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Sample records for corticosteroid-naive sarcoidosis patients

  1. Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Sarcoidosis? Español Sarcoidosis (sar-koy-DO-sis) is a ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  2. Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Sarcoidosis is a disease that leads to inflammation, usually in your lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. It starts as tiny, grain-like lumps, called granulomas. Sarcoidosis can affect any organ in your body. No ...

  3. EEG in Sarcoidosis Patients Without Neurological Findings.

    PubMed

    Bilgin Topçuoğlu, Özgür; Kavas, Murat; Öztaş, Selahattin; Arınç, Sibel; Afşar, Gülgün; Saraç, Sema; Midi, İpek

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease affecting nervous system in 5% to 10% of patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is accepted as the most sensitive method for detecting neurosarcoidosis. However, the most common findings in MRI are the nonspecific white matter lesions, which may be unrelated to sarcoidosis and can occur because of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, and other inflammatory or infectious disorders, as well. Autopsy studies report more frequent neurological involvement than the ante mortem studies. The aim of this study is to assess electroencephalography (EEG) in sarcoidosis patients without neurological findings in order to display asymptomatic neurological dysfunction. We performed EEG on 30 sarcoidosis patients without diagnosis of neurosarcoidosis or prior neurological comorbidities. Fourteen patients (46.7%) showed intermittant focal and/or generalized slowings while awake and not mentally activated. Seven (50%) of these 14 patients with EEG slowings had nonspecific white matter changes while the other half showed EEG slowings in the absence of MRI changes. We conclude that EEG slowings, when normal variants (psychomotor variant, temporal theta of elderly, frontal theta waves) are eliminated, may be an indicator of dysfunction in brain activity even in the absence of MRI findings. Hence, EEG may contribute toward detecting asymptomatic neurological dysfunction or probable future neurological involvement in sarcoidosis patients.

  4. Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... the elbow Sarcoidosis on the nose and forehead Respiratory system References Judson MA, Morgenthau AS, Baughman RP. Sarcoidosis. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  5. Venous Leg Ulcer in a Sarcoidosis Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su

    2015-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645

  6. Cryptococcal meningitis in an HIV negative patient with systemic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Botha, R J; Wessels, E

    1999-01-01

    A case of Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is described in an HIV negative patient with undiagnosed systemic sarcoidosis. The patient presented with signs of meningitis together with generalised lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Cryptococcal meningitis was diagnosed on lumbar puncture. She was treated with intravenous amphotericin B but died within two weeks of admission. Necropsy revealed lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, small intestine, and bone marrow consistent with sarcoidosis. Microscopically the lesions contained non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas typical of sarcoidosis. No Schaumann or Hamazaki-Wesenberg bodies were identified. Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis is generally associated with immunosuppressive disorders. As T cell abnormalities have been described in sarcoidosis, this could have been a case of opportunistic infection. Although rare, sarcoidosis merits consideration in patients with cryptococcal disease in the absence of HIV infection. Images PMID:10711260

  7. Multifactorial Etiology Pulmonary Hypertension in a Patient with Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucas Vinícius da Fonseca, Barreto; Felipe Naze Rodrigues, Cavalcante; Joselina Luzia Menezes, Oliveira; Marcos Antônio, Almeida-Santos; José Augusto Soares, Barreto-Filho; Antônio Carlos Sobral, Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between pre- and postcapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH) in patients with diastolic heart failure (DHF) is a challenge in clinical practice. The presence of PH is implicated in worse prognosis in patients with this disease. This case report approaches the process of investigation of pulmonary hypertension in adult patient with DHF, double mitral lesion, and sarcoidosis with poor clinical outcome. PMID:27800190

  8. Serum ACE Level in Sarcoidosis Patients with Typical and Atypical HRCT Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Kahkouee, Shahram; Samadi, Katayoon; Alai, Ali; Abedini, Atefeh; Rezaiian, Lida

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs. Before widespread use of computed tomography (CT), the severity of sarcoidosis was assessed based on chest X-ray abnormalities. HRCT can distinguish between active inflammatory changes and irreversible fibrosis. In this study, we analyzed different ACE levels in 148 patients diagnosed with sarcoidosis. Material/Methods We categorized these patients based on their HRCT results into four groups: 1) patients diagnosed with chronic disease; 2) patients diagnosed with non-chronic disease; 3) patients who exhibited typical HRCT changes; and 4) patients who exhibited atypical HRCT changes. Afterward the mean ACE level of each group was calculated and compared. Result The HRCT scans of chronic sarcoidosis patients tended to show more atypical sarcoidosis patterns. Moreover, there was a reverse correlation between chronicity and ACE level (P-value <0.05). Conclusions HRCT is another modality which would be useful when the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is not definite. PMID:27733890

  9. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marcoval, Joaquim; Moreno, Abelardo; Mañá, Juan; Peyri, Jordi

    2008-10-01

    Subcutaneous sarcoidosis has been reported to occur in 1.4% to 6% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Most reported cases are in women, most often in their fifth and sixth decades, and appear as multiple, asymptomatic, hardly indurated subcutaneous nodules without changes in the overlying epidermis. The lesions are characteristically located in the upper extremities, mainly in the forearms, and usually are bilateral and asymmetric. In most cases the lesions appear at the beginning of systemic sarcoidosis and are not associated with chronic fibrotic disease. Histopathologically, sarcoidosis is characterized by noncaseating naked granulomas involving fat lobules, with minimal to no septal involvement.

  10. Comorbid autoimmune diseases in patients with sarcoidosis: A nationwide case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Hung; Chung, Pei-I; Wu, Chen-Yi; Chen, Yen-Ta; Chiu, Yun-Wen; Chang, Yun-Ting; Liu, Han-Nan

    2017-04-01

    The association between sarcoidosis and autoimmune comorbidities has been reported, however, it has seldom been confirmed by a large nationwide study. Our study aimed to clarify the association between sarcoidosis and autoimmune comorbidities in the Taiwanese. A total of 1237 patients with sarcoidosis and 4948 age- and sex-matched control subjects were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan from 1997 to 2010. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to calculate the odds of comorbidities between the two groups. The prevalence of sarcoidosis was 2.17/100 000 individuals in Taiwan. Sarcoidosis patients tended to run a higher risk of autoimmune comorbidities than the control group (17.6% vs 9.4%, P < 0.05). Autoimmune thyroid disease (adjusted odd ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.64), Sjögren's syndrome (aOR, 11.6; 95% CI, 4.36-31.0) and ankylosing spondylitis (aOR, 3.80; 95% CI, 2.42-5.97) were significantly associated with sarcoidosis. The sex-stratified analyses were carried out to demonstrate a significant association of sarcoidosis with ankylosing spondylitis in both sexes, but with autoimmune thyroid disease in male patients and with Sjögren's syndrome female patients, respectively. Besides, the diagnosis of the autoimmune comorbidities strongly associated with sarcoidosis tended to be established after that of sarcoidosis. This study demonstrated that patients with sarcoidosis tended to have autoimmune thyroid disease, Sjögren's syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis, and the diagnosis of sarcoidosis usually preceded that of associated comorbidities. Clinicians should be alert to autoimmune comorbidities in patients with sarcoidosis.

  11. Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Birnie, David; Ha, Andrew C T; Gula, Lorne J; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Beanlands, Rob S B; Nery, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest clinically manifest cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis. The principal manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Data indicate that an 20% to 25% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis have asymptomatic (clinically silent) cardiac involvement. An international guideline for the diagnosis and management of CS recommends that patients be screened for cardiac involvement. Most studies suggest a benign prognosis for patients with clinically silent CS. Immunosuppression therapy is advocated for clinically manifest CS. Device therapy, with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, is recommended for some patients.

  12. Risk of fragility fracture among patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based study 1976-2013.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, P; Crowson, C S; Matteson, E L

    2017-02-16

    Incidence of fragility fracture of a population-based cohort of 345 patients with sarcoidosis was compared with age and sex-matched comparators. The incidence of fragility fracture was higher among patients with sarcoidosis with hazard ratio (HR) of 2.18.

  13. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  14. Sarcoidosis in patients with mixed connective tissue disease: clinical, genetic, serological and histological observations.

    PubMed

    Szodoray, Peter; Szollosi, Zoltan; Gyimesi, Edit; Takacs, Istvan; Mekkel, Gabriella; Vegh, Judit; Szilagyi, Anna; Zeher, Margit; Szegedi, Gyula; Bodolay, Edit

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the development of sarcoidosis influences the disease course of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). The cellular composition of MCTD-associated sarcoidosis granulomas was evaluated and also the disease-accompanying T-cell activation and alterations of the serum cytokine levels were measured before and after the therapy. The HLA-DR specific alleles were also assessed. We present two cases with MCTD coexisting sarcoidosis. Serum concentrations of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were assessed by ELISA. Peripheral blood CD3+ total T-cell numbers, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset were determined by flow cytometry. Furthermore, hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunhistochemistry were performed for histological assessment. HLA-DR specific alleles were determined by using PCR-SSP. Elevated number of activated T-cells and high Th1 cytokine levels were detected, mainly IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. Histologically, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells were present in the sarcoidosis infiltrations. The haplotypes were to some extent dissimilar from the HLA-DR genotype from patients with MCTD, or sarcoidosis alone. Sarcoidosis enhances the activation of MCTD, based on the laboratory and clinical findings. Our results show that the inflammation is mainly in the effector phase, while granuloma formation is characteristic of the resolution phase of the disease. The assessment of the cytokine network in sarcoidosis-associated MCTD enables us to select the most effective, individualized therapy protocol for these patients.

  15. A granulomatous conundrum: Concurrent necrobiosis lipoidica, cutaneous sarcoidosis and erythema nodosum in a nondiabetic patient.

    PubMed

    Valecha, Nishant; Bennett, Genevieve; Yip, Leona

    2017-02-17

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) and cutaneous sarcoidosis are granulomatous disorders with a largely unknown aetiopathogenesis. Evidence of co-existing NL and sarcoidosis in the same patient may suggest a degree of overlap between these entities through shared granulomatous inflammatory pathways. Occasionally, one condition can mimic the other, making their distinction difficult. We report a novel case of a non-diabetic woman who presented with concurrent NL, cutaneous sarcoidosis and erythema nodosum. We discuss some of the complexities distinguishing these entities and propose that they may represent different stages of the same granulomatous process linked through yet unknown pathomechanisms.

  16. Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms and Serum Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Levels in Iranian Patients with Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    JAVADI, Alireza; SHAMAEI, Masoud; ZAREI, Masoud; REZAEIAN, Lida; KIANI, Arda; ABEDINI, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown origin with characterization of small granulomas. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a pathophysiologic marker of sarcoidosis. We present the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in correlation with serum ACE level in Iranian patients with sarcoidosis. Methods: From Jan 2014 to Jan 2015, 102 Iranian patients who histopathologically diagnosed for sarcoidosis and 192 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. PCR was used for detection of I/D polymorphism in ACE gene. Results: Frequency of II/ID/DD genotype in sarcoidosis disease was 17%, 35.5%, and 47.1%, respectively. The frequency of D allele was 0.65. A significant association between I/D genotypes and mean of sACE level was seen (DD=85.2±22.9, P<0.001). More frequent genotype in sarcoidosis patients was DD (47%), ID genotype (45.9%) was found more in controls. Logistic regression analysis adjusting age and sex showed that ID to II (OR=0.35, 95%CI=0.17–0.73, P=0.005) and DD to II (OR=2.11, 95%CI=0.98–4.54, P=0.05) could be considered as a predictor factor for the disease activity. No significant model for men in sarcoidosis group was seen, while women with II/ID were associated with a reduced risk for the disease. Conclusion: Although more regional studies with appropriate statistical scale must be done to provide a better diagnosis and prognostic tool for this disease, this study demonstrates that ID and DD genotype could be predictive factors for sarcoidosis. PMID:28032065

  17. Muscular Sarcoidosis Detected by F-18 FDG PET/CT in a Hypercalcemic Patient

    PubMed Central

    Han, Eun Ji; Jang, Yi Sun; Lee, In Suk; Lee, Jong Min; Kang, Siwon

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that involves many organs, occasionally mimicking malignancy. We herein report a 50-yr-old woman of muscular sarcoidosis of chronic myopathic type, manifested by hypercalcemia and muscle wasting. Besides insignificant hilar lymphadenopathy, her sarcoidosis was confined to generalized atrophic muscles and therefore, F-18 FDG PET/CT alone among conventional imaging studies provided diagnostic clues for the non-parathyroid-related hypercalcemia. On follow-up PET/CT during low-dose steroid treatment, FDG uptake in the muscles disappeared whereas that in the hilar lymph nodes remained. PET/CT may be useful in the evaluation of unexpected disease extent and monitoring treatment response in suspected or known sarcoidosis patients. PMID:24015050

  18. [Cryptococcal meningitis in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and monitoring for pulmonary sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Baallal, H; El Asri, A C; Eljebbouri, B; Akhaddar, A; Gazzaz, M; El Mostarchid, B; Boucetta, M

    2013-02-01

    The fungus Cryptococcus neoformans can cause common opportunistic infection in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. But other conditions can be associated with sarcoidosis. Meningoencephalitis is the most common manifestation of this disease. One of the most important neurological complications is the development of intracranial hypertension (ICH), which may result in high morbidity and mortality. We report the case of a patient harboring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt, and having contracted a cryptococcal meningitis as a risk factor for pulmonary sarcoidosis. Brain MRI showed arachnoiditis, with a mass in contact with the right frontal horn. Indian ink staining of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed positivity that was confirmed by the identification of Cryptococcus neoformans after culture. The evolution was favorable under medical treatment with removal of material. The relationship between sarcoidosis and cryptococcosis, described in the literature is not coincidental but is a rare complication of sarcoidosis of potential severity (40% of mortality). Sarcoidosis is a common systemic disease that may increase host susceptibility to CNS cryptococcal infection without any other signs or symptoms of host immunosuppression. The diagnosis of cryptococcosis should be evoked as a differential diagnosis of neuro-sarcoidosis.

