

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Avinash, K Dorle

    2004-05-01

    A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature.

  14. Rosmarinus eriocalyx: An alternative to Rosmarinus officinalis as a source of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Djamel Miara, Mohamed; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Rosmarinus eriocalyx is an aromatic evergreen bush endemic to Algeria where it is used as a condiment to flavour soups and meat and as a traditional remedy. In the present work we have analyzed for the first time the phenolic composition of polar extracts obtained from stems, leaves and flowers of R. eriocalyx by HPLC, and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and agar disc diffusion methods, respectively. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers are a rich source of phenolic compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol that are the main responsible for the noteworthy antioxidant activity observed in the assays. This study showed that R. eriocalyx might be a spice to be included in the European food additive list and used as a preservative agent besides R. officinalis.

  15. Hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis extract in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Kholoud S; Khalil, Olfat A; Danial, Enas N; Alnahdi, Hanan S; Ayaz, Najla O

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effect of water extract (200 mg/kg body weight) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The hepatoprotective effects were investigated in the liver tissues sections. There was a significant increase in serum liver biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase), accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of total protein and albumin in the STZ-induced rats when compared with that of the normal group. The high-dose treatment group (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly restored the elevated liver function enzymes near to normal. This study revealed that rosemary extracts exerted a hepatoprotective effect. The results indicate that the extract exhibits the protective effect on tissues and prove its potentials as an antidiabetic agent.

  16. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  17. Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jonatas Rafael; de Jesus, Daiane; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Camargo, Samira Estves Afonso; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-03-01

    R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R. officinalis L. extract (200 mg/mL). Its cytotoxic effect was examined on murine macrophages (RAW 264.7), human gingival fibroblasts (FMM-1), human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7), and cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) after exposure to different concentrations of the extract, analyzed by MTT, neutral red (NR), and crystal violet (CV) assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on RAW 264.7 non-stimulated or stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and treated with different concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were quantified by ELISA. Genotoxicity was verified by the frequency of micronuclei (MN) at 1000 cells after exposure to concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Data were analyzed by T-Test or ANOVA and Tukey Test ( P ≤ 0.05). Thus, significant reductions in colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were observed in all biofilms. Regarding the cells, it was observed that concentrations ≤ 50 mg/mL provided cell viability of above 50%. Production of proinflammatory cytokines in the treated groups was similar or lower compared to the control group. The MN frequency in the groups exposed to extract was similar or less than the untreated group. It was shown that R. officinalis L. extract was effective on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms; it also provided cell viability of above 50% (at

  18. Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Stuppner, Hermann

    2006-04-21

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte and an applied voltage of 30 kV. Electrospray MS measurements were performed in the positive ionization mode with isopropanol-water (1:1, v/v) as sheath liquid at a flow rate of 3 microl/min. Alkaloids were detected as [M+H](+)-ions and showed typical fragmentation patterns in MS/MS experiments. The developed assay was used for the quantification of seven isoquinoline alkaloids representing different structural subtypes in Fumariae herba extracts and F. herba containing phytopharmaceuticals.

  19. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2007-05-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia.

  20. Octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) and cuttlefishes (Sepia pharaonis, S. officinalis) can conditionally discriminate.

    PubMed

    Hvorecny, Lauren M; Grudowski, Jessica L; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Simmons, Tiffany L; Roy, Paula R; Brooks, Jennifer A; Hanner, Rachel M; Beigel, Marie E; Karson, Miranda A; Nichols, Rachel H; Holm, Johanna B; Boal, Jean Geary

    2007-10-01

    In complex navigation using landmarks, an animal must discriminate between potential cues and show context (condition) sensitivity. Such conditional discrimination is considered a form of complex learning and has been associated primarily with vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that octopuses and cuttlefish are capable of conditional discrimination. Subjects were trained in two maze configurations (the conditions) in which they were required to select one of two particular escape routes within each maze (the discrimination). Conditional discrimination could be demonstrated by selecting the correct escape route in each maze. Six of ten mud-flat octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides), 6 of 13 pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), and one of four common cuttlefish (S. officinalis) demonstrated conditional discrimination by successfully solving both mazes. These experiments demonstrate that cephalopods are capable of conditional discrimination and extend the limits of invertebrate complex learning.

  1. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

  2. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

    1981-01-01

    The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

  3. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  4. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects.

  5. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    PubMed

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  6. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes.

  7. Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

  8. [Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

    2006-06-01

    Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L.

  9. Electroporation modulates the embryogenic responses of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) microspores.

    PubMed

    Delaitre, C; Ochatt, S; Deleury, E

    2001-01-01

    Microspores of three genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. were mechanically isolated without affecting their viability and were submitted to electric fields in order to modulate their competence for embryogenesis. When a constant pulse length and various field strengths (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and 2000 V/cm) were tested, the viability of electro-treated microspores decreased as the field strength increased, for all genotypes. Conversely, the embryogenic competence was genotype dependent and was enhanced by low voltages for two clones when microspores were cultured in the presence of auxin. When the effect of pulse duration was studied, despite a strong genotype effect on responses, a short pulse coupled with a low voltage appeared to improve the competence for proembryo formation compared with nonelectroporated microspores, while longer pulses significantly improved microspore division.

  10. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on metal-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay Kumar; Rather, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The protective potential of Emblica officinalis (amla) was investigated on metal-induced lipid per oxidation in human erythrocytes. Increases in the levels of MDA and catalase activity were assessed as lipid per oxidation. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid levels were assessed as antioxidant indices. Preliminary investigation of the extract exhibited a significant reduction in lipid per oxidation and an increase in antioxidant abilities, such as a decrease in MDA, GPx and GSH (P<0.05). A significant reduction in erythrocyte hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide was observed using amla extract (P<0.05). These findings show that amla extract has significant protective potential against lipid per oxidation.

  11. Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2014-03-01

    To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration.

  12. Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2008-08-25

    Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance.

  13. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities.

  14. Green and rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Borago officinalis leaf extract: anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2016-09-06

    This study highlights the facile, reliable, cost effective, and ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Borago officinalis leaves extract efficiently. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was verified by UV-Vis spectrum which showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 422 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed that the particles were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shape and had size ranging from 30 to 80 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental mapping have displayed the purity and maximum distribution of silver in the AgNPs. The crystalline nature of AgNPs had been identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The particle size analysis revealed that the Z-average diameter of the AgNPs was 50.86 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) 0.136. Zeta potential analysis displayed the colloidal stability of AgNPs. This work also showed the efficacy of AgNPs against lung cancer cell lines (A549) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), in vitro. The AgNPs showed cytotoxicity to the A549 and HeLa cancer cell line at the concentrations 5 and 2 μg/ml. The AgNPs were also explored for the antibacterial activity including biofilm inhibition against pathogenic bacteria. The B. officinalis leaves extract can be used efficiently for green synthesis AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs demonstrated potentials as anticancer and antibacterial agents. This work provides helpful insight into the development of new anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  15. Cloning of two glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAs from Asparagus officinalis: sequence analysis and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, A; Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

    2000-04-01

    Two different amplification products, termed c1 and c2, showing a high similarity to glutamate dehydrogenase sequences from plants, were obtained from Asparagus officinalis using two degenerated primers and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated aspGDHA and aspGDHB. Screening of a cDNA library resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for aspGDHB only. Analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence from the full-length cDNA suggests that the gene product contains all regions associated with metabolic function of NAD glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH). A first phylogenetic analysis including only GDHs from plants suggested that the two GDH genes of A. officinalis arose by an ancient duplication event, pre-dating the divergence of monocots and dicots. Codon usage analysis showed a bias towards A/T ending codons. This tendency is likely due to the biased nucleotide composition of the asparagus genome, rather than to the translational selection for specific codons. Using principal coordinate analysis, the evolutionary relatedness of plant GDHs with homologous sequences from a large spectrum of organisms was investigated. The results showed a closer affinity of plant GDHs to GDHs of thermophilic archaebacterial and eubacterial species, when compared to those of unicellular eukaryotic fungi. Sequence analysis at specific amino acid signatures, known to affect the thermal stability of GDH, and assays of enzyme activity at non-physiological temperatures, showed a greater adaptation to heat-stress conditions for the asparagus and tobacco enzymes compared with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme.

  16. Mapping Prefrontal Cortex Functions in Human Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It has long been thought that the prefrontal cortex, as the seat of most higher brain functions, is functionally silent during most of infancy. This review highlights recent work concerned with the precise mapping (localization) of brain activation in human infants, providing evidence that prefrontal cortex exhibits functional activation much…

  17. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  18. Motor cortex layer 4: less is more

    PubMed Central

    Barbas, Helen; García-Cabezas, Miguel Á.

    2015-01-01

    The stratified motor cortex is variously thought to either lack or contain layer 4. Yamawaki et al. described a functional layer 4 in mouse motor cortex with properties and connections similar to layer 4 in sensory areas. Their results bolster a theoretical framework suggesting all primary cortical areas are equivalent. PMID:25868984

  19. Learning in the Rodent Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Peters, Andrew J; Liu, Haixin; Komiyama, Takaki

    2017-03-31

    The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning. This synaptic reorganization translates into changes in spiking activity, which appear to result in a modification and refinement of the relationship between motor cortical activity and movement. This review presents the progress that has been made using rodents to establish the motor cortex as an adaptive structure that supports motor learning. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 40 is July 8, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  20. Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.

    PubMed

    del Baño, María José; Lorente, Juan; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Marín, María Piedad; Del Río, José Antonio; Ortuño, Ana; Ibarra, Isidro

    2004-08-11

    The distribution of seven flavonoids, eriocitrin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide, hesperidin, diosmin, isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucoside, and genkwanin, has been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, flowers, stems, and roots during plant growth. The maximum level reached by luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide in leaves during June-August suggests the existence of a delay between the activation of the enzymes involved in the flavanone and flavone biosynthesis. The presence of hesperidin and diosmin in the vascular system is significant, and hesperidin shows even higher levels than the phenolic diterpenes and rosmarinic acid. The distribution of flavonoids observed in R. officinalis suggests a functional and structural relationship between phytoregulators and flavonoids, where flavonoids would be "protectors" of the activity of phytoregulators. A hypothesis for the general pathway of biosynthesis of these compounds in plants of the family Labiatae is proposed.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid using ionic liquid solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

  2. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions.

  3. Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

  4. Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  6. Biotransformation of artemisinin using cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Verma, Priyanka; Bhakuni, Rajendra S; Mathur, Archana

    2010-08-01

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial compound, at 5 mg/40 ml, was transformed by cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L. into deoxyartemisinin with yields >78% (3.93 mg deoxyartemisinin from 5 mg artemisinin). Maximum conversion (78.6 and 78%) occurred after 6 and 7 days of adding artemisinin to 20 and 9 days old cultures of C. roseus and L. officinalis, respectively. The procedure was scaled up by and 500 mg artemisinin was transformed into 390 mg deoxyartemisinin. Addition of artemisinin at the beginning of the culture cycle resulted in >50% reduction in dry biomass production with no bioconversion. Conversion of artemisinin occurred intracellularly followed by leaching of the product into the medium.

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  8. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  9. Antioxidant activity of Calendula officinalis extract: inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Braga, Pier Carlo; Dal Sasso, Monica; Culici, Maria; Spallino, Alessandra; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Morelli, Roberto; Lo Scalzo, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in natural chemical compounds from aromatic, spicy, medicinal and other plants with antioxidant properties in order to find new sources of compounds inactivating free radicals generated by metabolic pathways within body tissue and cells, mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) whose overregulated recruitment and activation generate a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), leading to an imbalance of redox homeostasis and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine whether a propylene glycol extract of Calendula officinalis interferes with ROS and RNS during the PMN respiratory bursts, and to establish the lowest concentration at which it still exerts antioxidant activity by means of luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was also used in order to confirm the activity of the C. officinalis extract. The C. officinalis extract exerted its anti-ROS and anti-RNS activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with significant effects being observed at even very low concentrations: 0.20 microg/ml without L-arginine, 0.10 microg/ml when L-arginine was added to the test with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and 0.05 microg/ml when it was added to the test with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The EPR study confirmed these findings, 0.20 microg/ml being the lowest concentration of C. officinalis extract that significantly reduced 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. These findings are interesting for improving the antioxidant network and restoring the redox balance in human cells with plant-derived molecules as well as extending the possibility of antagonizing the oxidative stress generated in living organisms when the balance is in favor of free radicals as a result of the depletion of cell antioxidants.

  10. A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt.

  11. Comparison of membrane-protective activity of antioxidants quercetine and Gratiola Officinalis L. extract under conditions of photodynamic haemolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, N. V.; Bykova, E. V.; Pravdin, A. B.; Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, N. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Mudrak, D. A.; Prilepskii, A. Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work the effectiveness of antioxidants quercetine (a pure chemical) and Gratiola officinalis extract, which is obtained by a new method of extraction from plant material, is investigated on the model of photodynamic haemolysis that is a rather convenient method to monitor the rate of cell membranes oxidative destruction. The effect of these antioxidants on the rate of photodynamic haemolysis is considered as a measure of membranoprotective efficiency.

