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Sample records for cortical rhythms determine

  1. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  2. Basal ganglia and cortical networks for sequential ordering and rhythm of complex movements

    PubMed Central

    Bednark, Jeffery G.; Campbell, Megan E. J.; Cunnington, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary actions require the concurrent engagement and coordinated control of complex temporal (e.g., rhythm) and ordinal motor processes. Using high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we sought to determine the degree to which these complex motor processes are dissociable in basal ganglia and cortical networks. We employed three different finger-tapping tasks that differed in the demand on the sequential temporal rhythm or sequential ordering of submovements. Our results demonstrate that sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks were partially dissociable based on activation differences. The sequential rhythm task activated a widespread network centered around the supplementary motor area (SMA) and basal-ganglia regions including the dorsomedial putamen and caudate nucleus, while the sequential order task preferentially activated a fronto-parietal network. There was also extensive overlap between sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks, with both tasks commonly activating bilateral premotor, supplementary motor, and superior/inferior parietal cortical regions, as well as regions of the caudate/putamen of the basal ganglia and the ventro-lateral thalamus. Importantly, within the cortical regions that were active for both complex movements, MVPA could accurately classify different patterns of activation for the sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks. In the basal ganglia, however, overlapping activation for the sequential rhythm and sequential order tasks, which was found in classic motor circuits of the putamen and ventro-lateral thalamus, could not be accurately differentiated by MVPA. Overall, our results highlight the convergent architecture of the motor system, where complex motor information that is spatially distributed in the cortex converges into a more compact representation in the basal ganglia. PMID:26283945

  3. Cortical development, electroencephalogram rhythms, and the sleep/wake cycle.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2015-06-15

    During adulthood, electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings are used to distinguish wake, non-rapid eye movement sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep states. The close association between behavioral states and EEG rhythms is reached late during development, after birth in humans and by the end of the second postnatal week in rats and mice. This critical time is also when cortical activity switches from a discontinuous to a continuous pattern. We review the major cellular and network changes that can account for this transition. After this close link is established, new evidence suggests that the slow waves of non-rapid eye movement sleep may function as markers to track cortical development. However, before the EEG can be used to identify behavioral states, two distinct sleep phases--quiet sleep and active sleep--are identified based on behavioral criteria and muscle activity. During this early phase of development, cortical activity is far from being disorganized, despite the presence of long periods of neuronal silence and the poor modulation by behavioral states. Specific EEG patterns, such as spindle bursts and gamma oscillations, have been identified very early on and are believed to play a significant role in the refinement of brain circuits. Because most early EEG patterns do not map to a specific behavioral state, their contribution to the presumptive role of sleep in brain maturation remains to be established and should be a major focus for future research.

  4. Interactions between thalamic and cortical rhythms during semantic memory recall in human

    PubMed Central

    Slotnick, Scott D.; Moo, Lauren R.; Kraut, Michael A.; Lesser, Ronald P.; Hart, John

    2002-01-01

    Human scalp electroencephalographic rhythms, indicative of cortical population synchrony, have long been posited to reflect cognitive processing. Although numerous studies employing simultaneous thalamic and cortical electrode recording in nonhuman animals have explored the role of the thalamus in the modulation of cortical rhythms, direct evidence for thalamocortical modulation in human has not, to our knowledge, been obtained. We simultaneously recorded from thalamic and scalp electrodes in one human during performance of a cognitive task and found a spatially widespread, phase-locked, low-frequency rhythm (7–8 Hz) power decrease at thalamus and scalp during semantic memory recall. This low-frequency rhythm power decrease was followed by a spatially specific, phase-locked, fast-rhythm (21–34 Hz) power increase at thalamus and occipital scalp. Such a pattern of thalamocortical activity reflects a plausible neural mechanism underlying semantic memory recall that may underlie other cognitive processes as well. PMID:11972063

  5. Action-perception connection and the cortical mu rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hari, Riitta

    2006-01-01

    The rolandic mu rhythm consists of two main frequency components: one around 10 Hz and the other around 20 Hz. Reactivity of the mu rhythm, especially its motor cortex 20-Hz component, provides an illuminating window to the involvement of the human sensorimotor system in the loop that connects action and perception with the environment.

  6. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development.

    PubMed

    Chu, C J; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, M A; Cash, S S

    2014-07-01

    Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The maturation of cortical sleep rhythms and networks over early development

    PubMed Central

    Chu, CJ; Leahy, J; Pathmanathan, J; Kramer, MA; Cash, SS

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although neuronal activity drives all aspects of cortical development, how human brain rhythms spontaneously mature remains an active area of research. We sought to systematically evaluate the emergence of human brain rhythms and functional cortical networks over early development. Methods We examined cortical rhythms and coupling patterns from birth through adolescence in a large cohort of healthy children (n=384) using scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in the sleep state. Results We found that the emergence of brain rhythms follows a stereotyped sequence over early development. In general, higher frequencies increase in prominence with striking regional specificity throughout development. The coordination of these rhythmic activities across brain regions follows a general pattern of maturation in which broadly distributed networks of low-frequency oscillations increase in density while networks of high frequency oscillations become sparser and more highly clustered. Conclusion Our results indicate that a predictable program directs the development of key rhythmic components and physiological brain networks over early development. Significance This work expands our knowledge of normal cortical development. The stereotyped neurophysiological processes observed at the level of rhythms and networks may provide a scaffolding to support critical periods of cognitive growth. Furthermore, these conserved patterns could provide a sensitive biomarker for cortical health across development. PMID:24418219

  8. Listening to rhythms activates motor and premotor cortices.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Sara L; Ullén, Fredrik; Ehrsson, H Henrik; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Kito, Tomonori; Naito, Eiichi; Forssberg, Hans; Sadato, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain areas involved in auditory rhythm perception. Participants listened to three rhythm sequences that varied in temporal predictability. The most predictable sequence was an isochronous rhythm sequence of a single interval (ISO). The other two sequences had nine intervals with unequal durations. One of these had interval durations of integer ratios relative to the shortest interval (METRIC). The other had interval durations of non-integer ratios relative to the shortest interval (NON-METRIC), and was thus perceptually more complex than the other two. In addition, we presented unpredictable sequences with randomly distributed intervals (RAN). We tested two hypotheses. Firstly, that areas involved in motor timing control would also process the temporal predictability of sensory cues. Therefore, there was no active task included in the experiment that could influence the participant perception or induce motor preparation. We found that dorsal premotor cortex (PMD), SMA, preSMA, and lateral cerebellum were more active when participants listen to rhythm sequences compared to random sequences. The activity pattern in supplementary motor area (SMA) and preSMA suggested a modulation dependent on sequence predictability, strongly suggesting a role in temporal sensory prediction. Secondly, we hypothesized that the more complex the rhythm sequence, the more it would engage short-term memory processes of the prefrontal cortex. We found that the superior prefrontal cortex was more active when listening to METRIC and NON-METRIC compared to ISO. We argue that the complexity of rhythm sequences is an important factor in modulating activity in many of the rhythm areas. However, the difference in complexity of our stimuli should be regarded as continuous.

  9. Neurophysiological and computational principles of cortical rhythms in cognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2010-07-01

    Synchronous rhythms represent a core mechanism for sculpting temporal coordination of neural activity in the brain-wide network. This review focuses on oscillations in the cerebral cortex that occur during cognition, in alert behaving conditions. Over the last two decades, experimental and modeling work has made great strides in elucidating the detailed cellular and circuit basis of these rhythms, particularly gamma and theta rhythms. The underlying physiological mechanisms are diverse (ranging from resonance and pacemaker properties of single cells to multiple scenarios for population synchronization and wave propagation), but also exhibit unifying principles. A major conceptual advance was the realization that synaptic inhibition plays a fundamental role in rhythmogenesis, either in an interneuronal network or in a reciprocal excitatory-inhibitory loop. Computational functions of synchronous oscillations in cognition are still a matter of debate among systems neuroscientists, in part because the notion of regular oscillation seems to contradict the common observation that spiking discharges of individual neurons in the cortex are highly stochastic and far from being clocklike. However, recent findings have led to a framework that goes beyond the conventional theory of coupled oscillators and reconciles the apparent dichotomy between irregular single neuron activity and field potential oscillations. From this perspective, a plethora of studies will be reviewed on the involvement of long-distance neuronal coherence in cognitive functions such as multisensory integration, working memory, and selective attention. Finally, implications of abnormal neural synchronization are discussed as they relate to mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism.

  10. Neurophysiological and Computational Principles of Cortical Rhythms in Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2010-01-01

    Synchronous rhythms represent a core mechanism for sculpting temporal coordination of neural activity in the brainwide network. This review focuses on oscillations in the cerebral cortex that occur during cognition, in alert behaving conditions. Over the last two decades, experimental and modeling work has made great strides in elucidating the detailed cellular and circuit basis of these rhythms, particularly gamma and theta rhythms. The underlying physiological mechanisms are diverse (ranging from resonance and pacemaker properties of single cells, to multiple scenarios for population synchronization and wave propagation), but also exhibit unifying principles. A major conceptual advance was the realization that synaptic inhibition plays a fundamental role in rhythmogenesis, either in an interneuronal network or in a recipropocal excitatory-inhibitory loop. Computational functions of synchronous oscillations in cognition are still a matter of debate among systems neuroscientists, in part because the notion of regular oscillation seems to contradict the common observation that spiking discharges of individual neurons in the cortex are highly stochastic and far from being clock-like. However, recent findings have led to a framework that goes beyond the conventional theory of coupled oscillators, and reconciles the apparent dichotomy between irregular single neuron activity and field potential oscillations. From this perspective, a plethora of studies will be reviewed on the involvement of long-distance neuronal coherence in cognitive functions such as multisensory integration, working memory and selective attention. Finally, implications of abnormal neural synchronization are discussed as they relate to mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism. PMID:20664082

  11. Human Motor Cortical Activity Is Selectively Phase-Entrained on Underlying Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kai J.; Hermes, Dora; Honey, Christopher J.; Hebb, Adam O.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Knight, Robert T.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    The functional significance of electrical rhythms in the mammalian brain remains uncertain. In the motor cortex, the 12–20 Hz beta rhythm is known to transiently decrease in amplitude during movement, and to be altered in many motor diseases. Here we show that the activity of neuronal populations is phase-coupled with the beta rhythm on rapid timescales, and describe how the strength of this relation changes with movement. To investigate the relationship of the beta rhythm to neuronal dynamics, we measured local cortical activity using arrays of subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrodes in human patients performing simple movement tasks. In addition to rhythmic brain processes, ECoG potentials also reveal a spectrally broadband motif that reflects the aggregate neural population activity beneath each electrode. During movement, the amplitude of this broadband motif follows the dynamics of individual fingers, with somatotopically specific responses for different fingers at different sites on the pre-central gyrus. The 12–20 Hz beta rhythm, in contrast, is widespread as well as spatially coherent within sulcal boundaries and decreases in amplitude across the pre- and post-central gyri in a diffuse manner that is not finger-specific. We find that the amplitude of this broadband motif is entrained on the phase of the beta rhythm, as well as rhythms at other frequencies, in peri-central cortex during fixation. During finger movement, the beta phase-entrainment is diminished or eliminated. We suggest that the beta rhythm may be more than a resting rhythm, and that this entrainment may reflect a suppressive mechanism for actively gating motor function. PMID:22969416

  12. Auditory Cortical Activity During Cochlear Implant-Mediated Perception of Spoken Language, Melody, and Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, Anne T.; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Braun, Allen R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the significant advances in language perception for cochlear implant (CI) recipients, music perception continues to be a major challenge for implant-mediated listening. Our understanding of the neural mechanisms that underlie successful implant listening remains limited. To our knowledge, this study represents the first neuroimaging investigation of music perception in CI users, with the hypothesis that CI subjects would demonstrate greater auditory cortical activation than normal hearing controls. H215O positron emission tomography (PET) was used here to assess auditory cortical activation patterns in ten postlingually deafened CI patients and ten normal hearing control subjects. Subjects were presented with language, melody, and rhythm tasks during scanning. Our results show significant auditory cortical activation in implant subjects in comparison to control subjects for language, melody, and rhythm. The greatest activity in CI users compared to controls was seen for language tasks, which is thought to reflect both implant and neural specializations for language processing. For musical stimuli, PET scanning revealed significantly greater activation during rhythm perception in CI subjects (compared to control subjects), and the least activation during melody perception, which was the most difficult task for CI users. These results may suggest a possible relationship between auditory performance and degree of auditory cortical activation in implant recipients that deserves further study. PMID:19662456

  13. A thalamo-cortical neural mass model for the simulation of brain rhythms during sleep.

    PubMed

    Cona, F; Lacanna, M; Ursino, M

    2014-08-01

    Cortico-thalamic interactions are known to play a pivotal role in many brain phenomena, including sleep, attention, memory consolidation and rhythm generation. Hence, simple mathematical models that can simulate the dialogue between the cortex and the thalamus, at a mesoscopic level, have a great cognitive value. In the present work we describe a neural mass model of a cortico-thalamic module, based on neurophysiological mechanisms. The model includes two thalamic populations (a thalamo-cortical relay cell population, TCR, and its related thalamic reticular nucleus, TRN), and a cortical column consisting of four connected populations (pyramidal neurons, excitatory interneurons, inhibitory interneurons with slow and fast kinetics). Moreover, thalamic neurons exhibit two firing modes: bursting and tonic. Finally, cortical synapses among pyramidal neurons incorporate a disfacilitation mechanism following prolonged activity. Simulations show that the model is able to mimic the different patterns of rhythmic activity in cortical and thalamic neurons (beta and alpha waves, spindles, delta waves, K-complexes, slow sleep waves) and their progressive changes from wakefulness to deep sleep, by just acting on modulatory inputs. Moreover, simulations performed by providing short sensory inputs to the TCR show that brain rhythms during sleep preserve the cortex from external perturbations, still allowing a high cortical activity necessary to drive synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. In perspective, the present model may be used within larger cortico-thalamic networks, to gain a deeper understanding of mechanisms beneath synaptic changes during sleep, to investigate the specific role of brain rhythms, and to explore cortical synchronization achieved via thalamic influences.

  14. Resting state cortical electroencephalographic rhythms in subjects with normal and abnormal body weight.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Marzano, Nicola; Lizio, Roberta; Valenzano, Anna; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Petito, Annamaria; Bellomo, Antonello; Lecce, Brunello; Mundi, Ciro; Soricelli, Andrea; Limatola, Cristina; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Del Percio, Claudio

    2011-09-15

    It is well known that resting state regional cerebral blood flow is abnormal in obese when compared to normal-weight subjects but the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are poorly known. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that amplitude of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms differ among underweight, normal-weight, and overweight/obese subjects as a reflection of the relationship between cortical neural synchronization and regulation of body weight. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded in 16 underweight subjects, 25 normal-weight subjects, and 18 overweight/obese subjects. All subjects were psychophysically healthy (no eating disorders or major psychopathologies). EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), beta 2 (20-30Hz), and gamma (30-40Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Statistical results showed that parietal and temporal alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern underweight>normal-weight>overweight/obese (p<0.004), whereas occipital alpha 1 sources fitted the pattern normal-weight>underweight>overweight/obese (p<0.00003). Furthermore, amplitude of the parietal, occipital, and temporal alpha 2 sources was stronger in the normal-weight subjects than in the underweight and overweight/obese subjects (p<0.0007). These results suggest that abnormal weight in healthy overweight/obese subjects is related to abnormal cortical neural synchronization at the basis of resting state alpha rhythms and fluctuation of global brain arousal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cortical Activity during Perception of Musical Rhythm; Comparing Musicians and Non-musicians

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Assal; Wirantana, Vinthia; Starr, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of musical training on brain activity to violations of rhythmic expectancies. We recorded behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) responses of musicians and non-musicians to discrepancies of rhythm between pairs of unfamiliar melodies based on Western classical rules. Rhythm deviations in the second melody involved prolongation of a note, thus creating a delay in the subsequent note; the duration of the second note was consequently shorter because the offset time was unchanged. In the first melody, on the other hand, the two notes were of equal duration. Musicians detected rhythm deviations significantly better than non-musicians. A negative auditory cortical potential in response to the omitted stimulus was observed at a latency of 150–250 ms from where the note should have been. There were no significant differences of amplitude or latency between musicians and non-musicians. In contrast, the N100 and P200 to the delayed note after the omission were significantly greater in amplitude in musicians compared to non-musicians especially in frontal and frontal-central areas. These findings indicate that long term musical training enhances brain cortical activities involved in processing temporal irregularities of unfamiliar melodies. PMID:25512680

  16. Antiretroviral therapy effects on sources of cortical rhythms in HIV subjects: responders vs. mild responders.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Pennica, Alfredo; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Onorati, Paolo; Muratori, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Roma, Paolo; Donato, Nicole; Noce, Giuseppe; Del Percio, Claudio; Bonacci, Cristiano; Di Campli, Francesco; Gianserra, Laura; Teti, Elisabetta; Aceti, Antonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Viscione, Magdalena; Rossini, Paolo M; Andreoni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5months of combined anti-retroviral therapy (cART) affect cortical sources of resting state cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in naïve HIV subjects. Eyes-closed resting state EEG data were recorded at baseline (i.e. pre-treatment; T0), T1 (after 4weeks of cART), T2 (after 8weeks of cART), and T5 (after 5months of cART) in 38 naïve HIV subjects. EEG data were also recorded in 40 age-matched cognitively normal subjects for control purposes. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4Hz), theta (4-8Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20Hz), and beta 2 (20-30Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated by LORETA software. Compared to the control group, the HIV group at T0 showed greater delta sources and lower widespread alpha sources. cART induced a global improvement of biological (viral load, CD4 count) and EEG (delta, alpha) markers, remarkable even after 4weeks. Compared to HIV Responders (>100cells/μl at 5-month follow up), the HIV Mild Responders (<100cells/μl) showed greater parietal delta sources at baseline and lower occipital alpha sources at 5-month follow up. In naïve HIV subjects, 5months of successful cART affect brain synchronization mechanisms at the basis of the generation of delta and alpha rhythms. The present EEG markers may be useful secondary neurophysiological end points for pharmacological clinical trials in naïve HIV subjects. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms are abnormal in dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Stella, Giacomo; Buffo, Paola; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Onorati, Paolo; Muratori, Chiara; Miano, Silvia; Gheller, Flavia; Antonaci, Laura; Albertini, Giorgio; Rossini, Paolo M

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have been inconclusive whether dominant resting state alpha rhythms differ in amplitude in dyslexic subjects when compared to control subjects, being these rhythms considered as a reflection of effective cortical neural synchronization and cognition. Here we used a validated EEG source estimation to test the hypothesis that resting state alpha rhythms are abnormal in dyslexic subjects and are related to reading deficits. Eyes-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 26 dyslexics (12 males, mean age of 11 years ± 0.5 standard error of mean, SEM) and 11 age-matched normal control subjects (8 males, mean age of 11 years ± 0.7 SEM). EEG rhythms of interest, based on individual alpha frequency peak, were the following: about 2-4 Hz (delta), 4-6 Hz (theta), 6-8 Hz (alpha 1), 8-10 Hz (alpha 2), and 10-12 Hz (alpha 3). For the higher frequencies, we selected beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were estimated by low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). LORETA solutions were normalized across all voxels and frequencies. Compared to the control children, the dyslexics showed lower amplitude of parietal, occipital, and temporal alpha 2 and alpha 3 sources. In the dyslexics, some of these sources were correlated to reading time of pseudo-words (parietal alpha 2, r=-0.56, p=0.02; parietal alpha 3, r=-0.58, p=0.02; temporal alpha 3, r=-0.57, p=0.02); the higher the alpha power, the shorter the reading time. Dyslexic children are characterized by limited abnormalities of resting state EEG rhythms as to topography (posterior regions) and frequency (alpha), which were related to phonological encoding (pseudo-words reading). Dyslexia may be associated to some functional impairment of cortical neuronal synchronization mechanisms involved in the resting state condition. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  18. Cortical Plasticity Induced by Short-Term Multimodal Musical Rhythm Training

    PubMed Central

    Lappe, Claudia; Trainor, Laurel J.; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Pantev, Christo

    2011-01-01

    Performing music is a multimodal experience involving the visual, auditory, and somatosensory modalities as well as the motor system. Therefore, musical training is an excellent model to study multimodal brain plasticity. Indeed, we have previously shown that short-term piano practice increase the magnetoencephalographic (MEG) response to melodic material in novice players. Here we investigate the impact of piano training using a rhythmic-focused exercise on responses to rhythmic musical material. Musical training with non musicians was conducted over a period of two weeks. One group (sensorimotor-auditory, SA) learned to play a piano sequence with a distinct musical rhythm, another group (auditory, A) listened to, and evaluated the rhythmic accuracy of the performances of the SA-group. Training-induced cortical plasticity was evaluated using MEG, comparing the mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to occasional rhythmic deviants in a repeating rhythm pattern before and after training. The SA-group showed a significantly greater enlargement of MMN and P2 to deviants after training compared to the A- group. The training-induced increase of the rhythm MMN was bilaterally expressed in contrast to our previous finding where the MMN for deviants in the pitch domain showed a larger right than left increase. The results indicate that when auditory experience is strictly controlled during training, involvement of the sensorimotor system and perhaps increased attentional recources that are needed in producing rhythms lead to more robust plastic changes in the auditory cortex compared to when rhythms are simply attended to in the auditory domain in the absence of motor production. PMID:21747907

  19. Classification of Single Normal and Alzheimer's Disease Individuals from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Triggiani, Antonio I; Lizio, Roberta; Cordone, Susanna; Tattoli, Giacomo; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Millán-Calenti, José C; Buján, Ana; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Del Percio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in groups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy elderly (Nold) subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz) were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e., 70%). Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i) central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii) central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii) frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv) occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v) occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi) parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%). These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  20. Classification of Single Normal and Alzheimer's Disease Individuals from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Babiloni, Claudio; Triggiani, Antonio I.; Lizio, Roberta; Cordone, Susanna; Tattoli, Giacomo; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Millán-Calenti, José C.; Buján, Ana; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Barulli, Maria Rosaria; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; del Percio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in groups of Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy elderly (Nold) subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA) estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha 1 (8–10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5–13 Hz), beta 1 (13–20 Hz), beta 2 (20–30 Hz), and gamma (30–40 Hz) were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e., 70%). Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i) central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii) central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii) frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv) occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v) occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi) parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%). These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%. PMID:26941594

  1. Sensorimotor rhythm-based brain-computer interface training: the impact on motor cortical responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichiorri, F.; De Vico Fallani, F.; Cincotti, F.; Babiloni, F.; Molinari, M.; Kleih, S. C.; Neuper, C.; Kübler, A.; Mattia, D.

    2011-04-01

    The main purpose of electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) technology is to provide an alternative channel to support communication and control when motor pathways are interrupted. Despite the considerable amount of research focused on the improvement of EEG signal detection and translation into output commands, little is known about how learning to operate a BCI device may affect brain plasticity. This study investigated if and how sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training would induce persistent functional changes in motor cortex, as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and high-density EEG. Motor imagery (MI)-based BCI training in naïve participants led to a significant increase in motor cortical excitability, as revealed by post-training TMS mapping of the hand muscle's cortical representation; peak amplitude and volume of the motor evoked potentials recorded from the opponens pollicis muscle were significantly higher only in those subjects who develop a MI strategy based on imagination of hand grasping to successfully control a computer cursor. Furthermore, analysis of the functional brain networks constructed using a connectivity matrix between scalp electrodes revealed a significant decrease in the global efficiency index for the higher-beta frequency range (22-29 Hz), indicating that the brain network changes its topology with practice of hand grasping MI. Our findings build the neurophysiological basis for the use of non-invasive BCI technology for monitoring and guidance of motor imagery-dependent brain plasticity and thus may render BCI a viable tool for post-stroke rehabilitation.

  2. [Changes in Spatial Organization of Cortical Rhythm Vibrations in Children uner the Influence of Music].

    PubMed

    Shepovalnikov, A N; Egorov, M V

    2015-01-01

    Changes is systemic brain activity under influence of classical music (minor and major music) were studied at two groups of healthy children aged 5-6 years (n = 53). In 25 of studied children the Luscher test showed increased level of anxiety which significantly decreased after music therapy sessions. Bioelectrical cortical activity registered from 20 unipolar leads was subjected to correlation, coherence and factor analysis. Also the dynamics of the power spectrum for each of the EEG was studied. According to EEG all children after listening to both minor and major tones showed reorganization of brain rhythm structure accompanied by a decrease in the level of coherence and correlation of EEG; also was found significant and almost universal decrease in the EEG power spectrum. Registered EEG changes under the influence of classical music seems to reflect a decrease in excess of "internal tension" and weakening degree of "stiffness" to ensure the activity of cerebral structures responsible for mechanisms of "basic integration" which maintain constant readiness of brain to rapid and complete inclusion in action.

  3. Daily rhythms of radiosensitivity of animals and several determining causes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druzhinin, Y. P.; Malyutina, T. S.; Seraya, V. M.; Rodina, G. P.; Vatsek, A.; Rakova, A.

    1974-01-01

    Daily rhythms of radiosensitivity in rats and mice were determined by survival rates after acute total radiation at the same dosage at different times of the day. Radiosensitivity differed in animals of different species and varieties. Inbred mice exhibited one or two increases in radiosensitivity during the dark, active period of the day. These effects were attributed to periodic changes in the state of stem hematopoietic cells.

  4. Reactivity of cortical alpha rhythms to eye opening in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Lizio, Roberta; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Pievani, Michela; Geroldi, Cristina; Claudia, Fracassi; Ferri, Raffaele; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Rossini, Paolo M

    2010-01-01

    Cortical sources of resting eyes-closed alpha rhythms are typically abnormal in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects. Here we tested the hypothesis of a progressive impairment of cortical alpha reactivity to eye-opening across amnesic MCI and mild AD subjects, reflecting another aspect of the impairment of cortical neural synchronization. Resting electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded in 36 normal elderly subjects (Nold), 91 amnesic MCI, and 31 mild AD subjects during eyes-closed and -open conditions. EEG sources were estimated by LORETA software. In the eye-closed condition, posterior alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz) sources were lower in MCI and AD than Nold subjects. The opposite was true for occipital delta sources (2-4 Hz). Reactivity to the eyes-open condition showed posterior alpha 1 and alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz) sources was high in the Nold, intermediate in the MCI, and low in the AD subjects. Furthermore, occipital alpha 1 reactivity across MCI and AD subjects was correlated to the cognitive impairment as revealed by Mini-Mental State Examination score. In conclusion, at least at group level, the continuum across amnesic MCI and mild AD status is related to an impaired reactivity of cortical neuronal synchronization to eyes opening at alpha rhythms.

  5. Learning strategy determines auditory cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Berlau, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Learning modifies the primary auditory cortex (A1) to emphasize the processing and representation of behaviorally relevant sounds. However, the factors that determine cortical plasticity are poorly understood. While the type and amount of learning are assumed to be important, the actual strategies used to solve learning problems might be critical. To investigate this possibility, we trained two groups of adult male Sprague–Dawley rats to bar-press (BP) for water contingent on the presence of a 5.0 kHz tone using two different strategies: BP during tone presence or BP from tone-onset until receiving an error signal after tone cessation. Both groups achieved the same high levels of correct performance and both groups revealed equivalent learning of absolute frequency during training. Post-training terminal “mapping” of A1 showed no change in representational area of the tone signal frequency but revealed other substantial cue-specific plasticity that developed only in the tone-onset-to-error strategy group. Threshold was decreased ~10 dB and tuning bandwidth was narrowed by ~0.7 octaves. As sound onsets have greater perceptual weighting and cortical discharge efficacy than continual sound presence, the induction of specific learning-induced cortical plasticity may depend on the use of learning strategies that best exploit cortical proclivities. The present results also suggest a general principle for the induction and storage of plasticity in learning, viz., that the representation of specific acquired information may be selected by neurons according to a match between behaviorally selected stimulus features and circuit/network response properties. PMID:17707663

  6. On-going electroencephalographic rhythms related to cortical arousal in wild-type mice: the effect of aging.

    PubMed

    Del Percio, Claudio; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus; Lopez, Susanna; Infarinato, Francesco; Bastlund, Jesper Frank; Laursen, Bettina; Pedersen, Jan T; Christensen, Ditte Zerlang; Forloni, Gianluigi; Frasca, Angelisa; Noè, Francesco M; Bentivoglio, Marina; Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Bertini, Giuseppe; Colavito, Valeria; Kelley, Jonathan; Dix, Sophie; Richardson, Jill C; Babiloni, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms reflect the fluctuation of cortical arousal and vigilance in a typical clinical setting, namely the EEG recording for few minutes with eyes closed (i.e., passive condition) and eyes open (i.e., active condition). Can this procedure be back-translated to C57 (wild type) mice for aging studies? On-going EEG rhythms were recorded from a frontoparietal bipolar channel in 85 (19 females) C57 mice. Male mice were subdivided into 3 groups: 25 young (4.5-6 months), 18 middle-aged (12-15 months), and 23 old (20-24 months) mice to test the effect of aging. EEG power density was compared between short periods (about 5 minutes) of awake quiet behavior (passive) and dynamic exploration of the cage (active). Compared with the passive condition, the active condition induced decreased EEG power at 1-2 Hz and increased EEG power at 6-10 Hz in the group of 85 mice. Concerning the aging effects, the passive condition showed higher EEG power at 1-2 Hz in the old group than that in the others. Furthermore, the active condition exhibited a maximum EEG power at 6-8 Hz in the former group and 8-10 Hz in the latter. In the present conditions, delta and theta EEG rhythms reflected changes in cortical arousal and vigilance in freely behaving C57 mice across aging. These changes resemble the so-called slowing of resting state EEG rhythms observed in humans across physiological and pathological aging. The present EEG procedures may be used to enhance preclinical phases of drug discovery in mice for understanding the neurophysiological effects of new compounds against brain aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. To the beat of your own drum: cortical regularization of non-integer ratio rhythms toward metrical patterns.

    PubMed

    Motz, Benjamin A; Erickson, Molly A; Hetrick, William P

    2013-04-01

    Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio subdivisions of the beat, e.g. sounds at 430ms in a 1000ms beat) are represented less accurately than sequences with metrical relationships, where events occur at even subdivisions of the beat (integer ratios, e.g. sounds at 500ms in a 1000ms beat). Why do non-integer ratio rhythms present cognitive challenges? An emerging theory is that non-integer ratio sequences are represented incorrectly, "regularized" in the direction of the nearest metrical pattern, and the present study sought evidence of such perceptual regularization toward integer ratio relationships. Participants listened to metrical and non-metrical rhythmic auditory sequences during electroencephalogram recording, and sounds were pseudorandomly omitted from the stimulus sequence. Cortical responses to these omissions (omission elicited potentials; OEPs) were used to estimate the timing of expectations for omitted sounds in integer ratio and non-integer ratio locations. OEP amplitude and onset latency measures indicated that expectations for non-integer ratio sequences are distorted toward the nearest metrical location in the rhythmic period. These top-down effects demonstrate metrical regularization in a purely perceptual context, and provide support for dynamical accounts of rhythm perception.

  8. Top-down control of cortical gamma-band communication via pulvinar induced phase shifts in the alpha rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Ole; Tiesinga, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Selective routing of information between cortical areas is required in order to combine different sources of information according to cognitive demand. Recent experiments have suggested that alpha band activity originating from the pulvinar coordinates this inter-areal cortical communication. Using a computer model we investigated whether top-down induced shifts in the relative alpha phase between two cortical areas could modulate cortical communication, quantified in terms of changes in gamma band coherence between them. The network model was comprised of two uni-directionally connected neuronal populations of spiking neurons, each representing a cortical area. We find that the phase difference of the alpha oscillations modulating the two neuronal populations strongly affected the interregional gamma-band neuronal coherence. We confirmed that a higher gamma band coherence also resulted in more efficient transmission of spiking information between cortical areas, thereby confirming the value of gamma coherence as a proxy for cortical information transmission. In a model where both neuronal populations were connected bi-directionally, the relative alpha phase determined the directionality of communication between the populations. Our results show the feasibility of a physiological realistic mechanism for routing information in the brain based on coupled oscillations. Our model results in a set of testable predictions regarding phase shifts in alpha oscillations under different task demands requiring experimental quantification of neuronal oscillations in different regions in e.g. attention paradigms. PMID:28472057

  9. Computational model of thalamo-cortical networks: dynamical control of alpha rhythms in relation to focal attention.

    PubMed

    Suffczynski, P; Kalitzin, S; Pfurtscheller, G; Lopes da Silva, F H

    2001-12-01

    EEG/MEG rhythmic activities such as alpha rhythms, of the visual or of the somato-sensory cortex, are commonly modulated as subjects perform certain tasks or react to specific stimuli. In general, these activities change depending on extrinsic or intrinsic events. A decrease of the amplitude of alpha rhythmic activity occurring after a given event, which manifests as a decrease of a spectral peak, is called event-related desynchronization (ERD), whereas the inverse is called event-related synchronization (ERS), since it is assumed that the power of a spectral peak is related to the degree of synchrony of the underlying oscillating neuronal populations. An intriguing observation in this respect [Pfurtscheller and Neuper, Neurosci. Lett. 174 (1994) 93-96] was that ERD of alpha rhythms recorded over the central areas was accompanied by ERS, within the same frequency band, recorded over neighboring areas. In case the event was a hand movement, ERD was recorded over the scalp overlying the hand cortical area, whereas ERS was concomitantly recorded over the midline, whereas if the movement was of the foot the opposite was found. We called this phenomenon 'focal ERD/surround ERS'. The question of how this phenomenon may be generated was approached by means of a computational model of thalamo-cortical networks, that incorporates basic properties of neurons and synaptic interactions. These simulation studies revealed that this antagonistic ERD/ERS phenomenon depends on the functional interaction between the populations of thalamo-cortical cells (TCR) and reticular nucleus cells (RE) and on how this interaction is modulated by cholinergic inputs. An essential feature of this interaction is the existence of cross-talk between different sectors of RE that correspond to distinct sensory modules (e.g. hand, foot). These observations led us to formulate the hypothesis that this basic neurophysiological mechanism can account for the general observation that enhanced attention

  10. Cortical motor systems are involved in second-language comprehension: evidence from rapid mu-rhythm desynchronisation.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Shtyrov, Yury

    2014-11-15

    Understanding neurocognitive mechanisms supporting the use of multiple languages is a key question in language science. Recent neuroimaging studies in monolinguals indicated that core language areas in human neocortex together with sensorimotor structures form a highly interactive system underpinning native language comprehension. While the experience of a native speaker promotes the establishment of strong action-perception links in the comprehension network, this may not necessarily be the case for L2 where, as it has been argued, the most a typical L2 speaker may get is a link between an L2 wordform and its L1 translation equivalent. Therefore, we investigated, whether the motor cortex of bilingual subjects shows differential involvement in processing action semantics of native and non-native words. We used high-density EEG to dynamically measure changes in the cortical motor system's activity, indexed by event-related desynchronisation (ERD) of the mu-rhythm, in response to passively reading L1 (German) and L2 (English) action words. Analysis of motor-related EEG oscillations at the sensor level revealed an early (starting ~150 ms) and left-lateralised coupling between action and semantics during both L1 and L2 processing. Crucially, source-level activation in the motor areas showed that mu-rhythm ERD, while present for both languages, is significantly stronger for L1 words. This is the first neurophysiological evidence of rapid motor-cortex involvement during L2 action-semantic processing. Our results both strengthen embodied cognition evidence obtained previously in monolinguals and, at the same time, reveal important quantitative differences between L1 and L2 sensorimotor brain activity in language comprehension.

  11. Dynamic modulation of shared sensory and motor cortical rhythms mediates speech and non-speech discrimination performance

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Andrew L.; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Harkrider, Ashley; Wilson, Matt; Toner, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Oscillatory models of speech processing have proposed that rhythmic cortical oscillations in sensory and motor regions modulate speech sound processing from the bottom-up via phase reset at low frequencies (3–10 Hz) and from the top-down via the disinhibition of alpha/beta rhythms (8–30 Hz). To investigate how the proposed rhythms mediate perceptual performance, electroencephalographic (EEG) was recorded while participants passively listened to or actively identified speech and tone-sweeps in a two-force choice in noise discrimination task presented at high and low signal-to-noise ratios. EEG data were decomposed using independent component analysis and clustered across participants using principle component methods in EEGLAB. Left and right hemisphere sensorimotor and posterior temporal lobe clusters were identified. Alpha and beta suppression was associated with active tasks only in sensorimotor and temporal clusters. In posterior temporal clusters, increases in phase reset at low frequencies were driven by the quality of bottom-up acoustic information for speech and non-speech stimuli, whereas phase reset in sensorimotor clusters was associated with top-down active task demands. A comparison of correct discrimination trials to those identified at chance showed an earlier performance related effect for the left sensorimotor cluster relative to the left-temporal lobe cluster during the syllable discrimination task only. The right sensorimotor cluster was associated with performance related differences for tone–sweep stimuli only. Findings are consistent with internal model accounts suggesting that early efferent sensorimotor models transmitted along alpha and beta channels reflect a release from inhibition related to active attention to auditory discrimination. Results are discussed in the broader context of dynamic, oscillatory models of cognition proposing that top-down internally generated states interact with bottom-up sensory processing to enhance task

  12. Resting state cortical rhythms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: electroencephalographic evidence.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Lizio, Roberta; Ferri, Raffaele; Rodriguez, Guido; Marzano, Nicola; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Rossini, Paolo M

    2011-01-01

    Physiological brain aging is characterized by a combination of synaptic pruning, loss of cortico-cortical connections and neuronal apoptosis that provoke age-dependent decline of cognitive functions. Neural/synaptic redundancy and plastic remodeling of brain networking, also secondary to mental and physical training, promotes maintenance of brain activity in healthy elderly for everyday life and fully productive affective and intellectual capabilities. Unfortunately, in pathological situations, aging triggers neurodegenerative processes that impact on cognition, like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Oscillatory electromagnetic brain activity is a hallmark of neuronal network function in various brain regions. Modern neurophysiological techniques including digital electroencephalography (EEG) allow non-invasive analysis of cortico-cortical connectivity and neuronal synchronization of firing, and coherence of brain rhythmic oscillations at various frequencies. The present review of field EEG literature suggests that discrimination between physiological and pathological brain aging clearly emerges at the group level, with some promising result on the informative value of EEG markers at the individual level. Integrated approaches utilizing neurophysiological techniques together with biological markers and structural and functional imaging are promising for large-scale, low-cost, widely available on the territory and non-invasive screening of at-risk populations.

  13. Human cortical rhythms during visual delayed choice reaction time tasks. A high-resolution EEG study on normal aging.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Babiloni, Fabio; Carducci, Filippo; Cappa, Stefano F; Cincotti, Febo; Del Percio, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo; Vito Moretti, Davide; Rossi, Simone; Sosta, Katiuscia; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2004-08-12

    Neuroimaging cognitive study of aging requires simple tasks ensuring a high rate of correct performances even in stressful neurophysiological settings. Here two simple delayed choice reaction time tasks were used to unveil event-related desynchronization (ERD) of theta (4-6 Hz) and alpha (6-12 Hz) electroencephalographic rhythms across normal aging. In the first condition, a cue stimulus (one bit) was memorized along a brief delay period (3.5-5.5 s). The explicit demand was visuo-spatial, but the retention could be also based on phonological and somatomotor coding. In the second condition, the cue stimulus remained available along the delay period. Correct performances were higher than 95% in both groups and tasks, although they were significantly better in young than elderly subjects (P < 0.03). During the delay period, theta and alpha ERD accompanying correct responses were recognized in the two groups, the alpha ERD being stronger and prolonged during the memory than non-memory task. On the other hand, the fronto-parietal theta and parietal alpha ERD were stronger in young than elderly subjects during both tasks. Notably, the frontal alpha ERD was negligible in elderly subjects. In conclusion, the present simple tasks unveiled in elderly compared to young subjects (i) a weaker involvement of (para)hippocampal-cortical circuits as revealed by theta ERD and (ii) a weaker involvement of "executive" thalamo-cortical circuits as revealed by frontal alpha ERD. These effects might worsen behavioral performances to the simple cognitive tasks with age. The present protocol is promising for the neuroimaging study of pathological aging.

  14. Cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms are related to brain hypometabolism in subjects with Alzheimer's disease: an EEG-PET study.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Caroli, Anna; Salvatore, Elena; Nicolai, Emanuele; Marzano, Nicola; Lizio, Roberta; Cavedo, Enrica; Landau, Susan; Chen, Kewei; Jagust, William; Reiman, Eric; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Montella, Patrizia; De Stefano, Manuela; Gesualdo, Loreto; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Soricelli, Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) delta (2-4 Hz) and low-frequency alpha (8-10.5 Hz) rhythms show abnormal activity (i.e., current density) in patients with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we hypothesized that abnormality of this activity is related to relevant disease processes as revealed by cortical hypometabolism typically observed in AD patients by fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 19 AD patients with dementia and 40 healthy elderly (Nold) subjects. EEG frequency bands of interest were delta and low-frequency alpha. EEG sources were estimated in these bands by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography images were recorded only in the AD patients, and cortical hypometabolism was indexed by the so-called Alzheimer's discrimination analysis tool (PALZ) in the frontal association, ventromedial frontal, temporoparietal association, posterior cingulate, and precuneus areas. Results showed that compared with the Nold group, the AD group pointed to higher activity of delta sources and lower activity of low-frequency alpha sources in a cortical region of interest formed by all cortical areas of the PALZ score. In the AD patients, there was a positive correlation between the PALZ score and the activity of delta sources in the cortical region of interest (p < 0.05). These results suggest a relationship between resting state cortical hypometabolism and synchronization of cortical neurons at delta rhythms in AD patients with dementia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distinct Thalamic Reticular Cell Types Differentially Modulate Normal and Pathological Cortical Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Perez, Alexandra; Makinson, Stefanie Ritter; Higashikubo, Bryan; Brovarney, Scott; Cho, Frances S; Urry, Alexander; Holden, Stephanie S; Wimer, Matthew; Dávid, Csaba; Fenno, Lief E; Acsády, László; Deisseroth, Karl; Paz, Jeanne T

    2017-06-06

    Integrative brain functions depend on widely distributed, rhythmically coordinated computations. Through its long-ranging connections with cortex and most senses, the thalamus orchestrates the flow of cognitive and sensory information. Essential in this process, the nucleus reticularis thalami (nRT) gates different information streams through its extensive inhibition onto other thalamic nuclei, however, we lack an understanding of how different inhibitory neuron subpopulations in nRT function as gatekeepers. We dissociated the connectivity, physiology, and circuit functions of neurons within rodent nRT, based on parvalbumin (PV) and somatostatin (SOM) expression, and validated the existence of such populations in human nRT. We found that PV, but not SOM, cells are rhythmogenic, and that PV and SOM neurons are connected to and modulate distinct thalamocortical circuits. Notably, PV, but not SOM, neurons modulate somatosensory behavior and disrupt seizures. These results provide a conceptual framework for how nRT may gate incoming information to modulate brain-wide rhythms. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Somatostatin modulates generation of inspiratory rhythms and determines asphyxia survival.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Jarquín, Josué O; Lara-Hernández, Sergio; López-Guerrero, Juan J; Aguileta, Miguel A; Rivera-Angulo, Ana J; Sampieri, Alicia; Vaca, Luis; Ordaz, Benito; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Breathing and the activity of its generator (the pre-Bötzinger complex; pre-BötC) are highly regulated functions. Among neuromodulators of breathing, somatostatin (SST) is unique: it is synthesized by a subset of glutamatergic pre-BötC neurons, but acts as an inhibitory neuromodulator. Moreover, SST regulates breathing both in normoxic and in hypoxic conditions. Although it has been implicated in the neuromodulation of breathing, neither the locus of SST modulation, nor the receptor subtypes involved have been identified. In this study, we aimed to fill in these blanks by characterizing the SST-induced regulation of inspiratory rhythm generation in vitro and in vivo. We found that both endogenous and exogenous SST depress all preBötC-generated rhythms. While SST abolishes sighs, it also decreases the frequency and increases the regularity of eupnea and gasping. Pharmacological experiments showed that SST modulates inspiratory rhythm generation by activating SST receptor type-2, whose mRNA is abundantly expressed in the pre-Bötzinger complex. In vivo, blockade of SST receptor type-2 reduces gasping amplitude and consequently, it precludes auto-resuscitation after asphyxia. Based on our findings, we suggest that SST functions as an inhibitory neuromodulator released by excitatory respiratory neurons when they become overactivated in order to stabilize breathing rhythmicity in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

  17. Cognitive-neural effects of brush writing of chinese characters: cortical excitation of theta rhythm.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min; Kao, Henry S R; Zhang, Manlin; Lam, Stewart P W; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Chinese calligraphy has been scientifically investigated within the contexts and principles of psychology, cognitive science, and the cognitive neuroscience. On the basis of vast amount of research in the last 30 years, we have developed a cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy to account for the intricate interactions of several psychological dimensions involved in the dynamic act of graphic production. Central to this system of writing are the role of sensory, bio-, cognitive, and neurofeedback mechanisms for the initiation, guidance, and regulation of the writing motions vis-a-vis visual-geometric variations of Chinese characters. This experiment provided the first evidence of cortical excitation in EEG theta wave as a neural hub that integrates information coming from changes in the practitioner's body, emotions, and cognition. In addition, it has also confirmed neurofeedback as an essential component of the cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy.

  18. Cognitive-Neural Effects of Brush Writing of Chinese Characters: Cortical Excitation of Theta Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Kao, Henry S. R.; Zhang, Manlin; Lam, Stewart P. W.; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Chinese calligraphy has been scientifically investigated within the contexts and principles of psychology, cognitive science, and the cognitive neuroscience. On the basis of vast amount of research in the last 30 years, we have developed a cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy to account for the intricate interactions of several psychological dimensions involved in the dynamic act of graphic production. Central to this system of writing are the role of sensory, bio-, cognitive, and neurofeedback mechanisms for the initiation, guidance, and regulation of the writing motions vis-a-vis visual-geometric variations of Chinese characters. This experiment provided the first evidence of cortical excitation in EEG theta wave as a neural hub that integrates information coming from changes in the practitioner's body, emotions, and cognition. In addition, it has also confirmed neurofeedback as an essential component of the cybernetic theory of handwriting and calligraphy. PMID:23533532

  19. [Characteristics of cortical activity in persons with high and low verbal creativity: analysis of alpha1,2 rhythms].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M; Tarasova, I V; Vol'f, N V

    2009-01-01

    Creativity-related changes in alpha power in low-frequency (8-10 Hz) and high-frequency (10-13 Hz) bands were studied in university students having regard to generation of original ideas during performance of two verbal tasks. A high-creative group enrolled 16 subjects asked to generate original words--associates to the triads of verbal stimuli and 14 subjects who were asked to compose a sentence using triads of nouns from remote semantic categories. Low-creative groups included 22 and 13 individuals, respectively. In low-frequency band, highly creative subjects showed a higher level of alpha power than low creative individuals. In the high-frequency band, task-related alpha2 power desynchronization was different in these groups: high-creative individuals had higher power score than low-creative mostly in the anterior and parietal cortical areas. These data and a factor structure of alpha rhythm indices may be evidence of different strategies of information selection in highly and low creative persons.

  20. Comodulation of dopamine and serotonin on prefrontal cortical rhythms: a theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Hui; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated to play an important role in cognitive control. Abnormal PFC activities and rhythms have been observed in some neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and evidences suggest influences from the neuromodulators dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Despite the high level of interest in these brain systems, the combined effects of DA and 5-HT modulation on PFC dynamics remain unknown. In this work, we build a mathematical model that incorporates available experimental findings to systematically study the comodulation of DA and 5-HT on the network behavior, focusing on beta and gamma band oscillations. Single neuronal model shows pyramidal cells with 5-HT1A and 2A receptors can be non-monotonically modulated by 5-HT. Two-population excitatory-inhibitory type network consisting of pyramidal cells with D1 receptors can provide rich repertoires of oscillatory behavior. In particular, 5-HT and DA can modulate the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations, which can emerge or cease, depending on receptor types. Certain receptor combinations are conducive for the robustness of the oscillatory regime, or the existence of multiple discrete oscillatory regimes. In a multi-population heterogeneous model that takes into account possible combination of receptors, we demonstrate that robust network oscillations require high DA concentration. We also show that selective D1 receptor antagonists (agonists) tend to suppress (enhance) network oscillations, increase the frequency from beta toward gamma band, while selective 5-HT1A antagonists (agonists) act in opposite ways. Selective D2 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (agonists) can lead to decrease (increase) in oscillation amplitude, but only 5-HT2A antagonists (agonists) can increase (decrease) the frequency. These results are comparable to some pharmacological effects. Our work illustrates the complex mechanisms of DA and 5-HT when operating simultaneously through multiple receptors

  1. Detection of the onset of upper-limb movements based on the combined analysis of changes in the sensorimotor rhythms and slow cortical potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, J.; Serrano, J. I.; del Castillo, M. D.; Monge-Pereira, E.; Molina-Rueda, F.; Alguacil-Diego, I.; Pons, J. L.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Characterizing the intention to move by means of electroencephalographic activity can be used in rehabilitation protocols with patients’ cortical activity taking an active role during the intervention. In such applications, the reliability of the intention estimation is critical both in terms of specificity ‘number of misclassifications’ and temporal accuracy. Here, a detector of the onset of voluntary upper-limb reaching movements based on the cortical rhythms and the slow cortical potentials is proposed. The improvement in detections due to the combination of these two cortical patterns is also studied. Approach. Upper-limb movements and cortical activity were recorded in healthy subjects and stroke patients performing self-paced reaching movements. A logistic regression combined the output of two classifiers: (i) a naïve Bayes classifier trained to detect the event-related desynchronization preceding the movement onset and (ii) a matched filter detecting the bereitschaftspotential. The proposed detector was compared with the detectors by using each one of these cortical patterns separately. In addition, differences between the patients and healthy subjects were analysed. Main results. On average, 74.5 ± 13.8% and 82.2 ± 10.4% of the movements were detected with 1.32 ± 0.87 and 1.50 ± 1.09 false detections generated per minute in the healthy subjects and the patients, respectively. A significantly better performance was achieved by the combined detector (as compared to the detectors of the two cortical patterns separately) in terms of true detections (p = 0.099) and false positives (p = 0.0083). Significance. A rationale is provided for combining information from cortical rhythms and slow cortical potentials to detect the onsets of voluntary upper-limb movements. It is demonstrated that the two cortical processes supply complementary information that can be summed up to boost the performance of the detector. Successful results have been also

  2. Cortical Actin Nanodynamics Determines Nitric Oxide Release in Vascular Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Fels, Johannes; Jeggle, Pia; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Oberleithner, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The release of the main vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is a hallmark of endothelial function. We aim at elucidating the underlying mechanism how eNOS activity depends on cortical stiffness (Кcortex) of living endothelial cells. It is hypothesized that cortical actin dynamics determines Кcortex and directly influences eNOS activity. By combined atomic force microscopy and fluorescence imaging we generated mechanical and optical sections of single living cells. This approach allows the discrimination between Кcortex and bulk cell stiffness (Кbulk) and, additionally, the simultaneous analysis of submembranous actin web dynamics. We show that Кcortex softens when cortical F-actin depolymerizes and that this shift from a gel-like stiff cortex to a soft G-actin rich layer, triggers the stiffness-sensitive eNOS activity. The results implicate that stiffness changes in the ∼100 nm phase of the submembranous actin web, without affecting Кbulk, regulate NO release and thus determines endothelial function. PMID:22844486

  3. Determining the cortical target of transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Thielscher, A; Wichmann, F A

    2009-10-01

    Determining the cortical region that is effectively targeted by TMS to induce a reproducible behavioral effect is a non-trivial problem. In mapping experiments, a grid of coil positions is used to systematically assess the TMS effect on, e.g. muscle responses or error rates. The center-of-mass (CoM) of the response distribution is projected onto the cortex to determine the likely target site, implicitly assuming the existence of a single, contiguous target. The mapping results, however, often contain several local maxima. These could either stem from measurement noise, or hint towards a distributed target region. Critically, the calculation of a CoM, by design, treats multiple maxima as if they were noise. Here, a stringent hierarchical sigmoidal model fitting approach is developed that determines the cortical target(s) from TMS mapping based on electric field calculations. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to assess the significance and the goodness-of-fit of the sigmoidal fits, and to obtain confidence regions around the calculated targets. The approach was applied to mapping data on visual suppression (N=7). In all subjects, we reliably identified two or three neighboring targets commonly contributing to the suppression effect (average distance+/-SD: 7.7+/-2.3 mm). This demonstrates that (i) the assumption of a single CoM is not generally valid and (ii) the combination of TMS mapping with the fitting approach has a cortical resolution of <1 cm. The estimates for the field strength necessary to achieve 50% of the maximal suppression effect vary noticeably across subjects (mean+/-SD: 139+/-24 V/m), indicating inter-individual differences in the susceptibility to TMS.

  4. To the Beat of Your Own Drum: Cortical Regularization of Non-Integer Ratio Rhythms toward Metrical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Benjamin A.; Erickson, Molly A.; Hetrick, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio…

  5. To the Beat of Your Own Drum: Cortical Regularization of Non-Integer Ratio Rhythms toward Metrical Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motz, Benjamin A.; Erickson, Molly A.; Hetrick, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Humans perceive a wide range of temporal patterns, including those rhythms that occur in music, speech, and movement; however, there are constraints on the rhythmic patterns that we can represent. Past research has shown that sequences in which sounds occur regularly at non-metrical locations in a repeating beat period (non-integer ratio…

  6. Human cortical dynamics determined by speech fundamental frequency.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Anna Mari; Alku, Paavo; Mäkinen, Ville; Valtonen, Jussi; May, Patrick; Tiitinen, Hannu

    2002-11-01

    Evidence for speech-specific brain processes has been searched for through the manipulation of formant frequencies which mediate phonetic content and which are, in evolutionary terms, relatively "new" aspects of speech. Here we used whole-head magnetoencephalography and advanced stimulus reproduction methodology to examine the contribution of the fundamental frequency F0 and its harmonic integer multiples in cortical processing. The subjects were presented with a vowel, a frequency-matched counterpart of the vowel lacking in phonetic contents, and a pure tone. The F0 of the stimuli was set at that of a typical male (i.e., 100 Hz), female (200 Hz), or infant (270 Hz) speaker. We found that speech sounds, both with and without phonetic content, elicited the N1m response in human auditory cortex at a constant latency of 120 ms, whereas pure tones matching the speech sounds in frequency, intensity, and duration gave rise to N1m responses whose latency varied between 120 and 160 ms. Thus, it seems that the fundamental frequency F0 and its harmonics determine the temporal dynamics of speech processing in human auditory cortex and that speech specificity arises out of cortical sensitivity to the complex acoustic structure determined by the human sound production apparatus.

  7. Investigating the effects of a sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI training on the cortical activity elicited by mental imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppi, J.; Risetti, M.; Quitadamo, L. R.; Petti, M.; Bianchi, L.; Salinari, S.; Babiloni, F.; Cincotti, F.; Mattia, D.; Astolfi, L.

    2014-06-01

    Objective. It is well known that to acquire sensorimotor (SMR)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) control requires a training period before users can achieve their best possible performances. Nevertheless, the effect of this training procedure on the cortical activity related to the mental imagery ability still requires investigation to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the effects of SMR-based BCI training on the cortical spectral activity associated with the performance of different mental imagery tasks. Approach. Linear cortical estimation and statistical brain mapping techniques were applied on high-density EEG data acquired from 18 healthy participants performing three different mental imagery tasks. Subjects were divided in two groups, one of BCI trained subjects, according to their previous exposure (at least six months before this study) to motor imagery-based BCI training, and one of subjects who were naive to any BCI paradigms. Main results. Cortical activation maps obtained for trained and naive subjects indicated different spectral and spatial activity patterns in response to the mental imagery tasks. Long-term effects of the previous SMR-based BCI training were observed on the motor cortical spectral activity specific to the BCI trained motor imagery task (simple hand movements) and partially generalized to more complex motor imagery task (playing tennis). Differently, mental imagery with spatial attention and memory content could elicit recognizable cortical spectral activity even in subjects completely naive to (BCI) training. Significance. The present findings contribute to our understanding of BCI technology usage and might be of relevance in those clinical conditions when training to master a BCI application is challenging or even not possible.

  8. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  9. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-10

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R(2), 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants.

  10. Nondestructive and intuitive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves using multispectral imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xia; Deng, Yong-Ren; Li, Jia-Hang; Chen, Wei; Chiang, John Y.; Yang, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock, synchronized by daily cyclic environmental cues, regulates diverse aspects of plant growth and development and increases plant fitness. Even though much is known regarding the molecular mechanism of circadian clock, it remains challenging to quantify the temporal variation of major photosynthesis products as well as their metabolic output in higher plants in a real-time, nondestructive and intuitive manner. In order to reveal the spatial-temporal scenarios of photosynthesis and yield formation regulated by circadian clock, multispectral imaging technique has been employed for nondestructive determination of circadian chlorophyll rhythms in soybean leaves. By utilizing partial least square regression analysis, the determination coefficients R2, 0.9483 for chlorophyll a and 0.8906 for chlorophyll b, were reached, respectively. The predicted chlorophyll contents extracted from multispectral data showed an approximately 24-h rhythm which could be entrained by external light conditions, consistent with the chlorophyll contents measured by chemical analyses. Visualization of chlorophyll map in each pixel offers an effective way to analyse spatial-temporal distribution of chlorophyll. Our results revealed the potentiality of multispectral imaging as a feasible nondestructive universal assay for examining clock function and robustness, as well as monitoring chlorophyll a and b and other biochemical components in plants. PMID:26059057

  11. Abnormal cortical sources of resting state electroencephalographic rhythms in single treatment-naïve HIV individuals: A statistical z-score index.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Pennica, Alfredo; Del Percio, Claudio; Noce, Giuseppe; Cordone, Susanna; Muratori, Chiara; Ferracuti, Stefano; Donato, Nicole; Di Campli, Francesco; Gianserra, Laura; Teti, Elisabetta; Aceti, Antonio; Soricelli, Andrea; Viscione, Magdalena; Limatola, Cristina; Andreoni, Massimo; Onorati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    This study tested a simple statistical procedure to recognize single treatment-naïve HIV individuals having abnormal cortical sources of resting state delta (<4 Hz) and alpha (8-13 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms with reference to a control group of sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy individuals. Compared to the HIV individuals with a statistically normal EEG marker, those with abnormal values were expected to show worse cognitive status. Resting state eyes-closed EEG data were recorded in 82 treatment-naïve HIV (39.8 ys.±1.2 standard error mean, SE) and 59 age-matched cognitively healthy subjects (39 ys.±2.2 SE). Low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) estimated delta and alpha sources in frontal, central, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortical regions. Ratio of the activity of parietal delta and high-frequency alpha sources (EEG marker) showed the maximum difference between the healthy and the treatment-naïve HIV group. Z-score of the EEG marker was statistically abnormal in 47.6% of treatment-naïve HIV individuals with reference to the healthy group (p<0.05). Compared to the HIV individuals with a statistically normal EEG marker, those with abnormal values exhibited lower mini mental state evaluation (MMSE) score, higher CD4 count, and lower viral load (p<0.05). This statistical procedure permitted for the first time to identify single treatment-naïve HIV individuals having abnormal EEG activity. This procedure might enrich the detection and monitoring of effects of HIV on brain function in single treatment-naïve HIV individuals. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Classification of Healthy Subjects and Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Dementia from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms: A Study Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Antonio I; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Brunetti, Antonio; Lizio, Roberta; Tattoli, Giacomo; Cassano, Fabio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Barulli, Maria R; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Orzi, Francesco; Buttinelli, Carla; Giubilei, Franco; Del Percio, Claudio; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Babiloni, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence showed a 75.5% best accuracy in the classification of 120 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with dementia and 100 matched normal elderly (Nold) subjects based on cortical source current density and linear lagged connectivity estimated by eLORETA freeware from resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Specifically, that accuracy was reached using the ratio between occipital delta and alpha1 current density for a linear univariate classifier (receiver operating characteristic curves). Here we tested an innovative approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier from the same database of rsEEG markers. Frequency bands of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), and alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz). ANN classification showed an accuracy of 77% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source current density (parietal theta/alpha 1, temporal theta/alpha 1, occipital theta/alpha 1, and occipital delta/alpha 1). It also showed an accuracy of 72% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source lagged linear connectivity (inter-hemispherical occipital delta/alpha 2, intra-hemispherical right parietal-limbic alpha 1, intra-hemispherical left occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1, intra-hemispherical right occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1). With these 8 markers combined, an accuracy of at least 76% was reached. Interestingly, this accuracy based on 8 (linear) rsEEG markers as inputs to ANN was similar to that obtained with a single rsEEG marker (Babiloni et al., 2016a), thus unveiling their information redundancy for classification purposes. In future AD studies, inputs to ANNs should include other classes of independent linear (i.e., directed transfer function) and non-linear (i.e., entropy) rsEEG markers to improve the classification.

  13. Classification of Healthy Subjects and Alzheimer's Disease Patients with Dementia from Cortical Sources of Resting State EEG Rhythms: A Study Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Triggiani, Antonio I.; Bevilacqua, Vitoantonio; Brunetti, Antonio; Lizio, Roberta; Tattoli, Giacomo; Cassano, Fabio; Soricelli, Andrea; Ferri, Raffaele; Nobili, Flavio; Gesualdo, Loreto; Barulli, Maria R.; Tortelli, Rosanna; Cardinali, Valentina; Giannini, Antonio; Spagnolo, Pantaleo; Armenise, Silvia; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Buenza, Grazia; Scianatico, Gaetano; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Lacidogna, Giordano; Orzi, Francesco; Buttinelli, Carla; Giubilei, Franco; Del Percio, Claudio; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Babiloni, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Previous evidence showed a 75.5% best accuracy in the classification of 120 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with dementia and 100 matched normal elderly (Nold) subjects based on cortical source current density and linear lagged connectivity estimated by eLORETA freeware from resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms (Babiloni et al., 2016a). Specifically, that accuracy was reached using the ratio between occipital delta and alpha1 current density for a linear univariate classifier (receiver operating characteristic curves). Here we tested an innovative approach based on an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier from the same database of rsEEG markers. Frequency bands of interest were delta (2–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz Hz), alpha1 (8–10.5 Hz), and alpha2 (10.5–13 Hz). ANN classification showed an accuracy of 77% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source current density (parietal theta/alpha 1, temporal theta/alpha 1, occipital theta/alpha 1, and occipital delta/alpha 1). It also showed an accuracy of 72% using the most 4 discriminative rsEEG markers of source lagged linear connectivity (inter-hemispherical occipital delta/alpha 2, intra-hemispherical right parietal-limbic alpha 1, intra-hemispherical left occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1, intra-hemispherical right occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1). With these 8 markers combined, an accuracy of at least 76% was reached. Interestingly, this accuracy based on 8 (linear) rsEEG markers as inputs to ANN was similar to that obtained with a single rsEEG marker (Babiloni et al., 2016a), thus unveiling their information redundancy for classification purposes. In future AD studies, inputs to ANNs should include other classes of independent linear (i.e., directed transfer function) and non-linear (i.e., entropy) rsEEG markers to improve the classification. PMID:28184183

  14. Circadian Rhythms

    MedlinePlus

    ... chronobiology. Are circadian rhythms the same thing as biological clocks? No, but they are related. Our biological clocks drive our circadian rhythms. What are biological clocks? The biological clocks that control circadian rhythms ...