  19. Sarcoidosis Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Sarcoidosis Quiz Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown cause that leads ... various organs in the body. The outcome of sarcoidosis varies. The disease leads to organ damage in ...

  20. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, O.P.

    1983-07-01

    During the last decade, many biochemical and immunologic advances have been made in the treatment and understanding of sarcoidosis. These studies have helped us to understand the basic mechanisms involved in granuloma formation, and many clinicians have used the information to diagnose and assess the activity of sarcoidosis. Further studies are needed to clearly establish the role of these advances in the everyday management of patients with sarcoidosis.

  1. Recent advances in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Iannuzzi, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis, a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology, is characterized by a variable clinical presentation and course. During the past decade, advances have been made in the study of sarcoidosis. The multicenter ACCESS (A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis) trial recruited > 700 subjects with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis and matched control subjects. Investigators were unable to identify a single cause of sarcoidosis, but ACCESS paved the way for subsequent etiologic studies. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalase-peroxidase protein has been identified as a potential sarcoidosis antigen. Genetic aspects of the disease have been elucidated further. Genome-wide scans have identified candidate genes. Gene expression analyses have defined cytokine dysregulation in sarcoidosis more clearly. Although the criteria for diagnosis have not changed, sarcoidosis remains a diagnosis of exclusion best supported by a tissue biopsy specimen that demonstrates noncaseating granulomas in a patient with compatible clinical and radiologic features of the disease. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration of mediastinal lymph nodes has facilitated diagnosis, often eliminating the need for more invasive procedures, such as mediastinoscopy. PET scanning has proven valuable in locating occult sites of active disease. Currently, no reliable prognostic biomarkers have been identified. The tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, a relatively new class of agents, have been used in patients with refractory disease. It is unclear whether phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, prostaglandin analogs, or endothelin antagonists should be used for the treatment of sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Development of exclusively cutaneous sarcoidosis in patient with rheumatoid arthritis during treatment with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marcella Amaral Horta Barbosa; Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Silva, Larissa Karine Leite da; Fraga, Rafael Cavanellas; Kakizaki, Priscila; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-11-01

    We report the case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis who, after 2 months of treatment with etanercept, showed disseminated asymptomatic violaceous papules. Biopsy of the skin lesion showed chronic granulomatous dermatitis with negative staining for fungi and acid-fast bacilli (AFB). After discontinuation of etanercept, the patient's condition improved. Although apparently paradoxical, cases of cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis after anti-TNF medications have been reported in the literature, with very few cases presenting exclusive cutaneous involvement.

  3. Gallium-67 scintigraphy, bronchoalveolar lavage, and pathologic changes in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Munakata, M.; Nishimura, M.; Tsuneta, Y.; Terai, T.; Nakano, I.; Ohsaki, Y.; Kawakami, Y.

    1984-05-01

    The intensity of gallium-67 scintiscans, lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and pathologic changes were studied in 26 patients with untreated pulmonary sarcoidosis. Noncaseating granulomas were recognized with significantly greater frequency in stage 2 (80 percent; 8/10 cases) than in stage 1 (43 percent; 6/14 cases). Alveolitis showed little relation to the roentgenographic stage. There was a strong correlation between the intensity of gallium uptake in pulmonary parenchyma and the detection rate of granuloma; however, the detection rate of alveolitis was not statistically different from the intensity of gallium uptake. A highly significant correlation was revealed between the lymphocyte counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the intensity of alveolitis. These observations suggest that the gallium uptake reflects mainly the presence of granuloma, and the lymphocyte count in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid reflects the intensity of alveolitis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  4. Dementia, gait disturbance, and urinary incontinence in a patient with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Labarca, Gonzalo; Ramirez, Romina; Monsalve, Ximena; Mira-Avendano, Isabel

    2016-09-01

    Hydrocephalus is an uncommon presentation of neurosarcoidosis. We discuss the case of a 67-year-old woman with a prior diagnosis of hypothyroidism, systemic hypertension, and lung sarcoidosis who presented with a 1-month history of progressive impairment of consciousness leading to prostration and loss of sphincter control. At admission, patient was febrile with altered speech and without focalization. Laboratory results showed leucocytosis and mild anaemia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was characterized by mild elevated protein level, increased cell count, normal glucose and adenosine deaminase (ADA), negative cytology, and no bacterial isolations. Electroencephalogram showed toxic-metabolic encephalopathy. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed hydrocephalus without structural damage, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated non-specific diffuse meningeal enhancement and periventricular changes supporting normal pressure hydrocephalus. Chest X-ray showed mediastinal adenopathy and parenchymatous lesions, consistent with stage II lung sarcoidosis. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt was installed, and the patient experienced rapid improvement in her symptoms.

  5. Pathogenesis of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Gundy, Karl Van; Sharma, Om P.

    1987-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. The organs that are involved by sarcoidosis include the lungs in which the granuloma is seen in more than 90% of patients to the pituitary, which is only rarely affected. There are many hypotheses as to the cause of sarcoidosis. Some of them rely on the similarities seen between sarcoidosis and the other granuloma-forming diseases such as tuberculosis, berylliosis, pine pollen inhalation and acute and chronic bacterial and viral infections, while others find similarities between sarcoidosis and immune reactions observed in autoimmune disorders. Still other explanations implicate a genetic predisposition or a still-unknown agent as the underlying cause of the granuloma formation. Images PMID:3310401

  6. Search for chronic beryllium disease among sarcoidosis patients in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Marcos; Fritscher, Leandro G; Al-Musaed, Ahmed M; Balter, Meyer S; Hoffstein, Victor; Mazer, Bruce D; Maier, Lisa A; Liss, Gary M; Tarlo, Susan M

    2011-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is clinically similar to other granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis. It is often misdiagnosed if a thorough occupational history is not taken. When appropriate, a beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests (BeLPT) need to be performed. We aimed to search for CBD among currently diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis patients and to identify the occupations and exposures in Ontario leading to CBD. Questionnaire items included work history and details of possible exposure to beryllium. Participants who provided a history of previous work with metals underwent BeLPTs and an ELISPOT on the basis of having a higher pretest probability of CBD. Among 121 sarcoid patients enrolled, 87 (72%) reported no known previous metal dust or fume exposure, while 34 (28%) had metal exposure, including 17 (14%) with beryllium exposure at work or home. However, none of these 34 who underwent testing had positive test results. Self-reported exposure to beryllium or metals was relatively common in these patients with clinical sarcoidosis, but CBD was not confirmed using blood assays in this population.

  7. Cardiac Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is characterized by the presence of granulomas. These are ball-like collections of white blood ... to a foreign substance. The inflammation associated with granulomas can damage every part of the heart, including ...

  8. Fungal exposure in homes of patients with sarcoidosis - an environmental exposure study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that exposure to moulds (fungi) may influence the development of sarcoidosis. To assess the influence of the environmental exposure, a study was undertaken to determine the exposure to fungi in homes of subjects with sarcoidosis. Methods Subjects were patients with clinically established sarcoidosis recruited during the period September 2007 till June 2010. Of these 55 were newly diagnosed and currently under treatment for less than one year, 25 had been treated and had no recurrence and 27 had been treated but had recurrence of the disease. Controls were healthy subjects without any respiratory symptoms (n = 30). Samples of air (about 2.5 m3) were taken in the bedroom of the subjects using a portable pump and cellulose ester filters. The filters were analysed for the content of the enzyme N-acetylhexosaminidase (NAHA) as a marker of fungal cell biomass, using a specific substrate and a fluorescent technique and expressed as NAHA units (U)/m3. Results Compared to controls, subjects undergoing treatment of the disease (newly diagnosed or with recurrence) had significantly higher activities of NAHA in their homes than controls (33.6 and 39.9 vs 10.0 U/m3, p < 0.001 and <0.001). Among controls only 5 out of 30 subjects had levels of NAHA above the second quartile value (14 U/m3). In homes of subjects with newly diagnosed disease with treatment less than one year, values above 14 NAHA U/m3 were found among 35 out of 55 and among those with recurrent disease among 18 out of 27. Conclusions The higher activities of NAHA enzyme found in homes of subjects with active and recurrent sarcoidosis suggest that exposure to fungi is related to the risk of sarcoidosis. Further environmental studies to assess the importance of this exposure for subjects with sarcoidosis are warranted. The results suggest that remedial actions in homes with high levels of fungi may be justified. PMID:21251285

  9. Myocardial performance index for detection of subclinical abnormalities in patients with sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Zuhal; Sarli, Bahadir; Buyukoglan, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate ventricular functions in patients with sarcoidosis without an obvious heart disease by using tissue Doppler-derived left and right ventricular myocardial performance index (MPI). Methods The study population included 45 patient with sarcoidosis (29 men, 16 women; mean age, 44±10 years, mean disease duration, 4.2±2.7 years) and 45 healthy control subjects (31 men, 14 women; mean age, 41±8 years). Cardiac functions were determined using echocardiography, consisting of standard two-dimensional and conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Myocardial tissue Doppler velocities [peak systolic (Sa), early diastolic (Ea), and late diastolic velocities (Aa)] were recorded using spectral pulsed Doppler from the LV free wall, septum, and RV free wall from the apical four chamber view. MPI was also calculated by TDI. Results The conventional echocardiographic parameters and tissue Doppler measurements were similar between the patients and controls. Left ventricular MPI (0.490±0.092 vs. 0.396±0.088, P=0.010) and right ventricular MPI (0.482±0.132 vs. 0.368±0.090, P=0.006) were significantly higher in patients with sarcoidosis than the control subjects. There was a correlation between the disease duration and right and left ventricular MPI (r=0.418, P=0.005; r=0.366, P=0.013, respectively). There was also a correlation between the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure and right ventricular MPI but not left ventricular MPI (r=0.370, P=0.012; r=0.248, P=0.109, respectively). In receiver operating characteristics curve analysis, the cutoff value of left ventricular MPI >0.46 had 92% sensitivity and 64% specificity in predicting left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Conclusions We have demonstrated that tissue Doppler-derived myocardial left and right ventricular MPI were impaired in sarcoidosis patients, although systolic function parameters were comparable in the patients and controls, showed a subclinic impaired

  10. Gastric involvement of sarcoidosis in a patient with multiple lung nodules

    PubMed Central

    Ceylan, Emel; Şen, Serdar; Coşkun, Adil; Meteoğlu, İbrahim; Demirtaş, Nimet; Çildağ, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder mostly could involve intrathoracic structures. The gastric involvement is rare and the symptoms may be non-specific. We herein report a case of a 56-year-old female patient who was admitted due to chest tightness and discomfort. Computed tomography (CT) of the thorax revealed bilaterally nodular lesions in the lower lobes of the lung and pleural effusion on the left side. Positron emission tomography/CT showed lung nodules and gastric involvement with mesenteric lymphadenomegalies with pathological uptake of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose. Pathological examination of the lung biopsy taken by thoracotomy demonstrated non-caseating granulomas. The gastric biopsies taken by endoscopy also showed non-caseating granulomas consistent with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:26487882

  11. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis*, **

    PubMed Central

    Nessrine, Akasbi; Zahra, Abourazzak Fatima; Taoufik, Harzy

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown cause. It most commonly affects the pulmonary system but can also affect the musculoskeletal system, albeit less frequently. In patients with sarcoidosis, rheumatic involvement is polymorphic. It can be the presenting symptom of the disease or can appear during its progression. Articular involvement is dominated by nonspecific arthralgia, polyarthritis, and Löfgren's syndrome, which is defined as the presence of lung adenopathy, arthralgia (or arthritis), and erythema nodosum. Skeletal manifestations, especially dactylitis, appear mainly as complications of chronic, multiorgan sarcoidosis. Muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and usually asymptomatic. The diagnosis of rheumatic sarcoidosis is based on X-ray findings and magnetic resonance imaging findings, although the definitive diagnosis is made by anatomopathological study of biopsy samples. Musculoskeletal involvement in sarcoidosis is generally relieved with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or corticosteroids. In corticosteroid-resistant or -dependent forms of the disease, immunosuppressive therapy, such as treatment with methotrexate or anti-TNF-α, is employed. The aim of this review was to present an overview of the various types of osteoarticular and muscle involvement in sarcoidosis, focusing on their diagnosis and management. PMID:24831403

  12. Sarcoidosis presenting with multiple tattoo granulomata

    PubMed Central

    Iveson, J. M. I.; Cotterill, J. A.; Wright, V.