  12. Asparagus officinalis extract controls blood glucose by improving insulin secretion and β-cell function in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hafizur, Rahman Md; Kabir, Nurul; Chishti, Sidra

    2012-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic mechanism of Asparagus officinalis, a dietary agent used for the management of diabetes. Streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) was injected in 2-d-old Wistar rat pups to induce non-obese type 2 diabetes. After confirmation of diabetes on the 13th week, diabetic rats were treated with a methanolic extract of A. officinalis seeds (250 and 500 mg/kg per d) or glibenclamide for 28 d. After the treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and total antioxidant status were measured. The pancreas was examined by haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostained β- and α-cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope. Treatment of the diabetic rats with the A. officinalis extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg suppressed the elevated blood glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 500 mg/kg, but not 250 mg/kg, dose significantly improved serum insulin levels in the diabetic rats. The insulin:glucose ratio was significantly increased at both doses in the A. officinalis-treated rats. Both qualitative and quantitative improvements in β-cell function were found in the islets of the A. officinalis-treated rats. The extract showed potent antioxidant activity in an in vitro assay and also improved the total antioxidant status in vivo. In most cases, the efficacy of A. officinalis (500 mg/kg) was very similar to a standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide. Thus, the present study suggests that A. officinalis extract exerts anti-diabetic effects by improving insulin secretion and β-cell function, as well as the antioxidant status.

  13. Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2011-01-01

    Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUCinsulin was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUCglucose but not AUCinsulin or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present. PMID:22065939

  14. Total flavonoid content in varieties of Calendula officinalis L. originating from different countries and cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri

    2011-03-01

    Total flavonoid contents in the inflorescences of different varieties of Calendula officinalis L. were investigated. The commercial seeds (20 samples) of varieties of C. officinalis originating from eight European countries were cultivated in home gardens in two different counties of Estonia. Total flavonoid contents, determined spectrophotometrically (λ = 370 nm), varied from each other by more than three times (0.21-0.68%) in the investigated varieties. The variety with the highest flavonoid content was 'Kablouna', produced by the Finnish company Siemen (0.68%). Other varieties with high flavonoid content, such as 'Touch of Red' produced by the Latvian company Kurzemes Seklas (0.55%), 'Golden Emperor' produced by the Finnish company Suvipiha (0.50%), 'Pomyk' from Poland (0.50%), etc., may also be preferred for cultivation as natural sources, as they are also rich in flavonoids. The amount of total flavonoids depends on the variety and/or the place and time of cultivation. There appeared to be no conclusive relationship between the total flavonoid content and the colour of ligulate and tubular florets of C. officinalis.

  15. Structure and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene glycoside esters from Calendula officinalis L.: Studies on the conformation of viridiflorol.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Colombo, Elisa; Guerriero, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Topic applications of Calendula officinalis L. lipophilic extracts are used in phytotherapy to relieve skin inflammatory conditions whereas infusions are used as a remedy for gastric complaints. Such a different usage might be explained by some cytotoxicity of lipophilic extracts at gastric level but little is known about this. Therefore, we screened the CH2Cl2 extract from the flowers of C. officinalis by MTT and LDH assays in human epithelial gastric cells AGS. This bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene glycosides which were structurally characterized by spectroscopic measurements, chemical reactions and MM calculations. The conformational preferences of viridiflorol fucoside were established and a previously assigned stereochemistry was revised. The compounds 1a, 2a and 3f showed comparably high cytotoxicity in the MTT assays, whereas the effect on LDH release was lower. Our study provides new insights on the composition of C. officinalis extracts of medium polarity and identifies the main compounds that could be responsible for cytotoxic effects at gastric level.

  16. D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.

    PubMed

    Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments.

  17. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  18. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E.; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  19. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75-36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation.

  20. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  1. Studies on Bronchodilator Activity of Salvia officinalis (Sage): Possible Involvement of K(+) Channel Activation and Phosphodiesterase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur; Khan, Aslam; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis (So.Cr) was studied to provide possible underlying mechanism(s) for its medicinal use in asthma using the in vivo bronchodilatory assay and isolated tracheal preparations. S. officinalis (1-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited carbachol (CCh)-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats with three-fold greater potency than the positive control, aminophylline. In tracheal preparations, So.Cr inhibited the low K(+) (25 mM)-induced contractions. Pretreatment of the tissues with 4-aminopyridine reversed the inhibitory effect of the plant extract against low K(+) , whereas glibenclamide did not show any effect, thus showing the involvement of voltage-sensitive K(+) channels. When tested against the CCh-induced pre-contractions for the involvement of any additional mechanism, interestingly, the extract showed a dose-dependent (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) inhibitory effect and shifted the inhibitory concentration response curves of isoprenaline to the left, thus showing phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitory-like action, similar to that of papaverine. These results indicate that the crude extract of S. officinalis possesses bronchodilatory activity mediated predominantly via activation of voltage-dependent K(+) channels and inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzyme; thus, this study provides sound pharmacological basis for its medicinal use in hyperactive airways disorders such as asthma and cough. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine-cetrimide combination, Salvia officinalis plant extract and octenidine in comparison with conventional endodontic irrigants.

    PubMed

    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S. officinalis extract and OCT. The dentin chips were obtained from inner root canal walls and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX and OCT groups presented no bacterial growth (CFU=0). S. officinalis and CHX+CTR groups reduced the number of E. faecalis cells but could not eliminate all. OCT may have potential as an endodontic irrigant in treatment of infected root canals.

  3. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75–36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  4. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Variya, Bhavesh C; Bakrania, Anita K; Patel, Snehal S

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants, having great elementary and therapeutic importance, are the gift to mankind to acquire healthy lifestyle. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbeaceae), commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, has superior value in entirely indigenous traditional system of medicine, including folklore Ayurveda, for medicinal and nutritional purposes to build up lost vitality and vigor. In this article, numerous phytochemicals isolated from E. officinalis and its ethnomedical and pharmacological potentials with molecular mechanisms are briefly deliberated and recapitulated. The information documented in the present review was collected from more than 270 articles, published or accepted in the last five to six decades, and more than 20 e-books using various online database. Additional information was obtained from various botanical books and dissertations. The extracts from various parts of E. officinalis, especially fruit, contain numerous phytoconstituents viz. higher amount of polyphenols like gallic acid, ellagic acid, different tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fixed oils, and flavonoids like rutin and quercetin. The extract or plant is identified to be efficacious against diversified ailments like inflammation, cancer, osteoporosis, neurological disorders, hypertension together with lifestyle diseases, parasitic and other infectious disorders. These actions are attributed to either regulation of various molecular pathway involved in several pathophysiologies or antioxidant property which prevents the damage of cellular compartments from oxidative stress. However, serious efforts are required in systemic research to identify, isolate and evaluate the chemical constituents for nutritional and therapeutic potentials.

  5. Vocalization Induced CFos Expression in Marmoset Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cory T.; DiMauro, Audrey; Pistorio, Ashley; Hendry, Stewart; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2010-01-01

    All non-human primates communicate with conspecifics using vocalizations, a system involving both the production and perception of species-specific vocal signals. Much of the work on the neural basis of primate vocal communication in cortex has focused on the sensory processing of vocalizations, while relatively little data are available for vocal production. Earlier physiological studies in squirrel monkeys had shed doubts on the involvement of primate cortex in vocal behaviors. The aim of the present study was to identify areas of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cortex that are potentially involved in vocal communication. In this study, we quantified cFos expression in three areas of marmoset cortex – frontal, temporal (auditory), and medial temporal – under various vocal conditions. Specifically, we examined cFos expression in these cortical areas during the sensory, motor (vocal production), and sensory–motor components of vocal communication. Our results showed an increase in cFos expression in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex as well as the medial and lateral belt areas of auditory cortex in the vocal perception condition. In contrast, subjects in the vocal production condition resulted in increased cFos expression only in dorsal premotor cortex. During the sensory–motor condition (antiphonal calling), subjects exhibited cFos expression in each of the above areas, as well as increased expression in perirhinal cortex. Overall, these results suggest that various cortical areas outside primary auditory cortex are involved in primate vocal communication. These findings pave the way for further physiological studies of the neural basis of primate vocal communication. PMID:21179582

  6. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects.

    PubMed

    Kivisaari, Sasa L; Tyler, Lorraine K; Monsch, Andreas U; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2012-12-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer's disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  7. Water repellency and soil moisture variations under Rosmarinus officinalis in a burned soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean semi-arid landscapes are characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover, in which variations in the distribution pattern of soil water repellency (SWR) can be of major importance for their hydrological and geomorphological effects in burned areas, and also for their ecological implications concerning to the re-establishment of their plant cover. Within a broader research framework, the present work studies the influence of Rosmarinus officinalis vegetated patches on SWR in burned and unburned soils and its relationship with the field soil moisture content (SMC). The results presented here are the first step analysing the spatial pattern of sink and source runoff areas in a burned hillslope. The study area is located in the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occurred in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12 ° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight at the nearest unburned area were selected. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for soil sampling (1 sample per zone at each microsite, n= 84, form the first 2 cm of the mineral A horizon) and field soil moisture measurements determined by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x (5 measurements per zone at each microsite, n= 420), which were taken one day after the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered in the study area. Results showed that the largest repellency persistence (measured by means of the Water Drop Penetration Time test, WDPT) was found

  8. Entorhinal cortex stimulation modulates amygdala and piriform cortex responses to olfactory bulb inputs in the rat.

    PubMed

    Mouly, A-M; Di Scala, G

    2006-01-01

    The rodent olfactory bulb sends direct projections to the piriform cortex and to two structures intimately implicated in memory processes, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala. The piriform cortex has monosynaptic projections with the amygdala and the piriform cortex and is therefore in a position to modulate olfactory input either directly in the piriform cortex, or via the amygdala. In order to investigate this hypothesis, field potential signals induced in anesthetized rats by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb or the entorhinal cortex were recorded simultaneously in the piriform cortex (anterior part and posterior part) and the amygdala (basolateral nucleus and cortical nucleus). Single-site paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess the time courses of short-term inhibition and facilitation in each recording site in response to electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb and entorhinal cortex. Paired-pulse stimulation of the olfactory bulb induced homosynaptic inhibition for short interpulse interpulse intervals (20-30 ms) in all the recording sites, with a significantly lower degree of inhibition in the anterior piriform cortex than in the other structures. At longer intervals (40-80 ms), paired-pulse facilitation was observed in all the structures. Paired-pulse stimulation of the entorhinal cortex mainly resulted in inhibition for the shortest interval duration (20 ms) in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. Double-site paired-pulse stimulation was then applied to determine if stimulation of the entorhinal cortex can modulate responses to olfactory bulb stimulation. For short interpulse intervals (20 ms) heterosynaptic inhibition was observed in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. The level of inhibition was greater in the basolateral nucleus than in the other structures. Taken together these data suggest that the

  9. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-03-02

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions.

  10. Space and the parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Masud; Nachev, Parashkev

    2007-01-01

    Current views of the parietal cortex have difficulty accommodating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) within a simple dorsal versus ventral stream dichotomy. In humans, lesions of the right IPL often lead to syndromes such as hemispatial neglect that are seemingly in accord with the proposal that this region has a crucial role in spatial processing. However, recent imaging and lesion studies have revealed that inferior parietal regions have non-spatial functions, such as in sustaining attention, detecting salient events embedded in a sequence of events and controlling attention over time. Here, we review these findings and show that spatial processes and the visual guidance of action are only part of the repertoire of parietal functions. Although sub-regions in the human superior parietal lobe and intraparietal sulcus contribute to vision-for-action and spatial functions, more inferior parietal regions have distinctly non-spatial attributes that are neither conventionally ‘dorsal’ nor conventionally ‘ventral’ in nature. PMID:17134935

  11. Effect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ramzan, Ayesha; Ali, Amanat; Ahmad, Maqsood

    2011-09-01

    The present study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit in normal and diabetic human volunteers. The results indicated a significant decrease (P <  0.05) in fasting and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose levels on the 21st day in both normal and diabetic subjects receiving 1, 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day as compared with their baseline values. Significant (P <  0.05) decreases were also observed in total cholesterol and triglycerides in both normal and diabetic volunteers on day 21 that were given either 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day. However, diabetic volunteers receiving only 3 g E. officinalis powder exhibited a significant (P <  0.05) decrease in total lipids on day 21. Both normal and diabetic volunteers receiving 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder significantly (P <  0.05) improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels.

  12. Effects of organic acids on the photosynthetic and antioxidant properties and accumulations of heavy metals of Melilotus officinalis grown in Cu tailing.

    PubMed

    Han, Yulin; Wu, Xue; Gu, Jiguang; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Huang, Suzhen; Yuan, Haiyan; Fu, Jiajia

    2016-09-01

    The effect of citric acid (CA), acetic acid (Ac), and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the photosynthetic and antioxidant properties and the accumulation of some heavy metals (HMs) of Melilotus officinalis seedling growing in Cu mine tailings for 25 days were studied. Results showed that the formation of photosynthesizing cells of M. officinalis was inhibited by EDTA at 2 mmol/kg. Photosynthetic pigment contents under EDTA of 2 mmol/kg were reduced by 26, 40, and 19 %, respectively, compared to the control. The proline contents in aboveground and underground parts increased as the level of EDTA was enhanced. CA and Ac enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the aboveground parts and EDTA inhibited the activity of POD in the underground parts. The addition of CA promoted significantly the growth of M. officinalis, while the biomass decreased significantly under 2 mmol/kg EDTA. Cu contents in the aboveground parts treated with 0.5 and 2.0 mmol/kg EDTA reached 175.50 and 265.17 μg/g dry weight, respectively. Ac and EDTA treatments promoted Cd to translocate from root to aboveground parts. The result indicated that M. officinalis was a tolerant species of Cu tailing and can be used to remediate Cu contaminated environment, and rationally utilization of organic acids, especially EDTA, in the phytoremediation can improve the growth and metals accumulation of M. officinalis.