  15. Counting circadian cycles to determine the period of a circasemilunar rhythm in a marine insect.

    PubMed

    Soong, Keryea; Chang, Yin-Hao

    2012-12-01

    Semilunar and lunar rhythms are often controlled endogenously, but the mechanisms of their respective free-run periods, when external factors are absent, are mostly unclear. In this investigation, the authors studied the mechanism controlling the period of the circasemilunar emergence rhythm of a marine midge, Pontomyia oceana, in southern Taiwan. Experimental approaches were adopted with various artificial light-dark (LD) periods, or T, from 22 to 28 h per cycle in the first experiment, and 18 to 30 h per cycle in the second experiment, as treatments on the same cohorts of midge larvae. The responses in emergence days were directly proportional to the magnitude of the treatments, just as that predicted by the frequency demultiplication hypothesis. A counting mechanism is thus the only hypothesis supported by this finding. To further test whether it is endogenous oscillations that are counted, submultiples as well as multiples of 24 h, i.e., 6, 12, 24, and 48 h per cycle, were used as T. The midges under all these treatments emerged at similar days. This result supports the hypothesis that endogenous circadian oscillations, not external LD cycles, are counted in this circasemilunar emergence rhythm of the marine midge. This paper reports a first case supporting the frequency demultiplication hypothesis in a circasemilunar rhythm that is based on counting the cycles of endogenous circadian rhythms.

  16. Are Different Rhythms Good for Different Functions?

    PubMed Central

    Kopell, Nancy; Kramer, Mark A.; Malerba, Paola; Whittington, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    This essay discusses the relationship between the physiology of rhythms and potential functional roles. We focus on how the biophysics underlying different rhythms can give rise to different abilities of a network to form and manipulate cell assemblies. We also discuss how changes in the modulatory setting of the rhythms can change the flow of information through cortical circuits, again tying physiology to computation. We suggest that diverse rhythms, or variations of a rhythm, can support different components of a cognitive act, with multiple rhythms potentially playing multiple roles. PMID:21103019

  17. Rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis: latency, rate, and rhythm determine the adaptive response.

    PubMed

    Paccione, M F; Mehrara, B J; Warren, S M; Greenwald, J A; Spector, J A; Luchs, J S; Longaker, M T

    2001-03-01

    Distraction osteogenesis is a well-established technique of endogenous tissue engineering. The biomechanical factors thought to affect the quality of the distraction regenerate include the latency, rate, rhythm, and consolidation period. In an effort to understand the impact of these parameters on regenerate bone formation, this study was designed to decipher the most adaptive response in a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis. Ninety-six adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 16 subgroups (n = 6 per subgroup) based on variations in the distraction parameters (i.e., latency, rate, and rhythm). After a 28-day consolidation period, the mandibles were harvested, decalcified, and sectioned. A standardized histologic ranking system was used to evaluate the effect of each protocol on the adaptive response of the regenerate bone. In this study, we have demonstrated that the latency period dramatically affects the success of distraction osteogenesis. Furthermore, distraction rates up to 0.50 mm per day stimulated excellent regenerate bone formation, whereas greater distraction rates produced a fibrous union. Finally, higher frequency distraction (i.e., increased rhythm) appeared to accelerate regenerate bone formation. We believe that defining the critical parameters of this model will improve future analysis of gene expression during rat mandibular distraction osteogenesis and may facilitate the development of biologically based strategies designed to enhance regenerate bone formation.

  18. Painted Rhythms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastian, Duane

    1985-01-01

    In this art activity gifted students, ages 10 to 13, learn about internal and external rhythms and make a painting of an internal rhythm. The lesson can be expanded with a discussion of Kandinsky, Pollock, and other painters who have painted sound or have demonstrated rhythms. (RM)

  19. The importance of sleep apnea index determination using 24 h ECG analysis in patients with heart rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Grdinić, Aleksandra; Stajić, Zoran; Grdinić, Aleksandar G; Vucinić, Zarko; Krstić, Violeta Randjelović; Drobnjak, Dragan; Bogdanović, Predrag; Djurić, Predrag; Stevanović, Angelina; Rakonjac, Milanko; Petrović, Stanko; Gudelj, Ognjen; Matunović, Radomir

    2014-11-01

    A possible cause of malignant heart rhythm disorders is the syndrome of sleep apnea (periodic cessation of breathing during sleep longer than 10 seconds). Recent 24 h ECG software systems have the option of determination ECG apnea index (AI) based on the change in voltage of QRS complexes. The aim of the study was to determine the significance of AI evaluation in routine 24-hour Holter ECG on a group of 12 patients. We presented a total of 12 consecutive patients with previously documented arrhythmias and the history of breathing disorders during night. They were analyzed by 24 h ECG (Medilog AR 12 plus Darwin), that is able to determine AI. We presented a case series of 12 patients, 8 men and 4 women, mean age 58.75 years and the average AI 5.78. In the whole group there was a trend of increasing prevalence of complex rhythm disorders with increasing of AI and increased frequency of arrhythmias in the night phase vs. day phase. Determination of AI using routine long term (24 h) ECG analysis is important because sleep apnea can be successfully treated as an etiological or contributing factor of arrhythmias.

  20. Genetic Determinants of Trabecular and Cortical Volumetric Bone Mineral Densities and Bone Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Mellström, Dan; Karlsson, Magnus; Ljunggren, Östen; Grundberg, Elin; Kemp, John P.; Sayers, Adrian; Nethander, Maria; Evans, David M.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Tobias, Jon H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2013-01-01

    Most previous genetic epidemiology studies within the field of osteoporosis have focused on the genetics of the complex trait areal bone mineral density (aBMD), not being able to differentiate genetic determinants of cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD), trabecular vBMD, and bone microstructural traits. The objective of this study was to separately identify genetic determinants of these bone traits as analysed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Separate GWA meta-analyses for cortical and trabecular vBMDs were performed. The cortical vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 5,878) followed by replication (n = 1,052) identified genetic variants in four separate loci reaching genome-wide significance (RANKL, rs1021188, p = 3.6×10−14; LOC285735, rs271170, p = 2.7×10−12; OPG, rs7839059, p = 1.2×10−10; and ESR1/C6orf97, rs6909279, p = 1.1×10−9). The trabecular vBMD GWA meta-analysis (n = 2,500) followed by replication (n = 1,022) identified one locus reaching genome-wide significance (FMN2/GREM2, rs9287237, p = 1.9×10−9). High-resolution pQCT analyses, giving information about bone microstructure, were available in a subset of the GOOD cohort (n = 729). rs1021188 was significantly associated with cortical porosity while rs9287237 was significantly associated with trabecular bone fraction. The genetic variant in the FMN2/GREM2 locus was associated with fracture risk in the MrOS Sweden cohort (HR per extra T allele 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.60–0.93) and GREM2 expression in human osteoblasts. In conclusion, five genetic loci associated with trabecular or cortical vBMD were identified. Two of these (FMN2/GREM2 and LOC285735) are novel bone-related loci, while the other three have previously been reported to be associated with aBMD. The genetic variants associated with cortical and trabecular bone parameters differed, underscoring the complexity of the genetics of bone parameters. We propose that a genetic

  1. Alpha, beta and gamma electrocorticographic rhythms in somatosensory, motor, premotor and prefrontal cortical areas differ in movement execution and observation in humans.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Sebastiano, Fabio; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier P; Morace, Roberta; Pavone, Luigi; Soricelli, Andrea; Noce, Giuseppe; Esposito, Vincenzo; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Gallese, Vittorio; Mirabella, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that both movement execution and observation induce parallel modulations of alpha, beta, and gamma electrocorticographic (ECoG) rhythms in primary somatosensory (Brodmann area 1-2, BA1-2), primary motor (BA4), ventral premotor (BA6), and prefrontal (BA44 and BA45, part of putative human mirror neuron system underlying the understanding of actions of other people) areas. ECoG activity was recorded in drug-resistant epileptic patients during the execution of actions to reach and grasp common objects according to their affordances, as well as during the observation of the same actions performed by an experimenter. Both action execution and observation induced a desynchronization of alpha and beta rhythms in BA1-2, BA4, BA6, BA44 and BA45, which was generally higher in amplitude during the former than the latter condition. Action execution also induced a major synchronization of gamma rhythms in BA4 and BA6, again more during the execution of an action than during its observation. Human primary sensorimotor, premotor, and prefrontal areas do generate alpha, beta, and gamma rhythms and differently modulate them during action execution and observation. Gamma rhythms of motor areas are especially involved in action execution. Oscillatory activity of neural populations in sensorimotor, premotor and prefrontal (part of human mirror neuron system) areas represents and distinguishes own actions from those of other people. This methodological approach might be used for a neurophysiological diagnostic imaging of social cognition in epileptic patients. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Actomyosin Cortical Mechanical Properties in Nonadherent Cells Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Logue, Jeremy S; Waterman, Clare M; Chadwick, Richard S

    2016-06-07

    The organization of filamentous actin and myosin II molecular motor contractility is known to modify the mechanical properties of the cell cortical actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we describe a novel method, to our knowledge, for using force spectroscopy approach curves with tipless cantilevers to determine the actomyosin cortical tension, elastic modulus, and intracellular pressure of nonadherent cells. We validated the method by measuring the surface tension of water in oil microdrops deposited on a glass surface. We extracted an average tension of T ∼ 20.25 nN/μm, which agrees with macroscopic experimental methods. We then measured cortical mechanical properties in nonadherent human foreskin fibroblasts and THP-1 human monocytes before and after pharmacological perturbations of actomyosin activity. Our results show that myosin II activity and actin polymerization increase cortex tension and intracellular pressure, whereas branched actin networks decreased them. Interestingly, myosin II activity stiffens the cortex and branched actin networks soften it, but actin polymerization has no effect on cortex stiffness. Our method is capable of detecting changes in cell mechanical properties in response to perturbations of the cytoskeleton, allowing characterization with physically relevant parameters. Altogether, this simple method should be of broad application for deciphering the molecular regulation of cell cortical mechanical properties.

  3. Higher cortical modulation of pain perception in the human brain: Psychological determinant.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew Cn

    2009-10-01

    Pain perception and its genesis in the human brain have been reviewed recently. In the current article, the reports on pain modulation in the human brain were reviewed from higher cortical regulation, i.e. top-down effect, particularly studied in psychological determinants. Pain modulation can be examined by gene therapy, physical modulation, pharmacological modulation, psychological modulation, and pathophysiological modulation. In psychological modulation, this article examined (a) willed determination, (b) distraction, (c) placebo, (d) hypnosis, (e) meditation, (f) qi-gong, (g) belief, and (h) emotions, respectively, in the brain function for pain modulation. In each, the operational definition, cortical processing, neuroimaging, and pain modulation were systematically deliberated. However, not all studies had featured the brain modulation processing but rather demonstrated potential effects on human pain. In our own studies on the emotional modulation on human pain, we observed that emotions could be induced from music melodies or pictures perception for reduction of tonic human pain, mainly in potentiation of the posterior alpha EEG fields, likely resulted from underneath activities of precuneous in regulation of consciousness, including pain perception. To sum, higher brain functions become the leading edge research in all sciences. How to solve the information bit of thinking and feeling in the brain can be the greatest challenge of human intelligence. Application of higher cortical modulation of human pain and suffering can lead to the progress of social humanity and civilization.

  4. Rhythm in language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Langus, Alan; Mehler, Jacques; Nespor, Marina

    2016-12-16

    Spoken language is governed by rhythm. Linguistic rhythm is hierarchical and the rhythmic hierarchy partially mimics the prosodic as well as the morpho-syntactic hierarchy of spoken language. It can thus provide learners with cues about the structure of the language they are acquiring. We identify three universal levels of linguistic rhythm - the segmental level, the level of the metrical feet and the phonological phrase level - and discuss why primary lexical stress is not rhythmic. We survey experimental evidence on rhythm perception in young infants and native speakers of various languages to determine the properties of linguistic rhythm that are present at birth, those that mature during the first year of life and those that are shaped by the linguistic environment of language learners. We conclude with a discussion of the major gaps in current knowledge on linguistic rhythm and highlight areas of interest for future research that are most likely to yield significant insights into the nature, the perception, and the usefulness of linguistic rhythm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evoked response amplitudes from somatosensory cortices do not determine reaction times to tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ploner, Markus; Platzen, Jens; Pollok, Bettina; Gross, Joachim; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2007-06-01

    Sensory events cause changes in brain activity, which underlie the perception of and behavioural responses to sensory stimuli. Evoked cortical responses are an important measure of these stimulus-evoked changes in brain activity. However, evidence on the relationship between behavioural responses and evoked responses is inconsistent. Therefore, we used magnetoencephalography to reinvestigate the relationship between evoked responses from somatosensory cortices and behavioural responses to somatosensory stimuli. We characterized modulations of somatosensory-evoked responses exerted by preceding painful and tactile conditioning stimuli (CS), and related these modulations of evoked responses to modulations of reaction times. Our results show that painful CS yield a long-lasting (> 4 s) facilitation of evoked responses, whereas tactile CS result in a shorter lasting (1-2 s) suppression of evoked responses to tactile stimuli. These contrary physiological effects were both associated with a significant shortening of reaction times. These findings indicate that the conditioning effects of painful and tactile stimuli represent essentially different modulatory mechanisms. Moreover, our results show that amplitudes of evoked responses from somatosensory cortices do not determine reaction times to tactile stimuli.

  6. Microtubule and cortical forces determine platelet size during vascular platelet production.

    PubMed

    Thon, Jonathan N; Macleod, Hannah; Begonja, Antonija Jurak; Zhu, Jie; Lee, Kun-Chun; Mogilner, Alex; Hartwig, John H; Italiano, Joseph E

    2012-05-22

    Megakaryocytes release large preplatelet intermediates into the sinusoidal blood vessels. Preplatelets convert into barbell-shaped proplatelets in vitro to undergo repeated abscissions that yield circulating platelets. These observations predict the presence of circular-preplatelets and barbell-proplatelets in blood, and two fundamental questions in platelet biology are what are the forces that determine barbell-proplatelet formation, and how is the final platelet size established. Here we provide insights into the terminal mechanisms of platelet production. We quantify circular-preplatelets and barbell-proplatelets in human blood in high-resolution fluorescence images, using a laser scanning cytometry assay. We demonstrate that force constraints resulting from cortical microtubule band diameter and thickness determine barbell-proplatelet formation. Finally, we provide a mathematical model for the preplatelet to barbell conversion. We conclude that platelet size is limited by microtubule bundling, elastic bending, and actin-myosin-spectrin cortex forces.

  7. Auditory cortical deactivation during speech production and following speech perception: an EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Jenson, David; Harkrider, Ashley W.; Thornton, David; Bowers, Andrew L.; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration (SMI) across the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014) used independent component analysis (ICA) and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex, PMC) activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory) regions of the dorsal stream in the same tasks. Perception tasks required “active” discrimination of syllable pairs (/ba/ and /da/) in quiet and noisy conditions. Production conditions required overt production of syllable pairs and nouns. ICA performed on concatenated raw 68 channel EEG data from all tasks identified bilateral “auditory” alpha (α) components in 15 of 29 participants localized to pSTG (left) and pMTG (right). ERSP analyses were performed to reveal fluctuations in the spectral power of the α rhythm clusters across time. Production conditions were characterized by significant α event related synchronization (ERS; pFDR < 0.05) concurrent with EMG activity from speech production, consistent with speech-induced auditory inhibition. Discrimination conditions were also characterized by α ERS following stimulus offset. Auditory α ERS in all conditions temporally aligned with PMC activity reported in Jenson et al. (2014). These findings are indicative of speech-induced suppression of auditory regions, possibly via efference copy. The presence of the same pattern following stimulus offset in discrimination conditions suggests that sensorimotor contributions following speech perception reflect covert replay, and that covert replay provides one source of the motor activity previously observed in some speech perception tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that inhibition of auditory regions by speech has been observed in real-time with the ICA/ERSP technique. PMID

  8. Auditory cortical deactivation during speech production and following speech perception: an EEG investigation of the temporal dynamics of the auditory alpha rhythm.

    PubMed

    Jenson, David; Harkrider, Ashley W; Thornton, David; Bowers, Andrew L; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration (SMI) across the dorsal stream enables online monitoring of speech. Jenson et al. (2014) used independent component analysis (ICA) and event related spectral perturbation (ERSP) analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data to describe anterior sensorimotor (e.g., premotor cortex, PMC) activity during speech perception and production. The purpose of the current study was to identify and temporally map neural activity from posterior (i.e., auditory) regions of the dorsal stream in the same tasks. Perception tasks required "active" discrimination of syllable pairs (/ba/ and /da/) in quiet and noisy conditions. Production conditions required overt production of syllable pairs and nouns. ICA performed on concatenated raw 68 channel EEG data from all tasks identified bilateral "auditory" alpha (α) components in 15 of 29 participants localized to pSTG (left) and pMTG (right). ERSP analyses were performed to reveal fluctuations in the spectral power of the α rhythm clusters across time. Production conditions were characterized by significant α event related synchronization (ERS; pFDR < 0.05) concurrent with EMG activity from speech production, consistent with speech-induced auditory inhibition. Discrimination conditions were also characterized by α ERS following stimulus offset. Auditory α ERS in all conditions temporally aligned with PMC activity reported in Jenson et al. (2014). These findings are indicative of speech-induced suppression of auditory regions, possibly via efference copy. The presence of the same pattern following stimulus offset in discrimination conditions suggests that sensorimotor contributions following speech perception reflect covert replay, and that covert replay provides one source of the motor activity previously observed in some speech perception tasks. To our knowledge, this is the first time that inhibition of auditory regions by speech has been observed in real-time with the ICA/ERSP technique.

  9. Learning strategy trumps motivational level in determining learning-induced auditory cortical plasticity.

    PubMed

    Bieszczad, Kasia M; Weinberger, Norman M

    2010-02-01

    Associative memory for auditory-cued events involves specific plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) that facilitates responses to tones which gain behavioral significance, by modifying representational parameters of sensory coding. Learning strategy, rather than the amount or content of learning, can determine this learning-induced cortical (high order) associative representational plasticity (HARP). Thus, tone-contingent learning with signaled errors can be accomplished either by (1) responding only during tone duration ("tone-duration" strategy, T-Dur), or (2) responding from tone onset until receiving an error signal for responses made immediately after tone offset ("tone-onset-to-error", TOTE). While rats using both strategies achieve the same high level of performance, only those using the TOTE strategy develop HARP, viz., frequency-specific decreased threshold (increased sensitivity) and decreased bandwidth (increased selectivity) (Berlau & Weinberger, 2008). The present study challenged the generality of learning strategy by determining if high motivation dominates in the formation of HARP. Two groups of adult male rats were trained to bar-press during a 5.0kHz (10s, 70dB) tone for a water reward under either high (HiMot) or moderate (ModMot) levels of motivation. The HiMot group achieved a higher level of correct performance. However, terminal mapping of A1 showed that only the ModMot group developed HARP, i.e., increased sensitivity and selectivity in the signal-frequency band. Behavioral analysis revealed that the ModMot group used the TOTE strategy while HiMot subjects used the T-Dur strategy. Thus, type of learning strategy, not level of learning or motivation, is dominant for the formation of cortical plasticity.

  10. Age and Vascular Burden Determinants of Cortical Hemodynamics Underlying Verbal Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Metzger, Florian G.; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Korell, Robert; Alboji, Ahmed; Haeussinger, Florian B.; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Suenkel, Ulrike; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aging processes and several vascular burden factors have been shown to increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. While pathological alterations in dementia precede diagnosis by many years, reorganization of brain processing might temporarily delay cognitive decline. We hypothesized that in healthy elderly individuals both age-related neural and vascular factors known to be related to the development of dementia impact functional cortical hemodynamics during increased cognitive demands. Methods Vascular burden factors and cortical functional hemodynamics during verbal fluency were assessed in 1052 non-demented elderly individuals (51 to 83 years; cross-sectional data of the longitudinal TREND study) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The prediction of functional hemodynamic responses by age in multiple regressions and the impact of single and cumulative vascular burden factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and atherosclerosis were investigated. Results Replicating and extending previous findings we could show that increasing age predicted functional hemodynamics to be increased in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex, and decreased in bilateral inferior frontal junction during phonological fluency. Cumulative vascular burden factors, with hypertension in particular, decreased left inferior frontal junction hemodynamic responses during phonological fluency. However, age and vascular burden factors showed no statistical interaction on functional hemodynamics. Conclusion Based on these findings, one might hypothesize that increased fronto-parietal processing may represent age-related compensatory reorganization during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors, such as hypertension, may contribute to regional cerebral hypoperfusion. These neural and vascular hemodynamic determinants should be investigated longitudinally and combined with other markers to advance the prediction of

  11. Age and Vascular Burden Determinants of Cortical Hemodynamics Underlying Verbal Fluency.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Metzger, Florian G; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Korell, Robert; Alboji, Ahmed; Haeussinger, Florian B; Wurster, Isabel; Brockmann, Kathrin; Suenkel, Ulrike; Eschweiler, Gerhard W; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2015-01-01

    Aging processes and several vascular burden factors have been shown to increase the risk of dementia including Alzheimer's disease. While pathological alterations in dementia precede diagnosis by many years, reorganization of brain processing might temporarily delay cognitive decline. We hypothesized that in healthy elderly individuals both age-related neural and vascular factors known to be related to the development of dementia impact functional cortical hemodynamics during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors and cortical functional hemodynamics during verbal fluency were assessed in 1052 non-demented elderly individuals (51 to 83 years; cross-sectional data of the longitudinal TREND study) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The prediction of functional hemodynamic responses by age in multiple regressions and the impact of single and cumulative vascular burden factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, smoking and atherosclerosis were investigated. Replicating and extending previous findings we could show that increasing age predicted functional hemodynamics to be increased in right prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex, and decreased in bilateral inferior frontal junction during phonological fluency. Cumulative vascular burden factors, with hypertension in particular, decreased left inferior frontal junction hemodynamic responses during phonological fluency. However, age and vascular burden factors showed no statistical interaction on functional hemodynamics. Based on these findings, one might hypothesize that increased fronto-parietal processing may represent age-related compensatory reorganization during increased cognitive demands. Vascular burden factors, such as hypertension, may contribute to regional cerebral hypoperfusion. These neural and vascular hemodynamic determinants should be investigated longitudinally and combined with other markers to advance the prediction of future cognitive decline and dementia.

  12. Cortical geometry as a determinant of brain activity eigenmodes: Neural field analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabay, Natasha C.; Robinson, P. A.

    2017-09-01

    Perturbation analysis of neural field theory is used to derive eigenmodes of neural activity on a cortical hemisphere, which have previously been calculated numerically and found to be close analogs of spherical harmonics, despite heavy cortical folding. The present perturbation method treats cortical folding as a first-order perturbation from a spherical geometry. The first nine spatial eigenmodes on a population-averaged cortical hemisphere are derived and compared with previous numerical solutions. These eigenmodes contribute most to brain activity patterns such as those seen in electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. The eigenvalues of these eigenmodes are found to agree with the previous numerical solutions to within their uncertainties. Also in agreement with the previous numerics, all eigenmodes are found to closely resemble spherical harmonics. The first seven eigenmodes exhibit a one-to-one correspondence with their numerical counterparts, with overlaps that are close to unity. The next two eigenmodes overlap the corresponding pair of numerical eigenmodes, having been rotated within the subspace spanned by that pair, likely due to second-order effects. The spatial orientations of the eigenmodes are found to be fixed by gross cortical shape rather than finer-scale cortical properties, which is consistent with the observed intersubject consistency of functional connectivity patterns. However, the eigenvalues depend more sensitively on finer-scale cortical structure, implying that the eigenfrequencies and consequent dynamical properties of functional connectivity depend more strongly on details of individual cortical folding. Overall, these results imply that well-established tools from perturbation theory and spherical harmonic analysis can be used to calculate the main properties and dynamics of low-order brain eigenmodes.

  13. Phase Difference between Model Cortical Areas Determines Level of Information Transfer

    PubMed Central

    ter Wal, Marije; Tiesinga, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    Communication between cortical sites is mediated by long-range synaptic connections. However, these connections are relatively static, while everyday cognitive tasks demand a fast and flexible routing of information in the brain. Synchronization of activity between distant cortical sites has been proposed as the mechanism underlying such a dynamic communication structure. Here, we study how oscillatory activity affects the excitability and input-output relation of local cortical circuits and how it alters the transmission of information between cortical circuits. To this end, we develop model circuits showing fast oscillations by the PING mechanism, of which the oscillatory characteristics can be altered. We identify conditions for synchronization between two brain circuits and show that the level of intercircuit coherence and the phase difference is set by the frequency difference between the intrinsic oscillations. We show that the susceptibility of the circuits to inputs, i.e., the degree of change in circuit output following input pulses, is not uniform throughout the oscillation period and that both firing rate, frequency and power are differentially modulated by inputs arriving at different phases. As a result, an appropriate phase difference between the circuits is critical for the susceptibility windows of the circuits in the network to align and for information to be efficiently transferred. We demonstrate that changes in synchrony and phase difference can be used to set up or abolish information transfer in a network of cortical circuits. PMID:28232796

  14. [Correspondence between spectral power and synchronization of the brain rhythms in the norm and cognitive pathology].

    PubMed

    Strelets, V B; Garakh, Zh B; Novototskiĭ-Vlasov, V Iu; Magomedov, R A

    2005-01-01

    The work is aimed at the study of correlations between the measures of spectral power and cortical interactions of EEG rhythms in healthy subjects and schizophrenic patients ("acute" and chronic cases). All brain rhythms in healthy subjects appeared to be symmetrical and synchronous both in phase and frequency. In "acute" schizophrenics, opposite to healthy subjects, the distribution of cortical activity is asymmetrical, and in the chronic cases, the spectral power of most cortical rhythms is decreased as compared to healthy subjects. In the "acute" patients, interhemispheric connections are absent in all rhythms but alpha. In the chronic patients, the number of cortical connections is slightly higher than in the acute patients; and they are located in the posterior areas in the gamma rhythm. These neurophysiological aberrations evidently underlie the multiple mental activity disorders in schizophrenic patients. Thus, the correspondence between the brain rhythms and their synchronization is a necessary condition for normal perception, emotions and cognition evidently influencing behavior and consciousness.

  15. [Circadian rhythm in myocardial infarct].

    PubMed

    Enciso, R; Ramos, M A; Badui, E; Hurtado, R

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine if the beginning of the Myocardial Infarction (MI) is at random along the day or if it follows a circadian rhythm, we analyzed the clinical charts of 819 patients admitted to the Coronary Care Unite. Among them, 645 were male and 174 female. It was established that the beginning of the MI follows a circadian rhythm with maximal frequency between 8 and 9 a.m. and minimal at 0 hours (p greater than 0.01). This rhythm is sex independent. In patients younger than 45 years as well as those who received beta-block agents in less than 24 hours previous the MI no circadian rhythm was observed.

  16. Cortical activation associated with determination of depth order during transparent motion perception: A normalized integrative fMRI-MEG study.

    PubMed

    Natsukawa, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2015-10-01

    When visual patterns drifting in different directions and/or at different speeds are superimposed on the same plane, observers perceive transparent surfaces on planes of different depths. This phenomenon is known as transparent motion perception. In this study, cortical activities were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the cortical dynamics associated with determination of depth order during transparent motion perception. In addition, offline eye movement measurements were performed to determine the latencies of the start of both pursuit eye movements and depth attention that are important in determination of the depth order. MEG and fMRI data were analyzed by a normalized integrative fMRI-MEG method that enables reconstruction of time-varying dipole moments of activated regions from MEG signals. Statistical analysis of fMRI data was performed to identify activated regions. The activated regions were used as spatial constraints for the reconstruction using the integrative fMRI-MEG method. We focused on the period between latencies (216-405 ms) determined by eye movement experiment, which are related to determination of the depth order. The results of integrative analysis revealed that significant neural activities were observed in the visual association area, the human middle temporal area, the intraparietal sulcus, the lateral occipital cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex between 216 and 405 ms. These results suggest that initial eye movement and accompanying cortical activations during focused duration play an important role in determining the depth order during transparent motion perception. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pattern of trauma determines the threshold for epileptic activity in a model of cortical deafferentation

    PubMed Central

    Volman, Vladislav; Bazhenov, Maxim; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic activity often occurs in the cortex after a latent period after head trauma; this delay has been attributed to the destabilizing influence of homeostatic synaptic scaling and changes in intrinsic properties. However, the impact of the spatial organization of cortical trauma on epileptogenesis is poorly understood. We addressed this question by analyzing the dynamics of a large-scale biophysically realistic cortical network model subjected to different patterns of trauma. Our results suggest that the spatial pattern of trauma can greatly affect the propensity for developing posttraumatic epileptic activity. For the same fraction of lesioned neurons, spatially compact trauma resulted in stronger posttraumatic elevation of paroxysmal activity than spatially diffuse trauma. In the case of very severe trauma, diffuse distribution of a small number of surviving intact neurons alleviated posttraumatic epileptogenesis. We suggest that clinical evaluation of the severity of brain trauma should take into account the spatial pattern of the injured cortex. PMID:21896754

  18. Concepts in human biological rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Reinberg, Alain; Ashkenazi, Israel

    2003-01-01

    Biological rhythms and their temporal organization are adaptive phenomena to periodic changes in environmental factors linked to the earth's rotation on its axis and around the sun. Experimental data from the plant and animal kingdoms have led to many models and concepts related to biological clocks that help describe and understand the mechanisms of these changes. Many of the prevailing concepts apply to all organisms, but most of the experimental data are insufficient to explain the dynamics of human biological clocks. This review presents phenomena thai are mainly characteristic ofand unique to - human chronobiology, and which cannot be fully explained by concepts and models drawn from laboratory experiments. We deal with the functional advantages of the human temporal organization and the problem of desynchronization, with special reference to the period (τ) of the circadian rhythm and its interindividual and intraindividual variability. We describe the differences between right- and left-hand rhythms suggesting the existence of different biological clocks in the right and left cortices, Desynchronization of rhythms is rather frequent (one example is night shift workers). In some individuals, desynchronization causes no clinical symptoms and we propose the concept of “allochronism” to designate a variant of the human temporal organization with no pathological implications. We restrict the term “dyschronism” to changes or alterations in temporal organization associated with a set of symptoms similar to those observed in subjects intolerant to shift work, eg, persisting fatigue and mood and sleep alterations. Many diseases involve chronic deprivation of sleep at night and constitute conditions mimicking thai of night shift workers who are intolerant to desynchronization. We also present a genetic model (the dian-circadian model) to explain interindividual differences in the period of biological rhythms in certain conditions. PMID:22033796

  19. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception.

  20. Serial binary interval ratios improve rhythm reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiang; Westanmo, Anders; Zhou, Liang; Pan, Junhao

    2013-01-01

    Musical rhythm perception is a natural human ability that involves complex cognitive processes. Rhythm refers to the organization of events in time, and musical rhythms have an underlying hierarchical metrical structure. The metrical structure induces the feeling of a beat and the extent to which a rhythm induces the feeling of a beat is referred to as its metrical strength. Binary ratios are the most frequent interval ratio in musical rhythms. Rhythms with hierarchical binary ratios are better discriminated and reproduced than rhythms with hierarchical non-binary ratios. However, it remains unclear whether a superiority of serial binary over non-binary ratios in rhythm perception and reproduction exists. In addition, how different types of serial ratios influence the metrical strength of rhythms remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated serial binary vs. non-binary ratios in a reproduction task. Rhythms formed with exclusively binary (1:2:4:8), non-binary integer (1:3:5:6), and non-integer (1:2.3:5.3:6.4) ratios were examined within a constant meter. The results showed that the 1:2:4:8 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 and 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm types, and the 1:2.3:5.3:6.4 rhythm type was more accurately reproduced than the 1:3:5:6 rhythm type. Further analyses showed that reproduction performance was better predicted by the distribution pattern of event occurrences within an inter-beat interval, than by the coincidence of events with beats, or the magnitude and complexity of interval ratios. Whereas rhythm theories and empirical data emphasize the role of the coincidence of events with beats in determining metrical strength and predicting rhythm performance, the present results suggest that rhythm processing may be better understood when the distribution pattern of event occurrences is taken into account. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlining musical rhythm perception. PMID:23964258

  1. The Natural History of Kidney Graft Cortical Microcirculation Determined by Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Sonography (RT-CES).

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Carlos; López, María Ovidia; Ros, Amaia; Aguilar, Ana; Menendez, David; Rivas, Begoña; Santana, María José; Vaca, Marco Antonio; Escuin, Fernando; Madero, Rosario; Selgas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the therapy of choice for end-stage kidney disease. Graft's life span is shorter than expected due in part to the delayed diagnosis of various complications, specifically those related to silent progression. It is recognized that serum creatinine levels and proteinuria are poor markers of mild kidney lesions, which results in delayed clinical information. There are many investigation looking for early markers of graft damage. Decreasing kidney graft cortical microcirculation has been related to poor prognosis in kidney transplantation. Cortical capillary blood flow (CCBF) can be measured by real-time contrast-enhanced sonography (RT-CES). Our aim was to describe the natural history of CCBF over time under diverse conditions of kidney transplantation, to explore the influence of donor conditions and recipient events, and to determine the capacity of CCBF for predicting renal function in medium term. RT-CES was performed in 79 consecutive kidney transplant recipients during the first year under regular clinical practice. Cortical capillary blood flow was measured. Clinical variables were analyzed. The influence of CCBF has been determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using mixed regression models based on sequential measurements for each patient over time. We used a first-order autoregression model as the structure of the covariation between measures. The post-hoc comparisons were considered using the Bonferroni correction. The CCBF values varied significantly over the study periods and were significantly lower at 48 h and day 7. Brain-death donor age and CCBF levels showed an inverse relationship (r: -0.62, p<0.001). Living donors showed higher mean CCBF levels than brain-death donors at each point in the study. These significant differences persisted at month 12 (54.5 ± 28.2 vs 33.7 ± 30 dB/sec, living vs brain-death donor, respectively, p = 0.004) despite similar serum creatinine levels (1.5 ± 0.3 and 1.5 ± 0.5 mg/dL). A

  2. Investigating the role of alpha and beta rhythms in functional motor networks.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Alkinoos; Klados, Manousos A; Styliadis, Charis; Foroglou, Nicolas; Polyzoidis, Konstantinos; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-05-27

    It is recognized that lower electroencephalography (EEG) frequencies correspond to distributed brain activity over larger spatial regions than higher frequencies and are associated with coordination. In motor processes it has been suggested that this is not always the case. Our objective was to explore this contradiction. In our study, seven healthy subjects performed four motor tasks (execution and imagery of right hand and foot) under EEG recording. Two cortical source models were defined, model «A» with 16 regions of interest (ROIs) and model «B» with 20 ROIs over the sensorimotor cortex. Functional connectivity was calculated by Directed Transfer Function for alpha and beta rhythm networks. Four graph properties were calculated for each network: characteristic path length (CPL), clustering coefficient (CC), density (D) and small-world-ness (SW). Different network modules and in-degrees of nodes were also calculated and depicted in connectivity maps. Analysis of variance was used to determine statistical significance of observed differences in the network properties between tasks, between rhythms and between ROI models. Consistently on both models, CPL and CC were lower and D was higher in beta rhythm networks. No statistically significant difference was observed for SW between rhythms or for any property between tasks on any model. Comparing the models we observed lower CPL for both rhythms, lower CC in alpha and higher CC in beta when the number of ROIs increased. Also, denser networks with higher SW were correlated with higher number of ROIs. We propose a non-exclusive model where alpha rhythm uses greater wiring costs to engage in local information progression while beta rhythm coordinates the neurophysiological processes in sensorimotor tasks. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determinations of renal cortical and medullary oxygenation using BOLD Magnetic Resonance Imaging and selective diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Lizette; Glockner, James F.; Woollard, John; Textor, Stephen C.; Romero, Juan C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood O2 level dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD MRI) can detect changes in cortical proximal tubule (PT) and medullary thick ascending limb of Henle (TAL) oxygenation consequent to successive administration of furosemide and acetazolamide (Az). Assessment of PT and TAL function could be useful to monitor renal disease states in vivo. Therefore, the adjunct use of diuretics that inhibit Na+ reabsorption selectively in PT and TAL, Az and furosemide, respectively, may help discern tubular function by using BOLD MRI to detect changes in tissue oxygenation. Material and Methods BOLD MRI signal R2* (inversely related to oxygenation) and tissue oxygenation with intrarenal O2 probes were measured in pigs that received either furosemide (0.5mg/kg) or Az (15mg/kg) alone, Az sequentially after furosemide (n=6 each, 15-minute intervals), or only saline vehicle (n=3). Results R2* decreased in the cortex of Az-treated and medulla of furosemide-treated kidneys, corresponding to an increase in their tissue O2 assessed with probes. However, BOLD MRI also showed decreased cortical R2* following furosemide that was additive to the Az-induced decrease. Az administration, both alone and after furosemide, also decreased renal blood flow (−26±3.5 and −29.2±3%, respectively, p<0.01). Conclusion These results suggest that an increase in medullary and cortical tissue O2 elicited by selective diuretics is detectable by BOLD MRI, but may be complicated by hemodynamic effects of the drugs. Therefore, the BOLD MRI signal may reflect functional changes additional to oxygenation, and needs to be interpreted cautiously. PMID:20856128

  4. Rhythm of daily living and detection of atypical days for elderly people living alone as determined with a monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Otake, Sakuko; Izutsu, Takeshi; Tobimatsu, Yoshiko; Iwaya, Tsutomu; Izumi, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a system for monitoring the health of elderly people living at home. Infrared and other sensor outputs are collected using a monitoring program installed on a personal computer (PC) in the home at a sampling rate of 1 Hz. Once each day, the data are transferred to a server through the Internet using a cable television (TV) connection. An elderly subject was monitored for a 12-day baseline period and completed a daily questionnaire about her activities. This enabled us to identify the rhythm of daily living (sleeping, 23:00-04:59; getting up/breakfast, 05:00-08:59; indoor activities/going out, 09:00-16:59; and dinner/going to bed, 17:00-22:59) and the average outputs from the sensors in the rooms. The subject was then monitored for a further six months. By identifying sensor output counts outside the limits of mean +/- 3SD, we were able to detect atypical days. During the six-month monitoring period, 29 atypical days were detected. We suggest that the monitoring system may be effective in tele-rehabilitation.

  5. GSK-3 Activity Is Critical for the Orientation of the Cortical Microtubules and the Dorsoventral Axis Determination in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ming; Lin, Yushuang; Liu, Zhongzhen; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Lifeng; Liu, Changbin; Zhang, Hongwei

    2012-01-01

    The formation of dorsal-ventral (D–V) axis is the earliest event that breaks the radial symmetry and determines the bilateral body plan of a vertebrate embryo, however, the maternal control of this process is not fully understood. Here, we discovered a new dorsalizing window of acute lithium treatment, which covers only less than 10 minutes after fertilization. Lithium treatment in this window was not able to reverse the ventralized phenotype in tokkeabi (tkk) mutant embryos, and its dorsalizing activity on wild-type embryos was inhibited by nocodazole co-treatment. These evidences indicate that the underlying mechanism is independent of a direct activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but depends on the upstream level of the microtubule mediated dorsal determinant transport. In order to identify the target of lithium in this newly discovered sensitive window, GSK-3 inhibitor IX as well as the IMPase inhibitor L690, 330 treatments were performed. We found that only GSK-3 inhibitor IX treatment mimicked the lithium treatment in the dorsalizing activity. Further study showed that the parallel pattern of cortical microtubules in the vegetal pole region and the directed migration of the Wnt8a mRNA were randomized by either lithium or GSK-3 inhibitor IX treatment. These results thus revealed an early and critical role of GSK-3 activity that regulates the orientation of the cortical microtubules and the directed transport of the dorsal determinants in zebrafish embryos. PMID:22574208

  6. Rhythm, Timing and the Timing of Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Arvaniti, Amalia

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence for rhythmic categorization that has emerged on the basis of rhythm metrics, and argues that the metrics are unreliable predictors of rhythm which provide no more than a crude measure of timing. It is further argued that timing is distinct from rhythm and that equating them has led to circularity and a psychologically questionable conceptualization of rhythm in speech. It is thus proposed that research on rhythm be based on the same principles for all languages, something that does not apply to the widely accepted division of languages into stress- and syllable-timed. The hypothesis is advanced that these universal principles are grouping and prominence and evidence to support it is provided. PMID:19390230

  7. LHX2 Interacts with the NuRD Complex and Regulates Cortical Neuron Subtype Determinants Fezf2 and Sox11

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Bhavana; Khatri, Zeba; Maheshwari, Upasana; Gupta, Ritika; Roy, Basabdatta; Pradhan, Saurabh J.; Karmodiya, Krishanpal; Padmanabhan, Hari; Shetty, Ashwin S.; Balaji, Chinthapalli; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Macklis, Jeffrey D.; Galande, Sanjeev

    2017-01-01

    In the developing cerebral cortex, sequential transcriptional programs take neuroepithelial cells from proliferating progenitors to differentiated neurons with unique molecular identities. The regulatory changes that occur in the chromatin of the progenitors are not well understood. During deep layer neurogenesis, we show that transcription factor LHX2 binds to distal regulatory elements of Fezf2 and Sox11, critical determinants of neuron subtype identity in the mouse neocortex. We demonstrate that LHX2 binds to the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase histone remodeling complex subunits LSD1, HDAC2, and RBBP4, which are proximal regulators of the epigenetic state of chromatin. When LHX2 is absent, active histone marks at the Fezf2 and Sox11 loci are increased. Loss of LHX2 produces an increase, and overexpression of LHX2 causes a decrease, in layer 5 Fezf2 and CTIP2-expressing neurons. Our results provide mechanistic insight into how LHX2 acts as a necessary and sufficient regulator of genes that control cortical neuronal subtype identity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The functional complexity of the cerebral cortex arises from an array of distinct neuronal subtypes with unique connectivity patterns that are produced from common progenitors. This study reveals that transcription factor LHX2 regulates the numbers of specific cortical output neuron subtypes by controlling the genes that are required to produce them. Loss or increase in LHX2 during neurogenesis is sufficient to increase or decrease, respectively, a particular subcerebrally projecting population. Mechanistically, LHX2 interacts with chromatin modifying protein complexes to edit the chromatin landscape of its targets Fezf2 and Sox11, which regulates their expression and consequently the identities of the neurons produced. Thus, LHX2 is a key component of the control network for producing neurons that will participate in cortical circuitry. PMID:28053041

  8. Circadian phase determines effects of repeated ethanol vapor exposure and withdrawal on body temperature and activity rhythms of male mice.

    PubMed

    Damaggio, Amanda S; Gorman, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    Physiological responses to acute ethanol (EtOH) injection depend critically on the timing of their administration. Whether daily timing modulates effects of longer intoxication intervals characteristic of alcohol-dependent humans remains unknown. The present work examines time-of-day effects during EtOH exposure and withdrawal measured by locomotor activity (ActLoc ) and body temperature (Tb ) across multiple rounds of EtOH exposure/withdrawal. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8 per group), implanted with radio-telemeters, were entrained to opposite light-dark periods (14:10 LD cycle) so that their rest/activity cycles were 12 hours apart. Under a 2-hour skeleton photoperiod animals were simultaneously exposed to 3 daily cycles of EtOH vapor inhalation (14 hours EtOH on) and withdrawal (10 hours EtOH off). During this time, air-only control groups (n = 4 per group) matched for entrainment were handled in a comparable manner. After the third cycle of EtOH vapor, the animals were left undisturbed for 11 days to recover. The 14-day protocol was repeated 3 additional times. During intoxication, mice exposed to EtOH in the subjective night exhibited greater hypothermia and more overall disruptions in the Tb and ActLoc rhythms. Acute withdrawal induced hypothermia during the subjective night and hyperthermia during the subjective day. Animals in both phases demonstrated significant disruptions in ActLoc during withdrawal. ActLoc had little effect on Tb during EtOH exposure, but it significantly influenced Tb during acute withdrawal. The physiological responses of both EtOH exposure and withdrawal differ as a function of time of day. These findings suggest that controlling for the circadian phase of exposure and/or withdrawal may mitigate the severity of symptomatic withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Dwelling quietly in the rich club: brain network determinants of slow cortical fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Gollo, Leonardo L; Zalesky, Andrew; Hutchison, R Matthew; van den Heuvel, Martijn; Breakspear, Michael

    2015-05-19

    For more than a century, cerebral cartography has been driven by investigations of structural and morphological properties of the brain across spatial scales and the temporal/functional phenomena that emerge from these underlying features. The next era of brain mapping will be driven by studies that consider both of these components of brain organization simultaneously--elucidating their interactions and dependencies. Using this guiding principle, we explored the origin of slowly fluctuating patterns of synchronization within the topological core of brain regions known as the rich club, implicated in the regulation of mood and introspection. We find that a constellation of densely interconnected regions that constitute the rich club (including the anterior insula, amygdala and precuneus) play a central role in promoting a stable, dynamical core of spontaneous activity in the primate cortex. The slow timescales are well matched to the regulation of internal visceral states, corresponding to the somatic correlates of mood and anxiety. In contrast, the topology of the surrounding 'feeder' cortical regions shows unstable, rapidly fluctuating dynamics likely to be crucial for fast perceptual processes. We discuss these findings in relation to psychiatric disorders and the future of connectomics.

  10. Patterns in Cortical Connectivity for Determining Outcomes in Hand Function after Subcortical Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Dazhi; Song, Fan; Xu, Dongrong; Peterson, Bradley S.; Sun, Limin; Men, Weiwei; Yan, Xu; Fan, Mingxia

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies have noted changes in resting-state functional connectivity during motor recovery following stroke. However, these studies always uncover various patterns of motor recovery. Moreover, subgroups of stroke patients with different outcomes in hand function have rarely been studied. Materials and Methods We selected 24 patients who had a subcortical stroke in the left motor pathway and displayed only motor deficits. The patients were divided into two subgroups: completely paralyzed hands (CPH) (12 patients) and partially paralyzed hands (PPH) (12 patients). Twenty-four healthy controls (HC) were also recruited. We performed functional connectivity analysis in both the ipsilesional and contralesional primary motor cortex (M1) to explore the differences in the patterns between each pair of the three diagnostic groups. Results Compared with the HC, the PPH group displays reduced connectivity of both the ipsilesional and contralesional M1 with bilateral prefrontal gyrus and contralesional cerebellum posterior lobe. The connectivity of both the ipsilesional and contralesional M1 with contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was reduced in the CPH group. Additionally, the connectivity of the ipsilesional M1 with contralesional postcentral gyrus, superior parietal lobule and ipsilesional inferior parietal lobule was reduced in the CPH group compared with the PPH group. Moreover, the connectivity of these regions was positively correlated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment scores (hand+wrist) across all stroke patients. Conclusions Patterns in cortical connectivity may serve as a potential biomarker for the neural substratum associated with outcomes in hand function after subcortical stroke. PMID:23285171

  11. Investigation of the mechanisms mediating MDMA "Ecstasy"-induced increases in cerebro-cortical perfusion determined by btASL MRI.

    PubMed

    Rouine, J; Kelly, M E; Jennings-Murphy, C; Duffy, P; Gorman, I; Gormley, S; Kerskens, C M; Harkin, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Acute administration of the recreational drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; Ecstasy) has previously been shown to increase cerebro-cortical perfusion as determined by bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling (btASL) MRI. The purpose of the current study was to assess the mechanisms mediating these changes following systemic administration of MDMA to rats. Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic, dopaminergic and nitrergic transmission was carried out to determine the mechanism of action of MDMA-induced increases in cortical perfusion using btASL MRI. Fenfluramine (10 mg/kg), like MDMA (20 mg/kg), increased cortical perfusion. Increased cortical perfusion was not obtained with the 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) (1 mg/kg). Depletion of central 5-HT following systemic administration of the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) produced effects similar to those observed with MDMA. Pre-treatment with the 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (4 mg/kg) or with the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg/kg), however, failed to produce any effect alone or influence the response to MDMA. Pre-treatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 mg/kg) failed to influence the changes in cortical perfusion obtained with MDMA. Treatment with the neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (25 mg/kg) provoked no change in cerebral perfusion alone yet attenuated the MDMA-related increase in cortical perfusion. Cortical 5-HT depletion is associated with increases in perfusion although this mechanism alone does not account for MDMA-related changes. A role for NO, a key regulator of cerebrovascular perfusion, is implicated in MDMA-induced increases in cortical perfusion.

  12. Motor cortical plasticity in extrinsic hand muscles is determined by the resting thresholds of overlapping representations.

    PubMed

    Mirdamadi, J L; Suzuki, L Y; Meehan, S K

    2016-10-01

    Knowledge of the properties that govern the effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) interventions is critical to clinical application. Extrapolation to clinical populations has been limited by high inter-subject variability and a focus on intrinsic muscles of the hand in healthy populations. Therefore, the current study assessed variability of continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS), a patterned TMS protocol, across an agonist-antagonist pair of extrinsic muscles of the hand. Secondarily, we assessed whether concurrent agonist contraction could enhance the efficacy of cTBS. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were simultaneously recorded from the agonist flexor (FCR) and antagonist extensor (ECR) carpi radialis before and after cTBS over the FCR hotspot. cTBS was delivered with the FCR relaxed (cTBS-Relax) or during isometric wrist flexion (cTBS-Contract). cTBS-Relax suppressed FCR MEPs evoked from the FCR hotspot. However, the extent of FCR MEP suppression was strongly correlated with the relative difference between FCR and ECR resting motor thresholds. cTBS-Contract decreased FCR suppression but increased suppression of ECR MEPs elicited from the FCR hotspot. The magnitude of ECR MEP suppression following cTBS-Contract was independent of the threshold-amplitude relationships observed with cTBS-Relax. Contraction alone had no effect confirming the effect of cTBS-Contract was driven by the interaction between neuromuscular activity and cTBS. Interactions across muscle representations should be taken into account when predicting cTBS outcomes in healthy and clinical populations. Contraction during cTBS may be a useful means of focusing aftereffects when differences in baseline excitability across overlapping agonist-antagonist cortical representations may mitigate the inhibitory effect of cTBS. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recent advances in the molecular mechanisms determining tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids: novel mutations, circadian rhythm and ligand-induced repression of the human glucocorticoid receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are pleiotropic hormones, which are involved in almost every cellular, molecular and physiologic network of the organism, and regulate a broad spectrum of physiologic functions essential for life. The cellular response to glucocorticoids displays profound variability both in magnitude and in specificity of action. Tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids differs among individuals, within tissues of the same individual and within the same cell. The actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by the glucocorticoid receptor, a ubiquitously expressed intracellular, ligand-dependent transcription factor. Multiple mechanisms, such as pre-receptor ligand metabolism, receptor isoform expression, and receptor-, tissue-, and cell type-specific factors, exist to generate diversity as well as specificity in the response to glucocorticoids. Alterations in the molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid receptor action impair glucocorticoid signal transduction and alter tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms determining tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids with particular emphasis on novel mutations and new information on the circadian rhythm and ligand-induced repression of the glucocorticoid receptor. PMID:25155432

  14. Cortical Control of Zona Incerta

    PubMed Central

    Barthó, Péter; Slézia, Andrea; Varga, Viktor; Bokor, Hajnalka; Pinault, Didier; Buzsáki, György; Acsády, László

    2009-01-01

    The zona incerta (ZI) is at the crossroad of almost all major ascending and descending fiber tracts and targets numerous brain centers from the thalamus to the spinal cord. Effective ascending drive of ZI cells has been described, but the role of descending cortical signals in patterning ZI activity is unknown. Cortical control over ZI function was examined during slow cortical waves (1-3 Hz), paroxysmal high-voltage spindles (HVSs), and 5-9 Hz oscillations in anesthetized rats. In all conditions, rhythmic cortical activity significantly altered the firing pattern of ZI neurons recorded extracellularly and labeled with the juxtacellular method. During slow oscillations, the majority of ZI neurons became synchronized to the depth-negative phase (“up state”) of the cortical waves to a degree comparable to thalamocortical neurons. During HVSs, ZI cells displayed highly rhythmic activity in tight synchrony with the cortical oscillations. ZI neurons responded to short epochs of cortical 5-9 Hz oscillations, with a change in the interspike interval distribution and with an increase in spectral density in the 5-9 Hz band as measured by wavelet analysis. Morphological reconstruction revealed that most ZI cells have mediolaterally extensive dendritic trees and very long dendritic segments. Cortical terminals established asymmetrical synapses on ZI cells with very long active zones. These data suggest efficient integration of widespread cortical signals by single ZI neurons and strong cortical drive. We propose that the efferent GABAergic signal of ZI neurons patterned by the cortical activity can play a critical role in synchronizing thalamocortical and brainstem rhythms. PMID:17301175

  15. Dissociable systems of working memory for rhythm and melody.

    PubMed

    Jerde, Trenton A; Childs, Stephanie K; Handy, Sarah T; Nagode, Jennifer C; Pardo, José V

    2011-08-15

    Specialized neural systems are engaged by the rhythmic and melodic components of music. Here, we used PET to measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a working memory task for sequences of rhythms and melodies, which were presented in separate blocks. Healthy subjects, without musical training, judged whether a target rhythm or melody was identical to a series of subsequently presented rhythms or melodies. When contrasted with passive listening to rhythms, working memory for rhythm activated the cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, right anterior insular cortex, and left anterior cingulate gyrus. These areas were not activated in a contrast between passive listening to rhythms and a non-auditory control, indicating their role in the temporal processing that was specific to working memory for rhythm. The contrast between working memory for melody and passive listening to melodies activated mainly a right-hemisphere network of frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices: areas involved in pitch processing and auditory working memory. Overall, these results demonstrate that rhythm and melody have unique neural signatures not only in the early stages of auditory processing, but also at the higher cognitive level of working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rhythm in Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This research is an attempt at the elucidation of the significance of rhythmic in translations. According to Eugene A. Nada's functional equivalence, the comprehensive effect which the receptors of the versions get should be the same as the one the readers of the original get, and since rhythm is an integral part of the style, rhythm should be…

  17. Circahoralian (ultradian) metabolic rhythms.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, V Y

    2014-06-01

    This review presents data concerning metabolic rhythms with periods close to one hour (20 to 120 min): their occurrence, biochemical organization, nature, and significance for adaptations and age-related changes of cells and organs. Circahoralian (ultradian) rhythms have been detected for cell mass and size, protein synthesis, enzyme activities, concentration of ATP and hormones, cell respiration, and cytoplasm pH. Rhythms have been observed in bacteria, yeasts, and protozoa, as well as in many cells of metazoans, including mammals, in vivo and in cell cultures. In cell populations, the rhythms are organized by direct cell-cell communication. The biochemical mechanism involves membrane signal factors and cytoplasmic processes resulting in synchronization of individual oscillations to a common rhythm. Phosphorylation of proteins is the key process of coordination of protein synthesis and enzyme activity kinetics. The fractal nature of circahoralian rhythms is discussed as well as the involvement of these rhythms in adaptations of the cells and organs. Senescent decrease in rhythm amplitudes and correspondingly in cell-cell communication has been observed. The possibility of remodeling these changes through the intercellular medium has been predicted and experimentally shown. Perspectives for studies of the organizers and disorganizers of cell-cell communication in the intercellular medium along with appropriate receptors are discussed with special emphasis on aging and pathology. One perspective can be more precise definition of the range of normal biochemical and physiological state with the goal of correction of cellular functions.

  18. Circadian rhythm abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Zee, Phyllis C; Attarian, Hrayr; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2013-02-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of the fundamental properties of circadian rhythms and discusses the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs). Recent evidence strongly points to the ubiquitous influence of circadian timing in nearly all physiologic functions. Thus, in addition to the prominent sleep and wake disturbances, circadian rhythm disorders are associated with cognitive impairment, mood disturbances, and increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The recent availability of biomarkers of circadian timing in clinical practice has improved our ability to identify and treat these CRSDs. Circadian rhythms are endogenous rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours. These rhythms are synchronized to the physical environment by social and work schedules by various photic and nonphotic stimuli. CRSDs result from a misalignment between the timing of the circadian rhythm and the external environment (eg, jet lag and shift work) or a dysfunction of the circadian clock or its afferent and efferent pathways (eg, delayed sleep-phase, advanced sleep-phase, non-24-hour, and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorders). The most common symptoms of these disorders are difficulties with sleep onset and/or sleep maintenance and excessive sleepiness that are associated with impaired social and occupational functioning. Effective treatment for most of the CRSDs requires a multimodal approach to accelerate circadian realignment with timed exposure to light, avoidance of bright light at inappropriate times, and adherence to scheduled sleep and wake times. In addition, pharmacologic agents are recommended for some of the CRSDs. For delayed sleep-phase, non-24-hour, and shift work disorders, timed low-dose melatonin can help advance or entrain circadian rhythms; and for shift work disorder, wake-enhancing agents such as caffeine, modafinil, and armodafinil are options for the management of excessive

  19. Visible Battle Rhythm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    2006 Oculus Info Inc. COP21 TD 1 Visible Battle Rhythm Brian Cort1, Alain Bouchard2, Denis Gouin2, Pascale Proulx1, Bill Wright1 June 21, 2006 1...Oculus Info Inc. 2 DRDC Valcartier www.oculusinfo.com www.drdc-rddc.gc.ca © 2006 Oculus Info Inc. COP21 TD 2 Battle Rhythm “Process where the...commander to make timely decisions.” −Duffy et al, 2004 © 2006 Oculus Info Inc. COP21 TD 3 Visible Battle Rhythm • Real-time coordination and synchronization

  20. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lirong; Zee, Phyllis C.

    2012-01-01

    There have been remarkable advances in our understanding of the molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying the regulation of circadian rhythms, as well as the impact of circadian dysfunction on health and disease. This information has transformed our understanding of the effect of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) on health, performance and safety. CRSDs are caused by alterations of the central circadian time-keeping system, or a misalignment of the endogenous circadian rhythm and the external environment. In this section, we provide a review of circadian biology and discuss the pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the most commonly encountered CRSDs in clinical practice. PMID:23099133

  1. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenyu; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Marcheva, Biliana; Bass, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    The discovery of the genetic basis for circadian rhythms has expanded our knowledge of the temporal organization of behavior and physiology. The observations that the circadian gene network is present in most living organisms from eubacteria to humans, that most cells and tissues express autonomous clocks, and that disruption of clock genes results in metabolic dysregulation have revealed interactions between metabolism and circadian rhythms at neural, molecular, and cellular levels. A major challenge remains in understanding the interplay between brain and peripheral clocks and in determining how these interactions promote energy homeostasis across the sleep-wake cycle. In this Review, we evaluate how investigation of molecular timing may create new opportunities to understand and develop therapies for obesity and diabetes.

  2. Exploring the Nature of Cortical Recurrent Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Kenji; Kalra, Rita; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Robinson, Hugh P. C.

    2011-09-01

    Fast rhythmic activity of neural population has been frequently observed in cortical circuits, and suggested to be associated with various cognitive functions including working memory and selective attention. However, precisely how recurrent synaptic interactions, that are prominent in these circuits, shape and/or modulate such population rhythm has not been fully elucidated. We have addressed this issue by combining electrophysiological and computational approaches.

  3. After-discharges and seizures during pediatric extra-operative electrical cortical stimulation functional brain mapping: Incidence, thresholds, and determinants.

    PubMed

    Aungaroon, Gewalin; Zea Vera, Alonso; Horn, Paul S; Byars, Anna W; Greiner, Hansel M; Tenney, Jeffrey R; Arthur, Todd M; Crone, Nathan E; Holland, Katherine D; Mangano, Francesco T; Arya, Ravindra

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the incidence, thresholds, and determinants of electrical cortical stimulation (ECS)-induced after-discharges (ADs) and seizures. Electrocorticograph recordings were reviewed to determine incidence of ECS-induced ADs and seizures. Multivariable analyses for predictors of AD/seizure occurrence and their thresholds were performed. In 122 patients, the incidence of ADs and seizures was 77% (94/122) and 35% (43/122) respectively. Males (odds ratio [OR] 2.92, 95% CI 1.21-7.38, p=0.02) and MRI-negative patients (OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.24-13.7, p=0.03) were found to have higher odds of ECS-induced ADs. A significant trend for decreasing AD thresholds with age was seen (regression co-efficient -0.151, 95% CI -0.267 to -0.035, p=0.011). ECS-induced seizures were more likely in patients with lateralized functional imaging (OR 6.62, 95% CI 1.36-55.56, p=0.036, for positron emission tomography) and presence of ADs (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.12-13.36, p=0.043). ECS is associated with a high incidence of ADs and seizures. With age, current thresholds decrease and the probability for AD/seizure occurrence increases. ADs and seizures during ECS brain mapping are potentially hazardous and affect its functional validity. Thus, safer method(s) for brain mapping with improved neurophysiologic validity are desirable. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Circadian rhythm and stroke].

    PubMed

    Terayama, Yasuo

    2013-12-01

    Studies on the relationship between stroke incidence and alterations of circadian rhythm are scarce, while pathologically reduced or abolished circadian variation has been described to cause stroke since a long time ago. Although ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are different entities and are characterized by different pathophysiological mechanisms, they share an identical pattern. A constellation of endogenous circadian rhythms and exogenous cyclic factors are involved. The staging of the circadian rhythms in vascular tone, coagulation balance including platelet function, and blood pressure plus temporal patterns in posture, physical activity, emotional stress, autonomic function, and medication effects play central and/or triggering roles. Features of the circadian rhythm of blood pressure, in terms of their chronic and acute effects on cerebral vessels, and of coagulation are especially important.

  5. Sleep and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    1991-01-01

    Three interacting processes are involved in the preservation of circadian rhythms: (1) endogenous rhythm generation mechanisms, (2) entrainment mechanisms to keep these rhythms 'on track', and (3) exogenous masking processes stemming from changes in environment and bahavior. These processes, particularly the latter two, can be dramatically affected in individuals of advanced age and in space travelers, with a consequent disruption in sleep and daytime functioning. This paper presents results of a phase-shift experiment investigating the age-related effects of the exogeneous component of circadian rhythms in various physiological and psychological functions by comparing these functions in middle aged and old subjects. Dramatic differences were found between the two age groups in measures of sleep, mood, activation, and performance efficiency.

  6. Other Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... In addition to tachycardia, bradycardia, premature contraction and fibrillation, rhythm disorders include: ADAMS-STOKES DISEASE (also called ... can also occur in someone who has atrial fibrillation (or AFib/flutter), or it can be its ...

