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Sample records for cortex magnoliae officinalis

  1. [Research on standard of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex commercial specification and grade].

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Cheng-cheng; Guo, Lan-ping; Jin, Yan; Huang, Lu-qi; Yang, Hong-bing

    2015-02-01

    The market and literature were studied to understand the existing situation of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex goods, and the collected samples were analyzed, combined with the actual production, a new standard of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex commercial specification and grade was drafted. Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex goods was divided into two categories according to the source in the old standard. Then each category was divided into four kinds of specifications according to the site. Each kind of specification was divided into several grades according to the length and weight. To judge the quality of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex goods was mainly based on the appearance quality. In the new standard, the classification of commercial specification and grade is based on the thickness, magnolol and honokiol content. The goods of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex can be divided into three specifications: Tongpu, Genpu and Doupu. Tongpu is divided into three grades, the remaining two are not graded.

  2. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  3. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively.

  4. Evaluation and discrimination of cortex Magnoliae officinalis produced in Zhejiang Province (Wen-Hou-Po) by UPLC-DAD-TOF-MS fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Yuana, Ke; Yu, Wei-Wu; Wang, Jing

    2010-10-01

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem TOF mass spectrometric (UPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) fingerprinting method was developed for the quality control and source discrimination of Cortex magnoliae officinalis produced in Zhejiang Province (Wen-Hou-Po). Twelve samples of Wen-Hou-Po collected from two species in five areas in Zhejiang Province of China were used to establish the fingerprint. Data were evaluated statistically using similarity analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) in order to establish a similarity standard of fingerprint for quality control of Wen-Hou-Po, then to classify the Wen-Hou-Po samples and to identify key categorizing parameters. The similarity indexes were all above 0.95 between the reference chromatogram and that of each sample. By comparing the UV and MS data with those of the authentic standards and literature, nine main peaks in the fingerprints were identified. The result of hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the samples from two species in five areas could be divided into two distinct groups (the same as the groups of the samples divided by their species) based on their compositional fingerprints. A rapid and convenient discriminant function was then established to discriminate the species of unknown Wen-Hou-Po, and the cross validation result was 100%. In this study, the methods established are reliable, and could be used to evaluate the quality and to identify the species of Wen-Hou-Po in the future.

  5. Anti-inflammatory neolignans from the roots of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, Shwu-Jen; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Shen, De-Yang; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Liao, Yu-Ren; Lee, E-Jian; Gu, Qiong; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2016-04-01

    Nine neolignan derivatives (1-9) were characterized from the roots of Magnolia officinalis, and their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses. Among them, houpulins E (1) and M (9) possess novel homo- and trinor-neolignan skeletons. In addition, 15 known compounds (10-24) were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. Some of the purified constituents were examined for anti-inflammatory activity and, among the tested compounds, houpulins G (3), I (5), J (6), and 2,2'-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5,5'-di-(2-propenylbiphenyl) (19) significantly inhibited superoxide anion generation and elastase release with IC50 values ranging from 3.54 to 5.48 μM and 2.16 to 3.39 μM, respectively. Therefore, these neolignan derivatives have tremendous potential to be explored as anti-inflammatory agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The inhibitory effect of magnolol from Magnolia officinalis on glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Huang, B B; Fan, M W; Wang, S L; Han, D X; Chen, Z; Bian, Z

    2006-10-01

    Dental caries has been an intractable disease in spite of intense dental research. Glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzyme plays the most important role in the development of dental caries. In our previous studies, magnolol, a compound from Magnolia officinalis Rehder et Wilson (Magnoliaceae), was shown to possess a strong anti-GTF activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of magnolol on the functional domains of GTF for the purpose of defining its anti-GTF activity mechanism. GTF-I which was prepared from Streptococcus milleri transformant KSB8 cells expressing the gtfB gene was used. The results demonstrated magnolol reduced total glucan synthesis, depending on the magnolol concentration. There were no significant differences in Michaelis constant (K(m)) values between the presence and absence of magnolol as determined by Lineweaver-Burk plot, and maximum velocity (V(m)) in the presence of magnolol was lower than that in its absence. Magnolol significantly inhibited both sucrose hydrolysis and glucosyl transfer to glucan by GTF-I. Free glucose in the presence of magnolol was reduced by 33-48% as compared to in its absence, while the quantity of glucan was reduced by 75-82%. These findings suggested that magnolol inhibited both two sequential reaction phases of GTF non-competitively by operating on the glucan-binding domain, but not on the catalytic domain. Magnolol could be a valuable resource for the exploration of novel bioactive compounds in natural products.

  7. Biosynthesis of flat silver nanoflowers: from Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract to simulation solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaolian; Huang, Jiale; Wu, Lingfeng; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2014-03-01

    Flat Ag nanoflowers were directly synthesized from the bioreduction of AgNO3 using Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract without any additional stabilizer or protective agent at room temperature. Effects of concentrations of the Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract on the Ag nanostructures were investigated. The main components containing flavone, polyphenol, protein, and reducing sugar in the plant extract were thoroughly determined before and after the reaction, and the dialysis experiments were also conducted. The results of components analysis and dialysis showed that gallic acid representing polyphenols played an important role in the biosynthesis of silver nanoplates. Trisodium citrate combined gallic acid solution, instead of Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract, was employed and successfully simulated the biosynthesis process of the flat Ag nanoflowers.

  8. Potential use of Magnolia officinalis bark polyphenols in the treatment of cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Maurizio; Mondola, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, epidemiological data confirm that cannabis-related emergencies, cannabis-use disorders and dependence are significantly increased. Cannabis is generally considered a little dangerous substances of abuse, however, chronic consumption has been associated to the development of mental disorders, cognitive deficits, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, increased risk of myocardial infarction in the hour after use, increased mortality after myocardial infarction, liver inflammation and steatosis in patients affected by hepatitis C. In this article we described the pharmacological characteristics of Magnolia officinalis bark active principles suggesting a potential application in the treatment of both cannabis dependence and cannabis-related disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnolia officinalis (Hou Po) bark extract stimulates the Nrf2-pathway in hepatocytes and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Arun; Missler, Stephen R; Scholten, Jeffery D

    2016-12-04

    The highly aromatic bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson, (magnolia bark) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Hou Po. Historically the bark of the tree has been used for treating variety of disorders the most common use of magnolia bark in traditional prescription has been to treat stress and anxiety disorders. Till date it is not clear regarding the fundamental cellular pathway it modulates. NRF2 signaling has emerged as the central pathway that protects cells from variety of stressors this led us to hypothesize that basis for magnolia bark's effects could be via activating NRF2 pathway. We utilized variety of biochemical procedures like luciferase reporter assay, enzyme induction, gene expression to determine NRF2 inducing activity by magnolia bark extract and its significance. Further we identified the phytochemicals inducing this activity using bio-directed fractionation procedure. In this study, we demonstrate that magnolia bark extract activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression and protects against hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes. We further identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy that magnolol, 4-methoxy honokiol and honokiol are the active phytochemicals inducing the Nrf2-mediated activity. This could be the molecular basis for its numerous beneficial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Chemical Profiling Change of Processed Magnolia officinalis on the Pharmacokinetic Profiling of Honokiol and Magnolol in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Huiling; Wang, Zhanguo; Hua, Wan; You, Yu; Zou, Liang

    2016-08-01

    The stem of Magnoliae officinalis (MO) cortex is always preliminarily processed before being applied in traditional Chinese medicine. The definite bioavailability of honokiol (HO) and magnolol (MA) in processed MO (PMO) and the effect of chemical profiling change on the pharmacokinetics of HO and MA are always a greater challenge compared with those of MO. Compared with that of MO, the pharmacokinetic profiling of HO and MA in the PMO was significantly changed and the mean Tmax of HO and MA was increased by 31 and 50% (P < 0.05), respectively; the mean AUC0-t and Cmax of HO were increased by 36 and 24% (P < 0.05), respectively. Subsequently, the chemical profiling of MO and PMO was investigated by a simple and rapid LC-Q/TOF-MS coupled with multivariate analysis method. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the chromatographic data demonstrated that the chemical profiling of PMO was significantly different from that of MO. Eight marker components including six alkaloids (magnocurarine, magnoflorine, roemerine and three unidentified peaks) and two lignans (obovatol and MA) were screened out by partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The results indicated that the changes of eight marker components of PMO may have an effect on the pharmacokinetic profiles of HO and MA.

  11. Biological activity and toxicity of the Chinese herb Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson (Houpo) and its constituents

    PubMed Central

    Poivre, Mélanie; Duez, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal drugs have been used for thousands of years in Chinese pharmacopoeia. The bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder & E. Wilson, known under the pinyin name “Houpo”, has been traditionally used in Chinese and Japanese medicines for the treatment of anxiety, asthma, depression, gastrointestinal disorders, headache, and more. Moreover, Magnolia bark extract is a major constituent of currently marketed dietary supplements and cosmetic products. Much pharmacological activity has been reported for this herb and its major compounds, notably antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and antispasmodic effects. However, the mechanisms underlying this have not been elucidated and only a very few clinical trials have been published. In vitro and in vivo toxicity studies have also been published and indicate some intriguing features. The present review aims to summarize the literature on M. officinalis bark composition, utilisation, pharmacology, and safety. PMID:28271656

  12. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively.

  13. Magnolia officinalis L. Fortified Gum Improves Resistance of Oral Epithelial Cells Against Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Walker, Joel Michael; Maitra, Amarnath; Haririan, Hady; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Dodds, Michael; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers. Ex vivo stimulation of oral epithelial cells with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis for 6[Formula: see text]h increased the mRNA expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-[Formula: see text], IL-8, MIP-1[Formula: see text], and TNF[Formula: see text]. Chewing MBE-fortified gum for 10[Formula: see text]min reduced the ex vivo LPS-induced increase of IL-8 release by 43.8 [Formula: see text] 17.1% at the beginning of the intervention. In addition, after the two-week intervention with MBE-fortified chewing gum, LPS-stimulated TNF[Formula: see text] release was attenuated by 73.4 [Formula: see text] 12.0% compared to chewing regular control gum. This increased resistance against LPS-induced inflammation suggests that MBE possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo when added to chewing gum. In contrast, the conditions used to stimulate an immune response of oral epithelial cells failed to induce oxidative stress, measured by catalase activity, or oxidative DNA damage.

  14. Nine phenylethanoid glycosides from Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits and their protective effects against free radical-induced oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lanlan; Zhang, Wenhui; Zhou, Gao; Ma, Bingxin; Mo, Qigui; Chen, Yuxin; Wang, Youwei

    2017-01-01

    To systematically study the chemical constituents in Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits, nine phenylethanoid glycosides were isolated by solvent extraction, silica gel, and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR analyses, including COSY, HMQC and HMBC correlations, and HPLC analysis of sugar residue. Nine phenylethanoid glycosides, namely, magnoloside Ia (1), magnoloside Ic (2), crassifolioside (3), magnoloside Ib (4), magnoloside IIIa (5), magnoloside IVa (6), magnoloside IIa (7), magnoloside IIb (8) and magnoloside Va (9), were first isolated from the n-butanol fraction of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba fruits alcohol extract. Free radical scavenging activities of the nine phenylethanoid glycosides were assessed using the DPPH, ABTS, and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Simultaneously, protective effects of all compounds against free radical-induced oxidative damage were evaluated by two different kinds of mitochondrial damage model. The protective effects were assessed by mitochondrial swelling, the formations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). All phenylethanoid glycosides showed significant protective effects. PMID:28349971

  15. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (−18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (−11%), Tension (−13%), Depression (−20%), Anger (−42%), Fatigue (−31%), and Confusion (−27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery

  16. Protective effect of a polyphenolic rich extract from Magnolia officinalis bark on influenza virus-induced pneumonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Ning; Yu, Chen-Huan; Cai, Wei; Hua, Jian; Li, Shi-Qing; Wang, Wei

    2011-03-08

    Magnolia officinalis bark is used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cough, colds, fever, chronic bronchitis and stomach ailments. To investigate therapeutic effects of polyphenol rich extract from M. officinalis bark (MPE) in influenza virus A-infected mice, and to provide evidence for the inflammation response and immunomodulatory potential during infection. Mice were infected with influenza virus A (IVA) and MPE at doses of 10 and 20mg/kg were orally administrated daily for 5 days after challenge. The levels of serum L-6 and TNF-α were determined by ELISA while protein expressions of NF-κB and TLR3 were detected by western blotting analysis. MPE exhibited significant therapeutical effects on reducing levels of serum NO, IL-6 and TNF-α, inhibiting pneumonia, decreasing lung viral titers and sensitizing IVA-induced apoptosis through down-regulation of NF-κB and TLR3 protein expression in the lung tissue of IVA-infected mice. MPE could exhibit preventive and therapeutical effects on IVA-infected mice as a suppressor of the production of inflammatory mediators, NO and pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6. These effects appeared to be mediated, at least in part, by an inhibition of TLR3 and NF-κB activation. Therefore, MPE could provide a safe and effective therapeutic approach for influenza and its subsequent viral pneumonia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  18. Magnolol and honokiol from Magnolia officinalis enhanced antiviral immune responses against grass carp reovirus in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Hu, Yang; Shan, Lipeng; Yu, Xiaobo; Hao, Kai; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2017-04-01

    Medicinal plants have been widely used for a long history. Exploration of pharmacologically active compounds from medicinal plants present a broad prevalent of application. By examining viral mRNA expression in GCRV-infected Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells treated with thirty kinds of plant extracts, we identified Magnolia officinalis Rehd et Wils. was able to preferably suppress viral replication. Further studies demonstrated that the main ingredients of magnolia bark, namely, magnolol and honokiol presented protective pharmacological function when treated GCRV-infected CIK cells with a concentration of 2.00 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, reverse transcript quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot showed that both magnolol and honokiol were efficient to restrain the replication of GCRV in CIK cells at non-toxic concentration (2.51 ± 0.51 μg/ml for magnolol, and 3.18 ± 0.61 μg/ml for honokiol). Moreover, it was found that magnolol and honokiol promoted the expression of immune-related genes. Magnolol obviously significantly increased the expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)7 rather than that of IRF3 in the GCRV-infected cells, leading to the activation of type I IFN (IFN-I). Simultaneously, magnolol drastically facilitated the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, but failed to induce the molecules in nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. Differently, honokiol strikingly motivated not only the expression of IL-1β, but also those of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and NF-κB. Interestingly, though honokiol motivated the expression of IFN-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1), IRF3 and IRF7, it failed to up-regulate the expression of IFN-I, indicating that honokiol enhanced the host innate antiviral response to GCRV infection via NF-κB pathways. Collectively, the present study revealed that magnolol and honokiol facilitated the expression of innate immune-related genes to strengthen the

  19. Quality evaluation of the leaves of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun; Wu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Jin-Yu; Wu, Yan-Bin

    2016-02-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method is a simple and reliable technique to evaluate the quality of leaves of Magnolia officinalis Rehd.et Wils. var. biloba Rehd.et Wils. We used the following bioactive phenolic constituents as reference compounds: rutin, afzelin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside, honokiol and magnolol. The conditions of an Agilent 1200 HPLC were: YMC-Pack-ODS-AQ column (250 × 4.6 mm id S-5 μm, 12 nm), mobile phase acetonitrile and 0.2% phosphoric acid in a gradient elute mode, flow rate 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength 280 nm and column temperature 30°C. The analytical method was validated in terms of linearity, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery tests. While performing fingerprint analysis, we identified 11 peaks as characteristic peaks and assessed the similarities of 17 samples collected from different geological regions of China. The peak areas were used to evaluate the variation in the chemical composition of the tested samples. For this purpose, we performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the peak areas. Our results indicate that simultaneous determination of multiple ingredients could be done through chromatographic fingerprint analysis. Therefore, this high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method was readily utilized to evaluate the quality of leaves of M. officinalis var.biloba, which are used in several traditional herbal preparations.

  20. Cytotoxicity of the bisphenolic honokiol from Magnolia officinalis against multiple drug-resistant tumor cells as determined by pharmacogenomics and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohamed; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Börtzler, Jonas; Khalid, Hassan; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas

    2014-10-15

    A main problem in oncology is the development of drug-resistance. Some plant-derived lignans are established in cancer therapy, e.g. the semisynthetic epipodophyllotoxins etoposide and teniposide. Their activity is, unfortunately, hampered by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein. Here, we investigated the bisphenolic honokiol derived from Magnolia officinalis. P-glycoprotein-overexpressing CEM/ADR5000 cells were not cross-resistant to honokiol, but MDA-MB-231 BRCP cells transfected with another ABC-transporter, BCRP, revealed 3-fold resistance. Further drug resistance mechanisms analyzed study was the tumor suppressor TP53 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). HCT116 p53(-/-) did not reveal resistance to honokiol, and EGFR-transfected U87.MG EGFR cells were collateral sensitive compared to wild-type cells (degree of resistance: 0.34). To gain insight into possible modes of collateral sensitivity, we performed in silico molecular docking studies of honokiol to EGFR and EGFR-related downstream signal proteins. Honokiol bound with comparable binding energies to EGFR (-7.30 ± 0.01 kcal/mol) as the control drugs erlotinib (-7.50 ± 0.30 kcal/mol) and gefitinib (-8.30 ± 0.10 kcal/mol). Similar binding affinities of AKT, MEK1, MEK2, STAT3 and mTOR were calculated for honokiol (range from -9.0 ± 0.01 to 7.40 ± 0.01 kcal/mol) compared to corresponding control inhibitor compounds for these signal transducers. This indicates that collateral sensitivity of EGFR-transfectant cells towards honokiol may be due to binding to EGFR and downstream signal transducers. COMPARE and hierarchical cluster analyses of microarray-based transcriptomic mRNA expression data of 59 tumor cell lines revealed a specific gene expression profile predicting sensitivity or resistance towards honokiol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Origin and History of Magnolias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebda, R. J.; Irving, E.

    2004-12-01

    The classic disjunct distribution of living magnolias between southeast Asia and the Americas has been a puzzle for more than a century and a half. We propose a scheme for the origin and history of magnolias to explain this distribution by integrating paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, paleobotanical, and phytogeographic data. Our scheme is based on paleomagnetically determined latitudes. We assume that the moist warm temperate climate favoured by most extant magnolias has always been their preference. Molecular analyses (largely chloroplast DNA) reveal that several North American species are distinct and basal forms suggesting that magnolias likely originated in North America, a conclusion supported by the fossil record. We identify four evolutionary stages: (1) Ancestral magnolias originate in the Late Cretaceous of North America in high mid-latitudes (45° -60° N) at low altitudes under greenhouse climates. (2) During the exceptionally warm climate (super-greenhouse) of the Eocene, magnolias spread eastwards via the Iceland-Faroes isthmuses, to Europe and then across west and central Asia possibly to east Asia, still at low altitudes and high mid-latitudes. (3) With global cooling from the mid-Cenozoic, magnolias shift their core range to lower mid-latitudes (30° -45° N), become extinct in Europe and southern Siberia, breaking the once continuous distribution into two. (4) In the late Cenozoic, as ice-house conditions develop, magnolias diversify rapidly and expand southward into moist warm temperate uplands in newly uplifted mountain ranges of South and Central America, southeast Asia and the High Archipelago between southeast Asia and Australia. The late Cenozoic evolution of magnolias is characterized by the impoverishment of northerly species and diversification of southerly species. Thus, the centre of origin is not the center of diversity today. Disjunction at the generic level likely occurred as part of the mid-Tertiary southward displacement of the

  2. Chemical characterization of Magnolia biondii (Flos Magnoliae, Xin Yi).

    PubMed

    Schühly, Wolfgang; Skarbina, Jeannette; Kunert, Olaf; Nandi, Owi I; Bauer, Rudolf

    2009-02-01

    Samples of Magnolia biondii buds (Xin Yi, Flos Magnoliae) from different sources were subjected to phytochemical analysis and compared to samples of M. denudata and M. liliiflora. Among the compounds found in the flower buds of M. biondii were eight tetrahydrofurofuran lignans as well as the sesquiterpene lactone parthenolide and the sesquiterpene alcohol oplodiol. A rapid TLC-method for the identification of plant material from M. biondii and its distinction from M. liliiflora was developed. Structure elucidation was carried out by means of NMR (1- and 2-D) and LC-MS.

  3. An evaluation of yellow-flowering magnolias and magnolia rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow-flowering magnolias were evaluated for flower color, bloom duration and growth rate in USDA Hardiness Zone 6b. Of the thirty selections evaluated, all were reported to have yellow blooms; however, tepal color ranged from light pink with some yellow coloration, to creamy yellow to dark yellow....

  4. Montessori for All: Magnolia Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The founders of Montessori For All, which opened Magnolia Montessori--a PK-8 public charter school in Austin, Texas--created a new school model that blends the best of authentic Montessori schooling (hands-on and self-directed learning) with best practices from high-performing charter schools (basic skills mastery to excel on standardized tests…

  5. Montessori for All: Magnolia Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EDUCAUSE, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The founders of Montessori For All, which opened Magnolia Montessori--a PK-8 public charter school in Austin, Texas--created a new school model that blends the best of authentic Montessori schooling (hands-on and self-directed learning) with best practices from high-performing charter schools (basic skills mastery to excel on standardized tests…

  6. 75 FR 29656 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY: Federal... Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR has made this action necessary to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rule...

  7. 75 FR 5904 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Magnolia, AR AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Magnolia, AR. Decommissioning of the Magnolia non-directional beacon (NDB) at Magnolia Municipal Airport, Magnolia, AR, has made this action necessary for the...

  8. Constituents of the leaves of Magnolia ovata.

    PubMed

    Barros, Letícia Ferrari L; Barison, Andersson; Salvador, Marcos José; de Mello-Silva, Renato; Cabral, Elaine C; Eberlin, Marcos N; Stefanello, Maria Elida A

    2009-08-01

    Two new lignans, magnovatins A (1) and B (2), along with nine known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia ovata. The known compounds were identified as acuminatin (3), licarin A (4), kadsurenin M, 4-O-demethylkadsurenin M, oleiferin A, oleiferin C, spathulenol, parthenolide, and 11,13-dehydrocompressanolide. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 yielded four new derivatives (1a, 1b, 2a, and 2b). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectrometric data evaluation. Free-radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities of the major compunds 1, 3, and 4 were investigated.

  9. The Magnolia Bioactive Constituent 4-O-Methylhonokiol Protects against High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity and Systemic Insulin Resistance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Jian; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Yang; Conklin, Daniel J.; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Kim, Young Heui; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental risks. Disruption in energy balance is one of these risk factors. In the present study, the preventive effect on high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice by Magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH) was compared with Magnolia officinalis extract BL153. C57BL/6J mice were fed by normal diet or by HFD with gavage-administered vehicle, BL153, low-dose MH, and high-dose MH simultaneously for 24 weeks, respectively. Either MH or BL153 slightly inhibited body-weight gain of mice by HFD feeding although the food intake had no obvious difference. Body fat mass and the epididymal white adipose tissue weight were also mildly decreased by MH or BL153. Moreover, MH significantly lowered HFD-induced plasma triglyceride, cholesterol levels and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), liver weight and hepatic triglyceride level, and ameliorated hepatic steatosis. BL153 only significantly reduced ALT and liver triglyceride level. Concurrently, low-dose MH improved HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the infiltration of mast cells in adipose tissue was decreased in MH or in BL153 treatment. These results suggested that Magnolia bioactive constituent MH might exhibit potential benefits for HFD-induced obesity by improvement of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. PMID:24991305

  10. The magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity and systemic insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Xin; Wang, Jian; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zheng, Yang; Conklin, Daniel J; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Kim, Young Heui; Cai, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is caused by a combination of both genetic and environmental risks. Disruption in energy balance is one of these risk factors. In the present study, the preventive effect on high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice by Magnolia bioactive constituent 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH) was compared with Magnolia officinalis extract BL153. C57BL/6J mice were fed by normal diet or by HFD with gavage-administered vehicle, BL153, low-dose MH, and high-dose MH simultaneously for 24 weeks, respectively. Either MH or BL153 slightly inhibited body-weight gain of mice by HFD feeding although the food intake had no obvious difference. Body fat mass and the epididymal white adipose tissue weight were also mildly decreased by MH or BL153. Moreover, MH significantly lowered HFD-induced plasma triglyceride, cholesterol levels and activity of alanine transaminase (ALT), liver weight and hepatic triglyceride level, and ameliorated hepatic steatosis. BL153 only significantly reduced ALT and liver triglyceride level. Concurrently, low-dose MH improved HFD-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. Furthermore, the infiltration of mast cells in adipose tissue was decreased in MH or in BL153 treatment. These results suggested that Magnolia bioactive constituent MH might exhibit potential benefits for HFD-induced obesity by improvement of lipid metabolism and insulin resistance.

  11. In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-08-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress.

  12. Antioxidative and Anticanceric Activities of Magnolia (Magnolia denudata) Flower Petal Extract Fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eom, Su Jin; Kim, Kee-Tae; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-07-03

    In this study, the effects of magnolia (Magnolia (M.) denudata) extract fermentation in increasing the extract's antioxidative and anticancer activities were investigated. Magnolia was fermented by Pediococcus acidilactici KCCM 11614. The total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu's method and the antioxidative effects by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. Anticancer activity against cancer and normal cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Total phenolic content during fermentation increased from 38.1 to 47.0 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of solid matter. The radical scavenging activity was 91.4% after 72 h fermentation. Fermented magnolia's antioxidative effect was threefold higher than that of the (non-fermented) control. Fermentation (48 h) increased anticanceric activity against AGS, LoVo, and MCF-7 cancer cells 1.29- to 1.36-fold compared with that of the control, but did not affect MRC-5 (normal) cells, suggesting that fermented magnolia could be used as a natural antioxidative and anticancer agent.

  13. Response of yellow flowering magnolia varieties to powdery mildew, 2015

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow flowering varieties of Magnolia spp. hybrids were planted in April 2008 in a field plot with Waynesboro loam soil at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. Severity of powdery mildew was determined on 14 Jul, 21 Aug and 15 Oct using a scale of 0-100% foliage affected. ...

  14. [Study of Magnolia grandiflora extracts in guinea pigs cardiac muscle].

    PubMed

    del Valle Mondragón, Leonardo; Tenorio López, Fermín Alejandro; Torres Narváez, Juan Carlos; Zarco Olvera, Gabriela; Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo

    2004-01-01

    Several extracts from diverse Magnolia grandiflora varieties were pharmacological evaluated in the cardiac muscle. From March to July, flowers and leaves from Magnolia grandiflora, native from the National Institute of Cardiology "Ignacio Chávez", from north, west, and orient zones from Mexico City, and from Puebla, Colima and Chiapas states were collected. They were separately processed and the extracts were obtained by maceration with ethanol-water (1:3 v/v) at 4 degrees C during two weeks. Qualitative analysis was accomplished with thin-layer, column and high-performance liquid chromatographies (HPLC). Functional and molecular analysis was made by specific chemical reactivity and by protonic magnetic resonance (RMN 1H). Pharmacological evaluation was completed in isolated and perfused male guinea pigs hearts. Extracts, fractions, and compounds were administrated by serial bolus in a gradual dose-response curves study in which left intraventricular pressure and coronary perfusion pressure were recorded, evaluating by such the positive inotropic and vasodilator effects of Magnolia grandiflora extracts. Vulgarenol and 2-p-hydroxyphenyl-2-hydroxy-ethylamine were isolated and identified, and the obtained results suggest that its positive inotropic and vasodilator effects are owed to these substances, being complemented by magnograndiolide and tyramine.

  15. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El... 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies, requested that the Commission grant a temporary waiver of...

  16. The Vallarta Botanical Garden's advancements in conserving the diversity of native Mexican oaks and magnolias

    Treesearch

    N.A. Gerlowski; M.A. Muñiz-Castro

    2017-01-01

    Mexico is both an oak (Quercus) biodiversity hotspot (over 160 described species) and the western hemisphere's leader in magnolia (Magnolia) diversity (36 described species). In the face of myriad threats to these groups, including climate change, habitat loss/fragmentation, overharvesting, and plant pests/pathogens, the...

  17. Essential oil and other constituents from Magnolia ovata fruit.

    PubMed

    Barros, Letícia F L; Ehrenfried, Carlos Augusto; Riva, Dilamara; Barison, Andersson; de Mello-Silva, Renato; Stefanello, Maria Elida A

    2012-10-01

    The volatile and non-volatile constituents of the unripe fruits of Magnolia ovata (A. St.-Hil.) Spreng. (Magnoliaceae) were studied. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the fruit of two plant populations (A and B) and analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The oil of sample A was rich in sesquiterpenes, mainly spathulenol (19.3%), while the oil of sample B showed a predominance of aliphatic compounds, mainly hexadecanoic acid (52.0%). Extracts of the dried fruit contained fourteen known compounds including nine lignoids (magnovatin A, magnovatin B, acuminatin, licarin A, oleiferin A, oleiferin C, kadsurenin M, 4-O-demethylkadsurenim M and 7-epi-virolin), two sesquiterpene lactones (parthenolide and michelenolide) and three alkaloids (lysicamine, lanuginosine and O-methylmoschatoline). Michelenolide, 7-epi-virolin and lisycamine are reported for the first time in the species, while the remaining compounds have already been reported in the leaves and/or trunk bark o f Magnolia ovata. Acetylation o f oleiferin A yielded a ne wcompound, acetyl oleiferin A, whose NMR data and that of michelenolide are furnished.

  18. Phenylethanoid glycosides in tepals of Magnolia salicifolia and their occurrence in flowers of Magnoliaceae.

    PubMed

    Porter, Elaine A; Kite, Geoffrey C; Veitch, Nigel C; Geoghegan, Ivey A; Larsson, Sonny; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2015-09-01

    Phenylethanoid glycosides were among the major UV-absorbing components in 80% aq. CH3OH extracts of the tepals of Magnolia salicifolia (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. (Magnoliaceae; Magnolia subgenus Yulania). Structural characterisation of isolated compounds by spectroscopic and chemical methods revealed three previously unrecorded examples, yulanoside A, yulanoside B and 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, and the known compounds echinacoside and crassifolioside; chromatographic methods also identified verbascoside in the tepal extract. Yulanoside A is the first reported example of a phenylethanoid pentaglycoside, namely hydroxytyrosol 1-O-{β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[3,4-dihydroxycinnamoyl-(→4)][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)][α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranoside}. A survey of Magnolia sensu lato and Liriodendron (the two genera of Magnoliaceae) suggested that yulanoside A and its deglucosyl derivative (yulanoside B) were a feature of the tepal chemistry of Magnolia subgenus Yulania (except Magnolia acuminata, the sole member of section Tulipastrum, which did not accumulate phenylethanoid glycosides). The two species of Liriodendron and examined examples of Magnolia subgenus Magnolia sections Magnolia and Rytidospermum (subsection Oyama) also accumulated phenylethanoid glycosides in their tepals and in these species, and in subgenus Yulania, the major compounds were one or more of echinacoside, 2'-rhamnoechinacoside, crassifolioside and verbascoside. Levels of phenylethanoid glycosides were found to be much lower in species studied from Magnolia sections Gwillimia, Macrophylla and Rytidospermum (subsection Rytidospermum), although yulanoside A was detectable in M. macrophylla and this may have some bearing on the placement of section Macrophylla, which is currently uncertain. In the isolates of yulanoside B and echinacoside, minor phenylethanoid glycosides were determined to be analogues of these compounds with β-D-xylose at C-3' of the

  19. Anticonvulsant effects of Magnolia grandiflora L. in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bastidas Ramírez, B E; Navarro Ruíz, N; Quezada Arellano, J D; Ruíz Madrigal, B; Villanueva Michel, M T; Garzón, P

    1998-06-01

    The ethyl ether (EE) and hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae) seeds, a popular plant utilized in the Mexican traditional medicine because of its antispasmodic as well as other reported pharmacological effects, were studied in adult male Wistar rats. EE and HE orally administered in a single dose of 250 mg/kg (calculated on lipidic base) and 200 mg/kg, exhibited abolition of the extensor reflex of maximal electric induced-seizure test in 50 and 40% of the experimental animals, respectively. They significantly prolonged the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital and only the ethanol extract induced hypothermia. No neurological deficit was exhibited by either extract according to the gait, stance and righting test. Although ulterior toxicological and pharmacological insight is necessary, these results suggest that the chemical constituents of this plant could have utility in the control of epileptic patients presenting convulsive seizures.

  20. MFE/Magnolia - A joint CNES/NASA mission for the earth magnetic field investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runavot, Josette; Ousley, Gilbert W.

    1988-01-01

    The joint phase B study in the CNES/NASA MFE/Magnolia mission to study the earth's magnetic field are reported. The scientific objectives are summarized and the respective responsibilities of NASA and CNES are outlined. The MFE/Magnolia structure and power systems, mass and power budgets, attitude control system, instrument platform and boom, tape recorders, rf system, propellant system, and scientific instruments are described.

  1. Antioxidant activity of supercritical extract of Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis and Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora.

    PubMed

    Marongiu, Bruno; Porcedda, Silvia; Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Deiana, Monica; Dessì, Maria Assunta

    2004-10-01

    The antioxidant activity of Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis and of Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora extracts, obtained by using carbon dioxide under supercritical conditions was investigated. The samples were prepared in two steps. A preliminary extraction at 90 bar and 50 degrees C eliminated the essential oil, then a further extraction at 300 bar and 50 degrees C obtained the high molecular mass extract. These samples were tested for autoxidation and the iron or EDTA-mediated oxidation of linoleic acid at 37 degrees C in the absence of solvent, in in vitro systems. During linoleic acid autoxidation and its EDTA-mediated oxidation both M. officinalis and M. inodora extracts showed an antioxidant activity, and no significant differences in their efficacy were observed. None showed any prooxidant activity. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. [Similarity between leaves of Nauclea officinalis and stems of Nauclea officinalis].

    PubMed

    Lian, Yuan-pei; Xie, Da-wen; Yuan, Shao-wei; Li, Yan-jing; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wen-zhe; Xiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    The study is to develop a method to determine 3 batches leaves of Nauclea officinalis and stems of N. officinalis by HPLC. The differences between strictosamide contents and fingerprints was compared, then chromatographic peak of fingerprints was validated with the assistance of LC-MS. The strictosamide contents in stems of N. officinalis were higher than leaves of N. officinalis. The main chemical composition in leaves of N. officinalis and stems of N. officinalis were alkaloid which revealed by LC-MS. There are 7 chemical compositions were same between them, but the chemical composition in leaves of N. officinalis is more than stems of N. officinalis. This provides a scientific basis for the development of the potential medicinal value of leaves of N. officinalis and the sustainable utilization of N. officinalis.