  13. Food related processes in the insular cortex

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Sabine; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex. In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN)). The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex. PMID:23986683

  14. Pharmacogenomic Characterization of Cytotoxic Compounds from Salvia officinalis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-24

    Salvia officinalis is used as a dietary supplement with diverse medicinal activity (e.g. antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects). The plant also exerts profound cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Here, we investigated possible modes of action to explain its activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells. Log10IC50 values of two constituents of S. officinalis (ursolic acid, pomolic acid) were correlated to the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (P-glycoprotein/ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, BCRP/ABCG2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mutations in RAS oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene TP53 of the NCI panel of cell lines. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to these compounds were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Furthermore, the binding of both plant acids to key molecules of the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB, I-κB, NEMO) was analyzed by molecular docking. Neither expression nor mutation of ABC transporters, oncogenes, or tumor suppressor genes correlated with log10IC50 values for ursolic acid or pomolic acid. In microarray analyses, many genes involved in signal transduction processes correlated with cellular responsiveness to these compounds. Molecular docking indicated that the two plant acids strongly bound to target proteins of the NF-κB pathway with even lower free binding energies than the known NF-κB inhibitor MG-132. They interacted more strongly with DNA-bound NF-κB than free NF-κB, pointing to inhibition of DNA binding by these compounds. In conclusion, the lack of cross-resistance to classical drug resistance mechanisms (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressors) may indicate a promising role of the both plant acids for cancer chemotherapy. Genes involved in signal transduction may contribute to the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to ursolic and pomolic acids. Ursolic and pomolic acid may target different

  15. The Role of Human Parietal Cortex in Attention Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Shihui; Jiang, Yi; Gu, Hua; Rao, Hengyi; Mao, Lihua; Cui, Yong; Zhai, Renyou

    2004-01-01

    The parietal cortex has been proposed as part of the neural network for guiding spatial attention. However, it is unclear to what degree the parietal cortex contributes to the attentional modulations of activities of the visual cortex and the engagement of the frontal cortex in the attention network. We recorded behavioural performance and…

  16. Premotor cortex mediates perceptual performance.

    PubMed

    Callan, Daniel; Callan, Akiko; Gamez, Mario; Sato, Masa-aki; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2010-06-01

    Articulatory goals have long been proposed to mediate perception. Examples include direct realist and constructivist (analysis by synthesis) theories of speech perception. Although the activity in brain regions involved with action production has been shown to be present during action observation (Mirror Neuron System), the relationship of this activity to perceptual performance has not been clearly demonstrated at the event level. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI and magnetoencephalography MEG to measure brain activity for correct and incorrect trials of an auditory phonetic identification in noise task. FMRI analysis revealed activity in the premotor cortex including the neighboring frontal opercular part of Broca's area (PMC/Broca's) for both perception and production tasks involving the same phonetic stimuli (potential mirror system site) that was significantly greater for correct over incorrect perceptual identification trials. Time-frequency analysis of single trials conducted over MEG current localized to PMC/Broca's using a hierarchical variational Bayesian source analysis technique revealed significantly greater event-related synchronization ERS and desynchronization ERD for correct over incorrect trials in the alpha, beta, and gamma frequency range prior to and after stimulus presentation. Together, these fMRI and MEG results are consistent with the hypothesis that articulatory processes serve to facilitate perceptual performance, while further dispelling concerns that activity found in ventral PMC/Broca's (mirror system) is merely a product of covert production of the perceived action. The finding of performance predictive activity prior to stimulus onset as well as activity related to task difficulty instead of information available in stimulation are consistent with constructivist and contrary to direct realist theories of perception.

  17. LC/MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of iridoid glycosides monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid isomers in rat plasma after oral administration of Morinda officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmin; Dong, Jian; Tian, Jingchang; Deng, Zhipeng; Song, Xiujing

    2016-02-01

    Morinda officinalis is a famous traditional Chinese medicine containing iridoid glycoside compounds, such as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid. The aim of the study was to develop a novel and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of the two isomeric iridoid glycosides and then evaluate their pharmacokinetic properties in rats. Selected-reaction monitoring mode was employed for quantification of two analytes in rat plasma. The calibration curves were linear over their respective concentration range with correlation coefficient >0.995 for both analytes. Precision for monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid ranged from 2.5 to 11.9% relative standard deviation, and the accuracy of two analytes was -2.0-3.7 and -6.4-10.7% relative error, respectively. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of M. officinalis extract in rats. The results provided a basis for further research on the bioactivity of M. officinalis.

  18. Reproductive assessment of hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erick J R; Costa-Silva, João H; Evêncio, Liriane B; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Wanderley, Almir G

    2009-10-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the administration of a hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L. flowers (HAE) on the reproductive function of Wistar rats. Four groups of adult male rats were treated orally with HAE at doses of 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg for 60 consecutive days. From day 53 to 60 of treatment, rats were mated with untreated and fertile female rats. Reproductive parameters including testicular morphology, reproductive organ weights, fertility index and offspring viability were evaluated. In another protocol, groups of pregnant rats were treated orally with the same doses of HAE from days 1 to 6 (preimplantation period), 7 to 14 (organogenic period) or 15 to 19 (fetal period) of pregnancy. On day 20 of pregnancy, rats were killed for evaluation of maternal and fetal parameters. The results showed that the treatment with HAE did not affect male reproductive parameters. Besides, it was non-toxic in the preimplantation and organogenic periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE induced a decrease of the maternal weight gain when administered during the fetal period. In conclusion, the HAE did not affect male fertility nor had toxic effects in early and middle periods of pregnancy. However, the HAE caused maternal toxicity when administered during the fetal period of pregnancy.

  19. Analysis of carotenoid composition in petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Maoka, Takashi; Sumitomo, Katsuhiko; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2005-11-01

    Nineteen carotenoids were identified in extracts of petals of orange- and yellow-flowered cultivars of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Ten carotenoids were unique to orange-flowered cultivars. The UV-vis absorption maxima of these ten carotenoids were at longer wavelengths than that of flavoxanthin, the main carotenoid of calendula petals, and it is clear that these carotenoids are responsible for the orange color of the petals. Six carotenoids had a cis structure at C-5 (C-5'), and it is conceivable that these (5Z)-carotenoids are enzymatically isomerized at C-5 in a pathway that diverges from the main carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Among them, (5Z,9Z)-lycopene (1), (5Z,9Z,5'Z,9'Z)-lycopene (3), (5'Z)-gamma-carotene (4), and (5'Z,9'Z)-rubixanthin (5) has never before been identified. Additionally, (5Z,9Z,5'Z)-lycopene (2) has been reported only as a synthesized compound.

  20. Comparing the effects of Calendula officinalis and clotrimazole on vaginal Candidiasis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Elnaz; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Adibpour, Mohammad; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Javadzadeh, Yousef

    2016-11-23

    This triple-blind trial examined the effects of Calendula officinalis vaginal cream on the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis (primary outcome) and sexual function (secondary outcome). Married women aged 18-45 years with vaginal Candidiasis (n = 150) were recruited from April to October 2014 and randomized into Calendula and clotrimazole groups, using 5-g vaginal cream every night for seven nights. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted at 10-15 and 30-35 days after intervention and the female sexual function index was assessed at 30-35 days. Six women were lost to follow-up. The frequency of testing negative for Candidiasis in the Calendula group was significantly lower at the first (49% vs. 74%; odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.67) but higher at the second (77% vs. 34%; OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.2) follow-up compared to the clotrimazole group. The frequency of most signs and symptoms were almost equal in the two groups at the first follow-up, but were significantly lower in the Calendula group at the second follow-up. Sexual function had almost equal significant improvement in both groups. Calendula vaginal cream appears to have been effective in the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis and to have a delayed but greater long-term effect compared to clotrimazole.

  1. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions.

  2. Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Grudniak, Anna; Kurek, Anna; Wolska, Krystyna I; Doligalska, Maria; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2008-11-01

    The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated. The MIC of oleanolic acid and the effect on bacterial growth were estimated by A600 measurements. Oleanolic acid's influence on bacterial survival and the ability to induce autolysis were measured by counting the number of cfu. Cell morphology and the presence of endospores were observed under electron and light microscopy, respectively. Oleanolic acid inhibited bacterial growth and survival, influenced cell morphology and enhanced the autolysis of Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that bacterial envelopes are the target of its activity. On the other hand, glycosides of oleanolic acid inhibited the development of L3 Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae, the infective stage of this intestinal parasitic nematode. In addition, both oleanolic acid and its glycosides reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, but only oleanolic acid glucuronides affected nematode infectivity. The presented results suggest that oleanolic acid and its glycosides can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

  3. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract.

  4. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  5. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water).

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs.

  7. Occurrence and characterization of a Phytophthora sp. pathogenic to asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Saude, C; Hurtado-Gonzales, O P; Lamour, K H; Hausbeck, M K

    2008-10-01

    A homothallic Phytophthora sp. was recovered from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears, storage roots, crowns, and stems in northwest and central Michigan in 2004 and 2005. Isolates (n = 131) produced ovoid, nonpapillate, noncaducous sporangia 45 microm long x 26 microm wide and amphigynous oospores of 25 to 30 microm diameter. Mycelial growth was optimum at 25 degrees C with no growth at 5 and 30 degrees C. All isolates were sensitive to 100 ppm mefenoxam. Pathogenicity studies confirmed the ability of the isolates to infect asparagus as well as cucurbits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of 99 isolates revealed identical fingerprints, with 12 clearly resolved fragments present and no clearly resolved polymorphic fragments, suggesting a single clonal lineage. The internal transcribed spacer regions of representative isolates were homologous with a Phytophthora sp. isolated from diseased asparagus in France and a Phytophthora sp. from agave in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis supports the conclusion that the Phytophthora sp. isolated from asparagus in Michigan is a distinct species, and has been named Phytophthora asparagi.

  8. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.

  9. Comparative analysis of gene expression by microarray analysis of male and female flowers of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wu-Jun; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Ning-Na; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2013-01-01

    To identify rapidly a number of genes probably involved in sex determination and differentiation of the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis, gene expression profiles in early flower development for male and female plants were investigated by microarray assay with 8,665 probes. In total, 638 male-biased and 543 female-biased genes were identified. These genes with biased-expression for male and female were involved in a variety of processes associated with molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes, suggesting that a complex mechanism underlies the sex development of asparagus. Among the differentially expressed genes involved in the reproductive process, a number of genes associated with floral development were identified. Reverse transcription-PCR was performed for validation, and the results were largely consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. The findings of this study might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in dioecious asparagus and provide a foundation for further studies of this plant.

  10. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis.

  11. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Abdellatif, Fahima; Boudjella, Hadjira; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Hassani, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Family of Lamiaceae) growing in Algeria, was investigated for its chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition was determined by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Sixty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 94.10 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.34 %. The major component was geranial (44.20 %). Other predominant components were neral (30.20 %) and citronellal (6.30 %). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was determined by paper disk agar diffusion testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 7 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. The results showed that the essential oil presented high antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms targeted mainly against five human pathogenic bacteria, one yeast Candida albicans and two phytopathogenic fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 1.00 to 5.00 µL/mL.

  12. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Fahima; Boudjella, Hadjira; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Hassani, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Family of Lamiaceae) growing in Algeria, was investigated for its chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition was determined by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Sixty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 94.10 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.34 %. The major component was geranial (44.20 %). Other predominant components were neral (30.20 %) and citronellal (6.30 %). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was determined by paper disk agar diffusion testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 7 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. The results showed that the essential oil presented high antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms targeted mainly against five human pathogenic bacteria, one yeast Candida albicans and two phytopathogenic fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 1.00 to 5.00 µL/mL. PMID:26417300

  13. Metformin-like effect of Salvia officinalis (common sage): is it useful in diabetes prevention?

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristovao F; Azevedo, Marisa F; Araujo, Rita; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2006-08-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is among the plants that are claimed to be beneficial to diabetic patients, and previous studies have suggested that some of its extracts have hypoglycaemic effects in normal and diabetic animals. In the present study, we aimed to verify the antidiabetic effects of an infusion (tea) of common sage, which is the most common form of this plant consumed. Replacing water with sage tea for 14 d lowered the fasting plasma glucose level in normal mice but had no effect on glucose clearance in response to an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. This indicated effects on gluconeogenesis at the level of the liver. Primary cultures of hepatocytes from healthy, sage-tea-drinking rats showed, after stimulation, a high glucose uptake capacity and decreased gluconeogenesis in response to glucagon. Essential oil from sage further increased hepatocyte sensitivity to insulin and inhibited gluconeogenesis. Overall, these effects resemble those of the pharmaceutical drug metformin, a known inhibitor of gluconeogenesis used in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In primary cultures of rat hepatocytes isolated from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, none of these activities was observed. The present results seem to indicate that sage tea does not possess antidiabetic effects at this level. However, its effects on fasting glucose levels in normal animals and its metformin-like effects on rat hepatocytes suggest that sage may be useful as a food supplement in the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by lowering the plasma glucose of individuals at risk.

  14. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods.