  7. Neural Networks for Beat Perception in Musical Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Large, Edward W.; Herrera, Jorge A.; Velasco, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    Entrainment of cortical rhythms to acoustic rhythms has been hypothesized to be the neural correlate of pulse and meter perception in music. Dynamic attending theory first proposed synchronization of endogenous perceptual rhythms nearly 40 years ago, but only recently has the pivotal role of neural synchrony been demonstrated. Significant progress has since been made in understanding the role of neural oscillations and the neural structures that support synchronized responses to musical rhythm. Synchronized neural activity has been observed in auditory and motor networks, and has been linked with attentional allocation and movement coordination. Here we describe a neurodynamic model that shows how self-organization of oscillations in interacting sensory and motor networks could be responsible for the formation of the pulse percept in complex rhythms. In a pulse synchronization study, we test the model's key prediction that pulse can be perceived at a frequency for which no spectral energy is present in the amplitude envelope of the acoustic rhythm. The result shows that participants perceive the pulse at the theoretically predicted frequency. This model is one of the few consistent with neurophysiological evidence on the role of neural oscillation, and it explains a phenomenon that other computational models fail to explain. Because it is based on a canonical model, the predictions hold for an entire family of dynamical systems, not only a specific one. Thus, this model provides a theoretical link between oscillatory neurodynamics and the induction of pulse and meter in musical rhythm. PMID:26635549

  8. Neural Networks for Beat Perception in Musical Rhythm.

    PubMed

    Large, Edward W; Herrera, Jorge A; Velasco, Marc J

    2015-01-01

    Entrainment of cortical rhythms to acoustic rhythms has been hypothesized to be the neural correlate of pulse and meter perception in music. Dynamic attending theory first proposed synchronization of endogenous perceptual rhythms nearly 40 years ago, but only recently has the pivotal role of neural synchrony been demonstrated. Significant progress has since been made in understanding the role of neural oscillations and the neural structures that support synchronized responses to musical rhythm. Synchronized neural activity has been observed in auditory and motor networks, and has been linked with attentional allocation and movement coordination. Here we describe a neurodynamic model that shows how self-organization of oscillations in interacting sensory and motor networks could be responsible for the formation of the pulse percept in complex rhythms. In a pulse synchronization study, we test the model's key prediction that pulse can be perceived at a frequency for which no spectral energy is present in the amplitude envelope of the acoustic rhythm. The result shows that participants perceive the pulse at the theoretically predicted frequency. This model is one of the few consistent with neurophysiological evidence on the role of neural oscillation, and it explains a phenomenon that other computational models fail to explain. Because it is based on a canonical model, the predictions hold for an entire family of dynamical systems, not only a specific one. Thus, this model provides a theoretical link between oscillatory neurodynamics and the induction of pulse and meter in musical rhythm.

  9. Quantifying Speech Rhythm Abnormalities in the Dysarthrias

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Julie M.; White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L.; Lansford, Kaitlin; Lotto, Andrew J.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the authors examined whether rhythm metrics capable of distinguishing languages with high and low temporal stress contrast also can distinguish among control and dysarthric speakers of American English with perceptually distinct rhythm patterns. Methods Acoustic measures of vocalic and consonantal segment durations were obtained for speech samples from 55 speakers across 5 groups (hypokinetic, hyperkinetic, flaccid-spastic, ataxic dysarthrias, and controls). Segment durations were used to calculate standard and new rhythm metrics. Discriminant function analyses (DFAs) were used to determine which sets of predictor variables (rhythm metrics) best discriminated between groups (control vs. dysarthrias; and among the 4 dysarthrias). A cross-validation method was used to test the robustness of each original DFA. Results The majority of classification functions were more than 80% successful in classifying speakers into their appropriate group. New metrics that combined successive vocalic and consonantal segments emerged as important predictor variables. DFAs pitting each dysarthria group against the combined others resulted in unique constellations of predictor variables that yielded high levels of classification accuracy. Conclusions: This study confirms the ability of rhythm metrics to distinguish control speech from dysarthrias and to discriminate dysarthria subtypes. Rhythm metrics show promise for use as a rational and objective clinical tool. PMID:19717656

  10. Rhythms, rhythmicity and aggression.

    PubMed

    Bronsard, Guillaume; Bartolomei, Fabrice

    2013-09-01

    The relationships between biological rhythms and human aggressive behavior are addressed and discussed in this article: First, circadian rhythms and aggression are considered. Studies of sleep/waking cycle disturbances in aggression are reported. Severe aggression is associated with profound changes in sleep architecture. Causal link is difficult to establish given that sleep disturbance and aggressive behavior could be the symptoms of the same disorder. Specific aggressive behavior developed during sleep is also described. In addition, hormonal circadian rhythm studies are reported. Thus, low cortisol levels, in particular low cortisol variability, are associated with aggressive behavior, suggesting an inhibitory role of cortisol. Testosterone has daily and seasonal fluctuations, but no link with aggression has been established. Neurophysiological underlying mechanisms are discussed in the last part of this article, with a focus on the relationship between brain rhythm and aggression. Increase of slow-wave EEG activities is observed in individuals with aggressive behavior. Epilepsy, as a disease of brain rhythm could be associated with aggressive behavior, in pre, post and inter ictal periodes. Incidence of aggression is not likely more prevalent in epileptic individuals compared to those with other neurological conditions. Ictal changes take the form of profound behavioral changes, including aggressive behavior which has been interpreted as the emergence of "archeical" or innate motor patterns. In this multidisciplinary approach, the main difficulty is the categorization of the differents types of aggression. Finally, taken together, these studies suggest that biological rhythms, especially circadian rhythms, could provide therapeutic benefits to human aggressive behavior. Biological rhythymicity seems to be a necessary permanent training offering interesting perspectives for the adaptation to changes in the field of aggression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  11. Nonlinear neurodynamics in representation of a rhythm of speech.

    PubMed

    Skljarov, O P

    1999-06-01

    The mathematical model is offered to describe an algorithm for functioning of a speech rhythm. The duration of a speech signal is divided into the numbered sequence of durations of voice and voiceless segments. All elements of this sequence will be considered as values normalized on the maximum element. We determine this sequence of the elements as a speech rhythm. 1) The model describes a speech rhythm as the recurrent relations between elements of a rhythm. 2) The model permits use of the concept of information entropy. 3) The model explains experimental findings obtained by our research group during comparative investigation of a rhythm in normal speech and stuttering. In particular, the model explains the existence of two classes of stutterers with various rhythms of speech.

  12. Activity in the ferret: oestradiol effects and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, E. R.; Albers, H. E.; Baum, M. J.; Wurtman, R. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether oestradiol increases activity in the European ferret (Mustela furo), whether this effect is sexually dimorphic, and whether a 24-h rhythm is present in the ferret's daily activity. The activity of male and female adult, postpubertally gonadectomized ferrets was monitored while they were maintained singly on a 13:11 light-dark cycle, before and after implantation with oestradiol-17 beta. Gonadectomized male and female ferrets exhibited equal levels of activity, and neither sex exhibited a significant change in activity following oestradiol implantation. None of the ferrets exhibited a strong circadian rhythm, although weak 24-h rhythms and shorter harmonic rhythms were present. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), monitored in an identical manner, exhibited strong circadian rhythms. It was concluded that oestradiol administration may not cause an increase in activity in the ferret, and that this species lacks a strong circadian activity rhythm.

  13. Activity in the ferret: oestradiol effects and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockman, E. R.; Albers, H. E.; Baum, M. J.; Wurtman, R. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether oestradiol increases activity in the European ferret (Mustela furo), whether this effect is sexually dimorphic, and whether a 24-h rhythm is present in the ferret's daily activity. The activity of male and female adult, postpubertally gonadectomized ferrets was monitored while they were maintained singly on a 13:11 light-dark cycle, before and after implantation with oestradiol-17 beta. Gonadectomized male and female ferrets exhibited equal levels of activity, and neither sex exhibited a significant change in activity following oestradiol implantation. None of the ferrets exhibited a strong circadian rhythm, although weak 24-h rhythms and shorter harmonic rhythms were present. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), monitored in an identical manner, exhibited strong circadian rhythms. It was concluded that oestradiol administration may not cause an increase in activity in the ferret, and that this species lacks a strong circadian activity rhythm.

  14. Rhythm on Your Lips

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Marcela; Langus, Alan; Gutiérrez, César; Huepe-Artigas, Daniela; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    The Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL) accounts for speech rhythm, grouping of sounds as either Iambs—if alternating in duration—or Trochees—if alternating in pitch and/or intensity. The two different rhythms signal word order, one of the basic syntactic properties of language. We investigated the extent to which Iambic and Trochaic phrases could be auditorily and visually recognized, when visual stimuli engage lip reading. Our results show both rhythmic patterns were recognized from both, auditory and visual stimuli, suggesting that speech rhythm has a multimodal representation. We further explored whether participants could match Iambic and Trochaic phrases across the two modalities. We found that participants auditorily familiarized with Trochees, but not with Iambs, were more accurate in recognizing visual targets, while participants visually familiarized with Iambs, but not with Trochees, were more accurate in recognizing auditory targets. The latter results suggest an asymmetric processing of speech rhythm: in auditory domain, the changes in either pitch or intensity are better perceived and represented than changes in duration, while in the visual domain the changes in duration are better processed and represented than changes in pitch, raising important questions about domain general and specialized mechanisms for speech rhythm processing. PMID:27877144

  15. Measuring stem cell circadian rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hrushesky, William; Rich, Ivan N

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that occur within a 24-h time cycle. Sleep is a prime example of a circadian rhythm and with it melatonin production. Stem cell systems also demonstrate circadian rhythms. This is particularly the case for the proliferating cells within the system. In fact, all proliferating cell populations exhibit their own circadian rhythm, which has important implications for disease and the treatment of disease. Stem cell chronobiology is particularly important because the treatment of cancer can be significantly affected by the time of day a drug is administered. This protocol provides a basis for measuring hematopoietic stem cell circadian rhythm for future stem cell chronotherapeutic applications.

  16. Sundowning and circadian rhythms in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Volicer, L; Harper, D G; Manning, B C; Goldstein, R; Satlin, A

    2001-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine changes of circadian rhythms induced by Alzheimer's disease and to explore relationships among rhythm disturbances, sundowning, and sleep disturbances in patients with Alzheimer's disease. "Sundowning" is the occurrence or exacerbation of behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease in the afternoon and evening. Circadian rhythms of core body temperature and motor activity were measured in 25 patients with diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease and in nine healthy individuals. The subjects with Alzheimer's disease were divided according to the occurrence of sundowning as determined by staff reports. The subjects with Alzheimer's disease had less diurnal motor activity, a higher percentage of nocturnal activity, lower interdaily stability of motor activity, and a later activity acrophase (time of peak) than did the healthy individuals. They also had a higher mesor (fitted mean) temperature, higher amplitude of the fitted cosine temperature curve, and later temperature acrophase than did the healthy subjects. The severity of sundowning was associated with later acrophase of temperature, less correlation of circadian temperature rhythm with a 24-hour cycle, and lower amplitude of temperature curve. These data indicate that Alzheimer's disease causes disturbances of circadian rhythms and that sundowning is related to a phase delay of body temperature caused by Alzheimer's disease.

  17. How does the brain create rhythms?

    PubMed

    Szirmai, Imre

    2010-01-30

    Connection was found between rhythmic cortical activity and motor control. The 10 Hz micro-rhythm and the 20-30 Hz bursts represent two functional states of the somatomotor system. A correspondence of the central micro-rhythm of the motor cortex and the physiological hand tremor (8-12 Hz) is presumed. The precise tuning of the motor system can be estimated by the frequency of repetitive finger movements. In complex tapping exercise, the index finger is the most skillful, the 3rd, 4th and 5th fingers keep rhythm with less precision. It was found that the organization of mirror movements depends on the cortical representation of fingers. Mirror finger movements are more regular if the subject begins the motor action with the 5th (small) finger. Concerning cortical regulation of finger movements, it was suggested that there are two time-keeping systems in the brain; one with a sensitivity above and another with a sensitivity below the critical frequency of 3 Hz. The preferred meter which helps to maintain synchronous finger movements is the cadence of 4/4 and 8/8. We observed that the unlearned inward-outward sequential finger movement was equally impaired in nonmusician controls and patients with Parkinson-disease. In movement disorders, the ability of movement and the "clock-mechanism" are equally involved. The polyrhythmic finger movement is not our inborn ability, it has to be learned. The "timer" function, which regulates the rhythmic movement, is presumably localised in the basal ganglia or in the cerebellum. The meter of the music is built on the reciprocal values of 2 raised to the second to fifth power (1/1(2), 1/2(2), 1/2(3), 1/2(4), 1/2(5)). The EEG frequencies that we consider important in the regulation of conscious motor actions are approximately in the same domain (4, 8, 16, 32, 64 Hz). During music performance, an important neural process is the coupling of distant brain areas. Concerning melody, the musical taste of Europeans is octave-based. Musical

  18. Combination of starvation interval and food volume determines the phase of liver circadian rhythm in Per2::Luc knock-in mice under two meals per day feeding.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Akiko; Nagahama, Hiroki; Tsuboi, Takuma; Hirao, Mizuho; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2010-11-01

    Although the circadian liver clock is entrained by the feeding cycle, factors such as food volume and starvation interval are poorly understood. Per2::Luc knock-in mice were given two meals per day with different food volume sizes and/or with different intervals of starvation between two mealtimes with the total food volume per day fixed at 3.6 g (80 food pellets, ∼75% of free feeding) per mouse. The bioluminescence rhythm in the liver produced a unimodal peak but not bimodal peak under the regimen of two meals per day over 14-15 days. Peak Per2 expression occurred concurrently with the mealtime of the larger food volume, when the first and second meal were given as different food volume ratios under a 12 h feeding interval. When an equal volume of food was given under different starvation interval (8 h:16 h), the peak of the Per2 rhythm was close to peak by mealtime after long starvation (16 h). When food volumes for each mealtime were changed under 8 h:16 h, the peak rhythm was influenced by combined factors of food volume and starvation interval. Food intake after the 16-h starvation caused a significant increase in liver Per2, Dec1, and Bmal1 gene expression compared with food intake after the 8-h starvation with 8 h:16 h feeding intervals. In conclusion, the present results clearly demonstrate that food-induced entrainment of the liver clock is dependent on both food volume and the starvation interval between two meals. Therefore, normal feeding habits may help to maintain normal clock function in the liver organ.

  19. Metabolic Cycles Are Linked to the Cardiovascular Diurnal Rhythm in Rats with Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Waki, Hidefumi; Bhuiyan, Mohammad E. R.; Gouraud, Sabine S.; Maeda, Masanobu

    2011-01-01

    Background The loss of diurnal rhythm in blood pressure (BP) is an important predictor of end-organ damage in hypertensive and diabetic patients. Recent evidence has suggested that two major physiological circadian rhythms, the metabolic and cardiovascular rhythms, are subject to regulation by overlapping molecular pathways, indicating that dysregulation of metabolic cycles could desynchronize the normal diurnal rhythm of BP with the daily light/dark cycle. However, little is known about the impact of changes in metabolic cycles on BP diurnal rhythm. Methodology/Principal Findings To test the hypothesis that feeding-fasting cycles could affect the diurnal pattern of BP, we used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) which develop essential hypertension with disrupted diurnal BP rhythms and examined whether abnormal BP rhythms in SHR were caused by alteration in the daily feeding rhythm. We found that SHR exhibit attenuated feeding rhythm which accompanies disrupted rhythms in metabolic gene expression not only in metabolic tissues but also in cardiovascular tissues. More importantly, the correction of abnormal feeding rhythms in SHR restored the daily BP rhythm and was accompanied by changes in the timing of expression of key circadian and metabolic genes in cardiovascular tissues. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that the metabolic cycle is an important determinant of the cardiovascular diurnal rhythm and that disrupted BP rhythms in hypertensive patients can be normalized by manipulating feeding cycles. PMID:21364960

  20. Convergent Rhythm Generation from Divergent Cellular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jason C.; Blitz, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Different modulatory inputs commonly elicit distinct rhythmic motor patterns from a central pattern generator (CPG), but they can instead elicit the same pattern. We are determining the rhythm-generating mechanisms in this latter situation, using the gastric mill (chewing) CPG in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric ganglion, where stimulating the projection neuron MCN1 (modulatory commissural neuron 1) or bath applying CabPK (C. borealis pyrokinin) peptide elicits the same gastric mill motor pattern, despite configuring different gastric mill circuits. In both cases, the core rhythm generator includes the same reciprocally inhibitory neurons LG (lateral gastric) and Int1 (interneuron 1), but the pyloric (food-filtering) circuit pacemaker neuron AB (anterior burster) is additionally necessary only for CabPK rhythm generation. MCN1 drives this rhythm generator by activating in the LG neuron the modulator-activated inward current (IMI), which waxes and wanes periodically due to phasic feedback inhibition of MCN1 transmitter release. Each buildup of IMI enables the LG neuron to generate a self-terminating burst and thereby alternate with Int1 activity. Here we establish that CabPK drives gastric mill rhythm generation by activating in the LG neuron IMI plus a slowly activating transient, low-threshold inward current (ITrans-LTS) that is voltage, time, and Ca2+ dependent. Unlike MCN1, CabPK maintains a steady IMI activation, causing a subthreshold depolarization in LG that facilitates a periodic postinhibitory rebound burst caused by the regular buildup and decay of the availability of ITrans-LTS. Thus, different modulatory inputs can use different rhythm-generating mechanisms to drive the same neuronal rhythm. Additionally, the same ionic current (IMI) can play different roles under these different conditions, while different currents (IMI, ITrans-LTS) can play the same role. PMID:24227716

  1. A determination of the minimum sizes of representative volume elements for the prediction of cortical bone elastic properties.

    PubMed

    Grimal, Quentin; Raum, Kay; Gerisch, Alf; Laugier, Pascal

    2011-12-01

    At its highest level of microstructural organization-the mesoscale or millimeter scale-cortical bone exhibits a heterogeneous distribution of pores (Haversian canals, resorption cavities). Multi-scale mechanical models rely on the definition of a representative volume element (RVE). Analytical homogenization techniques are usually based on an idealized RVE microstructure, while finite element homogenization using high-resolution images is based on a realistic RVE of finite size. The objective of this paper was to quantify the size and content of possible cortical bone mesoscale RVEs. RVE size was defined as the minimum size: (1) for which the apparent (homogenized) stiffness tensor becomes independent of the applied boundary conditions or (2) for which the variance of elastic properties for a set of microstructure realizations is sufficiently small. The field of elastic coefficients and microstructure in RVEs was derived from one acoustic microscopy image of a human femur cortical bone sample with an overall porosity of 8.5%. The homogenized properties of RVEs were computed with a finite element technique. It was found that the size of the RVE representative of the overall tissue is about 1.5 mm. Smaller RVEs (~0.5 mm) can also be considered to estimate local mesoscopic properties that strongly depend on the local pores volume fraction. This result provides a sound basis for the application of homogenization techniques to model the heterogeneity of cortical microstructures. An application of the findings to estimate elastic properties in the case of a porosity gradient is briefly presented.

  2. Rhythms that Speed You Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Daniel; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Correa, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether a rhythm can orient attention to specific moments enhancing people's reaction times (RT). We used a modified version of the temporal orienting paradigm in which an auditory isochronous rhythm was presented prior to an auditory single target. The rhythm could have a fast pace (450 ms Inter-Onset-Interval or IOI) or a…

  3. Measuring Child Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Elinor; Post, Brechtje; Astruc, Lluisa; Prieto, Pilar; Vanrell, Maria del Mar

    2012-01-01

    Interval-based rhythm metrics were applied to the speech of English, Catalan and Spanish 2, 4 and 6 year-olds, and compared with the (adult-directed) speech of their mothers. Results reveal that child speech does not fall into a well-defined rhythmic class: for all three languages, it is more "vocalic" (higher %V) than adult speech and…

  4. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-01-01

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep ‘prominence gradient’, i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a ‘stress-timed’ language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow ‘syntagmatic contrast’ between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms. PMID:25385774

  5. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  6. Speech rhythm: a metaphor?

    PubMed

    Nolan, Francis; Jeon, Hae-Sung

    2014-12-19

    Is speech rhythmic? In the absence of evidence for a traditional view that languages strive to coordinate either syllables or stress-feet with regular time intervals, we consider the alternative that languages exhibit contrastive rhythm subsisting merely in the alternation of stronger and weaker elements. This is initially plausible, particularly for languages with a steep 'prominence gradient', i.e. a large disparity between stronger and weaker elements; but we point out that alternation is poorly achieved even by a 'stress-timed' language such as English, and, historically, languages have conspicuously failed to adopt simple phonological remedies that would ensure alternation. Languages seem more concerned to allow 'syntagmatic contrast' between successive units and to use durational effects to support linguistic functions than to facilitate rhythm. Furthermore, some languages (e.g. Tamil, Korean) lack the lexical prominence which would most straightforwardly underpin prominence of alternation. We conclude that speech is not incontestibly rhythmic, and may even be antirhythmic. However, its linguistic structure and patterning allow the metaphorical extension of rhythm in varying degrees and in different ways depending on the language, and it is this analogical process which allows speech to be matched to external rhythms.

  7. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  8. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Riki; Matsuhashi, Masao; Usami, Kiyohide; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kunieda, Takeharu; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Physiological high frequency activities (HFA) are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections), or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III) affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response) and N80 (late response) of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20)) and HFA(SEP(N80))) and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses) of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1)) and HFA(CCEP(N2))). HFA(SEP(N20)) showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1)) had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1)) and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.

  9. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Riki; Matsuhashi, Masao; Usami, Kiyohide; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kunieda, Takeharu; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Physiological high frequency activities (HFA) are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections), or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III) affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response) and N80 (late response) of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFASEP(N20) and HFASEP(N80)) and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses) of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFACCEP(N1) and HFACCEP(N2)). HFASEP(N20) showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFACCEP(N1) had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFACCEP(N1) and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions. PMID:26087042

  10. Analysis of Cortical Flow Models In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Benink, Hélène A.; Mandato, Craig A.; Bement, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Cortical flow, the directed movement of cortical F-actin and cortical organelles, is a basic cellular motility process. Microtubules are thought to somehow direct cortical flow, but whether they do so by stimulating or inhibiting contraction of the cortical actin cytoskeleton is the subject of debate. Treatment of Xenopus oocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) triggers cortical flow toward the animal pole of the oocyte; this flow is suppressed by microtubules. To determine how this suppression occurs and whether it can control the direction of cortical flow, oocytes were subjected to localized manipulation of either the contractile stimulus (PMA) or microtubules. Localized PMA application resulted in redirection of cortical flow toward the site of application, as judged by movement of cortical pigment granules, cortical F-actin, and cortical myosin-2A. Such redirected flow was accelerated by microtubule depolymerization, showing that the suppression of cortical flow by microtubules is independent of the direction of flow. Direct observation of cortical F-actin by time-lapse confocal analysis in combination with photobleaching showed that cortical flow is driven by contraction of the cortical F-actin network and that microtubules suppress this contraction. The oocyte germinal vesicle serves as a microtubule organizing center in Xenopus oocytes; experimental displacement of the germinal vesicle toward the animal pole resulted in localized flow away from the animal pole. The results show that 1) cortical flow is directed toward areas of localized contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; 2) microtubules suppress cortical flow by inhibiting contraction of the cortical F-actin cytoskeleton; and 3) localized, microtubule-dependent suppression of actomyosin-based contraction can control the direction of cortical flow. We discuss these findings in light of current models of cortical flow. PMID:10930453

  11. Phenotyping Circadian Rhythms in Mice.

    PubMed

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    Circadian rhythms take place with a periodicity of 24 hr, temporally following the rotation of the earth around its axis. Examples of circadian rhythms are the sleep/wake cycle, feeding, and hormone secretion. Light powerfully entrains the mammalian clock and assists in keeping animals synchronized to the 24-hour cycle of the earth by activating specific neurons in the "central pacemaker" of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Absolute periodicity of an animal can deviate slightly from 24 hr as manifest when an animal is placed into constant dark or "free-running" conditions. Simple measurements of an organism's activity in free-running conditions reveal its intrinsic circadian period. Mice are a particularly useful model for studying circadian rhythmicity due to the ease of genetic manipulation, thus identifying molecular contributors to rhythmicity. Furthermore, their small size allows for monitoring locomotion or activity in their homecage environment with relative ease. Several tasks commonly used to analyze circadian periodicity and plasticity in mice are presented here including the process of entrainment, determination of tau (period length) in free-running conditions, determination of circadian periodicity in response to light disruption (e.g., jet lag studies), and evaluation of clock plasticity in non-24-hour conditions (T-cycles). Studying the properties of circadian periods such as their phase, amplitude, and length in response to photic perturbation, can be particularly useful in understanding how humans respond to jet lag, night shifts, rotating shifts, or other transient or chronic disruption of environmental surroundings.

  12. Perceiving Speech Rhythm in Music: Listeners Classify Instrumental Songs According to Language of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the musical rhythm of a particular culture may parallel the speech rhythm of that culture's language (Patel, A. D., & Daniele, J. R. (2003). "An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music." "Cognition, 87," B35-B45). The present experiments aimed to determine whether listeners actually perceive such rhythmic…

  13. The Effect of Pitch and Rhythm Difficulty on Vocal Sight-Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    Singing music at sight is a complex skill, requiring the singer to perform pitch and rhythm simultaneously. Previous research has identified difficulty levels for pitch and rhythm skills individually but not in combination. In this study, the author sought to determine the relationship between pitch and rhythm tasks occurring concurrently. High…

  14. Optimal Positioning for Volar Plate Fixation of a Distal Radius Fracture: Determining the Distal Dorsal Cortical Distance.

    PubMed

    Vosbikian, Michael M; Ketonis, Constantinos; Huang, Ronald; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are currently among the most common fractures of the musculoskeletal system. With a population that is living longer, being more active, and the increasing incidence of osteoporosis, these injuries will continue to become increasingly prevalent. When operative fixation is indicated, the volar locking plate has recently become the treatment of choice. However, despite its success, suboptimal position of the volar locking plate can still result in radiographic loss of reduction. The distal dorsal cortical distance is being introduced as an intraoperative radiographic tool to help optimize plate position and minimize late loss of fracture reduction.

  15. Intelligence and Frequency of the Alpha Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellingson, Robert J.; Lathrop, Gerald H.

    1973-01-01

    The alpha rhythm frequencies (8 to 13 cycles per second, occurring during a S's relaxed state with eyes closed, measured by the electroencephalogram) of three groups of Ss (30 Down's Syndrome residents, 21 psychiatric patients, and 10 university students) aged 13 to 24 years, were determined according to explicit criteria. (Author/MC)

  16. Analysis of salivary cortisol levels to determine the association between depression level and differences in circadian rhythms of shift-working nurses.

    PubMed

    Baba, Michie; Ohkura, Mitsuru; Koga, Kayoko; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Herrera, Lourdes R; Matsuse, Ryoichi; Inoue, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether there are differences in the circadian rhythms of shift-working nurses by assessing depression, fatigue and salivary cortisol levels. Forty nurses working in a two-shift system at "Hospital A", Fukuoka City, Japan, used a self-rated depression scale (SDS) to assess their depression levels. Fatigue levels were measured with the visual analogue scale for fatigue (VAS-F); saliva was collected before and during shifts for three days. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Thirty-six valid records were obtained, and subjects were classified according to SDS scores into a normal group (NG), moderate group (MG) and severe group (SG). There were no significant differences in the day shift salivary cortisol values of the three groups. However, the night shift salivary cortisol value for the SG was 0.132 µg/dl at 16:00, before starting the shift, and decreased to 0.036 µg/dl at 20:00. It increased slightly up to 0.057 µg/dl by 24:00 and formed a peak between 5:00 and 7:00, with the levels being 0.322 µg/dl and 0.305 µg/dl respectively. Meanwhile, the NG cortisol value was 0.154 µg/dl before the shift, decreased to 0.034 µg/dl by 20:00, slightly increased up to 0.093 µg/dl by 5:00 and presented its peak value, 0.253 µg/dl, at 7:00 next morning. SG nurses presented significantly increased salivary cortisol levels early in the morning during night shifts, showing a phase deviation in the circadian rhythm. Because subjective fatigue levels did not differ with time, SG nurses should understand and deal with physical changes in the early morning. This approach may reduce medical accidents and malpractice in the early morning.

  17. Circadian rhythm and menopause.

    PubMed

    Pines, A

    2016-12-01

    Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock which initiates and monitors various physiological processes with a fixed time-related schedule. The master circadian pacemaker is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. The circadian clock undergoes significant changes throughout the life span, at both the physiological and molecular levels. This cyclical physiological process, which is very complex and multifactorial, may be associated with metabolic alterations, atherosclerosis, impaired cognition, mood disturbances and even development of cancer. Sex differences do exist, and the well-known sleep disturbances associated with menopause are a good example. Circadian rhythm was detected in the daily pattern of hot flushes, with a peak in the afternoons. Endogenous secretion of melatonin decreases with aging across genders, and, among women, menopause is associated with a significant reduction of melatonin levels, affecting sleep. Although it might seem that hot flushes and melatonin secretion are likely related, there are not enough data to support such a hypothesis.

  18. [Biological rhythms and sleep].

    PubMed

    Honma, Ken-ichi

    2012-07-01

    Sleep is regulated by dual oscillatory processes, one is the hierarchical multi oscillatory circadian system and the other is the ultradian rest-activity cycle. The circadian system is composed of the central clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the peripheral clocks in a variety of tissues which express overt rhythms. The peripheral clock(s) for sleep and wakefulness in nocturnal rodents are strongly regulated by the central clock. By contract, the peripheral clock(s) in humans is more independent of and easily desynchronized from the central clock. Nocturnal sleep is characterized by REM and nonREM cycles which appear alternatively at 1.5 to 2 hour intervals. The origin of ultradian rhythm is not known. We propose an integrated model for the regulation of sleep and wakefulness by two different oscillatory systems.

  19. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jung Hie; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review circadian rhythm sleep disorders, including underlying causes, diagnostic considerations, and typical treatments. Methods Literature review and discussion of specific cases. Results Survey studies 1,2 suggest that up to 3% of the adult population suffers from a circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD). However, these sleep disorders are often confused with insomnia, and an estimated 10% of adult and 16% of adolescent sleep disorders patients may have a CRSD 3-6. While some CRSD (such as jet lag) can be self-limiting, others when untreated can lead to adverse medical, psychological, and social consequences. The International Classification of Sleep Disorders classifies CRSD as dyssomnias, with six subtypes: Advanced Sleep Phase Type, Delayed Sleep Phase Type, Irregular Sleep Wake Type, Free Running Type, Jet Lag Type, and Shift Work Type. The primary clinical characteristic of all CRSD is an inability to fall asleep and wake at the desired time. It is believed that CRSD arise from a problem with the internal biological clock (circadian timing system) and/or misalignment between the circadian timing system and the external 24-hour environment. This misalignment can be the result of biological and/or behavioral factors. CRSD can be confused with other sleep or medical disorders. Conclusions Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are a distinct class of sleep disorders characterized by a mismatch between the desired timing of sleep and the ability to fall asleep and remain asleep. If untreated, CRSD can lead to insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness, with negative medical, psychological, and social consequences. It is important for physicians to recognize potential circadian rhythm sleep disorders so that appropriate diagnosis, treatment, and referral can be made. PMID:25368503

  20. Neurobiology of circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V

    1997-09-01

    Adaptation in the temporal environment is key to survival. This is achieved by the manifestation of periodicity in occurrence of vital behavioural and physiological processes at regular intervals--the biological rhythms. Biological rhythms (= biological clocks) are ubiquitous, can be demonstrated persisting at any level of organization in the living world, and are generated and controlled by some central pacemaker(s), mostly located in the brain. In mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus is the principal site of the endogenous circadian pacemaker, regulating many daily physiological and behavioural functions, although other neural structures could also be contributing to the circadian timekeeping system. In other vertebrates, the neural site(s) of the circadian pacemaker is(are) still unclear. An organism without brain can have the biological clock, as well, for fully functional 24-hour temporal organization has been identified in several invertebrates, including unicellular Paramecium and Gonyaulax as well as filamentous fungus, Neurospora. This article attempts to provide an update of the informations which have accumulated over the past decade about understanding of the neurophysiological and molecular bases of circadian rhythms in animals.

  1. Circadian Rhythms in Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Life on earth is subject to daily and predictable fluctuations in light intensity, temperature, and humidity created by rotation of the earth. Circadian rhythms, generated by a circadian clock, control temporal programs of cellular physiology to facilitate adaptation to daily environmental changes. Circadian rhythms are nearly ubiquitous and are found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Here we introduce the molecular mechanism of the circadian clock in the model cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We review the current understanding of the cyanobacterial clock, emphasizing recent work that has generated a more comprehensive understanding of how the circadian oscillator becomes synchronized with the external environment and how information from the oscillator is transmitted to generate rhythms of biological activity. These results have changed how we think about the clock, shifting away from a linear model to one in which the clock is viewed as an interactive network of multifunctional components that are integrated into the context of the cell in order to pace and reset the oscillator. We conclude with a discussion of how this basic timekeeping mechanism differs in other cyanobacterial species and how information gleaned from work in cyanobacteria can be translated to understanding rhythmic phenomena in other prokaryotic systems. PMID:26335718

  2. Renal electrolyte circadian rhythms - Independence from feeding and activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on six unanesthetized chair-acclimatized adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) weighing 600-900 g to determine whether internal synchronization is the result of simple passive dependence of renal excretory rhythms on endogenous rhythms of those variable that influence electrolyte excretion such as dietary intake and muscular activity. Independence of the urinary rhythms from diurnal variations in feeding, drinking, and activity was secured by depriving the animals of food, water, and training them to perform a two-hourly schedule of feeding, drinking, and activity throughout day and night. Results indicate that the internal synchronization which is normally observed between the behavioral and urinary rhythms cannot be explained by any direct dependence of renal function on behavioral patterns. The most probable mechanism for circadian internal synchronization is that the various behavioral and renal rhythms are controlled by potentially independent separate oscillators which are normally kept in synchrony with one another.

  3. Renal electrolyte circadian rhythms - Independence from feeding and activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on six unanesthetized chair-acclimatized adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) weighing 600-900 g to determine whether internal synchronization is the result of simple passive dependence of renal excretory rhythms on endogenous rhythms of those variable that influence electrolyte excretion such as dietary intake and muscular activity. Independence of the urinary rhythms from diurnal variations in feeding, drinking, and activity was secured by depriving the animals of food, water, and training them to perform a two-hourly schedule of feeding, drinking, and activity throughout day and night. Results indicate that the internal synchronization which is normally observed between the behavioral and urinary rhythms cannot be explained by any direct dependence of renal function on behavioral patterns. The most probable mechanism for circadian internal synchronization is that the various behavioral and renal rhythms are controlled by potentially independent separate oscillators which are normally kept in synchrony with one another.

  4. Relationship between EEG power and rhythm synchronization in health and cognitive pathology.

    PubMed

    Strelets, V B; Garakh, Zh V; Novototskii-Vlasov, V Yu; Magomedov, R A

    2006-07-01

    We report here studies of comparative measures of spectral density and cortical interactions in EEG rhythms in health and schizophrenia. In healthy subjects, all rhythms were symmetrical and synchronous. In "acute" schizophrenia, unlike the situation in health, there was asymmetry (predominantly right-sided) in the distribution of the spectral power of EEG rhythms. In chronic patients, asymmetry was less marked, though the power of most EEG rhythms was significantly lower than in the other two study groups. "Acute" patients showed a lack of interhemisphere interactions for all rhythms apart from the alpha rhythm, while the number of cortical interactions in chronic patients was rather lower than that in the "acute" patients, though there were significantly fewer than in healthy subjects. In addition, the gamma range showed only one interhemisphere association in the posterior areas. These neurophysiological characteristics may underlie a number of the impairments of mental activity in patients with schizophrenia. These data may also indicate that the linkage between power characteristics and synchronization of EEG rhythms is a necessary condition for normal perceptive and cognitive activity and the organization of behavior.

  5. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  6. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  7. Rhythms of locomotion expressed by Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab: II. Relationship to circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Watson, Winsor H; Bedford, Lisa; Chabot, Christopher C

    2008-08-01

    In the laboratory, horseshoe crabs express a circadian rhythm of visual sensitivity as well as daily and circatidal rhythms of locomotion. The major goal of this investigation was to determine whether the circadian clock underlying changes in visual sensitivity also modulates locomotion. To address this question, we developed a method for simultaneously recording changes in visual sensitivity and locomotion. Although every animal (24) expressed consistent circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity, rhythms of locomotion were more variable: 44% expressed a tidal rhythm, 28% were most active at night, and the rest lacked statistically significant rhythms. When exposed to artificial tides, 8 of 16 animals expressed circatidal rhythms of locomotion that continued after tidal cycles were stopped. However, rhythms of visual sensitivity remained stable and showed no tendency to be influenced by the imposed tides or locomotor activity. These results indicate that horseshoe crabs possess at least two biological clocks: one circadian clock primarily used for modulating visual sensitivity, and one or more clocks that control patterns of locomotion. This arrangement allows horseshoe crabs to see quite well while mating during both daytime and nighttime high tides.

  8. Determinants of geographic variations in implantation of cardiac defibrillators in the European Society of Cardiology member countries--data from the European Heart Rhythm Association White Book.

    PubMed

    Lubinski, Andrzej; Bissinger, Andrzej; Boersma, Lucas; Leenhardt, Antoine; Merkely, Bela; Oto, Ali; Proclemer, Alessandro; Brugada, Josep; Vardas, Panos E; Wolpert, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major health concern in developed countries. Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in the prevention of SCD and total mortality reduction. However, the high individual costs and the reimbursement policy may limit widespread ICD utilization. This study analyzed the temporal and the geographical trends of the ICD implantation rate. Data were gathered from two editions of the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) White Books published in 2008 and 2009. The analysis revealed significant differences in the rates of ICD implantation per million capita between the countries, but the median implantations was constantly increasing. The number of ICD implantations correlated with gross domestic product (GDP), GDP per capita, expenditure on health, life expectancy, and the number of implanting centres. There are great number of differences in the ICD-implanting rates between EHRA member countries, consequent to the increase in the number of ICD implantations. The ICD implantation rates are related to national economic status and healthcare expenses.

  9. [Fundamentals of chronobiology: nyctohemeral rhythms].

    PubMed

    Bourdon, L; Buguet, A

    2004-09-01

    Most biological activities fluctuate throughout the day and contribute to a better adaptation to the organism's daily activity. During the last 30 Years, chronobiology has aimed at studying these biological rhythms, explaining most of the biological mechanisms of i) the endogenous circadian rhythmicity, ii) the neurophysiological mechanisms of the photic system that allows its external resetting, and iii) the neuroendocrine mechanisms of internal rhythm synchronization. Moreover, the description of specific biological rhythm disorders and rhythm problems at the cellular and even the molecular level have prompted the emerging fields of chronopharmacology and chronotherapeutics. Copyright 2004 Masson

  10. 24-h activity rhythm and sleep in depressed outpatients.

    PubMed

    Hori, Hiroaki; Koga, Norie; Hidese, Shinsuke; Nagashima, Anna; Kim, Yoshiharu; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms are key features of depression. Actigraphy, a non-invasive method for monitoring motor activity, can be used to objectively assess circadian rest-activity rhythms and sleep patterns. While recent studies have measured sleep and daytime activity of depressed patients using wrist-worn actigraphy, the actigraphic 24-h rest-activity rhythm in depression has not been well documented. We aimed to examine actigraphically measured sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms in depressed outpatients. Twenty patients with DSM-IV major depressive episode and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated in this study. Participants completed 7 consecutive days of all-day actigraphic activity monitoring while engaging in usual activities. For sleep parameters, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, and sleep fragmentation index were determined. Circadian rhythms were estimated by fitting individual actigraphy data to a cosine curve of a 24-h activity rhythm using the cosinor method, which generated three circadian activity rhythm parameters, i.e., MESOR (rhythm-adjusted mean), amplitude, and acrophase. Subjective sleep was also assessed using a sleep diary and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients showed significantly lower MESOR and more dampened amplitude along with significant sleep disturbances. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower MESOR and more fragmented sleep emerged as the significant predictors of depression. Correlations between subjectively and actigraphically measured parameters demonstrated the validity of actigraphic measurements. These results indicate marked disturbances in sleep and circadian rest-activity rhythms of depression. By simultaneously measuring sleep and rest-activity rhythm parameters, actigraphy might serve as an objective diagnostic aid for depression.

  11. Circadian rhythms and cognition.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Like all circadian (near-24-h) rhythms, those of cognition have endogenous and exogenous components. The origins of these components, together with effects of time awake upon cognitive performance, are described in subjects living conventionally (sleeping at night and active during the daytime). Based on these considerations, predictions can be made about changes that might be expected in the days after a time-zone transition and during night work. The relevant literature on these circumstances is then reviewed. The last section of the chapter deals with sleep-wake schedules where both regular and irregular sleeps are taken (anchor sleep). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenotyping Circadian Rhythms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Eckel-Mahan, Kristin; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms take place with a periodicity of twenty-four hours, temporally following the rotation of the earth around its axis. Examples of circadian rhythms are the sleep/wake cycle, feeding, and hormone secretion. Light powerfully entrains the mammalian clock and assists in keeping animals synchronized to the 24-hour cycle of the earth by activating specific neurons in the “central pacemaker” of the brain, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Absolute periodicity of an animal can deviate slightly from 24 hours as manifest when an animal is placed into constant dark- or “free running”- conditions. Simple measurements of an organism's activity in free running conditions reveal its intrinsic circadian period. Mice are a particularly useful model for studying circadian rhythmicity due to the ease of genetic manipulation, thus identifying molecular contributors to rhythmicity. Furthermore, their small size allows for monitoring locomotion or activity in their home cage environment with relative ease. Several tasks commonly used to analyze circadian periodicity and plasticity in mice are outlined here including the process of entrainment, determination of tau (period length) in free running conditions, determination of circadian periodicity in response to light disruption (i.e. jet lag studies), and evaluation of clock plasticity in non-twenty-four hour conditions (T-cycles). Studying the properties of circadian periods such as their phase, amplitude, and length in response to photic perturbation, can be particularly useful in understanding how humans respond to jet lag, night shifts, rotating shifts, or other transient or chronic disruption of one's environmental surroundings. PMID:26331760

  13. Determinants of multiple semantic priming: a meta-analysis and spike frequency adaptive model of a cortical network.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Frédéric; Dumercy, Laurent; Darmon, Nelly

    2011-06-01

    Recall and language comprehension while processing sequences of words involves multiple semantic priming between several related and/or unrelated words. Accounting for multiple and interacting priming effects in terms of underlying neuronal structure and dynamics is a challenge for current models of semantic priming. Further elaboration of current models requires a quantifiable and reliable account of the simplest case of multiple priming resulting from two primes on a target. The meta-analytic approach offers a better understanding of the experimental data from studies on multiple priming regarding the additivity pattern of priming. The meta-analysis points to the effects of prime-target stimuli onset asynchronies on the pattern of underadditivity, overadditivity, or strict additivity of converging activation from multiple primes. The modeling approach is then constrained by results of the meta-analysis. We propose a model of a cortical network embedding spike frequency adaptation, which allows frequency and time-dependent modulation of neural activity. Model results give a comprehensive understanding of the meta-analysis results in terms of dynamics of neuron populations. They also give predictions regarding how stimuli intensities, association strength, and spike frequency adaptation influence multiple priming effects.

  14. Characterization of neurospora circadian rhythms in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, James S.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether the circadian rhythm of conidiation in neurospora crassa is endogenously derived or is driven by some geophysical time cue, an experiment was conducted on space shuttle flight STS-9, where inoculated race tubes were exposed to the microgravity environment of space. The results demonstated that the rhythm can persist in space. However, there were several minor alterations noted; an increase in the period of the oscillation and the variability of the growth rate and a diminished rhythm amplitude, which eventually damped out in 25% of the flight tubes. On day seven of the flight, the tubes were exposed to light while their growth fronts were marked. It appears that some aspects of this marking process reinstated a robust rhythm in all the tubes which continued throughout the remainder of the flight. It was hypothesized that the damping found prior to the marking procedure on STS-9 may have been a result of the hypergravity pulse of launch and not due to the microgravity of the orbital lab; furthermore, that the marking procedure, by exposing the samples to light, had reinstated rhythmicity. To test this, an investigation was conducted into the effects of acute and chronic exposure to hypergravity.

  15. A Circadian Rhythm Set by Dusk Determines the Expression of FT Homologs and the Short-Day Photoperiodic Flowering Response in Pharbitis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hayama, Ryosuke; Agashe, Bhavna; Luley, Elisabeth; King, Rod; Coupland, George

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal control of flowering through responsiveness to daylength shows extreme variation. Different species flower in response to long days or short days (SDs), and this difference evolved several times. The molecular mechanisms conferring these responses have been compared in detail only in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa) and suggest that a conserved pathway confers daylength responses through regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcription by CONSTANS (CO). We studied Pharbitis (Ipomoea nil; formerly, Pharbitis nil), a widely used SD model species and a member of the Convolvulaceae, and showed using transgenic plants together with detailed expression analysis that two putative orthologs of FT (Pn FT1 and Pn FT2) promote flowering specifically under SDs. These genes are expressed only under SDs, and light flashes given during the night reduce their expression and prevent flowering. We demonstrate that in Pharbitis a circadian rhythm set by the light-to-dark transition at dusk regulates Pn FT expression, which rises only when the night is longer than 11 h. Furthermore, Pharbitis accessions that differ in their critical night-length responses express Pn FT at different times after dusk, demonstrating that natural genetic variation influencing the clock regulating Pn FT expression alters the flowering response. In these assays, Pn FT mRNA abundance was not related to Pn CO expression, suggesting that Pn FT may be regulated by a different transcription factor in Pharbitis. We conclude that SD response in Pharbitis is controlled by a dedicated light sensitive clock, set by dusk, that activates Pn FT transcription in darkness, a different mechanism for measuring daylength than described for Arabidopsis and rice. PMID:17965272

  16. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  17. Substances and Heart Rhythm Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... in others. These rhythm problems are rarely serious. Substance Abuse: Drugs and Inhalants Abusing legal or illegal drugs ... people, alcohol can cause heart rhythm disturbances. Alcohol abuse is a major risk factor for High ... herbs and other substances used in over-the-counter remedies are believed ...

  18. Metabolic circadian rhythms in embryonic turtles.

    PubMed

    Loudon, Fiona Kay; Spencer, Ricky-John; Strassmeyer, Alana; Harland, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Oviparous species are model organisms for investigating embryonic development of endogenous physiological circadian rhythms without the influence of maternal biorhythms. Recent studies have demonstrated that heart rates and metabolic rates of embryonic turtles are not constant or always maximal and can be altered in response to the presence of embryos at a more advanced stage of development within the nest. A first step in understanding the physiological mechanisms underpinning these responses in embryonic ectothermic organisms is to develop metabolic profiles (e.g., heart rate) at different temperatures throughout incubation. Heart beat and rhythmic patterns or changes in development may represent important signals or cues within a nest and may be vital to coordinate synchronous hatching well in advance of the final stages of incubation. We developed baseline embryonic heart-rate profiles of embryos of the short-necked Murray River turtle (Emydura macquarii) to determine the stage of embryogenesis that metabolic circadian rhythms become established, if at all. Eggs were incubated at constant temperatures (26°C and 30°C) and heart rates were monitored at 6-h intervals over 24 h every 7-11 days until hatching. Circadian heart rate rhythms were detected at the mid-gestation period and were maintained until hatching. Heart rates throughout the day varied by up to 20% over 24 h and were not related to time of day. This study demonstrated that endogenous metabolic circadian rhythms in developing embryos in turtle eggs establish earlier in embryogenesis than those documented in other vertebrate taxa during embryogenesis. Early establishment of circadian rhythms in heart rates may be critical for communication among embryos and synchrony in hatching and emergence from the nest.

  19. Endogenous thermoregulatory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and cold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine if the free-running circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) results from coordinated changes in HP and HL rhythms in thermoneutrality (27 degrees C) as well as mild cold (17 degrees C). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of Tb and activity. Feeding was also measured. Rhythms of HP, HL, and conductance were tightly coupled with the circadian Tb rhythm at both ambient temperatures (TA). At 17 degrees C, increased HP compensated for higher HL at all phases of the Tb rhythm, resulting in only minor changes to Tb. Parallel compensatory changes of HP and HL were seen at all rhythm phases at both TA. Similar time courses of Tb, HP, and HL in their respective rhythms and the relative stability of Tb during both active and rest periods suggest action of the circadian timing system on Tb set point.

  20. Endogenous thermoregulatory rhythms of squirrel monkeys in thermoneutrality and cold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. L.; Fuller, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    Whole body heat production (HP) and heat loss (HL) were examined to determine if the free-running circadian rhythm in body temperature (Tb) results from coordinated changes in HP and HL rhythms in thermoneutrality (27 degrees C) as well as mild cold (17 degrees C). Squirrel monkey metabolism (n = 6) was monitored by both indirect and direct calorimetry, with telemetered measurement of Tb and activity. Feeding was also measured. Rhythms of HP, HL, and conductance were tightly coupled with the circadian Tb rhythm at both ambient temperatures (TA). At 17 degrees C, increased HP compensated for higher HL at all phases of the Tb rhythm, resulting in only minor changes to Tb. Parallel compensatory changes of HP and HL were seen at all rhythm phases at both TA. Similar time courses of Tb, HP, and HL in their respective rhythms and the relative stability of Tb during both active and rest periods suggest action of the circadian timing system on Tb set point.

  1. Circadian rhythm in the cardiovascular system of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Piccione, G; Grasso, F; Giudice, E

    2005-10-01

    Definition of the temporal characteristics of cardiovascular rhythms is of scientific interest. This article reviews the literature on the rhythmic pattern of some cardiovascular parameters in domestic animals, providing greater understanding of general chronobiological processes in mammals. The techniques of the chronophysiological studies have been applied in domestic species to determine the existence of periodicity in the cardiovascular functions. Detailed knowledge of these rhythms is useful for clinical, practical and pharmacological purposes and physical performances.

  2. Delta rhythm in wakefulness: evidence from intracranial recordings in human beings.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Robert N S; Gaspard, Nicolas; Gerrard, Jason L; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Spencer, Dennis D; Zaveri, Hitten P

    2015-08-01

    A widely accepted view is that wakefulness is a state in which the entire cortical mantle is persistently activated, and therefore desynchronized. Consequently, the EEG is dominated by low-amplitude, high-frequency fluctuations. This view is currently under revision because the 1-4 Hz delta rhythm is often evident during "quiet" wakefulness in rodents and nonhuman primates. Here we used intracranial EEG recordings to assess the occurrence of delta rhythm in 18 awake human beings. Our recordings reveal rhythmic delta during wakefulness at 10% of all recording sites. Delta rhythm could be observed in a single cortical lobe or in multiple lobes. Sites with high delta could flip between high and low delta power or could be in a persistently high delta state. Finally, these sites were rarely identified as the sites of seizure onset. Thus rhythmic delta can dominate the background operation and activity of some neocortical circuits in awake human beings. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Delta rhythm in wakefulness: evidence from intracranial recordings in human beings

    PubMed Central

    Gaspard, Nicolas; Gerrard, Jason L.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Spencer, Dennis D.; Zaveri, Hitten P.

    2015-01-01

    A widely accepted view is that wakefulness is a state in which the entire cortical mantle is persistently activated, and therefore desynchronized. Consequently, the EEG is dominated by low-amplitude, high-frequency fluctuations. This view is currently under revision because the 1–4 Hz delta rhythm is often evident during “quiet” wakefulness in rodents and nonhuman primates. Here we used intracranial EEG recordings to assess the occurrence of delta rhythm in 18 awake human beings. Our recordings reveal rhythmic delta during wakefulness at 10% of all recording sites. Delta rhythm could be observed in a single cortical lobe or in multiple lobes. Sites with high delta could flip between high and low delta power or could be in a persistently high delta state. Finally, these sites were rarely identified as the sites of seizure onset. Thus rhythmic delta can dominate the background operation and activity of some neocortical circuits in awake human beings. PMID:26084904

  4. Atrial Fibrillation and Stroke: The Evolving Role of Rhythm Control

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Taral K.; Passman, Rod S.

    2013-01-01

    Opinion statement Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains a major risk factor for stroke. Unfortunately, clinical trials have failed to demonstrate that a strategy of rhythm control—therapy to maintain normal sinus rhythm (NSR)—reduces stroke risk. The apparent lack of benefit of rhythm control likely reflects the difficulty in maintaining NSR using currently available therapies. However, there are signals from several trials that the presence of NSR is indeed beneficial and associated with better outcomes related to stroke and mortality. Most electrophysiologists feel that as rhythm control strategies continue to improve, the crucial link between rhythm control and stroke reduction will finally be demonstrated. Therefore, AF specialists tend to be aggressive in their attempts to maintain NSR, especially in patients who have symptomatic AF. A step-wise approach from antiarrhythmic drugs to catheter ablation to cardiac surgery is generally used. In select patients, catheter ablation or cardiac surgery may supersede antiarrhythmic drugs. The choice depends on the type of AF, concurrent heart disease, drug toxicity profiles, procedural risks, and patient preferences. Regardless of strategy, given the limited effectiveness of currently available rhythm control therapies, oral anticoagulation is still recommended for stroke prophylaxis in AF patients with other stroke risk factors. Major challenges in atrial fibrillation management include selecting patients most likely to benefit from rhythm control, choosing specific antiarrhythmic drugs or procedures to achieve rhythm control, long-term monitoring to gauge the efficacy of rhythm control, and determining which (if any) patients may safely discontinue anticoagulation if long-term NSR is achieved. PMID:23397289

  5. Cognitive Plasticity and Cortical Modules.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Some organisms learn to calculate, accumulate knowledge, and communicate in ways that others do not. What factors determine which intellectual abilities a particular species or individual can easily acquire? I propose that cognitive-skill learning capacity reflects (a) the availability of specialized cortical circuits, (b) the flexibility with which cortical activity is coordinated, and (c) the customizability of cortical networks. This framework can potentially account for differences in learning capacity across species, individuals, and developmental stages. Understanding the mechanisms that constrain cognitive plasticity is fundamental to developing new technologies and educational practices that maximize intellectual advancements.

  6. Cognitive Plasticity and Cortical Modules

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Some organisms learn to calculate, accumulate knowledge, and communicate in ways that others do not. What factors determine which intellectual abilities a particular species or individual can easily acquire? I propose that cognitive-skill learning capacity reflects (a) the availability of specialized cortical circuits, (b) the flexibility with which cortical activity is coordinated, and (c) the customizability of cortical networks. This framework can potentially account for differences in learning capacity across species, individuals, and developmental stages. Understanding the mechanisms that constrain cognitive plasticity is fundamental to developing new technologies and educational practices that maximize intellectual advancements. PMID:19750239

  7. Subthalamic stimulation influences postmovement cortical somatosensory processing in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Devos, D; Labyt, E; Cassim, F; Bourriez, J L; Reyns, N; Touzet, G; Blond, S; Guieu, J D; Derambure, P; Destée, A; Defebvre, L

    2003-10-01

    In Parkinson's disease, poor motor performance (resulting primarily from abnormal cortical activation during movement preparation and execution) may also be due to impaired sensorimotor integration and defective cortical activity termination of the ongoing movement, thus delaying preparation of the following one. Reduced movement-related synchronization of the beta rhythm in Parkinson's disease compared to controls has been put forward as evidence for impaired postmovement cortical deactivation. We assessed the effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation and l-dopa on beta rhythm synchronization over the premotor and primary sensorimotor cortex. Ten advanced patients performed self-paced wrist flexion in four conditions according to the presence or not of stimulation and l-dopa. Compared to without treatment, the motor score improved by approximately 60%; the beta synchronization was present over the contralateral frontocentral region and increased significantly over the contralateral central region under stimulation and under l-dopa, with a maximal effect when both treatments were associated. Our advanced patients displayed very focused and attenuated beta rhythm synchronization which, under stimulation, increased over the contralateral premotor and primary sensorimotor cortex. Stimulation and l-dopa both partly restored postmovement cortical deactivation in advanced Parkinson's disease, although the respective mechanisms probably differ. They may improve bradykinesia and cortical deactivation by reestablishing movement-related somatosensory processing at the end of the movement through the basal ganglia into the cortex.

  8. Dissipative structures and biological rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbeter, Albert

    2017-10-01

    Sustained oscillations abound in biological systems. They occur at all levels of biological organization over a wide range of periods, from a fraction of a second to years, and with a variety of underlying mechanisms. They control major physiological functions, and their dysfunction is associated with a variety of physiological disorders. The goal of this review is (i) to give an overview of the main rhythms observed at the cellular and supracellular levels, (ii) to briefly describe how the study of biological rhythms unfolded in the course of time, in parallel with studies on chemical oscillations, (iii) to present the major roles of biological rhythms in the control of physiological functions, and (iv) the pathologies associated with the alteration, disappearance, or spurious occurrence of biological rhythms. Two tables present the main examples of cellular and supracellular rhythms ordered according to their period, and their role in physiology and pathophysiology. Among the rhythms discussed are neural and cardiac rhythms, metabolic oscillations such as those occurring in glycolysis in yeast, intracellular Ca++ oscillations, cyclic AMP oscillations in Dictyostelium amoebae, the segmentation clock that controls somitogenesis, pulsatile hormone secretion, circadian rhythms which occur in all eukaryotes and some bacteria with a period close to 24 h, the oscillatory dynamics of the enzymatic network driving the cell cycle, and oscillations in transcription factors such as NF-ΚB and tumor suppressors such as p53. Ilya Prigogine's concept of dissipative structures applies to temporal oscillations and allows us to unify within a common framework the various rhythms observed at different levels of biological organization, regardless of their period and underlying mechanism.

  9. Cortical Visual Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is a decreased ...

  10. Rhythms of the hippocampal network

    PubMed Central

    Colgin, Laura Lee

    2016-01-01

    The hippocampal local field potential (LFP) exhibits three major types of rhythms, theta, sharp wave-ripples and gamma. These rhythms are defined by their frequencies, have behavioral correlates in several species including rats and humans, and have been proposed to perform distinct functions in hippocampal memory processing. However, recent findings have challenged traditional views on these behavioral functions. Here I review our current understanding of the origins and mnemonic functions of hippocampal theta, sharp-wave ripples and gamma rhythms based on findings from rodent studies, and present an updated, synthesized view of their roles and interactions within the hippocampal network. PMID:26961163

  11. Latent activity rhythm disturbance sub-groups and longitudinal change in depression symptoms among older men

    PubMed Central

    Smagula, Stephen F.; Boudreau, Robert; Stone, Katie; Reynolds, Charles F.; Bromberger, Joyce; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Dam, Thuy-Tien; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    rhythms may independently contribute to depression symptom development. Our findings suggest that activity rhythm related depression risk is heterogeneous, and may be detected when multiple aspects of rhythm timing are delayed or when early timing is accompanied by compressed/dampened activity rhythms. Future studies should consider how distinct combinations of altered activity rhythm timing and height/robustness develop and conjointly determine health risks. Future research is also needed to determine whether/how activity rhythms can be modified to improve depression outcomes. PMID:26594893

  12. [Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT)].

    PubMed

    Bottai, T; Biloa-Tang, M; Christophe, S; Dupuy, C; Jacquesy, L; Kochman, F; Meynard, J-A; Papeta, D; Rahioui, H; Adida, M; Fakra, E; Kaladjian, A; Pringuey, D; Azorin, J-M

    2010-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is common, recurrent, often severe and debiliting disorder. All types of bipolar disorder have a common determinant: depressive episode. It is justify to propose a psychotherapy which shown efficacy in depression. Howewer, perturbations in circadian rhythms have been implicated in the genesis of each episode of the illness. Biological circadian dysregulation can be encouraged by alteration of time-givers (Zeitgebers) or occurrence of time-disturbers (Zeitstörers). Addition of social rhythm therapy to interpersonal psychotherapy leads to create a new psychotherapy adaptated to bipolar disorders: InterPersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). IPSRT, in combinaison with medication, has demonstrated efficacy as a treatment for bipolar disorders. IPSRT combines psychoeducation, behavioral strategy to regularize daily routines and interpersonal psychotherapy which help patients cope better with the multiple psychosocial and relationship problems associated with this chronic disorder. The main issues of this psychotherapy are: to take the history of the patient's illness and review of medication, to help patient for "grief for the lost healthy self" translated in the french version in "acceptance of a long-term medical condition", to give the sick role, to examinate the current relationships and changes proximal to the emergence of mood symptoms in the four problem areas (unresolved grief, interpersonal disputes, role transitions, role déficits), to examinate and increase daily routines and social rhythms. French version of IPSRT called TIPARS (with few differences), a time-limited psychotherapy, in 24 sessions during approximatively 6 months, is conducted in three phases. In the initial phase, the therapist takes a thorough history of previous episodes and their interpersonal context and a review of previous medication, provides psychoeducation, evaluates social rhythms, introduces the Social Rhythm Metric, identifies the patient's main interpersonal

  13. An Overview of Monthly Rhythms and Clocks

    PubMed Central

    Raible, Florian; Takekata, Hiroki; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Organisms have evolved to cope with geophysical cycles of different period lengths. In this review, we focus on the adaptations of animals to the lunar cycle, specifically, on the occurrence of biological rhythms with monthly (circalunar) or semi-monthly (circasemilunar) period lengths. Systematic experimental investigation, starting in the early twentieth century, has allowed scientists to distinguish between mythological belief and scientific facts concerning the influence of the lunar cycle on animals. These studies revealed that marine animals of various taxa exhibit circalunar or circasemilunar reproductive rhythms. Some of these rely on endogenous oscillators (circalunar or circasemilunar clocks), whereas others are directly driven by external cues, such as the changes in nocturnal illuminance. We review current insight in the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in circalunar rhythms, focusing on recent work in corals, annelid worms, midges, and fishes. In several of these model systems, the transcript levels of some core circadian clock genes are affected by both light and endogenous circalunar oscillations. How these and other molecular changes relate to the changes in physiology or behavior over the lunar cycle remains to be determined. We further review the possible relevance of circalunar rhythms for terrestrial species, with a particular focus on mammalian reproduction. Studies on circalunar rhythms of conception or birth rates extend to humans, where the lunar cycle was suggested to also affect sleep and mental health. While these reports remain controversial, factors like the increase in “light pollution” by artificial light might contribute to discrepancies between studies. We finally discuss the existence of circalunar oscillations in mammalian physiology. We speculate that these oscillations could be the remnant of ancient circalunar oscillators that were secondarily uncoupled from a natural entrainment mechanism, but still maintained

  14. Find a Heart Rhythm Specialist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kuwait Latvia Lebanon Malaysia Mexico Monaco Morocco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Oman ... Rhythm Society 2017 Privacy Policy | Linking Policy | Patient Education Disclaimer You are about to exit the Heart ...

  15. Recognizing an Irregular Heart Rhythm

    MedlinePlus

    ... workout, consider checking your rhythm as well. Atrial fibrillation, also referred to as AF, is a common ... chambers, or atria, of the heart. “While atrial fibrillation is not common among young people, it can ...