    1975-01-01

    A patient with sarcoidosis, multiple tattoo granulomata and arthritis is described. A combination of tattoo granulomata unrelated to any one colour in the tattoo and granulomatous inflammation elsewhere is indicative of sarcoidosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:1197172

  13. Genetic influences on sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, M; Ohno, S

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the genetic influences underlying the development of sarcoidosis, HLA class II genotyping was performed in Japanese patients with sarcoidosis and healthy controls using the PCR-RFLP method. The frequencies of both DR52 group antigen-associated alleles (HLA-DRB1*11, -DRB1*12 and -DRB1*14) and DRB1*08 alleles were higher in the patient group, suggesting that the common, specific amino acid residue on the DRB1 molecule of these alleles may determine susceptibility to sarcoidosis. Alternatively, it is possible that another susceptibility gene, linked to these DRB1 alleles, exists within the MHC region. We screened the TNFA, TNFB, HSP70-1 and Hum70t genes around the class III region, as well as the HLA-DMA and -DMB genes in the class II region, for genetic polymorphism in sarcoidosis. None of these genes suggested a susceptibility to sarcoidosis. These studies support the thesis that one of the major genetic factors controlling the development of sarcoidosis is located within the DRB1 locus in the HLA class II region.

  14. Multimodality Imaging in Cardiac Sarcoidosis: Is There a Winner?

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Irving E.; Garcia, Mario J.; Taub, Cynthia C.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause that can affect the heart. Cardiac sarcoidosis may be present in as many as 25% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis, and it is frequently underdiagnosed. The early and accurate diagnosis of myocardial involvement is challenging. Advanced imaging techniques play important roles in the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis. PMID:25784137

  15. [Impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in patients with respiratory sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Borisov, S B; Shpykov, A S; Terent'eva, N A

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyzes the impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in 152 patients with new-onset respiratory sarcoidosis. It shows that the immunomodulatory effect of millimeter-range therapy depends on the treatment regimen chosen. There is evidence for the advantages of millimeter-range noise electromagnetic radiation.

  16. Cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Leonhard, Sonja E.; Fritz, Daan; van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cryptococcal meningitis is an uncommon but severe complication of sarcoidosis. Methods: We present 2 patients with cryptococcal meningitis complicating sarcoidosis and compared findings with 38 cases reported in the literature. Results: When analyzing our patients and 38 cases reported in the literature, we found that median age of sarcoidosis patients with cryptococcal meningitis was 39 years (range 30–48); 27 of 33 reported cases (82%) had a history of sarcoidosis. Only 16 of 40 patients (40%) received immunomodulating therapy at the time of diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis. The diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis was delayed in 17 of 40 patients (43%), mainly because of the initial suspicion of neurosarcoidosis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed mildly elevated white blood cell count (range 23–129/mm3). Twenty-nine of 32 cases (91%) had a positive CSF culture for Cryptococcus neoformans and 25 of 27 cases (93%) had a positive CSF C neoformans antigen test. CD4 counts were low in all patients in whom counts were performed (84–228/mL). Twelve patients had an unfavorable outcome (32%), of which 7 died (19%) and 24 patients (65%) had a favorable outcome. The rate of unfavorable outcome in patients with a delayed diagnosis was 7 of 17 (41%) compared to 5 of 28 (21%) in patients in whom diagnosis was not delayed. Conclusion: Cryptococcal meningitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of sarcoidosis. Patients were often initially misdiagnosed as neurosarcoidosis, which resulted in considerable treatment delay and worse outcome. CSF cryptococcal antigen tests are advised in patients with sarcoidosis and meningitis. PMID:27583871

  17. Risk of cardiovascular disease among patients with sarcoidosis: a population-based retrospective cohort study, 1976-2013.

    PubMed

    Ungprasert, Patompong; Crowson, Cynthia S; Matteson, Eric L

    2017-02-01

    A higher incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been observed in several chronic inflammatory diseases. However, data on sarcoidosis are limited.In this study, 345 patients with incident sarcoidosis in Olmsted County (Minnesota, USA) during 1976-2013 were identified based on comprehensive medical record review. 345 sex- and age-matched comparators were also identified from the same underlying population. Medical records were individually reviewed for CVD, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischaemic attack, peripheral arterial disease and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for age, sex, calendar year and cardiovascular risk factors were used to compare the rate of development of CVD between cases and comparators.The prevalence of CVD before the index date was not significantly different between the two groups. Adjusting for age, sex and calendar year, the risk of incident CVD after the index date was significantly elevated among patients with sarcoidosis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.57 (95% CI 1.15-2.16). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors yielded an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.65 (95% CI 1.08-2.53). Significantly increased risk was also observed for several types of CVD, including coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation and cerebrovascular accident.Increased incidence of CVD among patients with sarcoidosis was demonstrated in this population-based cohort, even after controlling for baseline traditional atherosclerotic risk factors.

  18. Fatigue syndrome in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Górski, Witold; Piotrowski, Wojciech J

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Most commonly it results in the formation of non-caseating granulomas in intrathoracic lymph nodes and lung parenchyma, but the clinical course and picture may be complicated by extrapulmonary involvement and many non-respiratory signs and symptoms which are directly related to the disease. In addition, sarcoidosis patients may suffer from a plethora of symptoms of uncertain or unknown origin. Fatigue is one of these symptoms, and according to some authors it is reported by the majority of patients with active sarcoidosis, but also by a smaller proportion of patients with inactive sarcoidosis, or even with complete clinical and radiological remission. Therefore the term fatigue syndrome is frequently used to name this clinical problem. The definition of fatigue syndrome in sarcoidosis is imprecise and the syndrome is usually recognized by use of validated questionnaires. In this review the uptodate knowledge in this field was presented and different challenges connected with this syndrome were described.

  19. Sarcoidosis Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... system in the body. People with sarcoidosis develop granulomas (small abnormal clumps of tissue) in certain parts ... staff Tags: bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, granulomatous uveitis, hepatic granulomas, mediastinal adenopathy, multisystem granulomatous disorder, non-caseating epithelioid ...

  20. Gastric sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Akinyemi, Emmanuel; Rohewal, Upinder; Tangorra, Matthew; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    A 58-year-old Jamaican male presented with acute-onset, right-sided facial droop and slurred speech. He had an episode of upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleed on the second day of admission and endoscopy with biopsy of antral ulcer revealed gastric sarcoidosis. This case demonstrates the rare entity of gastric sarcoidosis presenting acutely with an upper GI bleed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16775918

  1. The anti-arrhythmic effects of prednisone in patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Amr

    2011-12-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 2.3 million people in the United States and is currently the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Its overall prevalence is only increasing as the population ages. The classical risk factors for developing AF include hypertension, valvular disease, ischemic cardiomyopathy, and thyroid disease. In some patients with AF, an underlying cardiovascular pathology is not identified and the etiology remains unknown. Treatment modalities for AF typically include rate control medications, antiarrhythmics and radio frequency ablation (RFA), each of which is accompanied by its own risk of complications. We report a case of symptomatic AF that was refractory to multiple antiarrhythmics and an RFA procedure which resolved with prednisone. In this case, AF was associated with cardiac sarcoidosis, a disorder that is thought to be due to granulomatous involvement of the myocardium and increased systemic inflammation.

  2. ProKaSaRe Study Protocol: A Prospective Multicenter Study of Pulmonary Rehabilitation of Patients With Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lingner, Heidrun; Großhennig, Anika; Flunkert, Kathrin; Buhr-Schinner, Heike; Heitmann, Rolf; Tönnesmann, Ulrich; van der Meyden, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Background Available data assessing the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic sarcoidosis are scant; for Germany, there are none at all. Objective To gain information about the benefit of in-house pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic sarcoidosis and for the health care system, we intend to collect data in a prospective multicenter “real-life” cohort trial. Methods ProKaSaRe (Prospektive Katamnesestudie Sarkoidose in der pneumologischen Rehabilitation) [Prospective Catamnesis Study of Sarcoidosis in Pulmonary Rehabilitation] will assess a multimodal 3-week inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program for adult patients with chronic sarcoidosis over a 1-year follow-up time. Defined specific clinical measurements and tests will be performed at the beginning and the end of the rehabilitation. In addition, questionnaires concerning health-related quality of life and the patients’ symptoms will be provided to all patients. Inclusion criteria will be referral to one of the 6 participating pulmonary rehabilitation clinics in Germany for sarcoidosis and age between 18 and 80 years. Patients will only be excluded for a lack of German language skills or the inability to understand and complete the study questionnaires. To rule out seasonal influences, the recruitment will take place over a period of 1 year. In total, at least 121 patients are planned to be included. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data will be performed, including multivariate analyses. The primary outcomes are specific health-related quality of life (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire) and exercise capacity (6-minute walk test). The secondary outcomes are several routine lung function and laboratory parameters, dyspnea scores and blood gas analysis at rest and during exercise, changes in fatigue, psychological burden, and generic health-related quality of life (36-item Short Form Health Survey). Results Funding was obtained on October 12, 2010

  3. Incremental Prognostic Value of Global Longitudinal Strain and 18F-Fludeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Systemic Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Sperry, Brett W; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Negishi, Kazuaki; Negishi, Tomoko; Patel, Parag; Popović, Zoran B; Culver, Daniel; Brunken, Richard; Marwick, Thomas H; Tamarappoo, Balaji

    2017-03-01

    In independent studies, abnormal global longitudinal strain (GLS) and myocardial inflammation or scar detected by 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are associated with poor prognosis among patients with high likelihood for cardiac sarcoidosis. However, commonly used imaging modalities have not been evaluated in the same population. Our goals were to examine the relation between GLS and FDG-PET, and to evaluate the incremental prognostic value of these imaging techniques for predicting major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients suspected to have cardiac sarcoidosis. We identified patients with systemic sarcoidosis who underwent an echocardiogram and FDG-PET within 60 days. Regional strain (average of base, mid, and apical segmental strains from each of 6 wall regions) was calculated and compared with regional FDG-PET findings. The associations among GLS, FDG-PET findings, and MACE (defined as death, ventricular tachycardia, heart failure hospitalization, or transplantation) were evaluated using a Cox model. Of 84 patients, 51 had abnormal FDG-PET. GLS was impaired in patients with abnormal versus normal FDG-PET (-14.2 ± 4.7% vs -17.9 ± 3.5%, p <0.01). After adjusting for clinical risk factors, both GLS and the number of segments with abnormal perfusion and metabolism on FDG-PET were associated with adverse cardiac events (p <0.01 for both). In conclusion, GLS and regional LS are impaired in patients with abnormal perfusion and metabolism detected using FDG-PET. Additionally, both GLS and abnormal FDG-PET have incremental prognostic value for predicting MACE in patients with systemic sarcoidosis.

  4. [Sarcoidosis : Renal manifestations].

    PubMed

    Löffler, C; Bergner, R

    2017-04-12

    Renal involvement in sarcoidosis is much more common than generally assumed from old epidemiological studies and is often only detected when actively searched for. Many patients with renal sarcoidosis present with no or only few symptoms. The diagnostic work-up of sarcoidosis should always include a possible renal involvement. In cases of impaired renal function, proteinuria or a pathological urine sediment, a renal biopsy specimen should be obtained to assess the type, severity and prognosis of the kidney disease. Treatment is primarily based on the use of corticosteroids. Steroid-sparing agents, such as disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and infliximab can be applied; however, the evidence for efficacy of these therapies is mostly based on case series and expert opinions. Discontinuation of immunosuppression therapy bears a high risk of relapse.

  5. Sarcoidosis: Rheumatology perspective.

    PubMed

    Yee, Arthur M F

    2016-04-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory granulomatous disease for which rheumatologists are uniquely trained and qualified to treat. Historically, sarcoidosis has been managed within silos of medical subspecialties, but with increased appreciation of the systemic nature of this disorder and the availability of more therapeutic options, it is clear that a multidisciplinary approach, with the rheumatologist as a key component, can offer more optimal care. This manuscript reviews clinically relevant immunology and pathophysiology, diagnostic issues, management decision-making, and therapeutics in the care of patients with sarcoidosis. Issues particularly relevant to rheumatologists are highlighted. These include aiding in establishing diagnosis; recognition of disease manifestations involving bone, joint, and muscle; management of calcium metabolism and metabolic bone disease; and formulation and implementation of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory therapies.