  15. The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Buresch, Kendra C; Mäthger, Lydia M; Allen, Justine J; Bennice, Chelsea; Smith, Neal; Schram, Jonathan; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-12-08

    Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two common tactics are background matching and resembling an object (masquerade) in the immediate area. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three-dimensional (3D) object in the immediate visual field (via the mechanism of masquerade/deceptive resemblance) rather than the 2D benthic substrate surrounding them (via the mechanisms of background matching or disruptive coloration). Cuttlefish were presented with a combination of benthic substrates (natural rocks or artificial checkerboard and grey printouts) and 3D objects (natural rocks or cylinders with artificial checkerboards and grey printouts glued to the outside) with visual features known to elicit each of three camouflage body pattern types (Uniform, Mottle and Disruptive). Animals were tested for a preference to show a body pattern appropriate for the 3D object or the benthic substrate. Cuttlefish responded by masquerading as the 3D object, rather than resembling the benthic substrate, only when presented with a high-contrast object on a substrate of lower contrast. Contrast is, therefore, one important cue in the cuttlefish's preference to resemble 3D objects rather than the benthic substrate.

  16. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Roberts, Steven B; Hanlon, Roger T

    2010-10-23

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (λmax=492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This 'distributed sensing' could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates.

  17. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  18. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  19. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    PubMed

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts.

  20. Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Archana; Soyal, Dhanraj; Sharma, Abhilasha; Goyal, P K

    2009-03-01

    The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to gamma rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from 12 hours to 30 days. In control animals, crypt cell population, mitotic figures, and villus length were markedly reduced on day 1; these later started to increase progressively but did not attain the normal level even at the last autopsy interval. The animals receiving EOE prior to irradiation had a higher number of crypt cells and mitotic figures when compared with non-drug-treated control at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiation of animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione as well as catalase concentration in the intestine at 1 hour post-irradiation. In contrast, EOE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione and catalase levels.

  1. Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality.

  2. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary's bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary's anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Triglyceride Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Wang, Sijian; Ruan, Jingya; Yang, Shengcai; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-17

    Sixteen flavonoids (1-16) including two new ones, named officinoflavonosides A (1) and B (2) were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis. Among the known ones, 6, 10, and 13 were isolated from the rosmarinus genus for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the effects on sodium oleate-induced triglyceride accumulation (TG) in HepG2 cells of the above-mentioned compounds and 16 other isolates (17-32) reported previously to have been obtained in the plant were analyzed. Results show that eight kinds of flavonoids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 6-9 and 11) and seven kinds of other known isolates (compounds 17-20, 23, 26 and 31) possessed significant inhibitory effects on intracellular TG content in HepG2 cells. Among them, the activities of compounds 1 and 20 were comparable to that of orlistat, which suggested that these compounds in this plant might be involved in lipid metabolism.

  4. Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory activities by Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Chae, In-Gyeong; Im, Hyo-Gwon; Yang, Seun-Ah; More, Kunal; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Jinho

    2013-01-15

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary need more study to be established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of rosemary on the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. A methanol extract of rosemary and its hexane fraction reduced NO generation with an IC(50) of 2.75 and 2.83 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the methanol extract and the hexane fraction inhibited LPS-induced MAPKs and NF-kB activation associated with the inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 expression. LPS-induced production of PGE(2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were blocked by rosemary. Rosemary extract and its hexane fraction are important for the prevention of phosphorylation of MAPKs, thereby blocking NF-kB activation, which in turn leads to decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2, thus preventing inflammation.

  5. Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, α-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and β-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 μg mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in β-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 μg mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 μg mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 μg mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE.

  6. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation.

  7. Inhibitory effects of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extracts on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yanagiya, Chikako; Mizutani, Junya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2003-10-01

    It has been known that Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop) is a herb that grows in the wild and is a source of natural antioxidants. We previously reported that a-glucosidase inhibitors, (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-6'-O-cinnamoylglucopyranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol and (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-glucopranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol, from the dry leaves of hyssop, were isolated. This study examined the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of hyssop extracts on intestinal carbohydrate absorption in rat everted gut sac and carbohydrate-loaded hyperglycemia in mice. In the everted gut sac experiment, 10 mM sucrose- and 5 mM maltose-treated increases in glucose concentration in the serosal compartment were inhibited in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ mL hyssop extracts, although a 10 mM glucose-induced increase in serosal glucose was not inhibited by the extracts. Additionally, hyperglycemia in sucrose- and maltose-loaded mice was significantly suppressed at an early stage, within 30 to 60 min by oral pre-administration of 300 and 100 mg/kg hyssop extracts, respectively. These findings suggest that hyssop extracts inhibited the digestion of complex carbohydrates, but not that of absorbable monosaccharide, and might be a useful supplemental food for hyperglycemia.

  8. Lack of Nephroprotective Efficacy of Althaea Officinalis Flower Extract Against Gentamicin Renal Toxicity in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Karimi, Amirhossein; Ouguerram, Khadija; Vahidi-Ataabadi, Nasrin; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mansouri, Azam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats. Methods: 30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3rd day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately. Results: Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM. PMID:25538830

  9. Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and tonoplast from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash P; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

    2014-11-01

    In order to understand the salt tolerance and secretion in mangrove plant species, gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS-based proteomics was used to identify key transport proteins in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast fractions of Avicennia officinalis leaves. PM and tonoplast proteins were purified using two-aqueous-phase partitioning and density gradient centrifugation, respectively. Forty of the 254 PM proteins and 31 of the 165 tonoplast proteins identified were predicted to have transmembrane domains. About 95% of the identified proteins could be classified based on their functions. The major classes of proteins were predicted to be involved in transport, metabolic processes, defense/stress response, and signal transduction, while a few of the proteins were predicted to be involved in other functions such as membrane trafficking. The main classes of transporter proteins identified included H(+) -ATPases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and aquaporins, all of which could play a role in salt secretion. These data will serve as the baseline membrane proteomic dataset for Avicennia species. Further, this information can contribute to future studies on understanding the mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes in addition to salt secretion in mangroves. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000837 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000837).

  10. Memory enhancing activity of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.): an Ayurvedic preparation.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2007-05-16

    Ayurveda means "the science of life". Ayur means "life" and Veda means "knowledge or science". It is the oldest medical system in the world. Its origins can be traced as far back as 4500 BC, to four ancient books of knowledge, (the "Vedas") and it is still officially recognized by the government of India. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of Anwala churna (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), an Ayurvedic preparation on memory, total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. Anwala churna was administered orally in three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) for fifteen days to different groups of young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive avoidance apparatus served as the exteroceptive behavioral models for testing memory. Diazepam-, scopolamine- and ageing-induced amnesia served as the interoceptive behavioral models. Total serum cholesterol levels and brain cholinesterase activity also estimated. Anwala churna (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and aged mice. Furthermore, it reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Interestingly, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by Anwala churna administered orally for 15 days. Anwala churna may prove to be a useful remedy for the management of Alzheimer's disease on account of its multifarious beneficial effects such as, memory improving property, cholesterol lowering property and anticholinesterase activity.

  11. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant.

  12. Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects.

  13. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

    2009-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis.

  14. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes.

  15. The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites.

  16. Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

    2001-04-15

    The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves.

  17. Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and γ-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage.

  18. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).

    PubMed

    Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian.

  19. Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-06-01

    Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids.

  20. Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in developing seeds of borage (Borago officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Galle, A M; Joseph, M; Demandre, C; Guerche, P; Dubacq, J P; Oursel, A; Mazliak, P; Pelletier, G; Kader, J C

    1993-08-20

    delta 6-desaturation of [14C]linoleoyl-CoA or [14C]oleoyl-CoA leading to the synthesis of gamma-linolenic acid was studied in vitro with microsomal fractions from developing seeds of Borago officinalis. Time course of the reaction, effects of protein and precursor concentrations and nucleotide requirements were examined. These parameters allowed us to improve the in vitro delta 6-desaturation assay. We observed that the precursors were acylated mainly in phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol, and then desaturated. NADH was absolutely required when [14C]oleoyl-CoA was the precursor, but not when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was the precursor although it stimulated the reaction. The in vitro delta 6-desaturase activity was found mainly in phosphatidylcholine, associated with enriched endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER) from embryos. No activity was observed in ER from seed coat or seedling. During maturation of the seeds, delta 6-desaturase reached its highest activity 14 to 16 days after pollination.

  1. Essential oils produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

    2003-04-09

    In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under eight different hormonal supplementations and proliferated by subculture of nodal shoot segments. The respective essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were composed of more than 75 compounds, 65 of which were identified. The 10 major compounds were, by order of retention time, alpha-pinene (4.1-5.4%), camphene (6-7.1%), beta-pinene (9.3-14.5%), limonene (2-2.3%), 1,8-cineole (3.6-5.6%), (-)-thujone (13.2-16.1%), (+)-isothujone (6.6-7.4%), camphor (19.8-24%), alpha-humulene (5.1-6.8%), and manool (4.2-7.7%). Notwithstanding the eight different hormonal supplementations tested, the percentage composition of the shoot essential oils were kept in a narrow range of variation. However, the type and concentration of growth regulators apparently influenced the accumulation of essential oils. The highest accumulation of essential oils and the highest shoot biomass growth were obtained with 2.0 mg/L kinetin and 0.05 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

  2. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro.

  3. Anti-neuropathic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. terpenoid fraction: relevance of nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, Lorenzo Di Cesare; Micheli, Laura; Maresca, Mario; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bellumori, Maria; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Traditional uses and current results highlight the neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. The compelling need for novel strategies able to relieve neuropathic pain encouraged us to analyze different rosemary leaf extracts in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ethanol, acetone, and the innovative ultrasound-hexane extractive methods were used to obtain: EE, AE, and for hexane extracts UREprel and URE. Extracts were characterized in terms of typical constituents and repeatedly administered to CCI-rats (13-days treatment, from the day of surgery). URE showed the best efficacy and potency in reducing hypersensitivity to noxious- and non-noxious stimuli and spontaneous pain. URE contained the higher quantity of the terpenoid carnosic acid (CA) and its efficacy was compared to pure CA. Histological analysis of the sciatic nerve revealed that URE prevented axon and myelin derangement, edema and inflammatory infiltrate. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, URE did not reduce astrocyte activation. Both the pain reliever and the neuroconservative effects of URE were significantly prevented by the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine. In conclusion, the hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect nervous tissues. Effectiveness is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs. PMID:27713514

  4. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract as a Potential Complementary Agent in Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains an important cause of mortality nowadays and, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are still needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been reported to possess antitumor activities both in vitro and in animal studies. Some of these activities were attributed to its major components, such as carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Initially, the antitumor effects of rosemary were attributed to its antioxidant activity. However, in recent years, a lack of correlation between antioxidant and antitumor effects exerted by rosemary was reported, and different molecular mechanisms were related to its tumor inhibitory properties. Moreover, supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Food and Safety Authority, specific compositions of rosemary extract were demonstrated to be safe for human health and used as antioxidant additive in foods, suggesting the potential easy application of this agent as a complementary approach in cancer therapy. In this review, we aim to summarize the reported anticancer effects of rosemary, the demonstrated molecular mechanisms related to these effects and the interactions between rosemary and currently used anticancer agents. The possibility of using rosemary extract as a complementary agent in cancer therapy in comparison with its isolated components is discussed.

  5. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Methods: ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions: ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26941573

  6. Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (λmax = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

  7. Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs

    PubMed Central

    Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

  8. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

  9. Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Generalić, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalinić, Višnja

    2012-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and β-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry.

  10. An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Capek, P; Matulová, M

    2013-08-01

    From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1→4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the β configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone.

  11. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    PubMed

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  12. Manool, a Salvia officinalis diterpene, induces selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Munari, Carla Carolina; Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

    2016-10-01

    Manool, a diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis, was evaluated by the XTT colorimetric assay for cytotoxicity and selectivity against different cancer cell lines: B16F10 (murine melanoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), and MO59J, U343 and U251 (human glioblastoma). A normal cell line (V79, Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts) was used to compare the selectivity of the test substance. Manool exhibited higher cytotoxic activity against HeLa (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.1 µg/mL) and U343 (IC50 = 6.7 ± 1.2 µg/mL) cells. In addition, in the used experimental protocols, the treatment with manool was significantly more cytotoxic for different tumor cell lines than for the normal cell line V79 (IC50 = 49.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL), and showed high selectivity. These results suggest that manool may be used to treat cancer without affecting normal cells.

  13. A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Mastelić, Josip; Marijanović, Zvonimir

    2006-12-01

    Volatile compounds of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey has been investigated for the first time. The botanical origin of ten unifloral Salvia honey samples has been ascertained by pollen analysis (the honey samples displayed 23-60% of Salvia pollen). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS in ten Salvia honey extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with pentane/Et(2)O 1 : 2. The yield of isolated volatiles varied from 25.7 to 30.5 mg kg(-1). Salvia honey could be distinguished on the basis of the high percentage of benzoic acid (6.4-14.8%), and especially phenylacetic acid (5.7-18.4%). Minor, but floral-origin important volatiles were identified such as shikimate pathway derivatives, 'degraded-carotenoid-like' structures (3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives) and 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives. Compounds from other metabolic pathways such as aliphatic acids and higher linear hydrocarbons, as well as heterocycles (pyrans, furans, and pyrroles), were also present. Most of the identified compounds do not constitute specific Salvia honey markers, due to their presence in honeys of other botanical origins; however, their ratio in different honeys could be useful to distinguish floral origin. Salvia-honey volatile markers were: benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, p-anisaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, dehydrovomifoliol, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carbaldehyde, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione, and coumaran.