  3. Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood.

  4. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed.

  5. Cloning of the transketolase gene from erythritol-producing yeast Candida magnoliae.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Boung-Hyuk; Park, Eun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2014-10-01

    The entire nucleotide sequence of the TKL1 gene encoding transketolase (TKL) in an erythritolproducing yeast of Candida magnoliae was determined by degenerate polymerase chain reaction and genome walking. Sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of C. magnoliae TKL1 (CmTKL1) that spans 2,088 bp and encodes 696 amino acids, sharing 61.7% amino acid identity to Kluyveromyces lactis TKL. Functional analysis showed that CmTKL1 complemented a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tkl1 tkl2 double mutant for growth in the absence of aromatic amino acids and restored transketolase activity in this mutant. An enzyme activity assay and RT-PCR revealed that the expression of CmTKL1 is induced by fructose, H2O2, and KCl. The GenBank accession number for C. magnoliae TKL1 is KF751756.

  6. Extracts of Magnolia Species-Induced Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xuezhong; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Wanqing; Gao, Ling; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Cai, Lu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney. PMID:27669240

  7. Extracts of Magnolia Species-Induced Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuezhong; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Wanqing; Gao, Ling; Kim, Ki Soo; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Cai, Lu; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zheng, Yang

    2016-09-24

    Diabetic complications are the major cause of mortality for the patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been recognized as important contributors for the development of many diabetic complications, such as diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, cardiomyopathy, and other cardiovascular diseases. Several studies have established the anti-inflammatory and oxidative roles of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark, which has been widely used in the traditional herbal medicines in Chinese society. These findings have attracted various scientists to investigate the effect of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark on diabetic complications. The aim of this review is to present a systematic overview of bioactive constituents in Magnolia bark that induce the prevention of obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and diabetic complications, including cardiovascular, liver, and kidney.

  8. Lignans from the flower buds of Magnolia liliflora Desr.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Shu; Lan, Xiao-Cong; Wu, Hai-Bo; Zhong, Yao-Zhao; Li, Jing; Liu, Ying; Shao, Cong-Cong

    2012-01-01

    Six new lignans, 1- 6, along with six known compounds were obtained from the flower buds of Magnolia liliflora Desr. The new lignans were elucidated as (1 S*,2 R*,5 S*,6 S*)-2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (1), (1 R*,2 R*,5 R*,6 S*)-2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-6-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (2), (1 R*, 2 R*,5 R*,6 S*)-2,6-bis (3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane (3), (1 R*,2 S*,5 R*,6 R*)-2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-6-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane ( 4), (7' S*,8 R*,8' R*)-3,5'-dimethoxy-3',4,9'-trihydroxy-7',9-epoxy-8,8'-lignan (5), and (7' R*,8' S*)-3,3',4,5'-tetramethoxy-7-en-7',9-epoxy-8,8'-lignan (6), by the analysis of 1D and 2D-NMR as well as HRESIMS data. The capacity of compound 1 to protect against damages to the DNA of rat lymphocyte cells induced by UV irradiation was assessed by the comet assay. It showed stronger antigenotoxicity than ascorbic acid from 6×10(-3) mmol·L(-1) to 6×10(-6) mmol·L(-1). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Inhibitory Effect of a Hot-Water Extract of Leaves of Japanese Big-Leaf Magnolia (Magnolia obovata) on Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Mouse Pups

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takeshi; Tomono, Takuma; Hamauzu, Yasunori; Tanaka, Katsumi; Yasui, Hisako

    2014-01-01

    The leaf of Japanese big-leaf magnolia (Magnolia obovata Thunb.) has long been used as a natural packaging material for traditional foods in Japan. However, many of the physiological functions of the leaves against oral infection and resultant illness remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a hot-water extract of the leaves of Magnolia obovata on diarrhea induced by rotavirus (RV), a major cause of acute diarrhea. RV strain SA11 was mixed with the M. obovata leaf extract and inoculated orally to neonatal BALB/c mouse pups. Simultaneous inoculation of SA11 with the extract significantly decreased the incidence of diarrhea. In addition, the extract significantly inhibited cytopathic effects and mRNA expression of viral proteins in SA11-infected MA104 cells. Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin and rutin, were strongly suggested to be major anti-RV agents in the extract by serial solvent extraction and reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Our results suggest that the hot-water extract of M. obovata leaves can be used as a medicine or food additive to prevent and ameliorate RV-induced diarrhea in individuals that may have difficulty in benefitting from the RV vaccines. PMID:25580150

  10. 78 FR 56170 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; denial of application for review. SUMMARY: In this...

  11. 75 FR 11936 - Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Unit Structures LLC, Magnolia, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, an investigation was initiated in...

  12. Proteomic analysis of Magnolia sieboldii K. Koch seed germination.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Lin; Mei, Mei; Liu, Guang-Lin; Ma, Bei-Bei

    2016-02-05

    Magnolia sieboldii is a deciduous tree native to China. This species has a deep dormancy characteristic. To better understand seed germination, we used protein analysis of changes in seed protein at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification. Comparative 2DE analysis of M. sieboldii seed protein profiles at 0, 65, 110 and 150 d of stratification revealed 80 differentially abundance protein species. Comparative analysis showed that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit was degraded during germination. In particular, it was degraded almost completely at 110 d of germination. Starch granules in the microstructure decreased after 65 d of stratification. Starch granules provided a sufficient amount of substrates and ATPs for subsequent germination. Four storage protein species were identified, of which all were down accumulated. Spots 44 and 46 had different MW and pI values, spots 36 and 46 had nearly the same MW with pI shift in the 2-DE gels, suggesting that they might be present as different isoforms of the same protein family and the post translational modification. Our results suggested that degradation of starch granules and storage protein species prepared the seed embryo for growth, as well as regulated seed germination. The present proteomics analysis provides novel insights into the mobilisation of nutrient reserves during the germination of M. sieboldii seeds. To better understand seed germination, a complex developmental process, we developed a proteome analysis of M. sieboldii seed. We performed the first comprehensive proteomic and microstructure analysis during different seed stratification stages of M. sieboldii. Among the 80 protein species, 26 were identified, 7 and 14 protein species were up or down accumulated significantly. Many of the identified key proteins were involved in embryo development, starch biosynthesis and energy metabolism, Microstructure of stratification seed analysis revealed degradation of starch was used for preparing the seed

  13. Paenibacillus kyungheensis sp. nov., isolated from flowers of magnolia.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Zubair; Siddiqi, Muhammad Hanif; Im, Wan Taek; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-11-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium designated strain DCY88T, was isolated from flowers of magnolia. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison revealed that the strain formed a distinct lineage within the genus Paenibacillus that was closely related to Paenibacillus hordei RH-N24T (97.8 %). The other most closely related species were Paenibacillus illinoisensis NRRL NRS-1356T (94.3 %), Paenibacillus hunanensis DSM 22170T (94.2 %), Paenibacillus peoriae DSM 8320T (93.9 %), Paenibacillus kribbensis Am49T (93.8 %) and the type species of the genus, Paenibacillus polymyxa ATCC 842T (93.3 %). Cells of the strain were endospore-forming and motile by peritrichous flagella. Strain DCY88T formed pink-pigmented colonies on trypticase soy agar and R2A agar medium. Growth of strain DCY88T occurs at temperatures 5-37 °C, at pH 4-9 and 0.5-5.5 % NaCl (w/v). The menaquinone was MK-7.The cell wall peptidoglycan of strain DCY88T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (61.0 %) and C16 : 0 (11.0 %). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified polar lipid. The strain DCY88T contained spermidine as the major polyamine. The DNA G+C content was 51.6 mol%. The DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness between strain DCY88T and P. hordei RH-N24T was 48 ± 2 %. The phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic results indicate that the strain DCY88T represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus kyungheensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DCY88T ( = JCM 19886T = KCTC 33429T).

  14. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  15. Erythritol production with minimum by-product using Candida magnoliae mutant.

    PubMed

    Ghezelbash, G R; Nahvi, I; Malekpour, A

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance erythritol production, mutants of Candida magnoliae DSM70638 were generated by ultraviolet and chemical mutagenesis. Erythritol productivity of samples was analyzed by TLC and HPLC with the refractive index detector. One of the mutants named mutant 12-2 gave a 2.4-fold increase in erythritol (20.32 g/L) and a 5.5-fold decrease in glycerol production compared to the wild strain. A sequence-based map of erythrose reductase gene in this mutant showed a replacement of the A321 by G321 that did not cause any amino acid exchange in protein structure. Therefore, the reason of higher erythritol production in C. magnoliae mutant 12-2 is probably the increase in expression of the open reading frame gene. This study revealed that a mutation or minor change in the sequence of genes involved in a production pathway can lead to a significant increase in protein translation.

  16. Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of Magnolia dealbata and its active compounds.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Gonzalez-Espindola, Luis Angel; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Gonzalez-Martinez, Marisela del Rocio; Domínguez, Fabiola; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Multi-drug resistance is of great concern for public health worldwide and necessitates the search for new antimicrobials from sources such as plants. Several Magnolia (Magnoliaceae) species have been reported to exert antimicrobial effects on sensitive and multidrug-resistant microorganisms. However, the antimicrobial properties of Magnolia dealbata have not been experimentally evaluated. The antimicrobial effects of an ethanol extract of Magnolia dealbata seeds (MDE) and its active compounds honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were tested against the phytopathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and several human multi-drug resistant pathogens using the disk-diffusion assay. The effects of MDE and its active compounds on the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were evaluated using MTT assay. MDE and its active compounds had antimicrobial activity (inhibition zone > 10 mm) against C. michiganensis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Trichosporon belgeii. The results suggest that M. dealbata and its active compounds have selective antimicrobial effects against drug-resistant fungal and Gram (-) bacteria and exert minimal toxic effects on human PMBC.

  17. [HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower].

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya

    2014-07-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.

  18. Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979 along the Gulf Coast, Magnolia Springs quadrangle, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, John C.; Bohman, Larry R.

    1980-01-01

    Shown on the Magnolia Springs topographic map are floodmark elevations and approximate areas flooded by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along Weeks Bay and the northern shore of Bon Secour Bay, along the Fish River to Marlow and along the Magnolia River to Magnolia Springs, Alabama. Many homes and buildings that were constructed at or near the ground level were damaged by floodwater and tidal waves. Many fishing piers along the shores of Mobile Bay and Weeks Bay were damaged. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Ala., since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Ala. (USGS)

  19. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition from flower and leaf of Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Fei; Ren, Fan; Liu, Xiong-Min; Lai, Fang; Ma, Li

    2016-07-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. were obtained using hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC-MS. A total of 31, 27 and 26 constituents were identified in the oils from male flower, female flower and leaf of M. kwangsiensis, and they comprised 99.2, 98.5 and 96.2% of the oils, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons predominated in the oils and accounted for 48.3% of male flower oil, 54.0% of female flower oil and 44.6% of leaf oil. The compositions of flower oils were quite similar but with different content, and were different from those of leaf oil.

  20. Investigation of protein expression profiles of erythritol-producing Candida magnoliae in response to glucose perturbation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Hyeong-Rho; Kim, Chang Sup; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2013-08-15

    Protein expression patterns of an erythritol-producing yeast, Candida magnoliae, were analyzed to identify differentially expressed proteins in response to glucose perturbation. Specifically, wild type C. magnoliae was grown under high and low glucose conditions and the cells were harvested at both mid-exponential and erythritol production phases for proteomic studies. In order to analyze intracellular protein abundances from the harvested cells quantitatively, total intracellular proteins were extracted and applied to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation and visualization of individual proteins. Among the proteins distributed in the range of pI 4-7 and molecular weight 29-97kDa, five osmo-responsive proteins were drastically changed in response to glucose perturbation. Hsp60 (Heat-shock protein 60), transaldolase and NADH:quinone oxidoreductase were down-regulated under the high glucose condition and Bro1 (BCK1-like Resistance to Osmotic shock) and Eno1 (enolase1) were up-regulated. These proteins are directly or indirectly related with cellular stress response. Importantly, protein expression patterns of Hsp60, Bro1 and Eno1 were strongly correlated with previous studies identifying the proteins perturbed by osmotic stress for other organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products. PMID:22672352

  2. [Comparison of total phenol of magnolia solid dispersion prepared by different methods].

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Di, Liu-qing; Li, Jun-song; Kang, An; Qian, Jing; Wang, Deng-jie

    2015-11-01

    To compare the difference of total phenol of magnolia solid dispersion prepared by different methods. Hot melt extrusion, solvent evaporation method, and fusion-cooling method were used to prepare total phenol of Magnolia accessory solid dispersion, Plastone S-630 and HPC. The drug dispersion state in the prepared solid dispersion was evaluated with DSC and X-ray diffraction; FT-IR method was used to analyze the possible connections between drug and accessories. Finally, accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test was use to compare the stability differences between these three processes. The results of DSC and X-ray diffraction showed that all of the drug in solid dispersion processed by three processes can exist in amorphous form; FT-IR results also could not distinguish the difference between the three processes; accelerated stability-in vivo dissolution test showed the stability of solid dispersion prepared by HPC was better than Plastone S-630, and the same kinds of materials solid dispersion prepared by hot melt extrusion showed a better stability than the other two processes.

  3. Role of osmotic and salt stress in the expression of erythrose reductase in Candida magnoliae.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Hee; Lee, Ha-Yeon; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Seo, Jin-Ho; Kim, Myoung-Dong

    2011-10-01

    The osmotolerant yeast, Candida magnoliae, which was isolated from honeycomb, produces erythritol from sugars such as fructose, glucose, and sucrose. Erythrose reductase in C. magnoliae (CmER) reduces erythrose to erythritol with concomitant oxidation of NAD(P)H. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the CmER gene indicated that one putative stress response element (STRE, 5'-AGGGG- 3'), found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, exists 72 nucleotides upstream of the translation initiation codon. An enzyme activity assay and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of CmER is upregulated under osmotic and salt stress conditions caused by a high concentration of sugar, KCl, and NaCl. However, CmER was not affected by osmotic and oxidative stress induced by sorbitol and H(2)O(2), respectively. The basal transcript level of CmER in the presence of sucrose was higher than that in cells treated with fructose and glucose, indicating that the response of CmER to sugar stress is different from that of GRE3 in S. cerevisiae, which expresses aldose reductase in a sugar-independent manner. It was concluded that regulation of CmER differs from that of other aldose reductases in S. cerevisiae.

  4. Species diversity, structure and dynamics of two populations of an endangered species, Magnolia dealbata (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Pineda-López, María del Rosario

    2006-09-01

    Little is known about the ecology and demography of the genus Magnolia. Magnolia dealbata Zucc. is an endangered species endemic to Mexico. Two contrasting populations of M. dealbata (one from the grasslands and other from a secondary cloud forest) were studied. We asked the following questions: (a) Are size structure (diameter at breast height, DBH) and infrutescence production significantly different between the two populations? (b) What are the populations' growth rates (lambda) based on an initial 1987 study? (c) Are the associated species diversity indices of these M. dealbata populations significantly different? The results show no significant differences between the population size structure (p=.094); the growth rates of the populations were 0.992 in grassland and 1.053 in secondary cloud forest. The number of infrutescences produced in year 2001 and DBH relationship were significantly linear (p<.001) in both populations, and there was no significant difference (p>.01) between their slopes. The diversity indices were not significantly different (p>.05), and only 54% of the species were common to both sites. Our study suggests that both populations are relatively stable and that the management history could impact more on the species composition than on the diversity indices.

  5. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... scoping. The main goal of the scoping process is to focus the analysis in the EIS on the important... stakeholders. The EIS will present our independent analysis of the issues. We will publish and distribute the... by Magnolia. This preliminary list of issues may change based on your comments and our...

  6. Role of root hydrophobic barriers in salt exclusion of a mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Qin, Lin; He, Jie; Lin, Qingsong; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash P

    2014-07-01

    Salt exclusion at the roots and salt secretion in the leaves were examined in a mangrove, Avicennia officinalis. The non-secretor mangrove Bruguiera cylindrica was used for comparative study of hydrophobic barrier formation in the roots. Bypass flow was reduced when seedlings were previously treated with high salt concentration. A biseriate exodermis was detected in the salt-treated roots, along with an enhanced deposition of hydrophobic barriers in the endodermis. These barriers reduced Na(+) loading into the xylem, accounting for a 90-95% salt exclusion in A. officinalis. Prominent barriers were found in the roots of B. cylindrica even in the absence of salt treatment. A cytochrome P450 gene that may regulate suberin biosynthesis was up-regulated within hours of salt treatment in A. officinalis roots and leaves, corresponding with increased suberin deposition. X-ray microanalysis showed preferential deposition of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the root cortex compared with the stele, suggesting that the endodermis is the primary site of salt exclusion. Enhanced salt secretion and increased suberin deposition surrounding the salt glands were seen in the leaves with salt treatment. Overall, these data show that the deposition of apoplastic barriers increases resistance to bypass flow leading to efficient salt exclusion at the roots in mangroves. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Self-perceived mouthfeel and physico-chemical surface effects after chewing gums containing sorbitol and Magnolia bark extract.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Slomp, Anje M; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Dodds, Michael W J; Busscher, Henk J

    2017-10-01

    The European Food Safety Authority recognizes the contribution of sugar-free chewing gum to oral health through increased salivation, clearance of food debris, and neutralization of biofilm pH. Magnolia bark extract is a gum additive shown to reduce the prevalence of bad-breath bacteria but its effects on self-perceived mouthfeel are unknown. This paper aims to relate the effects of sorbitol-containing chewing gum, with and without Magnolia bark extract, on tooth-surface hydrophobicity and salivary-film composition with self-perceived mouthfeel. In a crossover clinical trial, volunteers chewed sorbitol-containing gum, with or without Magnolia bark extract added, three times daily during a 4-wk time period. A subset of volunteers also chewed Parafilm as a mastication control. Oral moistness and tooth smoothness were assessed using questionnaires, and intra-oral water-contact angles were measured before, immediately after, and 60 min after, chewing. Simultaneously, saliva samples were collected, placed on glass slides, and the compositions of the adsorbed film were measured using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chewing of gum, regardless of whether or not it contained Magnolia bark extract, improved self-perceived mouthfeel up to 60 min, concurrent with a more hydrophilic tooth surface and an increased amount of O1s electrons bound at 532.6 eV in salivary films. Chewing of Parafilm affected neither tooth-surface hydrophobicity nor salivary-film composition. Accordingly, adsorption of sorbitol, rather than the presence of Magnolia bark extract or increased salivation, is responsible for improved self-perceived mouthfeel. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

    2012-01-04

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn

  9. Insecticidal activity of raw ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata Zucc on a tephritid pest.

    PubMed

    Flores-Estévez, Norma; Vasquez-Morales, Suria G; Cano-Medina, Tomás; Sánchez-Velásquez, Lázaro R; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from Magnolia dealbata (Zucc.) (Magnoliaceae); leaves, bark, seeds, sarcotesta and flowers were evaluated for insecticidal activity against adults of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Using feeding bioassays composed from sugar-extract mixtures, only the extract from sarcotesta indicated insecticidal activity against the flies. The extracts from the other four plant tissues (leaves, bark, seeds and flowers) did not manifest any biological activity. The most effective extract was obtained from oven-dried sarcotesta, whereas extracts from fresh sarcotesta were inactive. Our results suggest that M. dealbata sarcotesta contains secondary metabolites with insecticidal activity against A. ludens adults. These metabolites are as potent as natural pyrethins and represent a potential substance for controlling this type of pest.

  10. The effect of a dentifrice containing Magnolia extract on established plaque and gingivitis in man: a six-month clinical study.

    PubMed

    Hellström, M-K; Ramberg, P

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate the clinical effect of a dentifrice containing 0.3% Magnolia extract on dental plaque and gingivitis. The trial was a 6-month double-blind, stratified, randomized and 2-armed parallel group study. Forty-six subjects in the test group brushed their teeth with a dentifrice containing 0.3% Magnolia extract and 48 subjects in the control group brushed with a placebo dentifrice. Plaque and gingivitis were assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months. There was a significantly larger gingivitis reduction in the Magnolia group than in the control group (0.26 ± 0.11 versus 0.11 ± 0.12) (P < 0.001). There was a greater increase in the total number of healthy gingival units Gingival Index (GI score 0) in the Magnolia group than in the control group (149% versus 31%) and a larger reduction in inflamed gingival units (GI score 2/3) (60% versus 30%). Furthermore, at sites with similar amounts of plaque, less clinical signs of gingival inflammation were observed in the Magnolia group than in the control group. Six months' unsupervised use of a dentifrice containing 0.3% Magnolia extract resulted in significantly greater gingivitis reduction than a corresponding control dentifrice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines.

  12. Honokiol, a Lignan Biphenol Derived from the Magnolia Tree, Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Infection.

    PubMed

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Chen, Siang-Jyun; Wu, Huey-Nan; Ping, Yueh-Hsin; Lin, Ching-Yen; Shiuan, David; Chen, Chi-Long; Lee, Ying-Ray; Huang, Kao-Jean

    2015-09-10

    Dengue is the most widespread arbovirus infection and poses a serious health and economic issue in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently no licensed vaccine or compounds can be used to prevent or manage the severity of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Honokiol, a lignan biphenol derived from the Magnolia tree, is commonly used in Eastern medicine. Here we report that honokiol has profound antiviral activity against serotype 2 DENV (DENV-2). In addition to inhibiting the intracellular DENV-2 replicon, honokiol was shown to suppress the replication of DENV-2 in baby hamster kidney (BHK) and human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells. At the maximum non-toxic dose of honokiol treatment, the production of infectious DENV particles was reduced >90% in BHK and Huh7 cells. The underlying mechanisms revealed that the expression of DENV-2 nonstructural protein NS1/NS3 and its replicating intermediate, double-strand RNA, was dramatically reduced by honokiol treatment. Honokiol has no effect on the expression of DENV putative receptors, but may interfere with the endocytosis of DENV-2 by abrogating the co-localization of DENV envelope glycoprotein and the early endosomes. These results indicate that honokiol inhibits the replication, viral gene expression, and endocytotic process of DENV-2, making it a promising agent for chemotherapy of DENV infection.

  13. Thermogenesis, flowering and the association with variation in floral odour attractants in Magnolia sprengeri (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruohan; Xu, Sai; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yiyuan; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. is an ornamentally and ecologically important tree that blooms at cold temperatures in early spring. In this study, thermogenesis and variation in the chemical compounds of floral odours and insect visitation in relation to flowering cycles were studied to increase our understanding of the role of floral thermogenesis in the pollination biology of M. sprengeri. There were five distinct floral stages across the floral cycle of this species: pre-pistillate, pistillate, pre-staminate, staminate and post-staminate. Floral thermogenesis during anthesis and consisted of two distinct peaks: one at the pistillate stage and the other at the staminate stage. Insects of five families visited M. sprengeri during the floral cycle, and sap beetles (Epuraea sp., Nitidulidae) were determined to be the most effective pollinators, whereas bees (Apis cerana, Apidae) were considered to be occasional pollinators. A strong fragrance was released during thermogenesis, consisting of 18 chemical compounds. Although the relative proportions of these compounds varied at different floral stages across anthesis, linalool, 1-iodo-2-methylundecane and 2,2,6-trimethyl-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-ol were dominant. Importantly, we found that the floral blends released during the pistillate and staminate stages were very similar, and coincided with flower visitation by sap beetles and the two thermogenic episodes. Based on these results, we propose that odour acts as a signal for a reward (pollen) and that an odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers occurs during the pistillate stage.

  14. Furfural and glucose can enhance conversion of xylose to xylitol by Candida magnoliae TISTR 5663.

    PubMed

    Wannawilai, Siwaporn; Lee, Wen-Chien; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2017-01-10

    Xylitol production from xylose by the yeast Candida magnoliae TISTR 5663 was enhanced by supplementing the fermentation medium with furfural (300mg/L) and glucose (3g/L with an initial mass ratio of glucose to xylose of 1:10) together under oxygen limiting conditions. In the presence of furfural and glucose, the final concentration of xylitol was unaffected relative to control cultures but the xylitol yield on xylose increased by about 5%. Supplementation of the culture medium with glucose alone at an initial concentration of 3g/L, stimulated the volumetric and specific rates of xylose consumption and the rate of xylitol production from xylose. In a culture medium containing 30g/L xylose, 300mg/L furfural and 3g/L glucose, the volumetric production rate of xylitol was 1.04g/L h and the specific production rate was 0.169g/g h. In the absence of furfural and glucose, the volumetric production rate of xylitol was ∼35% lower and the specific production rate was nearly 30% lower. In view of these results, xylose-containing lignocellulosic hydrolysates contaminated with furfural can be effectively used for producing xylitol by fermentation so long as the glucose-to-xylose mass ratio in the hydrolysate does not exceed 1:10 and the furfural concentration is ≤300mg/L.

  15. Honokiol, an Active Compound of Magnolia Plant, Inhibits Growth, and Progression of Cancers of Different Organs.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ram; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    Honokiol (C18H18O2) is a biphenolic natural product isolated from the bark and leaves of Magnolia plant spp. During the last decade or more, honokiol has been extensively studied for its beneficial effect against several diseases. Investigations have demonstrated that honokiol possesses anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic as well as inhibitory effect on malignant transformation of papillomas to carcinomas in vitro and in vivo animal models without any appreciable toxicity. Honokiol affects multiple signaling pathways, molecular and cellular targets including nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), STAT3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cell survival signaling, cell cycle, cyclooxygenase and other inflammatory mediators, etc. Its chemopreventive and/or therapeutic effects have been tested against chronic diseases, such as cancers of different organs. In this chapter, we describe and discuss briefly the effect of honokiol against cancers of different organs, such as melanoma, non-melanoma, lung, prostate, breast, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, urinary bladder cancer, gastric cancer, and neuroblastoma, etc. and describe its mechanism of action including various molecular and cellular targets. Although more rigorous in vivo studies are still needed, however it is expected that therapeutic effects and activities of honokiol may help in the development and designing of clinical trials against chronic diseases in human subjects.

  16. Production of honokiol and magnolol in suspension cultures of Magnolia dealbata Zucc.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chivez, Marco; Garduñ-Ramírez, Maria Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martin; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2009-07-01

    Honokiol and magnolol, important anxiolytic and anti-cancer agents, have been produced in cell-suspension cultures of the endangered Mexican plant Magnolia dealbata Zucc. In vitro cultures of the plant were established, and the accumulation of honokiol and magnolol in callus and cell-suspension cultures was measured. Leaf samples were the best explants for callus establishment and metabolite production, and Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 1 mg/L kinetin yielded 2.3 mg/g of honokiol and 5.9 mg/g of magnolol. Bacterial and fungal contamination was inhibited with a multiple-step tissue sterilization procedure. Oxidation was inhibited with 1 g/L activated charcoal. Cell-suspension batch cultures derived from friable callus obtained from leaves of this species were grown for 30 days in shaker flasks containing Murashige and Skoog medium. Throughout the growth cycle, honokiol and magnolol levels, fresh and dry weight, and sucrose uptake were determined. The effects of carbon source concentration on biomass accumulation and the synthesis of bioactive compounds were studied. By using 3 mL of inocula supplemented with 3% (w/v) sucrose, maximum yields of honokiol (8.1 mg/g) and magnolol (13.4 mg/g) were obtained after 25 days. These yields were 300% and 382%, respectively, of the yields of honokiol and magnolol obtained from field-grown plants.

  17. Two-stage fermentation process for enhanced mannitol production using Candida magnoliae mutant R9.

    PubMed

    Savergave, Laxman S; Gadre, Ramchandra V; Vaidya, Bhalchandra K; Jogdand, Vitthal V

    2013-02-01

    Mutants of Candida magnoliae NCIM 3470 were generated by treatment of ultra-violet radiations, ethyl methyl sulphonate and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutants with higher reductase activity were screened by means of 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride agar plate assay. Among the screened mutants, the mutant R9 produced maximum mannitol (i.e. 46 g l(-1)) in liquid fermentation medium containing 250 g l(-1) glucose and hence was selected for further experiments. Preliminary optimization studies were carried out on shake-flask level which increased the mannitol production to 60 g l(-1) in liquid fermentation medium containing 300 g l(-1) glucose. A two-stage fermentation process comprising of growth phase and production phase was employed. During the growth phase, glucose was supplemented and aerobic conditions were maintained. Thereafter, the production phase was initiated by supplementing fructose and switching to anaerobic conditions by discontinuing aeration and decreasing the speed of agitation. The strategy of two-stage fermentation significantly enhanced the production of mannitol up to 240 g l(-1), which is the highest among all fermentative production processes and corresponds to 81 % yield and 4 g l(-1 )h(-1) productivity without formation of any by-product.

  18. Honokiol, a Lignan Biphenol Derived from the Magnolia Tree, Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Chih-Yeu; Chen, Siang-Jyun; Wu, Huey-Nan; Ping, Yueh-Hsin; Lin, Ching-Yen; Shiuan, David; Chen, Chi-Long; Lee, Ying-Ray; Huang, Kao-Jean

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is the most widespread arbovirus infection and poses a serious health and economic issue in tropical and subtropical countries. Currently no licensed vaccine or compounds can be used to prevent or manage the severity of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Honokiol, a lignan biphenol derived from the Magnolia tree, is commonly used in Eastern medicine. Here we report that honokiol has profound antiviral activity against serotype 2 DENV (DENV-2). In addition to inhibiting the intracellular DENV-2 replicon, honokiol was shown to suppress the replication of DENV-2 in baby hamster kidney (BHK) and human hepatocarcinoma Huh7 cells. At the maximum non-toxic dose of honokiol treatment, the production of infectious DENV particles was reduced >90% in BHK and Huh7 cells. The underlying mechanisms revealed that the expression of DENV-2 nonstructural protein NS1/NS3 and its replicating intermediate, double-strand RNA, was dramatically reduced by honokiol treatment. Honokiol has no effect on the expression of DENV putative receptors, but may interfere with the endocytosis of DENV-2 by abrogating the co-localization of DENV envelope glycoprotein and the early endosomes. These results indicate that honokiol inhibits the replication, viral gene expression, and endocytotic process of DENV-2, making it a promising agent for chemotherapy of DENV infection. PMID:26378567

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analyses of an anthocyanin synthase gene from Magnolia sprengeri Pamp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shou-Guo; Li, Shan-Ju; Kang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin synthase (ANS), which catalyzes the conversion of colorless leucoanthocyanins into colored anthocyanins, is a key enzyme in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. It plays important roles in plant development and defense. An ANS gene designated as MsANS was cloned from Magnolia sprengeri using rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends technology. The full-length MsANS is 1171-bp long and contains a 1080-bp open reading frame encoding a 360 amino acid polypeptide. In a sequence alignment analysis, the deduced MsANS protein showed high identity to ANS proteins from other plants: Prunus salicina var. cordata (74 % identity), Ampelopsis grossedentata (74 % identity), Pyrus communis (73 % identity), and Prunus avium (73 % identity). A structural analysis showed that MsANS belongs to 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)- and ferrous iron-dependent oxygenase family because it contains three binding sites for 2OG. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the transcript level of MsANS was 26-fold higher in red petals than in white petals. The accumulation of anthocyanins in petals of white, pink, and red M. sprengeri flowers was analyzed by HPLC. The main anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-o-glucoside chloride, and the red petals contained the highest concentration of this pigment.

  20. Thermogenesis, Flowering and the Association with Variation in Floral Odour Attractants in Magnolia sprengeri (Magnoliaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruohan; Xu, Sai; Liu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yiyuan; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. is an ornamentally and ecologically important tree that blooms at cold temperatures in early spring. In this study, thermogenesis and variation in the chemical compounds of floral odours and insect visitation in relation to flowering cycles were studied to increase our understanding of the role of floral thermogenesis in the pollination biology of M. sprengeri. There were five distinct floral stages across the floral cycle of this species: pre-pistillate, pistillate, pre-staminate, staminate and post-staminate. Floral thermogenesis during anthesis and consisted of two distinct peaks: one at the pistillate stage and the other at the staminate stage. Insects of five families visited M. sprengeri during the floral cycle, and sap beetles (Epuraea sp., Nitidulidae) were determined to be the most effective pollinators, whereas bees (Apis cerana, Apidae) were considered to be occasional pollinators. A strong fragrance was released during thermogenesis, consisting of 18 chemical compounds. Although the relative proportions of these compounds varied at different floral stages across anthesis, linalool, 1-iodo-2-methylundecane and 2,2,6-trimethyl-6-vinyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-ol were dominant. Importantly, we found that the floral blends released during the pistillate and staminate stages were very similar, and coincided with flower visitation by sap beetles and the two thermogenic episodes. Based on these results, we propose that odour acts as a signal for a reward (pollen) and that an odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers occurs during the pistillate stage. PMID:24922537

  1. Preparation of nanoparticles of Magnolia bark extract by rapid expansion from supercritical solution into aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    He, Shuai; Zhou, Benjie; Zhang, Shouyao; Lei, Zhengjie; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2011-01-01

    A rapid expansion from supercritical solution into aqueous solution (RESSAS) technology was presented for the micronization of Chinese medicinal material. Magnolia bark extract (MBE) obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO₂) extraction technology was chosen as the experimental material. RESSAS process produced 303.0 nm nanoparticles (size distribution, 243.6-320.5 nm), which was significantly smaller than the 55.3 µm particles (size distribution, 8.3-102.4 µm) prepared by conventional mechanical milling. The effect of process parameters, including extraction temperature (30 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C), extraction pressure (200, 250, 300 bar) and nozzle size (50, 100, 200 µm), on the size distribution of nanoparticles was investigated. The characteristics of nanoparticles and materials were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser light scattering (LLS). This study demonstrates that RESSAS is applicable for preparing nanoparticles of MBE at low operating temperature; the process is simple without any residual solvent.

  2. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

    2002-07-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies.