  6. Pulmonary Hypertension in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Robert P; Engel, Peter J; Nathan, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complication of sarcoidosis leading to dyspnea and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) can be due to several factors, including vascular involvement by the granulomatous inflammation, compression of the pulmonary arteries by adenopathy, fibrotic changes within the lung, and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Several case series have suggested that some patients with SAPH benefit from specific therapy for pulmonary hypertension. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial found 16 weeks' bosentan therapy to be associated with significant improvement in pulmonary artery pressure. Future studies may better define who would respond to treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  7. Somatostatin receptor based PET/CT in patients with the suspicion of cardiac sarcoidosis: an initial comparison to cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Constantin; Reiter, Theresa; Kircher, Malte; Schirbel, Andreas; Werner, Rudolf A; Pelzer, Theo; Pizarro, Carmen; Skowasch, Dirk; Thomas, Lena; Schlesinger-Irsch, Ulrike; Thomas, Daniel; Bundschuh, Ralph A; Bauer, Wolfgang R; Gärtner, Florian C

    2016-11-22

    Diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is often challenging. Whereas cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) are most commonly used to evaluate patients, PET/CT using radiolabeled somatostatin receptor (SSTR) ligands for visualization of inflammation might represent a more specific alternative. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of SSTR-PET/CT for detecting cardiac sarcoidosis in comparison to CMR.15 patients (6 males, 9 females) with sarcoidosis and suspicion on cardiac involvement underwent SSTR-PET/CT imaging and CMR. Images were visually scored. The AHA 17-segment model of the left myocardium was used for localization and comparison of inflamed myocardium for both imaging modalities. In semi-quantitative analysis, mean (SUVmean) and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of affected myocardium were calculated and compared with both remote myocardium and left ventricular (LV) cavity.SSTR-PET was positive in 7/15, CMR in 10/15 patients. Of the 3 CMR+/PET- subjects, one patient with minor involvement (<25% of wall thickness in CMR) was missed by PET. The remaining two CMR+/PET- patients displayed no adverse cardiac events during follow-up.In the 17-segment model, PET/CT yielded 27 and CMR 29 positive segments. Overall concordance of the 2 modalities was 96.1% (245/255 segments analyzed). SUVmean and SUVmax in inflamed areas were 2.0±1.2 and 2.6±1.2, respectively. The lesion-to-remote myocardium and lesion-to-LV cavity ratios were 1.8±0.2 and 1.9±0.2 for SUVmean and 2.0±0.3 and 1.7±0.3 for SUVmax, respectively.Detection of cardiac sarcoidosis by SSTR-PET/CT is feasible. Our data warrant further analysis in larger prospective series.

  8. Somatostatin receptor based PET/CT in patients with the suspicion of cardiac sarcoidosis: an initial comparison to cardiac MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Malte; Schirbel, Andreas; Werner, Rudolf A.; Pelzer, Theo; Pizarro, Carmen; Skowasch, Dirk; Thomas, Lena; Schlesinger-Irsch, Ulrike; Thomas, Daniel; Bundschuh, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is often challenging. Whereas cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) are most commonly used to evaluate patients, PET/CT using radiolabeled somatostatin receptor (SSTR) ligands for visualization of inflammation might represent a more specific alternative. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of SSTR–PET/CT for detecting cardiac sarcoidosis in comparison to CMR. 15 patients (6 males, 9 females) with sarcoidosis and suspicion on cardiac involvement underwent SSTR-PET/CT imaging and CMR. Images were visually scored. The AHA 17-segment model of the left myocardium was used for localization and comparison of inflamed myocardium for both imaging modalities. In semi-quantitative analysis, mean (SUVmean) and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax) of affected myocardium were calculated and compared with both remote myocardium and left ventricular (LV) cavity. SSTR-PET was positive in 7/15, CMR in 10/15 patients. Of the 3 CMR+/PET− subjects, one patient with minor involvement (<25% of wall thickness in CMR) was missed by PET. The remaining two CMR+/PET− patients displayed no adverse cardiac events during follow-up. In the 17-segment model, PET/CT yielded 27 and CMR 29 positive segments. Overall concordance of the 2 modalities was 96.1% (245/255 segments analyzed). SUVmean and SUVmax in inflamed areas were 2.0±1.2 and 2.6±1.2, respectively. The lesion-to-remote myocardium and lesion-to-LV cavity ratios were 1.8±0.2 and 1.9±0.2 for SUVmean and 2.0±0.3 and 1.7±0.3 for SUVmax, respectively. Detection of cardiac sarcoidosis by SSTR-PET/CT is feasible. Our data warrant further analysis in larger prospective series. PMID:27780922

  9. Successful treatment of refractory midgut bleeding with ocreotide and corticosteroids in a dialysis patient with suspected sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Nestor; Imtiaz, Toufeeq; Shah, Amir Ali; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios

    2016-07-14

    We present a case of severe and recurrent small-bowel bleeding, due to multiple intestinal angiodysplasias, in a female patient with chronic renal failure due to suspected sarcoidosis. Over the years, she required numerous admissions and >200 units of blood for symptomatic anaemia. However, following a small-bowel capsule endoscopy that revealed several small-bowel angiectasis, she was treated successfully with octreotide and corticosteroids. Her transfusion requirements and hospital admissions were reduced drastically. Moreover, hypercalcaemia and liver function tests also normalised after treatment and double-balloon enteroscopy confirmed the complete resolution of these angiodysplasias. This case presentation confirms the usefulness of octreotide in the management of small-bowel angiodysplasias in dialysis patients and highlights the additional benefit of corticosteroids in portal hypertension due to suspected sarcoidosis.

  10. How Is Sarcoidosis Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Sarcoidosis Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose sarcoidosis based on ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  11. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  12. How Is Sarcoidosis Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Sarcoidosis Treated? Not everyone who has sarcoidosis needs treatment. ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  13. Living with Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis has no cure, but you can take ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  14. Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Clinical Trial Our mission is to stop sarcoidosis — join us. The sarcoidosis community needs your help ... receive periodic emails from the Foundation. Foundation For Sarcoidosis Research 1820 W. Webster Ave., Ste 304 Chicago, ...

  15. Specific (granulomatous) oral lesions of sarcoidosis: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Marcoval, Joaquim; Mañá, Joan

    2010-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that usually presents with bilateral hiliar adenopathies, pulmonary infiltrations, and ocular and cutaneous lesions. The specific cutaneous lesions, or granulomatous, are produced in from 9% to 37% of patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Nevertheless, few patients have been described having specific lesions from sarcoidosis in the oral mucous membrane. We present 2 patients with systemic sarcoidosis who developed specific sarcoidosis lesions in the oral mucous membrane. The first patient presented a plaque on the tongue of a chronic nature associated with facial lupus pernio. The second patient presented a rapidly growing nodular lesion on the lower lip that was in fact the presentation sign of the disease. Although infrequent, oral lesions may constitute the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis. For this reason the oral mucous membrane needs to be explored when there is suspicion of sarcoidosis, and systemic sarcoidosis must be included in the differential diagnosis of oral granulomatous lesions.

  16. Appendicular sarcoidosis mimicking acute appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Hunjan, Tia; Chaudery, Muzzafer; Zaidi, Ahsan; Beggs, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    Appendicular sarcoidosis is a very rare cause of acute abdominal pain, with only seven cases reported previously in the literature. A 45-year-old woman, known to have sarcoidosis, presented to the emergency department with a 1-week history of epigastric and right iliac fossa abdominal pain. At diagnostic laparoscopy, an acutely inflamed appendix was found and removed as well as an omental mass which was biopsied. Subsequent histopathological examination of the appendix demonstrated appendicular sarcoidosis without acute appendicitis and chronic inflammatory changes in the omental biopsy. The patients’ symptoms completely resolved postoperatively. It is important to undertake urgent operative intervention in patients with sarcoidosis who present with right iliac fossa pain, owing to the high risk of perforation. PMID:23162022

  17. Sarcoidosis of the upper and lower airways.

    PubMed

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Teirstein, Alvin S

    2011-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of undetermined etiology characterized by a variable clinical presentation and disease course. Although clinical granulomatous inflammation may occur within any organ system, more than 90% of sarcoidosis patients have lung disease. Sarcoidosis is considered an interstitial lung disease that is frequently characterized by restrictive physiologic dysfunction on pulmonary function tests. However, sarcoidosis also involves the airways (large and small), causing obstructive airways disease. It is one of a few interstitial lung diseases that affects the entire length of the respiratory tract - from the nose to the terminal bronchioles - and causes a broad spectrum of airways dysfunction. This article examines airway dysfunction in sarcoidosis. The anatomical structure of the airways is the organizational framework for our discussion. We discuss sarcoidosis involving the nose, sinuses, nasal passages, larynx, trachea, bronchi and small airways. Common complications of airways disease, such as, atelectasis, fibrosis, bullous leions, bronchiectasis, cavitary lesions and mycetomas, are also reviewed.

  18. Cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marchell, Richard M; Judson, Marc A

    2010-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease with skin manifestations. Skin manifestations are classified as nonspecific if they are not characterized by granulomatous inflammation and specific if the lesions have granulomas histologically. Erythema nodosum is the most common nonspecific skin manifestation, and it portends a good prognosis. Specific skin lesions have a varied clinical appearance, although often they can be distinguished by their yellow translucent character. Despite the potential variable appearance, there are common clinical presentations. Lupus pernio lesions are nodular violaceous specific skin lesions found predominantly on the face associated with scarring and a poor prognosis. Treatment of cutaneous sarcoidosis is primarily done to avoid scarring and cosmetic disfigurement. Local and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for the disease. Corticosteroid-sparing agents used to manage the disease include antimalarials, methotrexate, and tetracycline antibiotics. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists such as infliximab may have a role in cutaneous sarcoidosis, especially in refractory cases that are resistant to the standard regimens.

  19. A rare clinical presentation of sarcoidosis; gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Aygül; Köksal, Nurhan; Aydın, Davut; Aslan, Kerim; Gören, Fikret; Karagöz, Filiz

    2013-10-01

    Gingivitis due to sarcoidosis is a relatively rare condition. Gingivitis or isolated gingival involvement may be the first sign of systemic sarcoidosis. We report the case of a 37 year-old woman with isolated gingivitis due to sarcoidosis confirmed by biopsy. Following treatment with a systemic corticosteroid (prednisolone 40 mg/day), all clinical and radiologic findings were completely improved. In cases of chronic and intractable gingivitis, systemic sarcoidosis should be suspected. It should be confirmed with a biopsy, and the patient should be referred to a chest disease clinic to exclude other organ involvement.

  20. Efficacy of additional treatment with azathioprine in a patient with prednisolone-dependent gastric sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Masaki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yokota, Yoshihiro; Ban, Hiromitsu; Inatomi, Osamu; Bamba, Shigeki; Kushima, Ryoji; Andoh, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Gastric sarcoidosis with noncaseating granuloma is rare. Although corticosteroid produces a dramatic clinical response, it is unknown whether azathioprine show efficacy in prednisolone-dependent cases. Here, we report a case of gastric sarcoidosis in a 25-year-old man with severe epigastlargia. Gastroendoscopy revealed multiple map-like ulcerations. Histological examination showed multiple noncaseating granulomatous lesions in gastric mucosa, which were incompatible with diagnoses of Crohn’s disease or tuberculosis. He was started on prednisolone at 30 mg/d, and his symptoms improved within 7-d. The prednisolone was gradually tapered by 5 mg every 2-wk, but oral azathioprine at 50 mg was added after symptoms recurred at tapered dose of 10 mg. Endoscopy 4-wk later showed healing ulcers, and, lymphocytic infiltration was absent. The efficacy of additional azathioprine in gastric sarcoidosis is not well defined. Here, we report a case of prednisolone-dependent gastric sarcoidosis that improved after additional azathioprine, and also review the literature concerning the treatment, especially for prednisolone-dependent cases. PMID:28058029

  1. Cough in Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tully, Timothy; Birring, Surinder S

    2016-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder that frequently affects the lungs. Cough is commonly reported by patients and can significantly reduce health-related quality of life. The mechanism of cough is unknown but airway inflammation, mechanical distortion from pulmonary fibrosis and disruption of the vagus nerve are possible. Recent evidence suggests cough reflex hypersensitivity may also be an important mechanism and predictor of the frequency of cough. The investigation of cough should evaluate common causes such as asthma, gastro-oesophageal reflux and rhinitis. In patients with suspected cough due to sarcoidosis, a trial of corticosteroids should be considered. The severity of cough should be evaluated with validated outcome measures such as visual analogue scales, cough severity diary, health-related quality of life questionnaires such as the Leicester Cough Questionnaire and objective cough monitors. Future studies are needed to identify targets for therapeutic development.

  2. Increased disease activity in a patient with sarcoidosis after high dose interleukin 2 treatment for metastatic renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Logan, T F; Bensadoun, E S

    2005-07-01

    Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown aetiology in which cytokines such as interleukin 2 (IL-2) are thought to play an important role. We present the case history of a 48 year old man with sarcoidosis who received treatment with high dose IL-2 for metastatic renal cell cancer, following which he developed hypercalcaemia characterised by a raised level of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2-D3), a finding consistent with sarcoidosis associated hypercalcaemia. The increased activity in his sarcoidosis following IL-2 treatment provides direct supportive evidence for the role of IL-2 in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis.

  3. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis from a biopsy of a dilated mammary duct.