  14. Post-larval development of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis L. (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Gaino, E; Baldacconi, R; Corriero, G

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated the development of the larvae of Spongia officinalis in experimental conditions, after settlement on plastic substrates, using electron and light microscopy. The released larvae show a dark pigmented ring distinguishes the posterior larval pole. The youngest larvae, covered with a flagellate epithelium, move onwards by rotating on their longitudinal axis. Over time a creeping-like motion prevails, probably linked to the need for settlement. After a free-swimming period of 24-48 h, larvae settle on the artificial substrate by the anterior pole. At settlement, the flagellate epithelium is substituted by flattened cells, which delimit the outermost surface. Post-larvae were reared to about three months. The early phase of post-larval differentiation shows a solid interior mainly consisting of granular cells varying in shape and size. They are included in a dense collagen matrix that contains a conspicuous amount of bacteria. Lacunae are already evident in the initial phase of metamorphosis. In several of them, cell debris and nucleate cells are visible. This feature is consistent with a progressive reduction of the cell mass (autolysis). Neither choanocyte chambers nor canals differentiate. The morphogenetic process leads to a metamorph only consisting of vacuolated cells and collagen fibrils included in a thin fibrous coat.

  15. Constituents of Asparagus officinalis evaluated for inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae Sik; Cuendet, Muriel; Fong, Harry H S; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

    2004-04-21

    As part of a project directed toward the discovery of new cancer chemopreventive agents from plants, two new natural products, asparagusic acid anti-S-oxide methyl ester (1) and asparagusic acid syn-S-oxide methyl ester (2), a new acetylenic compound, 2-hydroxyasparenyn [3',4'-trans-2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-4-[5-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl]-benzene] (3), as well as eleven known compounds, asparenyn (4), asparenyol (5), (+/-)-1-monopalmitin (6), ferulic acid (7), 1,3-O-di-p-coumaroylglycerol (8), 1-O-feruloyl-3-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (9), blumenol C, (+/-)-epipinoresinol, linoleic acid, 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol, and 1,2-O-diferuloylglycerol, were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Asparagus officinalis (Asparagus), using a bioassay based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, with the most active compound being linoleic acid.

  16. Isolation of a novel deoxyribonuclease with antifungal activity from Asparagus officinalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2001-11-23

    A deoxyribonuclease distinct from the previously isolated asparagus ribosome-inactivating proteins, possessing a molecular weight of 30 kDa and requiring a pH of 7.5 for optimum hydrolytic activity toward herring sperm DNA, was isolated from Asparagus officinalis seeds. The isolation procedure involved extraction with saline, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose, and FPLC gel filtration on Superdex 75. The doxyribonuclease was unadsorbed onto DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel and adsorbed onto CM-Sepharose. It exhibited the novel N-terminal sequence, GIEVIKIREL. The deoxyribonuclease was purified to a specific activity of 1584 units/mg. It was devoid of ribonuclease, protease, and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase-inhibitory activities. However, it inhibited cell-free translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system with an IC(50) of 20 microM. It exhibited antifungal activity toward Botrytis cinerea but not toward Fusarium oxysporum and Mycosphaerella arachidicola.

  17. Sucrose incubation increases freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Jitsuyama, Y; Suzuki, T; Harada, T; Fujikawa, S

    2002-01-01

    The freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cells, as determined by electrolyte leakage, was increased by the incubation of samples in medium containing 0.8 M sucrose. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we investigated the changes in soluble carbohydrates, cell ultrastructure and proteins accompanying the increase in freezing tolerance following incubation in sugar-rich medium. During sugar incubation, the intracellular sucrose content increased from 67 mol g-1FW to 429 mol g-1FW; it was also metabolized into fructose and glucose, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microscopy revealed that sugar incubation induced plasmolysis of embryogenic cells and drastic changes in cell ultrastructure with the appearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis with anti-dehydrin antiserum revealed that a dehydrin-like protein appeared only when maximal freezing tolerance was induced by sugar incubation. These results suggest that freezing tolerance of asparagus embryogenic cells is increased by a complex mechanism involving notably changes in cell ultrastructure and accumulation of certain sugars and proteins during sugar incubation.

  18. Sucrose delays senescence and preserves functional compounds in Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Park, Me-Hea

    2016-11-11

    The high metabolic rate of harvested asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.) causes rapid deterioration. To extend shelf life, we investigated the effect of sucrose treatment on asparagus during storage. Asparagus spears were treated with 3%, 5%, and 10% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 20 h. Cellular respiration decreased, but other processes were unaltered by exogenous sucrose. The overall appearance of asparagus treated with 3% sucrose and stored at 2 °C for 18 days was rated as good and excellent, unlike that of untreated spears. Asparagus treated with sucrose maintained firmness for 15 days, while untreated spears lost firmness and showed increased water-soluble pectin content during storage. Carbohydrate levels were also higher in sucrose-treated than in control samples. Transcript levels of cell-wall-related genes, including xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET)1, XET2, and peroxidase (prx)1, prx2, and prx3 were upregulated by sucrose. Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside and rutin levels immediately increased upon addition of sucrose and remained high relative to the control during storage. Thus, sucrose modulates asparagus cell wall components and maintains the functionality of important compounds during storage, thus effectively prolonging shelf life.

  19. Plant regeneration after long-term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Pontaroli, A C; Camadro, E L

    2005-12-01

    Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selection program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus relative growth was obtained on medium with 1.5 mg x l(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin. Shoot primordia (SP) induction from > 18-months-old calluses was evaluated on several media; the highest percentage of SP induction (89%) and average number of SP per callus (8.6) were obtained with clone "265" on MS medium with 5 mg x l(-1) 2iP, 1 mg x l(-1) IAA, 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The highest percentage of root induction (100%) was achieved with clone '265' on MS medium with 0.1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, 0.1 mg x l(-1) NAA, 1.32 mg x l(-1) ancymidol, 7% glucose and 0.8% agar. Important medium x genotype interactions were detected, pointing to the need of adjusting this and other in vitro protocols for specific asparagus genotypes.

  20. Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 μm diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 μm thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 μm diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall.

  1. Supplementation of Emblica officinalis (Amla) extract reduces oxidative stress in uremic patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Chang, Yen-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Emblica Officinalis (also known as Amla or Indian Gooseberry), a natural, traditional and functional food in Asia, has physiological benefits such as hepato-, cyto- and radio- protection, as well as hypolipidemic effects. In addition, Amla often functions as a potent antioxidant due to the high level of ascorbic acid (ranging from 1,100 to 1,700 mg/100 g of fruit) in its fruit. The aim of this study was to determine whether supplementation with Amla extract could reduce oxidative stress in patients with uremia. The findings show that supplementation with Amla extract for 4 months reduced the plasma oxidative marker, 8-iso-prostaglandin, (M0 vs. M4 = 1415 +/- 1234 pg/ml vs. 750 +/- 496 pg/ml, p < 0.05) and increased plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) (M0 vs. M4 = 2.32 +/- 0.14 mM vs. 2.55 +/- 0.24 mM, p < 0.05) in uremic patients. On the other hand, there were no significant differences observed in liver function (GOP and GPT), renal function (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and uric acid), diabetic index (plasma glucose and adiponectin) and atherogenic index (LDL/HDL ratio, total cholesterol and homocysteine) in patients treated with Amla for 4 months. Our data suggest that Amla supplementation may increase plasma antioxidant power and decrease oxidative stress in uremic patients. However, Amla extract did not influence hepatic or renal function, or diabetic and atherogenic indices in uremic patients.

  2. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Dsouza, Jason Jerome

    2011-05-01

    Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans.

  3. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Biagini, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Margherita; Benini, Ruba; de Guzman, Philip; Longo, Daniela; Avoli, Massimo

    2013-08-29

    The perirhinal cortex-which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory-plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i) highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii) briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii) focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus.

  4. A Computational Model of Cerebral Cortex Folding

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jingxin; Guo, Lei; Li, Gang; Faraco, Carlos; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2010-01-01

    The geometric complexity and variability of the human cerebral cortex has long intrigued the scientific community. As a result, quantitative description of cortical folding patterns and the understanding of underlying folding mechanisms have emerged as important research goals. This paper presents a computational 3-dimensional geometric model of cerebral cortex folding initialized by MRI data of a human fetal brain and deformed under the governance of a partial differential equation modeling cortical growth. By applying different simulation parameters, our model is able to generate folding convolutions and shape dynamics of the cerebral cortex. The simulations of this 3D geometric model provide computational experimental support to the following hypotheses: 1) Mechanical constraints of the skull regulate the cortical folding process. 2) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the global cell growth rate of the whole cortex. 3) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on relative rates of cell growth in different cortical areas. 4) The cortical folding pattern is dependent on the initial geometry of the cortex. PMID:20167224

  5. Dissociating motor cortex from the motor

    PubMed Central

    Schieber, Marc H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract During closed-loop control of a brain–computer interface, neurons in the primary motor cortex can be intensely active even though the subject may be making no detectable movement or muscle contraction. How can neural activity in the primary motor cortex become dissociated from the movements and muscles of the native limb that it normally controls? Here we examine circumstances in which motor cortex activity is known to dissociate from movement – including mental imagery, visuo-motor dissociation and instructed delay. Many such motor cortex neurons may be related to muscle activity only indirectly. Furthermore, the integration of thousands of synaptic inputs by individual α-motoneurons means that under certain circumstances even cortico-motoneuronal cells, which make monosynaptic connections to α-motoneurons, can become dissociated from muscle activity. The natural ability of motor cortex neurons under voluntarily control to become dissociated from bodily movement may underlie the utility of this cortical area for controlling brain–computer interfaces. PMID:22005673

  6. [Numerical taxonomy of corlor in Phellodendron Cortex].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Huang, Lu-qi; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Shan-shan; Jin, Shi-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Through the investigation of Phellodendron Cortex on the market, and 28 batches of samples were collected. By using spectrophotometer the color values of outer surface, inner surface and cross - section of these samples were measured. These measured color data was translated into 3D structure diagram by using the Lab color space tool. The level difference value, the mean value and the threshold value were calculated based the measured color data of these different batches of samples. All 28 groups measured data was analyzed using the methods of Ward linkage and average Euclidean distance. At the same time, we invited Professor Jin Shiyuan, the "Chinese medicine master", to identify, quality-evaluate and grade these 28 batches of Phellodendron Cortex samples base on the traditional experience, then compared the traditional empirical results with the spectrophotometer measurement results. The result showed that, the Phellodendron Cortex could be divided into Phellodendri Amurensis Cortex and Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex by color numerical clustering, and classified according to quality. The classification result has a high degree of consistency with the traditional experience.

  7. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Laurie C.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

  8. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

    2013-02-01

    The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed.

  9. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Luigi; Beccaria, Marco; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

    2011-03-01

    An optimized 2-D liquid chromatography (LC×LC) set-up, based on the different selectivities of a silver ion (Ag) and a non-aqueous reversed phase (NARP), employed in the first (D1) and the second dimension (D2), respectively, in combination with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), has been developed for the analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction in a Borago officinalis oil. The 2-D set-up, thanks to the complementary separation selectivity provided by the two columns, allowed to distribute 78 TAGs throughout the 2-D LC retention plane otherwise unachievable by 1-D LC.

  10. Redox activity of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis by means of colorimetric oxidative assay.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Pathomthat; Correlo, Vitor M; Leonor, Isabel B; Palladino, Pasquale; Reis, Rui L

    2016-01-01

    The redox properties of natural extract from cuttlefish ink sac (Sepia officinalis) and synthetic melanin used as a biomimetic in melanin structural investigation were determined by comparison of this phenol-based heterogeneous pigment with gallic acid used as a standard in Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay widely employed for characterisation of oxidative properties of biomaterials. Reactivity of sepia melanin reported here is much higher than previously indicated and this protocol should allow the redox characterisation of all melanins irrespective of their origin and composition.

  11. Mapping receptive fields in primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ringach, Dario L

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, in the pages of this journal, Hubel and Wiesel provided the first description of receptive fields in the primary visual cortex of higher mammals. They defined two classes of cortical cells, ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, based on neural responses to simple visual stimuli. The notion of a hierarchy of receptive fields, where increasingly intricate receptive fields are constructed from more elementary ones, was introduced. Since those early days we have witnessed the birth of quantitative methods to map receptive fields and mathematical descriptions of simple and complex cell function. Insights gained from these models, along with new theoretical concepts, are refining our understanding of receptive field structure and the underlying cortical circuitry. Here, I provide a brief historical account of the evolution of receptive field mapping in visual cortex along with the associated conceptual advancements, and speculate on the shape novel theories of the cortex may take as a result these measurements. PMID:15155794

  12. Auditory spatial processing in the human cortex.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Nelli H; Tiitinen, Hannu; May, Patrick J C

    2012-12-01

    The auditory system codes spatial locations in a way that deviates from the spatial representations found in other modalities. This difference is especially striking in the cortex, where neurons form topographical maps of visual and tactile space but where auditory space is represented through a population rate code. In this hemifield code, sound source location is represented in the activity of two widely tuned opponent populations, one tuned to the right and the other to the left side of auditory space. Scientists are only beginning to uncover how this coding strategy adapts to various spatial processing demands. This review presents the current understanding of auditory spatial processing in the cortex. To this end, the authors consider how various implementations of the hemifield code may exist within the auditory cortex and how these may be modulated by the stimulation and task context. As a result, a coherent set of neural strategies for auditory spatial processing emerges.