  3. Alternative splicing of the AGAMOUS orthologous gene in double flower of Magnolia stellata (Magnoliaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Zhi-Xiong; Ma, Jiang; Song, Yi; Chen, Fa-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Magnolia stellata is a woody ornamental shrub with more petaloid tepals than related plants from family Magnoliaceae. Recent studies revealed that expression changes in an AGAMOUS (AG) orthologous gene could resulted in double flowers with increased numbers of petals. We isolated three transcripts encoding different isoforms of a single AG orthologous gene, MastAG, mastag_2 and mastag_3, from M. stellata. Sequence alignments and Southern blot analyses suggested that MastAG was a single-copy gene in M. stellata genomes, and that mastag_2 and mastag_3 were abnormally spliced isoforms of MastAG. An 144bp exon skipping in MastAG results in the truncated mastag_2 protein lacking the completely I domain and 18 aa of the K1 subdomain, whereas an 165bp exon skipping of MastAG produces a truncated mastag_3 protein lacking 6 aa of the K3 subdomain and the completely C terminal region. Expression analyses showed that three alternative splicing (AS) isoforms expressed only in developing stamens and carpels. Functional analyses revealed that MastAG could mimic the endogenous AG to specify carpel identity, but failed to regulate stamen development in an Arabidopsis ag-1 mutant. Moreover, the key domain or subdomain deletions represented by mastag_2 and mastag_3 resulted in loss of C-function. However, ectopic expression of mastag_2 in Arabidopsis produced flowers with sepals converted into carpeloid organs, but without petals and stamens, whereas ectopic expression of mastag_3 in Arabidopsis could mimic the flower phenotype of the ag mutant and produced double flowers with homeotic transformation of stamens into petals and carpels into another ag flower. Our results also suggest that mastag_3 holds some potential for biotechnical engineering to create multi-petal phenotypes in commercial ornamental cultivars.

  4. Interpopulation variation in mating system and late-stage inbreeding depression in Magnolia stellata.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Ichiro; Ishida, Kiyoshi; Setsuko, Suzuki; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2009-06-01

    Inbreeding has the potential to cause evolutionary changes in populations, although these changes are likely to drive populations to extinction through inbreeding depression and reductions in genetic diversity. We investigated the mating system and late-stage inbreeding depression (delta) in 10 populations of Magnolia stellata using nine microsatellite markers and evaluated the effects of population size and the degree of population isolation through inbreeding and inbreeding depression on the persistence of populations. The outcrossing rates were very similar (approximately 0.7) among populations, but the correlations of paternity, fractions of biparental inbreeding and inbreeding coefficients at the seed stage (F(S)) varied among populations, suggesting that the level of outcrossing was similar among populations, while the quality of it was not. A significant negative correlation was detected between F(S) and population size. The average value of delta was 0.709, and the values in six of the 10 populations were significant. The values of delta differed among populations, although clear relationships with population size and the degree of population isolation were not detected. However, in one population, which was very small and located in the edge of the species' range, we obtained a very low value of delta (-0.096), which may be indicative of purging or the fixation of deleterious alleles. Existing M. stellata populations that are small (and thus might be expected to have higher frequencies of inbreeding) and have large values of delta may be in danger of declining, even if the populations are located within the central region of the species' range.

  5. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  6. Melissa officinalis L: A Review Study With an Antioxidant Prospective.

    PubMed

    Miraj, Sepide; Rafieian-Kopaei; Kiani, Sara

    2016-09-11

    Melissa officinalis is a plant cultivated in some parts of Iran. The leaves of lemon balm, Melissa officinalis L (Lamiaceae), are used in Iranian folk medicine for their digestive, carminative, antispasmodic, sedative, analgesic, tonic, and diuretic properties, as well as for functional gastrointestinal disorders. This review article was aimed not only to introduce Melissa officinalis (its growth condition, its chemical compounds, and its traditional usages) but also to overview its antioxidant properties in detail. This review was carried out by searching studies in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases up to 2016. The search terms used were "Melissa officinalis L," "antioxidant properties," oxidative stress," "oxidative damage", "ROS." Articles whose full texts were not available were excluded from the study. In this study, firstly, traditional usage of this herb was reviewed, including antimicrobial activity (antiparasitic, antibacterial, antiviral, etc), antispasmodic, and insomnia properties. Then, its antioxidant properties were overviewed. Various studies have shown that Melissa officinalis L possesses high amount of antioxidant activity through its chemical compounds including high amount of flavonoids, rosmaric acid, gallic acid, phenolic contents. Many studies confirmed the antioxidative effects of Melissa officinalis; thus, its effect in preventing and treating oxidative stress-related diseases might be reliable.

  7. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

    2010-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders.

  8. Effect of a sugar-free chewing gum containing magnolia bark extract on different variables related to caries and gingivitis: a randomized controlled intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Campus, G; Cagetti, M G; Cocco, F; Sale, S; Sacco, G; Strohmenger, L; Lingström, P

    2011-01-01

    The effect of magnolia bark extract (MBE) on different variables related to caries and gingivitis administered daily through a sugar-free chewing gum was evaluated. The study was performed with healthy adult volunteers at high risk for caries as a randomized double-blind interventional study. 120 subjects with a salivary mutans streptococci (MS) concentration ≥10(5) CFU/ml and presence of bleeding on probing >25% were enrolled and divided into three groups: magnolia, xylitol and control. The study design included examinations at baseline, after 7 days, after 30 days of gum use and 7 days after the end of gum use. Plaque pH was assessed using the strip method following a sucrose challenge. Area under the curve (AUC(5.7) and AUC(6.2)) was recorded. Whole saliva was collected and the number of salivary MS (CFU/ml) was counted. Bleeding on probing was recorded as a proxy of dental plaque. Data were analyzed using ANOVA repeated measures. Magnolia gum significantly reduced plaque acidogenicity, MS salivary concentration and gingival bleeding compared to xylitol and control gums. Subjects from the magnolia and xylitol groups showed both MS concentration (p = 0.01 and 0.06, respectively) and AUC(5.7) (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively) to be significantly lower compared to baseline. Thirty-day use of a chewing gum containing MBE showed beneficial effects on oral health, including reduction of salivary MS, plaque acidogenicity and bleeding on probing.

  9. Accommodation in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Schaeffel, F; Murphy, C J; Howland, H C

    1999-11-01

    We have studied natural accommodation in the eye of six specimens of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) as they were fed with fish and shrimp. Using infrared photoretinoscopy, we observed (1) that the resting refractive state of the cuttlefish was emmetropic or slightly hyperopic, (2) that accommodation took place only a fraction of a second before a strike and (3) that accommodation focused selectively only in the frontal visual field while no change in refraction could be measured in the lateral field of view. Accommodation was bilateral and amounted to approximately 5 diopters (the reciprocal of the focal length expressed in meters). Simultaneously, the eyes converged. It appears that, as in most teleost fishes, accommodation in the cuttlefish involves a movement of the crystalline lens perpendicular to the axis of the eye. In histological sections, we observed the position and arrangement of the ciliary muscles, confirming earlier anatomical descriptions, and developed a model of how accommodation could be achieved.

  10. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities.

  11. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  12. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g(-1). The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), α-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  13. Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), α-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588

  14. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5' trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5' intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels.

  15. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  16. Effects of constituents from the bark of Magnolia obovata on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, H; Kageura, T; Oda, M; Morikawa, T; Sakamoto, Y; Yoshikawa, M

    2001-06-01

    The methanolic extract from a Japanese herbal medicine, the bark of Magnolia obovata, was found to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. By bioassay-guided separation, three neolignans (magnolol, honokiol, obovatol) and three sesquiterpenes (alpha-eudesmol, beta-eudesmol, gamma-eudesmol) were obtained as active constituents. A trineolignan (magnolianin), a phenylpropanoid glycoside (syringin), lignan glycosides (liriodendrin, (+)-syringaresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside) and a sesquiterpene (caryophyllene oxide) did not show any activity. On the other hand, sesquiterpene-neolignans (eudesmagnolol, clovanemagnolol, caryolanemagnolol, eudeshonokiol A, eudesobovatol A) showed the strong cytotoxic effects. Active constituents (magnolol, honokiol, obovatol) showed weak inhibition for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) enzyme activity, but potent inhibition of iNOS induction and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB.

  17. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  18. Secretory structures and essential oil composition in Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Italy.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Claudia; Pellegrino, Roberto Maria; Selvaggi, Roberta; Tani, Corrado; Tirillini, Bruno; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2017-05-01

    The secretory structures and the volatile fraction of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevisan subsp. officinalis (Lamiaceae) from Italy were studied for the first time. Peltate and small capitate trichomes were observed on the whole plant (leaves and inflorescences). In the peltate trichomes, an unusual polyphenols content was evidenced by the histochemical methods. The volatile fraction was obtained by a solvent extract from the distillation water of leaves and inflorescences and analysed by GC-MS. Forty-four constituents for leaves, representing 94.1% of the total volatiles, and 57 compounds for flowers, accounting for 90.1% of the total volatiles, were identified. (E)-caryophyllene (20.1%), (E)-nerolidol (14.3%), caryophyllene oxide (6.1%) and γ-cadinene (5.7%) were recognised as the main constituents for the leaf volatile fraction, while caryophyllene oxide (16.5%), (E)-nerolidol (15.4%), humulene epoxide II (9.2%) and α-pinene (7.0%) were the main compounds for the flower volatile fraction.

  19. Melissa officinalis L. essential oil: antitumoral and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Allyne Carvalho; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2004-05-01

    Melissa officinalis L (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. This paper focuses on the analysis of the chemical composition and the biological activities of M. officinalis essential oil obtained under controlled harvesting and drying conditions. An in-vitro cytotoxicity assay using MTT indicated that this oil was very effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562) and a mouse cell line (B16F10). This oil possessed antioxidant activity, as evidenced by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). These results pointed to the potential use of M. officinalis essential oil as an antitumoral agent.

  20. Steroidal saponins from roots of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2006-02-01

    Sarsasapogenin M (1) and sarsasapogenin N (2), two new oligospirostanosides with a unique aglycone moiety, (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta, 17alpha-diol, along with seven known compounds (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-5beta-furost-20 (22)-ene-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6), yamogenin (7), beta-sitosterol (8), and sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (9) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

  1. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2014-06-01

    The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). These plant extracts had lower toxicity compared with miltefosine. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of the methanolic extracts of C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulation of the interaction of karstic lakes Magnolia and Brooklyn with the upper Floridan Aquifer, southwestern Clay County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stage of Lake Brooklyn, in southwestern Clay County, Florida, has varied over a range of 27 feet since measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey began in July 1957. The large stage changes have been attributed to the relation between highly transient surface-water inflow to the lake and subsurface conduits of karstic origin that permit a high rate of leakage from the lake to the Upper Floridan aquifer. After the most recent and severe stage decline (1990-1994), the U.S. Geological Survey began a study that entailed the use of numerical ground-water flow models to simulate the interaction of the lake with the Upper Floridan aquifer and the large fluctuations of stage that were a part of that process. A package (set of computer programs) designed to represent lake/aquifer interaction in the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-96) and the Three-Dimensional Method-of-Characteristics Solute-Transport Model (MOC3D) simulators was prepared as part of this study, and a demonstration of its capability was a primary objective of the study. (Although the official names are Brooklyn Lake and Magnolia Lake (Florida Geographic Names), in this report the local names, Lake Brooklyn and Lake Magnolia, are used.) In the simulator of lake/aquifer interaction used in this investigation, the stage of each lake in a simulation is updated in successive time steps by a budget process that takes into account ground-water seepage, precipitation upon and evaporation from the lake surface, stream inflows and outflows, overland runoff inflows, and augmentation or depletion by artificial means. The simulator was given the capability to simulate both the division of a lake into separate pools as lake stage falls and the coalescence of several pools into a single lake as the stage rises. This representational capability was required to simulate Lake Brooklyn, which can divide into as many as 10 separate pools at sufficiently low stage. In the

  3. Analysis of lignans in Magnoliae Flos by turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Chen, Cen; Ye, Xiaolan; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong; Wu, Fuhai

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a method coupling turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was developed for analyzing the lignans in Magnoliae Flos. By the online pretreatment of turbulent flow chromatography solid-phase extraction, the impurities removal and analytes concentration were automatically processed, and the lignans were separated rapidly and well. Seven lignans of Magnoliae Flos including epieudesmin, magnolin, 1-irioresinol-B-dimethyl ether, epi-magnolin, fargesin aschantin, and demethoxyaschantin were identified by comparing their retention behavior, UV spectra, and mass spectra with those of reference substances or literature data. The developed method was validated, and the good results showed that the method was not only automatic and rapid, but also accurate and reliable. The turbulent flow chromatography with online solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method holds a high potential to become an effective method for the quality control of lignans in Magnoliae Flos and a useful tool for the analysis of other complex mixtures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  5. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  6. First in vitro norlignan formation with Asparagus officinalis enzyme preparation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiro; Nakatsubo, Tomoyuki; Umezawa, Toshiaki; Shimada, Mikio

    2002-05-21

    We report for the first time that an enzyme preparation from fungal-elicited Asparagus officinalis cultured cells catalyses the formation of a norlignan, (Z)-hinokiresinol, from two non-identical phenylpropanoid monomers, 4-coumaryl alcohol and 4-coumaroyl CoA, and from a dimer, 4-coumaryl 4-coumarate, without any additional cofactors.

  7. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  8. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis between red and white strains of Magnolia sprengeri pamp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shou-Guo; Yang, Mei; Zhang, Min; Wang, Ping; Kang, Yong-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Jun

    2014-08-23

    Magnolia sprengeri Pamp is one of the most highly valuable medicinal and ornamental plants of the Magnolia Family. The natural color of M. sprengeri is variable. The complete genome sequence of M. sprengeri is not available; therefore we sequenced the transcriptome of white and red petals of M. sprengeri using Illumina technology. We focused on the identity of structural and regulatory genes encoding the enzymes involved in the determination of flower color. We sequenced and annotated a reference transcriptome for M. sprengeri, and aimed to capture the transcriptional determinanats of flower color. We sequenced a normalized cDNA library of white and red petals using Illumina technology. The resulting reads were assembled into 77,048 unique sequences, of which 28,243 could be annotated by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, while 48,805 transcripts lacked GO annotation. The main enzymes involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis, such as phenylalanine ammonia-Lyase, cinnamat-4-Hydroxylase, dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonoid-3'-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, chalcone synthase and anthocyanidin synthase, were identified in the transcriptome. A total of 270 transcription factors were sorted into three families, including MYB, bHLH and WD40 types. Among these transcription factors, eight showed 4-fold or greater changes in transcript abundance in red petals compared with white petals. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of anthocyanin compositions showed that the main anthocyanin in the petals of M. sprengeri is cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and its content in red petals was 26-fold higher than that in white petals. This study presents the first next-generation sequencing effort and transcriptome analysis of a non-model plant from the Family Magnoliaceae. Genes encoding key enzymes were identified and the metabolic pathways involved in biosynthesis and catabolism of M. sprengeri flavonoids were reconstructed. Identification of these

  9. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  10. Isolation and purification of seven lignans from Magnolia sprengeri by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu; Yu, Zongyuan; Duan, Wenjuan; Fang, Lei; Xu, Shuangshuang; Wang, Xiao

    2011-12-01

    Seven lignans including (-)-maglifloenone, futoenone, magnoline, cylohexadienone, fargesone C, fargesone A and fargesone B were isolated and purified from Magnolia sprengeri Pamp. using high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) with two-step separation. In the first step, a stepwise elution mode with the two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.8:0.6:1.2, 1:0.8:0.8:1, v/v) was used and 15.6 mg of (-)-maglifloenone, 19.2 mg of futoenone, 10.8 mg of magnoline, 14.7 mg of cylohexadienone and 217 mg residues were obtained from 370 mg crude extract. In the second step, the residues were successfully separated by HSCCC with the solvent system composed of petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:0.8:1.2:0.6, v/v), yielding 33.2 mg of fargesone C, 47.5 mg of fargesone A and 17.7 mg of fargesone B. The purities of the separated compounds were all over 95% determined by HPLC. The chemical structures of these compounds were confirmed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and ESI-MS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Volatile Compounds with Characteristic Odor of Essential Oil from Magnolia obovata Leaves by Hydrodistillation and Solvent-assisted Flavor Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Nakashima, Yoshimi; Nakahashi, Hiroshi; Hara, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Hiroki; Usami, Atsushi; Chavasiri, Warinthorn

    2015-01-01

    The present study focuses on the volatile compounds with characteristic odor of essential oil from the leaves of Magnolia obovata by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) method. Eighty-seven compounds, representing 98.0% of the total oil, were identified using HD. The major compounds of HD oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (23.7%), α-humulene (11.6%), geraniol (9.1%), and borneol (7.0%). In SAFE oil, fifty-eight compounds, representing 99.7% of the total oil, were identified. The main compounds of SAFE oil were (E)-β-caryophyllene (48.9%), α-humulene (15.7%), and bicyclogermacrene (4.2%). In this study, we newly identified eighty-five compounds of the oils from M. obovata leaves. These oils were also subjected to aroma evaluation by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). As a result, twenty-four (HD) and twenty-five (SAFE) aroma-active compounds were detected. (E)-β-Caryophyllene, α-humulene, linalool, geraniol, 1,8-cineole, and bicyclogermacrene were found to impart the characteristic odor of M. obovata leaves. These results imply that the oils of M. obovata leaves must be investigated further to clarify their potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Magnolia Extract (BL153) Ameliorates Kidney Damage in a High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wenpeng; Wang, Yangwei; Chen, Qiang; Sun, Weixia; Cai, Lu; Tan, Yi; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Kim, Young Heui

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence demonstrated that obesity is a risk factor for renal structural and functional changes, leading to the end-stage renal disease which imposes a heavy economic burden on the community. However, no effective therapeutic method for obesity-associated kidney disease is available. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic potential of a magnolia extract (BL153) for treating obesity-associated kidney damage in a high fat diet- (HFD-) induced mouse model. The results showed that inflammation markers (tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and oxidative stress markers (3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) were all significantly increased in the kidney of HFD-fed mice compared to mice fed with a low fat diet (LFD). Additionally, proteinuria and renal structure changes in HFD-fed mice were much more severe than that in LFD-fed mice. However, all these alterations were attenuated by BL153 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and hexokinase II (HK II) expression in the kidney. The present study indicates that BL153 administration may be a novel approach for renoprotection in obese individuals by antiinflammation and anti-oxidative stress most likely via upregulation of PGC-1α and HK II signal in the kidney. PMID:24381715

  13. Scopoletin from the flower buds of Magnolia fargesii inhibits protein glycation, aldose reductase, and cataractogenesis ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Kim, Nan Hee; Nam, Joo Won; Lee, Yun Mi; Jang, Dae Sik; Kim, Young Sook; Nam, Sang Hae; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Yang, Min Suk; Kim, Jin Sook

    2010-09-01

    Five compounds previously known structures, scopoletin (1), northalifoline (2), stigmast-4-en-3-one (3), tiliroside (4), and oplopanone (5) were obtained from the flower buds of Magnolia fargesii using chromatographic separation methods. The structures of 1-5 were identified by the interpretation of their spectroscopic data including 1D- and 2D-NMR as well as by comparison with reported values. Three compounds 1-3 were found from M. fargesii for the first time in this study. All the isolates (1-5) were subjected to in vitro bioassays to evaluate the inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products formation and rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR). Compound 1 showed a remarkable inhibitory activity on advanced glycation end products formation with IC(50) value of 2.93 μM (aminoguanidine: 961 μM), and showed a significant RLAR inhibitory activity with IC(50) value of 22.5 μM (3.3-tetramethyleneglutaric acid: 28.7 μM). Compound 4 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against RLAR (IC(50) = 14.9 μM). In the further experiment ex vivo, cataractogenesis of rat lenses induced with xylose was significantly inhibited by compound 1 treatment.

  14. Honokiol, a constituent of Magnolia species, inhibits adrenergic contraction of human prostate strips and induces stromal cell death.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Daniel; Schreiber, Andrea; Ciotkowska, Anna; Strittmatter, Frank; Waidelich, Raphaela; Stief, Christian G; Gratzke, Christian; Hennenberg, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Smooth muscle contraction and prostate growth are important targets for medical therapy of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Honokiol and Magnolol are lignan constituents of Magnolia species, which are used in traditional Asian medicine. Here, we examined effects of honokiol and magnolol on contraction of human prostate tissue and on growth of stromal cells. Prostate tissues were obtained from radical prostatectomy. Contraction of prostate strips was examined in organ bath studies. Effects in stromal cells were assessed in cultured immortalized human prostate stromal cells (WPMY-1). Ki-67 mRNA was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and proliferation by a fluorescence 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine assay. Honokiol (100μM) reduced noradrenaline-induced contractions, which was significant at 10 to 100μM noradrenaline. Honokiol reduced phenylephrine-induced contractions, which was significant at 3 to 100μM phenylephrine. Honokiol reduced electric field stimulation-induced contractions very slightly. In WPMY-1 cells, honokiol (24 hours) induced cell death. Magnolol (100μM) was without effects on contraction, and cellular viability. Honokiol inhibits smooth muscle contraction in the human prostate, and induces cell death in cultured stromal cells. Because prostate smooth muscle tone and prostate growth may cause LUTS, it appears possible that honokiol improves voiding symptoms.

  15. Anti-biofilm and bactericidal effects of magnolia bark-derived magnolol and honokiol on Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sakaue, Yuuki; Domon, Hisanori; Oda, Masataka; Takenaka, Shoji; Kubo, Miwa; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Okiji, Takashi; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects people of all ages and is a worldwide health concern. Streptococcus mutans is a major cariogenic bacterium because of its ability to form biofilm and induce an acidic environment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of magnolol and honokiol, the main constituents of the bark of magnolia plants, toward planktonic cell and biofilm of S. mutans were examined and compared with those of chlorhexidine. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of magnolol, honokiol and chlorhexidine for S. mutans were 10, 10 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, each agent showed bactericidal activity against S. mutans planktonic cells and inhibited biofilm formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Magnolol (50 µg/mL) had greater bactericidal activity against S. mutans biofilm than honokiol (50 µg/mL) and chlorhexidine (500 µg/mL) at 5 min after exposure, while all showed scant activity against biofilm at 30 s. Furthermore; chlorhexidine (0.5-500 µg/mL) exhibited high cellular toxicity for the gingival epithelial cell line Ca9-22 at 1 hr, whereas magnolol (50 µg/mL) and honokiol (50 µg/mL) did not. Thus; it was found that magnolol has antimicrobial activities against planktonic and biofilm cells of S. mutans. Magnolol may be a candidate for prevention and management of dental caries. © 2015 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Cloning and characterization of CmGPD1, the Candida magnoliae homologue of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Myoung-Dong; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) plays a central role in glycerol metabolism. A genomic CmGPD1 gene encoding NADH-dependent GPDH was isolated from Candida magnoliae producing a significant amount of glycerol. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 360 amino acids, which shows high homology with known NADH-dependent GPDHs of other species. The CmGPD1 gene was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli with the maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion system and purified to homogeneity using simple affinity chromatography. The purified CmGpd1p without the MBP fusion displayed an apparent molecular mass of 40 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The CmGpd1p enzyme exhibited a K(cat)/K(m) value of 195 min(-1) mM(-1) for dihydroxyacetone phosphate whereas K(cat)/K(m) for glycerol-3-phosphate is 0.385 min(-1) mM(-1). In a complementation study, CmGpd1p rescued the ability of glycerol synthesis and salt tolerance in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPD1DeltaGPD2Delta mutant strain. The overall results indicated that CmGPD1 encodes a functional homologue of S. cerevisiae GPDH.

  17. Neuroprotective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human dopaminergic cell line, SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) has been reported to have various pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of R. officinalis extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by treatment with R. officinalis. Moreover, R. officinalis was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic cell death induced by H2O2. R. officinalis extract effectively suppressed the up-regulation of Bax, Bak, Caspase-3 and -9, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with R. officinalis significantly attenuated the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings indicate that R. officinalis is able to protect the neuronal cells against H2O2-induced injury and suggest that R. officinalis might potentially serve as an agent for prevention of several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  18. Characterization of the interaction between the dark septate fungus Phialocephala fortinii and Asparagus officinalis roots.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Nassuth, A; Peterson, R L

    2001-08-01

    Phialocephala fortinii Wang & Wilcox is a member of root-inhabiting fungi known collectively as dark septate endophytes (DSE). Although very common and distributed worldwide, few studies have documented their interaction with roots on a structural basis. The objective of this study was to determine the early colonization events and formation of microsclerotia of P. fortinii in roots of Asparagus officinalis L., a species known to have DSE. A loose network of hyphae accumulated at the root surface, and coils formed around root hairs and external to epidermal cells overlying short cells of the dimorphic, suberized exodermis. Root penetration occurred via swollen, appressorium-like structures into epidermal cells where coiling of hyphae occurred along the periphery of the cells. Hyphae penetrated from the epidermis into short exodermal cells and from these into cortical cells. Hyphae colonized the cortex up to the endodermis and sometimes entered the vascular cylinder. Some root tips were colonized as well. Microsclerotia in epidermal and exodermal short cells accumulated glycogen, protein, and polyphosphate. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on distinct bodies visible in microsclerotial hyphae revealed high levels of phosphorus.

  19. Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-01-01

    The effects of oral and topical application of Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The parameters assessed were the days needed for re-epithelization and percentage of wound closure. The hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the granuloma tissue of the wound was also measured. The percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the control group showed only 51.1% on the eighth day of wounding (p < .01). The days needed for re-epithelization were 17.7 for the control animals; extract treatment at a dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg b.wt reduced the period to 14 and 13 days, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the extract-treated group compared with the untreated animals. The data indicate potent wound healing activity ofC. officinalis extract.

  20. Angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis flowers L. in rats.

    PubMed

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Andrade, Maria Auxiliadora; Brito, Luiz Augusto Batista; Moura, Veridiana Maria Brianezi Dignani de; Miguel, Marina Pacheco; Lino-Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Faustino Manrique; Paula, José Realino de; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2011-02-01

    In this work, angiogenic activity of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) ethanolic extract and dichloromethane and hexanic fractions were evaluated, considering medicinal properties, especially healing activity, are attributed to this plant. Models using 36 rats and 90 embryonated eggs were used to evaluate healing and angiogenic activities of extracts and fractions of the plant, through the induction of skin wounds and the chorioallantoic membrane, respectively. The effect of vascular proliferation was also tested from the study to verify the intensity of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in cutaneous wounds in rats. The angiogenic activity of the extract and the fractions was evidenced in both experimental models. It was verified that this effect is not directly related to the expression of VEGF and it could be associated to other pro-angiogenic factors. The healing activity referred to C. officinalis is related, among other factors, to its positive effect on angiogenesis, characterized by the induction of neovascularization.

  1. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  2. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers.

  4. Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

    2010-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions.

  5. [Type I and type IV sensitization to Asparagus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Rieker, J; Ruzicka, T; Neumann, N J; Bielicky, P; Homey, B

    2004-04-01

    Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis),a member of the Liliaceae family, is a popular vegetable, most commonly eaten in May. A 55-year-old cook presented with seasonal (always in May) recurrent dyshidrosiform hand eczema which prevented him from working. He also reported developing dyspnea and dysphagia after consuming asparagus. Diagnostic allergy testing revealed positive reactions against asparagus in prick-to-prick and epicutaneous patch tests.

  6. Chromosome number and ploidy level of balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kittler, J; Schrader, O; Kästner, U; Marthe, F

    2015-01-01

    Die wachsende Bedeutung von Zitronenmelisse (Melissa officinalis L.) führt zur Ausdehnung des hierfür erforderlichen Anbauumfanges. Ein verbesserter Kenntnisstand der Genomstruktur, der Chromosomenzahl und der hiermit in Zusammenhang stehenden taxonomischen Struktur der Melisse sind unerlässliche Voraussetzungen für verbesserte, neue Sorten.Eine Kollektion von 40 Melisseherkünften (M. officinalis) wurde durchflusszytometrisch und durch FISH (18/25S and 5S rDNA) untersucht, um den Ploidiegrad und die Chromosomenzahl zu ermitteln. Drei unterschiedliche Typen wurden konnten bestimmt werden: diploide Genotypen mit 2n = 2× = 32 Chromosomen; tetraploide mit 2n = 4× = 64 Chromosomen und triploide mit 2n = 3× = 48 Chromosomen. Die haploide Chromosomenzahl ist mit x = 16 anzunehmen. Die erstmalig beschriebenen triploiden Herkünfte sind steril aber zytologisch und morphologisch über viele Jahre stabil. Sie zeigen eine bessere Winterhärte und einen schnelleren Wiederaufwuchs nach Ernteschnitten, wie auch größere Blätter und Internodien.Die Basischromosomenzahl von x = 16 wird erstmalig für die Art M. officinalis beschrieben.

  7. Emblica officinalis and hepatocarcinogenesis: a chemopreventive study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Jahangir, Tamanna

    2008-06-19

    Emblica officinalis L. commonly known as gooseberry, Phyllanthus emblica, Emblica, Indian gooseberry, amla is used in Indian system of medicine for the treatment of liver ailments. In the present study, we report that it ameliorates the carcinogenic response as it reverses the histopathological changes and reduces the number of gamma-GT-positive foci induced by Solt Farber protocol in the liver of Wistar rats. Tumors were induced by initiation with diethylnitrosoamine (DEN) (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p.) followed by promotion with 2-acetylaminoflourine (2-AAF) (0.02%, w/w in diet) for continuous 6 weeks and the animals were subjected to partial hepatectomy on day 21 of initiation. Pretreatment with defatted methanolic fruit extract (100 and 200mg/kg b.w.) of Emblica officinalis showed significant partial recovery of pathological manifestations as compared to DEN and 2-AAF-treated group animals (p<0.001) and suppressed the tumor forming potential of 2-AAF (p<0.05) at both the doses. Emblica officinalis has the potential to suppress carcinogen-induced response in rat liver.

  8. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser

    PubMed Central

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student’s t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

  9. An integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus for the extraction of essential oils from herb materials and its application in Flos Magnoliae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhui; Li, Boxia; Duan, Haogang; Wu, Xin'an; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    A large number of herb materials contain essential oils with extensive bioactivities. In this work, an integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction (ISDE) apparatus was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, the performance of ISDE was evaluated for the extraction of essential oil from Flos Magnoliae and compared with conventional techniques including steam distillation (SD) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). According to the product yield, the time consumed and the composition of oil, the essential oils isolated by ISDE were better than that obtained by SD and similar to those obtained by SDE. ISDE was also better than SDE due to its simple operation and lower consumption of energy and organic solvent.

  10. Honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia spp., inhibits breast cancer cell migration by targeting nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase-2.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tripti; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, we report the effects of honokiol, a phytochemical from Magnolia spp., on cancer cell migration capacity and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects using breast cancer cell lines as an in vitro model. Using cell migration assays, we found that the treatment of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) and murine mammary cancer cells (4T1) with honokiol resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of migration of these cells, which was associated with a reduction in nitric oxide (NO) levels. The cell migration capacity was decreased in the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NO synthase. Honokiol reduced the elevated levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in the cells, while the treatment of 4T1 cells with guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor 1-H-[1,2,4]oxadiaxolo[4,3-a]quinolalin-1-one (ODQ) reduced the migration of cells and the levels of cGMP. The presence of 8-bromoguanosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate, an analogue of cGMP, enhanced the migration of these cells, suggesting a role for GC in the migration of 4T1 cells. Honokiol also inhibited the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 in 4T1 cells. The transfection of 4T1 cells with COX-2 siRNA resulted in a reduction in cell migration. ODQ and L-NAME also decreased the levels of PGE2 in 4T1 cells suggesting a role for COX-2/PGE2 in cell migration. Moreover, honokiol inhibited the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), an upstream regulator of COX-2 and iNOS, in 4T1 cells. These results indicate that NO and COX-2 are the key targets of honokiol in the inhibition of breast cancer cell migration, an essential step in invasion and metastasis.

  11. Two ancestral APETALA3 homologs from the basal angiosperm Magnolia wufengensis (Magnoliaceae) can affect flower development of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Jing, Danlong; Liu, Zhixiong; Zhang, Bo; Ma, Jiang; Han, Yiyang; Chen, Faju

    2014-03-01

    APETALA3 (AP3) homologs are involved in specifying petal and stamen identities in core eudicot model organisms. In order to investigate the functional conservation of AP3 homologs between core eudicots and basal angiosperm, we isolated and identified two AP3 homologs from Magnolia wufengensis, a woody basal angiosperm belonging to the family Magnoliaceae. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that both genes are clade members of the paleoAP3 lineage. Moreover, a highly conserved motif of paleoAP3 is found in the C-terminal regions of MAwuAP3_1/2 proteins, but the PI-derived motif, usually present in AP3/DEF-like lineage members, is missing. Semi-quantitative and real time PCR analyses showed that the expression of MAwuAP3_1/2 was restricted to tepals and stamens. However, the MAwuAP3_1 expression was maintained at a high level during the rapid increased in size of tepals and stamens, while MAwuAP3_2 mRNA was only detected at the early stage of tepal and stamen development. Furthermore, the expression of MAwuAP3_1/2 in transgenic Arabidopsis causes phenotypic changes which partly resemble those caused by ectopic expressions of the endogenous AP3 gene. Moreover, the 35S::MAwuAP3_1/2 transgenic Arabidopsis can be used partially to rescue the loss-of-function ap3 mutant (ap3-3) of Arabidopsis. These findings call for a more comprehensive understanding of the B-functional evolution from basal angiosperm to core eudicot clades.

  12. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD).

  13. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  14. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in

  15. Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Posadas, S J; Caz, V; Largo, C; De la Gándara, B; Matallanas, B; Reglero, G; De Miguel, E

    2009-01-01

    Rosemary leaves, "Rosmarinus officinalis", possess a variety of antioxidant, anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We hypothesized that rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats. This work evaluates whether supplementing their diet with supercritical fluid (SFE) rosemary extract containing 20% antioxidant carnosic acid (CA) reduces oxidative stress in aged rats. Aged Wistar rats (20 months old) were included in the study. Rats were fed for 12 weeks with a standard kibble (80%) supplemented with turkey breast (20%) containing none or one of two different SFE rosemary concentrations (0.2% and 0.02%). After sacrifice, tissue samples were collected from heart and brain (cortex and hippocampus). Enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were quantitatively analyzed. Lipid peroxidation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined. Rosemary decreased lipid peroxidation in both brain tissues. The levels of catalase activities in heart and cortex were decreased in the rosemary-treated groups. The SFE rosemary-treated rats presented lower NOS levels in heart and lower ROS levels in hippocampus than the control rats. Supplementing the diet of aged rats with SFE rosemary extract produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and ROS levels that was significant for catalase activity in heart and brain, NOS in heart, and LPO and ROS levels in different brain tissues. These observations suggest that the rosemary supplement improved the oxidative stress status in old rats.