    PubMed

    Mason, Callan; Yang, Robert; Hamilton, Raynal; Punar, Metin; Shah, Zeeshan; Spigel, Joseph; Wang, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Sarcoidosis is an immunologic disease of unknown etiology that manifests most frequently within the lungs or associated lymph nodes. Sarcoidosis involving the breast is seen in <1% of cases and usually is diagnosed in patients with multisystem disease. The clinical and imaging presentations of sarcoidosis of the breast can be variable. Though uncommon, sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lesion, and given that imaging characteristics cannot distinguish between sarcoidosis and malignancy, all breast lesions in patients with sarcoidosis should be biopsied. Our case study demonstrates a diagnosis of sarcoidosis in an asymptomatic patient presenting with a single dilated duct and associated filling defect within the right breast.

  4. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis from a biopsy of a dilated mammary duct

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Robert; Hamilton, Raynal; Punar, Metin; Shah, Zeeshan; Spigel, Joseph; Wang, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an immunologic disease of unknown etiology that manifests most frequently within the lungs or associated lymph nodes. Sarcoidosis involving the breast is seen in <1% of cases and usually is diagnosed in patients with multisystem disease. The clinical and imaging presentations of sarcoidosis of the breast can be variable. Though uncommon, sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a breast lesion, and given that imaging characteristics cannot distinguish between sarcoidosis and malignancy, all breast lesions in patients with sarcoidosis should be biopsied. Our case study demonstrates a diagnosis of sarcoidosis in an asymptomatic patient presenting with a single dilated duct and associated filling defect within the right breast.

  5. [Ocular Manifestations in Sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Walscheid, K; Tappeiner, C; Heiligenhaus, A

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory multi-organ disease of unknown pathogenesis, characterised by non-necrotising granulomata. Sarcoidosis predominantly manifests in the lung, but any other organ may be affected. Ocular involvement is present in about 25 to 50 % of patients. The most common ocular manifestation is uveitis, especially of the anterior eye segment. If ocular sarcoidosis is suspected, interdisciplinary assessment of the patient is mandatory, including laboratory tests, chest X-ray, assessment by a specialist in internal medicine and, ideally, histological evidence of granuloma formation in a tissue specimen. Other (infectious) causes of granulomatous inflammation need to be excluded, especially tuberculosis or syphilis. For the ophthalmological assessment, detection of granulomatous lesions is of particular importance, especially by visualising chorioretinal granuloma by fluorescein and indocyanin green angiography. Cystoid macular oedema and glaucoma are the most frequent complications limiting visual acuity. Corticosteroids, which can be administered either locally or systemically, are the mainstay of therapy. Depending on the clinical course and the development of ocular complications, systemic steroid-sparing immunosuppressive medication may be indicated.

  6. The epidemiology of sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, G.; Sharma, O. P.; Naish, P.; Doe, W.; James, D. Geraint

    1969-01-01

    The nationality, social factors, exposures, morbidity, mortality, and hospital discharge notes have been analysed in a series of patients with histologically proven sarcoidosis, and correlated with clinical and radiological features. Compared with the expected prevalence according to the Central London population obtained from the 1961 Census, Irish and West Indians attended the Sarcoidosis Clinic twice as frequently as British, whereas African Negroes are under-represented. Sarcoidosis is slightly commoner in women, particularly those in the childbearing years of life. Mass miniature radiography rates per 100,000 population reveal prevalence rates of twenty overall, forty-three in those aged 25-34 years, and ten in those aged over 45 years. Erythema nodosum, other skin lesions, and ocular involvement occurred twice as often in women. The death-rate of about 1·7/106 population is slightly higher in women and in those living in rural districts. Hospital discharge rates are about three per 100,000 people at risk each year. PMID:5821184

  7. Hepatic sarcoidosis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Ennaifer, Rym; Ayadi, Shema; Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Nejma, Houda Ben; Bougassas, Wassila; Hadj, Najet Bel

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic non caseous granulomas disease. Liver is a common location but usually asymptomatic. Evidence based guidelines for this location treatment is lacking and the effect of corticosteroids may be inadequate. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical, biochemical, radiological and therapeutic features of seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement. A retrospective and descriptive monocentric study, over 3 years, including seven patients with systemic sarcoidosis and liver involvement. We included 5 women and 2 men with an average age of 43 years. Hepatic localization revealed sarcoidosis in 5 cases. Hepatomegaly was observed in all patients as well as abnormal serum liver function test reflected by anicteric cholestasis. Liver biopsy, showed in all granulomatous lesions consistent with sarcoidosis and severe fibrosis in 2 cases. Extra-hepatic manifestations were present in all patients represented mainly by pulmonary location. All patients were treated, five by corticosteroid and two with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Complete response was observed in one case, partial response in another case and corticosteroid refractoriness in one case. In two cases, corticosteroid therapy was introduced for less than 1 month, not allowing assessment of response. Antimalarials in combination with UDCA were used successfully in a patient with steroid-resistant liver disease. Liver involvement can reveal systemic sarcoidois. Given the risk of progression to severe liver disease, it must be screened in all patients with systemic sarcoidosis. Treatment is not systematic, and still based on corticosteroid therapy. In the absence of prospective randomized controlled trials, the efficacy of UDCA need to be proven. PMID:27795804

  8. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    PubMed

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  9. Ultrasound findings in cutaneous sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dybiec, Ewa; Pietrzak, Aldona; Kieszko, Robert; Kanitakis, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of cutaneous sarcoidosis relies mainly on the patient's history, presence of characteristic skin lesions and histological examination that shows a granulomatous, non-necrotizing dermal infiltration. The aim of the study was to assess the ultrasonographic features of cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis before and after treatment. A 38-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis and specific cutaneous lesions was treated with systemic steroids followed by hydroxychloroquine. Ultrasonographic examination of the cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions was performed with a Philips iU 22 and Siemens Acuson S 2000 device, with the use of linear 15 MHz and 17 MHz transducers. Histological examination of skin lesions showed characteristic, naked, non-necrotizing granulomas in the upper dermis. Ultrasound examination revealed well-demarcated, hypoechogenic changes. Power-Doppler scan revealed increased vascularity within the lesions and the surrounding tissue. Clinical improvement of the skin lesions was confirmed by ultrasound examination, which showed a decrease in their size and normalization of dermal echogenicity and vascularity. Ultrasound examination can show cutaneous sarcoidosis lesions and their regression after appropriate treatment. PMID:25821428

  10. Gallium scan in intracerebral sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Makhija, M.C.; Anayiotos, C.P.

    1981-07-01

    Sarcoidosis involving the nervous system probably occurs in about 4% of patients. The usefulness of brain scintigraphy in these cases has been suggested. In this case of cerebral sarcoid granuloma, gallium imaging demonstrated the lesion before treatment and showed disappearance of the lesion after corticosteroid treatment, which correlated with the patient's clinical improvement.

  11. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case–control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease. We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease. We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03–25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6–204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3–500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002). The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:27442665

  12. Sarcoidosis associated with neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Sawaya, Raja; Radwan, Wael

    2013-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder diagnosed by an elongated spinal cord lesion associated with unilateral or bilateral optic neuritis and anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies in the serum. It is triggered by or associated with several autoimmune diseases, but not with sarcoidosis. It responds to immunomodulators better than to steroid treatment. Sarcoidosis is an autoimmune disorder which manifests as non-caseating granulomas, usually in the lung parenchyma, but also in other tissues, including the brain. The involvement of the central nervous system in neurosarcoidosis differs considerably from that in neuromyelitis optica and the association of these two diseases concurrently in the same patient is unusual.

  13. Sarcoidosis and the heart: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Emrah; Demirelli, Selami; Ermis, Emrah; Inci, Sinan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disorder without any defined etiology. Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is detected in 2–7% of patients with sarcoidosis and more than 20% of the cases of sarcoidosis are clinically silent. Cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis (SS) and isolated cardiac sarcoidosis (iCS) are associated with arrhythmia and severe heart failure (HF) and have a poor prognosis. Early diagnosis of CS and prompt initiation of corticosteroid therapy with or without other immunosuppressants is crucial. Electrocardiography, Holter monitoring, and Doppler echocardiography with speckle tracking imaging can serve as the initial steps to diagnosis of CS. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and positron emission tomography (PET) are promising techniques for both diagnosis and follow-up of CS. This review discusses the main aspects of cardiac involvement in sarcoidosis. PMID:26668777

  14. Differential Expression of Cardiac Troponin T and I in a Patient with Isolated Skeletal Muscular Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Mannoji, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Fumie; Kubota, Toru; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Kato, Seiya; Tahara, Nobuhiro; Fukutomi, Takayoshi; Yamada, Takeshi; Okabe, Masanori; Yamamoto, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to high serum creatine kinase (CK) (2,605 IU/L) and serum cardiac troponin T (cTnT) (0.342 ng/mL) levels. She had no other complaints and further examinations suggested no signs of cardiac disease. Additionally, the serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels were normal. She reported having gradually felt difficulty in walking upstairs. A biopsy indicated skeletal muscle sarcoidosis with positive staining for cTnT. Steroid therapy immediately resolved her muscular symptoms with a normalization of the serum CK levels. Since the serum levels of cTnI were normal, the concomitant measurement of cTnT/cTnI might be useful to diagnose skeletal muscular disease biochemically in such cases. PMID:27803423

  15. [Optic disc granuloma secondary to sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Qu-Knafo, L; Auregan-Giocanti, A

    2017-02-01

    We report a case of optic disc granuloma due to sarcoidosis. A 64-year-old, caucasian female with a history of pulmonary sarcoidosis presented with a vision loss on her left eye. The ophthalmologic examination revealed a discrete optic disc infiltrate compatible with the diagnosis of optic disc granuloma. Fluorescein angiography showed diffusion and impregnation of the granuloma without vascularitis. The optical coherence tomography demonstrated a homogenous and isoreflective lesion at the optic disc. The patient recovered her visual acuity after systemic corticosteroid treatment. Isolated optic disc granuloma is a rare condition of ocular sarcoidosis.

  16. Abdominal sarcoidosis: cross-sectional imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Naciye Sinem; Başara, Işıl; Altay, Canan; Harman, Mustafa; Rocher, Laurence; Karabulut, Nevzat; Seçil, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. The lungs and the lymphoid system are the most commonly involved organs. Extrapulmonary involvement is reported in 30% of patients, and the abdomen is the most common extrapulmonary site with a frequency of 50%–70%. Although intra-abdominal sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic, its presence may affect the prognosis and treatment options. The lesions are less characteristic and may mimick neoplastic or infectious diseases such as lymphoma, diffuse metastasis, and granulomatous inflammation. The liver and spleen are the most common abdominal sites of involvement. Sarcoidosis of the gastrointestinal system, pancreas, and kidneys are extremely rare. Adenopathy which is most commonly found in the porta hepatis, exudative ascites, and multiple granulomatous nodules studding the peritoneum are the reported manifestations of abdominal sarcoidosis. Since abdominal sarcoidosis is less common and long-standing, unrecognized disease can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Imaging contributes to diagnosis and management of intra-abdominal sarcoidosis. In this report we reviewed the cross-sectional imaging findings of hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary sarcoidosis. PMID:25512071

  17. [Sarcoidosis of the lacrimal sac as a cause of dacriostenosis].

    PubMed

    Burduk, Paweł K; Seredyka-Burduk, Małgorzata; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech; Dalke, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. The course of sarcoidosis ranges from asymptomatic to severe. It could affect people of all ages. The disease affects predominantly the lungs and lymph nodes, skin, abdominal organs or eyes. Sarcoidosis of lacrimal sac is very uncommon. We describe a young man with lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa sarcoidosis present with epiphora. Few years before the onset of dacriocystitis the patient was treated because of lymph nodes sarcoidosis. The lacrimal sac sarcoidosis developed five years after systemic disease remission. An endoscopic dacriocystorhinostomy with intubation of nasolacrimal duct was performed. We used postoperatively systemic and local steroids for 3 months period. The patient is under observation for over four years with good health. The abnormal looking nasal or lacrimal sac mucosa could be associated with granulomatous disease as sarcoidosis and Wegener's or malignancies. If the sarcoidosis is established, it could be the first manifestation of sarcoidosis leading to future systemic sarcoidosis development or it may develop many years after the onset of systemic disease. Endoscopic dacriocystorhinostomy with intubation followed by intensive therapy with systemic and local corticosteroids may be helpful to maintain lacrimal drainage patency.