  13. Mismatch Receptive Fields in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zmarz, Pawel; Keller, Georg B

    2016-11-23

    In primary visual cortex, a subset of neurons responds when a particular stimulus is encountered in a certain location in visual space. This activity can be modeled using a visual receptive field. In addition to visually driven activity, there are neurons in visual cortex that integrate visual and motor-related input to signal a mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow. Here we show that these mismatch neurons have receptive fields and signal a local mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow in restricted regions of visual space. These mismatch receptive fields are aligned to the retinotopic map of visual cortex and are similar in size to visual receptive fields. Thus, neurons with mismatch receptive fields signal local deviations of actual visual flow from visual flow predicted based on self-motion and could therefore underlie the detection of objects moving relative to the visual flow caused by self-motion. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  14. The Age of Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Bhardwaj, R D; Curtis, M A; Spalding, K L; Buchholz, B A; Fink, D; Bjork-Eriksson, T; Nordborg, C; Gage, F H; Druid, H; Eriksson, P S; Frisen, J

    2006-04-06

    The traditional static view of the adult mammalian brain has been challenged by the realization of continuous generation of neurons from stem cells. Based mainly on studies in experimental animals, adult neurogenesis may contribute to recovery after brain insults and decreased neurogenesis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases in man. The extent of neurogenesis in the adult human brain has, however, been difficult to establish. We have taken advantage of the integration of {sup 14}C, generated by nuclear bomb tests during the Cold War, in DNA to establish the age of neurons in the major areas of the human cerebral cortex. Together with the analysis of the cortex from patients who received BrdU, which integrates in the DNA of dividing cells, our results demonstrate that whereas non-neuronal cells turn over, neurons in the human cerebral cortex are not generated postnatally at detectable levels, but are as old as the individual.

  15. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  16. Controlling contractile instabilities in the actomyosin cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Masatoshi; Naganathan, Sundar Ram; Jülicher, Frank; Grill, Stephan W

    2017-01-01

    The actomyosin cell cortex is an active contractile material for driving cell- and tissue morphogenesis. The cortex has a tendency to form a pattern of myosin foci, which is a signature of potentially unstable behavior. How a system that is prone to such instabilities can rveliably drive morphogenesis remains an outstanding question. Here, we report that in the Caenorhabditis elegans zygote, feedback between active RhoA and myosin induces a contractile instability in the cortex. We discover that an independent RhoA pacemaking oscillator controls this instability, generating a pulsatory pattern of myosin foci and preventing the collapse of cortical material into a few dynamic contracting regions. Our work reveals how contractile instabilities that are natural to occur in mechanically active media can be biochemically controlled to robustly drive morphogenetic events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19595.001 PMID:28117665

  17. Space representation in the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Funahashi, Shintaro

    2013-04-01

    The representation of space and its function in the prefrontal cortex have been examined using a variety of behavioral tasks. Among them, since the delayed-response task requires the temporary maintenance of spatial information, this task has been used to examine the mechanisms of spatial representation. In addition, the concept of working memory to explain prefrontal functions has helped us to understand the nature and functions of space representation in the prefrontal cortex. The detailed analysis of delay-period activity observed in spatial working memory tasks has provided important information for understanding space representation in the prefrontal cortex. Directional delay-period activity has been shown to be a neural correlate of the mechanism for temporarily maintaining information and represent spatial information for the visual cue and the saccade. In addition, many task-related prefrontal neurons exhibit spatially selective activities. These neurons are also important components of spatial information processing. In fact, information flow from sensory-related neurons to motor-related neurons has been demonstrated, along with a change in spatial representation as the trial progresses. The dynamic functional interactions among neurons exhibiting different task-related activities and representing different aspects of information could play an essential role in information processing. In addition, information provided from other cortical or subcortical areas might also be necessary for the representation of space in the prefrontal cortex. To better understand the representation of space and its function in the prefrontal cortex, we need to understand the nature of functional interactions between the prefrontal cortex and other cortical and subcortical areas.

  18. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Biagini, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Margherita; Benini, Ruba; de Guzman, Philip; Longo, Daniela; Avoli, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The perirhinal cortex—which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory—plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i) highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii) briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii) focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus. PMID:24009554

  19. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-02

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO.

  20. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

  1. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus.

  2. Role of blood-oxygen transport in thermal tolerance of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Melzner, Frank; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

    2007-10-01

    Mechanisms that affect thermal tolerance of ectothermic organisms have recently received much interest, mainly due to global warming and climate-change debates in both the public and in the scientific community. In physiological terms, thermal tolerance of several marine ectothermic taxa can be linked to oxygen availability, with capacity limitations in ventilatory and circulatory systems contributing to oxygen limitation at extreme temperatures. The present review briefly summarizes the processes that define thermal tolerance in a model cephalopod organism, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, with a focus on the contribution of the cephalopod oxygen-carrying blood pigment, hemocyanin. When acutely exposed to either extremely high or low temperatures, cuttlefish display a gradual transition to an anaerobic mode of energy production in key muscle tissues once critical temperatures (T(crit)) are reached. At high temperatures, stagnating metabolic rates and a developing hypoxemia can be correlated with a progressive failure of the circulatory system, well before T(crit) is reached. However, at low temperatures, declining metabolic rates cannot be related to ventilatory or circulatory failure. Rather, we propose a role for hemocyanin functional characteristics as a major limiting factor preventing proper tissue oxygenation. Using information on the oxygen binding characteristics of cephalopod hemocyanins, we argue that high oxygen affinities (= low P(50) values), as found at low temperatures, allow efficient oxygen shuttling only at very low venous oxygen partial pressures. Low venous PO(2)s limit rates of oxygen diffusion into cells, thus eventually causing the observed transition to anaerobic metabolism. On the basis of existing blood physiological, molecular, and crystallographical data, the potential to resolve the role of hemocyanin isoforms in thermal adaptation by an integrated molecular physiological approach is discussed.

  3. GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2009-03-01

    We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes.

  4. Efficacy of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves extract against cyclophosphamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Sabry A; Abdel-Farid, Ibrahim B; Germoush, Mousa O; Elgebaly, Hassan A; Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A

    2016-10-01

    Context Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is used to treat different cancer types, although it causes severe hepatotoxicity due to its oxidative stress effect. Rosmarinus officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae) has a therapeutic potential against hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant activity. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract of Rosmarinus officianalis leaves (MEROL) and its efficacy against CTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Materials and methods The phytochemical analyses were assessed spectrophotometericaly. To assess the MEROL efficacy, 72 Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups. Group 1 was control, groups 2 and 3 included mice which were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 or 200 mg/kg of MEROL at days 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16; group 4 was injected (i.p.) with CTX (200 mg/kg) at day 17, groups 5 and 6 were injected (i.p.) with MEROL as groups 3 and 4 followed by 200 mg/kg CTX at day 17, respectively. At day 22, six mice from each group were sacrificed and the others were sacrificed at day 37. Results MEROL has a high content of total phenolics, saponins, total antioxidant capacity and DPPH radical scavenging activity. The median lethal dose (LD50) value of MEROL was 4.125 g/kg b.w. The inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) value for DPPH radical scavenging was 55 μg/mL. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg MEROL for 16 d ameliorated CTX-induced hepatotoxicity represented in lowering the levels of the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lipid profile and minimizing the histological damage. Conclusions Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg b.w. MEROL mitigated CTX-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant activity.

  5. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in creosote-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Abbady, Ehab A; Baghdadi, Hoda H

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. Coal tar can be utilized as raw materials for various industries. It is also a type of raw material from which phenols, naphthalenes, and anthracene can be extracted. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of coal tar creosote to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in rat liver and the role of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in ameliorating its toxic effects. Male Wister Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven each, group I served as control; group II treated with rosemary (10 mL of water extract/kg BW for 21 days), group III received coal tar creosote (200 mg/4 mL olive oil/kg BW for 3 days), and group IV treated with both rosemary and coal tar creosote. The administration of coal tar creosote significantly caused elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also observed. Liver aminotransferases aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) were significantly decreased while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was increased. Rosemary pretreatment to coal tar creosote-treated rats decreased LPO level and normalized GPx, GR, SOD, CAT, and GST activities, while GSH content was increased. Also, liver AST, ALT, AlP, and LDH were maintained near normal level due to rosemary treatment. In conclusion, rosemary has beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize coal tar creosote toxicity.

  6. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human primary omental preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Stefanon, Bruno; Pomari, Elena; Colitti, Monica

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. Although it has been shown that natural substances influence fat metabolism, little is known about the effect on cellular and molecular mechanisms in human. In this in vitro study, the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) standardized extract in modulating human primary visceral preadipocytes differentiation, lipolysis, and apoptosis was investigated. Moreover, gene expression of key adipogenesis modulators and microRNAs-seq were evaluated. Preadipocytes treated with RO extract significantly reduced triglyceride incorporation during maturation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. In addition, RO extract stimulated lipolytic activity in differentiating preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in treated cells compared to controls. Differentiating preadipocytes incubated in the presence of RO extract showed a decreased expression of cell cycle genes such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) and an increased expression of GATA binding protein 3, wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3A mRNA levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that some phytochemicals alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. Interestingly, genes modulated in RO-treated cells were found to be validated miRNAs targets, such as let-7f-1, miR-17, and miR-143. The results indicated that RO extract modulates human adipocyte differentiation and significantly interferes with adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, supporting its interest as dietary supplement.

  7. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on.

  8. DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

    2012-04-27

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm.

  9. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-12-15

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 μPa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 μPa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods.

  10. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively).

  11. Essential oils and chemical diversity of southeast European populations of Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Satović, Zlatko

    2015-07-01

    The essential oils of 25 populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from nine Balkan countries, including 17 indigenous populations (representing almost the entire native distribution area) and eight non-indigenous (cultivated or naturalized) populations were analyzed. Their essential-oil yield ranged from 0.25 to 3.48%. Within the total of 80 detected compounds, ten (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, borneol, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, viridiflorol, and manool) represented 42.60 to 85.70% of the components in the analyzed essential oils. Strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, α-humulene and viridiflorol, and viridiflorol and manool. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the contents of the ten main compounds showed that four principal components had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained 79.87% of the total variation. Performing cluster analysis (CA), the sage populations could be grouped into four distinct chemotypes (A-D). The essential oils of 14 out of the 25 populations of Dalmatian sage belonged to Chemotype A and were rich in cis-thujone and camphor, with low contents of trans-thujone. The correlation between the essential-oil composition and geographic variables of the indigenous populations was not significant; hence, the similarities in the essential-oil profile among populations could not be explained by the physical proximity of the populations. Additionally, the southeastern populations tended to have higher EO yields than the northwestern ones.

  12. Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio.

  13. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems.

  14. Classification of Sunflower Oil Blends Stabilized by Oleoresin Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Using Multivariate Kinetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The sunflower oil-oleoresin rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) blends (SORB) at 9 different concentrations (200 to 2000 mg/kg), sunflower oil-tertiary butyl hydroquinone (SOTBHQ ) at 200 mg/kg and control (without preservatives) (SO control ) were oxidized using Rancimat (temperature: 100 to 130 °C; airflow rate: 20 L/h). The oxidative stability of blends was expressed using induction period (IP), oil stability index and photochemiluminescence assay. The linear regression models were generated by plotting ln IP with temperature to estimate the shelf life at 20 °C (SL20 ; R(2) > 0.90). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify the oil blends depending upon the oxidative stability and kinetic parameters. The Arrhenius equation adequately described the temperature-dependent kinetics (R(2) > 0.90, P < 0.05) and kinetic parameters viz. activation energies, activation enthalpies, and entropies were calculated in the range of 92.07 to 100.50 kJ/mol, 88.85 to 97.28 kJ/mol, -33.33 to -1.13 J/mol K, respectively. Using PCA, a satisfactory discrimination was noted among SORB, SOTBHQ , and SOcontrol samples. HCA classified the oil blends into 3 different clusters (I, II, and III) where SORB1200 and SORB1500 were grouped together in close proximity with SOTBHQ indicating the comparable oxidative stability. The SL20 was estimated to be 3790, 6974, and 4179 h for SO control, SOTBHQ, and SORB1500, respectively. The multivariate kinetic approach effectively screened SORB1500 as the best blend conferring the highest oxidative stability to sunflower oil. This approach can be adopted for quick and reliable estimation of the oxidative stability of oil samples.

  15. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents dyslipidaemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyun Ju; Okubo, Tsutomu; Chu, Djoing-Chi; Juneja, Lekh Raj

    2007-06-01

    Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is widely used in Indian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. We have investigated the effects of amla on the lipid metabolism and protein expression involved in oxidative stress during the ageing process. SunAmla or ethyl acetate extract of amla, a polyphenol-rich fraction, was administered at a dose of 40 or 10 mg/kg body weight per d for 100 d to young rats aged 2 months and aged rats aged 10 months. The lipid levels, such as cholesterol and TAG, in serum and liver were markedly elevated in aged control rats, while they were significantly decreased by the administration of amla. The PPARalpha is known to regulate the transcription of genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism. The PPARalpha protein level in liver was reduced in aged control rats. However, the oral administration of amla significantly increased the hepatic PPARalpha protein level. In addition, oral administration of amla significantly inhibited the serum and hepatic mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in aged rats. Moreover, the elevated expression level of bax was significantly decreased after the oral administration of amla, while the level of bcl-2 led to a significant increase. Furthermore, the expressions of hepatic NF-kappaB, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels were also increased with ageing. However, amla extract reduced the iNOS and COX-2 expression levels by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation in aged rats. These results indicate that amla may prevent age-related hyperlipidaemia through attenuating oxidative stress in the ageing process.

  16. Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review.