  16. Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Michał; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

    2013-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration.

  18. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration. PMID:27239217

  19. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    De Franciscis, Pasquale; Grauso, Flavio; Luisi, Anna; Schettino, Maria Teresa; Torella, Marco; Colacurci, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness for vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders plus the long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination of agnus-castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli were assessed in postmenopausal women. A controlled study was carried out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with a formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group) at the dosage recommended. The Kuppermann index, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) were determined at baseline, three, six and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. One hundred and eighty women were enrolled in the study (100 in the ESP group and 80 in the C group). At the end of the treatment, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. The Kuppermann index and particularly the tendency for hot flashes progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. At the same time, a significant increase in sleep quality and psychophysical wellness parameters was observed in the ESP versus C groups. No adverse events were observed. Agnus-castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. The endometrium, mammary glands and liver function were unaffected after 12 months of treatment. PMID:28208808

  20. Adding Agnus Castus and Magnolia to Soy Isoflavones Relieves Sleep Disturbances Besides Postmenopausal Vasomotor Symptoms-Long Term Safety and Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    De Franciscis, Pasquale; Grauso, Flavio; Luisi, Anna; Schettino, Maria Teresa; Torella, Marco; Colacurci, Nicola

    2017-02-13

    The effectiveness for vasomotor symptoms and sleep disorders plus the long-term safety of a nutraceutical combination of agnus-castus and magnolia extracts combined with soy isoflavones (SI) and lactobacilli were assessed in postmenopausal women. A controlled study was carried out in menopausal women comparing this nutraceutical combination (ESP group) with a formulation containing isoflavones alone (C group) at the dosage recommended. The Kuppermann index, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Short Form 36 (SF-36) were determined at baseline, three, six and 12 months. Endometrial thickness, mammary density and liver function were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months. One hundred and eighty women were enrolled in the study (100 in the ESP group and 80 in the C group). At the end of the treatment, mammary density, endometrial thickness, and hepatic function did not show substantial differences between groups. The Kuppermann index and particularly the tendency for hot flashes progressively and significantly decreased in frequency and severity during ESP versus C treatment. At the same time, a significant increase in sleep quality and psychophysical wellness parameters was observed in the ESP versus C groups. No adverse events were observed. Agnus-castus and magnolia, combined with SI + lactobacilli, can effectively and safely be used in symptomatic postmenopausal women, mainly when quality of sleep is the most disturbing complaint. The endometrium, mammary glands and liver function were unaffected after 12 months of treatment.

  1. Loss of two introns from the Magnolia tripetala mitochondrial cox2 gene implicates horizontal gene transfer and gene conversion as a novel mechanism of intron loss.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, Nancy J; Schmidt, Derek W; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2012-10-01

    Intron loss is often thought to occur through retroprocessing, which is the reverse transcription and genomic integration of a spliced transcript. In plant mitochondria, several unambiguous examples of retroprocessing are supported by the parallel loss of an intron and numerous adjacent RNA edit sites, but in most cases, the evidence for intron loss via retroprocessing is weak or lacking entirely. To evaluate mechanisms of intron loss, we designed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay to detect recent intron losses from the mitochondrial cox2 gene within genus Magnolia, which was previously suggested to have variability in cox2 intron content. Our assay showed that all 22 examined species have a cox2 gene with two introns. However, one species, Magnolia tripetala, contains an additional cox2 gene that lacks both introns. Quantitative PCR showed that both M. tripetala cox2 genes are present in the mitochondrial genome. Although the intronless gene has lost several ancestral RNA edit sites, their distribution is inconsistent with retroprocessing models. Instead, phylogenetic and gene conversion analyses indicate that the intronless gene was horizontally acquired from a eudicot and then underwent gene conversion with the native intron-containing gene. The models are presented to summarize the roles of horizontal gene transfer and gene conversion as a novel mechanism of intron loss.

  2. Fleshy seeds form in the basal Angiosperm Magnolia grandiflora and several MADS-box genes are expressed as fleshy seed tissues develop.

    PubMed

    Lovisetto, Alessandro; Masiero, Simona; Rahim, Md Abdur; Mendes, Marta Adelina Miranda; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    One successful mechanism of seed dispersal in plants involves production of edible fleshy structures which attract frugivorous animals and transfer this task to them. Not only Angiosperms but also Gymnosperms may use the fleshy fruit habit for seed dispersal, and a similar suite of MADS-box genes may be expressed as these structures form. Magnolia grandiflora produces dry follicles which, at maturity, open to reveal brightly colored fleshy seeds. This species thus also employs endozoochory for seed dispersal, although it produces dry fruits. Molecular analysis reveals that genes involved in softening and color changes are expressed at late stages of seed development, when the fleshy seed sarcotesta softens and accumulates carotenoids. Several MADS-box genes have also been studied and results highlight the existence of a basic genetic toolkit which may be common to all fleshy fruit-like structures, independently of their anatomic origin. According to their expression patterns, one of two AGAMOUS genes and the three SEPALLATA genes known so far in Magnolia are of particular interest. Duplication of AGAMOUS already occurs in both Nymphaeales and Magnoliids, although the lack of functional gene analysis prevents comparisons with known duplications in the AGAMOUS lineage of core Eudicots. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections.

  4. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis.

  5. Effects of pollen shortage and self-pollination on seed production of an endangered tree, Magnolia stellata.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Kimiko; Ishida, Kiyoshi; Tomaru, Nobuhiro

    2005-05-01

    Pollen limitation is a significant determinant of seed production, and can result from both insufficient pollen quantity (pollen shortage) and quality (mainly relating to self-pollination). For animal-pollinated tree species with large floral displays, pollen limitation may be determined by a balance between increased pollen quantity due to increased attractiveness for pollinators, countered by increased self-pollination due to increased geitonogamy. The contributions of pollen shortage and self-pollination on seed production were quantitatively examined in the natural pollination of an insect-pollinated, dichogamous, endangered tree, Magnolia stellata, which has a large, showy floral display. Manual self- and cross-pollinations were conducted to determine the effects of selfing on seed production. The outcrossing rate was measured using microsatellite analyses of open-pollinated seeds, and the embryo mortality rate caused by self-pollination was indirectly estimated. The frequency of ovule mortality due to pollen shortage was also inferred using the embryo mortality and ovule survival rates from natural pollination. The average fruit set, seed set per fruit, and ovule survival rate per tree from hand cross-pollination were 1.37, 3.15, and 3.34 times higher than those from hand self-pollination, respectively, indicating that self-pollination causes inbreeding depression for fruit and seed set. The multilocus-outcrossing rate (t(m)) was intermediate, 0.632, and the primary selfing rate was 0.657. This indicates that frequent geitonogamous selfing occurs. The ovule mortality rate due to pollen shortage and the embryo mortality rate due to self-pollination were estimated to be 80.8 % and 45.9 %, respectively. It is concluded that seed production of M. stellata is strongly limited by both pollen shortage and self-pollination. Inefficient beetle-pollination and the automimicry system via asynchronous flowering might be responsible for the high level of pollen shortage

  6. Honokiol and magnolol production by in vitro micropropagated plants of Magnolia dealbata, an endangered endemic Mexican species.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martín; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    An efficient protocol for the in vitro propagation of Magnolia dealbata Zucc., an important medicinal plant that is the source of the anxiolytic and anticancer compounds honokiol and magnolol, was established. This plant is wild-crafted, and conservationists have expressed concerns with regard to the sustainability of production. In the present work, two factors were found to be of importance for the regeneration of M. dealbata and the production of honokiol and magnolol. These factors were the type of explants and the combination and concentration of plant-growth regulators. Green, compact, nodular organogenic callus was obtained from leaf explants in a medium fortified with Murashige and Skoog salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.5 mg/L kinetin. Shoots multiplication from callus cultures was achieved in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.5 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). Phenol secretion was controlled by the addition of 250 mg/L of activated charcoal. For rooting, shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with several auxins. After root induction, the plants were hardened in earthen pots containing sand, soil, and vermiculite. The contents of honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were determined in different plant materials by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection techniques. This analysis revealed that the honokiol and magnolol content in aerial and underground parts of micropropagated M. dealbata were higher than that observed in wild plants (both 6 months old). Our results suggest that conservation of M. dealbata is possible by means of in vitro multiplication of leaf-derived callus. The usefulness of M. dealbata regeneration and production of HK and MG may be attributed to the proper selection of explant sourcing and identification of the correct growth medium to support adequate growth. This careful selection of explants and growth medium leads to a very useful source of plant material for

  7. Isolation of alpha-glusosidase inhibitors from hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Chikako; Amano, Midori; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Mizutani, Junya

    2004-01-01

    alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was found in aqueous methanol extracts of dried hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) leaves. Active principles against alpha-glucosidase, prepared from rat small intestine acetone powders, were isolated and characterized. The structures of these isolated compounds were determined to be (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol-9-O-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by analysis of physical and spectroscopic data (FDMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC experiments) together with chemical syntheses.

  8. Indole Alkaloids from the Leaves of Nauclea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Long; Liao, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Qiang-Rong; Zheng, Kai; Jiang, Ying-Chun; He, Zhen-Dan

    2016-07-23

    Three new indole alkaloids, named naucleamide G (1), and nauclealomide B and C (5 and 6), were isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of an EtOH extract of the leaves of Nauclea officinalis, together with three known alkaloids, paratunamide C (2), paratunamide D (3) and paratunamide A (4). The structures with absolute configurations of the new compounds were identified on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, acid hydrolysis and quantum chemical circular dichroism (CD) calculation. According to the structures of isolated indole alkaloids, their plausible biosynthetic pathway was deduced.

  9. Comparison of Effect of Lavandula officinalis and Venlafaxine in Treating Depression: A Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Masoud; Rakhshan, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder is a chronic disease which may be associated with other mental illnesses. Lavandula officinalis and venlafaxine, herbal and chemical drugs respectively, are used to treat depression. Despite pharmacotherapy, major depressive disorder has a complicated pattern of resistance and recurrence. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L. officinalis and venlafaxine in treating depression. Materials and Methods For this study, 120 patients referred to the psychiatry clinic of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran, were randomly selected. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups: venlafaxine (Control Group), venlafaxine + L. officinalis (L. officinalis Group), and venlafaxine + placebo (Placebo Group). All the patients underwent treatment for six weeks. Depression test was administered to the three groups at different time intervals before the treatment, four weeks after the treatment and at completion of the treatment. The data were analysed by SPSS version17.0. Results Depression scores of all the groups decreased over time (p=0.001). The depression scores were significantly different between the control and L. officinalis groups (p=0.004), and the control and placebo groups (p=0.002), but were not significantly different between the L. officinalis and placebo groups (p=0.95). Conclusion Adding L. officinalis or a placebo is equally effective in decreasing mean depression score and venlafaxine obviously decreased this score. PMID:28892932

  10. Use of Systemic Rosmarinus Officinalis to Enhance the Survival of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps

    PubMed Central

    İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918

  11. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  12. The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color.

    PubMed

    Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and flavonoids content. The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.

  13. The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N

    2011-04-01

    Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior.

  14. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H.; Lopez, Elizabeth M.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-kaf, Ali G.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. PMID:28273883

  15. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth.

  16. Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, Keri V

    2005-01-01

    The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

  17. Studies on spasmogenic and spasmolytic activities of Calendula officinalis flowers.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Samra; Janbaz, Khalid H; Jabeen, Qaiser; Gilani, Anwar H

    2006-10-01

    The aqueous-ethanol extract of Calendula officinalis flowers (Co.Cr) was studied for its possible spasmolytic and spasmogenic effects in isolated gut preparations. In rabbit jejunum, Co.Cr caused a dose-dependent (0.03-3.0 mg/mL) relaxation of spontaneous and K+-induced contractions, suggestive of calcium channel blockade (CCB). In a few preparations, a mild non-reproducible spasmogenic effect was observed at lower doses, followed by relaxation. The CCB effect was confirmed when pretreatment of the jejunum preparations with Co.Cr produced a dose-dependent rightward shift in the Ca(++) dose-response curves, similar to that of verapamil. Activity-directed fractionation revealed that the spasmolytic activity of the plant was concentrated in its organic fractions. The aqueous fraction exhibited a marked atropine sensitive spasmogenic effect but was found to be devoid of any spasmolytic effect. These data indicate that the crude extract of Calendula officinalis flowers contains both spasmolytic and spasmogenic constituents, exhibiting these effects through calcium channel blocking and cholinergic activities and this study provides a scientific base for its traditional use in abdominal cramps and constipation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Majiene, Daiva

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80-130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM-200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  19. Effects of Morinda officinalis Polysaccharide on Experimental Varicocele Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihong; Zhao, Xiaozhen; Wang, Feng; Lin, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Morinda officinalis is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has been used to tonify the kidney and strengthen yang for a long time in China. In this study, the effects of M. officinalis Polysaccharide (MOP) on experimental varicocele adolescent rats were investigated. The result showed that varicocele destroyed the structure of the seminiferous epithelium and decreased the TJ protein expression (Occludin, Claudin-11, and ZO-1), testosterone (T) concentration in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum levels of inhibin B (INHB), while increasing the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α) in the left testicular tissue, as well as serum levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and antisperm antibody (AsAb). MOP repaired the damaged seminiferous epithelium and TJ and reduced the levels of cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α) as well as serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, and AsAb, while upregulating TJ protein expression, T level in the left testicular tissue and serum, and serum INHB levels. In summary, we conclude that MOP promotes spermatogenesis and counteracts the varicocele-induced damage to the seminiferous epithelium and TJ, probably via decreasing cytokines (TGF-β3 and TNF-α) levels and regulating the abnormal sex hormones levels in experimental varicocele rats. PMID:28090212

  20. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day(-1)). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (-70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (-59 and -56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (-12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions.

  1. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  2. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile.

  3. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Bozin, Biljana; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Samojlik, Isidora; Jovin, Emilija

    2007-09-19

    The essential oils of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and 6 fungi, including Candida albicans and 5 dermatomycetes. The most important antibacterial activity of both essential oils was expressed on Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, S. enteritidis, and Shigella sonei. A significant rate of antifungal activity, especially of essential oil of rosemary, was also exhibited. Antioxidant activity was evaluated as a free radical scavenging capacity (RSC), together with the effect on lipid peroxidation (LP). RSC was assessed by measuring the scavenging activity of essential oils on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals. Effects on LP were evaluated following the activities of essential oils in Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H2O2 systems of induction. Investigated essential oils reduced the DPPH radical formation (IC50 = 3.82 microg/mL for rosemary and 1.78 microg/mL for sage) in a dose-dependent manner. Strong inhibition of LP in both systems of induction was especially observed for the essential oil of rosemary.

  4. Healing acceleration in hamsters of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil with topical Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Tavakoli, Parisa; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Amanat, Dariush; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh; Samani, Soleiman Mohammadi; Tamadon, Amin

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Weight gain was noted in the treatment groups compared with the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis.

  6. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  7. Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Anila, L; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels.

  8. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity on tumour cells of the essential oil from flowers of Magnolia grandiflora cultivated in Iran.

    PubMed

    Morshedloo, Mohammad Reza; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Lupidi, Giulio; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-16

    Magnolia grandiflora (Magnoliaceae) is an evergreen tree with fragrant and showy flowers native to southeastern USA but widely cultivated all over the world and used in cosmetics industry in treatment of skin diseases. Here, we report on the chemical analysis of the essential oil obtained from flowers of plants cultivated in Iran, together with the evaluation of its antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. The essential oil composition was dominated by bioactive sesquiterpenes, namely β-elemene, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene D and (E)-caryophyllene. The oil exhibited moderate radical scavenging activity towards the [Formula: see text] radical, and mild non-selective inhibitory effects against A375, MDA-MB 231 and T98 G tumour cell lines. The latter were influenced by the presence of the anticancer β-elemene. These results provided new insights for potential application of M. grandiflora volatile oil in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry where only the non-volatile magnolol and honokiol have hitherto been fully exploited.

  9. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  10. Chemical composition of the endocarps of fruits of Styrax officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Pazar, Erdinç; Akgül, Yurdanur

    2015-01-01

    Endocarps of fruits of Styrax officinalis L. have been subjected to a phytochemical investigation. Five compounds, americanin A (1), egonololeat (2), egonol-2‴-metil butanoat (3), egonolgentiobiside (4) and homoegonolgentiobiside (5) were isolated. Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods and comparison with the literature data. This is the first report of the presence of compound 1 and compound 2 in the genus Styrax (Styracaceae family) and S. officinalis L. species, respectively.

  11. Magnolia Bioactive Constituent 4-O-Methylhonokiol Prevents the Impairment of Cardiac Insulin Signaling and the Cardiac Pathogenesis in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Chen, Jing; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Shudong; Cai, Xiaohong; Conklin, Daniel J.; Kim, Ki-Soo; Kim, Ki Ho; Tan, Yi; Zheng, Yang; Kim, Young Heui; Cai, Lu

    2015-01-01

    In obesity, cardiac insulin resistance is a putative cause of cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction. In our previous study, we observed that Magnolia extract BL153 attenuated high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced cardiac pathogenic changes. In this study, we further investigated the protective effects of the BL153 bioactive constituent, 4-O-methylhonokiol (MH), against HFD-induced cardiac pathogenesis and its possible mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet or a HFD with gavage administration of vehicle, BL153, or MH (low or high dose) daily for 24 weeks. Treatment with MH attenuated HFD-induced obesity, as evidenced by body weight gain, and cardiac pathogenesis, as assessed by the heart weight and echocardiography. Mechanistically, MH treatment significantly reduced HFD-induced impairment of cardiac insulin signaling by preferentially augmenting Akt2 signaling. MH also inhibited cardiac expression of the inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and increased the phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) as well as the expression of a Nrf2 downstream target gene heme oxygenase-1. The increased Nrf2 signaling was associated with decreased oxidative stress and damage, as reflected by lowered malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels. Furthermore, MH reduced HFD-induced cardiac lipid accumulation along with lowering expression of cardiac fatty acid translocase/CD36 protein. These results suggest that MH, a bioactive constituent of Magnolia, prevents HFD-induced cardiac pathogenesis by attenuating the impairment of cardiac insulin signaling, perhaps via activation of Nrf2 and Akt2 signaling to attenuate CD36-mediated lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity. PMID:26157343

  12. DNA sequences from Miocene fossils: an ndhF sequence of Magnolia latahensis (Magnoliaceae) and an rbcL sequence of Persea pseudocarolinensis (Lauraceae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Suh, Youngbae

    2004-04-01

    We report a partial ndhF sequence (1528 bp) of Magnolia latahensis and a partial rbcL sequence (699 bp) of Persea pseudocarolinensis from the Clarkia fossil beds of Idaho, USA (Miocene; 17-20 million years [my] BP). The ndhF sequence from M. latahensis was identical to those of extant M. grandiflora, M. schiediana, M. guatemalensis, and M. tamaulipana. Parsimony analysis of the ndhF sequence of M. latahensis and previously reported ndhF sequences for Magnoliaceae placed M. latahensis within Magnolia as a member of the Theorhodon clade. This result is reasonable considering that: (1) the morphology of M. latahensis is very similar to that of extant M. grandiflora, and (2) a recent molecular phylogenetic study of Magnoliaceae showed that the maximum sequence divergence of ndhF among extant species is very low (1.05% in subfamily Magnolioideae) compared with other angiosperm families. We reanalyzed the previously reported rbcL sequence of M. latahensis with sequences for all major lineages of extant Magnoliales and Laurales. This sequence is sister to Liriodendron, rather than grouped with a close relative of M. grandiflora as predicted by morphology and the results of the ndhF analysis, possibly due to a few erroneous base calls in the sequences. The rbcL sequence of P. pseudocarolinensis differed from rbcL of extant Persea species by 3-6 nucleotides and from rbcL of extant Sassafras albidum by two nucleotides. Phylogenetic analyses of rbcL sequences for all major lineages of Magnoliales and Laurales placed the fossil P. pseudocarolinensis within Lauraceae and as sister to S. albidum. These results reinforce the suggestion that Clarkia and other similar sites hold untapped potential for molecular analysis of fossils.

  13. The protective effects of total phenols in magnolia officinalix rehd. et wils on gastrointestinal tract dysmotility is mainly based on its influence on interstitial cells of cajal

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hui; Huang, Dazhi; Li, Tao; Huang, Lihua; Zheng, Xingguang; Tang, Danxia; Zhang, Lu; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils is a kind of herb which is widely used for gastrointestinal tract mobility disorder in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated whether the total phenols of Magnolia officinalix Rehd. et Wils (TPM) treatment improves gastrointestinal tract dysmobility induced by intraperitoneal injection of atropine (5 mg/kg) in rats. Rats were randomly grouped into three units: TPM-pretreated/atropine-treated group, atropinetreated group and control group. TPM were administrated for 7 days. Gastric residual rate and intestinal transit were measured 20 min after atropine injected, and gastrointestinal hormones (including: gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL), somatostatin (SS) and p substance (PS) levels in serum were also measured by ELISA kits. The number and distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in stomach were detected by immunohistochemistry analysis, while c-kit and stem cell factor (SCF) expressions in stomach were also measured by western blotting. We found that TPM pretreatment significantly improved atropine-induced gastric residual rate increase, while had no significantly effects on intestinal transit; it also significantly normalized GAS, MTL and PS serum levels. Atropine-induced ICCs numbers decreased in both sinuses ventriculi and body of stomach, which is improved by TPM pretreatment. Western blotting results showed the expressions of c-kit and SCF were down-regulated after atropine injection, which can be reversed with TPM pretreatment. These results above indicates that TPM treatment can significantly protected atropine-induced gastric dysmoblility, which may owed to its regulation on c-kit/SCF signing pathway. PMID:26884941

  14. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

    2010-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazunori; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Kondo, Shinji; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

    2013-02-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis), a culinary aromatic and medicinal plant, is very rich in polyphenols and flavonoids with high antioxidant properties. This plant was reported to exert multiple benefits for neuronal system and alleviate mood disorder. In our previous study, we demonstrated that R. officinalis and its active compounds, luteolin (Lut), carnosic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA), exhibited neurotrophic effects and improved cholinergic functions in PC12 cells in correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study was conducted to evaluate and understand the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis using tail suspension test (TST) in ICR mice and PC12 cells as in vitro neuronal model. Proteomics analysis of PC12 cells treated with R. officinalis polyphenols (ROP) Lut, CA, and RA revealed a significant upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) two major genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic pathway regulations. Moreover, ROP were demonstrated to protect neuronal cells against corticosterone-induced toxicity. These results were concordant with decreasing immobility time in TST and regulation of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine) and gene expression in mice brain like TH, PC and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1). To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism behind the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis and its major active compounds.

  16. Synergistic antinociceptive interaction of Syzygium aromaticum or Rosmarinus officinalis coadministered with ketorolac in rats.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Villalobos, Karla Lyzet; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; González-Trujano, María Eva; Martínez-Salazar, María Fernanda; Ramírez-Cisneros, María de Los Ángeles; Rios, María Yolanda; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Mirtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are both medicinal plants used for centuries to alleviate pain. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic potential utility of herb-drug association of S. aromaticum essential oil or R. officinalis ethanolic extract coadministered with ketorolac. Antinociceptive pharmacological interaction was investigated by an isbolographic study using the formalin test in rats. Both alone and in combination with ketorolac; S. aromaticum and R. officinalis produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive response. To plot the isobologram, we used the effective dose 50 of each one component in a fixed 1:1 ratio. The isobolographic analysis showed that, in both combinations, ketorolac plus essential oil S. aromaticum and ketorolac plus ethanolic extract R. officinalis, the experimental value (Zexp) was lower than the theoretical value (Zadd). In addition, this study shows that eugenol, a metabolite present in S. aromaticum, and ursolic acid, a metabolite present in R. officinalis, also synergized the antinociceptive effect of ketorolac. While, the oleanolic acid present in both medicinal species did not show a synergistic antinociceptive effect in combination with ketorolac. No adverse effects were observed with these herb-drug interactions. These findings suggest that essential oil S. aromaticum and ethanolic extract R. officinalis could be useful in combination with ketorolac for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Antifungal effects of the aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sepehri, Z; Javadian, F; Khammari, D; Hassanshahian, M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose : In traditional medicine, herbal products still remain the principal source of pharmaceutical agents. The present study aimed to investigate the antifungal effects of Echinophora platyloba and Rosmarinus officinalis extracts on C. albicans species. Materials and Methods :The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis, collected from the mountainous regions of Iran, were screened in terms of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains, using the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the microtitration technique. Results: Overall, the results showed that the leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis had strong antimicrobial activities. Also, based on the findings, R. officinalis leaf extracts exhibited higher antimicrobial activity. The ethanolic leaf extracts of E. platyloba and R. officinalis showed good antimicrobial activity against C. albicans strains. However, the aqueous extracts did not show any major activities against the tested C. albicans strains. On the other hand, the ethanolic extracts exhibited major antimicrobial properties against C. albicans strains. The highest minimum inhibitory concentration was reported in E. platyloba leaf extracts. Conclusion: The present results indicated some advantages of E. platyloba and R. officinalis leaf extracts, which could be applied for the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:28681010

  18. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-01-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as “Amla” is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22–27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo. PMID:27898027

  19. Analgesic Effect of Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Fruit) Extracts on Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Yun Tai

    2016-11-26

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis fruit), also known as "Amla" is one of the oldest edible fruits known in India. It has also traditionally been used to treat inflammation, and as an analgesic to treat wounds. However, experimental evidence for the analgesic effects of E. officinalis has been lacking. The present study investigated whether E. officinalis extracts exhibit analgesic effects in the plantar incision (PI) and spared nerve injury (SNI) pain-model rats. We evaluated the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) using von Frey filaments, and pain-related behavior was determined after surgery based on ultrasonic vocalization (USV). The group treated with E. officinalis extracts at 300 mg/kg had significantly increased MWT values at 6 h and 24 h after the PI, and had a significantly reduced number of 22-27-kHz USVs at 6 h and 24 h after PI. Moreover, after 15 days of continuous treatment with E. officinalis extracts, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Thus, E. officinalis extracts have potential analgesic effects in both postoperative and neuropathic pain models in vivo.

  20. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Gauch, Lurdete Maria Rocha; Silveira-Gomes, Fabíola; Esteves, Renata Antunes; Pedrosa, Simone Soares; Gurgel, Ely Simone Cajueiro; Arruda, Alberto Cardoso; Marques-da-Silva, Silvia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil on germ tube formation by Candida albicans isolated from denture wearers. Ten C. albicans isolates recovered from denture wearers were tested using 10% fetal bovine serum with or without 4% R. officinalis essential oil. The essential oil from R. officinalis completely inhibited germ tube formation in the investigated C. albicans isolates. The results demonstrate that the essential oil of R. officinalis modulates C. albicans pathogenicity through its primary virulence factor (i.e., germ tube formation was suppressed).

  1. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move.

  2. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time.

  3. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-10

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina).

  4. Sterols and triterpenes in cell culture of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Zuzanna; Wysokińska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures from hypocotyl-derived callus of Hyssopus officinalis were found to produce two sterols i. e. beta-sitosterol (1) and stigmasterol (2), as well as several known pentacyclic triterpenes with an oleanene and ursene skeleton. The triterpenes were identified as oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), and 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (8). Compounds 5-8 were isolated as their acetates (6, 8) or bromolactone acetates (5, 7).

  5. Toxicological studies on hydroalcohol extract of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erick J R; Gonçalves, Eduardo S; Aguiar, Fábio; Evêncio, Liriane B; Lyra, Mariana M A; Coelho, Maria Cristina O C; Fraga, Maria do Carmo C A; Wanderley, Almir G

    2007-04-01

    The hydroalcohol extract (HAE) of Calendula officinalis L. was evaluated for its acute toxicity by the oral route in rats and mice and for the subacute effect on hematological, biochemical and morphologic parameters in rats. In the acute toxicity test, HAE failed to cause death in the animals after administration of oral doses up to 5.0 g/kg. Oral treatment with HAE at 0.025, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg did not induce hematological alterations when compared with the control group. In the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and in alanine transaminase (ALT) levels. Morphological examination of the brain, kidney and heart did not show any alteration. However, inflammatory sites were found in the lung and liver, which were associated, respectively, with oral gavage and a possible hepatotoxic effect. HAE was non-toxic in rats, although there was evidence of renal and liver overload.

  6. Flavonoids from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Patora, Jolanta; Klimek, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Six flavonoids have been isolated from the leaves of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data (UV, 1R, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FAB MS) as luteolin, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-Obeta-D-glucuronopyranoside. The last three glycosides have been found in lemon balm for the first time and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside is a new compound found in plants.

  7. Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM).

  8. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  9. Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice.

    PubMed

    Palit, P; Furman, B L; Gray, A I

    1999-11-01

    Galega officinalis (galega, Goat's Rue, French Lilac) is well known for its hypoglycaemic action and has been used as part of a plant mixture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. During pharmacological investigations of an ethanolic extract of a powdered mixture of equal proportions of G. officinalis, Cressa cretica, Mangifera indica and Syzygium jambolanum, a weight reducing effect of galega was discovered. In this study we have investigated the novel weight reducing effect of galega in mice. Galega herb (10% w/w in the diet) caused a significant reduction in body weight in both normal and genetically obese (ob/ob) animals treated for 28 days when compared with respective controls (P < 0.01). In normal mice, the weight loss was reversible and initially associated with a transient reduction in food intake but was then maintained even in the presence of increased eating above the control level. Pair-fed normal mice receiving galega for seven days also showed significant weight loss (P < 0.01, compared with the control) in the presence of increasing food intake. In sharp contrast, weight loss in galega-treated ob/ob mice was accompanied by a persistent reduction in food intake over the 28-day treatment period. Post-mortem examinations of all galega-treated mice revealed a striking absence of body fat. Serum glucose was significantly reduced in both strains of mice receiving galega for 28 days (P < 0.01), whereas serum insulin was significantly reduced only in obese mice (P < 0.01). In summary, together with its established hypoglycaemic effects, galega has a novel weight reducing action that, in normal mice, is largely independent of a reduction in food intake. The mechanism of the weight reducing action of galega is unclear but involves loss of body fat.

  10. Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Sedative Activities of Verbena officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Waheed; Khan, Arif-ullah; Ahmed, Touqeer

    2016-01-01

    We describe different neuropharmacological effects of Verbena officinalis crude extract (Vo.Cr). Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, elevated plus maze, light–dark box (LDB), open field and thiopental-induced sleeping test models were employed to evaluate Vo.Cr actions in mice. Vo.Cr dose-dependently (100–500 mg/Kg) delayed onset time of myoclonic jerks and tonic-clonic seizures, while decreased duration of tonic-clonic seizures (P < 0.05, P < 0.001 vs. saline group). Vo.Cr at 100 and 300–500 mg/Kg doses reduced animals’ mortality in PTZ-induced seizures test to 75 and 0%, respectively. Vo.Cr (50–300 mg/Kg) significantly increased time spent and number of entries into open arms, while decreased time spent and number of entries into closed arms (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 vs. saline group), measured in elevated plus maze. Vo.Cr (50–300 mg/Kg) increased time spent in light compartment, while decreased time spent in dark compartment (P < 0.01, P < 0.001 vs. saline group) in LDB, like caused by diazepam. In open field test, Vo.Cr decreased number of ambulations and rearings frequencies, while increased the number of central squares crossings. In thiopental-induced sleeping test, Vo.Cr (50–300 mg/Kg) decreased onset time of sleep, while increased the duration of sleep (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 vs. saline group). These results indicate that Verbena officinalis possess anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and sedative activities, which provides scientific background for its medicinal application in various neurological ailments, such as epilepsy, anxiety, and insomnia. PMID:28066246

  11. Anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant effect of Lavandula officinalis aerial part extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in male mice.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Batool; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Ahghari, Parisa

    2013-06-21

    Repeated application of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) has been recommended for a long time in Iranian traditional medicine for some of nervous disorders like epilepsy and dementia. However, there is no available report for the effect of chronic administration of Lavandula extract in development (acquisition) of epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant activity of repeated administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling seizures in mice model. Lavandula officinalis was tested for its ability (i) to suppress the seizure intensity and lethal effects of PTZ in kindled mice (anti-epileptogenic effect), (ii) to attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative injury in the brain tissue (antioxidant effect) when given as a pretreatment prior to each PTZ injection during kindling development. Valproate (Val), a major antiepileptic drug, was also tested for comparison. Val and Lavandula officinalis extract showed anti-epileptogenic properties as they reduced seizure score of kindled mice and PTZ-induced mortality. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis was more effective than Val. Both Lavandula officinalis and Val suppressed brain nitric oxide (NO) level of kindled mice in comparison with the control and PTZ group. Meanwhile, Lavandula officinalis suppressed NO level more than Val and Lavandula officinalis also decreased brain MDA level relative to PTZ group. This is the first report to demonstrate NO suppressing and anti-epileptogenic effect of chronic administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on acquisition of epilepsy in PTZ kindling mice model. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis extract was more effective than Val, possibly and in part via brain NO suppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuropsychology of prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Shazia Veqar; Chatterjee, Ushri; Kumar, Devvarta; Siddiqui, Aleem; Goyal, Nishant

    2008-01-01

    The history of clinical frontal lobe study is long and rich which provides valuable insights into neuropsychologic determinants of functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC is often classified as multimodal association cortex as extremely processed information from various sensory modalities is integrated here in a precise fashion to form the physiologic constructs of memory, perception, and diverse cognitive processes. Human neuropsychologic studies also support the notion of different functional operations within the PFC. The specification of the component ‘executive’ processes and their localization to particular regions of PFC have been implicated in a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. PMID:19742233

  13. Root nodulation in the wetland tree Pterocarpus officinalis along coastal and montane systems of Northeast of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Rachel Pérez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2008-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, brackish water wetlands were dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis previous to extensive deforestation due to agriculture. Today remnant wetlands are limited to small areas that are threatened by rise in sea level. We examined the root nodules of P. officinalis in montane and coastal sites and at 0, 10, 20 cm from the surface to determine if site...