  18. Subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a rhinoplasty scar

    PubMed Central

    Dulguerov, Nicolas; Vankatova, Lenka; Landis, Basile Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a subcutaneous hard bony-like lump at the lateral nasal wall after a septorhinoplasty procedure is an unfavourable result. The reported patient developed this complication 2 years after a revision surgery, in which percutaneous osteotomies were performed. An excision biopsy of the lump took place and the histopathological analysis revealed a granulomatous gigantocellular inflammation with absence of birefringent particles on polarised lamp and negative mycobacteria culture. After additional investigations, the final diagnosis was consistent with grade 2 pulmonary sarcoidosis associated with subcutaneous sarcoidosis. No treatment was initiated. The facial symptoms resolved without any additional treatment and the pulmonary function tests have not deteriorated after 1 year of follow-up. The polymorphism of cutaneous lesions in sarcoidosis, the absence of systemic symptoms and the unrecognised entity of subcutaneous sarcoidosis in a scar illustrate the diagnostic challenge with this patient. PMID:25819832

  19. Talc granulomatosis mimicking sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, A; Aggarwal, B; Menon, B; Kulshreshtha, R

    2008-07-01

    Pulmonary disease due to talc, a group of hydrous magnesium silicates, is almost exclusively encountered secondary to occupational exposure or intravenous drug abuse. Talcosis or talc pneumoconiosis is one of the rarer forms of silicate-induced lung disease. It is seen in workers exposed during its production, and occasionally, in users of cosmetic talc and in intravenous drug addicts. Very often, the history of exposure is not recognised by the patient, and it is only the finding of granulomatous cellular interstitial lesions containing birefringent crystals which indicates considerable talc exposure. We report a 38-year-old woman who was initially diagnosed with sarcoidosis, until a bronchoscopic biopsy revealed the presence of numerous foreign body giant cells and birefringent particles forming non-caseating granulomas. There was no history of occupational exposure to talc or intravenous drug abuse. The patient responded to oral corticosteroid treatment. Talcosis is generally considered to be relatively benign.

  20. Old-scar mass and changing surgical perspective: Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Aktimur, Recep; Aktimur, Sude Hatun; Çolak, Elif; Alıcı, Ömer; Demirağ, Mehmet Derya

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of an unknown etiology. Skin is involved in 25% of all cases, and 29% of them present as a scar sarcoidosis. Asymptomatic old-scar masses are generally regarded as a foreign body reaction by surgeons and often result in excisional biopsy. We describe a case of a patient who developed sarcoidosis in a 34-year-old appendectomy scar and adjacent inguinal lymph nodes without any local or systemic symptom and radiologic finding. Surgeons should not underestimate the importance of such lesions as a simple condition. Scar sarcoidosis may resolve spontaneously, or the treatment with some topical agents is effective. Furthermore, scar sarcoidosis may be the initial manifestation of systemic sarcoidosis. PMID:25931946

  1. New molecular targets for the treatment of sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Chiarchiaro, Jared; Chen, Bill B.; Gibson, Kevin F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease typically affecting the lung, lymph nodes, and other organ systems. Evidence suggests that the morbidity and mortality rates for sarcoidosis in the USA are rising, despite widespread use of anti-inflammatory therapies. In this review, we survey new therapies that target specific inflammatory pathways in other diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and psoriasis) that are similar to pathways relevant to sarcoidosis immunopathogenesis, and therefore, represent potentially new sarcoidosis therapies. Recent findings Immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis has been well elucidated over the past few years. There is abundant evidence for T-cell activation in sarcoidosis leading to activation of both Th1 and Th17 inflammatory cascades. Therapies targeting T-cell activation, Th1 pathways (such as the interleukin-6 inhibitors), Th17 pathway mediators, and others have been Food and Drug Administration approved or under investigation to treat a variety of autoimmune inflammatory diseases, but have not been studied in sarcoidosis. Targeting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases and the ubiquitine proteasome system with new agents may also represent a novel therapeutic option for patients with sarcoidosis. Summary Rising morbidity and mortality rates for patients with sarcoidosis strongly support the need to develop more effective anti-inflammatory therapies to treat chronic disease. PMID:27454074

  2. [Cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Amschler, K; Seitz, C S

    2017-03-17

    Skin manifestations of sarcoidosis occur in up to 30% of cases. This review summarizes and illustrates in detail the differences between specific and unspecific skin manifestations of sarcoidosis. Important differential diagnoses, such as tuberculosis, cutaneous lymphoma and syphilis have to be excluded. The indications for systemic treatment are primarily determined by the extent of organ involvement and also by the cosmetic impairment.

  3. PSMA Uptake in Mediastinal Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ardies, Philip Junior; Gykiere, Pieterjan; Goethals, Lode; De Mey, Johan; De Geeter, Frank; Everaert, Hendrik

    2017-04-01

    Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a cell surface glycoprotein which is frequently overexpressed on prostate cancer cells. Ga-PSMA PET/CT plays an increasing role in prostate cancer management. However, growing evidence suggests increased PSMA uptake in a variety of other malignant tumor entities and in some benign lesions. This report describes PSMA uptake in numerous thoracic lymph nodes in a patient with known mediastinal sarcoidosis. Knowledge and recognition of these possibilities are important to avoid scan misinterpretation.

  4. Pleural effusion and sarcoidosis: an unusual combination.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Lucía; San José, Esther; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Suárez-Antelo, Juan; Toubes, M Elena; Valdés, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Pleural involvement in sarcoidosis is uncommon and appears in several forms. To document the incidence and characteristics of pleural effusion in sarcoidosis patients, a review of the cases diagnosed in our centre between January 2001 and December 2012 was carried out. One hundred and ninety-five patients with sarcoidosis were identified; three (two men and one woman) presented with unilateral pleural effusion (1.5%): one in the right side and two in the left. Two were in stageii and one was in stageiv. The pleural fluid of the two patients who underwent thoracocentesis was predominantly lymphocytic. One of these patients presented chylothorax and the other had high CA-125levels. In general, these effusions are lymphocyte-rich, paucicellular, serous exudates (sometimes chylothorax) and contain proportionally higher levels of protein than LDH. Most cases are treated with corticosteroids, although it may resolve spontaneously.

  5. Recognition of distinctive patterns of gallium-67 distribution in sarcoidosis

    SciTech Connect

    Sulavik, S.B.; Spencer, R.P.; Weed, D.A.; Shapiro, H.R.; Shiue, S.T.; Castriotta, R.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Assessment of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) uptake in the salivary and lacrimal glands and intrathoracic lymph nodes was made in 605 consecutive patients including 65 with sarcoidosis. A distinctive intrathoracic lymph node {sup 67}Ga uptake pattern, resembling the Greek letter lambda, was observed only in sarcoidosis (72%). Symmetrical lacrimal gland and parotid gland {sup 67}Ga uptake (panda appearance) was noted in 79% of sarcoidosis patients. A simultaneous lambda and panda pattern (62%) or a panda appearance with radiographic bilateral, symmetrical, hilar lymphadenopathy (6%) was present only in sarcoidosis patients. The presence of either of these patterns was particularly prevalent in roentgen Stages I (80%) or II (74%). We conclude that simultaneous (a) lambda and panda images, or (b) a panda image with bilateral symmetrical hilar lymphadenopathy on chest X-ray represent distinctive patterns which are highly specific for sarcoidosis, and may obviate the need for invasive diagnostic procedures.

  6. Expression profiling elucidates a molecular gene signature for pulmonary hypertension in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Sunit; Zhou, Tong; Javaid, Kamran; Abbasi, Taimur; Casanova, Nancy; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Wade, Michael S.; Noth, Imre; Sweiss, Nadera J.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH), when it complicates sarcoidosis, carries a poor prognosis, in part because it is difficult to detect early in patients with worsening respiratory symptoms. Pathogenesis of sarcoidosis occurs via incompletely characterized mechanisms that are distinct from the mechanisms of pulmonary vascular remodeling well known to occur in conjunction with other chronic lung diseases. To address the need for a biomarker to aid in early detection as well as the gap in knowledge regarding the mechanisms of PH in sarcoidosis, we used genome-wide peripheral blood gene expression analysis and identified an 18-gene signature capable of distinguishing sarcoidosis patients with PH (n = 8), sarcoidosis patients without PH (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 45). The discriminative accuracy of this 18-gene signature was 100% in separating sarcoidosis patients with PH from those without it. If validated in a large replicate cohort, this signature could potentially be used as a diagnostic molecular biomarker for sarcoidosis-associated PH. PMID:28090288

  7. Sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brandy-García, Anahy M; Caminal-Montero, Luis; Fernández-García, María Soledad; Saiz Ayala, Angel; Cabezas-Rodríguez, Ivan; Morante-Bolado, Isla

    A 65 year-old female with a history of sarcoidosis with pulmonary and joint involvement, who after 5 years of diagnosis begins with central nervous system involvement manifesting as diplopia. She presents normal analysis results. In imaging results, a mass is identified in the right intraconal space; it depends of right optic nerve, and shows multiple lymph node involvement. Biopsy was performed diagnosed with large B-cell lymphoma, an atypical form of tumor associated with sarcoidosis.

  8. Occupational Causes of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Kira L.; Newman, Lee S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Sarcoidosis, the multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, remains mysterious. Several important investigations in the past two years add to accumulating evidence for both occupational and environmental causes of granulomatous inflammation. Recent findings This review considers the most recent studies that contribute to the hypothesis that sarcoidosis occurs when individuals are exposed to foreign antigens and to inorganic particulates that promote inflammation. Major recent findings, such as those emerging from the study of World Trade Center responders, the study of nanoparticles, and cases of work-associated sarcoidosis support the probability that occupational, as well as environmental, exposures to inflammatory stimuli trigger sarcoidosis-like illness. Major recent studies of microbially-rich indoor environments, including moldy indoor workplaces and mycobacterially-contaminated settings, contribute to the evidence that a variety of microbial antigens serve as targets for the hypersensitivity immune response in an inflammatory milieu. Summary There is increasing evidence that sarcoidosis can occur in workplace settings in which there is exposure to both foreign antigens and inorganic triggers of inflammation that promote an exuberant granulomatous immune response. It is likely that sarcoidosis has more than one cause. PMID:22314258

  9. [2 cases of sarcoidosis in Yaounde (Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Capdevielle, P; Vauterin, G; Mouden, J C; Darie, H

    1984-01-01

    Two new cases of sarcoidosis are reported from Cameroon. The first one concerned a man, 53 years old, who presented multiple dermal nodules of the face, polyadenopathy , splenomegaly, exertional dyspnea, reticular and micronodular aspect of lungs X-ray. Diagnosis was confirmed by histology of skin, ganglions and bronchus biopsies. Patient was treated by corticotherapy. The other one concerned a woman, 28 years old, who presented successively mediastinal adenopathies, then, 9 months later, reticular and micronodular aspect of lungs X-ray. During this period, a treatment against tuberculosis had been established. Bronchus biopsies confirmed the diagnosis. The patient was also treated by corticosteroids. The authors wonder whether sarcoidosis is actually or apparently rare in Negro-Africans, owing to the fact of frequent failure to recognize this affection, or confusion with tuberculosis. Correct incidence of sarcoidosis in Negro-Africans should be defined.

  10. Inter- and Intra- observer agreement of FDG-PET/CT image interpretation in patients referred for assessment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Hiroshi; Mc Ardle, Brian; deKemp, Robert A; Nery, Pablo B; Juneau, Daniel; Renaud, Jennifer M; Klein, Ran; Clarkin, Owen; MacDonald, Karen; Leung, Eugene; Nair, Girish; Beanlands, Rob S B; Birnie, David

    2017-03-02

    Recent studies have reported the usefulness of (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in aiding with the diagnosis and management of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). However, the image interpretation of FDG-PET for CS is sometimes challenging. We sought to investigate the inter- and intra-observer agreement and explore factors which lead to important discrepancies between readers. METHODS: We studied consecutive patients with no significant coronary artery disease who were referred for assessment of CS. Two experienced readers blinded to clinical information, imaging reports, independently reviewed FDG-PET/CT images. FDG-PET/CT images were interpreted according to a predefined standard operating procedure, with cardiac FDG uptake patterns categorized into 5 patterns; 1) none, 2) focal, 3) focal on diffuse, 4) diffuse and 5) isolated lateral wall and/or basal uptake. Overall image assessment was classified as either consistent with active CS or not. RESULTS: One hundred scans were included from 71 patients. Of these, 46 underwent FDG-PET/CT with no-restricted diet (no-restriction group) and 54 underwent FDG-PET/CT with low-carbohydrate, high fat and protein-permitted diet (low-carb group). There was agreement of the interpretation category in 74 of 100 scans. Kappa value of agreement among all 5 categories was 0.64 indicating moderate agreement. For overall clinical interpretation, there was agreement in 93 of 100 scans (kappa = 0.85). When scans were divided into the preparation groups; there was trend towards higher agreement in the low-carb group vs no-restriction (80% vs 67%, P = 0.08). Regarding the overall clinical interpretation, there was also trend towards greater agreement in the low-carb group vs no-restriction (96% vs 89%, P = 0.08). CONCLUSION: The inter-observer agreement of cardiac FDG uptake image patterns was moderate. However, agreement was better regarding overall interpretation of CS. Detailed pre-scan dietary

  11. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Sarcoidosis: A Case Report of a Rare Neurologic Manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Sonambekar, Ajinkya; Gupta, Nikhil; Swadi, Akanksha; Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic inflammatory disease with myriad clinical manifestations. Neurologic involvement in sarcoidosis is uncommon. Peripheral neuropathic presentations include mononeuropathy, mononeuritis multiplex, and generalized sensory, motor, autonomic, and sensorimotor polyneuropathies. Case Presentation We report a case of carpal tunnel syndrome caused by sarcoidosis in a 30-year-old woman. Other causes of carpal tunnel syndrome were ruled out. The patient responded well to the standard line of corticosteroid treatment and wrist splinting. Discussion Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by sarcoidosis is a rare presentation. The mechanism of neurologic involvement in sarcoidosis is not clear. PMID:27643973

  12. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: An important differential diagnosis in transbronchial lung biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Mahapatra, Qury S.; Sahai, Kavita; Rathi, K. R.; Singh, Sarvinder; Sharma, Shruti

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Lungs and lymphatics are the principal sites affected by this disease. The disorder is often not suspected by physicians. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study done on 140 transbronchial lung biopsies received for histopathological examination in the Department of Pathology for 1 year in a multispeciality tertiary care hospital, in Delhi. Results: Out of 140 transbronchial lung biopsies studied, 13 cases of sarcoidosis were diagnosed histopathologically. In these patients a clinical, pathological, and radiological corelation was done. And a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis was given after excluding other granulomatous lesions. Conclusion: Transbronchial lung biopsies have become an important tool in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in present time. Hence sarcoidosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis when dealing with granulomatous lesions in lung biopsies. PMID:24778476

  13. Pleural sarcoidosis: a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Loughney, E.; Higgins, B. G.

    1997-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic disorder of unknown aetiology which causes tissue injury and granuloma formation in many organs. Although over 80% of cases have intrathoracic disease at presentation, pleural sarcoidosis remains an unusual manifestation. A case of sarcoidosis presenting with a discrete pleural mass is reported. 