  16. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called "Discrete Results" (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of "Discrete Results" is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel "Discrete Results" concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast-spiking (FS

  17. Cortical Neural Computation by Discrete Results Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Castejon, Carlos; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems we face in neuroscience is to understand how the cortex performs computations. There is increasing evidence that the power of the cortical processing is produced by populations of neurons forming dynamic neuronal ensembles. Theoretical proposals and multineuronal experimental studies have revealed that ensembles of neurons can form emergent functional units. However, how these ensembles are implicated in cortical computations is still a mystery. Although cell ensembles have been associated with brain rhythms, the functional interaction remains largely unclear. It is still unknown how spatially distributed neuronal activity can be temporally integrated to contribute to cortical computations. A theoretical explanation integrating spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing is still lacking. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we propose a new functional theoretical framework to explain the computational roles of these ensembles in cortical processing. We suggest that complex neural computations underlying cortical processing could be temporally discrete and that sensory information would need to be quantized to be computed by the cerebral cortex. Accordingly, we propose that cortical processing is produced by the computation of discrete spatio-temporal functional units that we have called “Discrete Results” (Discrete Results Hypothesis). This hypothesis represents a novel functional mechanism by which information processing is computed in the cortex. Furthermore, we propose that precise dynamic sequences of “Discrete Results” is the mechanism used by the cortex to extract, code, memorize and transmit neural information. The novel “Discrete Results” concept has the ability to match the spatial and temporal aspects of cortical processing. We discuss the possible neural underpinnings of these functional computational units and describe the empirical evidence supporting our hypothesis. We propose that fast

  18. Biological rhythms and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Paola; Indic, Premananda; Murray, Greg; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2012-12-01

    Integration of several approaches concerning time and temporality can enhance the pathophysiological study of major mood disorders of unknown etiology. We propose that these conditions might be interpreted as disturbances of temporal profile of biological rhythms, as well as alterations of time-consciousness. Useful approaches to study time and temporality include philological suggestions, phenomenological and psychopathological conceptualizatíons, clinical descriptions, and research on circadian and ultradían rhythms, as well as nonlinear dynamics approaches to their analysis.

  19. A Neocortical Delta Rhythm Facilitates Reciprocal Interlaminar Interactions via Nested Theta Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Carracedo, Lucy M.; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Cunnington, Leonie; Jenkins, Alastair; Schofield, Ian; Cunningham, Mark O.; Davies, Ceri H.; Traub, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Delta oscillations (1–4 Hz) associate with deep sleep and are implicated in memory consolidation and replay of cortical responses elicited during wake states. A potent local generator has been characterized in thalamus, and local generators in neocortex have been suggested. Here we demonstrate that isolated rat neocortex generates delta rhythms in conditions mimicking the neuromodulatory state during deep sleep (low cholinergic and dopaminergic tone). The rhythm originated in an NMDA receptor-driven network of intrinsic bursting (IB) neurons in layer 5, activating a source of GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition. In contrast, regular spiking (RS) neurons in layer 5 generated theta-frequency outputs. In layer 2/3 principal cells, outputs from IB cells associated with IPSPs, whereas those from layer 5 RS neurons related to nested bursts of theta-frequency EPSPs. Both interlaminar spike and field correlations revealed a sequence of events whereby sparse spiking in layer 2/3 was partially reflected back from layer 5 on each delta period. We suggest that these reciprocal, interlaminar interactions may represent a “Helmholtz machine”-like process to control synaptic rescaling during deep sleep. PMID:23804097

  20. Visual impairment and circadiam rhythm disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lockley, Steven W.; Arendt, Josephine; Skene, Debra J.

    2007-01-01

    Many aspects of human physiology and behavior are dominated by 24-hour circadian rhythms that have a major impact on our health and well-being, including the sleep-wake cycle, alertness and performance patterns, and many daily hormone profiles. These rhythms are spontaneously generated by an internal “pacemaker” in the hypothalamus, and daily light exposure to the eyes is required to keep these circadian rhythms synchronized both internally and with the external environment Sighted individuals take this daily synchronization process for granted, although they experience some of the consequences of circadian desynchrony when “jetlagged” or working night shifts. Most blind people with no perception of light, however, experience continual circadian desynchrony through a failure of light information to reach the hypothalamic circadian clock, resulting in cyclical episodes of poor sleep and daytime dysfunction. Daily melatonin administration, which provides a replacement synchronizing daily “time cue,” is a promising therapeutic strategy, although optimal treatment dose and timing remain to be determined. PMID:17969867

  1. Dynamic Modulation of Local Population Activity by Rhythm Phase in Human Occipital Cortex During a Visual Search Task

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kai J.; Hermes, Dora; Honey, Christopher J.; Sharma, Mohit; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; den Nijs, Marcel; Fetz, Eberhard E.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Hebb, Adam O.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Makeig, Scott; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2010-01-01

    Brain rhythms are more than just passive phenomena in visual cortex. For the first time, we show that the physiology underlying brain rhythms actively suppresses and releases cortical areas on a second-to-second basis during visual processing. Furthermore, their influence is specific at the scale of individual gyri. We quantified the interaction between broadband spectral change and brain rhythms on a second-to-second basis in electrocorticographic (ECoG) measurement of brain surface potentials in five human subjects during a visual search task. Comparison of visual search epochs with a blank screen baseline revealed changes in the raw potential, the amplitude of rhythmic activity, and in the decoupled broadband spectral amplitude. We present new methods to characterize the intensity and preferred phase of coupling between broadband power and band-limited rhythms, and to estimate the magnitude of rhythm-to-broadband modulation on a trial-by-trial basis. These tools revealed numerous coupling motifs between the phase of low-frequency (δ, θ, α, β, and γ band) rhythms and the amplitude of broadband spectral change. In the θ and β ranges, the coupling of phase to broadband change is dynamic during visual processing, decreasing in some occipital areas and increasing in others, in a gyrally specific pattern. Finally, we demonstrate that the rhythms interact with one another across frequency ranges, and across cortical sites. PMID:21119778

  2. Circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in the adult rat.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Diana C; Hartwick, Andrew T E; Twa, Michael D

    2015-05-01

    Ocular hypertension is a risk factor for developing glaucoma, which consists of a group of optic neuropathies characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and subsequent irreversible vision loss. Our understanding of how intraocular pressure damages the optic nerve is based on clinical measures of intraocular pressure that only gives a partial view of the dynamic pressure load inside the eye. Intraocular pressure varies over the course of the day and the oscillator regulating these daily changes has not yet been conclusively identified. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast the circadian rhythms of intraocular pressure and body temperature in Brown Norway rats when these animals are housed in standard light-dark and continuous dim light (40-90 lux) conditions. The results from this study show that the temperature rhythm measured in continuous dim light drifted forward relative to external time, indicating that the rhythm was free running and being regulated by an internal biological clock. Also, the results show that there is a persistent, but dampened, circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in continuous dim light and that the circadian rhythms of temperature and intraocular pressure are not synchronized by the same central oscillator. We conclude that once- or twice-daily clinical measures of intraocular pressure are insufficient to describe intraocular pressure dynamics. Similarly, our results indicate that, in experimental animal models of glaucoma, the common practice of housing animals in constant light does not necessarily eliminate the potential influence of intraocular pressure rhythms on the progression of nerve damage. Future studies should aim to determine whether an oscillator within the eye regulates the rhythm of intraocular pressure and to better characterize the impact of glaucoma on this rhythm.

  3. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Benso, Maria P; Rivero-Gutierrez, Belen; Lopez-Minguez, Jesus; Anzola, Andrea; Diez-Noguera, Antoni; Madrid, Juan A; Lujan, Juan A; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Scheer, Frank A J L; Garaulet, Marta

    2016-09-01

    In humans, insulin sensitivity varies according to time of day, with decreased values in the evening and at night. Mechanisms responsible for the diurnal variation in insulin sensitivity are unclear. We investigated whether human adipose tissue (AT) expresses intrinsic circadian rhythms in insulin sensitivity that could contribute to this phenomenon. Subcutaneous and visceral AT biopsies were obtained from extremely obese participants (body mass index, 41.8 ± 6.3 kg/m(2); 46 ± 11 y) during gastric-bypass surgery. To assess the rhythm in insulin signaling, AKT phosphorylation was determined every 4 h over 24 h in vitro in response to different insulin concentrations (0, 1, 10, and 100 nM). Data revealed that subcutaneous AT exhibited robust circadian rhythms in insulin signaling (P < 0.00001). Insulin sensitivity reached its maximum (acrophase) around noon, being 54% higher than during midnight (P = 0.009). The amplitude of the rhythm was positively correlated with in vivo sleep duration (r = 0.53; P = 0.023) and negatively correlated with in vivo bedtime (r = -0.54; P = 0.020). No circadian rhythms were detected in visceral AT (P = 0.643). Here, we demonstrate the relevance of the time of the day for how sensitive AT is to the effects of insulin. Subcutaneous AT shows an endogenous circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity that could provide an underlying mechanism for the daily rhythm in systemic insulin sensitivity.-Carrasco-Benso, M. P., Rivero-Gutierrez, B., Lopez-Minguez, J., Anzola, A., Diez-Noguera, A., Madrid, J. A., Lujan, J. A., Martínez-Augustin, O., Scheer, F. A. J. L., Garaulet, M. Human adipose tissue expresses intrinsic circadian rhythm in insulin sensitivity.

  4. Development of auditory-specific brain rhythm in infants.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Takako; Mourad, Nasser; Trainor, Laurel J

    2011-02-01

    Human infants rapidly develop their auditory perceptual abilities and acquire culture-specific knowledge in speech and music in the second 6 months of life. In the adult brain, neural rhythm around 10 Hz in the temporal lobes is thought to reflect sound analysis and subsequent cognitive processes such as memory and attention. To study when and how such rhythm emerges in infancy, we examined electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings in infants 4 and 12 months of age during sound stimulation and silence. In the 4-month-olds, the amplitudes of narrowly tuned 4-Hz brain rhythm, recorded from bilateral temporal electrodes, were modulated by sound stimuli. In the 12-month-olds, the sound-induced modulation occurred at faster 6-Hz rhythm at temporofrontal locations. The brain rhythms in the older infants consisted of more complex components, as even evident in individual data. These findings suggest that auditory-specific rhythmic neural activity, which is already established before 6 months of age, involves more speed-efficient long-range neural networks by the age of 12 months when long-term memory for native phoneme representation and for musical rhythmic features is formed. We suggest that maturation of distinct rhythmic components occurs in parallel, and that sensory-specific functions bound to particular thalamo-cortical networks are transferred to newly developed higher-order networks step by step until adult hierarchical neural oscillatory mechanisms are achieved across the whole brain. © 2011 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience © 2011 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Decibel attenuation of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in blood and cortical bone determined experimentally and from the theory of ohmic losses.

    PubMed

    Zborowski, Maciej; Kligman, Boris; Midura, Ronald J; Wolfman, Alan; Patterson, Thomas E; Ibiwoye, Michael; Grabiner, Mark

    2006-06-01

    We studied the PEMF power attenuation in tissues representative of clinical applications (blood and cortical bone) to determine the amount of power available for PEMF purported biological effects. The experimental system consisted of a pair of nearly circular, parallel and coaxial coils separated by a distance of one coil diameter. The power attenuation was measured using a small search coil connected to a digital oscilloscope. The coils were powered by a voltage switch operating at two different frequencies (3.8 and 63 kHz) producing bursts of pulses (numbering 21 and 1619) and triggered at two different frequencies (1.5 and 15 Hz, respectively). The tissue samples were placed inside the coils so as to expose them to either transverse electric field (at the center of coils) or the transverse magnetic field (at the coil wire). The cylindrical coil geometry yielded closed-form expressions for power attenuation based on magnetic diffusion equation and ohmic losses due to bulk tissue magnetic permeability and electrical conductivity. The measured power attenuation at these PEMF frequencies of not more than one decibel (1 dB) was well explained by the theory for the 3.8 kHz but less so for the 63 kHz frequency PEMF. The results provide important insights regarding physical mechanism of weak PEMF power dissipation in tissues.

  6. Circadian Rhythm and the Gut Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Voigt, R M; Forsyth, C B; Green, S J; Engen, P A; Keshavarzian, A

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are 24-h patterns regulating behavior, organs, and cells in living organisms. These rhythms align biological functions with regular and predictable environmental patterns to optimize function and health. Disruption of these rhythms can be detrimental resulting in metabolic syndrome, cancer, or cardiovascular disease, just to name a few. It is now becoming clear that the intestinal microbiome is also regulated by circadian rhythms via intrinsic circadian clocks as well as via the host organism. Microbiota rhythms are regulated by diet and time of feeding which can alter both microbial community structure and metabolic activity which can significantly impact host immune and metabolic function. In this review, we will cover how host circadian rhythms are generated and maintained, how host circadian rhythms can be disrupted, as well as the consequences of circadian rhythm disruption. We will further highlight the newly emerging literature indicating the importance of circadian rhythms of the intestinal microbiota. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rhythms that speed you up.

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Daniel; Capizzi, Mariagrazia; Correa, Angel

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates whether a rhythm can orient attention to specific moments enhancing people's reaction times (RT). We used a modified version of the temporal orienting paradigm in which an auditory isochronous rhythm was presented prior to an auditory single target. The rhythm could have a fast pace (450 ms Inter-Onset-Interval or IOI) or a slow pace (950 ms IOI). The target was presented after a variable foreperiod of either 200, 400, 900, 1400, or 1600 ms following the offset of the rhythm. In Experiment 1, the rhythmic pace validly predicted the moment of target appearance; i.e., the target appeared after a foreperiod that matched the rhythmic pace on 60% of the trials. The results showed an effect on RT performance of the fast rhythmic pace compared to the slow rhythmic pace at the 200 and 400 ms foreperiods, while no effects were found at the long foreperiods, probably due to a foreperiod effect. In Experiment 2, non-predictive rhythmic paces did not modulate the foreperiod effect. The addition of temporal uncertainty by including catch trials in Experiment 3 clearly unveiled the effect of non-predictive rhythmic pace at short and long foreperiods. Taken together, the results of the experiments reported here highlight the ability of rhythms to orient temporal attention enhancing participants' response speed not only at short intervals but also at long time intervals, suggesting the involvement of a flexible mechanism. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Rhythm control in atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Fauchier, Laurent

    2016-08-20

    Many patients with atrial fibrillation have substantial symptoms despite ventricular rate control and require restoration of sinus rhythm to improve their quality of life. Acute restoration (ie, cardioversion) and maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation are referred to as rhythm control. The decision to pursue rhythm control is based on symptoms, the type of atrial fibrillation (paroxysmal, persistent, or long-standing persistent), patient comorbidities, general health status, and anticoagulation status. Many patients have recurrent atrial fibrillation and require further intervention to maintain long term sinus rhythm. Antiarrhythmic drug therapy is generally recommended as a first-line therapy and drug selection is on the basis of the presence or absence of structural heart disease or heart failure, electrocardiographical variables, renal function, and other comorbidities. In patients who continue to have recurrent atrial fibrillation despite medical therapy, catheter ablation has been shown to substantially reduce recurrent atrial fibrillation, decrease symptoms, and improve quality of life, although recurrence is common despite continued advancement in ablation techniques.

  9. Neurospora circadian rhythms in space - A reexamination of the endogenous-exogenous question

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Ellman, D.; Wassmer, G.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M.

    1984-01-01

    To test the functioning of circadian rhythms removed from periodicities of the earth's 24-hour rotation, the conidiation rhythm of the fungus Neurospora crassa was monitored in constant darkness during spaceflight. The free-running period of the rhythm was the same in space as on the earth, but there was a marked reduction in the clarity of the rhythm, and apparent arrhythmicity in some tubes. At the current stage of analysis of the results there is insufficient evidence to determine whether the effect seen in space was related to removal from 24-hour periodicities and whether the circadian timekeeping mechanism, or merely its expression, was affected.

  10. Circadian Rhythms and Sleep in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dubowy, Christine; Sehgal, Amita

    2017-04-01

    The advantages of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, including low genetic redundancy, functional simplicity, and the ability to conduct large-scale genetic screens, have been essential for understanding the molecular nature of circadian (∼24 hr) rhythms, and continue to be valuable in discovering novel regulators of circadian rhythms and sleep. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of these interrelated biological processes in Drosophila and the wider implications of this research. Clock genes period and timeless were first discovered in large-scale Drosophila genetic screens developed in the 1970s. Feedback of period and timeless on their own transcription forms the core of the molecular clock, and accurately timed expression, localization, post-transcriptional modification, and function of these genes is thought to be critical for maintaining the circadian cycle. Regulators, including several phosphatases and kinases, act on different steps of this feedback loop to ensure strong and accurately timed rhythms. Approximately 150 neurons in the fly brain that contain the core components of the molecular clock act together to translate this intracellular cycling into rhythmic behavior. We discuss how different groups of clock neurons serve different functions in allowing clocks to entrain to environmental cues, driving behavioral outputs at different times of day, and allowing flexible behavioral responses in different environmental conditions. The neuropeptide PDF provides an important signal thought to synchronize clock neurons, although the details of how PDF accomplishes this function are still being explored. Secreted signals from clock neurons also influence rhythms in other tissues. SLEEP is, in part, regulated by the circadian clock, which ensures appropriate timing of sleep, but the amount and quality of sleep are also determined by other mechanisms that ensure a homeostatic balance between sleep and wake. Flies have been useful

  11. Melatonin, Circadian Rhythms, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Zhdanova, Irina V.; Tucci, Valter

    2003-05-01

    Experimental data show a close relationship among melatonin, circadian rhythms, and sleep. Low-dose melatonin treatment, increasing circulating melatonin levels to those normally observed at night, promotes sleep onset and sleep maintenance without changing sleep architecture. Melatonin treatment can also advance or delay the phase of the circadian clock if administered in the evening or in the morning, respectively. If used in physiologic doses and at appropriate times, melatonin can be helpful for those suffering from insomnia or circadian rhythm disorders. This may be especially beneficial for individuals with low melatonin production, which is established by measuring individual blood or saliva melatonin levels. However, high melatonin doses (over 0.3 mg) may cause side effects and disrupt the delicate mechanism of the circadian system, dissociating mutually dependent circadian body rhythms. A misleading labeling of the hormone melatonin as a "food supplement" and lack of quality control over melatonin preparations on the market continue to be of serious concern.

  12. Biological rhythms and mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Paola; Indic, Premananda; Murray, Greg; Baldessarini, Ross J.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of several approaches concerning time and temporality can enhance the pathophysiological study of major mood disorders of unknown etiology. We propose that these conditions might be interpreted as disturbances of temporal profile of biological rhythms, as well as alterations of time-consciousness. Useful approaches to study time and temporality include philological suggestions, phenomenological and psychopathological conceptualizatíons, clinical descriptions, and research on circadian and ultradían rhythms, as well as nonlinear dynamics approaches to their analysis. PMID:23393414

  13. Sleep, Wakefulness and Circadian Rhythm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    sleep, wakefulness and circadian rhythms and the psychological correlates including performance relevant to personnel in.olved in skilld activity. The...HEALTHY ADULTS par A.Reinbeig I CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF HUMAN PERFORMANCE AND RESISTANCE: OPERATIONAL ASPECTS by K.E.Klein and H-M.Wegmann 2 SLEEP STAGE...ISOLATION FROM TIME CUES by E.D.Weitzman. C.A.Czeiser and M.C.Moore Ede 7 SLEEP DISTURBANCE AND PERFORMANCE by L.C.Iohnson 8 TOLERANCE DU TRAVAIL POSTE

  14. Control mechanisms in physiological rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizell, S.

    1973-01-01

    A search was made for the factors involved in regulating rhythmic body functions. The basic premise was that at a particular point in time, any cell can normally act in one of two ways. It can either be engaged in dividing or carrying out its particular function. Experimental results indicate rhythmic functions are controlled by a lighting regime and that an inverse correlation exists between rhythms of cell division and cell function. Data also show rhythms are a function of animal sex and environment.

  15. Cortical microtubule rearrangements and cell wall patterning

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Plant cortical microtubules, which form a highly ordered array beneath the plasma membrane, play essential roles in determining cell shape and function by directing the arrangement of cellulosic and non-cellulosic compounds on the cell surface. Interphase transverse arrays of cortical microtubules self-organize through their dynamic instability and inter-microtubule interactions, and by branch-form microtubule nucleation and severing. Recent studies revealed that distinct spatial signals including ROP GTPase, cellular geometry, and mechanical stress regulate the behavior of cortical microtubules at the subcellular and supercellular levels, giving rise to dramatic rearrangements in the cortical microtubule array in response to internal and external cues. Increasing evidence indicates that negative regulators of microtubules also contribute to the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array. In this review, I summarize recent insights into how the rearrangement of the cortical microtubule array leads to proper, flexible cell wall patterning. PMID:25904930

  16. Comparison of English Language Rhythm and Kalhori Kurdish Language Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taghva, Nafiseh; Zadeh, Vahideh Abolhasani

    2016-01-01

    Interval-based method is a method of studying the rhythmic quantitative features of languages. This method use Pairwise Variability Index (PVI) to consider the variability of vocalic duration and inter-vocalic duration of sentences which leads to classification of languages rhythm into stress-timed languages and syllable-timed ones. This study…

  17. Dual Gamma Rhythm Generators Control Interlaminar Synchrony in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ainsworth, Matthew; Lee, Shane; Cunningham, Mark O.; Roopun, Anita K.; Traub, Roger D.; Kopell, Nancy J.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2013-01-01

    Rhythmic activity in populations of cortical neurons accompanies, and may underlie, many aspects of primary sensory processing and short-term memory. Activity in the gamma band (30 Hz up to > 100 Hz) is associated with such cognitive tasks and is thought to provide a substrate for temporal coupling of spatially separate regions of the brain. However, such coupling requires close matching of frequencies in co-active areas, and because the nominal gamma band is so spectrally broad, it may not constitute a single underlying process. Here we show that, for inhibition-based gamma rhythms in vitro in rat neocortical slices, mechanistically distinct local circuit generators exist in different laminae of rat primary auditory cortex. A persistent, 30 – 45 Hz, gap-junction-dependent gamma rhythm dominates rhythmic activity in supragranular layers 2/3, whereas a tonic depolarization-dependent, 50 – 80 Hz, pyramidal/interneuron gamma rhythm is expressed in granular layer 4 with strong glutamatergic excitation. As a consequence, altering the degree of excitation of the auditory cortex causes bifurcation in the gamma frequency spectrum and can effectively switch temporal control of layer 5 from supragranular to granular layers. Computational modeling predicts the pattern of interlaminar connections may help to stabilize this bifurcation. The data suggest that different strategies are used by primary auditory cortex to represent weak and strong inputs, with principal cell firing rate becoming increasingly important as excitation strength increases. PMID:22114273

  18. Circadian rhythms of pineal function in rats.

    PubMed

    Binkley, S A

    1983-01-01

    In pineal glands melatonin is synthesized daily. Melatonin synthesis in rats kept in most light-dark cycles occurs during the subjective night. This rhythm, which persists in constant dark, is a circadian rhythm which may be a consequence of another circadian rhythm in the pineal gland, of N-acetyltransferase activity (NAT). The NAT rhythm has been studied extensively in rats as a possible component of the system timing circadian rhythms. The NAT rhythm is driven by neural signals transmitted to the pineal gland by the sympathetic nervous system. Environmental lighting exerts precise control over the timing of the NAT rhythm. In rats, there is enough data to describe a daily time course of events in the pineal gland and to describe a pineal "life history." Hypothetical schemes for generation of the NAT rhythm and for its control by light are presented.

  19. Components of vestibular cortical function.

    PubMed

    Klingner, Carsten M; Volk, Gerd F; Flatz, Claudia; Brodoehl, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne; Witte, Otto W; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    It is known that the functional response (e.g., nystagmus) to caloric vestibular stimulation is delayed and prolonged compared with the stimulus-response timing of other sensory systems. Imaging studies have used different models to predict cortical responses and to determine the areas of the brain that are involved. These studies have revealed a widespread network of vestibular brain regions. However, there is some disagreement regarding the brain areas involved, which may partly be caused by differences in the models used. This disagreement indicates the possible existence of multiple cortical components with different temporal characteristics that underlie cortical vestibular processing. However, data-driven methods have yet to be used to analyze the underlying hemodynamic components during and after vestibular stimulation. We performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on 12 healthy subjects during caloric stimulation and analyzed these data using a model-free analysis method (ICA). We found seven independent stimulus-induced components that outline a robust pattern of cortical activation and deactivation. These independent components demonstrated significant differences in their time courses. No single-modeled response function was able to cover the entire range of these independent components. The response functions determined in the present study should improve model-based studies investigating vestibular cortical processing.

  20. The Contribution of Sensitivity to Speech Rhythm and Non-Speech Rhythm to Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Andrew J.; Wood, Clare; Sheehy, Kieron

    2010-01-01

    Both sensitivity to speech rhythm and non-speech rhythm have been associated with successful phonological awareness and reading development in separate studies. However, the extent to which speech rhythm, non-speech rhythm and literacy skills are interrelated has not been examined. As a result, five- to seven-year-old English-speaking children…

  1. Biochemical Oscillations and Cellular Rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldbeter, Albert; Berridge, Foreword by M. J.

    1997-04-01

    1. Introduction; Part I. Glycolytic Oscillations: 2. Oscillatory enzymes: simple periodic behaviour in an allosteric model for glycolytic oscillations; Part II. From Simple to Complex Oscillatory Behaviour; 3. Birhythmicity: coexistence between two stable rhythms; 4. From simple periodic behaviour to complex oscillations, including bursting and chaos; Part III. Oscillations Of Cyclic Amo In Dictyostelium Cells: 5. Models for the periodic synthesis and relay of camp signals in Dictyostelium discoideum amoebae; 6. Complex oscillations and chaos in the camp signalling system of Dictyostelium; 7. The onset of camp oscillations in Dictyostelium as a model for the ontogenesis of biological rhythms; Part IV. Pulsatile Signalling In Intercellular Communication: 8. Function of the rhythm of intercellular communication in Dictyostelium. Link with pulsatile hormone secretion; Part V. Calcium Oscillations: 9. Oscillations and waves of intracellular calcium; Part VI. The Mitotic Oscillator: 10. Modelling the mitotic oscillator driving the cell division cycle; Part VII. Circadian Rhythms: 11. Towards a model for circadian oscillations in the Drosophila period protein (PER); 12. Conclusions and perspectives; References.

  2. The International Sweethearts of Rhythm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Liz

    1987-01-01

    The International Sweethearts of Rhythm, a popular, long-lived, all-female jazz band of the 1940s, were the first racially integrated women's band in America. Their achievement has been largely neglected by music historians. A brief history of the band is presented, and their significance is discussed. (BJV)

  3. Circadian rhythms and addiction: Mechanistic insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; Williams, Wilbur P.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes, may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction, and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction. PMID:24731209

  4. Circadian rhythms and addiction: mechanistic insights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Logan, Ryan W; Williams, Wilbur P; McClung, Colleen A

    2014-06-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug-induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction.

  5. Postnatal development of intrinsic GABAergic rhythms in mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wong, T; Zhang, X L; Asl, M Nassiri; Wu, C P; Carlen, P L; Zhang, L

    2005-01-01

    The local circuitry of the mammalian limbic cortices, including the hippocampus, is capable of generating spontaneous rhythmic activities of 0.5-4 Hz when isolated in vitro. These rhythmic activities are mediated by synchronous inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in pyramidal neurons as the result of repeated discharges of inhibitory interneurons. As such, they are thought to represent an intrinsic inhibitory rhythm. It is unknown at present whether such a rhythm occurs in the immature rodent hippocampus and, if so, the postnatal time window in which it develops. We explored these issues using our recently developed whole mouse hippocampal isolate preparation in vitro. We found that spontaneous rhythmic field potentials started to emerge in mouse hippocampal isolates around postnatal day 10, stabilized after postnatal day 15 and persisted into adulthood. In postnatal days 11-14 mouse hippocampi, the properties of these rhythmic potentials were in keeping with a CA3-driven, IPSP-based intrinsic network activity. The lack of spontaneous field rhythm in neonatal (postnatal days 2-7) hippocampi cannot be attributed to the excitatory activities mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A) receptors, as chloride-dependent hyperpolarizing inhibitory postsynaptic potentials were detectable in neonatal pyramidal neurons at voltages near resting potentials and pharmacological antagonisms of GABA-A receptors produced robust epileptiform discharges in neonatal hippocampi. High frequency afferent stimulation or applications of 4-aminopyridine at low micromolar concentrations failed to induce persistent field rhythm in neonatal hippocampi, suggesting that an overall weak glutamatergic drive is not the sole causing factor. We suggest that the inhibitory postsynaptic potential-based spontaneous rhythmic field potentials develop in a discrete time window during the second postnatal week in the mouse hippocampus due to a fine-tuning in the structure and function of CA3

  6. Epileptiform activity in the mouse visual cortex interferes with cortical processing in connected areas

    PubMed Central

    Petrucco, L.; Pracucci, E.; Brondi, M.; Ratto, G. M.; Landi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Epileptiform activity is associated with impairment of brain function even in absence of seizures, as demonstrated by failures in various testing paradigm in presence of hypersynchronous interictal spikes (ISs). Clinical evidence suggests that cognitive deficits might be directly caused by the anomalous activity rather than by its underlying etiology. Indeed, we seek to understand whether ISs interfere with neuronal processing in connected areas not directly participating in the hypersynchronous activity in an acute model of epilepsy. Here we cause focal ISs in the visual cortex of anesthetized mice and we determine that, even if ISs do not invade the opposite hemisphere, the local field potential is subtly disrupted with a modulation of firing probability imposed by the contralateral IS activity. Finally, we find that visual processing is altered depending on the temporal relationship between ISs and stimulus presentation. We conclude that focal ISs interact with normal cortical dynamics far from the epileptic focus, disrupting endogenous oscillatory rhythms and affecting information processing. PMID:28071688

  7. Modeling and Validating Chronic Pharmacological Manipulation of Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, J K; Forger, D B; Marconi, M; Wood, D; Doran, A; Wager, T; Chang, C; Walton, K M

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms can be entrained by a light-dark (LD) cycle and can also be reset pharmacologically, for example, by the CK1δ/ε inhibitor PF-670462. Here, we determine how these two independent signals affect circadian timekeeping from the molecular to the behavioral level. By developing a systems pharmacology model, we predict and experimentally validate that chronic CK1δ/ε inhibition during the earlier hours of a LD cycle can produce a constant stable delay of rhythm. However, chronic dosing later during the day, or in the presence of longer light intervals, is not predicted to yield an entrained rhythm. We also propose a simple method based on phase response curves (PRCs) that predicts the effects of a LD cycle and chronic dosing of a circadian drug. This work indicates that dosing timing and environmental signals must be carefully considered for accurate pharmacological manipulation of circadian phase. PMID:23863866

  8. [Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (circadian rhythm sleep disorder)].

    PubMed

    Tagaya, Hirokuni; Murayama, Norio; Fukase, Yuko

    2015-06-01

    The role of the circadian system is forecasting the daily and yearly change of environment. Circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder (CRSWD) is defined as physical and social impairment caused by misalignment between circadian rhythm and desirable social schedule. CRSWDs are induced by medical or environmental factors as well as dysfunctions of circadian system. Clinicians should be aware that sleep-inducing medications, restless legs syndrome, delirium and less obedience to social schedule are frequent cause of CRSWD among elderly. Bright light therapy and orally administered small dose of melatonin or melatonin agonist at proper circadian phase are recommended treatments. Sleep-inducing medications should not be considered as CRSWD treatments, especially to elderly.

  9. [Biologic rhythms: their changes in night-shift workers].

    PubMed

    Weibel, L; Follénius, M; Brandenberger, G

    1999-02-06

    ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS: Environmental cycles, such as the light-dark cycle, provide information used by the biological clock in the hypothalamus to synchronize the biological systems and maintain the organism's internal cohesion. In persons whose work schedules include night hours (approximately 20% of the working population in France) the sleep-wake cycles are not in phase with these environmental cycles. BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS: What effect does the conflicting information perceived by night-shift workers have on their biological rhythms? Indices of the processes going on in the cerebral clock, these biological rhythms are the only tool available in man to determine possible dysfunction of the clock. Several studies have identified these rhythms in night-shift workers but results have been contradictory. PARTIAL ADAPTATION: Recently we made repeated measurements every 10 min over a 24 hour period in night-shift workers to determine the precise melatonin, cortisol, and thyrotropin (TSH) patterns, which reflect the endogenous clock, and prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) patterns which are influenced by sleep but also have a circadian component. This study demonstrated that there is some, but partial, adaptation of the biological rhythms in these persons. The shift in the melatonin pattern is quite variable from one individual to another. Night work causes a distortion in the cortisol and TSH rhythms. This partial adaptation is also seen in the GH and PRL curves, mainly related to sleep, but whose endogenous component previously described in other experimental situations is found in night workers with a distribution incompletely adapted to the secretory episodes. RESEARCH PERSPECTIVES: Both daytime sleep and night-time work are associated with perturbed endocrine functions which could explain certain health problems and sleep disorders observed (or avowed) after several years of night-shift work. These problems require further research into factors susceptible of

  10. Top-Down Beta Rhythms Support Selective Attention via Interlaminar Interaction: A Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung H.; Whittington, Miles A.; Kopell, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Cortical rhythms have been thought to play crucial roles in our cognitive abilities. Rhythmic activity in the beta frequency band, around 20 Hz, has been reported in recent studies that focused on neural correlates of attention, indicating that top-down beta rhythms, generated in higher cognitive areas and delivered to earlier sensory areas, can support attentional gain modulation. To elucidate functional roles of beta rhythms and underlying mechanisms, we built a computational model of sensory cortical areas. Our simulation results show that top-down beta rhythms can activate ascending synaptic projections from L5 to L4 and L2/3, responsible for biased competition in superficial layers. In the simulation, slow-inhibitory interneurons are shown to resonate to the 20 Hz input and modulate the activity in superficial layers in an attention-related manner. The predicted critical roles of these cells in attentional gain provide a potential mechanism by which cholinergic drive can support selective attention. PMID:23950699

  11. A circuit for motor cortical modulation of auditory cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan; Mooney, Richard

    2013-09-04

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory cortices remain unclear. Here we describe experiments in the mouse that characterize circuitry well suited to transmit motor-related signals to the auditory cortex. Using retrograde viral tracing, we established that neurons in superficial and deep layers of the medial agranular motor cortex (M2) project directly to the auditory cortex and that the axons of some of these deep-layer cells also target brainstem motor regions. Using in vitro whole-cell physiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we determined that M2 axons make excitatory synapses in the auditory cortex but exert a primarily suppressive effect on auditory cortical neuron activity mediated in part by feedforward inhibition involving parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Using in vivo intracellular physiology, optogenetics, and sound playback, we also found that directly activating M2 axon terminals in the auditory cortex suppresses spontaneous and stimulus-evoked synaptic activity in auditory cortical neurons and that this effect depends on the relative timing of motor cortical activity and auditory stimulation. These experiments delineate the structural and functional properties of a corticocortical circuit that could enable movement-related suppression of auditory cortical activity.

  12. A Circuit for Motor Cortical Modulation of Auditory Cortical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Anders; Schneider, David M.; Takatoh, Jun; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Wang, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Normal hearing depends on the ability to distinguish self-generated sounds from other sounds, and this ability is thought to involve neural circuits that convey copies of motor command signals to various levels of the auditory system. Although such interactions at the cortical level are believed to facilitate auditory comprehension during movements and drive auditory hallucinations in pathological states, the synaptic organization and function of circuitry linking the motor and auditory cortices remain unclear. Here we describe experiments in the mouse that characterize circuitry well suited to transmit motor-related signals to the auditory cortex. Using retrograde viral tracing, we established that neurons in superficial and deep layers of the medial agranular motor cortex (M2) project directly to the auditory cortex and that the axons of some of these deep-layer cells also target brainstem motor regions. Using in vitro whole-cell physiology, optogenetics, and pharmacology, we determined that M2 axons make excitatory synapses in the auditory cortex but exert a primarily suppressive effect on auditory cortical neuron activity mediated in part by feedforward inhibition involving parvalbumin-positive interneurons. Using in vivo intracellular physiology, optogenetics, and sound playback, we also found that directly activating M2 axon terminals in the auditory cortex suppresses spontaneous and stimulus-evoked synaptic activity in auditory cortical neurons and that this effect depends on the relative timing of motor cortical activity and auditory stimulation. These experiments delineate the structural and functional properties of a corticocortical circuit that could enable movement-related suppression of auditory cortical activity. PMID:24005287

  13. Cortical control of anticipatory postural adjustments prior to stepping.

    PubMed

    Varghese, J P; Merino, D M; Beyer, K B; McIlroy, W E

    2016-01-28

    Human bipedal balance control is achieved either reactively or predictively by a distributed network of neural areas within the central nervous system with a potential role for cerebral cortex. While the role of the cortex in reactive balance has been widely explored, only few studies have addressed the cortical activations related to predictive balance control. The present study investigated the cortical activations related to the preparation and execution of anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) that precede a step. This study also examined whether the preparatory cortical activations related to a specific movement is dependent on the context of control (postural component vs. focal component). Ground reaction forces and electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded from 14 healthy adults while they performed lateral weight shift and lateral stepping with and without initially preloading their weight to the stance leg. EEG analysis revealed that there were distinct movement-related potentials (MRPs) with concurrent event-related desynchronization (ERD) of mu and beta rhythms prior to the onset of APA and also to the onset of foot-off during lateral stepping in the fronto-central cortical areas. Also, the MRPs and ERD prior to the onset of APA and onset of lateral weight shift were not significantly different suggesting the comparable cortical activations for the generation of postural and focal movements. The present study reveals the occurrence of cortical activation prior to the execution of an APA that precedes a step. Importantly, this cortical activity appears independent of the context of the movement.

  14. Cortical thickness gradients in structural hierarchies

    PubMed Central

    Wagstyl, Konrad; Ronan, Lisa; Goodyer, Ian M.; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    MRI, enabling in vivo analysis of cortical morphology, offers a powerful tool in the assessment of brain development and pathology. One of the most ubiquitous measures used—the thickness of the cortex—shows abnormalities in a number of diseases and conditions, but the functional and biological correlates of such alterations are unclear. If the functional connotations of structural MRI measures are to be understood, we must strive to clarify the relationship between measures such as cortical thickness and their cytoarchitectural determinants. We therefore sought to determine whether patterns of cortical thickness mirror a key motif of the cortex, specifically its structural hierarchical organisation. We delineated three sensory hierarchies (visual, somatosensory and auditory) in two species—macaque and human—and explored whether cortical thickness was correlated with specific cytoarchitectural characteristics. Importantly, we controlled for cortical folding which impacts upon thickness and may obscure regional differences. Our results suggest that an easily measurable macroscopic brain parameter, namely, cortical thickness, is systematically related to cytoarchitecture and to the structural hierarchical organisation of the cortex. We argue that the measurement of cortical thickness gradients may become an important way to develop our understanding of brain structure–function relationships. The identification of alterations in such gradients may complement the observation of regionally localised cortical thickness changes in our understanding of normal development and neuropsychiatric illnesses. PMID:25725468

  15. Circadian Rhythm Control: Neurophysiological Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotzbach, S. F.

    1985-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was implicated as a primary component in central nervous system mechanisms governing circadian rhythms. Disruption of the normal synchronization of temperature, activity, and other rhythms is detrimental to health. Sleep wake disorders, decreases in vigilance and performance, and certain affective disorders may result from or be exacerbated by such desynchronization. To study the basic neurophysiological mechanisms involved in entrainment of circadian systems by the environment, Parylene-coated, etched microwire electrode bundles were used to record extracellular action potentials from the small somata of the SCN and neighboring hypothalamic nuclei in unanesthetized, behaving animals. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized and chronically prepared with EEG ane EMG electrodes in addition to a moveable microdrive assembly. The majority of cells had firing rates 10 Hz and distinct populations of cells which had either the highest firing rate or lowest firing rate during sleep were seen.

  16. Social rhythms of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Pantzar, Mika; Ruckenstein, Minna; Mustonen, Veera

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A long-term research focus on the temporality of everyday life has become revitalised with new tracking technologies that allow methodological experimentation and innovation. This article approaches rhythms of daily lives with heart-rate variability measurements that use algorithms to discover physiological stress and recovery. In the spirit of the ‘social life of methods’ approach, we aggregated individual data (n = 35) in order to uncover temporal rhythms of daily lives. The visualisation of the aggregated data suggests both daily and weekly patterns. Daily stress was at its highest in the mornings and around eight o’clock in the evening. Weekend stress patterns were dissimilar, indicating a stress peak in the early afternoon especially for men. In addition to discussing our explorations using quantitative data, the more general aim of the article is to explore the potential of new digital and mobile physiological tracking technologies for contextualising the individual in the everyday. PMID:28163655

  17. [Fundamental bases of biological rhythms].

    PubMed

    Shabalin, V N; Shatokhina, S N

    2000-01-01

    The data and theoretical points given in the paper mould basically new views of molecular relationships underlying the function of living beings and biological rhythms. The authors' procedure for wedge biological fluid dehydration reveals a wide autowave spectrum that is clearly detectable when the fluid passes into the solid phase. A hypothesis of the autowave interaction of biologically active molecules is forwarded, which considers autowaves as a basis of organization of physiological and pathological processes occurring in the body.

  18. Molecular Approach to Hypothalamic Rhythms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-14

    in vitro to Targeted Cloning Strategy for reset or phase shift circadian rhythms of neuronal G Protein-Coupled Receptors activity in the SCN (Prosser...Kozak, M. (1984). Compilation and analysis of sequences up- nabe, S. (1992). Phase - resetting effect of 8-OH-DPAT, a seroto- Neuron 458 ninA receptor...JR, Lohse MJ, Kobilka BK. Caron MJ and Medanic M and Gillette MU (1992) Serotonin regulates the Lefkowitz. RJ (1988) The genomic clone G-21 which phase

  19. Circadian rhythms and molecular noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonze, Didier; Goldbeter, Albert

    2006-06-01

    Circadian rhythms, characterized by a period of about 24h, are the most widespread biological rhythms generated autonomously at the molecular level. The core molecular mechanism responsible for circadian oscillations relies on the negative regulation exerted by a protein on the expression of its own gene. Deterministic models account for the occurrence of autonomous circadian oscillations, for their entrainment by light-dark cycles, and for their phase shifting by light pulses. Stochastic versions of these models take into consideration the molecular fluctuations that arise when the number of molecules involved in the regulatory mechanism is low. Numerical simulations of the stochastic models show that robust circadian oscillations can already occur with a limited number of mRNA and protein molecules, in the range of a few tens and hundreds, respectively. Various factors affect the robustness of circadian oscillations with respect to molecular noise. Besides an increase in the number of molecules, entrainment by light-dark cycles, and cooperativity in repression enhance robustness, whereas the proximity of a bifurcation point leads to less robust oscillations. Another parameter that appears to be crucial for the coherence of circadian rhythms is the binding/unbinding rate of the inhibitory protein to the promoter of the clock gene. Intercellular coupling further increases the robustness of circadian oscillations.

  20. Biological Rhythms in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Mary S.; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism’s rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional–translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism’s sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin. PMID:27231897

  1. Biological Rhythms in the Skin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Mary S; Pelle, Edward; Dong, Kelly; Pernodet, Nadine

    2016-05-24

    Circadian rhythms, ≈24 h oscillations in behavior and physiology, are reflected in all cells of the body and function to optimize cellular functions and meet environmental challenges associated with the solar day. This multi-oscillatory network is entrained by the master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which directs an organism's rhythmic expression of physiological functions and behavior via a hierarchical system. This system has been highly conserved throughout evolution and uses transcriptional-translational autoregulatory loops. This master clock, following environmental cues, regulates an organism's sleep pattern, body temperature, cardiac activity and blood pressure, hormone secretion, oxygen consumption and metabolic rate. Mammalian peripheral clocks and clock gene expression have recently been discovered and are present in all nucleated cells in our body. Like other essential organ of the body, the skin also has cycles that are informed by this master regulator. In addition, skin cells have peripheral clocks that can function autonomously. First described in 2000 for skin, this review summarizes some important aspects of a rapidly growing body of research in circadian and ultradian (an oscillation that repeats multiple times during a 24 h period) cutaneous rhythms, including clock mechanisms, functional manifestations, and stimuli that entrain or disrupt normal cycling. Some specific relationships between disrupted clock signaling and consequences to skin health are discussed in more depth in the other invited articles in this IJMS issue on Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin.

  2. Is there an endogenous tidal foraging rhythm in marine iguanas?

    PubMed

    Wikelski, M; Hau, M

    1995-12-01

    As strictly herbivorous reptiles, Galápagos marine iguanas graze on algae in the intertidal areas during low tide. Daily foraging rhythms were observed on two islands during 3 years to determine the proximate factors underlying behavioral synchrony with the tides. Marine iguanas walked to their intertidal foraging grounds from far-off resting areas in anticipation of the time of low tide. Foraging activity was restricted to daytime, resulting in a complex bitidal rhythm including conspicuous switches from afternoon foraging to foraging during the subsequent morning when low tide occurred after dusk. The animals anticipated the daily low tide by a maximum of 4 h. The degree of anticipation depended on environmental parameters such as wave action and food supply. "Early foragers" survived in greater numbers than did animals arriving later at foraging sites, a result indicating selection pressure on the timing of anticipation. The timing of foraging trips was better predicted by the daily changes in tabulated low tide than it was by the daily changes in actual exposure of the intertidal foraging flats, suggesting an endogenous nature of the foraging rhythms. Endogenous rhythmicity would also explain why iguanas that had spontaneously fasted for several days nevertheless went foraging at the "right" time of day. A potential lunar component of the foraging rhythmicity of marine iguanas showed up in their assemblage on intertidal rocks during neap tide nights. This may indicate that iguanas possessed information on the semi-monthly rhythms in tide heights. Enclosure experiments showed that bitidal foraging rhythms of iguanas may free run in the absence of direct cues from the intertidal areas and operate independent of the light:dark cycle and social stimuli. Therefore, the existence of a circatidal oscillator in marine iguanas is proposed. The bitidal foraging pattern may result from an interaction of a circadian system with a circatidal system. Food intake or related

  3. [Biologic rhythm of respiratory rate in the first trimester of life].

    PubMed

    Ardura Fernández, J; Andrés de Llano, J M; Aldana Gómez, J; Revilla Ramos, M A; Bretaña Casado, M L; González Suárez, J

    1992-11-01

    This study was designed to address the following objectives: 1) To record the respiratory rate in a population of newborns and infants. 2) To verify the existence of a rhythm in each population group, as well as the organization and maturing process of these rhythms. 3) To determine the possible influence of environmental factors on these rhythms. The study population consisted of the following groups and ages: A) 1 day (21 cases); B) 7 (15 cases); C) 15 (10 cases); D) 30 (17 cases); E) 60 (17 cases); F) 90 (18 cases). Respiratory rate was continuously monitored and recorded, as well as environmental light, noise and temperature. Rhythmometric analysis of the data was done by simple Cosinor test and analysis of variance. The zero amplitude test showed statistically significant differences in the circadian rhythm of groups E and F (p < 0.005). An ultradian rhythm of 3 hours was detected in groups D and F. Environmental factors also showed a circadian rhythm. The appearance of an ultradian rhythm suggest the maturation in a rhythm. To evaluate physiological parameters, reference to time series must be considered.

  4. Desynchronization of daily rest-activity rhythm in the days following light propofol anesthesia for colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Dispersyn, G; Touitou, Y; Coste, O; Jouffroy, L; Lleu, J C; Challet, E; Pain, L

    2009-01-01

    Anesthesia and surgery are associated with fatigue and sleep disorders, suggestive of disturbance of the circadian rest-activity rhythm. Previous studies on circadian rhythm disturbance were focused on patients undergoing general anesthesia associated with surgery. This does not permit one to draw valid conclusions about the effects of general anesthesia per se on circadian rhythms. Our study was set up to determine the impact of a hypnotic dose of propofol on the circadian rest-activity rhythm in humans under real-life conditions. Seventeen healthy subjects scheduled to receive light propofol anesthesia for ambulatory colonoscopy were investigated. Their rest-activity rhythms were assessed using actigraphic monitoring. Diurnal rest was increased, whereas nocturnal sleep was unchanged in the days following anesthesia. Nonparametric analyses showed a decrease in the strength of coupling of the rhythm to stable environmental zeitgebers and increase of fragmentation of the rhythm after anesthesia. Light general anesthesia itself impairs synchronization of the circadian rest-activity rhythm to local time in patients by acting directly on the circadian clock.

  5. Specific contributions of basal ganglia and cerebellum to the neural tracking of rhythm.

    PubMed

    Nozaradan, Sylvie; Schwartze, Michael; Obermeier, Christian; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-10-01

    How specific brain networks track rhythmic sensory input over time remains a challenge in neuroimaging work. Here we show that subcortical areas, namely the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, specifically contribute to the neural tracking of rhythm. We tested patients with focal lesions in either of these areas and healthy controls by means of electroencephalography (EEG) while they listened to rhythmic sequences known to induce selective neural tracking at a frequency corresponding to the most-often perceived pulse-like beat. Both patients and controls displayed neural responses to the rhythmic sequences. However, these response patterns were different across groups, with patients showing reduced tracking at beat frequency, especially for the more challenging rhythms. In the cerebellar patients, this effect was specific to the rhythm played at a fast tempo, which places high demands on the temporally precise encoding of events. In contrast, basal ganglia patients showed more heterogeneous responses at beat frequency specifically for the most complex rhythm, which requires more internal generation of the beat. These findings provide electrophysiological evidence that these subcortical structures selectively shape the neural representation of rhythm. Moreover, they suggest that the processing of rhythmic auditory input relies on an extended cortico-subcortico-cortical functional network providing specific timing and entrainment sensitivities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A critical role for NMDA receptors in parvalbumin interneurons for gamma rhythm induction and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Carlén, M; Meletis, K; Siegle, J H; Cardin, J A; Futai, K; Vierling-Claassen, D; Rühlmann, C; Jones, S R; Deisseroth, K; Sheng, M; Moore, C I; Tsai, L-H

    2012-01-01

    Synchronous recruitment of fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin (PV) interneurons generates gamma oscillations, rhythms that emerge during performance of cognitive tasks. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists alters gamma rhythms, and can induce cognitive as well as psychosis-like symptoms in humans. The disruption of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling specifically in FS PV interneurons is therefore hypothesized to give rise to neural network dysfunction that could underlie these symptoms. To address the connection between NMDAR activity, FS PV interneurons, gamma oscillations and behavior, we generated mice lacking NMDAR neurotransmission only in PV cells (PV-Cre/NR1f/f mice). Here, we show that mutant mice exhibit enhanced baseline cortical gamma rhythms, impaired gamma rhythm induction after optogenetic drive of PV interneurons and reduced sensitivity to the effects of NMDAR antagonists on gamma oscillations and stereotypies. Mutant mice show largely normal behaviors except for selective cognitive impairments, including deficits in habituation, working memory and associative learning. Our results provide evidence for the critical role of NMDAR in PV interneurons for expression of normal gamma rhythms and specific cognitive behaviors. PMID:21468034

  7. A critical role for NMDA receptors in parvalbumin interneurons for gamma rhythm induction and behavior.

    PubMed

    Carlén, M; Meletis, K; Siegle, J H; Cardin, J A; Futai, K; Vierling-Claassen, D; Rühlmann, C; Jones, S R; Deisseroth, K; Sheng, M; Moore, C I; Tsai, L-H

    2012-05-01

    Synchronous recruitment of fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin (PV) interneurons generates gamma oscillations, rhythms that emerge during performance of cognitive tasks. Administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists alters gamma rhythms, and can induce cognitive as well as psychosis-like symptoms in humans. The disruption of NMDA receptor (NMDAR) signaling specifically in FS PV interneurons is therefore hypothesized to give rise to neural network dysfunction that could underlie these symptoms. To address the connection between NMDAR activity, FS PV interneurons, gamma oscillations and behavior, we generated mice lacking NMDAR neurotransmission only in PV cells (PV-Cre/NR1f/f mice). Here, we show that mutant mice exhibit enhanced baseline cortical gamma rhythms, impaired gamma rhythm induction after optogenetic drive of PV interneurons and reduced sensitivity to the effects of NMDAR antagonists on gamma oscillations and stereotypies. Mutant mice show largely normal behaviors except for selective cognitive impairments, including deficits in habituation, working memory and associative learning. Our results provide evidence for the critical role of NMDAR in PV interneurons for expression of normal gamma rhythms and specific cognitive behaviors.

  8. Period Concatenation Underlies Interactions between Gamma and Beta Rhythms in Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Roopun, Anita K.; Kramer, Mark A.; Carracedo, Lucy M.; Kaiser, Marcus; Davies, Ceri H.; Traub, Roger D.; Kopell, Nancy J.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2008-01-01

    The neocortex generates rhythmic electrical activity over a frequency range covering many decades. Specific cognitive and motor states are associated with oscillations in discrete frequency bands within this range, but it is not known whether interactions and transitions between distinct frequencies are of functional importance. When coexpressed rhythms have frequencies that differ by a factor of two or more interactions can be seen in terms of phase synchronization. Larger frequency differences can result in interactions in the form of nesting of faster frequencies within slower ones by a process of amplitude modulation. It is not known how coexpressed rhythms, whose frequencies differ by less than a factor of two may interact. Here we show that two frequencies (gamma – 40 Hz and beta2 – 25 Hz), coexpressed in superficial and deep cortical laminae with low temporal interaction, can combine to generate a third frequency (beta1 – 15 Hz) showing strong temporal interaction. The process occurs via period concatenation, with basic rhythm-generating microcircuits underlying gamma and beta2 rhythms forming the building blocks of the beta1 rhythm by a process of addition. The mean ratio of adjacent frequency components was a constant – approximately the golden mean – which served to both minimize temporal interactions, and permit multiple transitions, between frequencies. The resulting temporal landscape may provide a framework for multiplexing – parallel information processing on multiple temporal scales. PMID:18946516

  9. Light and maternal influence in the entrainment of activity circadian rhythm in infants 4-12 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Karen A; Burr, Robert L; Spieker, Susan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of light and maternal activity on early infant activity rhythm were studied in 43 healthy, maternal-infant pairs. Aims included description of infant and maternal circadian rhythm of environmental light, assessing relations among of activity and light circadian rhythm parameters, and exploring the influence of light on infant activity independent of maternal activity. Three-day light and activity records were obtained using actigraphy monitors at infant ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Circadian rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, rhythm center, and regularity were determined using cosinor and nonparametric circadian rhythm analyses (NPCRA). All maternal and infant circadian parameters for light were highly correlated. When maternal activity was controlled, the partial correlations between infant activity and light rhythm timing, amplitude, 24-hour fit, and rhythm center demonstrated significant relation (r = .338 to .662) at infant age 12 weeks, suggesting entrainment. In contrast, when maternal light was controlled there was significant relation between maternal and infant activity rhythm (r = 0.470, 0.500, and 0.638 at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, respectively) suggesting the influence of maternal-infant interaction independent of photo entrainment of cycle timing over the first 12 weeks of life. Both light and maternal activity may offer avenues for shaping infant activity rhythm during early infancy.

  10. Mesoscopic patterns of neural activity support songbird cortical sequences.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Liberti, William A; Guitchounts, Grigori; Velho, Tarciso; Lois, Carlos; Gardner, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Time-locked sequences of neural activity can be found throughout the vertebrate forebrain in various species and behavioral contexts. From "time cells" in the hippocampus of rodents to cortical activity controlling movement, temporal sequence generation is integral to many forms of learned behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence generation are not well known. Here, we describe a spatial and temporal organization of the songbird premotor cortical microcircuit that supports sparse sequences of neural activity. Multi-channel electrophysiology and calcium imaging reveal that neural activity in premotor cortex is correlated with a length scale of 100 µm. Within this length scale, basal-ganglia-projecting excitatory neurons, on average, fire at a specific phase of a local 30 Hz network rhythm. These results show that premotor cortical activity is inhomogeneous in time and space, and that a mesoscopic dynamical pattern underlies the generation of the neural sequences controlling song.

  11. Mesoscopic Patterns of Neural Activity Support Songbird Cortical Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Guitchounts, Grigori; Velho, Tarciso; Lois, Carlos; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Time-locked sequences of neural activity can be found throughout the vertebrate forebrain in various species and behavioral contexts. From “time cells” in the hippocampus of rodents to cortical activity controlling movement, temporal sequence generation is integral to many forms of learned behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence generation are not well known. Here, we describe a spatial and temporal organization of the songbird premotor cortical microcircuit that supports sparse sequences of neural activity. Multi-channel electrophysiology and calcium imaging reveal that neural activity in premotor cortex is correlated with a length scale of 100 µm. Within this length scale, basal-ganglia–projecting excitatory neurons, on average, fire at a specific phase of a local 30 Hz network rhythm. These results show that premotor cortical activity is inhomogeneous in time and space, and that a mesoscopic dynamical pattern underlies the generation of the neural sequences controlling song. PMID:26039895

  12. Active vs passive rhythms as an explanation of bigeminal rhythm with similar P waves.

    PubMed

    Bayés de Luna, A; Guindo, J; Homs, E; Madoery, C; Lamic, R; Iturralde, P

    1991-03-01

    We describe the criteria for differential diagnosis between 3:2 sinoatrial block from atrial bigeminy due to an ectopic focus in the sinus or parasinus zone. In the 3:2 sinoatrial block the RR interval of the basic rhythm is similar to the short R-R interval of the paired rhythm. In atrial bigeminy, the R-R interval of the basic rhythm is similar to the long R-R interval of the paired rhythm.

  13. Acquisition of speech rhythm in first language.

    PubMed

    Polyanskaya, Leona; Ordin, Mikhail

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of English rhythm in speech produced by children and adults revealed that speech rhythm becomes increasingly more stress-timed as language acquisition progresses. Children reach the adult-like target by 11 to 12 years. The employed speech elicitation paradigm ensured that the sentences produced by adults and children at different ages were comparable in terms of lexical content, segmental composition, and phonotactic complexity. Detected differences between child and adult rhythm and between rhythm in child speech at various ages cannot be attributed to acquisition of phonotactic language features or vocabulary, and indicate the development of language-specific phonetic timing in the course of acquisition.

  14. [Relation between dementia and circadian rhythm disturbance].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kei; Meguro, Kenichi

    2014-03-01

    Dementia and circadian rhythm disturbance are closely linked. First, dementia patient shows circadian rhythm disorders (e.g. insomnia, night wandering, daytime sleep). These symptoms are a burden for caregivers. Circadian rhythm disturbance of dementia relates ADL and cognitive impairment, and diurnal rhythm disorder of blood pressure and body temperature. Some study shows that circadian rhythm disorders in dementia are a disturbance of neural network between suprachiasmatic nucleus and cerebral white matter, and involvement of both frontal lobes, left parietal and occipital cortex, left temporoparietal region. The first-line treatment of circadian rhythm disturbance should be non-drug therapy (e.g. exercise, bright light exposure, reduce caffeine intake, etc.). If physician prescribe drugs, keep the rule of low-dose and short-term and avoid benzodiazepines. Atypical antipsychotic drugs like risperidone and some antidepressants are useful for treatment of insomnia in dementia. But this usage is off-label. So we must well inform to patient and caregiver, and get consent about treatment. Second, some study shows circadian rhythm disorder is a risk factor of dementia. However, we should discuss that circadian rhythm disturbance is "risk factor of dementia" or "prodromal symptom of dementia". If a clinician finds circadian rhythm disorder in elderly people, should be examined cognitive and ADL function, and careful about that patients have dementia or will develop dementia.

  15. Assessing Human Mirror Activity With EEG Mu Rhythm: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Nathan A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Yoo, Kathryn H.; Bowman, Lindsay C.; Cannon, Erin N.; Vanderwert, Ross E.; Ferrari, Pier F.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain encodes others’ actions and intentions. In recent years, a potential advance in our knowledge on this issue is the discovery of mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the nonhuman primate. These neurons fire to both execution and observation of specific types of actions. Researchers use this evidence to fuel investigations of a human mirror system, suggesting a common neural code for perceptual and motor processes. Among the methods used for inferring mirror system activity in humans are changes in a particular frequency band in the electroencephalogram (EEG) called the mu rhythm. Mu frequency appears to decrease in amplitude (reflecting cortical activity) during both action execution and action observation. The current meta-analysis reviewed 85 studies (1,707 participants) of mu that infer human mirror system activity. Results demonstrated significant effect sizes for mu during execution (Cohen’s d = 0.46, N = 701) as well as observation of action (Cohen’s d = 0.31, N = 1,508), confirming a mirroring property in the EEG. A number of moderators were examined to determine the specificity of these effects. We frame these meta-analytic findings within the current discussion about the development and functions of a human mirror system, and conclude that changes in EEG mu activity provide a valid means for the study of human neural mirroring. Suggestions for improving the experimental and methodological approaches in using mu to study the human mirror system are offered. PMID:26689088

  16. Assessing human mirror activity with EEG mu rhythm: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nathan A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Yoo, Kathryn H; Bowman, Lindsay C; Cannon, Erin N; Vanderwert, Ross E; Ferrari, Pier F; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2016-03-01

    A fundamental issue in cognitive neuroscience is how the brain encodes others' actions and intentions. In recent years, a potential advance in our knowledge on this issue is the discovery of mirror neurons in the motor cortex of the nonhuman primate. These neurons fire to both execution and observation of specific types of actions. Researchers use this evidence to fuel investigations of a human mirror system, suggesting a common neural code for perceptual and motor processes. Among the methods used for inferring mirror system activity in humans are changes in a particular frequency band in the electroencephalogram (EEG) called the mu rhythm. Mu frequency appears to decrease in amplitude (reflecting cortical activity) during both action execution and action observation. The current meta-analysis reviewed 85 studies (1,707 participants) of mu that infer human mirror system activity. Results demonstrated significant effect sizes for mu during execution (Cohen's d = 0.46, N = 701) as well as observation of action (Cohen's d = 0.31, N = 1,508), confirming a mirroring property in the EEG. A number of moderators were examined to determine the specificity of these effects. We frame these meta-analytic findings within the current discussion about the development and functions of a human mirror system, and conclude that changes in EEG mu activity provide a valid means for the study of human neural mirroring. Suggestions for improving the experimental and methodological approaches in using mu to study the human mirror system are offered. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Alterations in circadian rhythms are associated with increased lipid peroxidation in females with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Cudney, Lauren E; Sassi, Roberto B; Behr, Guilherme A; Streiner, David L; Minuzzi, Luciano; Moreira, Jose C F; Frey, Benicio N

    2014-05-01

    Disturbances in both circadian rhythms and oxidative stress systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), yet no studies have investigated the relationship between these systems in BD. We studied the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on lipid damage in 52 depressed or euthymic BD females, while controlling for age, severity of depressive symptoms and number of psychotropic medications, compared to 30 healthy controls. Circadian rhythm disruption was determined by a self-report measure (Biological Rhythm Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry; BRIAN), which measures behaviours such as sleep, eating patterns, social rhythms and general activity. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured as a proxy of lipid peroxidation. We also measured the activity of total and extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Multiple linear regressions showed that circadian rhythm disturbance was independently associated with increased lipid peroxidation in females with BD (p < 0.05). We found decreased extracellular SOD (p < 0.05), but no differences in total SOD, CAT or GST activity between bipolar females and controls. Circadian rhythms were not associated with lipid peroxidation in healthy controls, where aging was the only significant predictor. These results suggest an interaction between the circadian system and redox metabolism, in that greater disruption in daily rhythms was associated with increased lipid peroxidation in BD only. Antioxidant enzymes have been shown to follow a circadian pattern of expression, and it is possible that disturbance of sleep and daily rhythms experienced in BD may result in decreased antioxidant defence and therefore increased lipid peroxidation. This study provides a basis for further investigation of the links between oxidative stress and circadian rhythms in the neurobiology of BD.