  14. Effect of Cornus Officinalis on Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappaB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Young; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Choi, Min Kyu; Oh, Jaemin; Kwak, Han Bok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that is thought to result from an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Although osteoporosis itself has no symptoms, osteoporosis caused by osteoclasts leads to an increased risk of fracture. Here we examined the effects of cornus officinalis on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Methods We evaluated the effects of cornus officinalis on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and performed a cytotoxicity assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis. Results Cornus officinalis significantly inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, but without cytotoxicity against BMMs. The mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), c-Fos, and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) in BMMs treated with RANKL was considerably inhibited by cornus officinalis treatment. Also, cornus officinalis inhibits the protein expression of c-Fos and NFATc1. Cornus officinalis greatly inhibits RANKL-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). Also, cornus officinalis significantly suppresses RANKL-induced degradation of I-κB. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that cornus officinalis may be a useful the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24524042

  15. Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses.

    Treesearch

    Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo

    2007-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or...

  16. Therapeutic effectiveness of a Calendula officinalis extract in venous leg ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M; de Freitas, F; de Barros Winter, M

    2016-12-02

    Non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs) have a significant effect on patients' quality of life and substantially increase expenditures in health-care systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the Calendula officinalis extract, Plenusdermax, in the treatment of VLUs. Patients treated with Calendula officinalis extract (n=38) and control patients (n=19) were evaluated every two weeks for 30 weeks or until their ulcers healed. Assessments included determination of the wound area by planimetry, infection control, and evaluation of the clinical aspects of the wounds. The percentage of healing velocity per week (%HVw), taking the initial area at baseline into account, was also determined. The proportion of the treatment patients achieving complete epithelialisation was 72 % and 32 % in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The average healing time was approximately 12 weeks in the treatment group and 25 % in control patients. Patients with ulcers treated with Calendula officinalis extract had a significant 4-fold increase in percentage healing velocity per week, 7.4 %, compared with 1.7 % in the control group. No adverse events were observed during the Calendula officinalis extract treatment. Our findings indicate that Calendula officinalis extract is an effective treatment for VLUs. The authors have no conflict of interest.

  17. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

  18. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  19. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs.

  20. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    PubMed

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  1. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-10-29

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.

  2. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-18

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg · mL(-1) for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant.

  3. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  4. Traditional knowledge to clinical trials: A review on therapeutic actions of Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Suraj Singh; Singh, Manish Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Vipin

    2017-09-01

    Plants are the integral part of the traditional indigenous healthcare system and are becoming concrete source of new drug discovery, evident by the increasing numbers of modern drugs derived from the phytochemicals. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn (family Phyllanthaceae) has been explained extensively and well documented for its therapeutic efficacies in indigenous system of medicine, in India. Every part of this plant possesses high medicinal value but fruits are the most valuable part in folklore and therapeutic uses. The polyphenols found in E.officinalis, especially tannins and flavonoids are key responsible elements for major bioactivities. E.officinalis is one of the major component in various health tonics, also exerts synergistic effects in enhancing the medicinal efficacy. E.officinalis exhibits broad spectrum of pharmacological activities through various mode of actions including antioxidant, anticancer, immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, cyto-protective properties etc. Medical practitioners across the globe also advocated its application in managing diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, several types of cancer, liver disorders, arthritis, gingivitis, wound healing etc. The present review analysed and summarized the pharmacological actions, experimental studies and clinical trials of E. officinalis with emphasis on its immuno-enhancer, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities and possible mechanism of actions to provide future directions in translating these findings clinically. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced-Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-10-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn(2+) ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O₂(•-) production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age.

  6. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced—Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age. PMID:27775613

  7. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  8. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    PubMed

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  9. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  10. The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color

    PubMed Central

    Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira

    2012-01-01

    Objective: There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Materials and Methods: Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and flavonoids content. Results: The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses. PMID:25050239

  11. ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-05-01

    New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis.

  12. MYB transcription factor gene involved in sex determination in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohji; Shigenobu, Shuji; Fujii, Sota; Ueda, Kazuki; Murata, Takanori; Sakamoto, Ai; Wada, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Kanno, Akira; Ozaki, Yukio; Takayama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males. MSE1 exhibits tight linkage with the Y chromosome, specific expression in early anther development and loss of function on the X chromosome. Knockout of the MSE1 orthologue in Arabidopsis induces male sterility. Thus, MSE1 acts in sex determination in A. officinalis. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-10-01

    Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa

  14. Tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis renovate cognitive deficits and attenuate amyloid pathologies against aluminum chloride induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Dhivyabharathi, Mathiyazahan; William Raja, Tharsius Raja; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Emblica officinalis is mentioned as a maharasayana in many Ayurvedic texts and promotes intelligence, memory, freedom from disease, longevity, and strength of the senses. The present study has been designed to explore the memory-enhancing effect of the tannoid principles of E. officinalis (EoT) at the biochemical, anatomical, behavioral, and molecular levels against aluminum chloride (AlCl3) induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rats. Aluminum is reported to have an important role in the etiology, pathogenesis, and development of AD. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, AlCl3 treated, AlCl3 and EoT (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw) co-treated, and EoT (200 mg/kg bw) alone treated groups. In control and experimental rats, behavior tests including water maze and open field test, estimation of aluminum, assay of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, and expression of amyloidogenic proteins were performed. Intraperitonial injection of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg bw) for 60 days significantly elevated the concentration of aluminum (Al), activity of AChE and protein expressions of amyloid precursor protein, A-beta1-42, beta-, and gamma-secretases as compared to control group in hippocampus and cortex. Co-administration of EoT orally to AlCl3 rats for 60 days significantly revert back the Al concentration, AChE activity, and A-beta synthesis-related molecules in the studied brain regions. The spatial learning, memory, and locomotor impairments observed in AlCl3 treated rats were significantly attenuated by EoT. Therefore, EoT may be a promising therapy in ameliorating neurotoxicity of aluminum, however further studies are warranted to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of EoT.

  15. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease.

  16. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants.

  18. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  19. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation.

  20. Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Oluwatuyi, Moyosoluwa; Kaatz, Glenn W; Gibbons, Simon

    2004-12-01

    As part of a project to characterise plant-derived natural products that modulate bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR), bioassay-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis led to the characterisation of the known abietane diterpenes carnosic acid (1), carnosol (2) and 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid. Additionally, a new diterpene, the cis A/B ring junction isomer of 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid, 12-methoxy-cis-carnosic acid (5), was isolated. The major components were assessed for their antibacterial activities against strains of Staphylococcus aureus possessing efflux mechanisms of resistance. Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 16 to 64 microg/ml. Incorporation of 1 and 2 into the growth medium at 10 microg/ml caused a 32- and 16-fold potentiation of the activity of erythromycin against an erythromycin effluxing strain, respectively. Compound 1 was evaluated against a strain of S. aureus possessing the NorA multidrug efflux pump and was shown to inhibit ethidium bromide efflux with an IC50 of 50 microM, but this activity is likely to be related to the inhibition of a pump(s) other than NorA. The antibacterial and efflux inhibitory activities of these natural products make them interesting potential targets for synthesis.

  1. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Development of imidazolinone herbicide tolerant borage (Borago officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Dongyan; Wu, Guohai; Vrinten, Patricia; Qiu, Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb that produces a high level of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in its seed oil. Due to the recognized health benefits of GLA, borage is now commercially cultivated worldwide. However, an herbicide-tolerant variety for effective weed management has not yet been developed. Here we report the generation and characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced borage mutant lines tolerant to the herbicide imidazolinone. An EMS-mutagenized borage population was generated by using a series of concentrations of EMS to treat mature borage seeds. Screening of the M2 and M3 borage plants using an herbicide treatment resulted in the identification of two imidazolinone-tolerant lines. Sequence analysis of two acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) genes, AHAS1 and AHAS2, from the mutant (tolerant) and wild type (susceptible) borage plants showed that single nucleotide substitutions which resulted in amino acid changes occurred in AHAS1 and AHAS2, respectively in the two tolerant lines. A KASP marker was then developed to differentiate the homozygous susceptible, homozygous tolerant and heterozygous borage plants. An in vitro assay showed that homozygous tolerant borage carrying the AHAS1 mutation retained significantly higher AHAS activity than susceptible borage across different imazamox concentrations. A herbicide dose response test indicated that the line with the AHAS1 mutation could tolerate four times the normally used field concentration of "Solo" herbicide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Flavonoid pattern of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) unifloral honey.

    PubMed

    Kenjerić, Daniela; Mandić, Milena L; Primorac, Ljiljana; Čačić, Frane

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine the flavonoids in monofloral sage (Salvia officinalis L.) honey which is characteristic and specific for the area of Croatian coast and islands. For that purpose 38 sage honey samples from two production seasons were analysed. After specific pollen content determination, and analyses of selected physicochemical parameters which confirmed that samples are in compliance with national and international regulations and can be regarded as unifloral sage honeys, flavonoid fraction was isolated and analysed using RP-HPLC/DAD method. The HPLC analysis showed that all examined sage honey samples contain quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), as well as p-coumaric (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid). Total amount of identified flavonoids varied from 109.4μg/100g of honey to 589.9μg/100g of honey, with the average of 288.5μg/100g of honey. All analysed honey samples showed common and specific flavonoid profile which could be the basis for differentiating sage from other monofloral honeys.

  4. Saccadic Movement Strategy in Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Helmer, Desiree; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Frederike D.

    2017-01-01

    Most moving animals segregate their locomotion trajectories in short burst like rotations and prolonged translations, to enhance distance information from optic flow, as only translational, but not rotational optic flow holds distance information. Underwater, optic flow is a valuable source of information as it is in the terrestrial habitat, however, so far, it has gained only little attention. To extend the knowledge on underwater optic flow perception and use, we filmed the movement pattern of six common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) with a high speed camera in this study. In the subsequent analysis, the center of mass of the cuttlefish body was manually traced to gain thrust, slip, and yaw of the cuttlefish movements over time. Cuttlefish indeed performed short rotations, saccades, with rotational velocities up to 343°/s. They clearly separated rotations from translations in line with the saccadic movement strategy documented for animals inhabiting the terrestrial habitat as well as for the semiaquatic harbor seals before. However, this separation only occurred during fin motion. In contrast, during jet propelled swimming, the separation between rotational and translational movements and thus probably distance estimation on the basis of the optic flow field is abolished in favor of high movement velocities. In conclusion, this study provides first evidence that an aquatic invertebrate, the cuttlefish, adopts a saccadic movement strategy depending on the behavioral context that could enhance the information gained from optic flow. PMID:28105017

  5. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  6. [Diuretic activity of the infusion of flowers from Lavandula officinalis].

    PubMed

    Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A

    2001-01-01

    The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender.

  7. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  8. A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Aleksić, Jelena M; Stojanović, Danilo; Banović, Bojana; Jančić, Radiša

    2012-12-01

    We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 μg DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals.

  9. Genomic organization of the AODEF gene in Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Ito, Takuro; Suzuki, Go; Ochiai, Toshinori; Nakada, Mutsumi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira

    2005-04-01

    The perianths of Liliaceae plants, such as lily and tulip, have two whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, which are called tepals. According to the modified ABC model proposed in tulip, the class B genes are expressed in whorl 1 as well as whorls 2 and 3, so that the organs of whorls 1 and 2 have the same petaloid structure. The floral structure of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is similar to that of Liliaceae plants, however, the expression of B-class genes (AODEF, AOGLOA, AOGLOB) was not found in whorl 1, but was confined to whorls 2 and 3. This result does not support the modified ABC model in asparagus. In order to gain a better understanding of asparagus flower development, we have characterized a genomic clone of the AODEF gene. We compared the genomic organization and promoter sequence of AODEF with three well-studied DEF-like genes, DEFICIENS (Antirrhinum), APETALA3 (Arabidopsis), and OSMADS16 (rice). Exon-intron structures of these genes are well-conserved except for the large fifth intron in the AODEF gene and the OSMADS16 gene. Putative cis-elements including CArG-boxes were found in the promoter region and forty-two microsatellites were found in the AODEF genomic sequence.

  10. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti

  11. Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) Effects on Heart Electrical System.

    PubMed

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh

    2015-05-01

    Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P < 0.05 for M50 and M100 groups and P < 0.01 for M200 group versus the control group, respectively), prolonged QTc and JT intervals (P < 0.01 for different M groups versus the control group) and prolonged TpTe interval (P < 0.001 when M groups compared with the control group) of ECG. However, different doses of the extract had no significant effect on RR interval, PR interval, amplitudes of ECG waves, heart rate and blood pressure. For the first time, this study revealed that consumption of Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes.

  12. Genome-wide identification and validation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufen; Zhang, Guojun; Li, Xu; Wang, Lianjun; Yuan, Jinhong; Deng, Chuanliang; Gao, Wujun

    2016-06-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), an important vegetable cultivated worldwide, can also serve as a model dioecious plant species in the study of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. However, limited DNA marker resources have been developed and used for this species. To expand these resources, we examined the DNA sequences for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 163,406 scaffolds representing approximately 400 Mbp of the A. officinalis genome. A total of 87,576 SSRs were identified in 59,565 scaffolds. The most abundant SSR repeats were trinucleotide and tetranucleotide, accounting for 29.2 and 29.1% of the total SSRs, respectively, followed by di-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octanucleotides. The AG motif was most common among dinucleotides and was also the most frequent motif in the entire A. officinalis genome, representing 14.7% of all SSRs. A total of 41,917 SSR primers pairs were designed to amplify SSRs. Twenty-two genomic SSR markers were tested in 39 asparagus accessions belonging to ten cultivars and one accession of Asparagus setaceus for determination of genetic diversity. The intra-species polymorphism information content (PIC) values of the 22 genomic SSR markers were intermediate, with an average of 0.41. The genetic diversity between the ten A. officinalis cultivars was low, and the UPGMA dendrogram was largely unrelated to cultivars. It is here suggested that the sex of individuals is an important factor influencing the clustering results. The information reported here provides new information about the organization of the microsatellites in A. officinalis genome and lays a foundation for further genetic studies and breeding applications of A. officinalis and related species.

  13. Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2012-06-01

    Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status.

  14. Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) Effects on Heart Electrical System

    PubMed Central

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. Objectives: ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Results: Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P < 0.05 for M50 and M100 groups and P < 0.01 for M200 group versus the control group, respectively), prolonged QTc and JT intervals (P < 0.01 for different M groups versus the control group) and prolonged TpTe interval (P < 0.001 when M groups compared with the control group) of ECG. However, different doses of the extract had no significant effect on RR interval, PR interval, amplitudes of ECG waves, heart rate and blood pressure. Conclusions: For the first time, this study revealed that consumption of Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes. PMID:26396973

  15. A modification on the vector cosine algorithm of Similarity Analysis for improved discriminative capacity and its application to the quality control of Magnoliae Flos.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhao, Xin; Fan, Guorong

    2017-08-16

    Chromatographic fingerprint analysis has been widely used in quality control of herbal medicines, and Similarity Analysis (SA) as a well-established method has been applied in the quality control practice as well as publications related to the study of herbal medicines and preparations. However, in some cases the results of SA do not fit well with those of other chemometric approaches and quantitative analysis, and the problem remains unsolved. In this study, a modified SA algorithm has been proposed, with its advantages discussed in theory. The extract of dried flower bud of Magnolia biondii Pamp. obtained by pressurized solvent extraction was then selected as a case to verify the modified algorithm. After identification of the components, fingerprint analysis was performed using different chemometric methods including Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as well as original and modified SA methods, and the improved discriminative capacity of modified SA algorithm was illustrated. Characteristic chemical markers were then identified using the modified SA approach and then confirmed using PCA method. The quantitative results were then utilized to confirm the advantage of modified SA approach over the original one. The study made a modification to the widely applied SA algorithm, which was possibly a beneficial improvement in fingerprint analysis and quality control practice of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora, Chrysactinia mexicana, and Schinus molle found in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; González González, Gloria María; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The essential oils from Magnolia grandiflora and Chrysactinia mexicana leaves, and from Schinus molle leaves and fruit, were characterized by gas chromatography/flame-ionization detection and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-eight compounds from M. grandiflora leaves were identified (representing 93.6% of the total area of the gas chromatogram), with the major component being bornyl acetate (20.9%). Colorless and yellow oils were obtained from the C. mexicana leaves with 18 (86.7%) and 11 (100%) compounds identified, respectively. In both fractions, the principal component was sylvestrene (36.8% and 41.1%, respectively). The essential oils ofS. molle leaves and fruit were each separated into colorless and yellow fractions, in which 14 (98.2) and 20 (99.8%) compounds were identified. The main component was alpha-phellandrene in all fractions (between 32.8% and 45.0%). The M. grandiflora oil displayed antifungal activity against five dermatophyte strains. The oils from S. molle and M. grandiflora leaves had antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, which cause skin infections that potentially may lead to sepsis. However, the antioxidant activities of all oils were small (half maximal effective concentration values >250 microg/mL).

  17. Pollen flow and effects of population structure on selfing rates and female and male reproductive success in fragmented Magnolia stellata populations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragmentation of plant populations may affect mating patterns and female and male reproductive success. To improve understanding of fragmentation effects on plant reproduction, we investigated the pollen flow patterns in six adjacent local populations of Magnolia stellata, an insect-pollinated, threatened tree species in Japan, and assessed effects of maternal plant (genet) size, local genet density, population size and neighboring population size on female reproductive success (seed production rates), and effects of mating distance, paternal genet size, population size and separation of populations on male reproductive success. Results The seed production rate, i.e. the proportion of ovules that successfully turned into seeds, varied between 1.0 and 6.5%, and increased with increasing population size and neighboring population size, and with decreasing maternal genet size and local genet density. The selfing rate varied between 3.6 and 28.9%, and increased with increasing maternal genet size and with declining local genet density. Male reproductive success increased with increasing paternal genet size, and decreased with increasing mating distance and separation of population. Pollen flow between the populations was low (6.1%) and highly leptocurtic. Conclusions Our results indicate that habitat fragmentation, separation and reduced size of populations, affected mating patterns and reproductive success of M. stellata. Local competition for pollinators and plant display size were likely to alter the reproductive success. PMID:23517612

  18. Larvicidal activity of Magnolia denudata seed hydrodistillate constituents and related compounds and liquid formulations towards two susceptible and two wild mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhang-Qian; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Wang, Mo; Shu, Shaohua; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2016-05-01

    Anopheles sinensis, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit malaria, dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases respectively. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 17 constituents from Magnolia denudata seed hydrodistillate (MD-SHD) and four experimental MD-SHD liquid formulations (10-50 mg L(-1) liquid) to third-instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible Cx. p. pallens and Ae. aegypti as well as wild Ae. albopictus and An. sinensis. 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol was the most toxic constituent (LC50 1.98-3.90 mg L(-1)), followed by linoleic acid (7.19-10.49 mg L(-1)), towards larvae of the four mosquito species. High toxicity was also produced by nerolidol, (±)-limonene, α-terpinene and γ-terpinene (LC50 9.84-36.42 mg L(-1)). The toxicity of these compounds was virtually identical towards larvae of the four mosquito species, even though An. sinensis larvae were resistant to deltamethrin and temephos. The MS-SHD 50 mg L(-1) liquid resulted in 92-100% control towards larvae of the four mosquito species, while commercial temephos 200 g L(-1) emulsifiable concentrate was almost ineffective towards An. sinensis larvae (30% mortality). Reasonable mosquito control in the aquatic environment can be achieved by MD-SHD 50 mg L(-1) liquid as a potential larvicide. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2007-01-01

    Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens.

  20. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

  1. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction of Rosmarinus officinalis and capability of extracts eliminate OH radical].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chong; Li, Jia-Cheng; Zhang, De-La; Feng, Yu-Hong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Si-Li

    2008-05-01

    Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction process of antioxidation active components from Rosmarinus officinalis was studied. A new extraction process of components extracted from R. officinalis by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction (SFE-CO2 ) was studied in detail. The capability of that the extract eliminate *OH radical was tested by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique and spin catch technique. With free radical clearance as index, by range and variance analysis, the optimum extraction process conditions were: keeping pressure at 30 MPa and temperature at 75 degrees C for 1 h, in the same time adding alcohol 0.30 mL x g(-1).

  2. A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marcos G; Waldrop, Robert H; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis.

  3. Melissa officinalis L. - A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2016-07-21

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that has long been used in different ethno-medical systems especially in the European Traditional Medicine and the Iranian Traditional Medicine for the treatment of several diseases. It is also widely used as a vegetable and to add flavor to dishes This review aimed to provide a summary on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of M. officinalis, and discusses research gaps and future opportunities for investigations on this plant. We extensively reviewed major unpublished old texts, and published and electronic literature on traditional medicines of different regions of the world to find traditional uses of M. officinalis. Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched to find articles (published between 1956 and 2015) on pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. officinalis. Traditional uses of M. officinalis have been recorded mostly in European countries, Mediterranean region and Middle East countries. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from M. officinalis exhibited numerous pharmacological effects, from which only anxiolytic, antiviral and antispasmodic activities of this plant as well as its effects on mood, cognition and memory have been shown in clinical trials. AChE inhibitory activity, stimulation of the acetylcholine and GABAA receptors, as well as inhibition of matrix metallo proteinase-2 are the main mechanisms proposed for the widely discussed neurological effects of this plant. Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of M. officinalis. The data reviewed here revealed that M. officinalis is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases especially anxiety and some other CNS disorders

  4. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Althaea officinalis radix hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Althaea officinalis radix in production of silver NPs, and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs. Seventy and ninety-six percent hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. The NPs were characterized by Nano-Zeta Sizer and TEM. Both of 70% and 96% of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. officinalis radix successfully synthesized spherical and poly-dispersed silver NPs. The conversion was fast and almost completed in 5 h.

  5. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Ghannadi, A; Malekshahi, K

    2003-07-01

    The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC(50) of approximately 20 ng/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on contraction of rat ileum with IC(50)s comparable to that of MOEO.

  6. CX-516 Cortex pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Danysz, Wojciech

    2002-07-01

    CX-516 is one of a series of AMPA modulators under development by Cortex, in collaboration with Shire and Servier, for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) [234221]. By June 2001, CX-516 was in phase II trials for both schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [412513]. A phase II trial in fragile X syndrome and autism was expected to start in May 2002 [449861]. In October 2001, Cortex was awarded a Phase II SBIR grant of $769,818 from the National Institutes of Mental Health to investigate the therapeutic potential of AMPAkines in schizophrenia. This award was to support a phase IIb study of CX-516 as a combination therapy in schizophrenia patients concomitantly treated with olanzapine. The trial was to enroll 80 patients and employ a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design in which the placebo group was to receive olanzapine plus placebo and the active group was to receive olanzapine plus CX-516 [425982]. In April 2000, Shire and Cortex signed an option agreement in which Shire was to evaluate CX-516for the treatment of ADHD. Under the terms of the agreement, Shire would undertake a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of CX-516 involving ADHD patients. If the study proved effective, Shire would have the right to convert its option into an exclusive worldwide license for the AMPAkines for ADHD under a development and licensing agreement. Should Shire elect to execute this agreement, Shire would bear all future developmental costs [363618]. By February 2002, Cortex and Servier had revealed their intention to begin enrolment for an international study of an AMPAkine compound as a potential treatment for MCI in the near future. Assuming enrollment proceeded as anticipated, results were expected during the second quarter of 2003 [439301]. By May 2002, phase II trials were underway [450134]. In March 2002, Cortex was awarded extended funding under the

  7. A putative MYB35 ortholog is a candidate for the sex-determining genes in Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Kohei; Ide, Mayui; Hayashi, Masato; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus) is a dioecious perennial crop. For agricultural production of A. officinalis, male plants have advantages over female plants. The dioecism of A. officinalis is determined by the single dominant masculinizing M locus, which is involved in tapetal cell development in stamens, but thus far no specific M locus genes have been identified. We re-analyzed previously published RNA-Seq data for the A. officinalis transcriptome, cloned some genes, and discovered that a putative ortholog of MYB35, which is indispensable for tapetal cell development in Arabidopsis thaliana, is absent in the genome of female plants in A. officinalis. In a reverse transcription-PCR analysis, this gene (AoMYB35) exhibited strong expression in stamens in male flowers at an early developmental stage. In an in situ hybridization analysis, AoMYB35 mRNA was detected in tapetal cells in young male flowers. GFP-fused AoMYB35 was detected in the nucleus when expressed in onion epidermal cells. These results suggest that AoMYB35 is a male-specific gene encoding a putative transcription factor that acts in tapetal cells at an early stage of flower development in A. officinalis. Together, the results support the idea that AoMYB35 is a candidate for one of the M locus genes in A. officinalis. PMID:28176806

  8. A putative MYB35 ortholog is a candidate for the sex-determining genes in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tsugama, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Kohei; Ide, Mayui; Hayashi, Masato; Fujino, Kaien; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-08

    Asparagus officinalis (garden asparagus) is a dioecious perennial crop. For agricultural production of A. officinalis, male plants have advantages over female plants. The dioecism of A. officinalis is determined by the single dominant masculinizing M locus, which is involved in tapetal cell development in stamens, but thus far no specific M locus genes have been identified. We re-analyzed previously published RNA-Seq data for the A. officinalis transcriptome, cloned some genes, and discovered that a putative ortholog of MYB35, which is indispensable for tapetal cell development in Arabidopsis thaliana, is absent in the genome of female plants in A. officinalis. In a reverse transcription-PCR analysis, this gene (AoMYB35) exhibited strong expression in stamens in male flowers at an early developmental stage. In an in situ hybridization analysis, AoMYB35 mRNA was detected in tapetal cells in young male flowers. GFP-fused AoMYB35 was detected in the nucleus when expressed in onion epidermal cells. These results suggest that AoMYB35 is a male-specific gene encoding a putative transcription factor that acts in tapetal cells at an early stage of flower development in A. officinalis. Together, the results support the idea that AoMYB35 is a candidate for one of the M locus genes in A. officinalis.

  9. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.

    PubMed

    Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

    2011-07-01

    Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel.

  10. Induction of apoptosis by obovatol as a novel therapeutic strategy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeng-Soo; Lim, Ga Young; Hwang, Junmo; Ryoo, Zae Young; Huh, Tae-Lin; Lee, Sanggyu

    2014-12-01

    Obovatol, a compound isolated from the bark cortex of Magnolia officinalis (cortex Magnoliae officinalis; M. officinalis), has been studied for use in the treatment of solid cancers. However, the mechanisms of action and the effects of obovatol against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unclear and require further investigation. Therefore, this study was conducted using a human AML cell line (MM6). Obovatol increased pro-apoptotic (Bax) and decreased anti-apoptotic (Bcl-2) protein expression, resulting in caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation measured by caspase-Glo 3/7 assay. Furthermore, obovatol activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway [c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38] and inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway analyzed by western blot analysis. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that obovatol inhibits cell proliferation in AML and induces apoptosis through the activation of the MAPK pathway in addition to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. In addition, obovatol suppressed the expression of mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) target genes by inhibiting the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Therefore, these results suggest that obovatol may have potential for use in the treatment of leukemia.

  11. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

  12. Shampoo-clay heals diaper rash faster than calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.

  13. Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

  14. Flower size variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: individuals, populations and habitats.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Javier

    2005-02-01

    Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0.1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf-flower covariation was also investigated. Most (58%) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource-cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions.

  15. Effects of Calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pragtipal; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Song, Fengyu; Gregson, Karen S; Windsor, L Jack

    2012-04-01

    Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells. To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity. Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses. Calendula at 2-3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin. Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms.

  17. Mitochondrial dynamics underlying thermal plasticity of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) hearts.

    PubMed

    Oellermann, Michael; Pörtner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

    2012-09-01

    In the eurythermal cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, performance depends on hearts that ensure systemic oxygen supply over a broad range of temperatures. We therefore aimed to identify adjustments in energetic cardiac capacity and underlying mitochondrial function supporting thermal acclimation and adaptation that could be crucial for the cuttlefish's competitive success in variable environments. Two genetically distinct cuttlefish populations were acclimated to 11, 16 and 21°C. Subsequently, skinned and permeabilised heart fibres were used to assess mitochondrial functioning by means of high-resolution respirometry and a substrate-inhibitor protocol, followed by measurements of cardiac citrate synthase and cytosolic enzyme activities. Temperate English Channel cuttlefish had lower mitochondrial capacities but larger hearts than subtropical Adriatic cuttlefish. Warm acclimation to 21°C decreased mitochondrial complex I activity in Adriatic cuttlefish and increased complex IV activity in English Channel cuttlefish. However, compensation of mitochondrial capacities did not occur during cold acclimation to 11°C. In systemic hearts, the thermal sensitivity of mitochondrial substrate oxidation was high for proline and pyruvate but low for succinate. Oxygen efficiency of catabolism rose as temperature changed from 11 to 21°C via shifts to oxygen-conserving oxidation of proline and pyruvate and via reduced relative proton leak. The changes observed for substrate oxidation, mitochondrial complexes, relative proton leak and heart mass improve energetic efficiency and essentially seem to extend tolerance to high temperatures and reduce associated tissue hypoxia. We conclude that cuttlefish sustain cardiac performance and, thus, systemic oxygen delivery over short- and long-term changes of temperature and environmental conditions by multiple adjustments in cellular and mitochondrial energetics.

  18. Orientation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: response versus place learning.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Boal, Jean Geary; Dickel, Ludovic

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mammals, birds and fish use comparable spatial learning strategies. Unfortunately, except in insects, few studies have investigated spatial learning mechanisms in invertebrates. Our study aimed to identify the strategies used by cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to solve a spatial task commonly used with vertebrates. A new spatial learning procedure using a T-maze was designed. In this maze, the cuttlefish learned how to enter a dark and sandy compartment. A preliminary test confirmed that individual cuttlefish showed an untrained side-turning preference (preference for turning right or left) in the T-maze. This preference could be reliably detected in a single probe trial. In the following two experiments, each individual was trained to enter the compartment opposite to its side-turning preference. In Experiment 1, distal visual cues were provided around the maze. In Experiment 2, the T-maze was surrounded by curtains and two proximal visual cues were provided above the apparatus. In both experiments, after acquisition, strategies used by cuttlefish to orient in the T-maze were tested by creating a conflict between the formerly rewarded algorithmic behaviour (turn, response learning) and the visual cues identifying the goal (place learning). Most cuttlefish relied on response learning in Experiment 1; the two strategies were used equally often in Experiment 2. In these experiments, the salience of cues provided during the experiment determined whether cuttlefish used response or place learning to solve this spatial task. Our study demonstrates for the first time the presence of multiple spatial strategies in cuttlefish that appear to closely parallel those described in vertebrates.

  19. Perfusion strategy for rosmarinic acid production by Anchusa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Su, W W; Lei, F; Su, L Y

    1993-09-20

    The production of an intracellular secondary metabolite rosmarinic acid (RA) by plant cell suspensions of Anchusa officinalis cultivated with intermittent medium exchange is investigated. Initially, a two-stage perfusion culture method was employed. After being cultured in the batch mode for ca. 6 days in B5 medium plus 3% sucrose, 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 0.1 mg/L kinetin (2,4-D B5 medium), Anchusa culture was cultivated to high cell density by perfusion during the growth stage using a hormone-free Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 6% sucrose. This was followed by a production stage, in which a complete medium exchange into B5 medium plus 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L naphthleneacetic acid (NAA) was conducted. The two-stage perfusion culture had a higher maximum culture RA concentration but a lower RA content per cell than the batch stock culture maintained in the 2,4-D B5 medium. Higher culture RA concentration was due primarily to high cell density. The high packed cell volume, however, seemed to reduce the synergistic effect of NAA on RA synthesis. Subsequently, a single-stage perfusion culture method was investigated. The best result was obtained by growing the culture in the batch mode for ca. 10 days using B5 medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA, followed by perfusing the culture with B5 medium plus 6% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA at a constant perfusion rate of 0.1/day. A maximum cell dry weight of 35 g/L and a RA concentration of almost 4 g/L were achieved. This is the highest RA concentration ever reported in the Anchusa culture. (c) 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.

    PubMed

    al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

    1999-02-01

    The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.

  1. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia.

  3. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control.

  4. Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

    1994-06-01

    Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions.

  5. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

    2008-02-29

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections.

  6. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  7. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  8. Evaluation of homeopathy in broiler chickens exposed to live viral vaccines and administered Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Elie K; Sagherian, Vatché; Talhouk, Salma; Talhouk, Rabih; Farran, Mohamad T; Sleiman, Fawwak T; Harakeh, Steve

    2004-08-01

    In this study it was determined that a Calendula officinalis water extract can reduce the immune response to three different viruses in broiler chickens, associated with improvement in body weights. The experiment was conducted on broiler chickens divided into two groups of 105 birds each. The first group received a Calendula officinalis water extract orally, while the second group received drinking water only. All birds in the two groups were similarly exposed to three different live vaccine viruses. Quantitative assessment of humoral immunity to each of the 3 viruses and records of bursal and thymus weight indices were taken. Performance, as observed in weight records at 21 and 41 days of age, feed conversion, and% mortality up to market age, was also evaluated. There was a reduction in immune response to IB virus at 42 days of age, to ND virus at 29 and 42 days of age, and to IBD virus at 14, 29, and 42 days of age in the Calendula officinals-treated birds in comparison with controls. This immune reduction in Calendula officinalis-treated birds was associated with insignificant reduction in the bursal weight index at 42 days of age and an improvement in mean weights at 21 and 41 days of age; the feed conversion and mortality rates were similar in the two groups (P>0.05). Calendula officinalis had an immunomodulation effect against three different live viruses in broiler chickens.

  9. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

    2004-02-20

    The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample.

  11. Preservative properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil with and without EDTA.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Cannatelli, M A; Morelli, I; Cioni, P L; Bader, A; Marino, A; Alonzo, V

    2002-01-01

    This study was focused on the preserving properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil, a plant known for its diaphoretic, expectorant and aromatic properties. The commercial aerial parts of C. officinalis Moench were hydrodistilled and the essential oil analysed by Gas chromatography/Electron impact mass spectrometry (GC/EIMS). The inhibition efficacy of this essence, alone (0.5 and 1.0% v/v) and in combination with 2.0 mM EDTA, was assayed, in culture medium and in cetomacrogol cream, using preservative efficacy testing against standard microrganisms (E. coli ATCC 25922, Ps. aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Staph. aureus ATCC 6538P, C. albicans ATCC 10231 and A. niger ATCC 16404). C. officinalis essential oil in cetomacrogol cream with EDTA showed long-lasting antimicrobial activity, satisfying the European Pharmacopoeia Commission (E. P.) criteria. C. officinalis essential oil could have a potential for a future use as a cosmetic preservative. To find natural compounds with antimicrobial activity which could be alternatives to the synthetic chemical preservatives.