    PubMed

    Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Mathai, Rashmi Teresa; Simon, Paul; Ravi, Rithin T; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-10-01

    Liver diseases characterized by inflammation or tissue damage affect the optimal functioning and increase the morbidity and mortality of the affected individual. Liver diseases are a largely neglected health issue and recent reports indicate that they affect over 10% of the world population, with the highest burden in low and middle income countries that have minimal medical resources. To complicate matters the currently available pharmacological therapies are not optimal and when used for extended periods of time impart systemic toxicity. Diet can modify pathophysiological processes, including those of hepatotoxins, and studies have shown that some dietary constituents can afford heptoprotection. Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry in English or amla in Hindi, is one of the most important medicinal and dietary plants in the Indian subcontinent. The fruits are of dietary and medicinal use and have wide applications in both traditional and folk systems of medicine. Scientific studies have shown amla to be effective in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of hepatotoxic agents like ethanol, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, heavy metals, ochratoxins, hexachlorocyclohexane, antitubercular drugs and hepatotoxicity resulting from iron overload. Amla is also reported to impart beneficial effects on liver function and to mitigate hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Amla possesses protective effects against chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models of study. Additionally, the phytochemicals quercetin, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid are also reported to protect against the cytotoxic effects of paracetamol, microcystins, galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. The hepatoprotective actions of amla appear to be mediated by its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of the xenobiotic detoxification process and lipid metabolism.

  17. Evaluation of electromyographic signals in children with bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa Officinalis L-a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Cordeiro da Silva, Fernanda; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Curiki, Lucia Maria; Mesquita-Ferarri, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Bruxism is a repetitive muscle activity involving the clenching or grinding of one's teeth during sleep or waking hours. Melissa officinalis L. may be employed as a natural therapy due to the sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasm properties of the chemical constituents of the essential oil obtained from its leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate electromyographic signals in the temporal muscle using the BiteStrip(®) test on children with sleep bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa officinalis L. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (n = 12) ingested a tincture containing Melissa officinalis L. for 30 days. Group 2 (n = 12) received a placebo solution with the same dose and frequency as Group 1. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed for statistical analysis. [Results] The sample was made up of 24 children aged 6 to 10 years. No statistically significant differences were found between initial and final muscle activity in either group or in an intergroup comparison. [Conclusion] Use of the Melissa officinalis L. tincture at the dose employed did not lead to a reduction in muscle activity in children with bruxism.

  18. The Water Fraction of Calendula officinalis Hydroethanol Extract Stimulates In Vitro and In Vivo Proliferation of Dermal Fibroblasts in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Mazumdar, Swagata; Das, Saurabh; Ganguly, Durba; Dasgupta, Uma B; Dutta, Ananya; Jana, Kuladip; Karmakar, Parimal

    2016-10-01

    The active fraction and/or compounds of Calendula officinalis responsible for wound healing are not known yet. In this work we studied the molecular target of C. officinalis hydroethanol extract (CEE) and its active fraction (water fraction of hydroethanol extract, WCEE) on primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). In vivo, CEE or WCEE were topically applied on excisional wounds of BALB/c mice and the rate of wound contraction and immunohistological studies were carried out. We found that CEE and only its WCEE significantly stimulated the proliferation as well as the migration of HDF cells. Also they up-regulate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vitro. In vivo, CEE or WCEE treated mice groups showed faster wound healing and increased expression of CTGF and α-SMA compared to placebo control group. The increased expression of both the proteins during granulation phase of wound repair demonstrated the potential role of C. officinalis in wound healing. In addition, HPLC-ESI MS analysis of the active water fraction revealed the presence of two major compounds, rutin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Thus, our results showed that C. officinalis potentiated wound healing by stimulating the expression of CTGF and α-SMA and further we identified active compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. CuO Nano-structures Prepared in Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves Extract Medium: Efficient Catalysts for the Aqueous Media Preparation of Dihydropyrano[3, 2-c]chromene Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ghashang, Majid; Kargar, Mahboubeh; Shafiee, Mohammad R M; Mansoor, Syed S; Fazlinia, Abbas; Esfandiari, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    CuO nano-structures were prepared in Rosmarinus Officinalis leaves extract medium via a green bio-chemical method and were used for the one-pot synthesis of dihydropyrano [3,2-c] chromene derivatives. This procedure is very simple and the products were synthesized in high to excellent yields.

  20. Variation of volatile oil concentration of Mediterranean aromatic shrubs Thymus capitatus hoffmag et link, Satureja thymbra L., Teucrium polium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokou, D.; Margaris, N. S.

    1986-06-01

    The volatile oil content of four Labiatae aromatic plants, viz. Thymus capitatus, Satureja thymbra, Teucrium polium and Rosmarinus officinalis has been estimated throughout the year; leaves, braches, flowers and leaf litter were analysed. The pattern of changes in the volatile oil concentration is not the same in all four plants; it corresponds to the major adaptive strategy towards summer drought, which each has evolved.

  1. A Comparative Study on Essential Oil Intraspecific and Seasonal Variations: Melissa romana Mill. and Melissa officinalis L. from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Usai, Marianna; Atzei, Aldo Domenico; Marchetti, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Two species of Melissa are currently present in Sardinia: Melissa officinalis L. and Melissa romana Mill. Our research can only count on a few supported evidences (as reported in Flora Italiana and Moris) and some notes on new stations in Sardinia that give us some information about morphology, distribution, bioecological, and ethnobotanical characteristics of both species. In this paper, we present the results of the research about morphological aspects of M. romana vs. M. officinalis, and their essential oils in different stations at different phenological periods. Moreover, we compared the essential oil of M. romana with the one obtained from M. officinalis growing in the few naturalized stations still present in Sardinia. The most evident morphological differences between the two entities are the long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, shorts and inclined capitate trichomes, and peltate hairs. The chemical composition of essential oil presents several significant differences between the species. In fact, oils show that in none of the phenological stages, M. romana recalls in its composition M. officinalis. Major distinctions are also evident between dry and fresh plants, and among essential oils distilled in different seasons.

  2. Evaluation of electromyographic signals in children with bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa Officinalis L—a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Cordeiro da Silva, Fernanda; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Curiki, Lucia Maria; Mesquita-Ferarri, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Bruxism is a repetitive muscle activity involving the clenching or grinding of one’s teeth during sleep or waking hours. Melissa officinalis L. may be employed as a natural therapy due to the sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasm properties of the chemical constituents of the essential oil obtained from its leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate electromyographic signals in the temporal muscle using the BiteStrip® test on children with sleep bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa officinalis L. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (n = 12) ingested a tincture containing Melissa officinalis L. for 30 days. Group 2 (n = 12) received a placebo solution with the same dose and frequency as Group 1. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed for statistical analysis. [Results] The sample was made up of 24 children aged 6 to 10 years. No statistically significant differences were found between initial and final muscle activity in either group or in an intergroup comparison. [Conclusion] Use of the Melissa officinalis L. tincture at the dose employed did not lead to a reduction in muscle activity in children with bruxism. PMID:27134350

  3. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

  4. Essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: assessment of safety in mammalian cells and its antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Ferreira, I V; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Al-bdour, T H; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5-50.3%) and camphor (8.8-25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 μL/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.

  5. Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Gonçalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 μL/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24224168

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis Linn. and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-02-01

    Calendula officinalis flower extract possessed significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and dextran-induced acute paw edema. Oral administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced significant inhibition (50.6 and 65.9% respectively) in paw edema of animals induced by carrageenan and 41.9 and 42.4% respectively with inflammation produced by dextran. In chronic anti-inflammatory model using formalin, administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced an inhibition of 32.9 and 62.3% respectively compared to controls. TNF-alpha production by macrophage culture treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to be significantly inhibited by Calendula extract. Moreover, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL- 1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and acute phase protein, C- reactive protein (CRP) in mice produced by LPS injection were inhibited significantly by the extract. LPS induced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) levels in mice spleen were also found to be inhibited by extract treatment. The results showed that potent anti-inflammatory response of C. officinalis extract may be mediated by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and Cox-2 and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis.

  7. [Cytological study of the post-embryonic development of the digestive gland of Sepia officinalis L. Mollusca : Cephalopoda (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Yim, M; Boucaud-Camou, E

    1980-01-01

    A histological and ultrastructural study of the development of the digestive gland of Sepia officinalis L. was carried out on young Sepia reared in the laboratory, during the first month of post-embryonic life. The increasing complexity of the histological structure of the gland is related to the successive appearance of several cell types : immature cell, synthetizing cell, mature digestive cell ("cellule à boules"), and resting cell. These types are, in fact, just the evolutive stages of the same cell, the digestive cell. The sequence of appearance of the different cell types and the changes occurring in feeding can be used to define three stages in the post-embryonic development of the Sepia officinalis L. digestive gland : a multiplication stage (from hatching to the 5th day), a maturation stage (5th to 30th day), and adult stage (after the first month of post-embryonic life). These stages are identical to the three periods previously described by Richard and Decleir (1969) in the life of Sepia.

  8. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Darcy A A; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage.

  9. Influence of temperature, hypercapnia, and development on the relative expression of different hemocyanin isoforms in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Anneli; Hu, Marian Y A; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lieb, Bernhard; Lucassen, Magnus; Melzner, Frank; Pörtner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

    2012-12-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis expresses several hemocyanin isoforms with potentially different pH optima, indicating their reliance on efficient pH regulation in the blood. Ongoing ocean warming and acidification could influence the oxygen-binding properties of respiratory pigments in ectothermic marine invertebrates. This study examined whether S. officinalis differentially expresses individual hemocyanin isoforms to maintain optimal oxygen transport during development and acclimation to elevated seawater pCO(2) and temperature. Using quantitative PCR, we measured relative mRNA expression levels of three different hemocyanin isoforms in several ontogenetic stages (embryos, hatchlings, juveniles, and adults), under different temperatures and elevated seawater pCO(2). Our results indicate moderately altered hemocyanin expression in all embryonic stages acclimated to higher pCO(2), while hemocyanin expression in hatchlings and juveniles remained unaffected. During the course of development, total hemocyanin expression increased independently of pCO(2) or thermal acclimation status. Expression of isoform 3 is reported for the first time in a cephalopod in this study and was found to be generally low but highest in the embryonic stages (0.2% of total expression). Despite variable hemocyanin expression, hemolymph total protein concentrations remained constant in the experimental groups. Our data provide first evidence that ontogeny has a stronger influence on hemocyanin isoform expression than the environmental conditions chosen, and they suggest that hemocyanin protein abundance in response to thermal acclimation is regulated by post-transcriptional/translational rather than by transcriptional modifications.

  10. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  11. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  12. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  13. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15 days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth.

  14. Prevalence, Abundance, and Intensity of Implanted Spermatophores in the Leech Haementeria officinalis (Glossiphoniidae: Hirudinida) from Guanajuato, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salas-Montiel, Ricardo; Phillips, Anna J; Contreras-Mirón, Samantha; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    Fertilization through hypodermic implantation of spermatophores has been recorded in at least 4 groups of leeches: Glossiphoniidae, Piscicolidae, Ozobranchidae, and Erpobdelliformes. In Piscicola respirans (Piscicolidae), vector tissue responsible for sperm transfer from a specialized region of the body to the ovaries has led to the non-random attachment of spermatophores on the body surface of the recipient leech. It has been suggested that in glossiphoniid leeches, spermatophores are implanted in any part of the body surface of the recipient leech without a clear pattern or preference for region. In order to determine if the donor leech implants its spermatophores in a specific area of the conspecific recipient's body, we surveyed 81 specimens of Haementeria officinalis (Clitellata: Glossiphoniidae) from a wild population in Guanajuato, Mexico, and recorded the distribution of the spermatophores over the recipient's body surface. We describe for the first time a spermatophore of H. officinalis using scanning electron and light microscopy. Spermatophores were found attached dorsally between somites XVII and XXI 59.57% of the time, and the rest were found in other parts of the body, including on the ventral surface. The non-specific attachment for spermatophores does not support the presence of specialized tissue responsible for sperm transfer and instead attributes the placement of implantation to mechanical characteristics of the copulation process.

  15. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  16. Phytochemical Profiling of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, Terpenoids, and Volatile Fraction of a Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract.

    PubMed

    Mena, Pedro; Cirlini, Martina; Tassotti, Michele; Herrlinger, Kelli A; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-19

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile of a proprietary rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract rich in carnosic acid. A characterization of the (poly)phenolic and volatile fractions of the extract was carried out using mass spectrometric techniques. The (poly)phenolic composition was assessed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS(n)) and a total of 57 compounds were tentatively identified and quantified, 14 of these being detected in rosemary extract for the first time. The rosemary extract contained 24 flavonoids (mainly flavones, although flavonols and flavanones were also detected), 5 phenolic acids, 24 diterpenoids (carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol derivatives), 1 triterpenoid (betulinic acid), and 3 lignans (medioresinol derivatives). Carnosic acid was the predominant phenolic compound. The volatile profile of the rosemary extract was evaluated by head space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) linked to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixty-three volatile molecules (mainly terpenes, alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones) were identified. This characterization extends the current knowledge on the phytochemistry of Rosmarinus officinalis and is, to our knowledge, the broadest profiling of its secondary metabolites to date. It can assist in the authentication of rosemary extracts or rosemary-containing products or in testing its bioactivity. Moreover, this methodological approach could be applied to the study of other plant-based food ingredients.