  18. Cortical entrainment to music and its modulation by expertise

    PubMed Central

    Doelling, Keith B.; Poeppel, David

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies establish that cortical oscillations track naturalistic speech in a remarkably faithful way. Here, we test whether such neural activity, particularly low-frequency (<8 Hz; delta–theta) oscillations, similarly entrain to music and whether experience modifies such a cortical phenomenon. Music of varying tempi was used to test entrainment at different rates. In three magnetoencephalography experiments, we recorded from nonmusicians, as well as musicians with varying years of experience. Recordings from nonmusicians demonstrate cortical entrainment that tracks musical stimuli over a typical range of tempi, but not at tempi below 1 note per second. Importantly, the observed entrainment correlates with performance on a concurrent pitch-related behavioral task. In contrast, the data from musicians show that entrainment is enhanced by years of musical training, at all presented tempi. This suggests a bidirectional relationship between behavior and cortical entrainment, a phenomenon that has not previously been reported. Additional analyses focus on responses in the beta range (∼15–30 Hz)—often linked to delta activity in the context of temporal predictions. Our findings provide evidence that the role of beta in temporal predictions scales to the complex hierarchical rhythms in natural music and enhances processing of musical content. This study builds on important findings on brainstem plasticity and represents a compelling demonstration that cortical neural entrainment is tightly coupled to both musical training and task performance, further supporting a role for cortical oscillatory activity in music perception and cognition. PMID:26504238

  19. Cortical entrainment to music and its modulation by expertise.

    PubMed

    Doelling, Keith B; Poeppel, David

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies establish that cortical oscillations track naturalistic speech in a remarkably faithful way. Here, we test whether such neural activity, particularly low-frequency (<8 Hz; delta-theta) oscillations, similarly entrain to music and whether experience modifies such a cortical phenomenon. Music of varying tempi was used to test entrainment at different rates. In three magnetoencephalography experiments, we recorded from nonmusicians, as well as musicians with varying years of experience. Recordings from nonmusicians demonstrate cortical entrainment that tracks musical stimuli over a typical range of tempi, but not at tempi below 1 note per second. Importantly, the observed entrainment correlates with performance on a concurrent pitch-related behavioral task. In contrast, the data from musicians show that entrainment is enhanced by years of musical training, at all presented tempi. This suggests a bidirectional relationship between behavior and cortical entrainment, a phenomenon that has not previously been reported. Additional analyses focus on responses in the beta range (∼15-30 Hz)-often linked to delta activity in the context of temporal predictions. Our findings provide evidence that the role of beta in temporal predictions scales to the complex hierarchical rhythms in natural music and enhances processing of musical content. This study builds on important findings on brainstem plasticity and represents a compelling demonstration that cortical neural entrainment is tightly coupled to both musical training and task performance, further supporting a role for cortical oscillatory activity in music perception and cognition.

  20. The Neurobiology of Circadian Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Sollars, Patricia J; Pickard, Gary E

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that the coordinated timing of behavioral, physiologic, and metabolic circadian rhythms is a requirement for a healthy body and mind. In mammals, the primary circadian oscillator is the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is responsible for circadian coordination throughout the organism. Temporal homeostasis is recognized as a complex interplay between rhythmic clock gene expression in brain regions outside the SCN and in peripheral organs. Abnormalities in this intricate circadian orchestration may alter sleep patterns and contribute to the pathophysiology of affective disorders.

  1. Gravitational considerations with animal rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunder, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    As established in the laboratory and largely confirmed by others, simulated high-g environments influence growth and development of animals as small as or smaller than baby turtles, sometimes accelerating and sometimes decelerating these processes. High-g environments result in many functional changes or adjustments in feeding, metabolism, circulation, fluid balances, and structures for support, and influence life expectancy. An assembly of equipment suitable for measuring oxygen consumption of small mammals as influenced by chronic centrifugation and/or by day-night rhythms is discussed.

  2. [Sleep rhythm and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Maemura, Koji

    2012-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common problem in general adult population. Recent evidence suggests the link between the occurrence of cardiovascular events and several sleep disturbances including sleep apnea syndrome, insomnia and periodic limb movements during sleep. Sleep duration may affect the cardiovascular outcome. Shift work also may increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Normalization of sleep rhythm has a potential to be a therapeutic target of ischemic heart diseases, although further study is required to evaluate the preventive effect on cardiovascular events. Here we describe the current understandings regarding the roles of sleep disorders during the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events.

  3. Gravitational considerations with animal rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunder, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    As established in the laboratory and largely confirmed by others, simulated high-g environments influence growth and development of animals as small as or smaller than baby turtles, sometimes accelerating and sometimes decelerating these processes. High-g environments result in many functional changes or adjustments in feeding, metabolism, circulation, fluid balances, and structures for support, and influence life expectancy. An assembly of equipment suitable for measuring oxygen consumption of small mammals as influenced by chronic centrifugation and/or by day-night rhythms is discussed.

  4. Analysis of the laying rhythm and reproductive traits of geese.

    PubMed

    Rosiński, Andrzej; Nowaczewski, Sebastian; Kontecka, Helena; Bednarczyk, Marek; Elminowska-Wenda, Gabriela; Bielińska, Halina; Maczyńska, Agnieszka

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the performed investigations was to analyse the laying rhythm and reproductive traits of Kołuda white geese from the W11 reproduction strain and to determine the heritability of these traits as well as correlations between the laying rhythm traits and reproductive traits. The total number of geese participating in the experiment included 383 one-year old layers from the control flock (the first year of reproductive utilisation). The following traits characterizing the laying rhythm were assessed individually for each layer: the number of 2 and 3-egg clutches or more, length (in days) of 2- or more egg clutches as well as the length of intervals between the laid eggs during the entire laying period. The following reproductive traits were also assessed individually for each bird: age at sexual maturity, initial number of eggs (eggs laid during the period from January, 1st to April, 30th), number of eggs during the whole laying period, laying intensity (the total number of eggs x 100/length of the laying period in days) as well as the length of the reproductive period. It was found that Kołuda white geese laid most of their eggs (on average 70.2%) singly and not in clutches. With regard to egg clutches, it was found that 2-egg clutches constituted 85.3% of eggs laid in clutches. Moderate or high variability of traits associated with the laying rhythm and reproduction were demonstrated. The observed moderate heritability of the laying rhythm traits indicate that they may be utilised in the selection programs for geese. On the other hand, the reported high, positive genetic correlation coefficients between the number of egg clutches and the initial and total egg number as well as laying intensity confirm the existence of interactions between these traits. This fact may be helpful in breeding programs for determining the optimal selection systems for geese.

  5. NREM Sleep Stage Transitions Control Ultradian REM Sleep Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Akifumi; Yasuda, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Takahisa; Inami, Yasushi; Horiguchi, Jun; Tamaki, Masako; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The cyclic sequence of NREM and REM sleep, the so-called ultradian rhythm, is a highly characteristic feature of sleep. However, the mechanisms responsible for the ultradian REM sleep rhythm, particularly in humans, have not to date been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that a stage transition mechanism is involved in the determination of the ultradian REM sleep rhythm. Participants: Ten healthy young male volunteers (age: 22 ± 4 years, range 19–31 years) spent 3 nights in a sleep laboratory. The first was the adaptation night, and the second was the baseline night. On the third night, the subjects received risperidone (1 mg tablet), a central serotonergic and dopaminergic antagonist, 30 min before the polysomnography recording. Measurements and Results: We measured and investigated transition probabilities between waking, REM, and NREM sleep stages (N1, N2, and N3) within the REM-onset intervals, defined as the intervals between the onset of one REM period and the beginning of the next, altered by risperidone. We also calculated the transition intensity (i.e., instantaneous transition rate) and examined the temporal pattern of transitions within the altered REM-onset intervals. We found that when the REM-onset interval was prolonged by risperidone, the probability of transitions from N2 to N3 was significantly increased within the same prolonged interval, with a significant delay and/or recurrences of the peak intensity of transitions from N2 to N3. Conclusions: These results suggest that the mechanism governing NREM sleep stage transitions (from light to deep sleep) plays an important role in determining ultradian REM sleep rhythms. Citation: Kishi A; Yasuda H; Matsumoto T; Inami Y; Horiguchi J; Tamaki M; Struzik ZR; Yamamoto Y. NREM sleep stage transitions control ultradian REM sleep rhythm. SLEEP 2011;34(10):1423-1432. PMID:21966074

  6. Circadian rhythms of crawling and swimming in the nudibranch mollusc Melibe leonina.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, James M; Kirouac, Lauren E; Naimie, Amanda A; Bixby, Kimberly A; Lee, Colin; Malanga, Stephanie; Raubach, Maureen; Watson, Winsor H

    2014-12-01

    Daily rhythms of activity driven by circadian clocks are expressed by many organisms, including molluscs. We initiated this study, with the nudibranch Melibe leonina, with four goals in mind: (1) determine which behaviors are expressed with a daily rhythm; (2) investigate which of these rhythmic behaviors are controlled by a circadian clock; (3) determine if a circadian clock is associated with the eyes or optic ganglia of Melibe, as it is in several other gastropods; and (4) test the hypothesis that Melibe can use extraocular photoreceptors to synchronize its daily rhythms to natural light-dark cycles. To address these goals, we analyzed the behavior of 55 animals exposed to either artificial or natural light-dark cycles, followed by constant darkness. We also repeated this experiment using 10 animals that had their eyes removed. Individuals did not express daily rhythms of feeding, but they swam and crawled more at night. This pattern of locomotion persisted in constant darkness, indicating the presence of a circadian clock. Eyeless animals also expressed a daily rhythm of locomotion, with more locomotion at night. The fact that eyeless animals synchronized their locomotion to the light-dark cycle suggests that they can detect light using extraocular photoreceptors. However, in constant darkness, these rhythms deteriorated, suggesting that the clock neurons that influence locomotion may be located in, or near, the eyes. Thus, locomotion in Melibe appears to be influenced by both ocular and extraocular photoreceptors, although the former appear to have a greater influence on the expression of circadian rhythms.

  7. Improved automated monitoring and new analysis algorithm for circadian phototaxis rhythms in Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Christa; Forbes-Stovall, Jennifer; Kessler, Bruce; Young, Mike; Rinehart, Claire A.; Jacobshagen, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    Automated monitoring of circadian rhythms is an efficient way of gaining insight into oscillation parameters like period and phase for the underlying pacemaker of the circadian clock. Measurement of the circadian rhythm of phototaxis (swimming towards light) exhibited by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been automated by directing a narrow and dim light beam through a culture at regular intervals and determining the decrease in light transmittance due to the accumulation of cells in the beam. In this study, the monitoring process was optimized by constructing a new computer-controlled measuring machine that limits the test beam to wavelengths reported to be specific for phototaxis and by choosing an algal strain, which does not need background illumination between test light cycles for proper expression of the rhythm. As a result, period and phase of the rhythm are now unaffected by the time a culture is placed into the machine. Analysis of the rhythm data was also optimized through a new algorithm, whose robustness was demonstrated using virtual rhythms with various noises. The algorithm differs in particular from other reported algorithms by maximizing the fit of the data to a sinusoidal curve that dampens exponentially. The algorithm was also used to confirm the reproducibility of rhythm monitoring by the machine. Machine and algorithm can now be used for a multitude of circadian clock studies that require unambiguous period and phase determinations such as light pulse experiments to identify the photoreceptor(s) that reset the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii. PMID:20116270

  8. Effect of rhythm on the recovery from intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, Michal; Bodner, Ehud; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2013-04-01

    Motivational music (music that stimulates physical activity) was previously shown to enhance the recovery from intense exercise. The aim of the present study was to isolate the effect of rhythm (presumed to be the most effective factor of motivational music) on the recovery from intense exercise. Ten young adult active men (age: 26.1 ± 1.7 years) performed 6-minute run at peak oxygen consumption speed, at 3 separate visits (random order). At 1 visit, no music was played during the recovery after exercise. In the other visits, participants listened to motivational music that was previously shown to enhance recovery (a Western CD collection of greatest hits of all times converted to dance style, 140 b·min, strong bit, played by portable MP3 device using headphones at a volume of 70 dB) or only to the rhythm beats derived from the same songs. Mean heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), number of steps (measured by step counter) and blood lactate concentrations were determined at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 minutes of the recovery. There was no difference in HR changes during the recovery at all conditions. Compared with the recovery without music, listening to motivational music during recovery was associated with significant greater number of steps, lower absolute lactate levels, and greater mean decrease of RPE. Listening only to rhythm beats, derived from the same music, during the recovery was associated with significant greater number of steps and lower absolute lactate levels compared to recovery without music. Music was significantly more effective than rhythm only in the absolute mean number of steps. The beneficial effect of both music and rhythm was greater toward the end of the recovery period. Results suggest that listening to music during nonstructured recovery can be used by professional athletes to enhance recovery from intense exercise. Rhythm plays a very important role in the effect of music on recovery and can be used to enhance

  9. Rhythms of cell division of different periodicity in small intestinal cryptic epithelium and their contribution to circadian rhythm formation.

    PubMed

    Antokhin, A I; Zharkova, N A; Zakharchenko, A V; Romanov, Yu A

    2012-02-01

    We used an improved method of chronobiological information processing enabling not only to detect oscillations with different frequencies, but also to determine the significance of each harmonic. This has made it possible to identify significant high-power harmonics present in the majority of cell positions in the crypt. These harmonics make the major contribution to the formation of diurnal rhythm of cell division in the crypt and hence determine spatial and temporal organization of the proliferative system in the crypt.

  10. Determining the number of stimuli required to reliably assess corticomotor excitability and primary motor cortical representations using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Rocco; Schabrun, Siobhan M; Chipchase, Lucy S

    2015-08-11

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique that can be used to assess corticospinal plasticity. Current TMS practices involve the administration of multiple stimuli over target areas of the participant's scalp. However, these procedures require 1 to 2 h per assessment. Decreasing the number of stimuli delivered during TMS assessments would improve time efficiency and decrease participant demand. Thus, the aim of this review is to determine the number of TMS stimuli required to reliably measure (1) corticomotor excitability to a target muscle at a single cranial site and (2) the topography of the primary motor cortical representation for a target muscle across multiple cranial sites (termed 'mapping'). A systematic review and meta-analysis will be conducted. Electronic databases will be searched using pre-determined search terms to identify relevant studies and evaluate the studies for inclusion and risks of bias. Two independent reviewers will extract the data. Any disagreements will be resolved by a third reviewer. Studies employing single-pulse TMS to measure (1) corticomotor excitability at a single cranial site or (2) the topographic cortical organisation of a target muscle across a number of cranial sites, published before May 2015, will be included if they meet the eligibility criteria. Outcomes will include motor-evoked potential amplitude, map volume, number of active map sites, location of the map centre of gravity, and distance between the centres of gravity of the target muscle and one or more neighbouring muscles. To our knowledge, this review will be the first to systematically explore the number of TMS stimuli required to reliably measure both corticomotor excitability and the topography of primary motor cortical representations. This research has the capacity to improve the efficiency of TMS, decrease participant demand, and facilitate the use of TMS as an outcome measurement tool in clinical populations. PROSPERO CRD42015024579.

  11. Using an algorithm to easily interpret basic cardiac rhythms.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Denise

    2005-11-01

    MANY NURSES STRUGGLE with identifying electrocardiogram (ECG) rhythms, but rapidly interpreting primary ECG rhythms is an essential skill that every nurse should master. THIS ARTICLE PROVIDES an algorithm that nurses can use to easily interpret basic ECG rhythms.

  12. 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, B.W.; Chess, E.K.; Anderson, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.

  13. [Manifestations of polymorphism of β1-adrenoreceptors in patients with newly diagnosed cardiac rhythm disorders].

    PubMed

    Afanas'ev, S A; Rebrova, T Iu; Batalov, R E; Muslimova, É F; Borisova, E V; Popov, S V

    2013-01-01

    Individual peculiarities of the receptor apparatus of cardiomyocytes may determine pathological features of heart activity and susceptibility to pharmaceuticals. The possible role of beta-adrenoreceptor polymorphism in the development of cardiac rhythm disturbances is assessed by PCR. Special attention is given to A145G polymorphism of the ADRB1 gene in 127 patients with primary cardiac rhythm disorders. It was shown that AJ45G polymorphism (Ser49Gly) at DNA sites encoding for the amino acid sequence of beta-1 adrenoreceptors can influence the development of sex-specific cardiac rhythm disorders.

  14. Quantifying Speech Rhythm Abnormalities in the Dysarthrias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Julie M.; White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L.; Lansford, Kaitlin; Lotto, Andrew J.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined whether rhythm metrics capable of distinguishing languages with high and low temporal stress contrast also can distinguish among control and dysarthric speakers of American English with perceptually distinct rhythm patterns. Methods: Acoustic measures of vocalic and consonantal segment durations were…

  15. The Incarnate Rhythm of Geometrical Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is a fundamental dimension of human nature at both biological and social levels. However, existing research literature has not sufficiently investigated its role in mathematical cognition and behavior. The purpose of this article is to bring the concept of "incarnate rhythm" into current discourses in the field of mathematical learning and…

  16. Circadian rhythms in myocardial metabolism and function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Circadian rhythms in myocardial function and dysfunction are firmly established in both animal models and humans. For example, the incidence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death increases when organisms awaken. Such observations have classically been explained by circadian rhythms in neurohumoral...

  17. Accelerated idioventricular rhythm during flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeat, A.; Chiolero, R.; Mosimann, B.; Freeman, J.

    1987-03-01

    We report the case of a patient who developed severe hypoxemia and an unusual arrhythmia, accelerated idioventricular rhythm, during flexible fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Coronary artery disease was subsequently suspected despite an unremarkable history and physical examination, and confirmed by a thallium 201 imaging. The appearance of accelerated idioventricular rhythm during fiberoptic bronchoscopy should raise the possibility of underlying coronary artery disease.

  18. The Essential Connection between Rhythm and Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlmutter, Adam

    2009-01-01

    It is the most fundamental aspect of music, yet so many students struggle with rhythm. How does one effectively teach budding young musicians to properly feel and read the rhythms all around them? Eileen Benedict, vocal music specialist at the Edith L. Slocum School in Ronkonkoma, New York, finds it best to start teaching her young students not…

  19. Analysis of Handwriting based on Rhythm Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazuya; Uchida, Masafumi; Nozawa, Akio

    Humanity fluctuation was reported in some fields. In handwriting process, fluctuation appears on handwriting-velocity. In this report, we focused attention on human rhythm perception and analyzed fluctuation in handwriting process. As a result, 1/f noise related to rhythm perception and features may caused by Kahneman's capacity model were measured on handwriting process.

  20. The Incarnate Rhythm of Geometrical Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Alfredo; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is a fundamental dimension of human nature at both biological and social levels. However, existing research literature has not sufficiently investigated its role in mathematical cognition and behavior. The purpose of this article is to bring the concept of "incarnate rhythm" into current discourses in the field of mathematical learning and…

  1. Quantifying Speech Rhythm Abnormalities in the Dysarthrias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Julie M.; White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L.; Lansford, Kaitlin; Lotto, Andrew J.; Spitzer, Stephanie M.; Caviness, John N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined whether rhythm metrics capable of distinguishing languages with high and low temporal stress contrast also can distinguish among control and dysarthric speakers of American English with perceptually distinct rhythm patterns. Methods: Acoustic measures of vocalic and consonantal segment durations were…

  2. A Variation on Kodaly's Rhythm Syllable System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the rhythm syllable system within Zoltan Kodaly's method that is often used to teach elementary students in general music classes. Offers background information about this method as well as an alternative technique for teaching students about the single sixteenth-note rhythm. (CMK)

  3. Detecting and Correcting Speech Rhythm Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtbasi, Metin

    2015-01-01

    Every language has its own rhythm. Unlike many other languages in the world, English depends on the correct pronunciation of stressed and unstressed or weakened syllables recurring in the same phrase or sentence. Mastering the rhythm of English makes speaking more effective. Experiments have shown that we tend to hear speech as more rhythmical…

  4. Synchronous circadian voltage rhythms with asynchronous calcium rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Enoki, Ryosuke; Oda, Yoshiaki; Mieda, Michihiro; Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, contains a network composed of multiple types of neurons which are thought to form a hierarchical and multioscillator system. The molecular clock machinery in SCN neurons drives membrane excitability and sends time cue signals to various brain regions and peripheral organs. However, how and at what time of the day these neurons transmit output signals remain largely unknown. Here, we successfully visualized circadian voltage rhythms optically for many days using a genetically encoded voltage sensor, ArcLightD. Unexpectedly, the voltage rhythms are synchronized across the entire SCN network of cultured slices, whereas simultaneously recorded Ca2+ rhythms are topologically specific to the dorsal and ventral regions. We further found that the temporal order of these two rhythms is cell-type specific: The Ca2+ rhythms phase-lead the voltage rhythms in AVP neurons but Ca2+ and voltage rhythms are nearly in phase in VIP neurons. We confirmed that circadian firing rhythms are also synchronous and are coupled with the voltage rhythms. These results indicate that SCN networks with asynchronous Ca2+ rhythms produce coherent voltage rhythms. PMID:28270612

  5. Synchronous circadian voltage rhythms with asynchronous calcium rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Enoki, Ryosuke; Oda, Yoshiaki; Mieda, Michihiro; Ono, Daisuke; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2017-03-21

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, contains a network composed of multiple types of neurons which are thought to form a hierarchical and multioscillator system. The molecular clock machinery in SCN neurons drives membrane excitability and sends time cue signals to various brain regions and peripheral organs. However, how and at what time of the day these neurons transmit output signals remain largely unknown. Here, we successfully visualized circadian voltage rhythms optically for many days using a genetically encoded voltage sensor, ArcLightD. Unexpectedly, the voltage rhythms are synchronized across the entire SCN network of cultured slices, whereas simultaneously recorded Ca(2+) rhythms are topologically specific to the dorsal and ventral regions. We further found that the temporal order of these two rhythms is cell-type specific: The Ca(2+) rhythms phase-lead the voltage rhythms in AVP neurons but Ca(2+) and voltage rhythms are nearly in phase in VIP neurons. We confirmed that circadian firing rhythms are also synchronous and are coupled with the voltage rhythms. These results indicate that SCN networks with asynchronous Ca(2+) rhythms produce coherent voltage rhythms.

  6. Circadian melatonin rhythm and excessive daytime sleepiness in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Videnovic, Aleksandar; Noble, Charleston; Reid, Kathryn J; Peng, Jie; Turek, Fred W; Marconi, Angelica; Rademaker, Alfred W; Simuni, Tanya; Zadikoff, Cindy; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations of motor and nonmotor symptoms and a high prevalence of sleep-wake disturbances in Parkinson disease (PD) suggest a role of the circadian system in the modulation of these symptoms. However, surprisingly little is known regarding circadian function in PD and whether circadian dysfunction is involved in the development of sleep-wake disturbances in PD. To determine the relationship between the timing and amplitude of the 24-hour melatonin rhythm, a marker of endogenous circadian rhythmicity, with self-reported sleep quality, the severity of daytime sleepiness, and disease metrics. A cross-sectional study from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012, of 20 patients with PD receiving stable dopaminergic therapy and 15 age-matched control participants. Both groups underwent blood sampling for the measurement of serum melatonin levels at 30-minute intervals for 24 hours under modified constant routine conditions at the Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders Center of Northwestern University. Twenty-four hour monitoring of serum melatonin secretion. Clinical and demographic data, self-reported measures of sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and circadian markers of the melatonin rhythm, including the amplitude, area under the curve (AUC), and phase of the 24-hour rhythm. Patients with PD had blunted circadian rhythms of melatonin secretion compared with controls; the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm and the 24-hour AUC for circulating melatonin levels were significantly lower in PD patients (P < .001). Markers of the circadian phase were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Compared with PD patients without excessive daytime sleepiness, patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥10) had a significantly lower amplitude of the melatonin rhythm and 24-hour melatonin AUC (P = .001). Disease duration, Unified Parkinson's Disease

  7. Circadian Rhythm Dysregulation in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Alloy, Lauren B; Ng, Tommy H; Titone, Madison K; Boland, Elaine M

    2017-04-01

    We review recent evidence for circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). We examine evidence for endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms in BSDs. We also address whether circadian dysregulation provides vulnerability to onset of BSD and evidence for a new integration of reward and circadian dysregulation in BSD. Relative circadian phase delay (e.g., later melatonin peak, evening chronotype) is associated with BSD, particularly in the depressive phase. More consistent evidence supports irregularity of social rhythms, sleep/wake and activity patterns, and disruptions of social rhythms by life events, as stable trait markers of BSD and potential vulnerabilities for BSD onset. Growing research supports an integrative reward/circadian model. Both endogenous abnormalities in the biological clock pacemaking function and disruptions in the external entrainment of circadian rhythms by physical and social cues are involved in BSDs. Circadian dysregulation may provide vulnerability to BSD onset.

  8. [Biology and genetics of circadian rhythm].

    PubMed

    Bellivier, F

    2009-01-01

    In recent decades our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of biological clocks has grown expontentially. This has helped to guide the choice of genes studied to explain inter-individual variations seen in circadian rhythms. In recent years analysis of circadian rhythms has advanced considerably into the study of pathological circadian rhythms in human beings. These findings, combined with those obtained from studying mice whose circadian genes have been rendered incapable, have revealed the role of genetic factors in circadian rhythms. This literature review presents an overview of these findings. Beyond our understanding of the functioning of these biological clocks, this knowledge will be extremely useful to analyse genetic factors involved in morbid conditions involving circadian rhythm abnormalities.

  9. Circadian Rhythm Disruption Promotes Lung Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Papagiannakopoulos, Thales; Bauer, Matthew R; Davidson, Shawn M; Heimann, Megan; Subbaraj, Lakshmipriya; Bhutkar, Arjun; Bartlebaugh, Jordan; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Jacks, Tyler

    2016-08-09

    Circadian rhythms are 24-hr oscillations that control a variety of biological processes in living systems, including two hallmarks of cancer, cell division and metabolism. Circadian rhythm disruption by shift work is associated with greater risk for cancer development and poor prognosis, suggesting a putative tumor-suppressive role for circadian rhythm homeostasis. Using a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, we have characterized the effects of circadian rhythm disruption on lung tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that both physiologic perturbation (jet lag) and genetic mutation of the central circadian clock components decreased survival and promoted lung tumor growth and progression. The core circadian genes Per2 and Bmal1 were shown to have cell-autonomous tumor-suppressive roles in transformation and lung tumor progression. Loss of the central clock components led to increased c-Myc expression, enhanced proliferation, and metabolic dysregulation. Our findings demonstrate that both systemic and somatic disruption of circadian rhythms contribute to cancer progression.

  10. Circadian rhythms, the molecular clock, and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Harfmann, Brianna D; Schroder, Elizabeth A; Esser, Karyn A

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle.

  11. Circadian Rhythms, the Molecular Clock, and Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Harfmann, Brianna D.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Esser, Karyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are the approximate 24-h biological cycles that function to prepare an organism for daily environmental changes. They are driven by the molecular clock, a transcriptional:translational feedback mechanism that in mammals involves the core clock genes Bmal1, Clock, Per1/2, and Cry1/2. The molecular clock is present in virtually all cells of an organism. The central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) has been well studied, but the clocks in the peripheral tissues, such as heart and skeletal muscle, have just begun to be investigated. Skeletal muscle is one of the largest organs in the body, comprising approximately 45% of total body mass. More than 2300 genes in skeletal muscle are expressed in a circadian pattern, and these genes participate in a wide range of functions, including myogenesis, transcription, and metabolism. The circadian rhythms of skeletal muscle can be entrained both indirectly through light input to the SCN and directly through time of feeding and activity. It is critical for the skeletal muscle molecular clock not only to be entrained to the environment but also to be in synchrony with rhythms of other tissues. When circadian rhythms are disrupted, the observed effects on skeletal muscle include fiber-type shifts, altered sarcomeric structure, reduced mitochondrial respiration, and impaired muscle function. Furthermore, there are detrimental effects on metabolic health, including impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, which skeletal muscle likely contributes to considering it is a key metabolic tissue. These data indicate a critical role for skeletal muscle circadian rhythms for both muscle and systems health. Future research is needed to determine the mechanisms of molecular clock function in skeletal muscle, identify the means by which skeletal muscle entrainment occurs, and provide a stringent comparison of circadian gene expression across the diverse tissue system of skeletal muscle. PMID:25512305

  12. [Circadian rhythm : Influence on Epworth Sleepiness Scale score].

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Bedorf, A; Rohrmeier, C; Kühnel, T; Herzog, B; Bremert, T; Plontke, S; Plößl, S

    2017-02-01

    The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) is frequently used to determine daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep-disordered breathing. It is still unclear whether different levels of alertness induced by the circadian rhythm influence ESS score. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of circadian rhythm-dependent alertness on ESS performance. In a monocentric prospective noninterventional observation study, 97 patients with suspected sleep-disordered breathing were investigated with respect to daytime sleepiness in temporal relationship to polysomnographic examination and treatment. The Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) served as references for the detection of present sleepiness at three different measurement times (morning, noon, evening), prior to and following a diagnostic polysomnography night as well as after a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) titration night (9 measurements in total). The KSS, SSS, and ESS were performed at these times in a randomized order. The KSS and SSS scores revealed a circadian rhythm-dependent curve with increased sleepiness at noon and in the evening. Following a diagnostic polysomnography night, the scores were increased compared to the measurements prior to the night. After the CPAP titration night, sleepiness in the morning was reduced. KSS and SSS reflect the changes in alertness induced by the circadian rhythm. The ESS score war neither altered by the intra-daily nor by the inter-daily changes in the level of alertness. According to the present data, the ESS serves as a reliable instrument to detect the level of daytime sleepiness independently of the circadian rhythm-dependent level of alertness.

  13. Molecular Approach to Hypothalamic Rhythms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-24

    expressed predominanyly by cortical and hippocampal interneurons that affects the onset of slow-wave sleep. To learn about the cellular mechanisms of...partially overlap with those expressing somatostatin. A significant percentage of cortistatin-positive neurons is also positive for parvalbumin . In...the rat, mouse preprocortistatin mRNA is present in GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The preprocortistatin gene

  14. Evolution of cortical neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Mannan, Omar; Cheung, Amanda F P; Molnár, Zoltán

    2008-03-18

    The neurons of the mammalian neocortex are organised into six layers. By contrast, the reptilian and avian dorsal cortices only have three layers which are thought to be equivalent to layers I, V and VI of mammals. Increased repertoire of mammalian higher cognitive functions is likely a result of an expanded cortical surface area. The majority of cortical cell proliferation in mammals occurs in the ventricular zone (VZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ), with a small number of scattered divisions outside the germinal zone. Comparative developmental studies suggest that the appearance of SVZ coincides with the laminar expansion of the cortex to six layers, as well as the tangential expansion of the cortical sheet seen within mammals. In spite of great variation and further compartmentalisation in the mitotic compartments, the number of neurons in an arbitrary cortical column appears to be remarkably constant within mammals. The current challenge is to understand how the emergence and elaboration of the SVZ has contributed to increased cortical cell diversity, tangential expansion and gyrus formation of the mammalian neocortex. This review discusses neurogenic processes that are believed to underlie these major changes in cortical dimensions in vertebrates.

  15. Forced desynchrony reveals independent contributions of suprachiasmatic oscillators to the daily plasma corticosterone rhythm in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wotus, Cheryl; Lilley, Travis R; Neal, Adam S; Suleiman, Nicole L; Schmuck, Stefanie C; Smarr, Benjamin L; Fischer, Brian J; de la Iglesia, Horacio O

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is required for the daily rhythm of plasma glucocorticoids; however, the independent contributions from oscillators within the different subregions of the SCN to the glucocorticoid rhythm remain unclear. Here, we use genetically and neurologically intact, forced desynchronized rats to test the hypothesis that the daily rhythm of the glucocorticoid, corticosterone, is regulated by both light responsive and light-dissociated circadian oscillators in the ventrolateral (vl-) and dorsomedial (dm-) SCN, respectively. We show that when the vlSCN and dmSCN are in maximum phase misalignment, the peak of the plasma corticosterone rhythm is shifted and the amplitude reduced; whereas, the peak of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) rhythm is also reduced, the phase is dissociated from that of the corticosterone rhythm. These data support previous studies suggesting an ACTH-independent pathway contributes to the corticosterone rhythm. To determine if either SCN subregion independently regulates corticosterone through the sympathetic nervous system, we compared unilateral adrenalectomized, desynchronized rats that had undergone either transection of the thoracic splanchnic nerve or sham transection to the remaining adrenal. Splanchnicectomy reduced and phase advanced the peak of both the corticosterone and ACTH rhythms. These data suggest that both the vlSCN and dmSCN contribute to the corticosterone rhythm by both reducing plasma ACTH and differentially regulating plasma corticosterone through an ACTH- and sympathetic nervous system-independent pathway.

  16. Nonlinear mechanisms of cortical oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kowalik, Z J

    2000-01-01

    Not only theoretical consideration but also analyses of MEG or EEG recordings prove the nonlinear character of cortical dynamics. For instance, an averaged local Lyapunov Exponents (ILE) have positive value that is characteristic for chaotic dynamics. Also a test for nonlinearity (or determinism)--so called surrogate data test distinguishes between original- and randomized-phase time-series proving that recorded signals are nonlinear. These facts are a very strong experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that brain oscillators are governed by the deterministic, nonlinear, low-dimensional dynamics. The experimental manifestations of nonlinear cortical oscillations in the healthy and pathologically altered human brain and their deterministic character seems to be an important step in the understanding brain dynamics in the language of nonlinear systems theory. Clinical application may use nonlinear measures (especially ILE, and PD2i) for classification of pathologies and rough localization of the functional disturbance in the brain.

  17. ADHD, circadian rhythms and seasonality.

    PubMed

    Wynchank, Dora S; Bijlenga, Denise; Lamers, Femke; Bron, Tannetje I; Winthorst, Wim H; Vogel, Suzan W; Penninx, Brenda W; Beekman, Aartjan T; Kooij, J Sandra

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated whether the association between Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) was mediated by the circadian rhythm. Data of 2239 persons from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) were used. Two groups were compared: with clinically significant ADHD symptoms (N = 175) and with No ADHD symptoms (N = 2064). Sleep parameters were sleep-onset and offset times, mid sleep and sleep duration from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. We identified the prevalence of probable SAD and subsyndromal SAD using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Clinically significant ADHD symptoms were identified by using a T score>65 on the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale. The prevalence of probable SAD was estimated at 9.9% in the ADHD group (vs. 3.3% in the No ADHD group) and of probable s-SAD at 12.5% in the ADHD group (vs 4.6% in the No ADHD group). Regression analyses showed consistently significant associations between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after adjustment for current depression and anxiety, age, sex, education, use of antidepressants and benzodiazepines (B = 1.81, p < 0.001). Late self-reported sleep onset was an important mediator in the significant relationship between ADHD symptoms and probable SAD, even after correction for confounders (total model effects: B = 0.14, p ≤ 0.001). Both seasonal and circadian rhythm disturbances are significantly associated with ADHD symptoms. Delayed sleep onset time in ADHD may explain the increase in SAD symptoms. Treating patients with SAD for possible ADHD and delayed sleep onset time may reduce symptom severity in these complex patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Motor cortical thresholds and cortical silent periods in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Tataroglu, Cengiz; Ozkiziltan, Safa; Baklan, Baris

    2004-10-01

    We studied motor cortical thresholds (TIs) and cortical silent periods (SPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 110 epileptic patients. Sixty-two had primary generalised, 48 had partial type seizures. Fifteen out 110 patients were analysed both before and after anticonvulsant medication. Our aims were to evaluate the TI levels and the duration of SPs in patients with epilepsy and to determine the reliability of TMS in patients with epilepsy. There was no negative effect of TMS on the clinical status and EEG findings in patients with epilepsy. TIs obtained from patients with partial epilepsy were higher than those obtained from both controls and primary epileptics. The duration of SP in patients with primary epileptics was more prolonged than those obtained from controls. There was no correlation between EEG lateralisation and both SP duration and TI values. In de novo patient group, SP duration was significantly prolonged after anticonvulsant medication. We concluded that TMS is a reliable electrophysiological investigation in patients with epilepsy. The analysis of SP duration may be an appropriate investigation in monitoring the effect of anticonvulsant medication on the cortical inhibitory activity.

  19. High-Fat Feeding Does Not Disrupt Daily Rhythms in Female Mice because of Protection by Ovarian Hormones.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Brian T; Stafford, John M; Pendergast, Julie S

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in women is increased by the loss of circulating estrogen after menopause. Shift work, which disrupts circadian rhythms, also increases the risk for obesity. It is not known whether ovarian hormones interact with the circadian system to protect females from obesity. During high-fat feeding, male C57BL/6J mice develop profound obesity and disruption of daily rhythms. Since C57BL/6J female mice did not develop diet-induced obesity (during 8 weeks of high-fat feeding), we first determined if daily rhythms in female mice were resistant to disruption from high-fat diet. We fed female PERIOD2:LUCIFERASE mice 45% high-fat diet for 1 week and measured daily rhythms. Female mice retained robust rhythms of eating behavior and locomotor activity during high-fat feeding that were similar to chow-fed females. In addition, the phase of the liver molecular timekeeping (PER2:LUC) rhythm was not altered by high-fat feeding in females. To determine if ovarian hormones protected daily rhythms in female mice from high-fat feeding, we analyzed rhythms in ovariectomized mice. During high-fat feeding, the amplitudes of the eating behavior and locomotor activity rhythms were reduced in ovariectomized females. Liver PER2:LUC rhythms were also advanced by ~4 h by high-fat feeding, but not chow, in ovariectomized females. Together these data show circulating ovarian hormones protect the integrity of daily rhythms in female mice during high-fat feeding.

  20. High-Fat Feeding Does Not Disrupt Daily Rhythms in Female Mice because of Protection by Ovarian Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Palmisano, Brian T.; Stafford, John M.; Pendergast, Julie S.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity in women is increased by the loss of circulating estrogen after menopause. Shift work, which disrupts circadian rhythms, also increases the risk for obesity. It is not known whether ovarian hormones interact with the circadian system to protect females from obesity. During high-fat feeding, male C57BL/6J mice develop profound obesity and disruption of daily rhythms. Since C57BL/6J female mice did not develop diet-induced obesity (during 8 weeks of high-fat feeding), we first determined if daily rhythms in female mice were resistant to disruption from high-fat diet. We fed female PERIOD2:LUCIFERASE mice 45% high-fat diet for 1 week and measured daily rhythms. Female mice retained robust rhythms of eating behavior and locomotor activity during high-fat feeding that were similar to chow-fed females. In addition, the phase of the liver molecular timekeeping (PER2:LUC) rhythm was not altered by high-fat feeding in females. To determine if ovarian hormones protected daily rhythms in female mice from high-fat feeding, we analyzed rhythms in ovariectomized mice. During high-fat feeding, the amplitudes of the eating behavior and locomotor activity rhythms were reduced in ovariectomized females. Liver PER2:LUC rhythms were also advanced by ~4 h by high-fat feeding, but not chow, in ovariectomized females. Together these data show circulating ovarian hormones protect the integrity of daily rhythms in female mice during high-fat feeding. PMID:28352249

  1. CLADA: cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kunio; Fox, Robert; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for the assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for the measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan-rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1mm(3) isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1×1×5 mm(3) voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post-mortem tissue. CLADA's sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation=0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical thinning was detected in this group in both the lower and higher resolution images. CLADA detected a higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to healthy controls over 2 years. These results show that CLADA can be used for reliable measurement of cortical atrophy in longitudinal studies, even in lower resolution images.

  2. CLADA: Cortical Longitudinal Atrophy Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kunio; Fox, Robert; Fisher, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over time. CLADA creates a subject-specific cortical model which is longitudinally deformed to match images from individual time points. The algorithm was designed to work reliably for lower-resolution images, such as the MRIs with 1×1×5mm3 voxels previously acquired for many clinical trials in multiple sclerosis (MS). CLADA was evaluated to determine reproducibility, accuracy, and sensitivity. Scan-rescan variability was 0.45% for images with 1mm3 isotropic voxels and 0.77% for images with 1×1×5 mm3 voxels. The mean absolute accuracy error was 0.43 mm, as determined by comparison of CLADA measurements to cortical thickness measured directly in post- mortem tissue. CLADA’s sensitivity for correctly detecting at least 0.1 mm change was 86% in a simulation study. A comparison to FreeSurfer showed good agreement (Pearson correlation = 0.73 for global mean thickness). CLADA was also applied to MRIs acquired over 18 months in secondary progressive MS patients who were imaged at two different resolutions. Cortical thinning was detected in this group in both the lower and higher resolution images. CLADA detected a higher rate of cortical thinning in MS patients compared to healthy controls over 2 years. These results show that CLADA can be used for reliable measurement of cortical atrophy in longitudinal studies, even in lower resolution images. PMID:20674750

  3. Vestibular loss disrupts daily rhythm in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, T; Mauvieux, B; Bulla, J; Quarck, G; Davenne, D; Denise, P; Philoxène, B; Besnard, S

    2015-02-01

    Hypergravity disrupts the circadian regulation of temperature (Temp) and locomotor activity (Act) mediated through the vestibular otolithic system in mice. In contrast, we do not know whether the anatomical structures associated with vestibular input are crucial for circadian rhythm regulation at 1 G on Earth. In the present study we observed the effects of bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) on the daily rhythms of Temp and Act in semipigmented rats. Our model of vestibular lesion allowed for selective peripheral hair cell degeneration without any other damage. Rats with BVL exhibited a disruption in their daily rhythms (Temp and Act), which were replaced by a main ultradian period (τ <20 h) for 115.8 ± 68.6 h after vestibular lesion compared with rats in the control group. Daily rhythms of Temp and Act in rats with BVL recovered within 1 wk, probably counterbalanced by photic and other nonphotic time cues. No correlation was found between Temp and Act daily rhythms after vestibular lesion in rats with BVL, suggesting a direct influence of vestibular input on the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Our findings support the hypothesis that the vestibular system has an influence on daily rhythm homeostasis in semipigmented rats on Earth, and raise the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Analysing Biological Rhythms in Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, M; Sarp, Ü; Gül, Aİ; Tanik, N; Yetisgin, A; Arik, HO; Nas, O; Yılmaz, YK

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: This study evaluated biological rhythm disorders in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods: The study enrolled 82 patients with FMS and 82 controls. Pain intensity was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The psychological conditions of the patients were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) was used to assess disturbances in biological rhythms (ie sleep, activity, social and eating patterns). Results: There was no difference between the two groups at baseline (all p > 0.05). The BDI, BRIAN total, sleep, activity, social, and eating scores were higher in patients with FMS than in the controls (all p < 0.001). Further, a significant correlation was found between biological rhythms and BDI scores (p < 0.001) and there were positive correlations between the VAS score and BRIAN total, sleep, and eating and BDI in patients with FMS (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: There are marked biological rhythm disturbances in FMS. There is an important relationship between rhythm disorders and FMS. The disturbances in sleep, functional activities, social participation, and disordered rhythms like eating patterns show the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treating patients with FMS. PMID:26426177

  5. Finding synchrony in the desynchronized EEG: the history and interpretation of gamma rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Omar J.; Cash, Sydney S.

    2013-01-01

    Neocortical gamma (30–80 Hz) rhythms correlate with attention, movement and perception and are often disrupted in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gamma primarily occurs during alert brain states characterized by the so-called “desynchronized” EEG. Is this because gamma rhythms are devoid of synchrony? In this review we take a historical approach to answering this question. Richard Caton and Adolf Beck were the first to report the rhythmic voltage fluctuations in the animal brain. They were limited by the poor amplification of their early galvanometers. Thus when they presented light or other stimuli, they observed a disappearance of the large resting oscillations. Several groups have since shown that visual stimuli lead to low amplitude gamma rhythms and that groups of neurons in the visual cortices fire together during individual gamma cycles. This synchronous firing can more strongly drive downstream neurons. We discuss how gamma-band synchrony can support ongoing communication between brain regions, and highlight an important fact: there is at least local neuronal synchrony during gamma rhythms. Thus, it is best to refer to the low amplitude, high frequency EEG as an “activated”, not “desynchronized”, EEG. PMID:23964210

  6. Neurobiology of food anticipatory circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2011-09-26

    Circadian rhythms in mammals can be entrained by daily schedules of light or food availability. A master light-entrainable circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is comprised of a population of cell autonomous, transcriptionally based circadian oscillators with defined retinal inputs, circadian clock genes and neural outputs. By contrast, the neurobiology of food-entrainable circadian rhythmicity remains poorly understood at the systems and cellular levels. Induction of food-anticipatory activity rhythms by daily feeding schedules does not require the SCN, but these rhythms do exhibit defining properties of circadian clock control. Clock gene rhythms expressed in other brain regions and in peripheral organs are preferentially reset by mealtime, but lesions of specific hypothalamic, corticolimbic and brainstem structures do not eliminate all food anticipatory rhythms, suggesting control by a distributed, decentralized system of oscillators, or the existence of a critical oscillator at an unknown location. The melanocortin system and dorsomedial hypothalamus may play modulatory roles setting the level of anticipatory activity. The metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin are not required to induce behavioral food anticipatory rhythms, but may also participate in gain setting. Clock gene mutations that disrupt light-entrainable rhythms generally do not eliminate food anticipatory rhythms, suggesting a novel timing mechanism. Recent evidence for non-transcriptional and network based circadian rhythmicity provides precedence, but any such mechanisms are likely to interact closely with known circadian clock genes, and some important double and triple clock gene knockouts remain to be phenotyped for food entrainment. Given the dominant role of food as an entraining stimulus for metabolic rhythms, the timing of daily food intake and the fidelity of food entrainment mechanisms are likely to have clinical relevance.

  7. Circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion during treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker.

    PubMed

    Ogiyama, Yoshiaki; Miura, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Shuichi; Fuwa, Daisuke; Tomonari, Tatsuya; Ota, Keisuke; Kato, Yoko; Ichikawa, Tadashi; Shirasawa, Yuichi; Ito, Akinori; Yoshida, Atsuhiro; Fukuda, Michio; Kimura, Genjiro

    2014-12-01

    We have reported that the circadian rhythm of urinary potassium excretion (U(K)V) is determined by the rhythm of urinary sodium excretion (U(Na)V) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We also reported that treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) increased the U(Na)V during the daytime, and restored the non-dipper blood pressure (BP) rhythm into a dipper pattern. However, the circadian rhythm of U(K)V during ARB treatment has not been reported. Circadian rhythms of U(Na)V and U(K)V were examined in 44 patients with CKD undergoing treatment with ARB. Whole-day U(Na)V was not altered by ARB whereas whole-day U(K)V decreased. Even during the ARB treatment, the significant relationship persisted between the night/day ratios of U(Na)V and U(K)V (r=0.56, p<0.0001). Whole-day U(K)V/U(Na)V ratio (p=0.0007) and trans-tubular potassium concentration gradient (p=0.002) were attenuated but their night/day ratios remained unchanged. The change in the night/day U(K)V ratio correlated directly with the change in night/day U(Na)V ratio (F=20.4) rather than with the changes in aldosterone, BP or creatinine clearance. The circadian rhythm of U(K)V was determined by the rhythm of UNaV even during ARB treatment. Changes in the circadian U(K)V rhythm were not determined by aldosterone but by U(Na)V. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Leading role of thalamic over cortical neurons during postinhibitory rebound excitation

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, F.; Timofeev, I.; Steriade, M.

    1998-01-01

    The postinhibitory rebound excitation is an intrinsic property of thalamic and cortical neurons that is implicated in a variety of normal and abnormal operations of neuronal networks, such as slow or fast brain rhythms during different states of vigilance as well as seizures. We used dual simultaneous intracellular recordings of thalamocortical neurons from the ventrolateral nucleus and neurons from the motor cortex, together with thalamic and cortical field potentials, to investigate the temporal relations between thalamic and cortical events during the rebound excitation that follows prolonged periods of stimulus-induced inhibition. Invariably, the rebound spike-bursts in thalamocortical cells occurred before the rebound depolarization in cortical neurons and preceded the peak of the depth-negative, rebound field potential in cortical areas. Also, the inhibitory-rebound sequences were more pronounced and prolonged in cortical neurons when elicited by thalamic stimuli, compared with cortical stimuli. The role of thalamocortical loops in the rebound excitation of cortical neurons was shown further by the absence of rebound activity in isolated cortical slabs. However, whereas thalamocortical neurons remained hyperpolarized after rebound excitation, because of the prolonged spike-bursts in inhibitory thalamic reticular neurons, the rebound depolarization in cortical neurons was prolonged, suggesting the role of intracortical excitatory circuits in this sustained activity. The role of intrathalamic events in triggering rebound cortical activity should be taken into consideration when analyzing information processes at the cortical level; at each step, corticothalamic volleys can set into action thalamic inhibitory neurons, leading to rebound spike-bursts that are transferred back to the cortex, thus modifying cortical activities. PMID:9811903

  9. Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sabra M; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    Irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder is a circadian rhythm disorder characterized by multiple bouts of sleep within a 24-hour period. Patients present with symptoms of insomnia, including difficulty either falling or staying asleep, and daytime excessive sleepiness. The disorder is seen in a variety of individuals, ranging from children with neurodevelopmental disorders, to patients with psychiatric disorders, and most commonly in older adults with neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment of irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder requires a multimodal approach aimed at strengthening circadian synchronizing agents, such as daytime exposure to bright light, and structured social and physical activities. In addition, melatonin may be useful in some patients.

  10. Fluctuation of biological rhythm in finger tapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, H.; Miyazima, S.; Mitake, S.

    2000-06-01

    By analyzing biological rhythms obtained from finger tapping, we have investigated the differences of two biological rhythms between healthy and handicapped persons caused by Parkinson, brain infraction, car accident and so on. In this study, we have observed the motion of handedness of all subjects and obtained a slope a which characterizes a power-law relation between frequency and amplitude of finger-tapping rhythm. From our results, we have estimated that the slope a=0.06 is a rough criterion in order to distinguish healthy and handicapped persons.

  11. Perceiving speech rhythm in music: listeners classify instrumental songs according to language of origin.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Erin E

    2009-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the musical rhythm of a particular culture may parallel the speech rhythm of that culture's language (Patel, A. D., & Daniele, J. R. (2003). An empirical comparison of rhythm in language and music. Cognition, 87, B35-B45). The present experiments aimed to determine whether listeners actually perceive such rhythmic differences in a purely musical context (i.e., in instrumental music without words). In Experiment 1a, listeners successfully classified instrumental renditions of French and English songs having highly contrastive rhythmic differences. Experiment 1b replicated this result with the same songs containing rhythmic information only. In Experiments 2a and 2b, listeners successfully classified original and rhythm-only stimuli when language-specific rhythmic differences were less contrastive but more representative of differences found in actual music and speech. These findings indicate that listeners can use rhythmic similarities and differences to classify songs originally composed in two languages having contrasting rhythmic prosody.

  12. Effect of hypergravity on the circadian rhythms of white rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafferty, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of artificial gravity on the circadian rhythm of white rats was observed by comparing feeding activity at 1.0 and 1.75 g. The feeding cycle data were obtained by observing the number of feeding switch responses, as well as the amount of food obtained, as a function of time. One of the three subjects clearly established a free-running cycle with a period of 24.742 hr. During a 40-day exposure to the 1.75 g environment, the subjects maintained the same feeding cycle period which was established at 1.0 g. While the results of this study indicate that the activity rhythms of rats are insensitive to gravity levels between 1.0 and 1.75 g, the effects of gravity levels below 1.0 g are yet to be determined.

  13. Effect of hypergravity on the circadian rhythms of white rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafferty, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of artificial gravity on the circadian rhythm of white rats was observed by comparing feeding activity at 1.0 and 1.75 g. The feeding cycle data were obtained by observing the number of feeding switch responses, as well as the amount of food obtained, as a function of time. One of the three subjects clearly established a free-running cycle with a period of 24.742 hr. During a 40-day exposure to the 1.75 g environment, the subjects maintained the same feeding cycle period which was established at 1.0 g. While the results of this study indicate that the activity rhythms of rats are insensitive to gravity levels between 1.0 and 1.75 g, the effects of gravity levels below 1.0 g are yet to be determined.

  14. Brain rhythms and neural syntax: implications for efficient coding of cognitive content and neuropsychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Buzsáki, György; Watson, Brendon O

    2012-12-01

    The perpetual activity of the cerebral cortex is largely supported by the variety of oscillations the brain generates, spanning a number of frequencies and anatomical locations, as well as behavioral correlates. First, we review findings from animal studies showing that most forms of brain rhythms are inhibition-based, producing rhythmic volleys of inhibitory inputs to principal cell populations, thereby providing alternating temporal windows of relatively reduced and enhanced excitability in neuronal networks. These inhibition-based mechanisms offer natural temporal frames to group or "chunk" neuronal activity into cell assemblies and sequences of assemblies, with more complex multi-oscillation interactions creating syntactical rules for the effective exchange of information among cortical networks. We then review recent studies in human psychiatric patients demonstrating a variety alterations in neural oscillations across all major psychiatric diseases, and suggest possible future research directions and treatment approaches based on the fundamental properties of brain rhythms.

  15. Alternative perceptual states 'apparent motion' and 'perceived simultaneity' lead to differences of induced EEG rhythms.

    PubMed

    Kompass, R; Hüfner, R; Schröger, E; Kaernbach, C; Geissler, H G

    2000-12-01

    An investigation of the cortical response (EEG) to periodically presented stimuli producing an ambiguity between long-range apparent motion and flicker is reported. ERPs to stimulus onsets differed slightly between the two percepts, in accordance with the results of Manning et al. (1988), Selmes et al. (1997). Induced rhythms exhibited a strong increase in induced beta and gamma powers at electrode positions T7 and T8 during the perception of apparent motion in two out of 10 participants. In addition, a small overall increase in alpha power at 12-13 Hz and a decrease in delta power below 3.5 Hz during perceived motion were found. The results indicate that a variety of different neural rhythms are involved in the perception of long-range apparent motion.

  16. Brain rhythms and neural syntax: implications for efficient coding of cognitive content and neuropsychiatric disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buzsáki, György; Watson, Brendon O.

    2012-01-01

    The perpetual activity of the cerebral cortex is largely supported by the variety of oscillations the brain generates, spanning a number of frequencies and anatomical locations, as well as behavioral correlates. First, we review findings from animal studies showing that most forms of brain rhythms are inhibition-based, producing rhythmic volleys of inhibitory inputs to principal cell populations, thereby providing alternating temporal windows of relatively reduced and enhanced excitability in neuronal networks. These inhibition-based mechanisms offer natural temporal frames to group or “chunk” neuronal activity into cell assemblies and sequences of assemblies, with more complex multi-oscillation interactions creating syntactical rules for the effective exchange of information among cortical networks. We then review recent studies in human psychiatric patients demonstrating a variety alterations in neural oscillations across all major psychiatric diseases, and suggest possible future research directions and treatment approaches based on the fundamental properties of brain rhythms. PMID:23393413

  17. A New Perspective on Teaching English Pronunciation: Rhythm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chi-Fen; And Others

    This paper explores the features of rhythm that make English difficult for speakers of Chinese and suggests some techniques for helping students speak English with an English rhythm. The focus is on information obtained during a workshop: the rhythmic differences between Chinese and English, word rhythm in English, and sentence rhythm in English.…

  18. Astrocytes regulate cortical state switching in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Poskanzer, Kira E.; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    The role of astrocytes in neuronal function has received increasing recognition, but disagreement remains about their function at the circuit level. Here we use in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neocortical astrocytes while monitoring the activity state of the local neuronal circuit electrophysiologically and optically. We find that astrocytic calcium activity precedes spontaneous circuit shifts to the slow-oscillation–dominated state, a neocortical rhythm characterized by synchronized neuronal firing and important for sleep and memory. Further, we show that optogenetic activation of astrocytes switches the local neuronal circuit to this slow-oscillation state. Finally, using two-photon imaging of extracellular glutamate, we find that astrocytic transients in glutamate co-occur with shifts to the synchronized state and that optogenetically activated astrocytes can generate these glutamate transients. We conclude that astrocytes can indeed trigger the low-frequency state of a cortical circuit by altering extracellular glutamate, and therefore play a causal role in the control of cortical synchronizations. PMID:27122314

  19. WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC signal cascade has circadian rhythm dependent on aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Susa, Koichiro; Sohara, Eisei; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Chiga, Motoko; Rai, Tatemitsu; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2012-11-02

    Blood pressure and renal salt excretion show circadian rhythms. Recently, it has been clarified that clock genes regulate circadian rhythms of renal transporter expression in the kidney. Since we discovered the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NaCl cotransporter (NCC) signal cascade, which is important for regulating salt balance and blood pressure, we have sought to determine whether NCC protein expression or phosphorylation shows diurnal rhythms in the mouse kidneys. Male C57BL/6J mice were sacrificed every 4h (at 20:00, 0:00, 4:00, 8:00, 12:00, and 16:00), and the expression and phosphorylation of WNK4, OSR1, SPAK, and NCC were determined by immunoblot. (Lights were turned on at 8:00, which was the start of the rest period, and turned off at 20:00, which was the start of the active period, since mice are nocturnal.) Although expression levels of each protein did not show diurnal rhythm, the phosphorylation levels of OSR1, SPAK, and NCC were increased around the start of the active period and decreased around the start of the rest period. Oral administration of eplerenone (10mg/day) attenuated the phosphorylation levels of these proteins and also diminished the diurnal rhythm of NCC phosphorylation. Thus, the activity of the WNK4-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade was shown to have a diurnal rhythm in the kidney that may be governed by aldosterone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NREM sleep stage transitions control ultradian REM sleep rhythm.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Akifumi; Yasuda, Hideaki; Matsumoto, Takahisa; Inami, Yasushi; Horiguchi, Jun; Tamaki, Masako; Struzik, Zbigniew R; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2011-10-01

    The cyclic sequence of NREM and REM sleep, the so-called ultradian rhythm, is a highly characteristic feature of sleep. However, the mechanisms responsible for the ultradian REM sleep rhythm, particularly in humans, have not to date been fully elucidated. We hypothesize that a stage transition mechanism is involved in the determination of the ultradian REM sleep rhythm. Ten healthy young male volunteers (AGE: 22 ± 4 years, range 19-31 years) spent 3 nights in a sleep laboratory. The first was the adaptation night, and the second was the baseline night. On the third night, the subjects received risperidone (1 mg tablet), a central serotonergic and dopaminergic antagonist, 30 min before the polysomnography recording. We measured and investigated transition probabilities between waking, REM, and NREM sleep stages (N1, N2, and N3) within the REM-onset intervals, defined as the intervals between the onset of one REM period and the beginning of the next, altered by risperidone. We also calculated the transition intensity (i.e., instantaneous transition rate) and examined the temporal pattern of transitions within the altered REM-onset intervals. We found that when the REM-onset interval was prolonged by risperidone, the probability of transitions from N2 to N3 was significantly increased within the same prolonged interval, with a significant delay and/or recurrences of the peak intensity of transitions from N2 to N3. These results suggest that the mechanism governing NREM sleep stage transitions (from light to deep sleep) plays an important role in determining ultradian REM sleep rhythms.

  1. [Circadian rhythms in body temperature and sleep].

    PubMed

    Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-12-01

    A 24 hour variation of core body temperature in humans is primarily regulated by the endogenous circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. And the expression of circadian rhythm is modified by the thermoregulatory mechanism controlling heat production and heat loss, which also show circadian rhythms. On the other hand, circadian rhythms in sleep-wakefulness are expressed by two independent but mutually coupled oscillators, the circadian pacemaker and the oscillator specific to sleep-wakefulness. However, neither the mechanism nor the site of oscillation of the latter is known. The time cues for these two oscillators are different. They are usually but frequently uncoupled under free-running conditions. Body temperature and sleep-wakefulness influence the counterpart in various extents, exerting masking effects on either circadian rhythm.

  2. Studying circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Tataroglu, Ozgur; Emery, Patrick

    2014-06-15

    Circadian rhythms have a profound influence on most bodily functions: from metabolism to complex behaviors. They ensure that all these biological processes are optimized with the time-of-day. They are generated by endogenous molecular oscillators that have a period that closely, but not exactly, matches day length. These molecular clocks are synchronized by environmental cycles such as light intensity and temperature. Drosophila melanogaster has been a model organism of choice to understand genetically, molecularly and at the level of neural circuits how circadian rhythms are generated, how they are synchronized by environmental cues, and how they drive behavioral cycles such as locomotor rhythms. This review will cover a wide range of techniques that have been instrumental to our understanding of Drosophila circadian rhythms, and that are essential for current and future research.

  3. Circadian rhythm dysregulation in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Westrich, Ligia; Sprouse, Jeffrey

    2010-07-01

    When circadian rhythms - the daily oscillations of various physiological and behavioral events that are controlled by a central timekeeping mechanism - become desynchronized with the prevailing light:dark cycle, a maladaptative response can result. Animal data based primarily on genetic manipulations and clinical data from biomarker and gene expression studies support the notion that circadian abnormalities underlie certain psychiatric disorders. In particular, bipolar disorder has an interesting link to rhythm-related disease biology; other mood disturbances, such as major depressive disorder, seasonal affective disorder and the agitation and aggression accompanying severe dementia (sundowning), are also linked to changes in circadian rhythm function. Possibilities for pharmacological intervention derive most readily from the molecular oscillator, the cellular machinery that drives daily rhythms.

  4. Circadian rhythms and treatment implications in depression.

    PubMed

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Martiadis, Vassilis; Maj, Mario

    2011-08-15

    In humans almost all physiological and behavioural functions occur on a rhythmic basis. Therefore the possibility that delays, advances or desynchronizations of circadian rhythms may play a role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders is an interesting field of research. In particular mood disorders such as seasonal affective disorder and major depression have been linked to circadian rhythms alterations. Furthermore, the antidepressant efficacy of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies affecting endogenous circadian rhythms, such as new antidepressant medications, light-therapy and sleep deprivation, is consistent with the idea that circadian alterations may represent a core component of depression, at least in a subgroup of depressed patients. This paper briefly describes the molecular and genetic mechanisms regulating the endogenous clock system, and reviews the literature supporting the relationships between depression, antidepressant treatments and changes in circadian rhythms.