  12. Efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as preservative in two topical product types.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Cannatelli, M A; Morelli, I; Musolino, A D; Scuderi, F; Pizzimenti, F; Alonzo, V

    2004-01-01

    To verify the efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as natural preservative in two current formulations. The 1.0 and 2.0% (v/v) C. officinalis essential oil was assayed for its preservative activity in two product types (cream and shampoo). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standards proposed by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission (E.P.) concerning topical preparations using standard micro-organisms and in addition wild strains, either in single or mixed cultures were used. The results clearly demonstrated that the C. officinalis essential oil at 2.0% concentration reduced the microbial inoculum satisfying the criterion A of the E.P. in the cream formulation and the criterion B in the shampoo formulation. Standard and wild strains showed a behaviour similar, both in cream and in shampoo formulation, with no significant difference (gerarchic variance, P > 0.05). C. officinalis essential oil confirmed its preservative properties but at higher concentration than that shown in previous studies on cetomacrogol cream. The nature of the formulation in which an essential oil is incorporated as preservative could have considerable effect on its efficacy.

  13. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  14. [Urine metabonomic study of intervention effects of Morinda officinalis how. on 'kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong-jie; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Gong, Meng-juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the intervention effects of Morinda officinalis How. on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' induced by hydrocortisone in rats, the metabolic profiles of rat urine were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the trajectory of urinary metabolic phenotype of rats with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' under administration of M. officinalis at different time points. Meanwhile, the intervention effects of M. officinalis on urinary metabolic potential biomarkers associated with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' were also discussed. The experimental results showed that in accordance to the increased time of administration, an obvious tendency was observed that clustering of the treatment group moved gradually closed to that of the control group. Eight potential biomarkers including citrate, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lactate, betaine, sarcosine, alanine and taurine were definitely up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, the effectiveness of M. oficinalis on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' is proved using the established metabonomic method and the regulated metabolic pathways involve energy metabolism, transmethylation and transportation of amine. Meanwhile, the administration of M. officinalis can alleviate the kidney impairment induced by 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'.

  15. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  16. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  17. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

    2009-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use.

  18. Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2011-05-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

  20. Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P = 0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV

  1. Neurocontrol in sensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, Jason; Nandi, Anirban; Schroeder, Joseph; Ching, Shinung

    Technology to control neural ensembles is rapidly advancing, but many important challenges remain in applications, such as design of controls (e.g. stimulation patterns) with specificity comparable to natural sensory encoding. We use the rodent whisker tactile system as a model for active touch, in which sensory information is acquired in a closed loop between feedforward encoding of sensory information and feedback guidance of sensing motions. Motivated by this system, we present optimal control strategies that are tailored for underactuation (a large ratio of neurons or degrees of freedom to stimulation channels) and limited observability (absence of direct measurement of the system state), common in available stimulation technologies for freely behaving animals. Using a control framework, we have begun to elucidate the feedback effect of sensory cortex activity on sensing in behaving animals. For example, by optogenetically perturbing primary sensory cortex (SI) activity at varied timing relative to individual whisker motions, we find that SI modulates future sensing behavior within 15 msec, on a whisk by whisk basis, changing the flow of incoming sensory information based on past experience. J.T.R. and S.C. hold Career Awards at the Scientific Interface from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.

  2. Honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, inhibits photocarcinogenesis by targeting UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and cell cycle regulators: development of topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-11-01

    To develop newer and more effective chemopreventive agents for skin cancer, we assessed the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis using the SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical treatment of mice with honokiol in a hydrophilic cream-based topical formulation before or after UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation resulted in a significant protection against photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor multiplicity (28-60%, P < 0.05 to <0.001) and tumor volume per tumor-bearing mouse (33-80%, P < 0.05 to 0.001, n = 20). Honokiol also inhibited and delayed the malignant progression of papillomas to carcinomas. To investigate the in vivo molecular targets of honokiol efficacy, tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice were analyzed for inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and survival signals using immunostaining, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with honokiol significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E(2) (P < 0.001), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.001) in the skin as well as in skin tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that honokiol: (i) inhibited the levels of cyclins D1, D2 and E and associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)2, CDK4 and CDK6, (ii) upregulated Cip/p21 and Kip/p27 and (iii) inhibited the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in UVB-induced skin tumors. Together, our results indicate that honokiol holds promise for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer by targeting inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and cell survival signals in UVB-exposed skin.

  3. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, P S; Kokila, T; Geetha, D

    2015-05-05

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Gu, Yinghong; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wei, Changhe; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-12-10

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future.

  5. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  6. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  7. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization and nodulation improve flooding tolerance in Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Fougnies, L; Renciot, S; Muller, F; Plenchette, C; Prin, Y; de Faria, S M; Bouvet, J M; Sylla, S Nd; Dreyfus, B; Bâ, A M

    2007-05-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) seedlings inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus intraradices, and the strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. (UAG 11A) were grown under stem-flooded or nonflooded conditions for 13 weeks after 4 weeks of nonflooded pretreatment under greenhouse conditions. Flooding of P. officinalis seedlings induced several morphological and physiological adaptive mechanisms, including formation of hypertrophied lenticels and aerenchyma tissue and production of adventitious roots on submerged portions of the stem. Flooding also resulted in an increase in collar diameter and leaf, stem, root, and total dry weights, regardless of inoculation. Under flooding, arbuscular mycorrhizas were well developed on root systems and adventitious roots compared with inoculated root systems under nonflooding condition. Arbuscular mycorrhizas made noteworthy contributions to the flood tolerance of P. officinalis seedlings by improving plant growth and P acquisition in leaves. We report in this study the novel occurrence of nodules connected vascularly to the stem and nodule and arbuscular mycorrhizas on adventitious roots of P. officinalis seedlings. Root nodules appeared more efficient fixing N(2) than stem nodules were. Beneficial effect of nodulation in terms of total dry weight and N acquisition in leaves was particularly noted in seedlings growing under flooding conditions. There was no additive effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and nodulation on plant growth and nutrition in either flooding treatment. The results suggest that the development of adventitious roots, aerenchyma tissue, and hypertrophied lenticels may play a major role in flooded tolerance of P. officinalis symbiosis by increasing oxygen diffusion to the submerged part of the stem and root zone, and therefore contribute to plant growth and nutrition.

  9. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  11. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-14

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls Darcy...to be adjacent to the tank walls . We used the Sub Sea Holo- deck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of...Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls . PLoS ONE 10(10): e0138690. doi

  12. [AntI-inflammatory, antipyretic and antimicrobial activity of flavonoid-containing extract of Gratiola officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Polukonova, N V; Navolokin, N A; Raĭkova, S V; Masliakova, G N; Bucharskaia, A B; Durnova, N A; Shub, G M

    2015-01-01

    The extract of Gratiola officinalis L. has been obtained by an original method ensuring the maximum yield of flavonoids. The extract simultaneously exhibits high anti-inflammatory activity, selective antimicrobial properties (with respect to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not to conditionally pathogenic E. coli) and antipyretic effect (observed for the first time in Gratiola officinalis L. preparations). Advantages of the proposed preparation are low toxicity, availability of the raw material, and broad spectrum of therapeutic effects.

  13. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

  14. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  15. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  16. Adrenal cortex ontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Enzo

    2010-12-01

    During the early phases of development, adrenal glands share a common origin with kidneys and gonads. The action of diverse transcription factors, signalling pathways and endocrine signals is required for the individualization of the adrenal primordium and its subsequent differentiation into an adult adrenal gland, with massive remodelling taking place around the time of birth in humans. Here I summarize the most important steps by which the adrenal cortex is shaped and present an overview of the current understanding of the genes and molecular pathways implicated in adrenal development and involved in the pathogenesis of its congenital diseases. Evidence is accumulating that some pivotal factors acting during adrenocortical development also play an important role to regulate the growth of adrenocortical tumors, representing promising therapeutical targets for a biology-oriented therapy. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis: possible role in reducing diabetic complications and slowing down ageing.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Haroon; Khan, Ibrar; Wahid, Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and oxidation is associated with aging and diabetes mellitus. In this study we wanted to investigate the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of two medicinal plants: Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis. In-vitro investigation was carried out to discover the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of J. regia and C. officinalis. Using an Ultraviolet Double-beam Spectrophotometer, we evaluated the antiglycation property of the crude methanolic extracts of J. regia and C. officinalis by assessing their ability to inhibit the Maillard reaction. Employing the same instrument we also measured the antioxidation potential of these plant extracts using the nitric oxide (NO) free radical-scavenging assay. J. regia had greater antiglycation ability, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 28 microg/mL as compared with that of C. officinalis (270 microg/mL). C. officinalis had greater antioxidation potential (26.10, 22.07 and 16.06% at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg, respectively, as compared with 18.15, 16.50 and 16.06% of J. regia, respectively). J. regia and C. officinalis inhibited the Maillard reaction and prevented oxidation in-vitro. Hence, the extracts of these plants could have therapeutic uses in curbing chronic diabetic complications and slowing down aging.

  18. Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect.

  19. Spasmolytic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. involves calcium channels in the guinea pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Rivero-Osorno, Oscar; Gómez, Claudia; González-Trujano, María Eva

    2011-10-11

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a plant used around the world for its properties to cure pain in several conditions, such as arthritic and abdominal pain or as an antispasmodic; however, there are no scientific studies demonstrating its spasmolytic activity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of an ethanol extract from Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts and the possible mechanism involved by using rings from the isolated guinea pig ileum (IGPI). The IGPI rings were pre-contracted with potassium chloride (KCl; 60 mM), acetylcholine (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1 × 10(-5)M) or electrical field stimulation (EFS; 0.3 Hz of frequency, 3.0 ms of duration and 14 V intensity) and tested in the presence of the Rosmarinus officinalis ethanol extract (150, 300, 600 and 1 200 μg/mL) or a referenced smooth muscle relaxant (papaverine, 30 μM). In addition, the possible mechanism of action was analyzed in the presence of hexametonium (a ganglionic blocker), indomethacine (an inhibitor of prostaglandins), l-NAME (a selective inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase) and nifedipine (a calcium channel blocker). Rosmarinus officinalis ethanol extract exhibited a significant and concentration-dependent spasmolytic activity on the contractions induced by KCl (CI(50) = 661.06 ± 155.91 μg/mL); ACh (CI(50) = 464.05 ± 16.85 μg/mL) and EFS (CI(50) = 513.72 ± 34.13 μg/mL). Spasmolytic response of Rosmarinus officinalis (600 μg/mL) was reverted in the presence of nifedipine 1 μM, but not in the presence of hexamethonium 0.5mM, indomethacine 1 μM or L-NAME 100 μM. The present results reinforce the use of Rosmarinus officinalis as antispasmodic in folk medicine. Moreover, it is demonstrated the involvement of calcium channels in this activity, but not the participation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandins or nitric oxide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth Inhibitory, Bactericidal, and Morphostructural Effects of Dehydrocostus Lactone from Magnolia sieboldii Leaves on Antibiotic-Susceptible and -Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Song, Ha Eun; Lee, Haeng-Byung; Kim, Cheol-Soo; Koketsu, Mamoru; Thi My Ngan, Luong; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with various diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract, such as gastric inflammation and duodenal and gastric ulcers. The aim of the study was to assess anti-H. pylori effects of the sesquiterpene lactone dehydrocostus lactone (DCL) from Magnolia sieboldii leaves, compared to commercial pure DCL, two previously known sesquiterpene lactones (costunolide and parthenolide), (–)-epigallocatechin gallate, and four antibiotics. The antibacterial activity of natural DCL toward antibiotic-susceptible H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 700824 strains (MIC, 4.9 and 4.4 mg/L) was similar to that of commercial DCL and was more effective than costunolide, parthenolide, and EGCG. The activity of DCL was slightly lower than that of metronidazole (MIC, 1.10 and 1.07 mg/L). The antibacterial activity of DCL was virtually identical toward susceptible and resistant strains, even though resistance to amoxicillin (MIC, 11.1 mg/L for PED 503G strain), clarithromycin (49.8 mg/L for PED 3582GA strain), metronidazole (21.6 mg/L for H. pylori ATCC 43504 strain; 71.1 mg/L for 221 strain), or tetracycline (14.2 mg/L for B strain) was observed. This finding indicates that DCL and the antibiotics do not share a common mode of action. The bactericidal activity of DCL toward H. pylori ATCC 43504 was not affected by pH values examined (4.0–7.0). DCL caused considerable conversion to coccoid form (94 versus 49% at 8 and 4 mg/L of DCL for 48 h). The Western blot analysis revealed that urease subunits (UreA and UreB) of H. pylori ATCC 43504 were not affected by 10 mM of DCL, whereas UreA monomer band completely disappeared at 0.1 mM of (–)-epigallocatechin gallate. Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on M. sieboldii leaf-derived materials containing DCL as potential antibacterial products or a lead molecule for the prevention or eradication of drug-resistant H. pylori. PMID:24747984

  1. In vitro cultures of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine)--a potential biotechnological rich source of therapeutically important phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Ekiert, Halina

    2012-04-01

    The contents of free phenolic acids and cinnamic acid were determined using an HPLC method in methanolic extracts from biomass of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (Chinese magnolia vine) at different stages of organogenesis, cultured in vitro on a few variants of Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing different concentrations of plant growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) (from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/l) and in extracts from overground parts of plants growing in vivo. Six of 12 analysed compounds were detected in all extracts: chlorogenic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, protocatechuic, salicylic and syringic acids. Total contents of the examined metabolites in biomass of shoot-differentiating callus culture cultivated on six MS medium variants were dependent on concentrations of growth regulators in the media and ranged from 14.90 to 60.05 mg/100 g d.w. Total contents of the compounds in biomass extracts from undifferentiating callus culture maintained only on two of six MS medium variants were higher and amounted to 74.54 and 78.24 mg/100 g d.w. Maximum total contents of phenolic acids in both types of in vitro cultures were greater than in fruits (55.73 mg/100 g d.w.) and leaves (4.55 mg/100 g d.w.) of plants gowning in vivo. Chlorogenic acid and salicylic acid were the main compounds identified in biomass extracts of shoot-differentiating callus cultures (max 22.60 and 21.17 mg/100 g d.w., respectively), while chlorogenic acid (max 38.43 mg/100 g d.w.) and protocatechuic acid (max 20.95 mg/100 g d.w.) prevailed in the extracts from undifferentiating callus cultures. Other compounds dominated in fruits, namely p-coumaric acid (23.36 mg/100 g d.w.) and syringic acid (14.96 mg/100 g d.w.). This is the first report on biochemical potential of cells from S. chinensis in vitro cultures to produce the biologically active phenolic acids. These are the first results on the analysis of this group of metabolites in overground parts of

  2. Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

    2013-10-15

    Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55 °C and extraction time of 97 min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calendula officinalis and Wound Healing: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Leach, Matthew J

    2008-08-01

    The treatment options available for the management of most types of wounds are both diverse and contentious. One agent that has been utilized for centuries for the treatment of dermatological disorders and possesses a number of pharmacological actions that are conducive to wound healing is Calendula officinalis, or pot marigold. To assess the effect of Calendula on wound healing, a systematic review of the literature was conducted. The search was limited to randomized controlled trials that used topically administered monopreparations of Calendula officinalis for wounds of any type. Although 6 trials were identified, only 1 trial was of good quality; hence, the statistical pooling of results was not appropriate. Therefore, a narrative review of these studies was conducted indicating that there is only weak evidence to support the topical administration of Calendula in acute and chronic wounds. Undoubtedly, further investigation is needed to establish whether Calendula has a place in mainstream wound care.

  4. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  5. Management of two cases of desquamative gingivitis with clobetasol and Calendula officinalis gel.

    PubMed

    Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Contar, Cintia Mussi Milani; Brustolim, Jean Ayres; Candido, Lisiane; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Gregio, Ana Maria Trindade; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Soares de Lima, Antonio Adilson

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe two cases of desquamative gingivitis (DG) that were treated with a topic gel containing clobetasol propionate and Calendula officinalis L in an acetate tray over two years. Two patients with a diagnosis of lichen planus presenting as DG who had undergone previous treatments for this condition with no significant results, were treated by a handling gel containing clobetasol, nystatin, Calendula officinalis L and pectin in custom trays. Both patients had remission of symptoms while using the trays and after they stopped the treatment, the symptomatic outbreaks were delayed and presented as less severe symptoms in the two years follow-up. The treatment is aimed primarily at reducing the length and severity of symptomatic outbreaks desquamative gingivitis. This handling gel using a tray may be an efficacious treatment of desquamative gingivitis.

  6. Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (ε=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (ε=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases.

  7. The rhodopsin gene of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: sequence and spectral tuning.

    PubMed

    Bellingham, J; Morris, A G; Hunt, D M

    1998-08-01

    The cephalopod molluscs are a group of invertebrates that occupy a wide range of oceanic photic environments. They are an ideal group of animals, therefore, in which to study the evolution of rhodopsin. The cDNA sequence of the rhodopsin gene of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (L.) (Sub-class Coleoidea, Order Sepiida) is presented, together with an analysis of the structure of the gene. A proline-rich C terminus is present; this structure is characteristic of cephalopod rhodopsins. In common with all invertebrate opsins studied so far, the equivalent site to the counterion in vertebrate opsins is occupied by an aromatic amino acid. An intron is present that splits codon 107, in contrast to the intronless rhodopsin gene in two species of myopsid squid. A spectral tuning model involving substitutions at only three amino acid sites is proposed for the spectral shifts between the rhodopsins of Sepia officinalis, three species of squid and Paroctopus defleini.

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  9. Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Perianayagam, James B; Sharma, S K; Joseph, Aney; Christina, A J M

    2004-11-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids, which may be responsible for anti-pyretic and analgesic activities.

  10. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth.

  11. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals.

  12. Genetic Variability of the Essential Oil Content of Melissa officinalis1.

    PubMed

    Adzet, T; Ponz, R; Wolf, E; Schulte, E

    1992-12-01

    The essential oil content of various populations of MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. (Lamiaceae), cultivated under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Ebro-Delta, Spain) has been investigated during five years of selection and improvement of the genetic plant material. Starting with an essential oil content of 0.2-0.3%, a content of more than 0.5% was obtained as a result of genetic improvement. A weak negative correlation between the content of essential oil and phenotypical growth parameters such as the number of branches per plant and height was observed. No correlation between biomass production per plant and essential oil content could be found. By the method of hybridization, M. OFFICINALIS synthetics with a high yield of biomass and essential oil content were selected.

  13. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  14. [Anticancer activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil against HNSCC cell line (UMSCC1)].

    PubMed

    Sertel, S; Eichhorn, T; Plinkert, P K; Efferth, T

    2011-12-01

    Every year there are several hundred thousand new cases of oral cancer worldwide. Clinical oncology is still challenged by toxicity and side effects of multimodal therapy strategies in which is associated with poor prognosis for patients. There is an urgent necessity to develop novel therapy strategies. As the majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin, natural products represent a valuable source for the identification and development of novel treatment options for cancer. The aim of this investigation was to study the cytotoxicity of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) essential oil. Salvia officinalis essential oil was gained by aqueous extraction from plant material and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography. The cytotoxicity of the essential oil on the squamous human cell carcinoma cell line of the oral cavity (UMSCC1) was assessed with the XTT assay. These experiments revealed the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the essential oil. It was used in the microarray-based analysis of gene expression of UMSSC1 cells. The results were submitted to a signaling pathway analysis. The main constituents of Salvia officinalis essential oil include the monoterpenes thujone, β-pinene, and 1,8-cineol. Low concentrations of the essential oil increased vitality of the UMSCC1 cells. Beyond the concentration of the IC(50) of 135 µg/ml, sage essential oil reduced UMSSC1 cells viability to a minimum. In the microarray gene expression analysis, genes involved in cancer, cellular growth and proliferation, cell death, cell morphology, cell cycle, gene expression, and DNA repair were the most prominent. The three most significantly regulated pathways by sage were aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling, cell cycle (G1/S checkpoint) regulation, and p53 signaling. To the best of our knowledge, this study suggests for the first time the ability of Salvia officinalis essential oil to inhibit human HNSCC cell growth. The therapeutic potential of sage essential oil

  15. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  16. Distribution of flavone glycoside diosmin in Hyssopus officinalis plants: changes during growth.

    PubMed

    Marin, F R; Ortuño, A; Benavente-Garcia, O; Del Rio, J A

    1998-03-01

    A study of the flavonoid composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) plants using high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of diosmin as the major flavone. The maximum levels of this secondary compound are located in sepals and leaves, which represent 51 and 40.5%, respectively, of the total content of diosmin in whole plant. The presence of isoferulyl D-glucose ester in this plant material was also revealed.

  17. Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

    2005-01-01

    The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component.

  18. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  19. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-10

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  20. Two new phenolic compounds and antitumor activities of asparinin A from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Le; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2017-02-01

    Two new phenolic acid compounds, asparoffin C (1) and asparoffin D (2), together with four known compounds, asparenyol (3), gobicusin B (4), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxy-4-[5-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl] phenol (5), and asparinin A (6), have been isolated from the stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures were established by extensive spectroscopic methods (MS and 1D and 2D NMR). Compound 6 has obvious antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1α), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

  2. Antioxidative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to its main components.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Wu, N; Zu, Y G; Fu, Y J

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to three of its main components (1,8-cineole, α-pinene, β-pinene). GC-MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 19 compounds, representing 97.97% of the oil, the major constituents of the oil were described as 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%), camphene (11.52%) and β-pinene (6.71%). The oil and the components were subjected to screening for their possible antioxidant activity by means of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and β-carotene bleaching test. In the DPPH test system, free radical-scavenging activity of R. officinalis L. essential oil, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene were determined to be 62.45%±3.42%, 42.7%±2.5%, 45.61%±4.23% and 46.21%±2.24% (v/v), respectively. In the β-carotene bleaching test system, we tested series concentration of samples to show the antioxidant activities of the oil and its main components, whereas the concentrations providing 50% inhibition (IC50) values of R. officinalis L. essential oil, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene and β-pinene were 2.04%±0.42%, 4.05%±0.65%, 2.28%±0.23% and 2.56%±0.16% (v/v), respectively. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both systems, and the antioxidant activities of all the tested samples were mostly related to their concentrations. Antioxidant activities of the synthetic antioxidant, ascorbic acid and BHT, were also determined in parallel experiments as positive control.

  3. Valeriana officinalis does not alter the orofacial dyskinesia induced by haloperidol in rats: role of dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Fachinetto, Roselei; Villarinho, Jardel G; Wagner, Caroline; Pereira, Romaiana P; Avila, Daiana Silva; Burger, Marilise E; Calixto, João Batista; Rocha, João B T; Ferreira, Juliano

    2007-10-01

    Chronic treatment with classical neuroleptics in humans can produce a serious side effect, known as tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we examined the effects of V. officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol. Adult male rats were treated during 12 weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg, i.m., each 28 days) and with V. officinalis (in the drinking water). Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor activity and plus maze performance were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment produced VCM in 40% of the treated rats and the concomitant treatment with V. officinalis did not alter either prevalence or intensity of VCMs. The treatment with V. officinalis increased the percentage of the time spent on open arm and the number of entries into open arm in the plus maze test. Furthermore, the treatment with haloperidol and/or V. officinalis decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test. We did not find any difference among the groups when oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal slices and V. officinalis was not able to prevent this effect. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism involving the reduction of dopamine transport in the maintenance of chronic VCMs in rats. Furthermore, chronic treatment with V. officinalis seems not produce any oxidative damage to central nervous system (CNS), but it also seems to be devoid of action to prevent VCM, at least in the dose used in this study.

  4. Melissa officinalis Acidic Fraction Protects Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons Against Beta Amyloid-Induced Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Soodi, Maliheh; Dashti, Abolfazl; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Akbari, Shole; Ataei, Nasim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Extracellular deposition of the beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, which is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), leads to oxidative damage and apoptosis in neurons. Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis) is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family that has neuroprotective activity. In the present study we have investigated the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis on Aβ-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Additionally, we investigated a possible role of the nicotinic receptor. Materials and Methods This study was an in vitro experimental study performed on mice cultured CGNs. CGNs were pre-incubated with different concentrations of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis for 24 hours, followed by incubation with Aβ for an additional 48 hours. CGNs were also pre-incubated with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis and mecamylamin, followed by incubation with Aβ. We used the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to measure cell viability. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipidperoxidation, and caspase-3 activity were measured after incubation. Hochst/annexin Vfluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Results The acidic fraction could protect CGNs from Aβ-induced cytotoxicity. Mecamylamine did not abolish the protective effect of the acidic fraction. AChE activity, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and caspase-3 activity increased after Aβ incubation. Preincubation with the acidic fraction of M. officinalis ameliorated these factors and decreased the number of apoptotic cells. Conclusion Our results indicated that the protective effect of the acidic fraction of M. officinalis was not mediated through nicotinic receptors. This fraction could protect CGNs through antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID

  5. Chemosensory Learning in the Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2011-01-01

    Taste is a primary reinforcer. Olfactory–taste and visual–taste association learning takes place in the primate including human orbitofrontal cortex to build representations of flavor. Rapid reversal of this learning can occur using a rule-based learning system that can be reset when an expected taste or flavor reward is not obtained, that is by negative reward prediction error, to which a population of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex responds. The representation in the orbitofrontal cortex but not the primary taste or olfactory cortex is of the reward value of the visual/olfactory/taste input as shown by devaluation experiments in which food is fed to satiety, and by correlations of the activations with subjective pleasantness ratings in humans. Sensory-specific satiety for taste, olfactory, visual, and oral somatosensory inputs produced by feeding a particular food to satiety is implemented it is proposed by medium-term synaptic adaptation in the orbitofrontal cortex. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions, modulate the representation of the reward value of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and this effect is learned it is proposed by associative modification of top-down synapses onto neurons activated by bottom-up taste and olfactory inputs when both are active in the orbitofrontal cortex. A similar associative synaptic learning process is proposed to be part of the mechanism for the top-down attentional control to the reward value vs. the sensory properties such as intensity of taste and olfactory inputs in the orbitofrontal cortex, as part of a biased activation theory of selective attention. PMID:21954379

  6. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  7. Saponaria officinalis L. extract: Surface active properties and impact on environmental bacterial strains.

    PubMed

    Smułek, Wojciech; Zdarta, Agata; Pacholak, Amanda; Zgoła-Grześkowiak, Agnieszka; Marczak, Łukasz; Jarzębski, Maciej; Kaczorek, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    Plant-derived surfactants are characterised by low toxicity, high biodegradability and environmental compatibility. They therefore have many applications; for instance, they can be used in bioremediation to accelerate biodegradation processes, especially of hydrophobic pollutants. This paper analyses the properties of an extract from Saponaria officinalis L. containing saponins and its impact on bacterial strains isolated from soil, as well as its potential for application in hydrocarbon bioremediation. The tested extract from Saponaria officinalis L. contains gypsogenin, hederagenin, hydroxyhederagenin and quillaic acid aglycone structures and demonstrates good emulsification properties. Contact with the extract led to modification of bacterial cell surface properties. A decrease in cell surface hydrophobicity and an increase in membrane permeability were recorded in the experiments. An increase of up to 63% in diesel oil biodegradation was also recorded for Pseudomonas putida DA1 on addition of 1gL(-1) of saponins from Saponaria officinalis L. Saponaria extract showed no toxic impact on the tested environmental bacterial strains at the concentration used in the biodegradation process.

  8. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients.

  9. The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.

    PubMed

    Kurzawińska, H; Duda-Surman, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability.

  10. Reflectin genes and development of iridophore patterns in Sepia officinalis embryos (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Andouche, Aude; Bassaglia, Yann; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2013-05-01

    In the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, iridescence is known to play a role in patterning and communication. In iridophores, iridosomes are composed of reflectins, a protein family, which show great diversity in all cephalopod species. Iridosomes are established before hatching, but very little is known about how these cells are established, their distribution in embryos, or the contribution of each reflectin gene to iridosome structures. Six reflectin genes are expressed during the development of iridosomes in Sepia officinalis. We show that they are expressed in numerous parts of the body before hatching. Evidence of the colocalization of two different genes of reflectin was found. Curiously, reflectin mRNA expression was no longer detectable at the time of hatchling, while reflectin proteins were present and gave rise to visible iridescence. These data suggest that several different forms of reflectins are simultaneously used to produce iridescence in S. officinalis and that mRNA production and translation are decoupled in time during iridosome development. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Antioxidant evaluation for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis edible wild plants in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Damiri, Basma; Abualhasan, Murad N

    2016-01-01

    Natural plants products are one of the famous and commonly utilized remedies used in fighting diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant activity of plants commonly used in Palestine (Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis). Free radical scavenging activity method was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate. The result show that the overall antioxidant activity of Rumex cyprius was the highest among the plants, followed by Urtica urens, and Borago officinalis; respectively. The (IC(50)) values of the methanolic extracts were 29.70±0.60μg/ml, 5.07±0.49μg/ml, 39.92± 0.52 μg/ml for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis respectively. The results of this study revealed that these edible plants have high antioxidant activity and therefore they can provide natural sources of antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer. These exhibited properties propose that such plants extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries and further characterization of Rumex cyprius constituents is needed.

  12. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. Discussion: The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats. PMID:26649166

  13. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.

  14. Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm).

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Little, Wendy; Scholey, Andrew B

    2004-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is contemporaneously used as a mild sedative and/or calming agent. Although recent research has demonstrated modulation of mood in keeping with these roles, no studies to date have directly investigated the effects of this herbal medication on laboratory-induced psychological stress. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced crossover experiment, 18 healthy volunteers received two separate single doses of a standardized M. officinalis extract (300 mg, 600 mg) and a placebo, on separate days separated by a 7-day washout period. Modulation of mood was assessed during predose and 1-hour postdose completions of a 20-minute version of the Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation (DISS) battery. Cognitive performance on the four concurrent tasks of the battery was also assessed. The results showed that the 600-mg dose of Melissa ameliorated the negative mood effects of the DISS, with significantly increased self-ratings of calmness and reduced self-ratings of alertness. In addition, a significant increase in the speed of mathematical processing, with no reduction in accuracy, was observed after ingestion of the 300-mg dose. These results suggest that the potential for M. officinalis to mitigate the effects of stress deserves further investigation.

  15. Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower grown in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F

    2011-03-01

    Althaea officinalis Linn. (Malvaideae) flower is commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighboring countries. Although most of the studies have been conducted on the mucilage-rich roots, little is known about the flower. This study investigates the potential role of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower in lipemia, gastric ulcer, inflammation, and platelet aggregation using the rat model. Blood lipid profile and liver function were assessed after 1 month of extract intake via drinking water. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested against acute and chronic inflammation induced by carrageenan and formalin, respectively. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Antiplatelet activity was investigated in vitro using the adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation bioassay. The 50 mg/kg body weight dose resulted in significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol level with no effects on stool cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Increasing the dose to 500 mg/kg body weight caused a significant decrease in stool water content. No adverse effect on liver enzymes was observed. Significant anti-inflammatory (acute and chronic inflammation) and antiulcerogenic activities were observed at all used doses (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg body). Time-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation was demonstrated at 500 µg/ml concentration. The aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower demonstrated potential benefits in lipemia, inflammation, gastric ulcer, and platelet aggregation with no visible adverse effect.

  16. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  17. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  18. Acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lagarto, Alicia; Bueno, Viviana; Guerra, Isbel; Valdés, Odalys; Vega, Yamile; Torres, Leonid

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of Calendula officinalis extract in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute C. officinalis extract dose of 2000 mg/kg dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered in drinking water. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights, and histopathological examinations. In addition, we examined blood elements: hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte count, total and differential leukocyte count and blood clotting time and blood chemistry: glucose, total cholesterol, urea, total proteins, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In the acute study, there were no mortality and signs of toxicity. In the subchronic study, several of the blood elements were significantly affected in males and females after 90 days; hemoglobin, erythrocytes, leukocytes and blood clotting time. For blood chemistry parameters, ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase were affected. Histopathological examination of tissues showed slight abnormalities in hepatic parenchyma that were consistent with biochemical variations observed. These studies indicate that the acute and subchronic toxicities of C. officinalis extract are low.

  19. Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

    2009-10-01

    Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis.

  20. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabèt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

    2009-11-01

    The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes.

  1. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer.

  2. Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements.

    PubMed

    Poltanov, Eugeny A; Shikov, Alexander N; Dorman, H J Damien; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Tikhonov, Vladimir P; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2009-09-01

    Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) (Euphorbiaceae) has a distinguished history in Ayurveda medicine and is ascribed a number of medicinal properties and as a dietary supplement, its use is increasing in Western countries. It is thought that its beneficial properties are a function of its antioxidant potency. The study investigated the chemistry and antioxidant properties of four commercial E. officinalis fruit extracts in order to determine if there are any qualitative-quantitative differences. All extracts produced positive responses in the total phenol, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. The presence of predominantly (poly)phenolic analytes, e.g. ellagic and gallic acids and corilagin, was confirmed by RP-HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection. Despite ascorbic acid being a major constituent of E. officinalis fruits, the furanolactone could not be identified in one of the samples. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of antioxidative efficacy. The extract designated IG-3 was consistently amongst the most effective extracts in the iron(III) reduction and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays while the extract designated IG-1 demonstrated the best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. All extracts appeared to be incapable of chelating iron(II) at realistic concentrations.

  3. Evaluating the Effect of Zingiber Officinalis on Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Cisplatin Based Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

  4. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and HIF-1α mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1α gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury. PMID:23351182

  5. Neuroprotective Properties of Melissa Officinalis L. Extract Against Ecstasy-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Akbari, Mohammad; Shokri, Saeed; Ghahremani, Mohammadhosein; Amin, Gholamreza; Kashani, Iraj; Azami Tameh, Abolfazl

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Melissa officinalis, a major antioxidant plant, against neuron toxicity in hippocampal primary culture induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy, one of the most abused drugs, which causes neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess mitochondrial activity, reflecting cell survival. Caspase-3 activity assay and Hoechst / propiedium iodide (PI) staining were done to show apoptotic cell death. Results: A high dose of ecstasy caused profound mitochondrial dysfunction, around 40% less than the control value, and increased apoptotic neuronal death to around 35% more than the control value in hippocampal neuronal culture. Co-treatment with Melissa officinalis significantly reversed these damages to around 15% and 20% respectively of the MDMA alone group, and provided protection against MDMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in neurons. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis has revealed neuroprotective effects against apoptosis induced by MDMA in the primary neurons of hippocampal culture, which could be due to its free radical scavenging properties and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory effects. PMID:23671824

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  7. MRI volumetry of prefrontal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheline, Yvette I.; Black, Kevin J.; Lin, Daniel Y.; Pimmel, Joseph; Wang, Po; Haller, John W.; Csernansky, John G.; Gado, Mokhtar; Walkup, Ronald K.; Brunsden, Barry S.; Vannier, Michael W.