  17. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  18. Antidepressant-like effects of fractions, essential oil, carnosol and betulinic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniele G; Cunha, Mauricio P; Neis, Vivian B; Balen, Grasiela O; Colla, André; Bettio, Luis E B; Oliveira, Agatha; Pazini, Francis Leonardo; Dalmarco, Juliana B; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of fractions from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: ethyl acetate 1 and 2 (AcOEt1 and 2), hexane (HEX), ethanolic (ET), and essential oil-free (EOF) fractions, as well as essential oil, the isolated compounds carnosol and betulinic acid in the tail suspension test, a predictive test of antidepressant activity. Swiss mice were acutely administered by oral route (p.o.) with fractions, essential oil or isolated compounds, 60 min before the tail suspension test or open-field test. All of them produced a significant antidepressant-like effect: AcOEt1, ET, EOF fractions and essential oil (0.1-100mg/kg, p.o); HEX (0.1-10mg/kg, p.o) and AcOEt2 fraction (0.1-1mg/kg, p.o), carnosol (0.01-0.1mg/kg, p.o.) isolated from the HEX fraction and betulinic acid (10mg/kg, p.o.), isolated from the AcOEt1 and AcOEt2 fractions. No psychostimulant effect was shown in the open-field test, indicating that the effects in the tail suspension test are specific. This study suggests that carnosol and betulinic acid could be responsible for the anti-immobility effect of extracts from R. officinalis.

  19. Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, G; Cruz, C; Faleiro, M L; Simões, M T F; Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G

    2011-03-01

    Salvia officinalis L. oils were isolated from the plant's commercial dried aerial parts, by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times. The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a deoxyribose assay for the scavenging of hydroxyl radical, an assay for site-specific actions and a 5-lipoxygenase assay. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. 1,8-Cineole, α-pinene and camphor were the dominant components of all the essential oils. The different hydrodistillation times did not affect the oil yield nor the relative amount of the oil components. The time of hydrodistillation influenced the antioxidant activity. With the DPPH method, the oils isolated for 2 and 3 h were stronger free radical scavengers, while with the TBARS method, the highest antioxidant values were obtained in the oils isolated for 30 min, 2 and 3 h. Hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipoxygenase activity assays showed the best results with oils isolated for 1 and 3 h. With the deoxyribose method, sage oils at concentrations <1000 mg L(-1) showed better activity than mannitol. The essential oil of S. officinalis showed very weak antimicrobial activity.

  20. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058.

  1. New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Beata; Budzyńska, Aleksandra; Więckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Małgorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Różalska, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants.

  2. Primary Auditory Cortex Regulates Threat Memory Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigestrand, Mattis B.; Schiff, Hillary C.; Fyhn, Marianne; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Sears, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing threatening from nonthreatening stimuli is essential for survival and stimulus generalization is a hallmark of anxiety disorders. While auditory threat learning produces long-lasting plasticity in primary auditory cortex (Au1), it is not clear whether such Au1 plasticity regulates memory specificity or generalization. We used…

  3. Motor cortex inhibition induced by acoustic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Andrea A; Sharott, Andrew; Trottenberg, Thomas; Kupsch, Andreas; Brown, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The influence of the brainstem motor system on cerebral motor areas may play an important role in motor control in health and disease. A new approach to investigate this interaction in man is combining acoustic stimulation activating the startle system with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the motor cortex. However, it is unclear whether the inhibition of TMS responses following acoustic stimulation occurs at the level of the motor cortex through reticulo-cortical projections or subcortically, perhaps through reticulo-spinal projections. We compared the influence of acoustic stimulation on motor effects elicited by TMS over motor cortical areas to those evoked with subcortical electrical stimulation (SES) through depth electrodes in five patients treated with deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. SES bypasses the motor cortex, demonstrating any interaction with acoustic stimuli at the subcortical level. EMG was recorded from the contralateral biceps brachii muscle. Acoustic stimulation was delivered binaurally through headphones and used as a conditioning stimulus at an interstimulus interval of 50 ms. When TMS was used as the test stimulus, the area and amplitude of the conditioned motor response was significantly inhibited (area: 57.5+/-12.9%, amplitude: 47.9+/-7.4%, as percentage of unconditioned response) whereas facilitation occurred with SES (area: 110.1+/-4.3%, amplitude: 116.9+/-6.9%). We conclude that a startle-evoked activation of reticulo-cortical projections transiently inhibits the motor cortex.

  4. The piriform cortex and human focal epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, David N; Jackson, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic - being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability.

  5. Excitatory neuronal connectivity in the barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Neocortical areas are believed to be organized into vertical modules, the cortical columns, and the horizontal layers 1–6. In the somatosensory barrel cortex these columns are defined by the readily discernible barrel structure in layer 4. Information processing in the neocortex occurs along vertical and horizontal axes, thereby linking individual barrel-related columns via axons running through the different cortical layers of the barrel cortex. Long-range signaling occurs within the neocortical layers but also through axons projecting through the white matter to other neocortical areas and subcortical brain regions. Because of the ease of identification of barrel-related columns, the rodent barrel cortex has become a prototypical system to study the interactions between different neuronal connections within a sensory cortical area and between this area and other cortical as well subcortical regions. Such interactions will be discussed specifically for the feed-forward and feedback loops between the somatosensory and the somatomotor cortices as well as the different thalamic nuclei. In addition, recent advances concerning the morphological characteristics of excitatory neurons and their impact on the synaptic connectivity patterns and signaling properties of neuronal microcircuits in the whisker-related somatosensory cortex will be reviewed. In this context, their relationship between the structural properties of barrel-related columns and their function as a module in vertical synaptic signaling in the whisker-related cortical areas will be discussed. PMID:22798946

  6. The Piriform Cortex and Human Focal Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, David N.; Jackson, Graeme D.

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising that the piriform cortex, when compared to the hippocampus, has been given relatively little significance in human epilepsy. Like the hippocampus, it has a phylogenetically preserved three-layered cortex that is vulnerable to excitotoxic injury, has broad connections to both limbic and cortical areas, and is highly epileptogenic – being critical to the kindling process. The well-known phenomenon of early olfactory auras in temporal lobe epilepsy highlights its clinical relevance in human beings. Perhaps because it is anatomically indistinct and difficult to approach surgically, as it clasps the middle cerebral artery, it has, until now, been understandably neglected. In this review, we emphasize how its unique anatomical and functional properties, as primary olfactory cortex, predispose it to involvement in focal epilepsy. From recent convergent findings in human neuroimaging, clinical epileptology, and experimental animal models, we make the case that the piriform cortex is likely to play a facilitating and amplifying role in human focal epileptogenesis, and may influence progression to epileptic intractability. PMID:25538678

  7. Motor Cortex Reorganization across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Emily K.; Kleim, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    The brain is a highly dynamic structure with the capacity for profound structural and functional change. Such neural plasticity has been well characterized within motor cortex and is believed to represent one of the neural mechanisms for acquiring and modifying motor behaviors. A number of behavioral and neural signals have been identified that…

  8. Developmental Outcomes after Early Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…

  9. Microglia in the Cerebral Cortex in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Jiang, Sue; Williams, Brian A.; Allman, Elizabeth; Wold, Barbara J.; Allman, John M.

    2012-01-01

    We immunocytochemically identified microglia in fronto-insular (FI) and visual cortex (VC) in autopsy brains of well-phenotyped subjects with autism and matched controls, and stereologically quantified the microglial densities. Densities were determined blind to phenotype using an optical fractionator probe. In FI, individuals with autism had…

  10. Vibrissa motor cortex activity suppresses contralateral whisking behavior.

    PubMed

    Ebbesen, Christian Laut; Doron, Guy; Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Anatomical, stimulation and lesion data implicate vibrissa motor cortex in whisker motor control. Work on motor cortex has focused on movement generation, but correlations between vibrissa motor cortex activity and whisking are weak. The exact role of vibrissa motor cortex remains unknown. We recorded vibrissa motor cortex neurons during various forms of vibrissal touch, which were invariably associated with whisker protraction and movement. Free whisking, object palpation and social touch all resulted in decreased cortical activity. To understand this activity decrease, we performed juxtacellular recordings, nanostimulation and in vivo whole-cell recordings. Social touch resulted in decreased spiking activity, decreased cell excitability and membrane hyperpolarization. Activation of vibrissa motor cortex by intracortical microstimulation elicited whisker retraction, as if to abort vibrissal touch. Various vibrissa motor cortex inactivation protocols resulted in contralateral protraction and increased whisker movements. These data collectively point to movement suppression as a prime function of vibrissa motor cortex activity.

  11. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  12. Cerebral Cortex Structure in Prodromal Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nopoulos, Peggy C.; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Ross, Christopher A.; Johnson, Hans J.; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Pierson, Ronald K.; Mills, James; Langbehn, Douglas R.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of subjects who are gene-expanded for Huntington Disease, but not yet diagnosed (termed prodromal HD), report that the cortex is “spared,” despite the decrement in striatal and cerebral white-matter volume. Measurement of whole-cortex volume can mask more subtle, but potentially clinically relevant regional changes in volume, thinning, or surface area. The current study addressed this limitation by evaluating cortical morphology of 523 prodromal HD subjects. Participants included 693 individuals enrolled in the PREDICT-HD protocol. Of these participants, 523 carried the HD gene mutation (prodromal HD group); the remaining 170 were non gene-expanded and served as the comparison group. Based on age and CAG repeat length, gene-expanded subjects were categorized as “Far from onset,” “Midway to onset,” “Near onset,” and “already diagnosed.” MRI scans were processed using FreeSurfer. Cortical volume, thickness, and surface area were not significantly different between the Far from onset group and controls. However, beginning in the Midway to onset group, the cortex showed significant volume decrement, affecting most the posterior and superior cerebral regions. This pattern progressed when evaluating the groups further into the disease process. Areas that remained mostly unaffected included ventral and medial regions of the frontal and temporal cortex. Morphologic changes were mostly in thinning as surface area did not substantially change in most regions. Early in the course of HD, the cortex shows changes that are manifest as cortical thinning and are most robust in the posterior and superior regions of the cerebrum. PMID:20688164

  13. Sensorimotor organization in double cortex syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jirsch, Jeffrey D; Bernasconi, Neda; Villani, Flavio; Vitali, Paolo; Avanzini, Giuliano; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2006-06-01

    Subcortical band heterotopia is a diffuse malformation of cortical development related to pharmacologically intractable epilepsy. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), patients with "double cortex" syndrome (DCS) present with a band of heterotopic gray matter separated from the overlying cortex by a layer of white matter. The function and connectivity of the subcortical heterotopic band in humans is only partially understood. We studied six DCS patients with bilateral subcortical band heterotopias and six healthy controls using functional MRI (fMRI). In controls, simple motor task elicited contralateral activation of the primary motor cortex (M1) and ipsilateral activation of the cerebellum and left supplementary motor area (SMA). All DCS patients showed task-related contralateral activation of both M1 and the underlying heterotopic band. Ipsilateral motor activation was seen in 4/6 DCS patients. Furthermore, there were additional activations of nonprimary normotopic cortical areas. The sensory stimulus resulted in activation of the contralateral primary sensory cortex (SI) and the thalamus in all healthy subjects. The left sensory task also induced a contralateral activation of the insular cortex. Sensory activation of the contralateral SI was seen in all DCS patients and secondary somatosensory areas in 5/6. The heterotopic band beneath SI became activated in 3/6 DCS patients. Activations were also seen in subcortical structures for both paradigms. In DCS, motor and sensory tasks induce an activation of the subcortical heterotopic band. The recruitment of bilateral primary areas and higher-order association normotopic cortices indicates the need for a widespread network to perform simple tasks.

  14. Projection from the perirhinal cortex to the frontal motor cortex in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kyuhou, Shin ichi; Gemba, Hisae

    2002-03-01

    Stimulation of the anterior perirhinal cortex (PERa) induced marked surface-negative and depth-positive field potentials in the rat frontal motor cortex (MC) including the rostral and caudal forelimb areas. Injection of biotinylated dextran into the PERa densely labeled axon terminals in the superficial layers of the MC, where vigorous unit responses were evoked after PERa stimulation, indicated that the perirhinal-frontal projection preferentially activates the superficial layer neurons of the MC.

  15. Cholecystokinin from the entorhinal cortex enables neural plasticity in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Yu, Kai; Zhang, Zicong; Sun, Wenjian; Yang, Zhou; Feng, Jingyu; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Haitao; Guo, Yi Ping; He, Jufang

    2014-03-01

    Patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe show deficits in forming new declarative memories but can still recall older memories, suggesting that the medial temporal lobe is necessary for encoding memories in the neocortex. Here, we found that cortical projection neurons in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices were mostly immunopositive for cholecystokinin (CCK). Local infusion of CCK in the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats induced plastic changes that enabled cortical neurons to potentiate their responses or to start responding to an auditory stimulus that was paired with a tone that robustly triggered action potentials. CCK infusion also enabled auditory neurons to start responding to a light stimulus that was paired with a noise burst. In vivo intracellular recordings in the auditory cortex showed that synaptic strength was potentiated after two pairings of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity in the presence of CCK. Infusion of a CCKB antagonist in the auditory cortex prevented the formation of a visuo-auditory association in awake rats. Finally, activation of the entorhinal cortex potentiated neuronal responses in the auditory cortex, which was suppressed by infusion of a CCKB antagonist. Together, these findings suggest that the medial temporal lobe influences neocortical plasticity via CCK-positive cortical projection neurons in the entorhinal cortex.

  16. Trace metal concentrations in post-hatching cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and consequences of dissolved zinc exposure.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Capl