  5. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM REPROGRAMMING DURING LUNG INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Jeffrey A.; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Shaik, Rahamthulla S.; Chu, Jen-Hwa; Raby, Benjamin A.; Cernadas, Manuela; Carey, Vincent; Process, Vanessa; Hunninghake, G. Matthew; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Lederer, James A.; Englert, Joshua; Pelton, Ashley; Coronata, Anna; Fredenburgh, Laura E.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to regulate immune responses in healthy animals, but it is unclear whether they persist during acute illnesses where clock gene expression is disrupted by systemic inflammation. Here, we use a genome-wide approach to investigate circadian gene and metabolite expression in the lungs of endotoxemic mice and find that novel cellular and molecular circadian rhythms are elicited in this setting. The endotoxin-specific circadian program exhibits unique features, including a divergent group of rhythmic genes and metabolites compared to the basal state and a distinct periodicity and phase distribution. At the cellular level endotoxin treatment also alters circadian rhythms of leukocyte counts within the lung in a bmal1-dependent manner, such that granulocytes rather than lymphocytes become the dominant oscillating cell type. Our results show that inflammation produces a complex reorganization of cellular and molecular circadian rhythms that are relevant to early events in lung injury. PMID:25208554

  6. Studying circadian rhythms in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Tataroglu, Ozgur; Emery, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms have a profound influence on most bodily functions: from metabolism to complex behaviors. They ensure that all these biological processes are optimized with the time-of-day. They are generated by endogenous molecular oscillators that have a period that closely, but not exactly, matches day length. These molecular clocks are synchronized by environmental cycles such as light intensity and temperature. Drosophila melanogaster has been a model organism of choice to understand genetically, molecularly and at the level of neural circuits how circadian rhythms are generated, how they are synchronized by environmental cues, and how they drive behavioral cycles such as locomotor rhythms. This review will cover a wide range of techniques that have been instrumental to our understanding of Drosophila circadian rhythms, and that are essential for current and future research. PMID:24412370

  7. Circadian rhythm reprogramming during lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Jeffrey A; Chettimada, Sukrutha; Shaik, Rahamthulla S; Chu, Jen-Hwa; Raby, Benjamin A; Cernadas, Manuela; Carey, Vincent; Process, Vanessa; Hunninghake, G Matthew; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Lederer, James A; Englert, Joshua; Pelton, Ashley; Coronata, Anna; Fredenburgh, Laura E; Choi, Augustine M K

    2014-09-11

    Circadian rhythms are known to regulate immune responses in healthy animals, but it is unclear whether they persist during acute illnesses where clock gene expression is disrupted by systemic inflammation. Here we use a genome-wide approach to investigate circadian gene and metabolite expression in the lungs of endotoxemic mice and find that novel cellular and molecular circadian rhythms are elicited in this setting. The endotoxin-specific circadian programme exhibits unique features, including a divergent group of rhythmic genes and metabolites compared with the basal state and a distinct periodicity and phase distribution. At the cellular level, endotoxin treatment also alters circadian rhythms of leukocyte counts within the lung in a bmal1-dependent manner, such that granulocytes rather than lymphocytes become the dominant oscillating cell type. Our results show that inflammation produces a complex re-organization of cellular and molecular circadian rhythms that are relevant to early events in lung injury.

  8. Post-Acceleration Chaotic Atrial Rhythm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    atrial flutter or two discrete P-wave morphologies with the rate less fibrillation. than 100 bpm). and sinus bradycardia. An occasional The time...mulhilocal paroxysmal atrial tach.- cardia with cclic Wcnckchach phenomenon under observation examinations. The chaotic atrial rhythm in this case ji r 13...CHAOTIC ATRIAL RHYTHM Final Report 1 July 81 - 30 July 81 6. PERFORMING OIG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(s) 8 CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERS) r James E

  9. Melatonin, the Pineal Gland, and Circadian Rhythms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-28

    astrocytes in the chick visual suprachiasmatic nucleus . Trans, Soc. Res. Biol. Rhythms 4:118 4) Brooks, D.S., AJ. Mitchell and...W.S., T.H. Champney and V.M. Cassone ( in press) The suprachiasmatic nucleus controls circadian rhythms of heart-rate via the sympathetic nervous...sparrows. N•,u•.si.LAbs. 19: 1487 2) Warren, W.S., V.M. Cassone (1993) The regulation of multiple circadian outputs by the suprachiasmatic

  10. Neurophysiological Analysis of Circadian Rhythm Entrainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-24

    the newly discovered 5 - HT7 receptor have yet to be performed. These results demonstrate that serotonin acting through a 5 -HTIA-like receptor can...ANNUAL 1 Jan 93 TO 31 Dec 93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5 . FUNDING NUMBERS NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHM F49620-93-1-0089 ENTRAINMENT j...sensitivity of SCN cells to serotonin ( 5 -HT) and the effects of serotonin on rhythm entrainment. The evidence to date has suggested, however, that

  11. Therapeutics for Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Ehren R.; Zee, Phyllis C

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The sleep-wake cycle is regulated by the interaction of endogenous circadian and homeostatic processes. The circadian system provides timing information for most physiological rhythms, including the sleep and wake cycle. In addition, the central circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus has been shown to promote alertness during the day. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders arise when there is a misalignment between the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythms and the external environment or when there is dysfunction of the circadian clock or its entrainment pathways. The primary synchronizing agents of the circadian system are light and melatonin. Light is the strongest entraining agent of circadian rhythms and timed exposure to bright light is often used in the treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. In addition, timed administration of melatonin, either alone or in combination with light therapy has been shown to be useful in the treatment of the following circadian rhythm sleep disorders: delayed sleep phase, advanced sleep phase, free-running, irregular sleep wake, jet lag and shift work. PMID:21243069

  12. Mechanisms of Hierarchical Cortical Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Chomiak, Taylor; Hu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Cortical information processing is structurally and functionally organized into hierarchical pathways, with primary sensory cortical regions providing modality specific information and associative cortical regions playing a more integrative role. Historically, there has been debate as to whether primary cortical regions mature earlier than associative cortical regions, or whether both primary and associative cortical regions mature simultaneously. Identifying whether primary and associative cortical regions mature hierarchically or simultaneously will not only deepen our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate brain maturation, but it will also provide fundamental insight into aspects of adolescent behavior, learning, neurodevelopmental disorders and computational models of neural processing. This mini-review article summarizes the current evidence supporting the sequential and hierarchical nature of cortical maturation, and then proposes a new cellular model underlying this process. Finally, unresolved issues associated with hierarchical cortical maturation are also addressed. PMID:28959187

  13. 170H-progesterone rhythms in congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Young, M C; Robinson, J A; Read, G F; Riad-Fahmy, D; Hughes, I A

    1988-01-01

    Serial blood spot and saliva samples were collected at home by 18 patients being treated for congenital adrenal hyperplasia to determine the circadian rhythm of 170H-progesterone as an index of therapeutic control. There was a strong correlation between the magnitude of the circadian fall and a single morning measurement of the plasma testosterone concentration taken near the time of the 170H-progesterone rhythm samples. Poor control in pubertal girls produced an exaggerated circadian fall in 170H-progesterone concentrations that were raised at all sampling times. Optimal control (plasma testosterone 1.5-2.5 nmol/l) was associated with blood spot and salivary 170H-progesterone concentrations at 0800 hours of between 30-70 nmol/l and 260-1000 pmol/l, respectively, falling thereafter to less than 10 nmol/l and less than 150 pmol/l, respectively. Similar results were obtained in prepubertal patients. Nomograms have been constructed to interpret the daily profiles of blood spot or salivary measurements of 170H-progesterone, or both. The analysis of 170H-progesterone circadian rhythms is useful in monitoring treatment in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, particularly those who may be overtreated. PMID:3389891

  14. Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Lertratanakul, A.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Peterson, A. L.; Kaliton, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder marked by loss of motoneurons. We hypothesized that subjects with ALS would have an altered gait rhythm, with an increase in both the magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and perturbations in the fluctuation dynamics. To test for this locomotor instability, we quantitatively compared the gait rhythm of subjects with ALS with that of normal controls and with that of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), pathologies of the basal ganglia. Subjects walked for 5 min at their usual pace wearing an ankle-worn recorder that enabled determination of the duration of each stride and of stride-to-stride fluctuations. We found that the gait of patients with ALS is less steady and more temporally disorganized compared with that of healthy controls. In addition, advanced ALS, HD, and PD were associated with certain common, as well as apparently distinct, features of altered stride dynamics. Thus stride-to-stride control of gait rhythm is apparently compromised with ALS. Moreover, a matrix of markers based on gait dynamics may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  15. Dynamic markers of altered gait rhythm in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausdorff, J. M.; Lertratanakul, A.; Cudkowicz, M. E.; Peterson, A. L.; Kaliton, D.; Goldberger, A. L.

    2000-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder marked by loss of motoneurons. We hypothesized that subjects with ALS would have an altered gait rhythm, with an increase in both the magnitude of the stride-to-stride fluctuations and perturbations in the fluctuation dynamics. To test for this locomotor instability, we quantitatively compared the gait rhythm of subjects with ALS with that of normal controls and with that of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), pathologies of the basal ganglia. Subjects walked for 5 min at their usual pace wearing an ankle-worn recorder that enabled determination of the duration of each stride and of stride-to-stride fluctuations. We found that the gait of patients with ALS is less steady and more temporally disorganized compared with that of healthy controls. In addition, advanced ALS, HD, and PD were associated with certain common, as well as apparently distinct, features of altered stride dynamics. Thus stride-to-stride control of gait rhythm is apparently compromised with ALS. Moreover, a matrix of markers based on gait dynamics may be useful in characterizing certain pathologies of motor control and, possibly, in quantitatively monitoring disease progression and evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  16. Prolactin circadian rhythm persists throughout lactation in women.

    PubMed

    Stern, J M; Reichlin, S

    1990-01-01

    To determine whether the prolactin (PRL) circadian rhythm, with its characteristic nocturnal rise, persists during the hyperprolactinemia of lactation, PRL levels were analyzed in blood samples collected hourly for 24 h from 20 mothers, 4-46 months postpartum. The circadian rhythm of PRL persisted throughout lactation as manifested by: (1) significantly higher mean nighttime than daytime PRL levels in the whole sample, despite higher daytime nursing durations; (2) the distribution of zenith levels which most frequently occur between 23.00 and 07.00 h, when nursing duration is lowest, and which are almost absent between 07.00 and 23.00 h, when nursing duration is highest, and of nadir levels, which have an opposite pattern; (3) spontaneous PRL surges that are more frequent, longer, and of higher magnitude at night than during the day, and (4) the larger magnitude of suckling-induced PRL release from late afternoon through the night compared to the morning in some women. Our data suggest that the mechanisms responsible for the circadian rhythm in PRL secretion are relatively independent of the mechanisms of suckling-induced release. We propose that the nocturnal rise in PRL during lactation functions to ensure a robust milk supply during an extensive nonsuckling interval.

  17. Abnormal reactivity of the approximately 20-Hz motor cortex rhythm in Unverricht Lundborg type progressive myoclonus epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Silén, T; Forss, N; Jensen, O; Hari, R

    2000-12-01

    The approximately 20-Hz component of the human mu rhythm originates predominantly in the primary motor cortex. We monitored with a whole-scalp neuromagnetometer the reactivity of the approximately 20-Hz rhythm as an index of the functional state of the primary motor cortex in seven patients suffering from Unverricht-Lundborg type (ULD) progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) and in seven healthy control subjects. In patients, the motor cortex rhythm was on average 5 Hz lower in frequency and its strength was double compared with controls. To study reactivity of the approximately 20-Hz rhythm, left and right median nerves were stimulated alternately at wrists. In controls, these stimuli elicited a small transient decrease, followed by a strong increase ("rebound") of the approximately 20-Hz level. In contrast, the patients showed no significant rebounds of the rhythm. As the approximately 20-Hz rebounds apparently reflect increased cortical inhibition, our results indicate that peripheral stimuli excite motor cortex for prolonged periods in patients with ULD.

  18. Circadian activity rhythms and risk of incident dementia and MCI in older women

    PubMed Central

    Tranah, Gregory J.; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Paudel, Misti L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Redline, Susan; Hillier, Teresa A.; Cummings, Steven R; Yaffe, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Objective Previous cross-sectional studies have observed alterations in activity rhythms in dementia patients but the direction of causation is unclear. We determined whether circadian activity rhythms measured in community-dwelling older women are prospectively associated with incident dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Method Activity rhythm data were collected from 1,282 healthy community-dwelling women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures cohort (mean age 83 years) with wrist actigraphy for a minimum of three 24-hour periods. Each participant completed a neuropsychological test battery and had clinical cognitive status (dementia, MCI, normal) adjudicated by an expert panel approximately 5 years later. All analyses were adjusted for demographics, BMI, functional status, depression, medications, alcohol, caffeine, smoking, health status, and co-morbidities. Results After 4.9 years of follow-up, 195 (15%) women had developed dementia and 302 (24%) had developed MCI. Older women with decreased activity rhythms had a higher likelihood of developing dementia or MCI when comparing those in the lowest quartiles of amplitude (Odds ratio[OR]=1.57,95% CI,1.09–2.25) or rhythm robustness (OR=1.57,95%CI,1.10–2.26) to women in the highest quartiles. An increased risk of dementia or MCI (OR=1.83,95% CI,1.29–2.61) was found for women whose timing of peak activity occurred later in the day (after 3:51PM) when compared to those with average timing (1:34PM–3:51PM). Interpretation Older, healthy women with decreased circadian activity rhythm amplitude and robustness, and delayed rhythms have increased odds of developing dementia and MCI. If confirmed, future studies should examine whether interventions (physical activity, bright light exposure) that influence activity rhythms will reduce the risk of cognitive deterioration in the elderly. PMID:22162057

  19. Desynchronized respiratory rhythms and their interactions in cats with split brain stems.

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, F L; Paydarfar, D

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects on activities and rhythms of the two opposing phrenic nerves (C5 roots) of mid-line sagittal splitting of the medulla were determined in anaesthetized or decorticate, vagotomized, paralysed and ventilated cats. 2. Splitting the medulla above the obex led to marked decreases of phrenic activity on both sides, but no desynchronization of the two phrenic rhythms occurred. Further splitting to more than 3 mm below the obex led to desynchronized phrenic rhythms in fourteen of the fifteen animals that survived the necessary surgery, although it was often necessary to increase respiratory drive by means of hypercapnia, stimulatory drugs or electrical stimulation of the mesencephalon to cause the rhythms to occur. 3. When only the brain stem had been split, the two desynchronized rhythms showed interactions that led to modulations of amplitude of phrenic bursts, both being larger when in phase than when out of phase. In addition each side modulated the rhythm of the opposite side, demonstrating a 'magnet' effect. 4. Both types of modulation were eliminated after additional splitting of the spinal cord at the level (C5-C6) of the phrenic motoneurone pools. 5. Potential explanations for the amplitude modulations include cross-over of activity from one phrenic motoneurone pool to the opposite side and cross-over from the medulla of one side to the opposite phrenic motoneurone pool at the phrenic level. 6. Since the rhythm generators were independent in our preparation and located in the split halves of the medulla and since peripheral sensory feed-back was not important in these paralysed animals, we propose that the phase modulations must be due to a corollary discharge, an afferent feed-back driven by phrenic motoneurone activity that crosses the mid-line at C5-C6, ascends to the brain and affects respiratory rhythm in the opposite medullary half. PMID:2507779

  20. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Otto; Qualls, Clifford; Barbic, Franca; Furlan, Raffaello; Porta, Alberto

    2007-07-25

    Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.

  1. Pulmonary vein activation in atrial fibrillation and sinus rhythm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao Sheng; Thomas, Stuart P

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between pulmonary vein (PV) electrical activation during atrial fibrillation (AF) and after cardioversion into sinus rhythm. Electrograms were recorded using a circular mapping catheter during AF and after cardioversion in 53 PVs from 41 patients. Two activation patterns were observed in AF. Group 1 had fixed, consistent, uniform activation sequences most (>70%) of the recording time. Group 2 had no fixed activation sequence. In Group 1, a constant single activation sequence pattern was seen in 22 PVs (Group 1a). The earliest PV activation sites were the same during AF and after cardioversion to sinus rhythm in 17 (77%) PVs from Group 1a. Fourteen of these 17 (82%) cases also had a common site of electrogram polarity reversal. In Group 2, a relationship between PV activation before and after cardioversion was not found. Segmental radio frequency (RF) ablation was performed during sinus rhythm after cardioversion. There was no difference in the number of atriovenous breakthroughs between the two groups (1.9+/-0.7 vs. 2.0+/-0.6 breakthroughs, P=NS). PV disconnection was achieved in all PVs with a mean RF duration of 13.5+/-4.5 min per vein in Group 1 and 14.0+/-4.9 min per vein in Group 2 (P=NS). A uniform PV electrogram pattern recorded during AF usually predicts the activation sequence and/or the polarity reversal sites during sinus rhythm. This pattern does not necessarily suggest a single atriovenous breakthrough point.

  2. The influence of rhythm and personality in the endurance response to motivational asynchronous music.

    PubMed

    Crust, Lee; Clough, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we examined participants' responses to motivational asynchronous music by isolating rhythmical properties and exploring personality correlates. Fifty-eight physically active participants (41 men and 17 women) aged 22.3 +/- 6.4 years performed an isometric weight-holding task on three occasions while being randomly exposed to no music, rhythm and motivational music. The rhythm and music conditions were edited portions of the same musical selection and had identical fast tempi, although the rhythm condition contained no melody, harmonies or lyrics. Participants each completed a copy of Cattell's 16PF following the third and final trial. A repeated-measures analysis of variance found the participants held the weight suspended for significantly longer when listening to motivational music in comparison to rhythm or no music. When listening to rhythm, participants endured the task for significantly longer than when listening to no music. The response to music was found to be significantly related to liveliness, while sensitivity correlated with responses to music factors (harmony, melody, lyrics, etc.) not present in the rhythm condition. These results suggest that responses to motivational music are subtle in nature and are determined by both musical factors and individual characteristics, and potentially an interaction between the two.

  3. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood.

  4. An adaptive singular spectrum analysis method for extracting brain rhythms of electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai; Guo, Shengxin; Liu, Ran; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Artifacts removal and rhythms extraction from electroencephalography (EEG) signals are important for portable and wearable EEG recording devices. Incorporating a novel grouping rule, we proposed an adaptive singular spectrum analysis (SSA) method for artifacts removal and rhythms extraction. Based on the EEG signal amplitude, the grouping rule determines adaptively the first one or two SSA reconstructed components as artifacts and removes them. The remaining reconstructed components are then grouped based on their peak frequencies in the Fourier transform to extract the desired rhythms. The grouping rule thus enables SSA to be adaptive to EEG signals containing different levels of artifacts and rhythms. The simulated EEG data based on the Markov Process Amplitude (MPA) EEG model and the experimental EEG data in the eyes-open and eyes-closed states were used to verify the adaptive SSA method. Results showed a better performance in artifacts removal and rhythms extraction, compared with the wavelet decomposition (WDec) and another two recently reported SSA methods. Features of the extracted alpha rhythms using adaptive SSA were calculated to distinguish between the eyes-open and eyes-closed states. Results showed a higher accuracy (95.8%) than those of the WDec method (79.2%) and the infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering method (83.3%).

  5. Phenotypic and Genetic Analysis of Clock, a New Circadian Rhythm Mutant in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Dushay, M. S.; Konopka, R. J.; Orr, D.; Greenacre, M. L.; Kyriacou, C. P.; Rosbash, M.; Hall, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    Clock is a semidominant X-linked mutation that results in shortening the period of Drosophila melanogaster's free-running locomotor activity rhythm from ca. 24.0 to ca. 22.5 hr. This mutation similarly shortened the phase response curve, determined by resetting activity rhythms with light pulses. Eclosion peaks for Clk cultures were separated by only 22.5 hr instead of the normal 24 hr. Clk was mapped close to, but separable from, another rhythm mutation--period(01)--by recombination. The estimated distance between these two mutations was short enough to suggest that Clk could be a per allele. If this is the case, the new mutant is unique in that it, unlike other per variants, is associated with essentially normal 1-min courtship song rhythms when Clk is expressed in males. Also, the new rhythm variant could not, in contrast to a short-period per mutation, have its effects on free-running activity rhythms uncovered by deletions. This result, and the lack of coverage of Clk's effects by duplications, suggest that it is not a simple hypomorphic or amorphic mutation. PMID:2116357

  6. Disruption of Daily Rhythms by High-Fat Diet Is Reversible

    PubMed Central

    Branecky, Katrina L.; Niswender, Kevin D.; Pendergast, Julie S.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals a network of circadian clocks coordinates behavior and physiology with 24-h environmental cycles. Consumption of high-fat diet disrupts this temporal coordination by advancing the phase of the liver molecular clock and altering daily rhythms of eating behavior and locomotor activity. In this study we sought to determine whether these effects of high-fat diet on circadian rhythms were reversible. We chronically fed mice high-fat diet and then returned them to low-fat chow diet. We found that the phase of the liver PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE rhythm was advanced (by 4h) and the daily rhythms of eating behavior and locomotor activity were altered for the duration of chronic high-fat diet feeding. Upon diet reversal, the eating behavior rhythm was rapidly reversed (within 2 days) and the phase of the liver clock was restored by 7 days of diet reversal. In contrast, the daily pattern of locomotor activity was not restored even after 2 weeks of diet reversal. Thus, while the circadian system is sensitive to changes in the macronutrient composition of food, the eating behavior rhythm and liver circadian clock are specifically tuned to respond to changes in diet. PMID:26366733

  7. An adaptive singular spectrum analysis method for extracting brain rhythms of electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hai; Guo, Shengxin; Liu, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Artifacts removal and rhythms extraction from electroencephalography (EEG) signals are important for portable and wearable EEG recording devices. Incorporating a novel grouping rule, we proposed an adaptive singular spectrum analysis (SSA) method for artifacts removal and rhythms extraction. Based on the EEG signal amplitude, the grouping rule determines adaptively the first one or two SSA reconstructed components as artifacts and removes them. The remaining reconstructed components are then grouped based on their peak frequencies in the Fourier transform to extract the desired rhythms. The grouping rule thus enables SSA to be adaptive to EEG signals containing different levels of artifacts and rhythms. The simulated EEG data based on the Markov Process Amplitude (MPA) EEG model and the experimental EEG data in the eyes-open and eyes-closed states were used to verify the adaptive SSA method. Results showed a better performance in artifacts removal and rhythms extraction, compared with the wavelet decomposition (WDec) and another two recently reported SSA methods. Features of the extracted alpha rhythms using adaptive SSA were calculated to distinguish between the eyes-open and eyes-closed states. Results showed a higher accuracy (95.8%) than those of the WDec method (79.2%) and the infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering method (83.3%). PMID:28674650

  8. Wavelet analysis of learning and forgetting of photostimulation rhythms for a nonstationary electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhokin, S. V.

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative parameters characterizing transient processes of mastering and forgetting of photostimulation (PST) rhythms for a nonstationary electroencephalogram (EEG) are developed on the basis of a continuous wavelet transformation. Nonstationarity factor K nst(μ), as well as rhythm mastering K M (μ) and confinement K C (μ) factors are calculated for various spectral ranges μ. Photoflash mastering time τ M = τ S + τ I , which is the sum of latent silence period τ S after PST actuation and the rhythm increasing period τ I is calculated. In the case of PST, the EEG rhythm retardation time τ R relative to the beginning of PST is calculated. Rhythm forgetting time τ F = τ P + τ D after PST actuation is the sum of the preservation time τ P of the corresponding rhythm over a certain time interval and its decay period τ D . The lag time τ L of the EEG signal relative to the PST signal after its removal is determined. The proposed method is used in quantitative analysis and classification of transient processes characterizing the properties of the central nervous system. Possible applications of the method in analysis of various nonstationary signals in physics are discussed.

  9. Melatonin rhythms in the Australian freshwater crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni): a reptile lacking a pineal complex?

    PubMed

    Firth, Bruce T; Christian, Keith A; Belan, Ingrid; Kennaway, David J

    2010-01-01

    The vertebrate pineal gland is the primary source of melatonin, the rhythmic secretion of which is influenced by environmental light and temperature, thereby providing animals with information about seasonally changing photoperiod and thermoperiod. Although pineal glands are present in the majority of vertebrate species, a discrete organ is reported to be absent in the Crocodilia. However, if the melatonin rhythm is crucial to the survival of the organism, it would be expected that the rhythm would be present in crocodiles. In the present study, we measured blood plasma melatonin over a 30-h period in aestivating Australian freshwater crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni) in their natural habitat at the end of the dry season (November) and found no discernible melatonin rhythm. However, another group of captive-reared C. johnstoni, maintained under natural light and temperature cycles and sampled in the early dry season (June) showed a clear melatonin rhythm. These results suggest that there is either an extrapineal source of melatonin in this crocodile species or that there is melatonin producing tissue elsewhere which heretofore has not been discovered. Further studies are needed to determine why the melatonin rhythm is intermittently expressed and whether this may be related to seasonal changes in the expression of the rhythm linked to tropical environments.

  10. Decision by division: making cortical maps

    PubMed Central

    Rakic, Pasko; Ayoub, Albert E.; Breunig, Joshua J.; Dominguez, Martin H.

    2013-01-01

    In the past three decades, mounting evidence has revealed that specification of the basic cortical neuronal classes starts at the time of their final mitotic divisions in the embryonic proliferative zones. This early cell determination continues during the migration of the newborn neurons across the widening cerebral wall, and it is in the cortical plate that they attain their final positions and establish species-specific cytoarchitectonic areas. Here, the development and evolutionary expansion of the neocortex is viewed in the context of the radial unit and protomap hypotheses. A broad spectrum of findings gave insight into the pathogenesis of cortical malformations and the biological bases for the evolution of the modern human neocortex. We examine the history and evidence behind the concept of early specification of neurons and provide the latest compendium of genes and signaling molecules involved in neuronal fate determination and specification. PMID:19380167

  11. Alpha rhythms in audition: cognitive and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Nathan; Hartmann, Thomas; Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Obleser, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Like the visual and the sensorimotor systems, the auditory system exhibits pronounced alpha-like resting oscillatory activity. Due to the relatively small spatial extent of auditory cortical areas, this rhythmic activity is less obvious and frequently masked by non-auditory alpha-generators when recording non-invasively using magnetoencephalography (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). Following stimulation with sounds, marked desynchronizations can be observed between 6 and 12 Hz, which can be localized to the auditory cortex. However knowledge about the functional relevance of the auditory alpha rhythm has remained scarce so far. Results from the visual and sensorimotor system have fuelled the hypothesis of alpha activity reflecting a state of functional inhibition. The current article pursues several intentions: (1) Firstly we review and present own evidence (MEG, EEG, sEEG) for the existence of an auditory alpha-like rhythm independent of visual or motor generators, something that is occasionally met with skepticism. (2) In a second part we will discuss tinnitus and how this audiological symptom may relate to reduced background alpha. The clinical part will give an introduction into a method which aims to modulate neurophysiological activity hypothesized to underlie this distressing disorder. Using neurofeedback, one is able to directly target relevant oscillatory activity. Preliminary data point to a high potential of this approach for treating tinnitus. (3) Finally, in a cognitive neuroscientific part we will show that auditory alpha is modulated by anticipation/expectations with and without auditory stimulation. We will also introduce ideas and initial evidence that alpha oscillations are involved in the most complex capability of the auditory system, namely speech perception. The evidence presented in this article corroborates findings from other modalities, indicating that alpha-like activity functionally has an universal inhibitory role across sensory

  12. Neural Oscillations Carry Speech Rhythm through to Comprehension.

    PubMed

    Peelle, Jonathan E; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-01-01

    A key feature of speech is the quasi-regular rhythmic information contained in its slow amplitude modulations. In this article we review the information conveyed by speech rhythm, and the role of ongoing brain oscillations in listeners' processing of this content. Our starting point is the fact that speech is inherently temporal, and that rhythmic information conveyed by the amplitude envelope contains important markers for place and manner of articulation, segmental information, and speech rate. Behavioral studies demonstrate that amplitude envelope information is relied upon by listeners and plays a key role in speech intelligibility. Extending behavioral findings, data from neuroimaging - particularly electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) - point to phase locking by ongoing cortical oscillations to low-frequency information (~4-8 Hz) in the speech envelope. This phase modulation effectively encodes a prediction of when important events (such as stressed syllables) are likely to occur, and acts to increase sensitivity to these relevant acoustic cues. We suggest a framework through which such neural entrainment to speech rhythm can explain effects of speech rate on word and segment perception (i.e., that the perception of phonemes and words in connected speech is influenced by preceding speech rate). Neuroanatomically, acoustic amplitude modulations are processed largely bilaterally in auditory cortex, with intelligible speech resulting in differential recruitment of left-hemisphere regions. Notable among these is lateral anterior temporal cortex, which we propose functions in a domain-general fashion to support ongoing memory and integration of meaningful input. Together, the reviewed evidence suggests that low-frequency oscillations in the acoustic speech signal form the foundation of a rhythmic hierarchy supporting spoken language, mirrored by phase-locked oscillations in the human brain.

  13. Neural Oscillations Carry Speech Rhythm through to Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Davis, Matthew H.

    2012-01-01

    A key feature of speech is the quasi-regular rhythmic information contained in its slow amplitude modulations. In this article we review the information conveyed by speech rhythm, and the role of ongoing brain oscillations in listeners’ processing of this content. Our starting point is the fact that speech is inherently temporal, and that rhythmic information conveyed by the amplitude envelope contains important markers for place and manner of articulation, segmental information, and speech rate. Behavioral studies demonstrate that amplitude envelope information is relied upon by listeners and plays a key role in speech intelligibility. Extending behavioral findings, data from neuroimaging – particularly electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) – point to phase locking by ongoing cortical oscillations to low-frequency information (~4–8 Hz) in the speech envelope. This phase modulation effectively encodes a prediction of when important events (such as stressed syllables) are likely to occur, and acts to increase sensitivity to these relevant acoustic cues. We suggest a framework through which such neural entrainment to speech rhythm can explain effects of speech rate on word and segment perception (i.e., that the perception of phonemes and words in connected speech is influenced by preceding speech rate). Neuroanatomically, acoustic amplitude modulations are processed largely bilaterally in auditory cortex, with intelligible speech resulting in differential recruitment of left-hemisphere regions. Notable among these is lateral anterior temporal cortex, which we propose functions in a domain-general fashion to support ongoing memory and integration of meaningful input. Together, the reviewed evidence suggests that low-frequency oscillations in the acoustic speech signal form the foundation of a rhythmic hierarchy supporting spoken language, mirrored by phase-locked oscillations in the human brain. PMID:22973251

  14. Mapping cortical mesoscopic networks of single spiking cortical or sub-cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P; Mitelut, Catalin C; Chan, Allen W; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Xie, Yicheng; Chen, Andrew Cn; Swindale, Nicholas V; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-02-04

    Understanding the basis of brain function requires knowledge of cortical operations over wide-spatial scales, but also within the context of single neurons. In vivo, wide-field GCaMP imaging and sub-cortical/cortical cellular electrophysiology were used in mice to investigate relationships between spontaneous single neuron spiking and mesoscopic cortical activity. We make use of a rich set of cortical activity motifs that are present in spontaneous activity in anesthetized and awake animals. A mesoscale spike-triggered averaging procedure allowed the identification of motifs that are preferentially linked to individual spiking neurons by employing genetically targeted indicators of neuronal activity. Thalamic neurons predicted and reported specific cycles of wide-scale cortical inhibition/excitation. In contrast, spike-triggered maps derived from single cortical neurons yielded spatio-temporal maps expected for regional cortical consensus function. This approach can define network relationships between any point source of neuronal spiking and mesoscale cortical maps.

  15. Circadian Rhythm in Cytokines Administration.

    PubMed

    Trufakin, Valery A; Shurlygina, Anna V

    2016-01-01

    In recent times, a number of diseases involving immune system dysfunction have appeared. This increases the importance of research aimed at finding and developing optimized methods for immune system correction. Numerous studies have found a positive effect in using cytokines to treat a variety of diseases, yet the clinical use of cytokines is limited by their toxicity. Research in the field of chronotherapy, aimed at designing schedules of medicine intake using circadian biorhythms of endogenous production of factors, and receptors' expression to the factors on the target cells, as well as chronopharmacodynamics and chronopharmacokinetics of medicines may contribute to the solution of this problem. Advantages of chronotherapy include a greater effectiveness of treatment, reduced dose of required drugs, and minimized adverse effects. This review presents data on the presence of circadian rhythms of spontaneous and induced cytokine production, as well as the expression of cytokine receptors in the healthy body and in a number of diseases. The article reviews various effects of cytokines, used at different times of the day in humans and experimental animals, as well as possible mechanisms underlying the chronodependent effects of cytokines. The article presents the results of chronotherapeutic modes of administering IL-2, interferons, G-CSF, and GM-CSF in treatment of various types of cancer as well as in experimental models of immune suppression and inflammation, which lead to a greater effectiveness of therapy, the possibility of reducing or increasing the dosage, and reduced drug toxicity. Further research in this field will contribute to the effectiveness and safety of cytokine therapy.

  16. Practical Designs of Brain-Computer Interfaces Based on the Modulation of EEG Rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yijun; Gao, Xiaorong; Hong, Bo; Gao, Shangkai

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a communication channel which does not depend on the brain's normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles [1-3]. It supplies paralyzed patients with a new approach to communicate with the environment. Among various brain monitoring methods employed in current BCI research, electroencephalogram (EEG) is the main interest due to its advantages of low cost, convenient operation and non-invasiveness. In present-day EEG-based BCIs, the following signals have been paid much attention: visual evoked potential (VEP), sensorimotor mu/beta rhythms, P300 evoked potential, slow cortical potential (SCP), and movement-related cortical potential (MRCP). Details about these signals can be found in chapter "Brain Signals for Brain-Computer Interfaces". These systems offer some practical solutions (e.g., cursor movement and word processing) for patients with motor disabilities.

  17. Laminar Profile and Physiology of the α Rhythm in Primary Visual, Auditory, and Somatosensory Regions of Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Barczak, Annamaria; Musacchia, Gabriella; Lipton, Michael L.; Mehta, Ashesh D.; Lakatos, Peter; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    The functional significance of the α rhythm is widely debated. It has been proposed that α reflects sensory inhibition and/or a temporal sampling or “parsing” mechanism. There is also continuing disagreement over the more fundamental questions of which cortical layers generate α rhythms and whether the generation of α is equivalent across sensory systems. To address these latter questions, we analyzed laminar profiles of local field potentials (LFPs) and concomitant multiunit activity (MUA) from macaque V1, S1, and A1 during both spontaneous activity and sensory stimulation. Current source density (CSD) analysis of laminar LFP profiles revealed α current generators in the supragranular, granular, and infragranular layers. MUA phase-locked to local current source/sink configurations confirmed that α rhythms index local neuronal excitability fluctuations. CSD-defined α generators were strongest in the supragranular layers, whereas LFP α power was greatest in the infragranular layers, consistent with some of the previous reports. The discrepancy between LFP and CSD findings appears to be attributable to contamination of the infragranular LFP signal by activity that is volume-conducted from the stronger supragranular α generators. The presence of α generators across cortical depth in V1, S1, and A1 suggests the involvement of α in feedforward as well as feedback processes and is consistent with the view that α rhythms, perhaps in addition to a role in sensory inhibition, may parse sensory input streams in a way that facilitates communication across cortical areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The α rhythm is thought to reflect sensory inhibition and/or a temporal parsing mechanism. Here, we address two outstanding issues: (1) whether α is a general mechanism across sensory systems and (2) which cortical layers generate α oscillations. Using intracranial recordings from macaque V1, S1, and A1, we show α band activity with a similar spectral and laminar

  18. Visualization of Cortical Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinvald, Amiram

    2003-03-01

    Recent progress in studies of cortical dynamics will be reviewed including the combination of real time optical imaging based on voltage sensitive dyes, single and multi- unit recordings, LFP, intracellular recordings and microstimulation. To image the flow of neuronal activity from one cortical site to the next, in real time, we have used optical imaging based on newly designed voltage sensitive dyes and a Fuji 128x 128 fast camera which we modified. A factor of 20-40 fold improvement in the signal to noise ratio was obtained with the new dye during in vivo imaging experiments. This improvements has facilitates the exploration of cortical dynamics without signal averaging in the millisecond time domain. We confirmed that the voltage sensitive dye signal indeed reflects membrane potential changes in populations of neurons by showing that the time course of the intracellular activity recorded intracellularly from a single neuron was highly correlated in many cases with the optical signal from a small patch of cortex recorded nearby. We showed that the firing of single cortical neurons is not a random process but occurs when the on-going pattern of million of neurons is similar to the functional architecture map which correspond to the tuning properties of that neuron. Chronic optical imaging, combined with electrical recordings and microstimulation, over a long period of times of more than a year, was successfully applied also to the study of higher brain functions in the behaving macaque monkey.

  19. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Milena

    2017-08-01

    The endogenous circadian rhythms are one of the cardinal processes that control sleep. They are self-sustaining biological rhythms with a periodicity of approximately 24 hours that may be entrained by external zeitgebers (German for time givers), such as light, exercise, and meal times. This article discusses the physiology of the circadian rhythms, their relationship to neurologic disease, and the presentation and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Classic examples of circadian rhythms include cortisol and melatonin secretion, body temperature, and urine volume. More recently, the impact of circadian rhythm on several neurologic disorders has been investigated, such as the timing of occurrence of epileptic seizures as well as neurobehavioral functioning in dementia. Further updates include a more in-depth understanding of the symptoms, consequences, and treatment of circadian sleep-wake disorders, which may occur because of extrinsic misalignment with clock time or because of intrinsic dysfunction of the brain. An example of extrinsic misalignment occurs with jet lag during transmeridian travel or with intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders such as advanced or delayed sleep-wake phase disorders. In advanced sleep-wake phase disorder, which is most common in elderly individuals, sleep onset and morning arousal are undesirably early, leading to impaired evening function with excessive sleepiness and sleep-maintenance insomnia with early morning awakening. By contrast, delayed sleep-wake phase disorder is characterized by an inability to initiate sleep before the early morning hours, with subsequent delayed rise time, leading to clinical symptoms of severe sleep-onset insomnia coupled with excessive daytime sleepiness in the morning hours, as patients are unable to "sleep in" to attain sufficient sleep quantity. Irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder is misentrainment with patches of brief sleep and wakefulness spread throughout the day

  20. Daily rhythms of the sleep-wake cycle

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The amount and timing of sleep and sleep architecture (sleep stages) are determined by several factors, important among which are the environment, circadian rhythms and time awake. Separating the roles played by these factors requires specific protocols, including the constant routine and altered sleep-wake schedules. Results from such protocols have led to the discovery of the factors that determine the amounts and distribution of slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep as well as to the development of models to determine the amount and timing of sleep. One successful model postulates two processes. The first is process S, which is due to sleep pressure (and increases with time awake) and is attributed to a 'sleep homeostat'. Process S reverses during slow wave sleep (when it is called process S'). The second is process C, which shows a daily rhythm that is parallel to the rhythm of core temperature. Processes S and C combine approximately additively to determine the times of sleep onset and waking. The model has proved useful in describing normal sleep in adults. Current work aims to identify the detailed nature of processes S and C. The model can also be applied to circumstances when the sleep-wake cycle is different from the norm in some way. These circumstances include: those who are poor sleepers or short sleepers; the role an individual's chronotype (a measure of how the timing of the individual's preferred sleep-wake cycle compares with the average for a population); and changes in the sleep-wake cycle with age, particularly in adolescence and aging, since individuals tend to prefer to go to sleep later during adolescence and earlier in old age. In all circumstances, the evidence that sleep times and architecture are altered and the possible causes of these changes (including altered S, S' and C processes) are examined. PMID:22738268

  1. The relationship between complex fractionated electrograms and atrial low-voltage zones during atrial fibrillation and paced rhythm.

    PubMed

    Teh, Andrew W; Kistler, Peter M; Lee, Geoffrey; Medi, Caroline; Heck, Patrick M; Spence, Steven J; Sparks, Paul B; Morton, Joseph B; Sanders, Prashanthan; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of atrial fibrillation (AF) involves identification of low-voltage regions associated with complex fractionated electrograms (CFE) which theoretically represent abnormal substrate and targets for ablation. Whether low-voltage CFE areas also identify abnormal substrate during paced rhythm is unknown. Twelve patients with persistent AF undergoing ablation of AF had high-density three-dimensional electroanatomic maps created during AF and paced rhythm (24 maps) and the mean voltage during AF and paced rhythm was compared for eight segments of the left atrium (LA). The following were correlated during AF and paced rhythm: regional mean voltage; %low voltage (defined as <0.5 mV); and extent of CFE. In addition, the relationship between the extent of CFE in AF: (i) %low voltage and (ii) conduction during paced rhythm were determined. Mean voltage was lower during AF than paced rhythm for all regions and globally (0.7 ± 0.2 mV vs. 2.1 ± 0.6 mV, P < 0.001). The regional and overall %low voltage of the LA was greater during AF than paced rhythm (53 ± 19% vs. 9 ± 2%, P < 0.001). There was no correlation between mean voltage or %low voltage during AF and paced rhythm. Complex fractionated electrograms were prevalent throughout all regions during AF, but did not correlate with %low voltage, fractionation, or slowed conduction during paced rhythm. Areas of CFE and low voltage recorded during AF frequently demonstrate normal atrial myocardial characteristics (normal conduction, electrograms, and voltage) during sinus rhythm. Therefore, AF CFE sites do not necessarily identify regions of an abnormal atrial substrate. However, this does not exclude the possibility that CFE might identify a focal driver or source occurring in a region of normal atrial myocardium.

  2. Cognition in circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kathryn J; McGee-Koch, Lori L; Zee, Phyllis C

    2011-01-01

    Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior exist in all living organisms, from cells to humans. The most evident rhythms are the recurrent cycles of sleep and wake as well as changes in alertness and cognitive performance across the 24h. Clearly, sleep pressure can exert a strong influence on cognitive performance, but the influence of circadian modulation of alertness and cognitive function is evident even when the pressure for sleep is high. Circadian rhythms also influence more complex cognitive tasks, such as selective attention and executive function, which are important for work performance and safety. The circadian timekeeping system also ensures that circadian rhythms are appropriately synchronized to the external physical environment and work and social schedules. Circadian misalignment is the basis for all circadian rhythm sleep disorders. These disorders are often associated with impairments of cognitive performance that can have adverse effects on school and work performance, overall quality of life, and safety. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Drugs of abuse can entrain circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Kosobud, Ann E K; Gillman, Andrea G; Leffel, Joseph K; Pecoraro, Norman C; Rebec, G V; Timberlake, William

    2007-11-02

    Circadian rhythms prepare organisms for predictable events in the 24 h day. These rhythms are entrained by a variety of stimuli. Light is the most ubiquitous and best known zeitgeber, but a number of others have been identified, including food, social cues, locomotor activity, and, most recently drugs of abuse. Given the diversity of zeitgebers, it is probably not surprising that genes capable of clock functions are located throughout almost all organs and tissues. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse can directly entrain some circadian rhythms. We have report here that entrainment by drugs of abuse is independent of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the light/dark cycle, is not dependent on direct locomotor stimulation, and is shared by a variety of classes of drugs of abuse. We suggest that drug-entrained rhythms reflect variations in underlying neurophysiological states. This could be the basis for known daily variations in drug metabolism, tolerance, and sensitivity to drug reward. These rhythms could also take the form of daily periods of increased motivation to seek and take drugs, and thus contribute to abuse, addiction and relapse.

  4. Unmasking ultradian rhythms in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    van der Veen, Daan R.; Gerkema, Menno P.

    2017-01-01

    Biological oscillations with an ultradian time scale of 1 to several hours include cycles in behavioral arousal, episodic glucocorticoid release, and gene expression. Ultradian rhythms are thought to have an extrinsic origin because of a perceived absence of ultradian rhythmicity in vitro and a lack of known molecular ultradian oscillators. We designed a novel, non–spectral-analysis method of separating ultradian from circadian components and applied it to a published gene expression dataset with an ultradian sampling resolution. Ultradian rhythms in mouse hepatocytes in vivo have been published, and we validated our approach using this control by confirming 175 of 323 ultradian genes identified in a prior study and found 862 additional ultradian genes. For the first time, we now report ultradian expression of >900 genes in vitro. Sixty genes exhibited ultradian transcriptional rhythmicity, both in vivo and in vitro, including 5 genes involved in the cell cycle. Within these 60 genes, we identified significant enrichment of specific DNA motifs in the 1000 bp proximal promotor, some of which associate with known transcriptional factors. These findings are in strong support of instrinsically driven ultradian rhythms and expose potential molecular mechanisms and functions underlying ultradian rhythms that remain unknown.—Van der Veen, D. R., Gerkema, M. P. Unmasking ultradian rhythms in gene expression. PMID:27871062

  5. Biological clocks and rhythms in intertidal crustaceans.

    PubMed

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Hsu, Yun-Wei A

    2010-06-01

    Animals with habitats within the intertidal zone are exposed to environmental cycles that include the ebb and flow of tidal waters, changes in tidal levels associated with the lunar month, the light-dark cycle and the alternation of seasons. This intricate temporal environment results in the selection of biological timing systems with endogenous clocks that can oscillate with this wide range of periodicities. Whereas great progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular and neural bases of circadian rhythms, that is, endogenous rhythms synchronized to the solar day, there is little understanding on how circatidal rhythms, namely endogenous rhythms synchronized to tides, are generated. Intertidal crustaceans have been a pivotal group for the demonstration of the endogenous nature of circatidal rhythms and their mechanisms of entrainment. We review here some of the classic work using intertidal crustaceans to unmask basic properties of circatidal systems, as well as work from our laboratory that aims to identify putative chemical signals that could be involved in the circatidal systems of decapod crustaceans.

  6. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) for the mu rhythm (8–13 Hz) and beta (13−25 Hz) bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance. PMID:26441599

  7. Daily Rhythms in Mobile Telephone Communication

    PubMed Central

    Aledavood, Talayeh; López, Eduardo; Roberts, Sam G. B.; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Moro, Esteban; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Saramäki, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are known to be important drivers of human activity and the recent availability of electronic records of human behaviour has provided fine-grained data of temporal patterns of activity on a large scale. Further, questionnaire studies have identified important individual differences in circadian rhythms, with people broadly categorised into morning-like or evening-like individuals. However, little is known about the social aspects of these circadian rhythms, or how they vary across individuals. In this study we use a unique 18-month dataset that combines mobile phone calls and questionnaire data to examine individual differences in the daily rhythms of mobile phone activity. We demonstrate clear individual differences in daily patterns of phone calls, and show that these individual differences are persistent despite a high degree of turnover in the individuals’ social networks. Further, women’s calls were longer than men’s calls, especially during the evening and at night, and these calls were typically focused on a small number of emotionally intense relationships. These results demonstrate that individual differences in circadian rhythms are not just related to broad patterns of morningness and eveningness, but have a strong social component, in directing phone calls to specific individuals at specific times of day. PMID:26390215

  8. Effect of deep brain stimulation and L-Dopa on electrocortical rhythms related to movement in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Devos, D; Defebvre, L

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD), impaired motor preparation has been related to a decrease in the latency of mu rhythm event-related desynchronisation (ERD) compared with control subjects, suggesting hypo activation of the contralateral, primary sensorimotor (PSM) cortex. Following movement, a decrease in amplitude of beta rhythm ERS was observed over the same region and thought to be related to impairment in cortical deactivation. By monitoring ERD/ERS, we aimed (i) to extend to advanced PD the observations made in less-advanced parkinsonism and (ii) to test the effect of acute L-Dopa, internal pallidal or subthalamic stimulation on these abnormalities. For the clinical evaluation the motor score of UPDRS decreased by about 60% under subthalamic stimulation and following acute L-Dopa administration and by 40% under internal pallidal stimulation. The following concurrent ERD/ERS changes under subthalamic stimulation and L-Dopa were observed: a marked increase in mu ERD latency during movement preparation over contralateral central region; an increase in mu ERD during movement execution over bilateral central regions; a decrease in mu ERD latency over bilateral frontocentral region and an increase in beta ERS over contralateral central region after movement. On the contrary, mu ERD latency was not improved under internal pallidal stimulation. Changes of mu and beta rhythm parameters seemed to be inversely correlated with bradykinesia. Mu rhythm ERD latency and the beta ERS amplitude further decreased in advanced PD compared with early stages, suggesting greater impairment of cortical activation/deactivation as the disease progresses and a partial restoration in relation to clinical improvement under treatments. Consequently, it appears that L-Dopa and deep brain stimulation partially restored the normal patterns of cortical oscillatory activity in PD, possibly by decreasing the low frequency hyper synchronisation at rest. This mechanism could be

  9. Toward a complex system understanding of bipolar disorder: A chaotic model of abnormal circadian activity rhythms in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Hadaeghi, Fatemeh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Sajad; Murray, Greg

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of a comprehensive neural model to explain the underlying mechanisms of disturbed circadian function in bipolar disorder, mathematical modeling is a helpful tool. Here, circadian activity as a response to exogenous daily cycles is proposed to be the product of interactions between neuronal networks in cortical (cognitive processing) and subcortical (pacemaker) areas of the brain. To investigate the dynamical aspects of the link between disturbed circadian activity rhythms and abnormalities of neurotransmitter functioning in frontal areas of the brain, we developed a novel mathematical model of a chaotic system which represents fluctuations in circadian activity in bipolar disorder as changes in the model's parameters. A novel map-based chaotic system was developed to capture disturbances in circadian activity across the two extreme mood states of bipolar disorder. The model uses chaos theory to characterize interplay between neurotransmitter functions and rhythm generation; it aims to illuminate key activity phenomenology in bipolar disorder, including prolonged sleep intervals, decreased total activity and attenuated amplitude of the diurnal activity rhythm. To test our new cortical-circadian mathematical model of bipolar disorder, we utilized previously collected locomotor activity data recorded from normal subjects and bipolar patients by wrist-worn actigraphs. All control parameters in the proposed model have an important role in replicating the different aspects of circadian activity rhythm generation in the brain. The model can successfully replicate deviations in sleep/wake time intervals corresponding to manic and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder, in which one of the excitatory or inhibitory pathways is abnormally dominant. Although neuroimaging research has strongly implicated a reciprocal interaction between cortical and subcortical regions as pathogenic in bipolar disorder, this is the first model to mathematically represent this

  10. Stochastic amplification of fluctuations in cortical up-states.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Seoane, Luís F; Cortés, Jesús M; Muñoz, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    Cortical neurons are bistable; as a consequence their local field potentials can fluctuate between quiescent and active states, generating slow 0.5 2 Hz oscillations which are widely known as transitions between Up and Down States. Despite a large number of studies on Up-Down transitions, deciphering its nature, mechanisms and function are still today challenging tasks. In this paper we focus on recent experimental evidence, showing that a class of spontaneous oscillations can emerge within the Up states. In particular, a non-trivial peak around 20 Hz appears in their associated power-spectra, what produces an enhancement of the activity power for higher frequencies (in the 30-90 Hz band). Moreover, this rhythm within Ups seems to be an emergent or collective phenomenon given that individual neurons do not lock to it as they remain mostly unsynchronized. Remarkably, similar oscillations (and the concomitant peak in the spectrum) do not appear in the Down states. Here we shed light on these findings by using different computational models for the dynamics of cortical networks in presence of different levels of physiological complexity. Our conclusion, supported by both theory and simulations, is that the collective phenomenon of "stochastic amplification of fluctuations"--previously described in other contexts such as Ecology and Epidemiology--explains in an elegant and parsimonious manner, beyond model-dependent details, this extra-rhythm emerging only in the Up states but not in the Downs.

  11. Abstract art and cortical motor activation: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Umilta', M. Alessandra; Berchio, Cristina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim, 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al., 2007; Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al., 2011), neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999; Zeki, 1999) mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory, and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder's brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works). Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works. PMID:23162456

  12. Abstract art and cortical motor activation: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Umilta', M Alessandra; Berchio, Cristina; Sestito, Mariateresa; Freedberg, David; Gallese, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    The role of the motor system in the perception of visual art remains to be better understood. Earlier studies on the visual perception of abstract art (from Gestalt theory, as in Arnheim, 1954 and 1988, to balance preference studies as in Locher and Stappers, 2002, and more recent work by Locher et al., 2007; Redies, 2007, and Taylor et al., 2011), neglected the question, while the field of neuroesthetics (Ramachandran and Hirstein, 1999; Zeki, 1999) mostly concentrated on figurative works. Much recent work has demonstrated the multimodality of vision, encompassing the activation of motor, somatosensory, and viscero-motor brain regions. The present study investigated whether the observation of high-resolution digitized static images of abstract paintings by Lucio Fontana is associated with specific cortical motor activation in the beholder's brain. Mu rhythm suppression was evoked by the observation of original art works but not by control stimuli (as in the case of graphically modified versions of these works). Most interestingly, previous visual exposure to the stimuli did not affect the mu rhythm suppression induced by their observation. The present results clearly show the involvement of the cortical motor system in the viewing of static abstract art works.

  13. Stochastic Amplification of Fluctuations in Cortical Up-States

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Jorge; Seoane, Luís F.; Cortés, Jesús M.; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Cortical neurons are bistable; as a consequence their local field potentials can fluctuate between quiescent and active states, generating slow Hz oscillations which are widely known as transitions between Up and Down States. Despite a large number of studies on Up-Down transitions, deciphering its nature, mechanisms and function are still today challenging tasks. In this paper we focus on recent experimental evidence, showing that a class of spontaneous oscillations can emerge within the Up states. In particular, a non-trivial peak around Hz appears in their associated power-spectra, what produces an enhancement of the activity power for higher frequencies (in the Hz band). Moreover, this rhythm within Ups seems to be an emergent or collective phenomenon given that individual neurons do not lock to it as they remain mostly unsynchronized. Remarkably, similar oscillations (and the concomitant peak in the spectrum) do not appear in the Down states. Here we shed light on these findings by using different computational models for the dynamics of cortical networks in presence of different levels of physiological complexity. Our conclusion, supported by both theory and simulations, is that the collective phenomenon of “stochastic amplification of fluctuations” – previously described in other contexts such as Ecology and Epidemiology – explains in an elegant and parsimonious manner, beyond model-dependent details, this extra-rhythm emerging only in the Up states but not in the Downs. PMID:22879879

  14. Circadian Rhythms of Crawling and Swimming in the Nudibranch Mollusc Melibe leonina

    PubMed Central

    NEWCOMB, JAMES M.; KIROUAC, LAUREN E.; NAIMIE, AMANDA A.; BIXBY, KIMBERLY A.; LEE, COLIN; MALANGA, STEPHANIE; RAUBACH, MAUREEN; WATSON, WINSOR H.

    2015-01-01

    Daily rhythms of activity driven by circadian clocks are expressed by many organisms, including molluscs. We initiated this study, with the nudibranch Melibe leonina, with four goals in mind: (1) determine which behaviors are expressed with a daily rhythm; (2) investigate which of these rhythmic behaviors are controlled by a circadian clock; (3) determine if a circadian clock is associated with the eyes or optic ganglia of Melibe, as it is in several other gastropods; and (4) test the hypothesis that Melibe can use extraocular photoreceptors to synchronize its daily rhythms to natural light-dark cycles. To address these goals, we analyzed the behavior of 55 animals exposed to either artificial or natural light-dark cycles, followed by constant darkness. We also repeated this experiment using 10 animals that had their eyes removed. Individuals did not express daily rhythms of feeding, but they swam and crawled more at night. This pattern of locomotion persisted in constant darkness, indicating the presence of a circadian clock. Eyeless animals also expressed a daily rhythm of locomotion, with more locomotion at night. The fact that eyeless animals synchronized their locomotion to the light-dark cycle suggests that they can detect light using extraocular photoreceptors. However, in constant darkness, these rhythms deteriorated, suggesting that the clock neurons that influence locomotion may be located in, or near, the eyes. Thus, locomotion in Melibe appears to be influenced by both ocular and extraocular photoreceptors, although the former appear to have a greater influence on the expression of circadian rhythms. PMID:25572214

  15. Improved automated monitoring and new analysis algorithm for circadian phototaxis rhythms in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Christa; Forbes-Stovall, Jennifer; Kessler, Bruce; Young, Mike; Rinehart, Claire A; Jacobshagen, Sigrid

    2010-04-01

    Automated monitoring of circadian rhythms is an efficient way of gaining insight into oscillation parameters like period and phase for the underlying pacemaker of the circadian clock. Measurement of the circadian rhythm of phototaxis (swimming towards light) exhibited by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been automated by directing a narrow and dim light beam through a culture at regular intervals and determining the decrease in light transmittance due to the accumulation of cells in the beam. In this study, the monitoring process was optimized by constructing a new computer-controlled measuring machine that limits the test beam to wavelengths reported to be specific for phototaxis and by choosing an algal strain, which does not need background illumination between test light cycles for proper expression of the rhythm. As a result, period and phase of the rhythm are now unaffected by the time a culture is placed into the machine. Analysis of the rhythm data was also optimized through a new algorithm, whose robustness was demonstrated using virtual rhythms with various noises. The algorithm differs in particular from other reported algorithms by maximizing the fit of the data to a sinusoidal curve that dampens exponentially. The algorithm was also used to confirm the reproducibility of rhythm monitoring by the machine. Machine and algorithm can now be used for a multitude of circadian clock studies that require unambiguous period and phase determinations such as light pulse experiments to identify the photoreceptor(s) that reset the circadian clock in C. reinhardtii. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Plastic oscillators and fixed rhythms: changes in the phase of clock-gene rhythms in the PVN are not reflected in the phase of the melatonin rhythm of grass rats.

    PubMed

    Martin-Fairey, C A; Ramanathan, C; Stowie, A; Walaszczyk, E; Smale, L; Nunez, A A

    2015-03-12

    The same clock-genes, including Period (PER) 1 and 2, that show rhythmic expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are also rhythmically expressed in other brain regions that serve as extra-SCN oscillators. Outside the hypothalamus, the phase of these extra-SCN oscillators appears to be reversed when diurnal and nocturnal mammals are compared. Based on mRNA data, PER1 protein is expected to peak in the late night in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of nocturnal laboratory rats, but comparable data are not available for a diurnal species. Here we use the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) to describe rhythms of PER1 and 2 proteins in the PVN of animals that either show the species-typical day-active (DA) profile, or that adopt a night-active (NA) profile when given access to running wheels. For DA animals housed with or without wheels, significant rhythms of PER1 or PER2 protein expression featured peaks in the late morning; NA animals showed patterns similar to those expected from nocturnal laboratory rats. Since the PVN is part of the circuit that controls pineal rhythms, we also measured circulating levels of melatonin during the day and night in DA animals with and without wheels and in NA wheel runners. All three groups showed elevated levels of melatonin at night, with higher levels during both the day and night being associated with the levels of activity displayed by each group. The differential phase of rhythms in the clock-gene protein in the PVN of diurnal and nocturnal animals presents a possible mechanism for explaining species differences in the phase of autonomic rhythms controlled, in part, by the PVN. The present study suggests that the phase of the oscillator of the PVN does not determine that of the melatonin rhythm in diurnal and nocturnal species or in diurnal and nocturnal chronotypes within a species.

  17. Plastic oscillators and fixed rhythms: Changes in the phase of clock-gene rhythms in the PVN are not reflected in the phase of the melatonin rhythm of grass rats

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fairey, Carmel A.; Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Stowie, Adam; Walaszczyk, Erin; Smale, Laura; Nunez, Antonio A.

    2015-01-01

    The same clock-genes, including Period (PER) 1 and 2, that show rhythmic expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are also rhythmically expressed in other brain regions that serve as extra-SCN oscillators. Outside the hypothalamus, the phase of these extra-SCN oscillators appears to be reversed when diurnal and nocturnal mammals are compared. Based on mRNA data, PER1 protein is expected to peak in the late night in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of nocturnal laboratory rats, but comparable data are not available for a diurnal species. Here we use the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) to describe rhythms of PER1 and 2 protein in the PVN of animals that either show the species-typical day-active profile, or that adopt a night-active profile when given access to running wheels. For day-active animals housed with or without wheels, significant rhythms of PER1 or PER2 protein expression featured peaks in the late morning; night-active animals showed patterns similar to those expected from nocturnal laboratory rats. Since the PVN is part of the circuit that controls pineal rhythms, we also measured circulating levels of melatonin during the day and night in day-active animals with and without wheels and in night-active wheel runners. All three groups showed elevated levels of melatonin at night, with higher levels during both the day and night being associated with the levels of activity displayed by each group. The differential phase of rhythms in clock-gene protein in the PVN of diurnal and nocturnal animals presents a possible mechanism for explaining species differences in the phase of autonomic rhythms controlled, in part, by the PVN. The present study suggests that the phase of the oscillator of the PVN does not determine that of the melatonin rhythm in diurnal and nocturnal species or in diurnal and nocturnal chronotypes within a species. PMID:25575946

  18. Influence of White and Gray Matter Connections on Endogenous Human Cortical Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Kim, DoHyun; Ledbetter, Noah M; Dahiya, Sonika; Barbour, Dennis L; Leuthardt, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    Brain oscillations reflect changes in electrical potentials summated across neuronal populations. Low- and high-frequency rhythms have different modulation patterns. Slower rhythms are spatially broad, while faster rhythms are more local. From this observation, we hypothesized that low- and high-frequency oscillations reflect white- and gray-matter communications, respectively, and synchronization between low-frequency phase with high-frequency amplitude represents a mechanism enabling distributed brain-networks to coordinate local processing. Testing this common understanding, we selectively disrupted white or gray matter connections to human cortex while recording surface field potentials. Counter to our original hypotheses, we found that cortex consists of independent oscillatory-units (IOUs) that maintain their own complex endogenous rhythm structure. IOUs are differentially modulated by white and gray matter connections. White-matter connections maintain topographical anatomic heterogeneity (i.e., separable processing in cortical space) and gray-matter connections segregate cortical synchronization patterns (i.e., separable temporal processing through phase-power coupling). Modulation of distinct oscillatory modules enables the functional diversity necessary for complex processing in the human brain.

  19. Influence of White and Gray Matter Connections on Endogenous Human Cortical Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Kim, DoHyun; Ledbetter, Noah M.; Dahiya, Sonika; Barbour, Dennis L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Brain oscillations reflect changes in electrical potentials summated across neuronal populations. Low- and high-frequency rhythms have different modulation patterns. Slower rhythms are spatially broad, while faster rhythms are more local. From this observation, we hypothesized that low- and high-frequency oscillations reflect white- and gray-matter communications, respectively, and synchronization between low-frequency phase with high-frequency amplitude represents a mechanism enabling distributed brain-networks to coordinate local processing. Testing this common understanding, we selectively disrupted white or gray matter connections to human cortex while recording surface field potentials. Counter to our original hypotheses, we found that cortex consists of independent oscillatory-units (IOUs) that maintain their own complex endogenous rhythm structure. IOUs are differentially modulated by white and gray matter connections. White-matter connections maintain topographical anatomic heterogeneity (i.e., separable processing in cortical space) and gray-matter connections segregate cortical synchronization patterns (i.e., separable temporal processing through phase-power coupling). Modulation of distinct oscillatory modules enables the functional diversity necessary for complex processing in the human brain. PMID:27445767

  20. Quantitative analysis and biophysically realistic neural modeling of the MEG mu rhythm: rhythmogenesis and modulation of sensory-evoked responses.