 PMID:9059488

  14. Sarcoidosis with involvement of the paranasal sinuses - a retrospective analysis of 12 biopsy-proven cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extrapulmonary involvement by sarcoidosis is observed in about 30–40% of patients with sarcoidosis. Little is known about the frequency and clinical characteristics of sinonasal sarcoidosis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 12 cases of biopsy-proven sinonasal sarcoidosis. Patients were identified from a patient population of 1360 patients with sarcoidosis at the Outpatient Clinic for Sarcoidosis and Rare Lung Diseases at LungClinic Grosshansdorf, a tertiary care hospital for respiratory medicine. Results The most frequent signs and symptoms were nasal polyps (4 cases), epistaxis (3 cases), nasal crusts (8 cases) and anosmia (5 cases). Pulmonary sarcoidosis of the patients was staged as stage I (n = 1) and stage II (n = 11) on chest radiographs. Spirometry was normal in 11 patients. 7 patients had a diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide of less than 90% of predicted. Other organs were affected in 8 patients. All patients received systemic corticosteroid treatment and most patients received topical steroids. 5 patients received steroid sparing agents. Repeated sinus surgery had to be performed in 4 patients. Conclusions Sinonasal involvement is a rare disease manifestation of sarcoidosis with a frequency slightly lower than 1% in our patient population. The clinical course of sinonasal sarcoidosis can be complicated by relapse despite systemic immunosuppressive treatment and repeated sinus surgery. PMID:24070015

  15. Orbital sarcoidosis presenting as diffuse swelling of the lower eyelid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Kyu; Moon, Nam Ju

    2013-02-01

    The author reports a case of orbital Sarcoidosis in a 70-year-old female that initially presented as diffuse swelling of the lower eyelid. The patient complained of painless swelling of the left lower lid without palpable mass, and a computerized tomography (CT) scan of the orbit was unremarkable. A serum angiotensin converting enzyme level was elevated, and hilar lymphadenopathy was noted on the chest CT. The patient underwent surgical debulking for histologic confirmation, which led to a final diagnosis of sarcoidosis involving the orbital fat. Unexplained chronic eyelid swelling without a mass should be considered a possible ophthalmic manifestation of orbital sarcoidosis.

  16. A rare presentation of sarcoidosis with nasal bone involvement

    PubMed Central

    Uslu, Selen; Korkmaz, Hakan; Çetinkol, Yeliz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous inflammatory disease that is induced by infectious or noninfectious environmental antigens in a genetically susceptible host. Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are two diseases with similar clinical and pathologic findings. The link between these two diseases has been extensively studied. Objective: Herein we describe a case of sarcoidosis associated with tuberculosis, treated for tuberculosis, and, 1 year, later presented with a nasal dorsal lump and skin lesions on the extremities. Methods: Case report with clinical description. Results: Our patient had a history of skin and cervical lymphadenopathy symptoms 1 year earlier and was treated with antituberculosis drugs in an outer medical center. Therapy had cured cervical lymphadenopathies, with no improvement in skin lesions. On appearance of the nasal dorsal lump, she presented to our outpatient clinic. We retrieved the previous specimens of the patient, which revealed coexistence of necrotizing granulomas with non-necrotizing granulomas, which was strongly indicative of the coexistence of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. Radiologic, histopathologic, and microbiologic investigation revealed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis with nasal, cutaneous, and pulmonary involvement. Treatment with prednisolone and hydroxychloroquine resulted in dramatic improvement of nasal bone, pulmonary, and skin lesions within 2 weeks. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of sarcoidosis can be complex, and the differential diagnosis from tuberculosis can be challenging. Atypical clinical pictures also can cause delays in diagnosis and proper management. In patients with granulomatous lesions that are unresponsive to antituberculosis therapy, physicians must be alerted to the possibility of coexistent sarcoidosis. PMID:27103561

  17. Chronic cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Marchell, Richard M; Judson, Marc A

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis involvement of the skin is common. The skin lesions of sarcoidosis may be nonspecific, showing a nondiagnostic inflammatory reaction pattern on histologic evaluation. Nonspecific skin lesions are often associated with an acute presentation of sarcoidosis and, in general, portend a good prognosis. Specific sarcoidosis skin lesions reveal typical sarcoid granulomas on histologic examination. These lesions tend to be chronic and require therapy for resolution. This article will review the epidemiology, diagnostic evaluation, and description of the various chronic skin lesions of sarcoidosis. Various images of these skin lesions will be demonstrated.

  18. Systemic sarcoidosis mimicking malignant metastatic disease

    PubMed Central

    Hammen, Irena; Sherson, David Lee; Davidsen, Jesper Roemhild

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of systemic sarcoidosis involving the liver, pancreas, lungs, mediastinal and intraabdominal lymph nodes and bones. Multiple organ system manifestations mimicked malignant metastatic disease. The diagnosis was established with clinical, radiological, and pathological findings after neoplasm was ruled out by pathological tests. The patient showed rapid symptom remission with systemic steroid treatment. PMID:26672956

  19. Management of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kofahi, Khalid; Korsten, Peter; Ascoli, Christian; Virupannavar, Shanti; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Chang, Ian; Qaqish, Naim; Saketkoo, Lesley A; Baughman, Robert P; Sweiss, Nadera J

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas that most often involves the lungs, but frequently has extrapulmonary manifestations, which might be difficult to treat in individual patients. Objective To review different disease manifestations, focusing on extrapulmonary organ systems, and to provide treatment options for refractory cases. Materials and methods We performed a literature search using Medline and Google Scholar for individual or combined keywords of “sarcoidosis, extrapulmonary, treatment, kidney, neurosarcoidosis, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, transplantation, musculoskeletal, rheumatology, arthritis, and skin”. Peer-reviewed articles, including review articles, clinical trials, observational trials, and case reports that were published in English were included. References from retrieved articles were also manually searched for relevant articles. Results and conclusion Isolated involvement of a single organ or organ system is rare in sarcoidosis, and thus all patients must be thoroughly evaluated for additional disease manifestations. Cardiac sarcoidosis and neurosarcoidosis may be life-threatening. Clinicians need to assess patients comprehensively using clinical, laboratory, imaging, and histopathological data to recommend competently the best and least toxic treatment option for the individual patient. PMID:27853374

  20. [Physiopathology of sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Soler, Paul

    2008-05-31

    Sarcoidosis results from an uncontrolled cell-mediated immune reaction involving activated T cells and monocytes-macrophages, characterized by the formation of typical granulomas at the sites of the lesions. The interactions between both cell types induce the release of several mediators that play a central role in the development of granulomas, allowing to design new therapies. The aetiology of sarcoidosis remains unknown, but the disease is currently viewed as the consequence of a chronic immunological response associating a genetic susceptibility and specific environmental factors.

  1. Sarcoidosis and chronic beryllium disease: similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Annyce S; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Maier, Lisa A

    2014-06-01

    Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) is a granulomatous lung disease that may be pathologically and clinically indistinguishable from pulmonary sarcoidosis, except through use of immunologic testing, such as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT). Similar to sarcoidosis, the pulmonary manifestations of CBD are variable and overlap with other respiratory diseases. Definitive diagnosis of CBD is established by evidence of immune sensitization to beryllium and diagnostic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy. However, the diagnosis of CBD can also be established on a medically probable basis in beryllium-exposed patients with consistent radiographic imaging and clinical course. Beryllium workers exposed too much higher levels of beryllium in the past demonstrated a much more fulminant disease than is usually seen today. Some extrapulmonary manifestations similar to sarcoidosis were noted in these historic cohorts, although with a narrower spectrum. Extrapulmonary manifestations of CBD are rare today. Since lung-predominant sarcoidosis can very closely resemble CBD, CBD is still misdiagnosed as sarcoidosis when current or past exposure to beryllium is not recognized and no BeLPT is obtained. This article describes the similarities and differences between CBD and sarcoidosis, including clinical and diagnostic features that can help physicians consider CBD in patients with apparent lung-predominant sarcoidosis.

  2. Cortical blindness after contrast-enhanced CT scan in a patient of sarcoidosis - Is it related to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome?

    PubMed

    Suri, Vinit; Agarwal, Ritu; Jadhao, Nilesh; Ahuja, Gulshan K

    2011-10-01

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a well known but rare complication of administration of contrast agent. In this case report, we present a 53-year-old woman who is a follow-up case of sarcoidosis and developed TCB with focal neurological symptoms following contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral T2/Flair hyperintensities in parieto-occipital, high frontal, and cerebellar hemispheres with involvement of corpus callosum. Clinically and radiologically patient improved significantly in 4 days. The exact mechanism is still speculative and its possible relationship with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is briefly discussed. The patient's symptoms were presumed to be exacerbated by presence of hypertension, underlying autoimmune disorder, sepsis, and high osmolality of contrast agent. Though there is no definite evidence to suggest that a certain treatment regimen improves the natural history of this disease but control of risk factors can possibly prevent this rare but devastating complication.

  3. Ocular Sarcoidosis Limited to Retinal Vascular Ischemia and Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Gawain; Shaikh, Saad

    2016-01-01

    A 59-year-old Caucasian male experienced progressive vision loss secondary to retinal vascular ischemia and neovascularization. At no time did he present with uveitis or vasculitis, and his serology tests were all negative. He was soon after diagnosed with sarcoidosis by hilar lymph node lung biopsy. Our patient demonstrates an atypical presentation of ocular sarcoidosis, manifesting solely as neovascularization and retinal vascular ischemia. Ophthalmologists should consider proliferative sarcoid retinopathy in patients with neovascularization. PMID:27928517

  4. [Morpheiform sarcoidosis as atypical manifestation of sarcoidosis. Review of the literature and differential diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Castellanos-González, María; Picazo Talavera, María Remedios

    2016-09-16

    Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic multisystem granulomatous disease that commonly involves the skin in 25% of affected patients. Because lesions assume a vast array of morphologies, a classification dividing them into specific (with presence of typical granulomas in the biopsy) or nonspecific (not containing granulomas) has been proposed. In the first group the variant morpheaform is considered exceptional. We review the cases reported in the literature and describe the possible differential diagnosis. We highlight the importance of recognizing the very atypical presentation of sarcoidosis and its ability to mimic morpheaform or sclerosis diseases in our patients.

  5. [Systemic sarcoidosis: a diagnostic challenge in pediatrics. Case report].

    PubMed

    Díaz Angarita, Tomás; Morales Camacho, William; Lozano Neira, Laura; Plata Ortiz, Jessica; Zárate Taborda, Linda

    2016-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, evidenced most often in young adults, which can compromise several organs, mainly lung, lymph nodes, eyes and skin. The presence of the disease in pediatric population is rare. Denomination in pediatrics is made based on age and clinical manifestations of the patient. The aim of this report is to present a case of systemic sarcoidosis in a pediatric patient without lung involvement with severe extrapulmonary manifestations. Fifteen year old patient who debuted with nonspecific symptoms (emesis, weight loss). Radiographic studies without lung involvement but with findings suggestive of Langerhans cell histiocytosis; however, histopathological report (bone and lymph) showed the presence of chronic granulomatous nonnecrotizing disease, sarcoidosis type. Childhood sarcoidosis is a rare and difficult entity to diagnose, mainly by the lack of specific biomarkers for diagnosis.