    1995-05-01

    Prefrontal cortex volumetry by brain magnetic resonance (MR) is required to estimate changes postulated to occur in certain psychiatric and neurologic disorders. A semiautomated method with quantitative characterization of its performance is sought to reliably distinguish small prefrontal cortex volume changes within individuals and between groups. Stereological methods were tested by a blinded comparison of measurements applied to 3D MR scans obtained using an MPRAGE protocol. Fixed grid stereologic methods were used to estimate prefrontal cortex volumes on a graphic workstation, after the images are scaled from 16 to 8 bits using a histogram method. In addition images were resliced into coronal sections perpendicular to the bicommissural plane. Prefrontal cortex volumes were defined as all sections of the frontal lobe anterior to the anterior commissure. Ventricular volumes were excluded. Stereological measurement yielded high repeatability and precision, and was time efficient for the raters. The coefficient of error was cortex boundaries on 3D images was critical to obtaining accurate measurements. MR prefrontal cortex volumetry by stereology can yield accurate and repeatable measurements. Small frontal lobe volume reductions in patients with brain disorders such as depression and schizophrenia can be efficiently assessed using this method.

  8. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    PubMed

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  9. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Adefunmilayo E.; Leite, Franco B.; Lucena, Greice M.; Barros, Marilia; Silveira, Dâmaris; Silva, Mônica V.; Ferreira, Vania M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the behavioral effects of Melissa officinalis extract in rats following acute or subacute treatment. Materials and Methods: The behavioral effects of an acute or subacute (10-day course) orally administered M. officinalis (MO; 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg) ethanol extract were evaluated in male and female Wistar rats in elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. The effects of diazepam (DZP; 1 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (FXT; 10 mg/kg) were also assessed. Results: In the EPM test, the percentage of open arm entries and open arm times of both males and females given the subacute M. officinalis ethanol extract were significantly higher than those of the vehicle-treated animals but were at levels similar to those observed in the DZP group, regardless of the treatment length. In the FS test, immobility duration was significantly lower in both males and females treated with the plant extract when compared to vehicle-treated counterparts. A 10-day treatment with FXT induced the same antidepressant response, regardless of gender, and was more effective than the M. officinalis extract. Male and female rats demonstrated distinct gender profiles, and treatment × gender interactions were observed. Locomotion in the EPM and OF tests was not significantly altered by treatments. Conclusion: The potential psychoactive properties of M. officinalis may provide a unique pharmacological alternative for certain psychiatric disorders; however, the efficacy appears to be dependent on both gender and administration length. PMID:22529473

  10. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, Adefunmilayo E; Leite, Franco B; Lucena, Greice M; Barros, Marilia; Silveira, Dâmaris; Silva, Mônica V; Ferreira, Vania M

    2012-03-01

    To analyse the behavioral effects of Melissa officinalis extract in rats following acute or subacute treatment. The behavioral effects of an acute or subacute (10-day course) orally administered M. officinalis (MO; 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg) ethanol extract were evaluated in male and female Wistar rats in elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. The effects of diazepam (DZP; 1 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (FXT; 10 mg/kg) were also assessed. In the EPM test, the percentage of open arm entries and open arm times of both males and females given the subacute M. officinalis ethanol extract were significantly higher than those of the vehicle-treated animals but were at levels similar to those observed in the DZP group, regardless of the treatment length. In the FS test, immobility duration was significantly lower in both males and females treated with the plant extract when compared to vehicle-treated counterparts. A 10-day treatment with FXT induced the same antidepressant response, regardless of gender, and was more effective than the M. officinalis extract. Male and female rats demonstrated distinct gender profiles, and treatment × gender interactions were observed. Locomotion in the EPM and OF tests was not significantly altered by treatments. The potential psychoactive properties of M. officinalis may provide a unique pharmacological alternative for certain psychiatric disorders; however, the efficacy appears to be dependent on both gender and administration length.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species.

  12. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Safaeian, Leila; Sajjadi, Seyyed Ebrahim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Montazeri, Hossein; Samani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant with a large variety of pharmacological effects and traditional applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protective and antioxidant activities of the extract of M. officinalis aerial parts on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxidative stress induced by H2O2. Cells were incubated with H2O2 (0.5 mM, 2 h) after pretreatment with M. officinalis extract (25-500 μg/mL). Cell viability was evaluated by 3-(4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The concentration of hydroperoxides and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in intra- and extra-cellular fluids. Pretreatment of HUVECs with M. officinalis extract at the concentrations of 100-500 μg/mL improved the cell viability after exposure to H2O2 significantly. It also decreased hydroperoxides concentration and increased FRAP value in both intra- and extra-cellular fluids. The results revealed antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of M. officinalis against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in HUVECs. Due to the valuable antioxidant activity, this plant extract may have potential benefits for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:27920820

  13. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  14. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay.

  15. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

  16. Heart palpitation relief with Melissa officinalis leaf extract: double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    Alijaniha, Fatemeh; Naseri, Mohsen; Afsharypuor, Suleiman; Fallahi, Faramarz; Noorbala, Ahmadali; Mosaddegh, Mahmood; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Sadrai, Sima

    2015-04-22

    In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa officinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations. Heart palpitation is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difficult to treat. Herbal medicines provide an alternative to conventional drugs for treating various kinds of diseases. This study was done as a double blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the dried extract of M. officinalis on adults suffering from benign palpitations. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as outpatients to a 14 day treatment with 500 mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves (or placebo). Participants in the tests, physicians and researchers were blind to group assignments. Both primary and secondary outcomes were patient-reported. Primary outcomes were obtained from two measures: mean frequency of palpitation episodes per week, derived from patients׳ diaries, and mean intensity of palpitation estimated through Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in a self-report questionnaire. Psychiatric symptoms (somatization, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression) were evaluated as secondary outcomes by General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), before and after intervention. Fifty-five volunteers out of 71 recruited study subjects completed the trial. Results showed that 14-day of treatment with lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and significantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo (P=0.0001, P=0.004 resp.). Also, M. officinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects. Lyophilized aqueous extract of M. officinalis leaves may be a proper and safe herbal drug for the treatment of benign palpitations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of adrenal cortex zonation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yewei; Lerario, Antonio M; Rainey, William; Hammer, Gary D

    2015-06-01

    The human adult adrenal cortex is composed of the zona glomerulosa (zG), zona fasciculata (zF), and zona reticularis (zR), which are responsible for production of mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and adrenal androgens, respectively. The final completion of cortical zonation in humans does not occur until puberty with the establishment of the zR and its production of adrenal androgens; a process called adrenarche. The maintenance of the adrenal cortex involves the centripetal displacement and differentiation of peripheral Sonic hedgehog-positive progenitors cells into zG cells that later transition to zF cells and subsequently zR cells.

  18. Calendula officinalis ameliorates l-arginine-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Jagdeep; Sidhu, Shabir; Chopra, Kanwaljit; Khan, M U

    2016-12-01

    Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used in treating inflammation of internal organs, gastrointestinal tract ulcers and wound healing. The present study investigates the effect of ethanol extract (95%) of Calendula officinalis flowers in l-arginine induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control, l-arginine control, Calendula officinalis extract (COE) treated and melatonin treated (positive control), which were further divided into subgroups (24 h, day 3 and 14) according to time points. Two injections of l-arginine 2 g/kg i.p. at 1 h intervals were administered in l-arginine control, COE and melatonin-treated groups to produce acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Biochemical parameters [serum amylase, lipase, pancreatic amylase, nucleic acid content, total proteins, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), collagen content, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and nitrite/nitrate] and histopathological studies were carried out. COE treatment (400 mg/kg p.o.) was found to be beneficial. This was evidenced by significantly lowered histopathological scores (2 at day 14). Nucleic acid content (DNA 21.1 and RNA 5.44 mg/g pancreas), total proteins (0.66 mg/mL pancreas) and pancreatic amylase (1031.3 100 SU/g pancreas) were significantly improved. Marked reduction in pancreatic oxidative and nitrosative stress; collagen (122 μmoles/100 mg pancreas) and TGF-β1 (118.56 pg/mL) levels were noted. Results obtained were comparable to those of positive control. The beneficial effect of COE may be attributed to its antioxidant, antinitrosative and antifibrotic actions. Hence, the study concludes that COE promotes spontaneous repair and regeneration of the pancreas.

  19. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

    2015-04-01

    Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p < 0.05). The results revealed that the topical use of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability.

  20. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

  1. Sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection for rapid monitoring of commercial Calendula officinalis extractions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2013-05-03

    The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ∼24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs.

  4. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    PubMed

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  5. Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

    2009-11-11

    The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries.

  6. Population coding in somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rasmus S; Panzeri, Stefano; Diamond, Mathew E

    2002-08-01

    Computational analyses have begun to elucidate which components of somatosensory cortical population activity may encode basic stimulus features. Recent results from rat barrel cortex suggest that the essence of this code is not synergistic spike patterns, but rather the precise timing of single neuron's first post-stimulus spikes. This may form the basis for a fast, robust population code.

  7. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  8. Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-05

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-α/β-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 μmol/L.

  9. Two new flavonoid glycosides from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside (1) and quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with nine known flavonoids were isolated from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis L. cultivated in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. All structures were characterized by the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Their potent free radical scavenging activity against the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was evaluated.

  10. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  11. In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2011-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 μg/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000 μg/mL. The IC₅₀ of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9 μg/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection.

  12. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study.

  13. Antiproliferative effects of extracts from Salvia officinalis L. and Saliva miltiorrhiza Bunge on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Li; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2017-01-01

    Salvia species have been used as valuable medicinal and herbal plant in many countries. Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge are widely used in traditional medicine for a long time. In the present study, cytotoxicity of ethanol and acetone extracts prepared from leaves and roots of two Salvia species was investigated using hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) and normal human liver cells (WRL-68). The cytotoxicity and anti-proliferative abilities of the extracts were evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTS assay), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, the cellular ATP level, morphological changes using an inverted microscope, and apoptosis using flow cytometry. The results indicated that ethanol and acetone extracts of leaves and roots of S. officinalis (SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E and SO-R-A, respectively) and ethanol and acetone extracts of roots of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-R-E and SM-R-A, respectively) significantly inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner when the concentration was less than 150μg/mL. The cytotoxity of SO-L-E, SO-R-E and SO-R-A were significantly less in WRL-68 when compared to HepG2 cells in vitro. The increase of LDH leakage, decrease of ATP and the changes in morphology of HepG2 cells further confirmed the cytotoxic effect of these extracts to HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SO-L-E, SO-L-A, SO-R-E ethanol extract of leaves of S. miltiorrhiza (SM-L-E) and SM-R-E were able to induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. This study shows the potential of the extracts to be used in the prevention and/or treatment of liver cancer or as ingredients in functional foods and provides scientific support for development and utilization of S. officinalis and S. miltiorrhiza, especially the roots of S. officinalis.

  14. Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-Feng; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2008-06-01

    One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells.

  15. A new steroidal saponin from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhouxuan; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2010-04-01

    Yamogenin II (1), a new steroidal saponin with a unique aglycone moiety, and (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L. The structure of 1 was assessed by spectroscopial analysis as (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta,21-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  16. Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM.

  17. [The content and quality of Melissa officinalis essential oil after application of Rastim 30 DKV].

    PubMed

    Vaverková, S; Hollá, M; Takeĺ, J

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the content and quality of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis in various leaf insertions in the course of the ontogenetic development of the plant. The quality of the drug after the administration of the preparation Rastin 30 DKV in the form of granules was not changed in comparison with control samples. The experimental work, subsequent analysis of samples, and evaluation of results led to conclusions important from the viewpoint of significant changes in the content and composition of the essential oil taking place in the plant in the course of the vegetation period.

  18. [Study on the correlation between the quality of Cornus officinalis and the contents of the inorganic elements in the planting soil].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Sui-Qing; Shang, Chao-Li

    2011-08-01

    To analyze the correlation between the quality of Cornus officinalis and the contents of the inorganic elements in the planting soil. The contents of 11 kinds of inorganic elements including Zn, Mn, K, Fe, Mg, Ca, Cu, Cd, As, Pb and Hg in Cornus officinalis and the planting soil were determined; The contents of loganin, ursolic acid, polysaccharides, tannins, organic acid, water-soluble extractives and ethanol-soluble extractives in Cornus officinalis were determined; The correlation between the quality of Cornus officinalis and the contents of the inorganic elements in the planting soil was analyzed. There was no significant difference in the content of chemical components of Cornus officinalis produced in the three main areas. The contents of loganin and water-soluble extract complied with pharmacopoeial provisions. Especially, inorganic elements of Fe, Mn and K had significant effects on the quality of Cornus officinalis. The results provide the foundation for the selection of cultivating area and the reference for standard cultivation of Cornus officinalis.

  19. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive.

  20. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  1. The rat cortex in stereotaxic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Schober, W

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of Nissl-preparations the cortex of albino rats has been mapped cytoarchitectonically. 13 frontal sections through the cortex are illustrated with coordinates. Therewith exists a stereotaxic atlas of the cortex of the rat and one can realize exactly experimental investigations in the different cortical areas.

  2. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  3. The Functions of the Orbitofrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2004-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex contains the secondary taste cortex, in which the reward value of taste is represented. It also contains the secondary and tertiary olfactory cortical areas, in which information about the identity and also about the reward value of odours is represented. The orbitofrontal cortex also receives information about the sight…

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-03-05

    In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC₅₀) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations.

  6. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  7. Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

  8. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  9. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  10. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  11. A medicinal herb, Melissa officinalis L. ameliorates depressive-like behavior of rats in the forced swimming test via regulating the serotonergic neurotransmitter.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Hang; Chou, Mei-Ling; Chen, Wei-Cheng; Lai, Yi-Syuan; Lu, Kuan-Hung; Hao, Cherng-Wei; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2015-12-04

    Depression is a serious psychological disorder that causes extreme economic loss and social problems. However, the conventional medications typically cause side effects that result in patients opting to out of therapy. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., MO) is an old and particularly reliable medicinal herb for relieving feelings of melancholy, depression and anxiety. The present study aims to investigate the antidepressant-like activity of water extract of MO (WMO) by evaluating its influence on the behaviors and the relevant neurotransmitters of rats performed to forced swimming test. Two phases of the experiment were conducted. In the acute model, rats were administered ultrapure water (control), fluoxetine, WMO, or the indicated active compound (rosmarinic acid, RA) three times in one day. In the sub-acute model, rats were respectively administered ultrapure water (control), fluoxetine, or three dosages of WMO once a day for 10 days. Locomotor activity and depression-like behavior were examined using the open field test and the forced swimming test, respectively. The levels of relevant neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the frontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. In the acute model, WMO and RA significantly reduced depressive-like behavior but the type of related neurotransmitter could not be determined. The results indicated that the effect of WMO administration on the reduction of immobility time was associated with an increase in swimming time of the rats, indicative of serotonergic neurotransmission modulation. Chromatography data validated that the activity of WMO was associated with a reduction in the serotonin turnover rate. The present study shows the serotonergic antidepressant-like activity of WMO. Hence, WMO may offer a serotonergic antidepressant activity to prevent depression and to assist in conventional therapies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Characterising the microbiome of Corallina officinalis, a dominant calcified intertidal red alga.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Juliet; Williamson, Christopher; Barker, Gary L; Walker, Rachel H; Briscoe, Andrew; Yallop, Marian

    2016-08-01

    The living prokaryotic microbiome of the calcified geniculate (articulated) red alga, Corallina officinalis from the intertidal seashore is characterised for the first time based on the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Results revealed an extraordinary diversity of bacteria associated with the microbiome. Thirty-five prokaryotic phyla were recovered, of which Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi made up the core microbiome. Unclassified sequences made up 25% of sequences, suggesting insufficient sampling of the world's oceans/macroalgae. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was on the upper shore, followed by the lower shore then the middle shore, although the microbiome community composition did not vary between shore levels. The C. officinalis core microbiome was broadly similar in composition to those reported in the literature for crustose coralline algae (CCAs) and free-living rhodoliths. Differences in relative abundance of the phyla between the different types of calcified macroalgal species may relate to the intertidal versus subtidal habit of the taxa and functionality of the microbiome components. The results indicate that much work is needed to identify prokaryotic taxa, and to determine the nature of the relationship of the bacteria with the calcified host spatially, temporally and functionally. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transcriptomics analysis of salt stress tolerance in the roots of the mangrove Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Wijaya, Edward; Lee, Dong-Yup; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Qingsong; Xu, Jian; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash P

    2017-08-30

    Salinity affects growth and development of plants, but mangroves exhibit exceptional salt tolerance. With direct exposure to salinity, mangrove roots possess specific adaptations to tolerate salt stress. Therefore, studying the early effects of salt on mangrove roots can help us better understand the tolerance mechanisms. Using two-month-old greenhouse-grown seedlings of the mangrove tree Avicennia officinalis subjected to NaCl treatment, we profiled gene expression changes in the roots by RNA-sequencing. Of the 6547 genes that were differentially regulated in response to salt treatment, 1404 and 5213 genes were significantly up- and down-regulated, respectively. By comparative genomics, 93 key salt tolerance-related genes were identified of which 47 were up-regulated. Upon placing all the differentially expressed genes (DEG) in known signaling pathways, it was evident that most of the DEGs involved in ethylene and auxin signaling were up-regulated while those involved in ABA signaling were down-regulated. These results imply that ABA-independent signaling pathways also play a major role in salt tolerance of A. officinalis. Further, ethylene response factors (ERFs) were abundantly expressed upon salt treatment and the Arabidopsis mutant aterf115, a homolog of AoERF114 is characterized. Overall, our results would help in understanding the possible molecular mechanism underlying salt tolerance in plants.

  14. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  15. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

  16. Genotypic Variation in a Breeding Population of Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Jahufer, M. Z. Z.; Wu, Fan; Di, Hongyan; Zhang, Daiyu; Meng, Xuanchen; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Yellow sweet clover is a widely spread legume species that has potential to be used as a forage crop in Western China. However, limited information is available on the genetic variation for herbage yield, key morphological traits, and coumarin content. In this study, 40 half sib (HS) families of M. officinalis were evaluated for genotypic variation and phenotypic and genotypic correlation for the traits: LS (leaf to stem ratio), SV (spring vigor), LA (leaf area), PH (plant height), DW (herbage dry weight), SD (stem diameter), SN (stem number), Cou (coumarin content), SY (seed yield), across two locations, Yuzhong and Linze, in Western China. There was significant (P < 0.05) genotypic variation among the HS families for all traits. There was also significant (P < 0.05) genotype-by-environment interaction for the traits DW, PH, SD, SN, and SV. The estimates of HS family mean repeatability across two locations ranged from 0.32 for SN to 0.89 for LA. Pattern analysis generated four HS family groups where group 3 consisted of families with above average expression for DW and below average expression for Cou. The breeding population developed by polycrossing the selected HS families within group 3 will provide a significant breeding pool for M. officinalis cultivar development in China. PMID:27462321

  17. A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

  18. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  19. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-01

    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  20. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Wagner A; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Tozatti, Marcos G; Souza, Maria G M; Silva, Márcio L Andrade; Filho, Ademar A da Silva; Martins, Carlos H Gomes; Crotti, Antonio E Miller; Pauletti, Patricia M; Groppo, Milton; Cunha, Wilson R

    2010-07-01

    The in vitro inhibitory activity of crude EtOH/H2O extracts from the leaves and stems of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was evaluated against the following microorganisms responsible for initiating dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined with the broth microdilution method. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaf extract, which displayed the higher antibacterial activity than the stem extract, led to the identification of carnosic acid (2) and carnosol (3) as the major compounds in the fraction displaying the highest activity, as identified by HPLC analysis. Rosmarinic acid (1), detected in another fraction, did not display any activity against the selected microorganisms. HPLC Analysis revealed the presence of low amounts of ursolic acid (4) and oleanolic acid (5) in the obtained fractions. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of the extract from the leaves of R. officinalis may be ascribed mainly to the action of 2 and 3.

  2. Muscle relaxing activity of Hyssopus officinalis essential oil on isolated intestinal preparations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Battinelli, Lucia; Daniele, Claudia; Melchioni, Cristiana; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2002-03-01

    The muscle relaxing activity of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) and some of its main components (isopinocamphone, limonene and beta-pinene) was studied on isolated preparations of guinea-pig and rabbit intestine. The essential oil and isopinocamphone inhibited the acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 42.4 microg/ml and 61.9 microg/ml to acetylcholine; 48.3 microg/ml and 70.4 microg/ml to BaCl2) whereas limonene or beta-pinene left tissue contraction unchanged. In guinea-pig ileum H. officinalis essential oil also blocked the contractions induced by CaCl2. In isolated rabbit jejunum the essential oil reduced the amplitude of spontaneous movements and decreased the basal tone; neither haemoglobin, methylene blue, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or propranolol blocked the myorelaxant effect.

  3. Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-03-01

    Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals.

  4. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05). Most of the chemical treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concentrations, with the root Cd concentration being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concentration. Almost all of the investigated chemical treatments containing SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05). The application of EGTA alone led to an observed total Cd increase of up to 217%. This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chemical enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.

  5. Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

    2001-01-01

    Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a Δ12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

  6. Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2010-08-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns.

  7. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis.

  8. Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akkaynak, Derya; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-03-01

    Cephalopods are renowned for their ability to adaptively camouflage on diverse backgrounds. Sepia officinalis camouflage body patterns have been characterized spectrally in the laboratory but not in the field due to the challenges of dynamic natural light fields and the difficulty of using spectrophotometric instruments underwater. To assess cuttlefish color match in their natural habitats, we studied the spectral properties of S. officinalis and their backgrounds on the Aegean coast of Turkey using point-by-point in situ spectrometry. Fifteen spectrometry datasets were collected from seven cuttlefish; radiance spectra from animal body components and surrounding substrates were measured at depths shallower than 5 m. We quantified luminance and color contrast of cuttlefish components and background substrates in the eyes of hypothetical di- and trichromatic fish predators. Additionally, we converted radiance spectra to sRGB color space to simulate their in situ appearance to a human observer. Within the range of natural colors at our study site, cuttlefish closely matched the substrate spectra in a variety of body patterns. Theoretical calculations showed that this effect might be more pronounced at greater depths. We also showed that a non-biological method ("Spectral Angle Mapper"), commonly used for spectral shape similarity assessment in the field of remote sensing, shows moderate correlation to biological measures of color contrast. This performance is comparable to that of a traditional measure of spectral shape similarity, hue and chroma. This study is among the first to quantify color matching of camouflaged cuttlefish in the wild.

  9. Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Anwarul Hassan; Bashir, Samra; Khan, Arif-ullah

    2007-12-03

    In this study, we investigated the crude extract of Borago officinalis leaves (Bo.Cr) for its antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasodilator and cardio-depressant activities to rationalize some of the traditional uses. Bo.Cr was studied using different isolated tissue preparations including rabbit jejunum, trachea, aorta, and guinea-pig atria. Bo.Cr which was tested positive for flavonoids, coumarins, sterols and tannins produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations, suggestive of Ca++ antagonist effect, which was confirmed when pretreatment of the tissue with Bo.Cr produced a rightward shift in the Ca++ concentration-response curves like that caused by verapamil. In rabbit tracheal preparations, Bo.Cr relaxed the carbachol (1microM) and K+-induced contractions. Verapamil also produced non-specific inhibitory effect. In rabbit aorta preparations, Bo.Cr exhibited vasodilator effect against phenylephrine and K+-induced contractions similar to verapamil. When tested in guinea-pig atria, Bo.Cr caused inhibition of both atrial force and rate of contractions. These results suggest that the spasmolytic effects of Bo.Cr are mediated possibly through Ca++ antagonist mechanism, which might explain the traditional use of Borago officinalis in hyperactive gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

  10. Chemical compositions of the volatile extracts from seeds of Dendranthema nankingense and Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shimin; Xu, Ting; Huang, Danfeng

    2015-06-01

    Volatile extracts from the seeds of Dendranthema nankingense Hand.-Mazz. and Borago officinalis L. were prepared using simultaneous distillation and extraction, and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry on two capillary gas chromatography columns of different polarity. Ninety-five volatile compounds were identified in D. nankingense seeds, with hexanal, benzeneacetaldehyde, borneol, (-)-camphor, and 3-methyl-1-butanol being the predominant species. Sixty-five volatile compounds were identified in B. officinalis seeds, with 2-pentanone, 2,3-dihydro-benzofuran, 3-methyl butanal, and hexanal being the most abundant species. Thirty-three compounds, including short-chain aliphatic aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones, were common to both seeds. The volatile composition of both seeds varied significantly depending on their respective origins. The volatile terpenoids borneol and (-)-camphor could be key bioactive contributors to the characteristic flavor and cooling effects of D. nankingense. For the first time, coumaran was identified as an abundant species in plant seeds. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Subcellular localization and function of melanogenic enzymes in the ink gland of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, A; di Cosmo, A; Gesualdo, I; Hearing, V J

    1997-01-01

    The ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis has traditionally been regarded as a convenient model system for investigating melanogenesis. This gland has been shown to contain a variety of melanogenic enzymes including tyrosinase, a dopachrome-rearranging enzyme and peroxidase. However, whether and to what extent these enzymes co-localize in the melanogenic compartments and interact is an open question. Using polyclonal antibodies that recognize the corresponding Sepia proteins, we have been able to demonstrate that peroxidase has a different subcellular localization pattern from tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme. Whereas peroxidase is located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the matrix of premelanosomes and melanosomes, tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme are present in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport system, at the level of trans-Golgi cisternae, trans-Golgi network and coated vesicles, and in melanosomes on pigmented granules. These results fill a longstanding gap in our knowledge of the melanin-producing system in Sepia and provide the necessary background for dissection at the molecular level of the complex interaction between melanogenic enzymes. Moreover, the peculiar and complex organization of melanin in an invertebrate such as Sepia officinalis is surprising and could provide the basis for understanding the process in more evolved systems such as that of mammals. PMID:9169609

  13. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Labiatae) essential oil in mammalian cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maistro, E L; Mota, S F; Lima, E B; Bernardes, B M; Goulart, F C

    2010-10-26

    Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) oil is widely used by the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries as a fragrance component of soaps, creams, lotions, and perfumes. Although it is popular, potential harmful side-effects of the oil have been described. We investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of essential oil of R. officinalis in rodents, using comet, micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. The animals were treated by gavage with one of three dosages of rosemary oil (300, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg). Liver and peripheral blood cells were collected from Swiss mice 24 h after treatment for the comet assay (genotoxicity endpoint), along with bone marrow cells for the micronucleus test (mutagenicity endpoint). Bone marrow cells were collected from Wistar rats 24 h after oil treatment for the micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. Based on the comet assay, all three doses of rosemary oil induced significant increases in DNA damage in the mouse cells. There was a significant increase in micronucleated cells and chromosome aberrations only at the two higher doses. We conclude that rosemary essential oil provokes genotoxic and mutagenic effects when administered orally.

  14. Study of the embryotoxic effects of an extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Lemonica, I P; Damasceno, D C; di-Stasi, L C

    1996-02-01

    Extracts of rosemary, Rosmarinus officinalis L., have been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, an emenagogue, an antispasmodic and its aqueous extract does not present toxicity to man, presenting, however, abortive effects. In order to evaluate if this plant induces abortion and/or interferes with the normal development of the concepts, doses of 26 mg of a 30% (w/v) R. officinalis aqueous extract (13 mg solids/ml) made with leaves, flowers and stem were administered daily by gavage during two different periods of Wistar rat pregnancy. One group of animals (N = 12) received the extract from days 1 to 6 of pregnancy (preimplantation period) and another group (N = 14) received the same extract from days 6 to 15 of pregnancy (organogenic period). Control groups (N = 12) received saline in the same volume and during the same periods as their respective experimental groups. The animals were sacrificed at term. The treatment of the dams during either the preimplantation or the organogenic period did not cause significant changes in the postimplantation loss or in the number of anomalies or malformations of the term fetuses, which also showed a similar degree of development when compared with the respective controls. The percent of preimplantation loss in the group treated before embryo implantation increased, although the difference was not significant compared to the control. This result suggests that rosemary extract may present an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation.

  15. Salvia officinalis L. Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Composition, Antioxidant Capacity, Antienzymatic, and Antimicrobial Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2017-08-01

    Four essential oils (EOs) from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Spain (Murcia Province) were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to determine their relative and absolute compositions. The main components were α-thujone (22.8 - 41.7%), camphor (10.7 - 19.8%), 1,8-cineole (4.7 - 15.6%), and β-thujone (6.1 - 15.6%). Enantioselective gas chromatography identified (-)-α-thujone and (+)-camphor as the main enantiomers in all the analyzed EOs. Furthermore, when the EOs were tested to determine their antioxidant activity against free radicals and as ferric reducing and ferrous chelating agents, all were seen to have moderate activity due to the compounds they contained, such as linalool or terpinene. Because of their known relation with inflammatory illnesses and Alzheimer's disease, respectively, the inhibition of lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase was studied using the EOs. Some individual compounds also inhibited these enzymes. In addition, the studied EOs were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The characterization carried out increases our awareness of the possible uses of S. officinalis EO as natural additives in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. [The Use of Synthetic Polymers (Superdisintegrants) in Technology Tablets Containing Ethanol Dry Extract from Asparagus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Wojtaszek, Ilona; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Dry extracts are now frequently used in medicine as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the case of tablet technology with dry plant extracts, the proper selection of disintegrants (superdisintegrants) is particularly important. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the polymers constituting superdisintegrants (Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Polyplasdone XL) in uncoated tablet formulation of alcoholic extracted from Asparagus officinalis. Dry the ethanol extract of Asparagus officinalis, Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Vivapur®, Kollidon VA64, Polyplasdone XL, magnesium stearate. Direct compression. Paddle method was carried out to study pharmacopoeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability. The calculation of equivalency factors: similarity [f2] and the difference [f1]. Approximation results. Tablets brownish-green, with a smooth and uniform surface, without stains, chipping and damage. The determined average weight of the tablets compiled with the standards. The test friability and crushing strength revealed that the most mechanically strong tablets contained Vivasol, Vivastar, Polyplasdone XL. These tablets also have a longer disintegration and dissolution time compared with tablets containing only Vivasol. These differences are also confirmed by the calculated f2 and f1. The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol significantly increases the mechanical strength of the tablets (crushing strength, resistance to crushing). The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol paradoxically increases the disintegration time of tablets (11.1 min). Single superdisintegrant breaks up the tablet more effectively than a mixture of superdisintegrants.

  17. Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  18. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

  19. Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Grzegorczyk, Izabela; Królicka, Aleksandra; Wysokińska, Halina

    2006-01-01

    Shoots of Salvia officinalis, a medicinally important plant, were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains ATCC 15834 and A4 which led to the induction of hairy roots in 57% and 37% of the explants, respectively. Seven lines of hairy roots were established in WP liquid medium under light and dark conditions. The transformed nature of the root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using rolB and rolC specific primers. Transformed root cultures of Salvia officinalis showed variations in biomass and rosmarinic acid production depending on the bacterial strain used for transformation and the root line analyzed. Both parameters (growth and rosmarinic acid content) of ATCC 15834-induced lines were significantly higher than the A4-induced lines. The maximum accumulation of rosmarinic acid (about 45 mg g(-1) of dry weight) was achieved by hairy root line 1 (HR-1) at the end of the culture period (45-50 days). The level was significantly higher than that found in untransformed root culture (19 mg g(-10 of dry wt).

  20. High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.

    PubMed

    Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Ristić, Mihailo; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Hančević, Katarina; Radić, Tomislav; Satović, Zlatko

    2012-10-01

    Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, β-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and β-pinene, β-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/β-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study.

  1. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  2. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle.

  3. Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

    2008-10-01

    Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask.

  4. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingsheng; Kennedy, John F; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Bing; Peng, Youshun; Huang, Yunxiang

    2011-08-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Asparagus officinalis. A novel ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technology was applied for the polysaccharide extraction. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic power, extraction time and the liquid-solid ratio to obtain a high polysaccharide yield. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 600 W, extraction time was 46 min, the liquid-solid ratio was 35 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 3.134%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. The average molecular weight of A. officinalis polysaccharide was about 6.18×10(4) Da. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in a ratio of 2.18:1.86:1.50:0.98:1.53. Compared with hot water extraction (HWE), UCE showed time-saving, higher yield and no influence on the structure of asparagus polysaccharides. The results indicated that ultrasonic circulating extraction technology could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides.

  5. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  6. Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.

  7. Chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Romania.

    PubMed

    Hăncianu, Monica; Aprotosoaie, Ana Clara; Gille, Elvira; Poiată, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Spac, A; Stănescu, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is used in traditional medicine to treat insomnia, anxiety, gastric conditions, psychiatric conditions, migraines, hypertension and bronchial conditions. Natural essential oils (mixtures of fragrant chemical) obtained from various parts of plants are efficient active antimicrobial agents. The widespread use of antimicrobial agents selects resistant bacterial strains, which seriously compromise the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment. The use of herbal medicines might be a precautionary measure to prevent the development of lack of susceptibility to synthetic antibiotics that is associated with therapeutic failures. In this work, the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of essential oil from romanian Melissa officinalis were determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro antimicrobial activity of lemon balm oil by comparison with lavender essential oil, which is also utilised for its antimicrobial properties in folk medicine. The most important identified compounds, well known for their antimicrobial effects were citral (neral and geranial) (16.10%), citronellal (3.76%) and trans-caryophyllene (3.57%).The lemon balm oil sample exhibited a higher degree antibacterial activity than did Lavandula oil against Gram-positive strains. The both oil samples tested has shown a high activity against Candida albicans. The gram-negative bacteria were not affected by the lemon balm oil.