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie R; Pritchett, Dominique L; Sikora, Michael A; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Hämäläinen, Matti; Moore, Christopher I

    2009-12-01

    Variations in cortical oscillations in the alpha (7-14 Hz) and beta (15-29 Hz) range have been correlated with attention, working memory, and stimulus detection. The mu rhythm recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a prominent oscillation generated by Rolandic cortex containing alpha and beta bands. Despite its prominence, the neural mechanisms regulating mu are unknown. We characterized the ongoing MEG mu rhythm from a localized source in the finger representation of primary somatosensory (SI) cortex. Subjects showed variation in the relative expression of mu-alpha or mu-beta, which were nonoverlapping for roughly 50% of their respective durations on single trials. To delineate the origins of this rhythm, a biophysically principled computational neural model of SI was developed, with distinct laminae, inhibitory and excitatory neurons, and feedforward (FF, representative of lemniscal thalamic drive) and feedback (FB, representative of higher-order cortical drive or input from nonlemniscal thalamic nuclei) inputs defined by the laminar location of their postsynaptic effects. The mu-alpha component was accurately modeled by rhythmic FF input at approximately 10-Hz. The mu-beta component was accurately modeled by the addition of approximately 10-Hz FB input that was nearly synchronous with the FF input. The relative dominance of these two frequencies depended on the delay between FF and FB drives, their relative input strengths, and stochastic changes in these variables. The model also reproduced key features of the impact of high prestimulus mu power on peaks in SI-evoked activity. For stimuli presented during high mu power, the model predicted enhancement in an initial evoked peak and decreased subsequent deflections. In agreement, the MEG-evoked responses showed an enhanced initial peak and a trend to smaller subsequent peaks. These data provide new information on the dynamics of the mu rhythm in humans and the model provides a novel mechanistic

  1. Quantitative Analysis and Biophysically Realistic Neural Modeling of the MEG Mu Rhythm: Rhythmogenesis and Modulation of Sensory-Evoked Responses

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, Dominique L.; Sikora, Michael A.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Hämäläinen, Matti; Moore, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    Variations in cortical oscillations in the alpha (7–14 Hz) and beta (15–29 Hz) range have been correlated with attention, working memory, and stimulus detection. The mu rhythm recorded with magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a prominent oscillation generated by Rolandic cortex containing alpha and beta bands. Despite its prominence, the neural mechanisms regulating mu are unknown. We characterized the ongoing MEG mu rhythm from a localized source in the finger representation of primary somatosensory (SI) cortex. Subjects showed variation in the relative expression of mu-alpha or mu-beta, which were nonoverlapping for roughly 50% of their respective durations on single trials. To delineate the origins of this rhythm, a biophysically principled computational neural model of SI was developed, with distinct laminae, inhibitory and excitatory neurons, and feedforward (FF, representative of lemniscal thalamic drive) and feedback (FB, representative of higher-order cortical drive or input from nonlemniscal thalamic nuclei) inputs defined by the laminar location of their postsynaptic effects. The mu-alpha component was accurately modeled by rhythmic FF input at approximately 10-Hz. The mu-beta component was accurately modeled by the addition of approximately 10-Hz FB input that was nearly synchronous with the FF input. The relative dominance of these two frequencies depended on the delay between FF and FB drives, their relative input strengths, and stochastic changes in these variables. The model also reproduced key features of the impact of high prestimulus mu power on peaks in SI-evoked activity. For stimuli presented during high mu power, the model predicted enhancement in an initial evoked peak and decreased subsequent deflections. In agreement, the MEG-evoked responses showed an enhanced initial peak and a trend to smaller subsequent peaks. These data provide new information on the dynamics of the mu rhythm in humans and the model provides a novel mechanistic

  2. The dark side of the alpha rhythm: fMRI evidence for induced alpha modulation during complete darkness.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Eti; Podlipsky, Ilana; Okon-Singer, Hadas; Gruberger, Michal; Cvetkovic, Dean; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2013-03-01

    The unique role of the EEG alpha rhythm in different states of cortical activity is still debated. The main theories regarding alpha function posit either sensory processing or attention allocation as the main processes governing its modulation. Closing and opening eyes, a well-known manipulation of the alpha rhythm, could be regarded as attention allocation from inward to outward focus though during light is also accompanied by visual change. To disentangle the effects of attention allocation and sensory visual input on alpha modulation, 14 healthy subjects were asked to open and close their eyes during conditions of light and of complete darkness while simultaneous recordings of EEG and fMRI were acquired. Thus, during complete darkness the eyes-open condition is not related to visual input but only to attention allocation, allowing direct examination of its role in alpha modulation. A data-driven ridge regression classifier was applied to the EEG data in order to ascertain the contribution of the alpha rhythm to eyes-open/eyes-closed inference in both lighting conditions. Classifier results revealed significant alpha contribution during both light and dark conditions, suggesting that alpha rhythm modulation is closely linked to the change in the direction of attention regardless of the presence of visual sensory input. Furthermore, fMRI activation maps derived from an alpha modulation time-course during the complete darkness condition exhibited a right frontal cortical network associated with attention allocation. These findings support the importance of top-down processes such as attention allocation to alpha rhythm modulation, possibly as a prerequisite to its known bottom-up processing of sensory input. © 2012 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. MR appearance of distal femoral cortical irregularity (cortical desmoid)

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Jin-Suck; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Shin, Kyoo-Ho

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to describe the MR appearance of distal femoral cortical irregularity (DFCI). With plain radiographs and MR images of 100 knees, the presence of DFCIs was determined, and the shapes of DFCIs were classified into three subgroups: concave, convex, and divergent cortical shapes. Radiographic and MR shapes of DFCIs were compared. DFCIs were shown in various shapes on both the radiographs and the MR images. Forty-four DFCIs were found both on radiograph and by MR image. An additional 14 DFCIs were identifiable only on MR images. However, the majority of DFCIs showed an association between radiographic and MR shapes. MRI revealed that all 58 DFCIs were located at the attachment site of the media gastrocnemius muscle. DFCIs were enhanced in three of the four patients who underwent postcontrast MR study. A good understanding of radiographic and MR findings of the DFCI may be of great help in the differential diagnosis of distal femoral lesions. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Neurodynamics of somatosensory cortices studied by magnetoencephelography.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kuniharu

    2013-09-01

    From the viewpoint of statistical inverse problems, identification of transfer functions in feedback models is applied for neurodynamics of somatosensory cortices, and brain communication among active regions can be expressed in terms of transfer functions. However, brain activities have been investigated mainly by averaged waveforms in the conventional magnetoencephalography analysis, and thus brain communication among active regions has not yet been identified. It is shown that brain communication among two more than three brain regions is determined, when fluctuations related to concatenate averaged waveforms can be obtained by using a suitable blind source separation method. In blind identification of feedback model, some transfer functions or their impulse responses between output variables of current dipoles corresponding to active regions are identified from reconstructed time series data of fluctuations by the method of inverse problem. Neurodynamics of somatosensory cortices in 5 Hz median nerve stimuli can be shown by cerebral communication among active regions of somatosensory cortices in terms of impulse responses of feedback model.

  5. Genetic basis of human circadian rhythm disorders.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; Huang, Angela L; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2013-05-01

    Circadian rhythm disorders constitute a group of phenotypes that usually present as altered sleep-wake schedules. Until a human genetics approach was applied to investigate these traits, the genetic components regulating human circadian rhythm and sleep behaviors remained mysterious. Steady advances in the last decade have dramatically improved our understanding of the genes involved in circadian rhythmicity and sleep regulation. Finding these genes presents new opportunities to use a wide range of approaches, including in vitro molecular studies and in vivo animal modeling, to elevate our understanding of how sleep and circadian rhythms are regulated and maintained. Ultimately, this knowledge will reveal how circadian and sleep disruption contribute to various ailments and shed light on how best to maintain and recover good health.

  6. Sparse and powerful cortical spikes.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Jason; Houweling, Arthur R; Brecht, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Activity in cortical networks is heterogeneous, sparse and often precisely timed. The functional significance of sparseness and precise spike timing is debated, but our understanding of the developmental and synaptic mechanisms that shape neuronal discharge patterns has improved. Evidence for highly specialized, selective and abstract cortical response properties is accumulating. Singe-cell stimulation experiments demonstrate a high sensitivity of cortical networks to the action potentials of some, but not all, single neurons. It is unclear how this sensitivity of cortical networks to small perturbations comes about and whether it is a generic property of cortex. The unforeseen sensitivity to cortical spikes puts serious constraints on the nature of neural coding schemes.

  7. Circadian rhythm asynchrony in man during hypokinesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Cronin, S. E.; Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Posture and exercise were investigated as synchronizers of certain physiologic rhythms in eight healthy male subjects in a defined environment. Four subjects exercised during bed rest. Body temperature (BT), heart rate, plasma thyroid hormone, and plasma steroid data were obtained from the subjects for a 6-day ambulatory equilibration period before bed rest, 56 days of bed rest, and a 10-day recovery period after bed rest. The results indicate that the mechanism regulating the circadian rhythmicity of the cardiovascular system is rigorously controlled and independent of the endocrine system, while the BT rhythm is more closely aligned to the endocrine system.

  8. Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Sabra M; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-12-01

    The circadian system regulates the timing and expression of nearly all biological processes, most notably, the sleep-wake cycle, and disruption of this system can result in adverse effects on both physical and mental health. The circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders (CRSWDs) consist of 5 disorders that are due primarily to pathology of the circadian clock or to a misalignment of the timing of the endogenous circadian rhythm with the environment. This article outlines the nature of these disorders, the association of many of these disorders with psychiatric illness, and available treatment options.

  9. Circadian rhythm asynchrony in man during hypokinesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Vernikos-Danellis, J.; Cronin, S. E.; Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Mack, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Posture and exercise were investigated as synchronizers of certain physiologic rhythms in eight healthy male subjects in a defined environment. Four subjects exercised during bed rest. Body temperature (BT), heart rate, plasma thyroid hormone, and plasma steroid data were obtained from the subjects for a 6-day ambulatory equilibration period before bed rest, 56 days of bed rest, and a 10-day recovery period after bed rest. The results indicate that the mechanism regulating the circadian rhythmicity of the cardiovascular system is rigorously controlled and independent of the endocrine system, while the BT rhythm is more closely aligned to the endocrine system.

  10. Cortical Specializations Underlying Fast Computations.

    PubMed

    Volgushev, Maxim

    2016-04-01

    The time course of behaviorally relevant environmental events sets temporal constraints on neuronal processing. How does the mammalian brain make use of the increasingly complex networks of the neocortex, while making decisions and executing behavioral reactions within a reasonable time? The key parameter determining the speed of computations in neuronal networks is a time interval that neuronal ensembles need to process changes at their input and communicate results of this processing to downstream neurons. Theoretical analysis identified basic requirements for fast processing: use of neuronal populations for encoding, background activity, and fast onset dynamics of action potentials in neurons. Experimental evidence shows that populations of neocortical neurons fulfil these requirements. Indeed, they can change firing rate in response to input perturbations very quickly, within 1 to 3 ms, and encode high-frequency components of the input by phase-locking their spiking to frequencies up to 300 to 1000 Hz. This implies that time unit of computations by cortical ensembles is only few, 1 to 3 ms, which is considerably faster than the membrane time constant of individual neurons. The ability of cortical neuronal ensembles to communicate on a millisecond time scale allows for complex, multiple-step processing and precise coordination of neuronal activity in parallel processing streams, while keeping the speed of behavioral reactions within environmentally set temporal constraints.

  11. Cortical thickness in untreated transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Junque, Carme; Gómez-Gil, Esther; Segovia, Santiago; Carrillo, Beatriz; Rametti, Giuseppina; Guillamon, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Sex differences in cortical thickness (CTh) have been extensively investigated but as yet there are no reports on CTh in transsexuals. Our aim was to determine whether the CTh pattern in transsexuals before hormonal treatment follows their biological sex or their gender identity. We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging on 94 subjects: 24 untreated female-to-male transsexuals (FtMs), 18 untreated male-to-female transsexuals (MtFs), and 29 male and 23 female controls in a 3-T TIM-TRIO Siemens scanner. T1-weighted images were analyzed to obtain CTh and volumetric subcortical measurements with FreeSurfer software. CTh maps showed control females have thicker cortex than control males in the frontal and parietal regions. In contrast, males have greater right putamen volume. FtMs had a similar CTh to control females and greater CTh than males in the parietal and temporal cortices. FtMs had larger right putamen than females but did not differ from males. MtFs did not differ in CTh from female controls but had greater CTh than control males in the orbitofrontal, insular, and medial occipital regions. In conclusion, FtMs showed evidence of subcortical gray matter masculinization, while MtFs showed evidence of CTh feminization. In both types of transsexuals, the differences with respect to their biological sex are located in the right hemisphere.

  12. Apolipoprotein E and alpha brain rhythms in mild cognitive impairment: a multicentric electroencephalogram study.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Benussi, Luisa; Binetti, Giuliano; Cassetta, Emanuele; Dal Forno, Gloria; Del Percio, Claudio; Ferreri, Florinda; Ferri, Raffaele; Frisoni, Giovanni; Ghidoni, Roberta; Miniussi, Carlo; Rodriguez, Guido; Romani, Gian Luca; Squitti, Rosanna; Ventriglia, Maria Carla; Rossini, Paolo M

    2006-02-01

    Relationships between the apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythmicity have been demonstrated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients but not in the preclinical stage prodromic to it, namely, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The present multicentric EEG study tested the hypothesis that presence of epsilon4 affects sources of resting EEG rhythms in both MCI and AD subjects. We enrolled 89 MCI subjects (34.8% with epsilon4) and 103 AD patients (50.4% with epsilon4). Resting eyes-closed EEG data were recorded for all subjects. EEG rhythms of interest were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), and beta 2 (20-30 Hz). EEG cortical sources were estimated by low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography. Results showed that amplitude of alpha 1 and 2 sources in occipital, temporal, and limbic areas was lower in subjects carrying the epsilon4 allele than in those not carrying the epsilon4 allele (p < 0.01). This was true for both MCI and AD. For the first time to our knowledge, a relationship was shown between ApoE genotype and global neurophysiological phenotype (ie, cortical alpha rhythmicity) in a preclinical AD condition, MCI, in addition to clinically manifest AD. Such a demonstration motivates future genotype-EEG phenotype studies for the early prediction of AD conversion in individual MCI subjects.

  13. Circadian Changes in Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Distribution Inside Individual Chloroplasts Can Account for the Rhythm in Dinoflagellate Carbon Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Nassoury, Nasha; Fritz, Lawrence; Morse, David

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies of photosynthetic carbon fixation in the marine alga Gonyaulax have shown that the reaction rates in vivo vary threefold between day and night but that the in vitro activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in this process, remains constant. Using protein gel blotting, we confirm that Rubisco protein levels are constant over time. We present simultaneous measurements of the rhythms of CO2 fixation and O2 evolution and show that the two rhythms are ∼6 hr out of phase. We further show that the distribution of Rubisco within chloroplasts varies as a function of circadian time and that this rhythm in Rubisco distribution correlates with the CO2 fixation rhythm. At times of high carbon fixation, Rubisco is found in pyrenoids, regions of the chloroplasts located near the cell center, and is separated from most of the light-harvesting protein PCP (for peridinin–chlorophyll a–protein), which is found in cortical regions of the plastids. We propose that the rhythm in Rubisco distribution is causally related to the rhythm in carbon fixation and suggest that several mechanisms involving enzyme sequestration could account for the increase in the efficiency of carbon fixation. PMID:11283345

  14. Apparent motion enhances visual rhythm discrimination in infancy.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Melissa; Saffran, Jenny R

    2011-05-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that infants exhibit robust auditory rhythm discrimination, but research on infants' perception of visual rhythm is limited. In particular, the role of motion in infants' perception of visual rhythm remains unknown, despite the prevalence of motion cues in naturally occurring visual rhythms. In the present study, we examined the role of motion in 7-month-old infants' discrimination of visual rhythms by comparing experimental conditions with apparent motion in the stimuli versus stationary rhythmic stimuli. Infants succeeded at discriminating visual rhythms only when the visual rhythm occurred with an apparent motion component. These results support the view that motion plays a role in infants' perception of visual temporal information, consistent with the manner in which natural rhythms appear in the visual world.

  15. Circadian Rhythms in Floral Scent Emission

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Myles P.; Imaizumi, Takato

    2016-01-01

    To successfully recruit pollinators, plants often release attractive floral scents at specific times of day to coincide with pollinator foraging. This timing of scent emission is thought to be evolutionarily beneficial to maximize resource efficiency while attracting only useful pollinators. Temporal regulation of scent emission is tied to the activity of the specific metabolic pathways responsible for scent production. Although floral volatile profiling in various plants indicated a contribution by the circadian clock, the mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates timing of floral scent emission remained elusive. Recent studies using two species in the Solanaceae family provided initial insight into molecular clock regulation of scent emission timing. In Petunia hybrida, the floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) pathway is the major metabolic pathway that produces floral volatiles. Three MYB-type transcription factors, ODORANT 1 (ODO1), EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS I (EOBI), and EOBII, all of which show diurnal rhythms in mRNA expression, act as positive regulators for several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway. Recently, in P. hybrida and Nicotiana attenuata, homologs of the Arabidopsis clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) have been shown to have a similar role in the circadian clock in these plants, and to also determine the timing of scent emission. In addition, in P. hybrida, PhLHY directly represses ODO1 and several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway during the morning as an important negative regulator of scent emission. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relationship between a molecular timekeeper and the timing of scent emission, which may influence reproductive success. PMID:27148293

  16. Circadian Rhythms in Floral Scent Emission.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Myles P; Imaizumi, Takato

    2016-01-01

    To successfully recruit pollinators, plants often release attractive floral scents at specific times of day to coincide with pollinator foraging. This timing of scent emission is thought to be evolutionarily beneficial to maximize resource efficiency while attracting only useful pollinators. Temporal regulation of scent emission is tied to the activity of the specific metabolic pathways responsible for scent production. Although floral volatile profiling in various plants indicated a contribution by the circadian clock, the mechanisms by which the circadian clock regulates timing of floral scent emission remained elusive. Recent studies using two species in the Solanaceae family provided initial insight into molecular clock regulation of scent emission timing. In Petunia hybrida, the floral volatile benzenoid/phenylpropanoid (FVBP) pathway is the major metabolic pathway that produces floral volatiles. Three MYB-type transcription factors, ODORANT 1 (ODO1), EMISSION OF BENZENOIDS I (EOBI), and EOBII, all of which show diurnal rhythms in mRNA expression, act as positive regulators for several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway. Recently, in P. hybrida and Nicotiana attenuata, homologs of the Arabidopsis clock gene LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) have been shown to have a similar role in the circadian clock in these plants, and to also determine the timing of scent emission. In addition, in P. hybrida, PhLHY directly represses ODO1 and several enzyme genes in the FVBP pathway during the morning as an important negative regulator of scent emission. These findings facilitate our understanding of the relationship between a molecular timekeeper and the timing of scent emission, which may influence reproductive success.

  17. Purely Cortical Anaplastic Ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Flávio Ramalho; Zanini, Marco Antônio; Ducati, Luis Gustavo; Vital, Roberto Bezerra; de Lima Neto, Newton Moreira; Gabarra, Roberto Colichio

    2012-01-01

    Ependymomas are glial tumors derived from ependymal cells lining the ventricles and the central canal of the spinal cord. It may occur outside the ventricular structures, representing the extraventicular form, or without any relationship of ventricular system, called ectopic ependymona. Less than fifteen cases of ectopic ependymomas were reported and less than five were anaplastic. We report a rare case of pure cortical ectopic anaplastic ependymoma. PMID:23119204

  18. [Posterior cortical atrophy].

    PubMed

    Solyga, Volker Moræus; Western, Elin; Solheim, Hanne; Hassel, Bjørnar; Kerty, Emilia

    2015-06-02

    Posterior cortical atrophy is a neurodegenerative condition with atrophy of posterior parts of the cerebral cortex, including the visual cortex and parts of the parietal and temporal cortices. It presents early, in the 50s or 60s, with nonspecific visual disturbances that are often misinterpreted as ophthalmological, which can delay the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to present current knowledge about symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of this condition. The review is based on a selection of relevant articles in PubMed and on the authors' own experience with the patient group. Posterior cortical atrophy causes gradually increasing impairment in reading, distance judgement, and the ability to perceive complex images. Examination of higher visual functions, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging contribute to diagnosis. In the early stages, patients do not have problems with memory or insight, but cognitive impairment and dementia can develop. It is unclear whether the condition is a variant of Alzheimer's disease, or whether it is a separate disease entity. There is no established treatment, but practical measures such as the aid of social care workers, telephones with large keypads, computers with voice recognition software and audiobooks can be useful. Currently available treatment has very limited effect on the disease itself. Nevertheless it is important to identify and diagnose the condition in its early stages in order to be able to offer patients practical assistance in their daily lives.

  19. Posterior Cortical Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Lehmann, Manja; Schott, Jonathan M; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rossor, Martin N; Fox, Nick C

    2013-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is characterized by a progressive decline in visuospatial, visuoperceptual, literacy and praxic skills. The progressive neurodegeneration affecting parietal, occipital and occipito-temporal cortices which underlies PCA is attributable to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the majority of patients. However, alternative underlying aetiologies including Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and prion disease have also been identified, and not all PCA patients have atrophy on clinical imaging. This heterogeneity has led to diagnostic and terminological inconsistencies, caused difficulty comparing studies from different centres, and limited the generalizability of clinical trials and investigations of factors driving phenotypic variability. Significant challenges remain in identifying the factors associated with both the selective vulnerability of posterior cortical regions and the young age of onset seen in PCA. Greater awareness of the syndrome and agreement over the correspondence between syndrome-and disease-level classifications are required in order to improve diagnostic accuracy, research study design and clinical management. PMID:22265212

  20. Adult Visual Cortical Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Charles D.; Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    The visual cortex has the capacity for experience dependent change, or cortical plasticity, that is retained throughout life. Plasticity is invoked for encoding information during perceptual learning, by internally representing the regularities of the visual environment, which is useful for facilitating intermediate level vision - contour integration and surface segmentation. The same mechanisms have adaptive value for functional recovery after CNS damage, such as that associated with stroke or neurodegenerative disease. A common feature to plasticity in primary visual cortex (V1) is an association field that links contour elements across the visual field. The circuitry underlying the association field includes a plexus of long range horizontal connections formed by cortical pyramidal cells. These connections undergo rapid and exuberant sprouting and pruning in response to removal of sensory input, which can account for the topographic reorganization following retinal lesions. Similar alterations in cortical circuitry may be involved in perceptual learning, and the changes observed in V1 may be representative of how learned information is encoded throughout the cerebral cortex. PMID:22841310

  1. Development of Salivary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm and Reference Intervals in Full-Term Infants.

    PubMed

    Ivars, Katrin; Nelson, Nina; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar; Ström, Jakob O; Mörelius, Evalotte

    2015-01-01

    Cortisol concentrations in plasma display a circadian rhythm in adults and children older than one year. Earlier studies report divergent results regarding when cortisol circadian rhythm is established. The present study aims to investigate at what age infants develop a circadian rhythm, as well as the possible influences of behavioral regularity and daily life trauma on when the rhythm is established. Furthermore, we determine age-related reference intervals for cortisol concentrations in saliva during the first year of life. 130 healthy full-term infants were included in a prospective, longitudinal study with saliva sampling on two consecutive days, in the morning (07:30-09:30), noon (10:00-12:00) and evening (19:30-21:30), each month from birth until the infant was twelve months old. Information about development of behavioral regularity and potential exposure to trauma was obtained from the parents through the Baby Behavior Questionnaire and the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. A significant group-level circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion was established at one month, and remained throughout the first year of life, although there was considerable individual variability. No correlation was found between development of cortisol circadian rhythm and the results from either the Baby Behavior Questionnaire or the Life Incidence of Traumatic Events checklist. The study presents salivary cortisol reference intervals for infants during the first twelve months of life. Cortisol circadian rhythm in infants is already established by one month of age, earlier than previous studies have shown. The current study also provides first year age-related reference intervals for salivary cortisol levels in healthy, full-term infants.

  2. Lithium effects on circadian rhythms in fibroblasts and suprachiasmatic nucleus slices from Cry knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Takako; Lo, Kevin; Diemer, Tanja; Welsh, David K

    2016-04-21

    Lithium is widely used as a treatment of bipolar disorder, a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with disrupted circadian rhythms. Lithium is known to lengthen period and increase amplitude of circadian rhythms. One possible pathway for these effects involves inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), which regulates degradation of CRY2, a canonical clock protein determining circadian period. CRY1 is also known to play important roles in regulating circadian period and phase, although there is no evidence that it is similarly phosphorylated by GSK-3β. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that lithium affects circadian rhythms through CRYs. We cultured fibroblasts and slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian pacemaker of the brain, from Cry1-/-, Cry2-/-, or wild-type (WT) mice bearing the PER2:LUC circadian reporter. Lithium was applied in the culture medium, and circadian rhythms of PER2 expression were measured. In WT and Cry2-/- fibroblasts, 10mM lithium increased PER2 expression and rhythm amplitude but not period, and 1mM lithium did not affect either period or amplitude. In non-rhythmic Cry1-/- fibroblasts, 10mM lithium increased PER2 expression. In SCN slices, 1mM lithium lengthened period ∼1h in all genotypes, but did not affect amplitude except in Cry2-/- SCN. Thus, the amplitude-enhancing effect of lithium in WT fibroblasts was unaffected by Cry2 knockout and occurred in the absence of period-lengthening, whereas the period-lengthening effect of lithium in WT SCN was unaffected by Cry1 or Cry2 knockout and occurred in the absence of rhythm amplification, suggesting that these two effects of lithium on circadian rhythms are independent of CRYs and of each other.

  3. Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands and hamster circadian wheel running rhythms.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Robert L

    2014-10-17

    The synchronization of circadian rhythms in sleep, endocrine and metabolic functions with the environmental light cycle is essential for health, and dysfunction of this synchrony is thought to play a part in the development of many neurological disorders. There is a demonstrable need to develop new therapeutics for the treatment of neurological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, and oxytocin is currently being investigated for this purpose. There are no published reports describing activity of oxytocin receptor ligands on mammalian circadian rhythms and that, then, is the purpose of this study. Non-peptide oxytocin receptor ligands that cross the blood brain barrier were systemically injected in hamsters to determine their ability to modulate light-induced phase advances and delays of circadian wheel running rhythms. The oxytocin receptor agonist WAY267464 (10 mg/kg) inhibited light induced phase advances of wheel running rhythms by 55%, but had no effect on light-induced phase delays. In contrast, the oxytocin receptor antagonist WAY162720 (10 mg/kg) inhibited light-induced phase delays by nearly 75%, but had no effect on light-induced phase advances. Additionally, WAY162720 was able to antagonize the inhibitory effects of WAY267464 on light-induced phase advances. These results are consistent for a role of oxytocin in the phase-delaying effects of light on circadian activity rhythms early in the night. Therefore, oxytocin may prove to be useful in developing therapeutics for the treatment of mood disorders with a concomitant dysfunction in circadian rhythms. Investigators should also be cognizant that oxytocin ligands may negatively affect circadian rhythms during clinical trials for other conditions.

  4. Cardiac rhythm analysis during ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation using the Analysis During Compressions with Fast Reconfirmation technology.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Francesca; Silver, Annemarie E; Tan, Qing; Zaidi, Naveed; Ristagno, Giuseppe

    2017-09-14

    Pauses in chest compressions (CCs) have a negative association with survival from cardiac arrest. Electrocardiographic (ECG) rhythm analysis and defibrillator charging are significant contributors to CC pauses. Accuracy of the Analysis During Compressions with Fast Reconfirmation (ADC-FR) algorithm, which features automated rhythm analysis and charging during CCs to reduce CC pauses, was retrospectively determined in a large database of ECGs from 2701 patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The ADC-FR algorithm generated a total of 7264 advisories, of which 3575 were randomly assigned to a development data set and 3689 to a test data set. With ADC-FR, a high-pass digital filter is used to remove CC artifacts, while the underlying ECG rhythm is automatically interpreted. When CCs are paused at the end of the 2-minute cardiopulmonary resuscitation interval, a 3-second reconfirmation analysis is performed using the artifact-free ECG to confirm the shock/no-shock advisory. The sensitivity and specificity of the ADC-FR algorithm in correctly identifying shockable/nonshockable rhythms during CCs were calculated. In both data sets, the accuracy of the ADC-FR algorithm for each ECG rhythm exceeded the recommended performance goals, which apply to a standard artifact-free ECG analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 99%, respectively, for the development data set and 95% and 99% for the test data set. The ADC-FR algorithm is highly accurate in discriminating shockable and nonshockable rhythms and can be used to reduce CC pauses. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A riot of rhythms: neuronal and glial circadian oscillators in the mediobasal hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Guilding, Clare; Hughes, Alun TL; Brown, Timothy M; Namvar, Sara; Piggins, Hugh D

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, the synchronized activity of cell autonomous clocks in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) enables this structure to function as the master circadian clock, coordinating daily rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, the dominance of this clock has been challenged by the observations that metabolic duress can over-ride SCN controlled rhythms, and that clock genes are expressed in many brain areas, including those implicated in the regulation of appetite and feeding. The recent development of mice in which clock gene/protein activity is reported by bioluminescent constructs (luciferase or luc) now enables us to track molecular oscillations in numerous tissues ex vivo. Consequently we determined both clock activities and responsiveness to metabolic perturbations of cells and tissues within the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH), a site pivotal for optimal internal homeostatic regulation. Results Here we demonstrate endogenous circadian rhythms of PER2::LUC expression in discrete subdivisions of the arcuate (Arc) and dorsomedial nuclei (DMH). Rhythms resolved to single cells did not maintain long-term synchrony with one-another, leading to a damping of oscillations at both cell and tissue levels. Complementary electrophysiology recordings revealed rhythms in neuronal activity in the Arc and DMH. Further, PER2::LUC rhythms were detected in the ependymal layer of the third ventricle and in the median eminence/pars tuberalis (ME/PT). A high-fat diet had no effect on the molecular oscillations in the MBH, whereas food deprivation resulted in an altered phase in the ME/PT. Conclusion Our results provide the first single cell resolution of endogenous circadian rhythms in clock gene expression in any intact tissue outside the SCN, reveal the cellular basis for tissue level damping in extra-SCN oscillators and demonstrate that an oscillator in the ME/PT is responsive to changes in metabolism. PMID:19712475

  6. The Light Wavelength Affects the Ontogeny of Clock Gene Expression and Activity Rhythms in Zebrafish Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Di Rosa, Viviana; Frigato, Elena; López-Olmeda, José F.; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco J.; Bertolucci, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Light plays a key role in synchronizing rhythms and setting the phase of early development. However, to date, little is known about the impact of light wavelengths during the ontogeny of the molecular clock and the behavioural rhythmicity. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of light of different wavelengths (white, blue and red) on the onset of locomotor activity and clock gene (per1b, per2, clock1, bmal1 and dbp) expression rhythms. For this purpose, 4 groups of zebrafish embryo/larvae were raised from 0 to 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) under the following lighting conditions: three groups maintained under light:dark (LD) cycles with white (full visible spectrum, LDW), blue (LDB), or red light (LDR), and one group raised under constant darkness (DD). The results showed that lighting conditions influenced activity rhythms. Larvae were arrhythmic under DD, while under LD cycles they developed wavelength-dependent daily activity rhythms which appeared earlier under LDB (4 dpf) than under LDW or LDR (5 dpf). The results also revealed that development and lighting conditions influenced clock gene expression. While clock1 rhythmic expression appeared in all lighting conditions at 7 dpf, per1b, per2 and dbp showed daily variations already at 3 dpf. Curiously, bmal1 showed consistent rhythmic expression from embryonic stage (0 dpf). Summarizing, the data revealed that daily rhythms appeared earlier in the larvae reared under LDB than in those reared under LDW and LDR. These results emphasize the importance of lighting conditions and wavelengths during early development for the ontogeny of daily rhythms of gene expression and how these rhythms are reflected on the behavioural rhythmicity of zebrafish larvae. PMID:26147202

  7. The Light Wavelength Affects the Ontogeny of Clock Gene Expression and Activity Rhythms in Zebrafish Larvae.

    PubMed

    Di Rosa, Viviana; Frigato, Elena; López-Olmeda, José F; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Bertolucci, Cristiano

    2015-01-01

    Light plays a key role in synchronizing rhythms and setting the phase of early development. However, to date, little is known about the impact of light wavelengths during the ontogeny of the molecular clock and the behavioural rhythmicity. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of light of different wavelengths (white, blue and red) on the onset of locomotor activity and clock gene (per1b, per2, clock1, bmal1 and dbp) expression rhythms. For this purpose, 4 groups of zebrafish embryo/larvae were raised from 0 to 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) under the following lighting conditions: three groups maintained under light:dark (LD) cycles with white (full visible spectrum, LDW), blue (LDB), or red light (LDR), and one group raised under constant darkness (DD). The results showed that lighting conditions influenced activity rhythms. Larvae were arrhythmic under DD, while under LD cycles they developed wavelength-dependent daily activity rhythms which appeared earlier under LDB (4 dpf) than under LDW or LDR (5 dpf). The results also revealed that development and lighting conditions influenced clock gene expression. While clock1 rhythmic expression appeared in all lighting conditions at 7 dpf, per1b, per2 and dbp showed daily variations already at 3 dpf. Curiously, bmal1 showed consistent rhythmic expression from embryonic stage (0 dpf). Summarizing, the data revealed that daily rhythms appeared earlier in the larvae reared under LDB than in those reared under LDW and LDR. These results emphasize the importance of lighting conditions and wavelengths during early development for the ontogeny of daily rhythms of gene expression and how these rhythms are reflected on the behavioural rhythmicity of zebrafish larvae.

  8. The effects of social defeat and other stressors on the expression of circadian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Meerlo, P; Sgoifo, A; Turek, F W

    2002-02-01

    Most biological functions display a 24 h rhythm that, in mammals, is under the control of an endogenous circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The circadian system provides an optimal temporal organization for physiological processes and behavior in relation to a cyclic environment imposed upon organisms by the regular alternation of day and night. In line with its function as a clock that serves to maintain a stable phase-relationship between endogenous rhythms and the light-dark cycle, the circadian oscillator appears to be well protected against unpredictable stressful stimuli. Available data do not provide convincing evidence that stress is capable of perturbing the central circadian oscillator in the SCN. However, the shape and amplitude of a rhythm is not determined exclusively by the SCN and certain stressors can strongly affect the output of the clock and the expression of the rhythms. In particular, social stress in rodents has been found to cause severe disruptions of the body temperature, heart rate and locomotor activity rhythms, especially in animals that are subject to uncontrollable stress associated with defeat and subordination. Such rhythm disturbances may be due to effects of stress on sub-oscillators that are known to exist in many tissues, which are normally under the control of the SCN, or due to other effects of stress that mask the output of the circadian system. These disturbances of peripheral rhythms represent an imbalance between normally precisely orchestrated physiological and behavioral processes that may have severe consequence for the health and well being of the organism.

  9. Turning a Negative into a Positive: Ascending GABAergic Control of Cortical Activation and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; McKenna, James T.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. Recent technological advances have illuminated the role of GABAergic neurons in control of cortical arousal and sleep. Sleep-promoting GABAergic neurons in the preoptic hypothalamus are well-known. Less well-appreciated are GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem, midbrain, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, which paradoxically promote arousal and fast electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. Thus, GABA is not purely a sleep-promoting neurotransmitter. GABAergic projection neurons in the brainstem nucleus incertus and ventral tegmental nucleus of Gudden promote theta (4–8 Hz) rhythms. Ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons, neighboring midbrain dopamine neurons, project to the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. They discharge faster during cortical arousal and regulate reward. Thalamic reticular nucleus GABAergic neurons initiate sleep spindles in non-REM sleep. In addition, however, during wakefulness, they tonically regulate the activity of thalamocortical neurons. Other GABAergic inputs to the thalamus arising in the globus pallidus pars interna, substantia nigra pars reticulata, zona incerta, and basal forebrain regulate motor activity, arousal, attention, and sensory transmission. Several subpopulations of cortically projecting GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain project to the thalamus and neocortex and preferentially promote cortical gamma-band (30–80 Hz) activity and wakefulness. Unlike sleep-active GABAergic neurons, these ascending GABAergic neurons are fast-firing neurons which disinhibit and synchronize the activity of their forebrain targets, promoting the fast EEG rhythms typical of conscious states. They are prominent targets of GABAergic hypnotic agents. Understanding the properties of ascending GABAergic neurons may lead to novel treatments for diseases involving disorders of cortical activation and wakefulness. PMID:26124745

  10. The Utility of the Swine Model to Assess Biological Rhythms and Their Characteristics during Different Stages of Residence in a Simulated Intensive Care Unit: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Leyden, Katrina N.; Hanneman, Sandra K.; Padhye, Nikhil S.; Smolensky, Michael H.; Kang, Duck-Hee; Chow, Diana Shu-Lian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the utility of the mammalian swine model under simulated intensive care unit (sICU) conditions and mechanical ventilation for assessment of the trajectory of circadian rhythms of sedation requirement, core body temperature (CBT), pulmonary mechanics (PM), and gas exchange (GE). Data were collected prospectively with an observational time-series design to describe and compare circadian rhythms of selected study variables in four swine mechanically ventilated for up to 7 consecutive days. We derived the circadian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 20–28 h)/ultradian (total variance explained by rhythms of τ between 1 to <20 h) bandpower ratio to assess the robustness of circadian rhythms, and compare findings between the early (first 3 days) and late (subsequent days) sICU stay. All pigs exhibited statistically significant circadian rhythms (τ between 20–28 h) in CBT, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation, but circadian rhythms were detected less frequently for sedation requirement, spontaneous minute volume, arterial oxygen tension, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial pH. Sedation did not appear to mask the circadian rhythms of CBT, PM, and GE. Individual subject observations were more informative than group data, and provided preliminary evidence that (a) circadian rhythms of multiple variables are lost or desynchronized in mechanically ventilated subjects, (b) robustness of circadian rhythm varies with subject morbidity, and (c) healthier pigs develop more robust circadian rhythm profiles over time in the sICU. Comparison of biological rhythm profiles among sICU subjects with similar severity of illness is needed to determine if the results of this pilot study are reproducible. Identification of consistent patterns may provide insight into subject morbidity and timing of such therapeutic interventions as weaning from mechanical ventilation. PMID:26204131

  11. Sparsely-synchronized brain rhythm in a small-world neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Yoon; Lim, Woochang

    2013-07-01

    Sparsely-synchronized cortical rhythms, associated with diverse cognitive functions, have been observed in electric recordings of brain activity. At the population level, cortical rhythms exhibit small-amplitude fast oscillations while at the cellular level, individual neurons show stochastic firings sparsely at a much lower rate than the population rate. We study the effect of network architecture on sparse synchronization in an inhibitory population of subthreshold Morris-Lecar neurons (which cannot fire spontaneously without noise). Previously, sparse synchronization was found to occur for cases of both global coupling ( i.e., regular all-to-all coupling) and random coupling. However, a real neural network is known to be non-regular and non-random. Here, we consider sparse Watts-Strogatz small-world networks which interpolate between a regular lattice and a random graph via rewiring. We start from a regular lattice with only short-range connections and then investigate the emergence of sparse synchronization by increasing the rewiring probability p for the short-range connections. For p = 0, the average synaptic path length between pairs of neurons becomes long; hence, only an unsynchronized population state exists because the global efficiency of information transfer is low. However, as p is increased, long-range connections begin to appear, and global effective communication between distant neurons may be available via shorter synaptic paths. Consequently, as p passes a threshold p th (}~ 0.044), sparsely-synchronized population rhythms emerge. However, with increasing p, longer axon wirings become expensive because of their material and energy costs. At an optimal value p* DE (}~ 0.24) of the rewiring probability, the ratio of the synchrony degree to the wiring cost is found to become maximal. In this way, an optimal sparse synchronization is found to occur at a minimal wiring cost in an economic small-world network through trade-off between synchrony and

  12. Perceptual Tests of Rhythmic Similarity: I. Mora Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Lalita; Otake, Takashi; Cutler, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Listeners rely on native-language rhythm in segmenting speech; in different languages, stress-, syllable- or mora-based rhythm is exploited. The rhythmic similarity hypothesis holds that where two languages have similar rhythm, listeners of each language should segment their own and the other language similarly. Such similarity in listening was…

  13. Does Melody Assist in the Reproduction of Novel Rhythm Patterns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Daryl W.; Forsythe, Jere L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined music education majors' ability to reproduce rhythmic stimuli presented in melody and rhythm only conditions. Participants reproduced rhythms of two-measure music examples by immediately echo-performing through a method of their choosing (e.g., clapping, tapping, vocalizing). Forty examples were presented in melody and rhythm only…

  14. Perceptual Tests of Rhythmic Similarity: I. Mora Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murty, Lalita; Otake, Takashi; Cutler, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Listeners rely on native-language rhythm in segmenting speech; in different languages, stress-, syllable- or mora-based rhythm is exploited. The rhythmic similarity hypothesis holds that where two languages have similar rhythm, listeners of each language should segment their own and the other language similarly. Such similarity in listening was…

  15. Circadian rhythms in Macaca mulatta monkeys during Bion 11 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Tumurova, E. G.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of primate brain temperature, head and ankle skin temperature, motor activity, and heart rate were studied during spaceflight and on the ground. In space, the circadian rhythms of all the parameters were synchronized with diurnal Zeitgebers. However, in space the brain temperature rhythm showed a significantly more delayed phase angle, which may be ascribed to an increase of the endogenous circadian period.

  16. Circadian rhythms in Macaca mulatta monkeys during Bion 11 flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpatov, A. M.; Hoban-Higgins, T. M.; Klimovitsky, V. Y.; Tumurova, E. G.; Fuller, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    Circadian rhythms of primate brain temperature, head and ankle skin temperature, motor activity, and heart rate were studied during spaceflight and on the ground. In space, the circadian rhythms of all the parameters were synchronized with diurnal Zeitgebers. However, in space the brain temperature rhythm showed a significantly more delayed phase angle, which may be ascribed to an increase of the endogenous circadian period.

  17. Does Melody Assist in the Reproduction of Novel Rhythm Patterns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Daryl W.; Forsythe, Jere L.

    2013-01-01

    We examined music education majors' ability to reproduce rhythmic stimuli presented in melody and rhythm only conditions. Participants reproduced rhythms of two-measure music examples by immediately echo-performing through a method of their choosing (e.g., clapping, tapping, vocalizing). Forty examples were presented in melody and rhythm only…

  18. Monkey Lipsmacking Develops Like the Human Speech Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Ryan J.; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F.; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Across all languages studied to date, audiovisual speech exhibits a consistent rhythmic structure. This rhythm is critical to speech perception. Some have suggested that the speech rhythm evolved "de novo" in humans. An alternative account--the one we explored here--is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of rhythmic facial…

  19. The Features and Training of English Stress and Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Cui-yun

    2008-01-01

    In second language learning, to possess a perfect pronunciation, the importance of stress and rhythm should not be ignored. This articles explores the nature of sentence and word stress as well as rhythm, thus putting forward some feasible ways of training and acquiring a good English stress and rhythm in EFLT (English as Foreign Language…

  20. A rhythm landscape approach to the developmental dynamics of birdsong

    PubMed Central

    Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Tchernichovski, Ofer; Takahasi, Miki; Suzuki, Kenta; Okanoya, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Unlike simple biological rhythms, the rhythm of the oscine bird song is a learned time series of diverse sounds that change dynamically during vocal ontogeny. How to quantify rhythm development is one of the most important challenges in behavioural biology. Here, we propose a simple method, called ‘rhythm landscape’, to visualize and quantify how rhythm structure, which is measured as durational patterns of sounds and silences, emerges and changes over development. Applying this method to the development of Bengalese finch songs, we show that the rhythm structure begins with a broadband rhythm that develops into diverse rhythms largely through branching from precursors. Furthermore, an information-theoretic measure, the Jensen–Shannon divergence, was used to characterize the crystallization process of birdsong rhythm, which started with a high rate of rhythm change and progressed to a stage of slow refinement. This simple method provides a useful description of rhythm development, thereby helping to reveal key temporal constraints on complex biological rhythms. PMID:26538559

  1. Toward an Effective Pedagogy for Teaching Rhythm: Gordon and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Rhythm is arguably the most important component of music. In all musics of all cultures, past and present, rhythm is central to musical experience and understanding. Given the enormous diversity of rhythm, perhaps it is no surprise that there is a wide range of opinion about how to teach it. It seems that every approach to music education…

  2. Monkey Lipsmacking Develops Like the Human Speech Rhythm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrill, Ryan J.; Paukner, Annika; Ferrari, Pier F.; Ghazanfar, Asif A.

    2012-01-01

    Across all languages studied to date, audiovisual speech exhibits a consistent rhythmic structure. This rhythm is critical to speech perception. Some have suggested that the speech rhythm evolved "de novo" in humans. An alternative account--the one we explored here--is that the rhythm of speech evolved through the modification of rhythmic facial…

  3. The Rhythm of Perception: Entrainment to Acoustic Rhythms Induces Subsequent Perceptual Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Hickok, Gregory; Farahbod, Haleh; Saberi, Kourosh

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic rhythms are pervasive in speech, music, and environmental sounds. Recent evidence for neural codes representing periodic information suggests that they may be a neural basis for the ability to detect rhythm. Further, rhythmic information has been found to modulate auditory-system excitability, which provides a potential mechanism for parsing the acoustic stream. Here, we explored the effects of a rhythmic stimulus on subsequent auditory perception. We found that a low-frequency (3 Hz), amplitude-modulated signal induces a subsequent oscillation of the perceptual detectability of a brief nonperiodic acoustic stimulus (1-kHz tone); the frequency but not the phase of the perceptual oscillation matches the entrained stimulus-driven rhythmic oscillation. This provides evidence that rhythmic contexts have a direct influence on subsequent auditory perception of discrete acoustic events. Rhythm coding is likely a fundamental feature of auditory-system design that predates the development of explicit human enjoyment of rhythm in music or poetry.

  4. Case study of psychophysiological diary: infradian rhythms.

    PubMed

    Slover, G P; Morris, R W; Stroebel, C F; Patel, M K

    1987-01-01

    A 4-year case study was made of a 42-year-old white woman as seen through the psychophysiological diary. There was an awakening diary and a bedtime diary composed of 125 variables. The data are divided into two series: series I containing a manic episode, and series II as a control. Spectral analysis shows infradian rhythms in hypoglycemia and fear (11 days) and time to fall asleep (5 days). Depressed feelings showed a circatrigintan (28-day) rhythm, which was not correlated with menses. Mania had an annual rhythm (spring) but no circatrigintan or less rhythm. The following correlations have a P value less than or equal to 0.01: mania was directly correlated with number of sleeping pills, time to really wake up, need for rest, moodiness, and helplessness, and indirectly with expectations, pressure at work, sense of time, and emotional state. Interestingly, awakening pulse is directly correlated with awakening temperature, number of sleeping pills, bedtime pulse, tiredness at bedtime, hypoglycemia, and fear. Bedtime pulse is directly correlated with awakening pulse and awakening temperature. Both pulse and temperature at bedtime are directly correlated with negative variables such as tiredness, moodiness, helplessness, and depression, and inversely correlated with positive variables such as happiness, loving, performance at work, and thinking efficiency. This study demonstrates a significant correlation between physiological variables.

  5. Respiratory rhythm generation: triple oscillator hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Tatiana M.; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2017-01-01

    Breathing is vital for survival but also interesting from the perspective of rhythm generation. This rhythmic behavior is generated within the brainstem and is thought to emerge through the interaction between independent oscillatory neuronal networks. In mammals, breathing is composed of three phases – inspiration, post-inspiration, and active expiration – and this article discusses the concept that each phase is generated by anatomically distinct rhythm-generating networks: the preBötzinger complex (preBötC), the post-inspiratory complex (PiCo), and the lateral parafacial nucleus (pF L), respectively. The preBötC was first discovered 25 years ago and was shown to be both necessary and sufficient for the generation of inspiration. More recently, networks have been described that are responsible for post-inspiration and active expiration. Here, we attempt to collate the current knowledge and hypotheses regarding how respiratory rhythms are generated, the role that inhibition plays, and the interactions between the medullary networks. Our considerations may have implications for rhythm generation in general. PMID:28299192

  6. Circadian temperature rhythms of older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of studies had the aim of exploring whether older (77+ years) men and women have circadian body temperature rhythms different from those of younger adults. A total of 20 older men and 28 older women were compared with either 22 young men or 14 middle-aged men in four protocols; all but the first protocol using a subset of the sample. The four protocols were: 1) 24 h, and 2) 72 h data collections on a normal laboratory routine (sleeping at night); 3) between 36 h and 153 h of field data collection at home; and 4) 36 h of a constant conditions routine (wakeful bedrest under temporal isolation) in the laboratory. There was some evidence for an age-related phase advance in temperature rhythm, especially for the older men on a normal routine, though this was not present in the constant conditions protocol, where 5 of the older subjects showed major delays in the timing of the body temperature trough (10:00 or later). There was no statistically significant evidence from any of the protocols that older subjects generally had lower temperature rhythm amplitudes than younger adults. Only when older men were compared with younger men in 24-h rhythm amplitude by simple t-test did any comparison involving amplitude achieve statistical significance (p < 0.05).

  7. [Circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric diseases].

    PubMed

    Bromundt, Vivien

    2014-11-01

    Circadian rhythm sleep disorders are prevalent among psychiatric patients. This is most probable due to a close relationship between functional disturbances of the internal clock, sleep regulation and mental health. Mechanisms on molecular level of the circadian clock and neurotransmitter signalling are involved in the development of both disorders. Moreover, circadian disorders and psychiatric diseases favour each other by accessory symptoms such as stress or social isolation. Actimetry to objectively quantify the rest-activity cycle and salivary melatonin profiles as marker for the circadian phase help to diagnose circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatric patients. Chronotherapeutics such as bright light therapy, dark therapy, melatonin administration, and wake therapy are used to synchronise and consolidate circadian rhythms and help in the treatment of depression and other psychiatric disorders, but are still neglected in medicine. More molecular to behavioural research is needed for the understanding of the development of circadian disorders and their relationship to psychiatric illnesses. This will help to boost the awareness and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders in psychiatry.

  8. Running for time: circadian rhythms and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Markova-Car, Elitza P; Jurišić, Davor; Ilić, Nataša; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Circadian timing system includes an input pathway transmitting environmental signals to a core oscillator that generates circadian signals responsible for the peripheral physiological or behavioural events. Circadian 24-h rhythms regulate diverse physiologic processes. Deregulation of these rhythms is associated with a number of pathogenic conditions including depression, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cancer. Melanoma is a less common type of skin cancer yet more aggressive often with a lethal ending. However, little is known about circadian control in melanoma and exact functional associations between core clock genes and development of melanoma skin cancer. This paper, therefore, comprehensively analyses current literature data on the involvement of circadian clock components in melanoma development. In particular, the role of circadian rhythm deregulation is discussed in the context of DNA repair mechanisms and influence of UV radiation and artificial light exposure on cancer development. The role of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) enzyme and impact of melatonin, as a major output factor of circadian rhythm, and its protective role in melanoma are discussed in details. We hypothesise that further understanding of clock genes' involvement and circadian regulation might foster discoveries in the field of melanoma diagnostics and treatment.

  9. Procedures for numerical analysis of circadian rhythms

    PubMed Central

    REFINETTI, ROBERTO; LISSEN, GERMAINE CORNÉ; HALBERG, FRANZ

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews various procedures used in the analysis of circadian rhythms at the populational, organismal, cellular and molecular levels. The procedures range from visual inspection of time plots and actograms to several mathematical methods of time series analysis. Computational steps are described in some detail, and additional bibliographic resources and computer programs are listed. PMID:23710111

  10. Circadian Rhythms in Adipose Tissue Physiology.

    PubMed

    Kiehn, Jana-Thabea; Tsang, Anthony H; Heyde, Isabel; Leinweber, Brinja; Kolbe, Isa; Leliavski, Alexei; Oster, Henrik

    2017-03-16

    The different types of adipose tissues fulfill a wide range of biological functions-from energy storage to hormone secretion and thermogenesis-many of which show pronounced variations over the course of the day. Such 24-h rhythms in physiology and behavior are coordinated by endogenous circadian clocks found in all tissues and cells, including adipocytes. At the molecular level, these clocks are based on interlocked transcriptional-translational feedback loops comprised of a set of clock genes/proteins. Tissue-specific clock-controlled transcriptional programs translate time-of-day information into physiologically relevant signals. In adipose tissues, clock gene control has been documented for adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, lipid metabolism as well as endocrine function and other adipose oscillations are under control of systemic signals tied to endocrine, neuronal, or behavioral rhythms. Circadian rhythm disruption, for example, by night shift work or through genetic alterations, is associated with changes in adipocyte metabolism and hormone secretion. At the same time, adipose metabolic state feeds back to central and peripheral clocks, adjusting behavioral and physiological rhythms. In this overview article, we summarize our current knowledge about the crosstalk between circadian clocks and energy metabolism with a focus on adipose physiology. © 2017 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 7:383-427, 2017.

  11. Circadian temperature rhythms of older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Reynolds, C. F. 3rd; Kupfer, D. J.; Houck, P. R.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of studies had the aim of exploring whether older (77+ years) men and women have circadian body temperature rhythms different from those of younger adults. A total of 20 older men and 28 older women were compared with either 22 young men or 14 middle-aged men in four protocols; all but the first protocol using a subset of the sample. The four protocols were: 1) 24 h, and 2) 72 h data collections on a normal laboratory routine (sleeping at night); 3) between 36 h and 153 h of field data collection at home; and 4) 36 h of a constant conditions routine (wakeful bedrest under temporal isolation) in the laboratory. There was some evidence for an age-related phase advance in temperature rhythm, especially for the older men on a normal routine, though this was not present in the constant conditions protocol, where 5 of the older subjects showed major delays in the timing of the body temperature trough (10:00 or later). There was no statistically significant evidence from any of the protocols that older subjects generally had lower temperature rhythm amplitudes than younger adults. Only when older men were compared with younger men in 24-h rhythm amplitude by simple t-test did any comparison involving amplitude achieve statistical significance (p < 0.05).

  12. Herpetic eye attacks: variability of circannual rhythms.

    PubMed Central

    Gamus, D; Romano, A; Sucher, E; Ashkenazi, I E

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The issue of seasonal variation of herpetic ocular infections is still controversial. This study was designed to examine whether this variation exists and can be defined as a significant circannual rhythm. METHODS--The patterns of recurrent attacks were monitored in 541 patients over a period of 15 years. Rhythm parameters were analysed according to age, sex, and clinical signs. RESULTS--The majority of herpetic eye attacks exhibited the highest peak in January (p < 0.04), except in the group of atopic children where the incidence of the disease peaked in September (p < 0.05). Among the various clinical forms, significant circannual periodicities were found only in the occurrence of epithelial herpetic keratitis (p < 0.03). The rhythms were detected among males (p < 0.03) but not among females. No direct correlation was demonstrated between the presence of the rhythms and the triggering effect of upper respiratory tract infections. CONCLUSIONS--Chronoepidemiological evaluation of individual reactivation patterns may be beneficial to certain patients and contribute to the optimisation of the treatment when prophylaxis is considered. PMID:7880794

  13. From Biological Rhythms to Social Rhythms: Physiological Precursors of Mother-Infant Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Links between neonatal biological rhythms and the emergence of interaction rhythms were examined in 3 groups (N=71): high-risk preterms (HR; birth weight less than 1,000 g), low-risk preterms (LR; birth weight=1,700-1,850 g), and full-term (FT) infants. Once a week for premature infants and on the 2nd day for FT infants, sleep-wake cyclicity was…

  14. From Biological Rhythms to Social Rhythms: Physiological Precursors of Mother-Infant Synchrony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    Links between neonatal biological rhythms and the emergence of interaction rhythms were examined in 3 groups (N=71): high-risk preterms (HR; birth weight less than 1,000 g), low-risk preterms (LR; birth weight=1,700-1,850 g), and full-term (FT) infants. Once a week for premature infants and on the 2nd day for FT infants, sleep-wake cyclicity was…

  15. Malformations of cortical development: genetic mechanisms and diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact morphologies of cortical malformations. The hypothetical mechanisms of malformation include interruptions during the formation of cerebral cortex in the form of viral infection, genetic causes, and vascular events. Recent remarkable developments in genetic analysis methods have improved our understanding of these pathological mechanisms. The present review will discuss normal cortical development, the current proposed malformation classifications, and the diagnostic approach for malformations of cortical development. PMID:28203254

  16. Malformations of cortical development: genetic mechanisms and diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehun

    2017-01-01

    Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact morphologies of cortical malformations. The hypothetical mechanisms of malformation include interruptions during the formation of cerebral cortex in the form of viral infection, genetic causes, and vascular events. Recent remarkable developments in genetic analysis methods have improved our understanding of these pathological mechanisms. The present review will discuss normal cortical development, the current proposed malformation classifications, and the diagnostic approach for malformations of cortical development.

  17. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths Hairs

    SciTech Connect

    M Spilde; A Lanzirotti; C Qualls; G Phillips; A Ali; L Agenbroad; O Appenzeller

    2011-12-31

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was {approx}31 cms/year and {approx}16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  18. Characterisation of circadian rhythms of various duckweeds.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, T; Okada, M; Yomo, J; Kubota, S; Oyama, T

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock controls various physiological phenomena that are important for adaptation to natural day-night cycles. Many components of the circadian clock have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, the model plant for molecular genetic studies. Recent studies revealed evolutionary conservation of clock components in green plants. Homologues of clock-related genes have been isolated from Lemna gibba and Lemna aequinoctialis, and it has been demonstrated that these homologues function in the clock system in a manner similar to their functioning in Arabidopsis. While clock components are widely conserved, circadian phenomena display diversity even within the Lemna genus. In order to survey the full extent of diversity in circadian rhythms among duckweed plants, we characterised the circadian rhythms of duckweed by employing a semi-transient bioluminescent reporter system. Using a particle bombardment method, circadian bioluminescent reporters were introduced into nine strains representing five duckweed species: Spirodela polyrhiza, Landoltia punctata, Lemna gibba, L. aequinoctialis and Wolffia columbiana. We then monitored luciferase (luc+) reporter activities driven by AtCCA1, ZmUBQ1 or CaMV35S promoters under entrainment and free-running conditions. Under entrainment, AtCCA1::luc+ showed similar diurnal rhythms in all strains. This suggests that the mechanism of biological timing under day-night cycles is conserved throughout the evolution of duckweeds. Under free-running conditions, we observed circadian rhythms of AtCCA1::luc+, ZmUBQ1::luc+ and CaMV35S::luc+. These circadian rhythms showed diversity in period length and sustainability, suggesting that circadian clock mechanisms are somewhat diversified among duckweeds.

  19. Biologic Rhythms Derived from Siberian Mammoths' Hairs

    PubMed Central

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna. PMID:21747920

  20. Biologic rhythms derived from Siberian mammoths' hairs.

    PubMed

    Spilde, Mike; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Qualls, Clifford; Phillips, Genevieve; Ali, Abdul-Mehdi; Agenbroad, Larry; Appenzeller, Otto

    2011-01-01

    Hair is preserved for millennia in permafrost; it enshrines a record of biologic rhythms and offers a glimpse at chronobiology as it was in extinct animals. Here we compare biologic rhythms gleaned from mammoth's hairs with those of modern human hair. Four mammoths' hairs came from varying locations in Siberia 4600 km, four time zones, apart ranging in age between 18,000 and 20,000 years before present. We used two contemporaneous human hairs for comparison. Power spectra derived from hydrogen isotope ratios along the length of the hairs gave insight into biologic rhythms, which were different in the mammoths depending on location and differed from humans. Hair growth for mammoths was ∼31 cms/year and ∼16 cms/year for humans. Recurrent annual rhythms of slow and fast growth varying from 3.4 weeks/cycles to 8.7 weeks/cycles for slow periods and 1.2 weeks/cycles to 2.2 weeks/cycles for fast periods were identified in mammoth's hairs. The mineral content of mammoth's hairs was measured by electron microprobe analysis (k-ratios), which showed no differences in sulfur amongst the mammoth hairs but significantly more iron then in human hair. The fractal nature of the data derived from the hairs became evident in Mandelbrot sets derived from hydrogen isotope ratios, mineral content and geographic location. Confocal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy showed varied degrees of preservation of the cuticle largely independent of age but not location of the specimens. X-ray fluorescence microprobe and fluorescence computed micro-tomography analyses allowed evaluation of metal distribution and visualization of hollow tubes in the mammoth's hairs. Seasonal variations in iron and copper content combined with spectral analyses gave insights into variation in food intake of the animals. Biologic rhythms gleaned from power spectral plots obtained by modern methods revealed life style and behavior of extinct mega-fauna.

  1. Temperature rhythm reentrains faster than locomotor rhythm after a light phase shift.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yoko; Kawai, Hiroshi; Kudo, Naomi; Kawashima, Yoichi; Mitsumoto, Atsushi

    2006-07-30

    Mammalian endogenous circadian rhythms are entrained to the environmental light-dark (LD) cycle. Although the circadian rhythms of core body temperature (Tb) and spontaneous locomotor activity (LA) are well synchronized under stable LD conditions, it is thought that these two parameters are regulated by distinct mechanisms. The purpose of the present study was to examine the adaptability of these two rhythms to an abrupt change in the environmental light phase. Tb and LA were simultaneously recorded in individual mice kept under 12:12-h LD cycle conditions before and after an 8-h photic phase advance. The onset of LA required 8 days to reentrain to the new LD cycle, whereas 6 days were required for reentrainment of the acrophase of Tb. Resting Tb, i.e., the Tb level independent of LA, was extracted from the same data source. The resting Tb level exhibited a robust daily rhythm with a difference of 1.0 degrees C between LD phases. After the photic phase advance, the resting Tb rapidly reached a stable level within 4 days, whereas the uncorrected Tb required 6 days for reentrainment. Based on these findings, we revealed that, independent of LA, the adaptability of the Tb rhythm to a new light cycle is half as rapid as that of LA. These results therefore suggest that the circadian rhythms of Tb and LA are intrinsically regulated by different pacemaker or effector mechanisms.

  2. Novel Pharmacological Targets for the Rhythm Control Management of Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Burashnikov, Alexander; Antzelevitch, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing clinical problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development of safe and effective pharmacological treatments for AF is one of the greatest unmet medical needs facing our society. In spite of significant progress in non-pharmacological AF treatments (largely due to the use of catheter ablation techniques), anti-arrhythmic agents (AADs) remain first line therapy for rhythm control management of AF for most AF patients. When considering efficacy, safety and tolerability, currently available AADs for rhythm control of AF are less than optimal. Ion channel inhibition remains the principal strategy for termination of AF and prevention of its recurrence. Practical clinical experience indicates that multi-ion channel blockers are generally more optimal for rhythm control of AF compared to ion channel-selective blockers. Recent studies suggest that atrial-selective sodium channel block can lead to safe and effective suppression of AF and that concurrent inhibition of potassium ion channels may potentiate this effect. An important limitation of the ion channel block approach for AF treatment is that non-electrical factors (largely structural remodeling) may importantly determine the generation of AF, so that “upstream therapy”, aimed at preventing or reversing structural remodeling, may be required for effective rhythm control management. This review focuses on novel pharmacological targets for the rhythm control management of AF. PMID:21867730

  3. Effects of exercise on circadian rhythms and mobility in aging Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Kuntol; Wambua, Rebecca; Giebultowicz, Tomasz M; Giebultowicz, Jadwiga M

    2013-11-01

    Daily life functions such as sleep and feeding oscillate with circa 24 h period due to endogenous circadian rhythms generated by circadian clocks. Genetic or environmental disruption of circadian rhythms is associated with various aging-related phenotypes. Circadian rhythms decay during normal aging, and there is a need to explore strategies that could avert age-related changes in the circadian system. Exercise was reported to delay aging in mammals. Here, we investigated whether daily exercise via stimulation of upward climbing movement could improve circadian rest/activity rhythms in aging Drosophila melanogaster. We found that repeated exercise regimen did not strengthen circadian locomotor activity rhythms in aging flies and had no effect on their lifespan. We also tested the effects of exercise on mobility and determined that regular exercise lowered age-specific climbing ability in both wild type and clock mutant flies. Interestingly, the climbing ability was most significantly reduced in flies carrying a null mutation in the core clock gene period, while rescue of this gene significantly improved climbing to wild type levels. Our work highlights the importance of period in sustaining endurance in aging flies exposed to physical challenge.

  4. Effect of Spaceflight on the Circadian Rhythm, Lifespan and Gene Expression of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kanyan

    2015-01-01

    Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China’s Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern. The expression level and rhythm of major clock genes were also unaffected. However, expression profiling showed differentially regulated output genes of the circadian clock system between space flown and control flies, suggesting that spaceflight affected the circadian output pathway. We also investigated other physiological effects of spaceflight such as lipid metabolism and lifespan, and searched genes significantly affected by spaceflight using microarray analysis. These results provide new information on the effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and lifespan. Furthermore, we showed that studying the effect of spaceflight on gene expression using samples collected at different Zeitgeber time could obtain different results, suggesting the importance of appropriate sampling procedures in studies on the effects of spaceflight. PMID:25798821

  5. Fractional brownian functions as mathematical models of natural rhythm in architecture.

    PubMed

    Cirovic, Ivana M

    2014-10-01

    Carl Bovill suggested and described a method of generating rhythm in architecture with the help of fractional Brownian functions, as they are mathematical models of natural rhythm. A relationship established in the stated procedure between fractional Brownian functions as models of rhythm, and the observed group of architectural elements, is recognized as an analogical relationship, and the procedure of generating rhythm as a process of analogical transfer from the natural domain to the architectural domain. Since analogical transfer implies relational similarity of two domains, and the establishment of one-to-one correspondence, this paper is trying to determine under which conditions such correspondence could be established. For example, if the values of the observed visual feature of architectural elements are not similar to each other in a way in which they can form a monotonically increasing, or a monotonically decreasing bounded sequence, then the structural alignment and the one-to-one correspondence with a single fractional Brownian function cannot be established, hence, this function is deemed inappropriate as a model for the architectural rhythm. In this case we propose overlapping of two or more functions, so that each of them is an analog for one subset of mutually similar values of the visual feature of architectural elements.

  6. Circadian rhythm of autophagy proteins in hippocampus is blunted by sleep fragmentation.

    PubMed

    He, Yi; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine G; He, Junyun; Kastin, Abba J; Harrison, Laura M; Pan, Weihong

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is essential for normal cellular survival and activity. Circadian rhythms of autophagy have been studied in several peripheral organs but not yet reported in the brain. Here, we measured the circadian rhythm of autophagy-related proteins in mouse hippocampus and tested the effect of sleep fragmentation (SF). Expressions of the autophagy-related proteins microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and beclin were determined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Both the hippocampal LC3 signal and the ratio of its lipid-conjugated form LC3-II to its cytosolic form LC3-I showed a 24 h rhythm. The peak was seen at ZT6 (1 pm) and the nadir at ZT16 (1 am). The LC3 immunoreactivity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons also distributed differently, with more diffuse cytoplasmic appearance at ZT16. Chronic SF had a mild effect to disrupt the 24 h rhythm of LC3 and beclin expression. Interestingly, a greater effect of SF was seen after 24 h of recovery sleep when LC3-II expression was attenuated at both the peak and trough of circadian activities. Overall, the results show for the first time that the hippocampus has a distinct rhythm of autophagy that can be altered by SF.

  7. Effect of spaceflight on the circadian rhythm, lifespan and gene expression of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lingling; Ma, Jun; Xu, Kanyan

    2015-01-01

    Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China's Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern. The expression level and rhythm of major clock genes were also unaffected. However, expression profiling showed differentially regulated output genes of the circadian clock system between space flown and control flies, suggesting that spaceflight affected the circadian output pathway. We also investigated other physiological effects of spaceflight such as lipid metabolism and lifespan, and searched genes significantly affected by spaceflight using microarray analysis. These results provide new information on the effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and lifespan. Furthermore, we showed that studying the effect of spaceflight on gene expression using samples collected at different Zeitgeber time could obtain different results, suggesting the importance of appropriate sampling procedures in studies on the effects of spaceflight.

  8. Mobile phone emission increases inter-hemispheric functional coupling of electroencephalographic α rhythms in epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Tombini, Mario; Buffo, Paola; Assenza, Giovanni; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Benvenga, Antonella; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2012-05-01

    It has been reported that GSM electromagnetic fields (GSM-EMFs) of mobile phones modulate - after a prolonged exposure - inter-hemispheric synchronization of temporal and frontal resting electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms in normal young and elderly subjects (Vecchio et al., 2007, 2010). Here we tested the hypothesis that this can be even more evident in epileptic patients, who typically suffer from abnormal mechanisms governing synchronization of rhythmic firing of cortical neurons. Eyes-closed resting EEG data were recorded in ten patients affected by focal epilepsy in real and sham exposure conditions. These data were compared with those obtained from 15 age-matched normal subjects of the previous reference studies. The GSM device was turned on (45 min) in the "GSM" condition and was turned off (45 min) in the other condition ("sham"). The mobile phone was always positioned on the left side in both patients and control subjects. Spectral coherence evaluated the inter-hemispheric synchronization of EEG rhythms at the following frequency bands: delta (about 2-4 Hz), theta (about 4-6 Hz), alpha1 (about 6-8 Hz), alpha2 (about 8-10 Hz), and alpha3 (about 10-12 Hz). The effects on the patients were investigated comparing the inter-hemispheric EEG coherence in the epileptic patients with the control group of subjects evaluated in the previous reference studies. Compared with the control subjects, epileptic patients showed a statistically significant higher inter-hemispheric coherence of temporal and frontal alpha rhythms (about 8-12 Hz) in the GSM than "Sham" condition. These results suggest that GSM-EMFs of mobile phone may affect inter-hemispheric synchronization of the dominant (alpha) EEG rhythms in epileptic patients. If confirmed by future studies on a larger group of epilepsy patients, the modulation of the inter-hemispheric alpha coherence due to the GSM-EMFs could have clinical implications and be related to changes in cognitive-motor function.

  9. Cortical Clefts and Cortical Bumps: A Continuous Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Furruqh, Farha; Thirunavukarasu, Suresh; Vivekandan, Ravichandran

    2016-01-01

    Cortical ‘clefts’ (schizencephaly) and cortical ‘bumps’ (polymicrogyria) are malformations arising due to defects in postmigrational development of neurons. They are frequently encountered together, with schizencephalic clefts being lined by polymicrogyria. We present the case of an eight-year-old boy who presented with seizures. Imaging revealed closed lip schizencephaly, polymicrogyria and a deep ‘incomplete’ cleft lined by polymicrogyria not communicating with the lateral ventricle. We speculate that hypoperfusion or ischaemic cortical injury during neuronal development may lead to a spectrum of malformations ranging from polymicrogyria to incomplete cortical clefts to schizencephaly. PMID:27630923

  10. The Validity and Reliability of Rhythm Measurements in Automatically Scoring the English Rhythm Proficiency of Chinese EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jin; Lin, Jianghao; Li, Xinguang

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to find out the validity of rhythm measurements to capture the rhythmic features of Chinese English. Besides, the reliability of the valid rhythm measurements applied in automatically scoring the English rhythm proficiency of Chinese EFL learners is also explored. Thus, two experiments were carried out. First, thirty students of…

  11. Free-running circadian rhythms of muscle strength, reaction time, and body temperature in totally blind people.

    PubMed

    Squarcini, Camila Fabiana Rossi; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; Lopes, Cleide; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Cornelissen-Guillaume, Germaine; Matarazzo, Carolina; Garcia, Danilo; da Silva, Maria Stella Peccin; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2013-01-01

    Light is the major synchronizer of circadian rhythms. In the absence of light, as for totally blind people, some variables, such as body temperature, have an endogenous period that is longer than 24 h and tend to be free running. However, the circadian rhythm of muscle strength and reaction time in totally blind people has not been defined in the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the period of the endogenous circadian rhythm of the isometric and isokinetic contraction strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people. The study included six totally blind people with free-running circadian rhythms and four sighted people (control group). Although the control group required only a single session to determine the circadian rhythm, the blind people required three sessions to determine the endogenous period. In each session, isometric strength, isokinetic strength, reaction time, and body temperature were collected six different times a day with an interval of at least 8 h. The control group had better performance for strength and reaction time in the afternoon. For the blind, this performance became delayed throughout the day. Therefore, we conclude that the circadian rhythms of strength and simple reaction time of totally blind people are within their free-running periods. For some professionals, like the blind paralympic athletes, activities that require large physiological capacities in which the maximum stimulus should match the ideal time of competition may result in the blind athletes falling short of their expected performance under this free-running condition.

  12. Evidence for alterations of cortical folding in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Schultz, C Christoph; Wagner, Gerd; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Berger, Sandy; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Bär, Karl J

    2017-02-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is highly heritable, and the perspective on the etiology of AN has changed from a behavioral to a neurobiological and neurodevelopmental view. However, cortical folding as an important marker for deviations in brain development has yet rarely been explored in AN. Hence, in order to determine potential cortical folding alterations, we investigated fine-grained cortical folding in a cohort of 26 patients with AN, of whom 6 patients were recovered regarding their weight at the time point of MRI measurement. MRI-derived cortical folding was computed and compared between patients and healthy controls at about 150,000 points per hemisphere using a surface-based technique (FreeSurfer). Patients with AN exhibited highly significant increased cortical folding in a right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex region (DLPFC). Furthermore, a statistical trend in the same direction was found in the right visual cortex. We did not find a correlation of local cortical folding and current symptoms of the disease. In conclusion, our analyses provide first evidence that altered DLPFC cortical folding plays a role in the etiology of AN. The absence of correlations with clinical parameters implicates a relatively independence of cortical folding alterations from the current symptomatology and might thus be regarded as a trait characteristic of the disease potentially related to other neurobiological features of AN.

  13. Cortical involvement in the sensory and motor symptoms of primary restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tyvaert, L; Houdayer, E; Devanne, H; Bourriez, J L; Derambure, P; Monaca, C

    2009-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by closely interrelated motor and sensory disorders. Two types of involuntary movement can be observed: periodic leg movements during wakefulness (PLMW) and periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS). Basal ganglia dysfunction in primary RLS has often been suggested. However, clinical observations raise the hypothesis of sensorimotor cortical involvement in RLS symptoms. Here, we explored cortical function via movement-related beta and mu rhythm reactivity. Twelve patients with idiopathic, primary RLS were investigated and compared with 10 healthy subjects. In the patient group, we analyzed event-related beta and mu (de)synchronization (ERD/S) for PLMS and PLMW during a suggested immobilization test (SIT). An ERD/S analysis was also performed in patients and controls during self-paced right ankle dorsal flexion at 8:30 PM (i.e., the symptomatic period for patients) and 8:30 AM (the asymptomatic period). Before PLMS, there was no ERD. Intense ERS was recorded after PLMS. As with voluntary movement, cortical ERD was always observed before PLMW. After PLMW, ERS had a diffuse scalp distribution. Furthermore, the ERS and ERD amplitudes and durations for voluntary movement were greater during the symptomatic period than during the asymptomatic period and in comparison with healthy controls, who presented an evening decrease in these parameters. Patients and controls had similar ERD and ERS patterns in the morning. On the basis of a rhythm reactivity study, we conclude that the symptoms of RLS are related to cortical sensorimotor dysfunction.

  14. Metabolic Cycles in Yeast Share Features Conserved among Circadian Rhythms.

    PubMed

    Causton, Helen C; Feeney, Kevin A; Ziegler, Christine A; O'Neill, John S

    2015-04-20

    Cell-autonomous circadian rhythms allow organisms to temporally orchestrate their internal state to anticipate and/or resonate with the external environment. Although ∼24-hr periodicity is observed across aerobic eukaryotes, the central mechanism has been hard to dissect because few simple models exist, and known clock proteins are not conserved across phylogenetic kingdoms. In contrast, contributions to circadian rhythmicity made by a handful of post-translational mechanisms, such as phosphorylation of clock proteins by casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), appear conserved among phyla. These kinases have many other essential cellular functions and are better conserved in their contribution to timekeeping than any of the clock proteins they phosphorylate. Rhythmic oscillations in cellular redox state are another universal feature of circadian timekeeping, e.g., over-oxidation cycles of abundant peroxiredoxin proteins. Here, we use comparative chronobiology to distinguish fundamental clock mechanisms from species and/or tissue-specific adaptations and thereby identify features shared between circadian rhythms in mammalian cells and non-circadian temperature-compensated respiratory oscillations in budding yeast. We find that both types of oscillations are coupled with the cell division cycle, exhibit period determination by CK1 and GSK3, and have peroxiredoxin over-oxidation cycles. We also explore how peroxiredoxins contribute to YROs. Our data point to common mechanisms underlying both YROs and circadian rhythms and suggest two interpretations: either certain biochemical systems are simply permissive for cellular oscillations (with frequencies from hours to days) or this commonality arose via divergence from an ancestral cellular clock.

  15. [Research advances in circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Qi; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The time phase of epileptic seizures has attracted more and more attention. Epileptic seizures have their own circadian rhythm. The same type of epilepsy has different seizure frequencies in different time periods and states (such as sleeping/awakening state and natural day/night cycle). The circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures has complex molecular and endocrine mechanisms, and currently there are several hypotheses. Clarification of the circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures and prevention and administration according to such circadian rhythm can effectively control seizures and reduce the adverse effects of drugs. The research on the circadian rhythm of epileptic seizures provides a new idea for the treatment of epilepsy.

  16. Distraction affects frontal alpha rhythms related to expectancy of pain: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Del Percio, Claudio; Le Pera, Domenica; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Babiloni, Claudio; Brancucci, Alfredo; Chen, Andrew C N; De Armas, Liala; Miliucci, Roberto; Restuccia, Domenico; Valeriani, Massimiliano; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2006-07-01

    Previous electroencephalographic (EEG) evidence has shown event-related desynchronization (ERD) of alpha rhythms before predictable painful stimuli, as a possible neural concomitant of attentional preparatory processes (Babiloni, C., Brancucci, A., Babiloni, F., Capotosto, P., Carducci, F., Cincotti, F., Arendt-Nielsen, L., Chen, A.C., Rossini, P.M., 2003. Anticipatory cortical responses during the expectancy of a predictable painful stimulation. A high-resolution electroencephalography study. Eur. J. Neurosci. 18 (6) 1692-700). This study tested the hypothesis that alpha ERD before predictable painful stimuli is reduced as an effect of distraction. A visual warning stimulus preceded a laser painful stimulation, which was strictly followed by visual imperative stimuli. In the Pain (control) condition, no task was required after the imperative stimuli. In the Pain + Movement condition, subjects had to perform a movement of the right index finger. In the Pain + Cognition condition, they had to mentally perform an arithmetical task. EEG data were recorded in 10 subjects from 30 electrodes. Artifact-free recordings were spatially enhanced by surface Laplacian transformation. Alpha ERD was computed at three alpha sub-bands according to subjects' individual alpha frequency peak (i.e., about 6-8 Hz, 8-10 Hz, 10-12 Hz). Compared to the control condition, the subjects reported a significantly lower stimulus intensity perception and unpleasantness in the Pain + Movement and Pain + Cognition conditions. In addition, there was a cancellation of the alpha 3 ERD (i.e., about 10-12 Hz) in Pain + Cognition condition and even a generation of a statistically significant alpha 3 ERS in Pain + Movement condition. These effects were maximum over fronto-central midline. These results suggest that distraction during the expectancy of pain is related to a reduced neural desynchronization of fronto-central midline alpha rhythms (i.e., reduced cortical activation) towards an overt hyper

  17. Circadian rhythms constrain leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, Christopher E.; Goulden, Michael L.; Miller, Scott D.; da Rocha, Humberto R.

    2006-08-01

    We used a controlled-environment leaf gas-exchange system and the micrometeorological technique eddy covariance to determine whether circadian rhythms constrain the rates of leaf and canopy gas exchange in an Amazonian forest over a day. When exposed to continuous and constant light for 20 to 48 hours leaves of eleven of seventeen species reduced their photosynthetic rates and closed their stomata during the normally dark period and resumed active gas exchange during the normally light period. Similarly, the rate of whole-forest CO2 uptake at a predetermined irradiance declined during the late afternoon and early morning and increased during the middle of the day. We attribute these cycles to circadian rhythms that are analogous to ones that have been reported for herbaceous plants in the laboratory. The importance of endogenous gas exchange rhythms presents a previously unrecognized challenge for efforts to both interpret and model land-atmosphere energy and mass exchange.

  18. Diurnal rhythms of visual accommodation and blink responses: implication for flight-deck visual standards.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M R; Randle, R J; Williams, B A

    1977-06-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine whether 24-h variations in accommodation responses occur and, if they do, whether they should be considered in setting visual standards for flight-deck tasks. A recently developed servo-controlled optometer and focus stimulator were used to obtain monocular accommodation response data on four college-age subjects. No 24-h rhythm in accommodation was shown. Heart rate and blink rate also were measured and periodicity analysis showed a mean 24-h rhythm for both; however, blink rate periodograms were significant (p less than or equal to 0.003) for only two of the four subjects. Thus, with the qualifications that college students were tested instead of pilots and that they performed monocular laboratory tasks imstead of binocular flight-deck task, it is concluded that 24-h rhythms in accommodation responses need not be considered in setting visual standards for flight-deck task.

  19. Synergetic fMRI-EEG brain mapping in alpha-rhythm voluntary control mode.

    PubMed

    Shtark, M B; Verevkin, E G; Kozlova, L I; Mazhirina, K G; Pokrovskii, M A; Petrovskii, E D; Savelov, A A; Starostin, A S; Yarosh, S V

    2015-03-01

    For the first time in neurobiology-related issues, the synergistic spatial dynamics of EEG and fMRI (BOLD phenomenon) was studied during cognitive alpha biofeedback training in the operant conditioning mode (acoustic reinforcement of alpha-rhythm development and stability). Significant changes in alpha-rhythm intensity were found in T6 electrode area (Brodmann area 37). Brodmann areas related to solving alpha-training tasks and maximally involved in the formation of new neuronal network were middle and superior temporal gyri (areas 21, 22, and 37), fusiform gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus (areas 4, 6, and 46), anterior cingulate gyrus (areas 23 and 24), cuneus, and precuneus (area 7). Wide involvement of Brodmann areas is determined by psychological architecture of alpha-rhythm generating system control that includes complex cognitive activities: decision making, retrieval of long-term memory, evaluation of the reward and control efficiency during alpha-EEG biofeedback.

  20. Frequency and phase synchronization in neuromagnetic cortical responses to flickering-color stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timashev, S. F.; Polyakov, Yu. S.; Yulmetyev, R. M.; Demin, S. A.; Panischev, O. Yu.; Shimojo, S.; Bhattacharya, J.

    2010-03-01

    In our earlier study dealing with the analysis of neuromagnetic responses (magnetoencephalograms—MEG) to flickering-color stimuli for a group of control human subjects (9 volunteers) and a patient with photosensitive epilepsy (a 12-year old girl), it was shown that Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) was able to identify specific differences in the responses of each organism. The high specificity of individual MEG responses manifested itself in the values of FNS parameters for both chaotic and resonant components of the original signal. The present study applies the FNS cross-correlation function to the analysis of correlations between the MEG responses simultaneously measured at spatially separated points of the human cortex processing the red-blue flickering color stimulus. It is shown that the cross-correlations for control (healthy) subjects are characterized by frequency and phase synchronization at different points of the cortex, with the dynamics of neuromagnetic responses being determined by the low-frequency processes that correspond to normal physiological rhythms. But for the patient, the frequency and phase synchronization breaks down, which is associated with the suppression of cortical regulatory functions when the flickering-color stimulus is applied, and higher frequencies start playing the dominating role. This suggests that the disruption of correlations in the MEG responses is the indicator of pathological changes leading to photosensitive epilepsy, which can be used for developing a method of diagnosing the disease based on the analysis with the FNS cross-correlation function.

  1. Chronotherapeutic strategy: Rhythm monitoring, manipulation and disruption.

    PubMed

    Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2010-07-31

    Mammalians circadian pacemaker resides in the paired suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) and influences a multitude of biological processes, including the sleep-wake rhythm. Clock genes are the genes that control the circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior. 24h rhythm is demonstrated for the function of physiology and the pathophysiology of diseases. The effectiveness and toxicity of many drugs vary depending on dosing time. Such chronopharmacological phenomena are influenced by not only the pharmacodynamics but also pharmacokinetics of medications. The underlying mechanisms are associated with 24h rhythms of biochemical, physiological and behavioral processes under the control of circadian clock. Thus, the knowledge of 24h rhythm in the risk of disease plus evidence of 24h rhythm dependencies of drug pharmacokinetics, effects, and safety constitutes the rationale for pharmacotherapy. Chronotherapy is especially relevant, when the risk and/or intensity of the symptoms of disease vary predictably over time as exemplified by allergic rhinitis, arthritis, asthma, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and peptic ulcer disease. Morning once-daily administration of corticosteroid tablet medications results in little adrenocortical suppression, while the same daily dose split into four equal administrations to coincide with daily meals and bedtime results in significant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression. However, the drugs for several diseases are still given without regard to the time of day. Identification of a rhythmic marker for selecting dosing time will lead to improved progress and diffusion of chronopharmacotherapy. To monitor the rhythmic marker such as clock genes it may be useful to choose the most appropriate time of day for administration of drugs that may increase their therapeutic effects and/or reduce their side effects. Furthermore, to produce new rhythmicity by manipulating the conditions of living organs by using

  2. Photic entrainment of the mammalian rhythm in melatonin production.

    PubMed

    Illnerová, H; Sumová, A

    1997-12-01

    This review summarizes studies on the photic entrainment of the circadian rhythm in the rat pineal melatonin production, namely of the rhythm in N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, and compares the NAT rhythm resetting with preliminary results on the resetting of an intrinsic rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, namely with the entrainment of the rhythm in the light-induced c-fos gene expression. Phase delaying of the NAT rhythm after various light stimuli proceeds within 1 day with almost no transients, whereas during phase advancing of the rhythm only the morning NAT decline is phase advanced within 1 day and the evening rise phase shifts through transients. A light stimulus encompassing the middle of the night may phase delay the evening NAT rise, phase advance the morning decline, compress the rhythm waveform, and eventually lower its amplitude. Similarly, a long photoperiod compresses the NAT rhythm waveform. The magnitude of phase shifts of the NAT rhythm, as well as their direction, depends on a previous photoperiod. Phase shifts of the evening rise in c-fos gene photoinduction in the SCN and of the morning decline are similar to those of the pineal NAT rhythm after all light stimuli studied so far. The data indicate that the resetting of the rhythm in melatonin production in the rat pineal gland reflects changes in the SCN functional state and suggest that the underlying SCN pacemaking system is complex.

  3. Cortical commands in active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The neocortex is an enormous network of extensively interconnected neurons. It has become clear that the computations performed by individual cortical neurons will critically depend on the quantitative composition of cortical activity. Here we discuss quantitative aspects of cortical activity and modes of cortical processing in the context of rodent active touch. Through in vivo whole-cell recordings one observes widespread subthreshold and very sparse evoked action potential (AP) activity in the somatosensory cortex both for passive whisker deflection in anaesthetized animals and during active whisker movements in awake animals. Neurons of the somatosensory cortex become either suppressed during whisking or activated by an efference copy of whisker movement signal that depolarize cells at certain phases of the whisking cycle. To probe the read out of cortical motor commands we applied intracellular stimulation in rat whisker motor cortex. We find that APs in individual cortical neurons can evoke long sequences of small whisker movements. The capacity of an individual neuron to evoke movements is most astonishing given the large number of neurons in whisker motor cortex. Thus, few cortical APs may suffice to control motor behaviour and such APs can be translated into action with the utmost precision. We conclude that there is very widespread subthreshold cortical activity and very sparse, highly specific cortical AP activity.

  4. Temporal accuracy of human cortico-cortical interactions

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    The precision in space and time of interactions among multiple cortical sites was evaluated by examining repeating precise spatiotemporal patterns of instances in which cortical currents showed brief amplitude undulations. The amplitudes of the cortical current dipoles were estimated by applying a variant of synthetic aperture magnetometry to magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings of subjects tapping to metric auditory rhythms of drum beats. Brief amplitude undulations were detected in the currents by template matching at a rate of 2–3 per second. Their timing was treated as point processes, and precise spatiotemporal patterns were searched for. By randomly teetering these point processes within a time window W, we estimated the accuracy of the timing of these brief amplitude undulations and compared the results with those obtained by applying the same analysis to traces composed of random numbers. The results demonstrated that the timing accuracy of patterns was better than 3 ms. Successful classification of two different cognitive processes based on these patterns suggests that at least some of the repeating patterns are specific to a cognitive process. PMID:26843604

  5. Broadband cortical desynchronization underlies the human psychedelic state.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Moran, Rosalyn J; Brookes, Matthew J; Williams, Tim M; Errtizoe, David; Sessa, Ben; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Bolstridge, Mark; Singh, Krish D; Feilding, Amanda; Friston, Karl J; Nutt, David J

    2013-09-18

    Psychedelic drugs produce profound changes in consciousness, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Spontaneous and induced oscillatory activity was recorded in healthy human participants with magnetoencephalography after intravenous infusion of psilocybin--prodrug of the nonselective serotonin 2A receptor agonist and classic psychedelic psilocin. Psilocybin reduced spontaneous cortical oscillatory power from 1 to 50 Hz in posterior association cortices, and from 8 to 100 Hz in frontal association cortices. Large decreases in oscillatory power were seen in areas of the default-mode network. Independent component analysis was used to identify a number of resting-state networks, and activity in these was similarly decreased after psilocybin. Psilocybin had no effect on low-level visually induced and motor-induced gamma-band oscillations, suggesting that some basic elements of oscillatory brain activity are relatively preserved during the psychedelic experience. Dynamic causal modeling revealed that posterior cingulate cortex desynchronization can be explained by increased excitability of deep-layer pyramidal neurons, which are known to be rich in 5-HT2A receptors. These findings suggest that the subjective effects of psychedelics result from a desynchronization of ongoing oscillatory rhythms in the cortex, likely triggered by 5-HT2A receptor-mediated excitation of deep pyramidal cells.

  6. Circadian dynamics in measures of cortical excitation and inhibition balance

    PubMed Central

    Chellappa, Sarah L.; Gaggioni, Giulia; Ly, Julien Q. M.; Papachilleos, Soterios; Borsu, Chloé; Brzozowski, Alexandre; Rosanova, Mario; Sarasso, Simone; Luxen, André; Middleton, Benita; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Massimini, Marcello; Maquet, Pierre; Phillips, Christophe; Moran, Rosalyn J.; Vandewalle, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Several neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders have recently been characterized as dysfunctions arising from a ‘final common pathway’ of imbalanced excitation to inhibition within cortical networks. How the regulation of a cortical E/I ratio is affected by sleep and the circadian rhythm however, remains to be established. Here we addressed this issue through the analyses of TMS-evoked responses recorded over a 29 h sleep deprivation protocol conducted in young and healthy volunteers. Spectral analyses of TMS-evoked responses in frontal cortex revealed non-linear changes in gamma band evoked oscillations, compatible with an influence of circadian timing on inhibitory interneuron activity. In silico inferences of cell-to-cell excitatory and inhibitory connectivity and GABA/Glutamate receptor time constant based on neural mass modeling within the Dynamic causal modeling framework, further suggested excitation/inhibition balance was under a strong circadian influence. These results indicate that circadian changes in EEG spectral properties, in measure of excitatory/inhibitory connectivity and in GABA/glutamate receptor function could support the maintenance of cognitive performance during a normal waking day, but also during overnight wakefulness. More generally, these findings demonstrate a slow daily regulation of cortical excitation/inhibition balance, which depends on circadian-timing and prior sleep-wake history. PMID:27651114

  7. Maternal obesity and post-natal high fat diet disrupt hepatic circadian rhythm in rat offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Offspring of obese (Ob) rat dams gain greater body wt and fat mass when fed high-fat diet (HFD) as compared to controls. Alterations of diurnal circadian rhythm are known to detrimentally impact metabolically active tissues such as liver. We sought to determine if maternal obesity (MOb) leads to p...

  8. The Effect of Peer-Based Instruction on Rhythm Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of peer-based instruction on rhythm reading achievement of instrumental and choral music students attending a large urbanfringe high school in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 131) included band (n = 71) and choir (n = 60) students whose backgrounds reflected extensive economic (78%…

  9. Relationship between Neural Rhythm Generation Disorders and Physical Disabilities in Parkinson’s Disease Patients’ Walking

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Leo; Uchitomi, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Orimo, Satoshi; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Walking is generated by the interaction between neural rhythmic and physical activities. In fact, Parkinson’s disease (PD), which is an example of disease, causes not only neural rhythm generation disorders but also physical disabilities. However, the relationship between neural rhythm generation disorders and physical disabilities has not been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the mechanism of gait rhythm generation. In former research, neural rhythm generation disorders in PD patients’ walking were characterized by stride intervals, which are more variable and fluctuate randomly. The variability and fluctuation property were quantified using the coefficient of variation (CV) and scaling exponent α. Conversely, because walking is a dynamic process, postural reflex disorder (PRD) is considered the best way to estimate physical disabilities in walking. Therefore, we classified the severity of PRD using CV and α. Specifically, PD patients and healthy elderly were classified into three groups: no-PRD, mild-PRD, and obvious-PRD. We compared the contributions of CV and α to the accuracy of this classification. In this study, 45 PD patients and 17 healthy elderly people walked 200 m. The severity of PRD was determined using the modified Hoehn–Yahr scale (mH-Y). People with mH-Y scores of 2.5 and 3 had mild-PRD and obvious-PRD, respectively. As a result, CV differentiated no-PRD from PRD, indicating the correlation between CV and PRD. Considering that PRD is independent of neural rhythm generation, this result suggests the existence of feedback process from physical activities to neural rhythmic activities. Moreover, α differentiated obvious-PRD from mild-PRD. Considering α reflects the intensity of interaction between factors, this result suggests the change of the interaction. Therefore, the interaction between neural rhythmic and physical activities is thought to plays an important role for gait rhythm generation. These characteristics have

  10. Melatonin Entrains PER2::LUC Bioluminescence Circadian Rhythm in the Mouse Cornea

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Kenkichi; Davidson, Alec J.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous studies have reported the presence of a circadian rhythm in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) bioluminescence in mouse photoreceptors, retina, RPE, and cornea. Melatonin (MLT) modulates many physiological functions in the eye and it is believed to be one of the key circadian signals within the eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the PER2::LUC circadian rhythm in mouse cornea and to determine the role played by MLT. Methods Corneas were obtained from PER2::LUC mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity in isolated tissue using a Lumicycle or CCD camera. To determine the time-dependent resetting of the corneal circadian clocks in response to MLT or IIK7 (a melatonin type 2 receptor, MT2, agonist) was added to the cultured corneas at different times of the day. We also defined the location of the MT2 receptor within different corneal layers using immunohistochemistry. Results A long-lasting bioluminescence rhythm was recorded from cultured PER2::LUC cornea and PER2::LUC signal was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. MLT administration in the early night delayed the cornea rhythm, whereas administration of MLT at late night to early morning advanced the cornea rhythm. Treatment with IIK7 mimicked the MLT phase-shifting effect. Consistent with these results, MT2 immunoreactivity was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Conclusions Our work demonstrates that MLT entrains the PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in the cornea. Our data indicate that the cornea may represent a model to study the molecular mechanisms by which MLT affects the circadian clock. PMID:26207312

  11. Melatonin Entrains PER2::LUC Bioluminescence Circadian Rhythm in the Mouse Cornea.

    PubMed

    Baba, Kenkichi; Davidson, Alec J; Tosini, Gianluca

    2015-07-01

    Previous studies have reported the presence of a circadian rhythm in PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE (PER2::LUC) bioluminescence in mouse photoreceptors, retina, RPE, and cornea. Melatonin (MLT) modulates many physiological functions in the eye and it is believed to be one of the key circadian signals within the eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of the PER2::LUC circadian rhythm in mouse cornea and to determine the role played by MLT. Corneas were obtained from PER2::LUC mice and cultured to measure bioluminescence rhythmicity in isolated tissue using a Lumicycle or CCD camera. To determine the time-dependent resetting of the corneal circadian clocks in response to MLT or IIK7 (a melatonin type 2 receptor, MT2, agonist) was added to the cultured corneas at different times of the day. We also defined the location of the MT2 receptor within different corneal layers using immunohistochemistry. A long-lasting bioluminescence rhythm was recorded from cultured PER2::LUC cornea and PER2::LUC signal was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. MLT administration in the early night delayed the cornea rhythm, whereas administration of MLT at late night to early morning advanced the cornea rhythm. Treatment with IIK7 mimicked the MLT phase-shifting effect. Consistent with these results, MT2 immunoreactivity was localized to the corneal epithelium and endothelium. Our work demonstrates that MLT entrains the PER2::LUC bioluminescence rhythm in the cornea. Our data indicate that the cornea may represent a model to study the molecular mechanisms by which MLT affects the circadian clock.

  12. Examining the Behavioural Sleep-Wake Rhythm in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and No Comorbid Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Baker, Emma K; Richdale, Amanda L

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the behavioural sleep-wake rhythm in 36 adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to determine the prevalence of circadian sleep-wake rhythm disorders compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Participants completed an online questionnaire battery, a 14-day sleep-wake diary and 14-day actigraphy assessment. The results indicated that a higher proportion of adults with ASD met criteria for a circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorder compared to control adults. In particular, delayed sleep-wake phase disorder was particularly common in adults with ASD. Overall the findings suggest that individuals with ASD have sleep patterns that may be associated with circadian rhythm disturbance; however factors such as employment status and co-morbid anxiety and depression appear to influence their sleep patterns.

  13. Theta-burst Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Alters the Functional Topography of the Cortical Motor Network

    PubMed Central

    NOH, Nor Azila; FUGGETTA, Giorgio; MANGANOTTI, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive tool that is able to modulate the electrical activity of the brain depending upon its protocol of stimulation. Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a high-frequency TMS protocol that is able to induce prolonged plasticity changes in the brain. The induction of plasticity-like effects by TBS is useful in both experimental and therapeutic settings; however, the underlying neural mechanisms of this modulation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous TBS (cTBS) on the intrahemispheric and interhemispheric functional connectivity of the resting and active brain. Methods: A total of 26 healthy humans were randomly divided into two groups that received either real cTBS or sham (control) over the left primary motor cortex. Surface electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to quantify the changes of neural oscillations after cTBS at rest and after a choice reaction time test. The cTBS-induced EEG oscillations were computed using spectral analysis of event-related coherence (ERCoh) of theta (4–7.5 Hz), low alpha (8–9.5 Hz), high alpha (10–12.5 Hz), low beta (13–19.5 Hz), and high beta (20–30 Hz) brain rhythms. Results: We observed a global decrease in functional connectivity of the brain in the cTBS group when compared to sham in the low beta brain rhythm at rest and high beta brain rhythm during the active state. In particular, EEG spectral analysis revealed that high-frequency beta, a cortically generated brain rhythm, was the most sensitive band that was modulated by cTBS. Conclusion: Overall, our findings suggest that cTBS, a TMS protocol that mimics the mechanism of long-term depression of synaptic plasticity, modulates motor network oscillations primarily at the cortical level and might interfere with cortical information coding. PMID:27006636

  14. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation reduces cortical phase-amplitude coupling in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole; Ostrem, Jill L.; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S.; Luciano, Marta San; Galifianakis, Nicholas; Starr, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly applied to the treatment of brain disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here, we evaluate the effect of basal ganglia DBS on cortical function using invasive cortical recordings in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery. In the primary motor cortex of PD patients neuronal population spiking is excessively synchronized to the phase of network oscillations. This manifests in brain surface recordings as exaggerated coupling between the phase of the β rhythm and the amplitude of broadband activity. We show that acute therapeutic DBS reversibly reduces phase-amplitude interactions over a similar time course as reduction in parkinsonian motor signs. We propose that DBS of the basal ganglia improves cortical function by alleviating excessive β phase locking of motor cortex neurons. PMID:25867121

  15. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation reduces cortical phase-amplitude coupling in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole C; Ostrem, Jill L; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S; San Luciano, Marta; Galifianakis, Nicholas B; Starr, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly applied for the treatment of brain disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here we evaluate the effect of basal ganglia DBS on cortical function using invasive cortical recordings in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery. In the primary motor cortex of PD patients, neuronal population spiking is excessively synchronized to the phase of network oscillations. This manifests in brain surface recordings as exaggerated coupling between the phase of the beta rhythm and the amplitude of broadband activity. We show that acute therapeutic DBS reversibly reduces phase-amplitude interactions over a similar time course as that of the reduction in parkinsonian motor signs. We propose that DBS of the basal ganglia improves cortical function by alleviating excessive beta phase locking of motor cortex neurons.

  16. Circadian activity rhythms for mothers with an infant in ICU.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Lee, Kathryn A; Aycock, Dawn; Decker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms influence sleep and wakefulness. Circadian activity rhythms (CAR) are altered in individuals with dementia or seasonal affective disorder. To date, studies exploring CAR and sleep in postpartum women are rare. The purpose of this report is to describe relationships between CAR, sleep disturbance, and fatigue among 72 first-time mothers during their second week postpartum while their newborn remain hospitalized in intensive care unit. Seventy-two mothers were included in this secondary data analysis sample from three separate studies. Participants completed the general sleep disturbance scale (GSDS), numerical rating scale for fatigue, and a sleep diary. The objective sleep data included total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and CAR determined by the circadian quotient (amplitude/mesor) averaged from at least 48-h of wrist actigraphy monitoring. The TST of mothers who self-reported as poor sleepers was 354 min (SEM = 21.9), with a mean WASO of 19.5% (SEM = 2.8). The overall sleep quality measured by the GSDS was clinically, significantly disrupted (M = 5.5, SD = 1.2). The mean score for morning fatigue was 5.8 (SD = 2.0), indicating moderate fatigue severity. The CAR was 0.62 (SEM = 0.04), indicating poor synchronization. The self-reported good sleepers (GSDS < 3) had better CAR (M = 0.71, SEM = 0.02) than poor sleepers (GSDS > 3) (t[70] = 2.0, p < 0.05). A higher circadian equation was associated with higher TST (r = 0.83, p < 0.001), less WASO (r = -0.50, p < 0.001), lower self-reported sleep disturbance scores (r = -0.35, p = 0.01), and less morning fatigue (r = -0.26). Findings indicate that mothers with a hospitalized infant have both nocturnal sleep problems and disturbed circadian activity rhythms. Factors responsible for these sleep and rhythm disturbances, the adverse effects on mother's physical and mental well-being, and mother

  17. Renal cortical pyruvate depletion during AKI.

    PubMed

    Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali C M; Becker, Kirsten

    2014-05-01

    Pyruvate is a key intermediary in energy metabolism and can exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the fate of pyruvate during AKI remains unknown. Here, we assessed renal cortical pyruvate and its major determinants (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDH], and H2O2 levels) in mice subjected to unilateral ischemia (15-60 minutes; 0-18 hours of vascular reflow) or glycerol-induced ARF. The fate of postischemic lactate, which can be converted back to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, was also addressed. Ischemia and glycerol each induced persistent pyruvate depletion. During ischemia, decreasing pyruvate levels correlated with increasing lactate levels. During early reperfusion, pyruvate levels remained depressed, but lactate levels fell below control levels, likely as a result of rapid renal lactate efflux. During late reperfusion and glycerol-induced AKI, pyruvate depletion corresponded with increased gluconeogenesis (pyruvate consumption). This finding was underscored by observations that pyruvate injection increased renal cortical glucose content in AKI but not normal kidneys. AKI decreased PDH levels, potentially limiting pyruvate to acetyl CoA conversion. Notably, pyruvate therapy mitigated the severity of AKI. This renoprotection corresponded with increases in cytoprotective heme oxygenase 1 and IL-10 mRNAs, selective reductions in proinflammatory mRNAs (e.g., MCP-1 and TNF-α), and improved tissue ATP levels. Paradoxically, pyruvate increased cortical H2O2 levels. We conclude that AKI induces a profound and persistent depletion of renal cortical pyruvate, which may induce additional injury.

  18. Brain cortical characteristics of lifetime cognitive ageing.

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; Bastin, Mark E; Ritchie, Stuart J; Dickie, David Alexander; Liewald, Dave C; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Redmond, Paul; Royle, Natalie A; Pattie, Alison; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S; McIntosh, Andrew M; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2017-09-06

    Regional cortical brain volume is the product of surface area and thickness. These measures exhibit partially distinct trajectories of change across the brain's cortex in older age, but it is unclear which cortical characteristics at which loci are sensitive to cognitive ageing differences. We examine associations between change in intelligence from age 11 to 73 years and regional cortical volume, surface area, and thickness measured at age 73 years in 568 community-dwelling older adults, all born in 1936. A relative positive change in intelligence from 11 to 73 was associated with larger volume and surface area in selective frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions (r < 0.180, FDR-corrected q < 0.05). There were no significant associations between cognitive ageing and a thinner cortex for any region. Interestingly, thickness and surface area were phenotypically independent across bilateral lateral temporal loci, whose surface area was significantly related to change in intelligence. These findings suggest that associations between regional cortical volume and cognitive ageing differences are predominantly driven by surface area rather than thickness among healthy older adults. Regional brain surface area has been relatively underexplored, and is a potentially informative biomarker for identifying determinants of cognitive ageing differences.

  19. Molecular Approach to Hypothalamic Rhythms.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-14

    identified a novel receptor for serotonin, the 5 - HT7 receptor, and determined its aminoacid structure. Its pharmacological ligand binding properties...ahve been measured and a unique profile of agonists and antagonists defined. These allowed demonstration that the 5 - HT7 receptor mediated circadian

  20. Cortical-Cortical Interactions And Sensory Information Processing in Autism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-30

    Additionally, these cortical areas have been implicated from significantly elevated TOJ thresholds (worse performance) in subjects with dyslexia [5...of the fact that above-average TOJ thresholds occur in subjects with known damage to these same cortical areas ( dyslexia [5], dystonia [6-8], and

  1. Cortical hot spots and labyrinths: why cortical neuromodulation for episodic migraine with aura should be personalized

    PubMed Central

    Dahlem, Markus A.; Schmidt, Bernd; Bojak, Ingo; Boie, Sebastian; Kneer, Frederike; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation protocols for medical devices should be rationally designed. For episodic migraine with aura we outline model-based design strategies toward preventive and acute therapies using stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. To this end, we regard a localized spreading depression (SD) wave segment as a central element in migraine pathophysiology. To describe nucleation and propagation features of the SD wave segment, we define the new concepts of cortical hot spots and labyrinths, respectively. In particular, we firstly focus exclusively on curvature-induced dynamical properties by studying a generic reaction-diffusion model of SD on the folded cortical surface. This surface is described with increasing level of details, including finally personalized simulations using patient's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner readings. At this stage, the only relevant factor that can modulate nucleation and propagation paths is the Gaussian curvature, which has the advantage of being rather readily accessible by MRI. We conclude with discussing further anatomical factors, such as areal, laminar, and cellular heterogeneity, that in addition to and in relation to Gaussian curvature determine the generalized concept of cortical hot spots and labyrinths as target structures for neuromodulation. Our numerical simulations suggest that these target structures are like fingerprints, they are individual features of each migraine sufferer. The goal in the future will be to provide individualized neural tissue simulations. These simulations should predict the clinical data and therefore can also serve as a test bed for exploring stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. PMID:25798103

  2. Cortical hot spots and labyrinths: why cortical neuromodulation for episodic migraine with aura should be personalized.

    PubMed

    Dahlem, Markus A; Schmidt, Bernd; Bojak, Ingo; Boie, Sebastian; Kneer, Frederike; Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation protocols for medical devices should be rationally designed. For episodic migraine with aura we outline model-based design strategies toward preventive and acute therapies using stereotactic cortical neuromodulation. To this end, we regard a localized spreading depression (SD) wave segment as a central element in migraine pathophysiology. To describe nucleation and propagation features of the SD wave segment, we define the new concepts of cortical hot spots and labyrinths, respectively. In particular, we firstly focus exclusively on curvature-induced dynamical properties by studying a generic reaction-diffusion model of SD on the folded cortical surface. This surface is described with increasing level of details, including finally personalized simulations using patient's magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner readings. At this stage, the only relevant factor that can modulate nucleation and propagation paths is the Gaussian curvature, which has the advantage of being rather readily accessible by MRI. We conclude with discussing further anatomical factors, such as areal, laminar, and cellular heterogeneity, that in addition to and in relation to Gaussian curvature determine the generalized concept of cortical hot spots and labyrinths as target structures for neuromodulation. Our numerical simulations suggest that these target structures are like fingerprints, they are individual features of each migraine sufferer. The goal in the future will be to provide individualized neural tissue simulations. These simulations should predict the clinical data and therefore can also serve as a test bed for exploring stereotactic cortical neuromodulation.

  3. [Assimilation of rhythm by the isolated dog heart during gradual raising of stimulation frequency].

    PubMed

    Gur'ianov, M I

    2003-12-01

    An ability for a forestalling regulation of contractility of the heart with calculation of the tendency of rhythm increasing was revealed under a gradual increasing of heart rhythm. A forestalling regulation of heart contractility occurs with rhythm assimilation at the cell level of the heart and irrespective of the influence of Frank-Starling law and neurohumoral factors on the work of the heart. A 5-10% increasing of heart rhythm is characterized by optimal rhythm assimilation. A 15-40% increasing of heart rhythm is not optimal and results in transformation of the rhythm. The following sequence of events take place in the process of transition from rhythm assimilation to rhythm transformation under a gradual increasing of heart rhythm: rhythm assimilation--rhythm by mechanical function--incomplete rhythm assimilation by electrical function-transformation of rhythm by electrical function.

  4. Mapping cortical mesoscopic networks of single spiking cortical or sub-cortical neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P; Mitelut, Catalin C; Chan, Allen W; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Xie, Yicheng; Chen, Andrew CN; Swindale, Nicholas V; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the basis of brain function requires knowledge of cortical operations over wide-spatial scales, but also within the context of single neurons. In vivo, wide-field GCaMP imaging and sub-cortical/cortical cellular electrophysiology were used in mice to investigate relationships between spontaneous single neuron spiking and mesoscopic cortical activity. We make use of a rich set of cortical activity motifs that are present in spontaneous activity in anesthetized and awake animals. A mesoscale spike-triggered averaging procedure allowed the identification of motifs that are preferentially linked to individual spiking neurons by employing genetically targeted indicators of neuronal activity. Thalamic neurons predicted and reported specific cycles of wide-scale cortical inhibition/excitation. In contrast, spike-triggered maps derived from single cortical neurons yielded spatio-temporal maps expected for regional cortical consensus function. This approach can define network relationships between any point source of neuronal spiking and mesoscale cortical maps. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19976.001 PMID:28160463

  5. Dissimilar ventricular rhythms: implications for ICD therapy.

    PubMed

    Barold, S Serge; Kucher, Andreas; Nägele, Herbert; Buenfil Medina, José Carlos; Brodsky, Michael; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic E; Stroobandt, Roland X

    2013-04-01

    Sensing of left ventricular (LV) activity in some devices used for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was designed primarily to prevent the delivery of an LV stimulus into the LV vulnerable period. Such a sensing function of the LV channel is not universally available in contemporary CRT devices. Recordings of LV electrograms may provide special diagnostic data unavailable solely from the standard right ventricular electrogram and corresponding marker channel. We used the LV sensing function of Biotronik CRT defibrillators to find 3 cases of dissimilar ventricular rhythms or tachyarrhythmias. Such arrhythmias are potentially important because concomitant slower right ventricular activity may prevent or delay implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy for a life-threatening situation involving a faster and more serious LV tachyarrhythmia. Dissimilar ventricular rhythms may not be rare and may account for cases of unexplained sudden death with a normally functioning implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and no recorded terminal arrhythmia.

  6. Circadian Rhythms and Hormonal Homeostasis: Pathophysiological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Gnocchi, Davide; Bruscalupi, Giovannella

    2017-01-01

    Over recent years, a deeper comprehension of the molecular mechanisms that control biological clocks and circadian rhythms has been achieved. In fact, many studies have contributed to unravelling the importance of the molecular clock for the regulation of our physiology, including hormonal and metabolic homeostasis. Here we will review the structure, organisation and molecular machinery that make our circadian clock work, and its relevance for the proper functioning of physiological processes. We will also describe the interconnections between circadian rhythms and endocrine homeostasis, as well as the underlying consequences that circadian dysregulations might have in the development of several pathologic affections. Finally, we will discuss how a better knowledge of such relationships might prove helpful in designing new therapeutic approaches for endocrine and metabolic diseases. PMID:28165421

  7. Clinical skills: cardiac rhythm recognition and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Joanna

    With technological advances, changes in provision of healthcare services and increasing pressure on critical care services, ward patients' severity of illness is ever increasing. As such, nurses need to develop their skills and knowledge to care for their client group. Competency in cardiac rhythm monitoring is beneficial to identify changes in cardiac status, assess response to treatment, diagnosis and post-surgical monitoring. This paper describes the basic anatomy and physiology of the heart and its conduction system, and explains a simple and easy to remember process of analysing cardiac rhythms (Resuscitation Council UK, 2000) that can be used in first-line assessment to assist healthcare practitioners in providing care to their patients.

  8. Sleep, circadian rhythms, and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Thun, Eirunn; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Flo, Elisabeth; Harris, Anette; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-10-01

    Sleep deprivation and time of day are both known to influence performance. A growing body of research has focused on how sleep and circadian rhythms impact athletic performance. This review provides a systematic overview of this research. We searched three different databases for articles on these issues and inspected relevant reference lists. In all, 113 articles met our inclusion criteria. The most robust result is that athletic performance seems to be best in the evening around the time when the core body temperature typically is at its peak. Sleep deprivation was negatively associated with performance whereas sleep extension seems to improve performance. The effects of desynchronization of circadian rhythms depend on the local time at which performance occurs. The review includes a discussion of differences regarding types of skills involved as well as methodological issues.

  9. Spectral and source structural development of mu and alpha rhythms from infancy through adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Samuel G.; Cannon, Erin N.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the developmental trajectory of spectral, topographic, and source structural properties of functional mu desynchronization (characterized during voluntary reaching/grasping movement), and investigate its spectral/topographic relation to spontaneous EEG in the developing alpha band. Methods Event related desynchronization (ERD) and power spectral density spectra/topography are analyzed in twelve month-old infants, four year-old children, and adults. Age-matched head models derived from structural MRI are used to obtain current density reconstructions of mu desynchronization across the cortical surface. Results Infant/child EEG contains spectral peaks evident in both the upper and lower developing alpha band, and spectral/topographic properties of functionally identified mu rhythm strongly reflect those of upper alpha in all subject groups. Source reconstructions show distributed frontoparietal patterns of cortical mu desynchronization concentrated in specific central and parietal regions which are consistent across age groups. Conclusions Peak frequencies of mu desynchronization and spontaneous alpha band EEG increase with age, and characteristic mu topography/source-structure is evident in development at least as early as twelve months. Significance Results provide evidence for a cortically distributed functional mu network, with spontaneous activity measurable in the upper alpha band throughout development. PMID:25910852

  10. Evolving roles of circadian rhythms in liver homeostasis and pathology.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dexi; Wang, Yaqin; Chen, Lu; Jia, Leijuan; Yuan, Jie; Sun, Mei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Peipei; Zuo, Jian; Xu, Zhenyu; Luan, Jiajie

    2016-02-23

    Circadian clock in mammals is determined by a core oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus and synchronized peripheral clocks in other tissues. The coherent timing systems could sustain robust output of circadian rhythms in response to the entrainment controlled environmentally. Disparate approaches have discovered that clock genes and clock-controlled genes (CCGs) exist in nearly all mammalian cell types and are essential for establishing the mechanisms and complexity of internal time-keeping systems. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the control of homeostasis and pathology in the liver involves intricate loops of transcriptional and post-translational regulation of clock genes expression. This review will focus on the recent advances with great importance concerning clock rhythms linking liver homeostasis and diseases. We particularly highlight what is currently known of the evolving insights into the mechanisms underlying circadian clock . Eventually , findings during recent years in the field might prompt new circadian-related chronotherapeutic strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases by coupling these processes.

  11. Melatonin rhythms in European sea bass plasma and eye: influence of seasonal photoperiod and water temperature.

    PubMed

    García-Allegue, R; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2001-08-01

    The transduction of seasonal information from the environment (i.e., photoperiod and water temperature) into melatonin rhythms was studied in sea bass. Plasma and ocular melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) was determined in autumn, winter, spring and summer (experiment 1) under natural culture conditions, and in the summer and winter solstices under both natural and "6-month out-of-phase" photoperiods (experiment 2). At each sampling, 48 sea bass were sacrificed at a rate of 6 fish every 3 hr and the level of melatonin was determined in plasma and eye cup samples by ELISA. In experiment 1, significant diel changes were observed in plasma melatonin, with nocturnal melatonin varying from 144 pg/mL (summer) to 23 pg/mL (autumn), while diurnal melatonin remained low, around 8 pg/mL throughout the year. In experiment 2, the photoperiod length was shown to control the duration of the nocturnal melatonin rise, while the water temperature determined the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm. Ocular melatonin peaked during daytime in autumn and winter, but no significant changes were detected in summer and spring. In conclusion, plasma melatonin rhythms in sea bass reflect the pineal capacity to integrate seasonal information and supply precise calendar information, which may synchronize different physiological processes such as annual reproduction and feeding rhythms.

  12. Circadian rhythms of women with fibromyalgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klerman, E. B.; Goldenberg, D. L.; Brown, E. N.; Maliszewski, A. M.; Adler, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic and debilitating disorder characterized by widespread nonarticular musculoskeletal pain whose etiology is unknown. Many of the symptoms of this syndrome, including difficulty sleeping, fatigue, malaise, myalgias, gastrointestinal complaints, and decreased cognitive function, are similar to those observed in individuals whose circadian pacemaker is abnormally aligned with their sleep-wake schedule or with local environmental time. Abnormalities in melatonin and cortisol, two hormones whose secretion is strongly influenced by the circadian pacemaker, have been reported in women with fibromyalgia. We studied the circadian rhythms of 10 women with fibromyalgia and 12 control healthy women. The protocol controlled factors known to affect markers of the circadian system, including light levels, posture, sleep-wake state, meals, and activity. The timing of the events in the protocol were calculated relative to the habitual sleep-wake schedule of each individual subject. Under these conditions, we found no significant difference between the women with fibromyalgia and control women in the circadian amplitude or phase of rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and core body temperature. The average circadian phases expressed in hours posthabitual bedtime for women with and without fibromyalgia were 3:43 +/- 0:19 and 3:46 +/- 0:13, respectively, for melatonin; 10:13 +/- 0:23 and 10:32 +/- 0:20, respectively for cortisol; and 5:19 +/- 0:19 and 4:57 +/- 0:33, respectively, for core body temperature phases. Both groups of women had similar circadian rhythms in self-reported alertness. Although pain and stiffness were significantly increased in women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy women, there were no circadian rhythms in either parameter. We suggest that abnormalities in circadian rhythmicity are not a primary cause of fibromyalgia or its symptoms.

  13. Circadian rhythms of performance: new trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Monk, T. H.

    2000-01-01

    This brief review is concerned with how human performance efficiency changes as a function of time of day. It presents an overview of some of the research paradigms and conceptual models that have been used to investigate circadian performance rhythms. The influence of homeostatic and circadian processes on performance regulation is discussed. The review also briefly presents recent mathematical models of alertness that have been used to predict cognitive performance. Related topics such as interindividual differences and the postlunch dip are presented.

  14. Endocannabinoid signalling: has it got rhythm?

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Linda K; Denning, Gerene; Stuhr, Kara L; de Wit, Harriet; Hill, Matthew N; Hillard, Cecilia J

    2010-01-01

    Endogenous cannabinoid signalling is widespread throughout the body, and considerable evidence supports its modulatory role in many fundamental physiological processes. The daily and seasonal cycles of the relationship of the earth and sun profoundly affect the terrestrial environment. Terrestrial species have adapted to these cycles in many ways, most well studied are circadian rhythms and hibernation. The purpose of this review was to examine literature support for three hypotheses: (i) endocannabinoid signalling exhibits brain region-specific circadian rhythms; (ii) endocannabinoid signalling modulates the rhythm of circadian processes in mammals; and (iii) changes in endocannabinoid signalling contribute to the state of hibernation. The results of two novel studies are presented. First, we report the results of a study of healthy humans demonstrating that plasma concentrations of the endocannabinoid, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide), exhibit a circadian rhythm. Concentrations of anandamide are threefold higher at wakening than immediately before sleep, a relationship that is dysregulated by sleep deprivation. Second, we investigated differences in endocannabinoids and congeners in plasma from Marmota monax obtained in the summer and during the torpor state of hibernation. We report that 2-arachidonoylglycerol is below detection in M. monax plasma and that concentrations of anandamide are not different. However, plasma concentrations of the anorexigenic lipid oleoylethanolamide were significantly lower in hibernation, while the concentrations of palmitoylethanolamide and 2-oleoylglycerol were significantly greater in hibernation. We conclude that available data support a bidirectional relationship between endocannabinoid signalling and circadian processes, and investigation of the contribution of endocannabinoid signalling to the dramatic physiological changes that occur during hibernation is warranted. This article is part of a themed issue on

  15. Circadian rhythms of women with fibromyalgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klerman, E. B.; Goldenberg, D. L.; Brown, E. N.; Maliszewski, A. M.; Adler, G. K.

    2001-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic and debilitating disorder characterized by widespread nonarticular musculoskeletal pain whose etiology is unknown. Many of the symptoms of this syndrome, including difficulty sleeping, fatigue, malaise, myalgias, gastrointestinal complaints, and decreased cognitive function, are similar to those observed in individuals whose circadian pacemaker is abnormally aligned with their sleep-wake schedule or with local environmental time. Abnormalities in melatonin and cortisol, two hormones whose secretion is strongly influenced by the circadian pacemaker, have been reported in women with fibromyalgia. We studied the circadian rhythms of 10 women with fibromyalgia and 12 control healthy women. The protocol controlled factors known to affect markers of the circadian system, including light levels, posture, sleep-wake state, meals, and activity. The timing of the events in the protocol were calculated relative to the habitual sleep-wake schedule of each individual subject. Under these conditions, we found no significant difference between the women with fibromyalgia and control women in the circadian amplitude or phase of rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, and core body temperature. The average circadian phases expressed in hours posthabitual bedtime for women with and without fibromyalgia were 3:43 +/- 0:19 and 3:46 +/- 0:13, respectively, for melatonin; 10:13 +/- 0:23 and 10:32 +/- 0:20, respectively for cortisol; and 5:19 +/- 0:19 and 4:57 +/- 0:33, respectively, for core body temperature phases. Both groups of women had similar circadian rhythms in self-reported alertness. Although pain and stiffness were significantly increased in women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy women, there were no circadian rhythms in either parameter. We suggest that abnormalities in circadian rhythmicity are not a primary cause of fibromyalgia or its symptoms.

  16. Circadian rhythm in QT interval is preserved in mice deficient of potassium channel interacting protein 2.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Lisa A; Lubberding, Anniek; Larsen, Anders Peter; Thomsen, Morten B

    2017-01-01

    Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is suggested to be responsible for the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the hypothesis that there is no circadian rhythm in QT interval in the absence of KChIP2. Implanted telemetric devices recorded electrocardiogram continuously for 5 days in conscious wild-type mice (WT, n = 9) and KChIP2(-/-) mice (n = 9) in light:dark periods and in complete darkness. QT intervals were determined from all RR intervals and corrected for heart rate (QT100 = QT/(RR/100)(1/2)). Moreover, QT intervals were determined from complexes within the RR range of mean-RR ± 1% in the individual mouse (QTmean-RR). We find that RR intervals are 125 ± 5 ms in WT and 123 ± 4 ms in KChIP2(-/-) (p = 0.81), and QT intervals are 52 ± 1 and 52 ± 1 ms, respectively(p = 0.89). No ventricular arrhythmias or sudden cardiac deaths were observed. We find similar diurnal (light:dark) and circadian (darkness) rhythms of RR intervals in WT and KChIP2(-/-) mice. Circadian rhythms in QT100 intervals are present in both groups, but at physiological small amplitudes: 1.6 ± 0.2 and 1.0 ± 0.3 ms in WT and KChIP2(-/-), respectively (p = 0.15). A diurnal rhythm in QT100 intervals was only found in WT mice. QTmean-RR intervals display clear diurnal and circadian rhythms in both WT and KChIP2(-/-). The amplitude of the circadian rhythm in QTmean-RR is 4.0 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 ms in WT and KChIP2(-/-), respectively (p = 0.16). In conclusion, KChIP2 expression does not appear to underlie the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration.

  17. Speech timing and linguistic rhythm: on the acoustic bases of rhythm typologies.

    PubMed

    Rathcke, Tamara V; Smith, Rachel H

    2015-05-01

    Research into linguistic rhythm has been dominated by the idea that languages can be classified according to rhythmic templates, amenable to assessment by acoustic measures of vowel and consonant durations. This study tested predictions of two proposals explaining the bases of rhythmic typologies: the Rhythm Class Hypothesis which assumes that the templates arise from an extensive vs a limited use of durational contrasts, and the Control and Compensation Hypothesis which proposes that the templates are rooted in more vs less flexible speech production strategies. Temporal properties of segments, syllables and rhythmic feet were examined in two accents of British English, a "stress-timed" variety from Leeds, and a "syllable-timed" variety spoken by Panjabi-English bilinguals from Bradford. Rhythm metrics were calculated. A perception study confirmed that the speakers of the two varieties differed in their perceived rhythm. The results revealed that both typologies were informative in that to a certain degree, they predicted temporal patterns of the two varieties. None of the metrics tested was capable of adequately reflecting the temporal complexity found in the durational data. These findings contribute to the critical evaluation of the explanatory adequacy of rhythm metrics. Acoustic bases and limitations of the traditional rhythmic typologies are discussed.

  18. Censoring Distances Based on Labeled Cortical Distance Maps in Cortical Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhan, Elvan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Alexopolous, Dimitrios; Todd, Richard D.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that shape differences in cortical structures may be manifested in neuropsychiatric disorders. Such morphometric differences can be measured by labeled cortical distance mapping (LCDM) which characterizes the morphometry of the laminar cortical mantle of cortical structures. LCDM data consist of signed/labeled distances of gray matter (GM) voxels with respect to GM/white matter (WM) surface. Volumes and other summary measures for each subject and the pooled distances can help determi