  8. Combined Administration of Melissa officinalis and Boswellia serrata Extracts in an Animal Model of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Talaei, Sayyed Alireza; Takht Firozeh, Sayyed Mehdi; Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Tamtaji, Omid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Boswellia serrata and Melissa officinalis is traditionally used for its memory enhancing effects. Objectives In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of combined form of these extracts on memory improvement of scopolamine treated rats by the Morris water maze method. Materials and Methods Two groups (group 1 and 2) of animals were pretreated with combined extracts of B. serrata and M. officinalis (200, 400 mg/Kg body weight) for four weeks and then, 30 minutes before starting the experiment scopolamine was injected (0.1 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to pretreated animals. The control group was the animals that were injected by scopolamine and pre treated with distilled water (group 3). The normal group was treated with distilled water alone (group 4). Results For time spent and distance, there was no substantial difference between groups 1, 2 and 4, while they had statistical difference with group 3 (P = 0.001). The spatial memory evaluation showed no significant difference between treated groups and normal group. Conclusions Therefore, the combination of the two extracts had the ability to improve memory as its traditional use. PMID:27822272

  9. In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bakirel, Tülay; Bakirel, Utku; Keleş, Oya Ustüner; Ulgen, Sinem Güneş; Yardibi, Hasret

    2008-02-28

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, hypoglycaemic effects of oral administration of various doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract were examined in normoglycaemic and glucose-hyperglycaemic rabbits. Optimal effect was observed in both of the animal groups with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. In another part of experiments, acute effect of various doses of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on blood glucose and serum insulin levels was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The last set of experiments designed to investigate the subacute effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on repeated administration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, antihyperglycaemic effect of extract was accompanied by a significant increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, during 1 week of treatment of diabetic rabbits with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract showed that the extract possessed a capability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and activate the antioxidant enzymes. It was concluded that probably, due to its potent antioxidant properties, the Rosmarinus officinalis extract exerts remarkable antidiabetogenic effect.

  10. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

    2014-01-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  11. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-11-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation.

  12. Effect of Melissa officinalis Capsule on the Intensity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms in High School Girl Students

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Dehghani, Mansoore; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Tavakoli, Pouran; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies are conducted on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). However, a few herbal surveys exist on the treatment of PMS in Iran. Due to the sedative effects of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis), this question comes to mind that “can it be used in the treatment of PMS symptoms?” Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the effect of M. officinalis capsule on the intensity of PMS in high-school girls. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 100 high school girls from 2013 to 2014. The intervention group (n = 50) received 1200 mg of M. officinalis essence daily from the first to the last day of their menstrual cycle for three consecutive cycles. The second group (n = 50) received the placebo. The premenstrual symptoms screening tool was used to assess the intensity of PMS symptoms in the two groups before and one, two, and three months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The results of repeated measures test revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in PMS symptoms. Overall, the mean score of PMS intensity in the intervention group was 42.56 + 15.73 before the intervention and changed to 32.72 ± 13.24, 30.02 ± 12.08, and 13.90 ± 10.22 at the three consecutive months after the intervention, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusions: M. officinalis capsules were effective in reduction of the PMS symptoms. Yet, application of this medication requires further investigations. PMID:26339667

  13. ALCOHOL AND THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Abernathy, Kenneth; Chandler, L. Judson; Woodward, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex occupies the anterior portion of the frontal lobes and is thought to be one of the most complex anatomical and functional structures of the mammalian brain. Its major role is to integrate and interpret inputs from cortical and sub-cortical structures and use this information to develop purposeful responses that reflect both present and future circumstances. This includes both action-oriented sequences involved in obtaining rewards and inhibition of behaviors that pose undue risk or harm to the individual. Given the central role in initiating and regulating these often complex cognitive and behavioral responses, it is no surprise that alcohol has profound effects on the function of the prefrontal cortex. In this chapter, we review the basic anatomy and physiology of the prefrontal cortex and discuss what is known about the actions of alcohol on the function of this brain region. This includes a review of both the human and animal literature including information on the electrophysiological and behavioral effects that follow acute and chronic exposure to alcohol. The chapter concludes with a discussion of unanswered questions and areas needing further investigation. PMID:20813246

  14. The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2α-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2α-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake.

  15. Inhibition of metastasis of B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice by an extract of Calendula officinalis L flowers.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korangath C; Siveen, Kodappully S; Kuttan, Ramadasan; Kuttan, Girija

    2010-01-01

    To determine the effect of a Calendula officinalis flower extract on lung metastasis by B16F-10 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. Male mice were injected with B16F-10 melanoma cells through the tail vein and simultaneously treated with C.officinalis flower extract. Parameters studied were lung tumor nodule count, life span of animals, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activity, sialic acid, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-2, GM-CSF, VEGF and TIMP-1 levels in serum, and lung hydroxyproline, uronic acid and hexosamine levels, as well as histopathological features. Effects of C.officinalis on the expression of various genes involved in metastasis like matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMPs), prolyl hydoxylase, lysyl oxidase, nm23, and proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated. Simultaneous administration of C. officinalis extract to tumor bearing C57BL/6 mice reduced the lung tumor nodules by 74% with 43.3% increase in life span. Elevated levels of hydroxyproline, uronic acid, hexosamine, serum sialic acid and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase in the metastatic controls were found to be significantly lowered in the C. officinalis treated animals. The extract also inhibited expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, prolyl hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase and activated TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 and downregulated proinflammatory cytokines. The present investigation indicated antimetastatic effects of Calendula officinalis flowers through the inhibition of key enzymes involved in processes of metastasis.

  16. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  17. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network. PMID:28804479

  18. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-11-01

    Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in

  19. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0

  20. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near

  1. Multimap formation in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rishabh; Millin, Rachel; Mel, Bartlett W.

    2015-01-01

    An extrastriate visual area such as V2 or V4 contains neurons selective for a multitude of complex shapes, all sharing a common topographic organization. Simultaneously developing multiple interdigitated maps—hereafter a “multimap”—is challenging in that neurons must compete to generate a diversity of response types locally, while cooperating with their dispersed same-type neighbors to achieve uniform visual field coverage for their response type at all orientations, scales, etc. Previously proposed map development schemes have relied on smooth spatial interaction functions to establish both topography and columnar organization, but by locally homogenizing cells' response properties, local smoothing mechanisms effectively rule out multimap formation. We found in computer simulations that the key requirements for multimap development are that neurons are enabled for plasticity only within highly active regions of cortex designated “learning eligibility regions” (LERs), but within an LER, each cell's learning rate is determined only by its activity level with no dependence on location. We show that a hybrid developmental rule that combines spatial and activity-dependent learning criteria in this way successfully produces multimaps when the input stream contains multiple distinct feature types, or in the degenerate case of a single feature type, produces a V1-like map with “salt-and-pepper” structure. Our results support the hypothesis that cortical maps containing a fine mixture of different response types, whether in monkey extrastriate cortex, mouse V1 or elsewhere in the cortex, rather than signaling a breakdown of map formation mechanisms at the fine scale, are a product of a generic cortical developmental scheme designed to map cells with a diversity of response properties across a shared topographic space. PMID:26641946

  2. Beneficial Effects of Emblica officinalis on Fluoride-induced Toxicity on Brain Biochemical Indexes and Learning-memory in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shalini, Bhinda; Sharma, J D

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of Emblica officinalis against fluoride-induced alterations in the behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. The healthy adult albino rats of Wistar strain (Rattus norvegicus) weighed 200-250 g were used for experiments. The animals were divided into three groups. Group I, control rats received only drinking water (F 0.9 ppm). Group II rats were exposed to fluoride (10 ppm) water for 60 days. Group III rats were treated with E. officinalis (100 mg/day/rat) along with fluoride water for 60 days. In order to investigate the effects of elevated levels of fluoride (10 ppm) in drinking water on behavioral pattern of rat, a maze test was carried out in all three groups from day 1 till completion of treatment. The animals were weighed before and after treatment. After respective treatment, the animals were autopsied. The blood was collected through cardiac puncture and brain was excised blotted free of blood weighed and used for biochemical parameters. The estimation of protein, enzyme activity of cholinesterase (ChE), and lipid peroxidation were carried out in brain using standard techniques. The tissue (brain) and serum fluoride was estimated by a fluoride-specific electrode (Orion). Learning and memory abilities assessed during maze test showed reduced memory retention in rats exposed to fluoride water in comparison to control whereas amla powder (E. officinalis) fed rats showed increased memory retention than fluoride water exposed rats. The protein content and ChE enzyme activity in brain of fluoride exposed rats diminished as compared to control whereas the same was found to be elevated in E. officinalis fed rats. The level of malanoaldehyde showed a significant increase in fluoride-treated group and decrease in E. officinalis treated group. Our results suggest that exposure of rats to Na-F has detrimental effects on the brain as reflected in diminished learning and memory. Administration of E

  3. A dual and opposite effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract: chemoprotector and promoter in a rat hepatocarcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Farias, L M; Pérez-Carreón, J I; Arce-Popoca, E; Fattel-Fazenda, S; Alemán-Lazarini, L; Hernández-García, S; Salcido-Neyoy, M; Cruz-Jiménez, F G; Camacho, J; Villa-Treviño, S

    2006-02-01

    Calendula officinalis extracts have protective and cytotoxic effects. We previously reported the dual activity of C. officinalis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine. At nM concentrations it was anti-genotoxic while at microM concentrations it exhibited genotoxic effects. Here we tested the activity of Calendula officinalis in vivo in male Fischer 344 rats initiated with N-nitrosodiethylamine, promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene, and 70 % partially hepatectomized. Liver gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase positively altered hepatocyte foci 25 days after initiation were our end point. The protective effect of C. officinalis started at 0.1 mg/kg concentration, increased at 0.5 mg/kg and reached its maximum at 2.5 mg/kg, when it decreased the area and number of altered foci by 55 % and 49 %, respectively, in comparison with rats treated only with carcinogen. At 5 mg/kg the number and area of altered hepatocyte foci were still lower, but almost reached the figures of carcinogen-treated rats. Ten and 20 mg/kg doses produced a notorious increment in the area and number of altered hepatic foci, and at 40 mg/kg of extract the increment was 40 % and 53 %, respectively. Additionally, when 2-acetylaminofluorene was substituted by a 40 mg/kg C. officinalis extract, a promoting effect was observed with increments of 175 % and 266 % in area and number of altered hepatocyte foci with respect to controls. When N-nitrosodiethylamine was substituted by 40 mg/kg of extract, the latter did not show initiator activity. In summary, we showed a protecting activity of C. officinalis at low doses, but doses above 10 mg/kg increased altered hepatocyte foci. This dual effect is an example of the phenomenon of hormesis. Furthermore, 40 mg/kg of dry weight extract administered instead of 2-acetylaminofluorene induced a clear promoting activity. These in vivo results are similar and consistent with those reported by us in primary rat liver cell cultures.

  4. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  5. Isolation by different processes and in vitro bioactivities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Tran Truc; Lan, Lao Xuan; Thu, Huynh; Tam, Nguyen Kim Minh

    2017-09-01

    Essential oil of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) was solvent-free microwave extracted and analysed by GC/MS. 36 compounds were identified, and the main constituents of the oil included 1,8-cineole (16.87%), camphor (24.12%), α-pinene (11.04%), β-pinene (5,51%) etc,… The results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil exhibited free radical scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 = 472.46 µg/ml. Rosemary oil has also been proven effective against all of examined pathogens except P. aeruginosa. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 8 µl/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and 4 µl/ml for the other four studied strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli). These results will open new venues for rosemary oil medical use.

  6. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

    1981-01-01

    The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

  7. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  8. Isoquinoline Alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis L. and Their Biological Activities Related to Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chlebek, Jakub; Novák, Zdeněk; Kassemová, Dominika; Šafratová, Marcela; Kostelník, Jan; Malý, Lukáš; Ločárek, Miroslav; Opletal, Lubomír; Hošt'álková, Anna; Hrabinová, Martina; Kuneš, Jiří; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Nováková, Lucie; Macáková, Kateřina; Hulcová, Daniela; Solich, Petr; Pérez Martín, Concepción; Jun, Daniel; Cahlíková, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    Two new isoquinoline alkaloids, named fumaranine (2) and fumarostrejdine (10), along with 18 known alkaloids were isolated from aerial parts of Fumaria officinalis. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by comparison with literature data. The absolute configuration of the new compound 2 was determined by comparing its circular dichroism spectra with those of known analogs. Compounds isolated in sufficient amounts were evaluated for their acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), and glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitory activities. Parfumidine (8) and sinactine (15) exhibited potent POP inhibition activities (IC50 99±5 and 53±2 μM, resp.). Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, K V; Kjonaas, R; Croteau, R

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage.

  10. Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil inhibits in vivo and in vitro leukocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcantara; Grespan, Renata; Fonseca, Jefferson Pitelli; Farinha, Thiago Oliveira; Silva, Expedito Leite; Romero, Adriano Lopes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2011-09-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as rosemary, is used for food flavoring and in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, analgesic, antirheumatic, diuretic, and antiepileptic agent. Few studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary essential oil (REO). This study evaluated the effects of REO on leukocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. REO was analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectometry, and the main components identified were camphor (27.59%), 1,8-cineole (15.74%), α-pinene (16.58%), and β-myrcene (10.02%). In rats, administration of REO reduced the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to the scrotal chamber after carrageenan injection. All doses of REO tested significantly inhibited leukocyte chemotaxis induced by casein. The effects of REO on leukocyte migration highlight an important mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of rosemary.

  11. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) as a potential therapeutic plant in metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Shirani, Kobra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of complex coexisting cardiometabolic risk factors such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, abdominal obesity, coagulopathies, and hypertension that raise the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of herbs and natural compounds in prevention and treatment of diseases and a large number of published articles have focused on this issue. Rosmarinus officinalis L. or rosemary (Lamiaceae) is a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals having significant anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-thrombotic, hepatoprotective, and hypocholesterolemic effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interesting pharmacological effects of rosemary, and its active compounds, and the related mechanisms in the management of metabolic syndrome that are documented in in vitro and in vivo studies.

  12. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions.

  13. Hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis extract in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Kholoud S; Khalil, Olfat A; Danial, Enas N; Alnahdi, Hanan S; Ayaz, Najla O

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effect of water extract (200 mg/kg body weight) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The hepatoprotective effects were investigated in the liver tissues sections. There was a significant increase in serum liver biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase), accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of total protein and albumin in the STZ-induced rats when compared with that of the normal group. The high-dose treatment group (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly restored the elevated liver function enzymes near to normal. This study revealed that rosemary extracts exerted a hepatoprotective effect. The results indicate that the extract exhibits the protective effect on tissues and prove its potentials as an antidiabetic agent.

  14. Rosmarinus eriocalyx: An alternative to Rosmarinus officinalis as a source of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Djamel Miara, Mohamed; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Rosmarinus eriocalyx is an aromatic evergreen bush endemic to Algeria where it is used as a condiment to flavour soups and meat and as a traditional remedy. In the present work we have analyzed for the first time the phenolic composition of polar extracts obtained from stems, leaves and flowers of R. eriocalyx by HPLC, and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and agar disc diffusion methods, respectively. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers are a rich source of phenolic compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol that are the main responsible for the noteworthy antioxidant activity observed in the assays. This study showed that R. eriocalyx might be a spice to be included in the European food additive list and used as a preservative agent besides R. officinalis.

  15. Octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) and cuttlefishes (Sepia pharaonis, S. officinalis) can conditionally discriminate.

    PubMed

    Hvorecny, Lauren M; Grudowski, Jessica L; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Simmons, Tiffany L; Roy, Paula R; Brooks, Jennifer A; Hanner, Rachel M; Beigel, Marie E; Karson, Miranda A; Nichols, Rachel H; Holm, Johanna B; Boal, Jean Geary

    2007-10-01

    In complex navigation using landmarks, an animal must discriminate between potential cues and show context (condition) sensitivity. Such conditional discrimination is considered a form of complex learning and has been associated primarily with vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that octopuses and cuttlefish are capable of conditional discrimination. Subjects were trained in two maze configurations (the conditions) in which they were required to select one of two particular escape routes within each maze (the discrimination). Conditional discrimination could be demonstrated by selecting the correct escape route in each maze. Six of ten mud-flat octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides), 6 of 13 pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), and one of four common cuttlefish (S. officinalis) demonstrated conditional discrimination by successfully solving both mazes. These experiments demonstrate that cephalopods are capable of conditional discrimination and extend the limits of invertebrate complex learning.

  16. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Flávia Machado de; Feitosa, Maura Cristina Porto; Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Rebêlo, Veruska Cronemberger Nogueira; Castro, Juçara Gonçalves de; Sousa, Patrícia Regina Gomes de; Feitosa, Valrian Campos; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Lo Schiavo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy isolated and associated with Calendula officinalis oil in treating diabetic foot ulcers. An experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional clinical case study using a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 32 diabetic patients of both genders. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. Doppler Ultrasound evaluation of the Ankle-Brachial Index, brief pain inventory and analog pain scale were performed at baseline and after 30 days. Reduced pain was observed in the Low-level laser therapy and Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential Fatty Acids groups (p<0.01). Regarding the Ankle-Brachial Index and Doppler Ultrasound, all groups remained stable. By analyzing lesion area reduction, Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential fatty acids group showed a significance of p=0.0032, and the Low-level laser therapy group showed p=0.0428. Low-level laser therapy, performed alone or associated with the Calendula officinalis oil was effective in relieving pain and accelerating the tissue repair process of diabetic foot. Avaliar os efeitos da Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade isolada e associada ao óleo de Calendula officinalis no reparo de úlceras em pé diabético. Estudo de caso clínico, experimental, controlado, randomizado, prospectivo, intervencional, de caráter quantitativo. A amostra foi composta de 32 pacientes diabéticos, de ambos os gêneros. Os participantes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Ultrassom Doppler, avaliação do Índice Tornozelo-Braquial, Inventário breve de dor e escala de dor analógica foram realizados no início e após 30 dias. Houve redução da dor nos grupos Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade e Terapia a Laser de Baixa intensidade associada aos Ácidos Graxos Essenciais, com p<0,01. Quanto ao Índice Tornozelo-Braquial e Ultrassom Doppler, todos os grupos mantiveram-se estáveis. Na análise da redução de

  17. Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Stuppner, Hermann

    2006-04-21

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte and an applied voltage of 30 kV. Electrospray MS measurements were performed in the positive ionization mode with isopropanol-water (1:1, v/v) as sheath liquid at a flow rate of 3 microl/min. Alkaloids were detected as [M+H](+)-ions and showed typical fragmentation patterns in MS/MS experiments. The developed assay was used for the quantification of seven isoquinoline alkaloids representing different structural subtypes in Fumariae herba extracts and F. herba containing phytopharmaceuticals.

  18. Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity.

  19. Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6′-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

  20. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury.

  1. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  2. Antibacterial effects of biosynthesized MgO nanoparticles using ethanolic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Kalimuthan; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium oxides nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Mg(NO3)(2)·6H2O through a simple greener route using fruit extract (Emblica officinalis). The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The XRD pattern shows the face centered cubic structure with 27 nm of crystalline size of MgO nanoparticles was confirmed by the Debye-Scherrer's Formula. The spherical in shape of MgO nanoparticles is confirmed by SEM analysis. MgO nanoparticles treated cotton fabric produced stronger antibacterial activity. These types of treated fabrics are used in medical application.

  3. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

  4. A new collagen from the extracellular matrix of Sepia officinalis cartilage.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Cristina; Bairati, Aurelio

    2002-11-01

    Guanidinium chloride treatment of Sepia officinalis cartilage solubilized a component that contained hydroxyproline. Electron-microscopy observation of rotary-shadowed preparations of this component revealed it to consist of rod-like units themselves consisting of filaments. Dialysis of an acetic acid solution against ATP afforded polymeric aggregates consisting of a succession of two or three thick sections showing transverse electron-opaque banding, separated by thinner sections without banding. Electrophoresis produced a main band of about 140 kDa sensitive to bacterial collagenase. After reduction with mercaptoethanol, electrophoresis afforded a 40-kDa band. Pepsin digestion resulted in additional electrophoretic bands. These data suggest the presence of a collagen in Sepia cartilage with characteristics unlike those of any known collagen.

  5. Neuropharmacological actions of panchagavya formulation containing Emblica officinalis Gaerth and Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn in mice.

    PubMed

    Achliya, Girish S; Wadodkar, Sudhir G; Avinash, K Dorle

    2004-05-01

    A panchagavya Ayurvedic formulation containing E. officinalis, G. glabra, and cow's ghee was evaluated for its effect on pentobarbital-induced sleeping time, pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, maximal electroshock-induced seizures, spontaneous motor activity, rota-rod performance (motor coordination) and antagonism to amphetamine in mice. The formulation (300, 500 mg/kg, po) produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and reduced spontaneous locomotor activity. The formulation also significantly antagonised the amphetamine induced hyper-locomotor activity (500, 750 mg/kg, po) and protected mice against tonic convulsions induced by maximal electroshock (500, 750 mg/kg, po). The formulation slightly prolonged the phases of seizure activity but did not protect mice against lethality induced by pentylenetetrazole. The formulation did not show neurotoxicity. The results suggest that the panchagavya formulation is sedative in nature.

  6. Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2007-05-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia.

  7. Rosmarinus officinalis L.: chemical modifications of the essential oil and evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pintore, Giorgio; Marchetti, Mauro; Chessa, Mario; Sechi, Barbara; Scanu, Nadia; Mangano, Giuseppe; Tirillini, Bruno

    2009-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil was separated into its hydrocarbon and oxygenated fractions. The major compounds in the hydrocarbon fraction were alpha-pinene (44.2%), camphene (24.5%), and limonene (11.7%), while in the oxygenated fraction they were 1,8-cineole (37.6%), camphor (16.5%), and bornyl acetate (21.4%). The hydrocarbon fraction was submitted to a hydroformylation process and the antioxidant activity of the product was screened by the DPPH and beta-carotene/linoleic acid tests. The hydroformylated fraction maintained the antioxidant activity of the whole oil. The MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) and the MBC (minimal bactericidal concentration) of the essential oil, hydrocarbon, oxygenated and hydroformylated fractions were also tested on several microorganisms. Aeromonas sobria and Candida strains were the most susceptible micro-organisms. The hydroformylated fraction exhibited a MBC against Candida strains resistant to the other fractions.

  8. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea.

  9. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects.

  10. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).

    PubMed

    Böszörményi, Andrea; Héthelyi, Eva; Farkas, Agnes; Horváth, Györgyi; Papp, Nóra; Lemberkovics, Eva; Szoke, Eva

    2009-06-10

    The essential oil composition and genetic variability of common sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) and its three ornamental cultivars ('Purpurascens', 'Tricolor', and 'Kew Gold') as well as Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.) were analyzed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Common sage and its cultivars contained the same volatile compounds; only the ratio of compounds differed. The main compounds were the sesquiterpene alpha-humulene and the monoterpenes beta-pinene, eucalyptol, and camphor. Judean sage contained mainly the sesquiterpenes beta-cubebene and ledol. All of the samples exhibited characteristic RAPD patterns that allowed their identification. Cluster analyses based on oil composition and RAPD markers corresponded very well to each other, suggesting that there is a strong relationship between the chemical profile and the genetic variability.

  11. Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-08-15

    Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes.

  12. Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

  13. [Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

    2006-06-01

    Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L.

  14. Electroporation modulates the embryogenic responses of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) microspores.

    PubMed

    Delaitre, C; Ochatt, S; Deleury, E

    2001-01-01

    Microspores of three genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. were mechanically isolated without affecting their viability and were submitted to electric fields in order to modulate their competence for embryogenesis. When a constant pulse length and various field strengths (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and 2000 V/cm) were tested, the viability of electro-treated microspores decreased as the field strength increased, for all genotypes. Conversely, the embryogenic competence was genotype dependent and was enhanced by low voltages for two clones when microspores were cultured in the presence of auxin. When the effect of pulse duration was studied, despite a strong genotype effect on responses, a short pulse coupled with a low voltage appeared to improve the competence for proembryo formation compared with nonelectroporated microspores, while longer pulses significantly improved microspore division.

  15. Protective effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on metal-induced lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Vijay Kumar; Rather, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-05-01

    The protective potential of Emblica officinalis (amla) was investigated on metal-induced lipid per oxidation in human erythrocytes. Increases in the levels of MDA and catalase activity were assessed as lipid per oxidation. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione (GSH), and ascorbic acid levels were assessed as antioxidant indices. Preliminary investigation of the extract exhibited a significant reduction in lipid per oxidation and an increase in antioxidant abilities, such as a decrease in MDA, GPx and GSH (P<0.05). A significant reduction in erythrocyte hemolysis induced by hydrogen peroxide was observed using amla extract (P<0.05). These findings show that amla extract has significant protective potential against lipid per oxidation.

  16. Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jonatas Rafael; de Jesus, Daiane; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Camargo, Samira Estves Afonso; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-03-01

    R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R. officinalis L. extract (200 mg/mL). Its cytotoxic effect was examined on murine macrophages (RAW 264.7), human gingival fibroblasts (FMM-1), human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7), and cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) after exposure to different concentrations of the extract, analyzed by MTT, neutral red (NR), and crystal violet (CV) assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on RAW 264.7 non-stimulated or stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and treated with different concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were quantified by ELISA. Genotoxicity was verified by the frequency of micronuclei (MN) at 1000 cells after exposure to concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Data were analyzed by T-Test or ANOVA and Tukey Test ( P ≤ 0.05). Thus, significant reductions in colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were observed in all biofilms. Regarding the cells, it was observed that concentrations ≤ 50 mg/mL provided cell viability of above 50%. Production of proinflammatory cytokines in the treated groups was similar or lower compared to the control group. The MN frequency in the groups exposed to extract was similar or less than the untreated group. It was shown that R. officinalis L. extract was effective on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms; it also provided cell viability of above 50% (at

  17. Monkey brain cortex imaging by photoacoustic tomography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinmai; Wang, Lihong V

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is applied to image the brain cortex of a monkey through the intact scalp and skull ex vivo. The reconstructed PAT image shows the major blood vessels on the monkey brain cortex. For comparison, the brain cortex is imaged without the scalp, and then imaged again without the scalp and skull. Ultrasound attenuation through the skull is also measured at various incidence angles. This study demonstrates that PAT of the brain cortex is capable of surviving the ultrasound signal attenuation and distortion caused by a relatively thick skull.

  18. Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2008-08-25

    Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance.

  19. Cloning of two glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAs from Asparagus officinalis: sequence analysis and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, A; Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

    2000-04-01

    Two different amplification products, termed c1 and c2, showing a high similarity to glutamate dehydrogenase sequences from plants, were obtained from Asparagus officinalis using two degenerated primers and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated aspGDHA and aspGDHB. Screening of a cDNA library resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for aspGDHB only. Analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence from the full-length cDNA suggests that the gene product contains all regions associated with metabolic function of NAD glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH). A first phylogenetic analysis including only GDHs from plants suggested that the two GDH genes of A. officinalis arose by an ancient duplication event, pre-dating the divergence of monocots and dicots. Codon usage analysis showed a bias towards A/T ending codons. This tendency is likely due to the biased nucleotide composition of the asparagus genome, rather than to the translational selection for specific codons. Using principal coordinate analysis, the evolutionary relatedness of plant GDHs with homologous sequences from a large spectrum of organisms was investigated. The results showed a closer affinity of plant GDHs to GDHs of thermophilic archaebacterial and eubacterial species, when compared to those of unicellular eukaryotic fungi. Sequence analysis at specific amino acid signatures, known to affect the thermal stability of GDH, and assays of enzyme activity at non-physiological temperatures, showed a greater adaptation to heat-stress conditions for the asparagus and tobacco enzymes compared with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme.

  20. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

    2011-10-01

    Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances.

  1. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dulf, Francisc V; Pamfil, Doru; Baciu, Adriana D; Pintea, Adela

    2013-01-17

    Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

  2. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Kashchenko, Nina I.; Chirikova, Nadezhda K.; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N.; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18–19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents. PMID:28767066

  3. Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2014-03-01

    To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration.

  4. A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Enault, Jérémy; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bernay, Benoît; Lefranc, Benjamin; Leprince, Jérôme; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Henry, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Background The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. Results To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5′-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα′ and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα′ revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α′ with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα′ and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. Conclusions The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones. PMID

  5. A complex set of sex pheromones identified in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Enault, Jérémy; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bernay, Benoît; Lefranc, Benjamin; Leprince, Jérôme; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Henry, Joël

    2012-01-01

    The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5'-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SPα, SPα' and SPβ were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SPα and SPα' revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SPα-α' with SPβ revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SPβ led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SPα, SPα' and SPβ showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the α3 and β2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones.

  6. Green and rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Borago officinalis leaf extract: anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-11-01

    This study highlights the facile, reliable, cost effective, and ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Borago officinalis leaves extract efficiently. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was verified by UV-Vis spectrum which showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 422 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed that the particles were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shape and had size ranging from 30 to 80 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental mapping have displayed the purity and maximum distribution of silver in the AgNPs. The crystalline nature of AgNPs had been identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The particle size analysis revealed that the Z-average diameter of the AgNPs was 50.86 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) 0.136. Zeta potential analysis displayed the colloidal stability of AgNPs. This work also showed the efficacy of AgNPs against lung cancer cell lines (A549) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), in vitro. The AgNPs showed cytotoxicity to the A549 and HeLa cancer cell line at the concentrations 5 and 2 μg/ml. The AgNPs were also explored for the antibacterial activity including biofilm inhibition against pathogenic bacteria. The B. officinalis leaves extract can be used efficiently for green synthesis AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs demonstrated potentials as anticancer and antibacterial agents. This work provides helpful insight into the development of new anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  7. Inhibitory mechanism of an extract of Althaea officinalis L. on endothelin-1-induced melanocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akemi; Hachiya, Akira; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2002-02-01

    It is known that expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases in the epidermis after UVB irradiation, and that this plays an important role during the induction of pigmentation both as a mitogen and as a melanogen for normal human melanocytes (NHMC). When ET-1 acts on NHMC via the endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) on their cell surface, mobilization of intracellular calcium is induced, which is followed by activation of Raf-1 located upstream of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). We have continued the search for new agent which inhibit this calcium mobilization and we have found that an extract of Althaea officinalis L. has such an action. In this study, we investigated the precise inhibitory mechanism of this botanical extract on the ET-1-induced activation of melanocytes. Treatment of NHMC with this extract abrogated the stimulatory effect of ET-1 on proliferation and also on activation of MAPK in the intracellular signal transduction pathway, but did not affect the binding of ET-1 to the ET(B)R or the production of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3). Further, when this extract was used to treat normal human keratinocytes (NHKC), secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced. Taken together, these findings indicate that an extract of A. officinalis inhibits both the secretion of ET-1 from NHKC and the action of ET-1 on NHMC mainly by suppressing the ET-1-induced calcium mobilization without the modification of IP3 production, which in turn suggests that this extract is a useful ingredient for a whitening agent.

  8. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  10. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-08-02

    Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3-О-(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3-O-(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3-О-(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3-O-(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18-19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents.

  11. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-01-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states. PMID:22016442

  12. Normalization in human somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Gijs Joost; Arnedo, Vanessa; Offen, Shani; Heeger, David J; Grant, Arthur C

    2015-11-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activity in human somatosensory cortex and to test for cross-digit suppression. Subjects received stimulation (vibration of varying amplitudes) to the right thumb (target) with or without concurrent stimulation of the right middle finger (mask). Subjects were less sensitive to target stimulation (psychophysical detection thresholds were higher) when target and mask digits were stimulated concurrently compared with when the target was stimulated in isolation. fMRI voxels in a region of the left postcentral gyrus each responded when either digit was stimulated. A regression model (called a forward model) was used to separate the fMRI measurements from these voxels into two hypothetical channels, each of which responded selectively to only one of the two digits. For the channel tuned to the target digit, responses in the left postcentral gyrus increased with target stimulus amplitude but were suppressed by concurrent stimulation to the mask digit, evident as a shift in the gain of the response functions. For the channel tuned to the mask digit, a constant baseline response was evoked for all target amplitudes when the mask was absent and responses decreased with increasing target amplitude when the mask was concurrently presented. A computational model based on divisive normalization provided a good fit to the measurements for both mask-absent and target + mask stimulation. We conclude that the normalization model can explain cross-digit suppression in human somatosensory cortex, supporting the hypothesis that normalization is a canonical neural computation.

  13. Prefrontal cortex glutamate and extraversion.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Jaedke, Maren; Gallinat, Jürgen; Bajbouj, Malek

    2012-10-01

    Extraversion is considered one of the core traits of personality. Low extraversion has been associated with increased vulnerability to affective and anxiety disorders. Brain imaging studies have linked extraversion, approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and glutamatergic neurotransmission. However, the relationship between extraversion and glutamate in the DLPFC has not been investigated so far. In order to address this issue, absolute glutamate concentrations in the DLPFC and the visual cortex as a control region were measured by 3-Tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in 29 subjects with high and low extraversion. We found increased glutamate levels in the DLPFC of introverts as compared with extraverts. The increased glutamate concentration was specific for the DLPFC and negatively associated with state anxiety. Although preliminary, results indicate altered top-down control of DLPFC due to reduced glutamate concentration as a function of extraversion. Glutamate measurement with 1H-MRS may facilitate the understanding of biological underpinnings of personality traits and psychiatric diseases associated with dysfunctions in approach behaviour and the production of positive emotional states.

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TOP-DOWN CONTROL OF MOTOR CORTEX ENSEMBLES BY DORSOMEDIAL PREFRONTAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; Laubach, Mark

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex is critical for the temporal control of behavior. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex might alter neuronal activity in areas such as motor cortex to inhibit temporally inappropriate responses. We tested this hypothesis by recording from neuronal ensembles in rodent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex during a delayed-response task. One-third of dorsomedial prefrontal neurons were significantly modulated during the delay period. The activity of many of these neurons was predictive of premature responding. We then reversibly inactivated dorsomedial prefrontal cortex while recording ensemble activity in motor cortex. Inactivation of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reduced delay-related firing, but not response-related firing, in motor cortex. Finally, we made simultaneous recordings in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and motor cortex and found strong delay-related temporal correlations between neurons in the two cortical areas. These data suggest that functional interactions between dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and motor cortex might serve as a top-down control signal that inhibits inappropriate responding. PMID:17145511

  16. Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process.

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of e