  6. Animal models of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yijie; Yibrehu, Betel; Zabini, Diana; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2017-03-01

    Sarcoidosis is a debilitating, inflammatory, multiorgan, granulomatous disease of unknown cause, commonly affecting the lung. In contrast to other chronic lung diseases such as interstitial pulmonary fibrosis or pulmonary arterial hypertension, there is so far no widely accepted or implemented animal model for this disease. This has hampered our insights into the etiology of sarcoidosis, the mechanisms of its pathogenesis, the identification of new biomarkers and diagnostic tools and, last not least, the development and implementation of novel treatment strategies. Over past years, however, a number of new animal models have been described that may provide useful tools to fill these critical knowledge gaps. In this review, we therefore outline the present status quo for animal models of sarcoidosis, comparing their pros and cons with respect to their ability to mimic the etiological, clinical and histological hallmarks of human disease and discuss their applicability for future research. Overall, the recent surge in animal models has markedly expanded our options for translational research; however, given the relative early stage of most animal models for sarcoidosis, appropriate replication of etiological and histological features of clinical disease, reproducibility and usefulness in terms of identification of new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, and testing of new treatments should be prioritized when considering the refinement of existing or the development of new models.

  7. Who Is at Risk for Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Sarcoidosis? Sarcoidosis affects people of all ages and races. ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  8. [The morphological examination in the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis].

    PubMed

    Dvorkovskaia, I V; Maĭskaia, M Iu; Nasyrov, R A; Baranova, O P; Ariel', B M

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers the results of histological and bacterioscopic examinations of biopsy specimens from the lung and mediastinal lymph nodes of 120 patients with an unclear diagnosis of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis and with problem of their differential diagnosis. One hundred and five of these patients were microscopically diagnosed as having either tuberculosis or sarcoidosis. Additional examination of differently stained sections and that using immunohistochemical M. tuberculosis detection were conducted in 15 cases, which could diagnose tuberculosis and sarcoidosis in 7 and 8 patients, respectively. Bacterioscopic examination, in terms of extreme variability the phenotypic properties of mycobacteria, is of decisive importance in the differential diagnosis of tuberculosis and sarcoidosis.

  9. Sarcoidosis of the skin: a review for the pulmonologist.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Saurabh; Sanchez, Miguel; Prystowsky, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    With vastly heterogeneous morphologic manifestations, sarcoidosis is one of the "great imitators" of medicine. Because there is no specific confirmatory test, the diagnosis rests on clinical acumen coupled with supportive information from tissue or blood evaluation and the exclusion of other diseases. The characteristic histologic pattern of noncaseating, epithelioid cell granulomas is not always present in skin lesions, which may be visually distinctive or diverse in appearance. As a result of their high incidence of respiratory disease, patients with sarcoidosis frequently seek care from pulmonologists who may become their primary health-care providers. Physicians who treat patients with sarcoidosis should be aware of the disease's diverse organ manifestations, but particularly those appearing on the skin because these can be disfiguring, have prognostic importance, and may not be readily diagnosed even by skin specialists. In this comprehensive review, we sought to illustrate this diversity and to update the diagnostic approach, histologic spectrum, and therapeutic strategies involved in cutaneous sarcoidosis.

  10. Isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis: a new insight into the old entity.

    PubMed

    Kumar H K, Sharath; M N, Gayathri; M, Bharathi; T, Ravikumar

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous lesions are a part of common manifestation in multi-systemic sarcoidosis and skin involvement occurs in 20% to 35% of the patients with systemic disease. An exclusive cutaneous involvement is rare and it is reported in about 4%-5% of the patients of sarcoidosis. These lesions have been classified into specific and non-specific, depending on the presence of non- caseating granulomas, on histopathologic studies. In the present study, we are reporting two cases of isolated cutaneous sarcoidosis without systemic manifestations, which is a rare presentation. Sarcoidosis will continue to challenge even the most experienced clinicians with respect to a high degree of suspicion and further investigations for diagnosing and treating this disorder.

  11. Concomitant axillary mycobacteriosis and neuro-sarcoidosis: diagnostic pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Meckenstock, Roderich; Therby, Audrey; Chapelon-Abric, Catherine; Nifle, Chantal; Beressi, Jean Paul; Lebas, Constance; Greder–Belan, Alix

    2011-01-01

    There are many similarities between mycobacteriosis, in particular, tuberculosis, and sarcoidosis such as predominant intrathoracic localisation (even if all organs and tissues may be concerned), great variability of phenotypic expression, and granulomatous inflammatory reaction, caseous necrosis not being an absolute criterion of tuberculosis. Moreover, microbial (or mycobacterial?) agents may play a role in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis which remains a diagnosis of exclusion particularly in atypical cases. The authors report a case of a non-immunocompromised female patient who presented, simultaneously, isolated axillary tubercular adenitis and neuro-sarcoidosis without any other localisation. This case illustrates the difficulty to distinguish between both of these two diseases and thus to choose an adequate treatment when diagnosis is not proven. Moreover, our patient (human leucocyte antigen B27 positive) presented symptoms of spondylarthritis which also may have a nosological link with tuberculosis or sarcoidosis. PMID:22679226

  12. The association between osteopontin gene polymorphisms, osteopontin expression and sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lavi, Hadas; Assayag, Miri; Schwartz, Assaf; Arish, Nissim; Fridlender, Zvi G.; Berkman, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. Osteopontin (SPP1, OPN) is an extra cellular matrix glycoprotein and cytokine with a known role in granuloma formation and in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Objective To determine whether plasma OPN levels are elevated in patients with sarcoidosis and compare the frequency of four single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) variants in the OPN gene in sarcoidosis patients compared to healthy controls. Methods Demographic and clinical information, radiological studies and pulmonary function tests were evaluated in 113 patients with sarcoidosis and in 79 healthy controls. Blood samples were analyzed for SNPs of the OPN gene and for plasma OPN and CRP levels. Association between clinical features of disease and OPN levels as well as SNP frequencies was determined. Results Plasma OPN levels were higher in sarcoidosis patients than in healthy subjects, (median: 217 vs 122ng/ml, p<0.001). Area under the curve for receiver operator curves (ROC) was 0.798 (0.686–0.909 95% CI.) No differences were observed between sarcoidosis patients and controls in the frequency of any of the SNPs evaluated. Presence of lung parenchymal involvement was associated with SNP distribution at rs1126772 (p = 0.02). We found no correlation between SNPs distribution and plasma OPN levels. Conclusions Osteopontin protein levels are elevated in sarcoidosis. We found no evidence for an association between SNPs on the osteopontin gene and plasma OPN levels or the presence of sarcoidosis, however, an association between genotype and several phenotypic clinical parameters of disease was observed. PMID:28253271

  13. Sarcoidosis: Immunopathogenesis and Immunological Markers

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Wei Sheng Joshua; Herbert, Cristan; Thomas, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disorder invariably affecting the lungs. It is a disease with noteworthy variations in clinical manifestation and disease outcome and has been described as an “immune paradox” with peripheral anergy despite exaggerated inflammation at disease sites. Despite extensive research, sarcoidosis remains a disease with undetermined aetiology. Current evidence supports the notion that the immune response in sarcoidosis is driven by a putative antigen in a genetically susceptible individual. Unfortunately, there currently exists no reliable biomarker to delineate the disease severity and prognosis. As such, the diagnosis of sarcoidosis remains a vexing clinical challenge. In this review, we outline the immunological features of sarcoidosis, discuss the evidence for and against various candidate etiological agents (infective and noninfective), describe the exhaled breath condensate, a novel method of identifying immunological biomarkers, and suggest other possible immunological biomarkers to better characterise the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis. PMID:26464848

  14. Sarcoidosis and primary biliary cirrhosis with co-existing myositis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, P.; McGavin, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    In a small number of cases the co-existence of primary biliary cirrhosis and sarcoidosis is assumed from clinical serological and histological findings. A case of sarcoidosis is reported in which the M2 antibody, a highly specific marker for primary biliary cirrhosis, was detected. The patient also developed a severe myositis and a possible overlap syndrome is discussed. 




 PMID:9059489

  15. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-04-18

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea.

  16. Sarcoidosis mimicking a venous ulcer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Smita S; Romanelli, Paolo; Kirsner, Robert S

    2009-11-01

    Sarcoidosis--a chronic, multisystem disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas--may cause ulcerative lesions, particularly in African American women. A case of ulcerative sarcoidosis mimicking a venous ulcer is presented. The patient is a 44-year-old African American hypertensive, obese woman with a nonhealing medially based lower leg ulcer of 3 years' duration clinically consistent with a venous ulcer. The ulcer did not heal with compression therapy and pentoxifylline. Subsequent biopsies showed granulomatous inflammation consistent with sarcoidosis. When intralesional triamcinolone was added to compression therapy, the ulcer resolved after 3 months. Given its propensity toward formation on the lower extremities and ulcerative and atrophic appearance, ulcerative sarcoidosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a venous ulcer refractory to standard therapy, especially in African American women.

  17. [Sarcoidosis - diagnosis and therapy today].

    PubMed

    Christ, R

    1980-12-15

    The etiology of sarcoidosis is still unclear. It belongs to the most frequent lung diseases; but also nearly all other tissues and organs may be established. One third of the diseases runs under the picture of the acute form of the course (Loefgren's syndrome). A histologic ascertainment is to be striven for. The tendency to spontaneous remission is great. This is still additionally supported by the application of cortison derivatives. In the individual case the indication to medicamentous therapy results from the tendency of the course of the disease, from the degree of the affection of organs and the clinico-functional disturbance. In 80 patients with Loefgren's syndrome the author adopts a definite attitude to diagnostics and therapy.

  18. Delayed diagnosis of sarcoidosis is common in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Mauri Monteiro; Coletta, Ester Nei Aparecida Martins; Ferreira, Rimarcs Gomes; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of and the factors related to delayed diagnosis of sarcoidosis in Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated patients with a biopsy-proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis, using a questionnaire that addressed the following: time since symptom onset and since the first medical visit; and the number and specialty of the physicians visited. We divided the patients by the timeliness of the diagnosis-timely (< 6 months) and delayed (≥ 6 months)-comparing the two groups in terms of systemic and pulmonary symptoms; extrathoracic involvement; spirometric data; radiological staging; level of education; income; and tuberculosis (diagnosis and treatment). RESULTS: We evaluated 100 patients. The median number of physicians consulted was 3 (range, 1-14). In 11 cases, sarcoidosis was diagnosed at the first visit. In 54, the first physician seen was a general practitioner. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis was timely in 41 patients and delayed in 59. The groups did not differ in terms of gender; race; type of health insurance; level of education; income; respiratory/systemic symptoms; extrathoracic involvement; and radiological staging. In the delayed diagnosis group, FVC was lower (80.3 ± 20.4% vs. 90.5 ± 17.1%; p = 0.010), as was FEV1 (77.3 ± 19.9% vs. 86.4 ± 19.5%; p = 0.024), misdiagnosis with and treatment for tuberculosis (≥ 3 months) also being more common (24% vs. 7%, p = 0.032, and 20% vs. 0%; p = 0.002, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is often delayed, even when the imaging is suggestive of sarcoidosis. Delayed diagnosis is associated with impaired lung function at the time of diagnosis. Many sarcoidosis patients are misdiagnosed with and treated for tuberculosis. PMID:24310626

  19. Evidence-based therapy for cutaneous sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Christy B; Rosen, Ted

    2008-01-01

    Although healthcare providers have arrived at a relatively comfortable zone of accepted clinical practice in the management of cutaneous sarcoidosis, virtually every treatment is based on minimal evidence-based data and relies almost exclusively on anecdotal information. Although it would be convenient to blame this state of affairs on the lack of certainty about disease aetiology, the unavoidable fact is that little has been executed, even in the realm of well designed comparative trials. Nonetheless, worldwide accepted standard therapies for sarcoidosis include the administration of corticosteroids, antimalarials and methotrexate. A stepwise approach to patient care is appropriate, and potent topical corticosteroids (e.g. clobetasol) or repeated intralesional injections of triamcinolone (3-10 mg/mL) may be all that is needed in mild skin-limited disease. In patients requiring systemic therapy for recalcitrant or deforming skin lesions (or for widespread disease), corticosteroids (e.g. prednisone 40-80 mg/day, tapered accordingly) used alone or in combination with antimalarials or methotrexate may be indicated. Antimalarials and methotrexate are considered second-line interventions and may be used as monotherapy for steroid-resistant sarcoidosis or in patients unable to tolerate steroids. Given the concern regarding ocular toxicity, the maximum dosages of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine should not exceed 3.5 and 6.5 mg/kg/day, respectively. Methotrexate is given in weekly doses of 10-30 mg, with the caveat that haematological, gastrointestinal, pulmonary and hepatic toxicities are possible. Despite universal acceptance as standard care, the aforementioned treatments often result in an incomplete clinical response or unacceptable adverse events. In such situations, more innovative treatment options may be used. Treatments that may well gain widespread future use include the tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors infliximab and adalimumab. Experience is limited

  20. Increased CD45RO expression on T lymphocytes in mediastinal lymph node and pulmonary lesions of patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fazel, S B; Howie, S E; Krajewski, A S; Lamb, D

    1994-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by a cell-mediated response mediated by the activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes in an environment lacking adequate numbers of regulatory CD8+ T lymphocytes. Immunohistological studies on frozen tissues have shown that sarcoid lesions have activated CD4 helper/inducer T lymphocytes at the centre of granulomata, whereas lymphocytes at the periphery are mainly CD8 suppressor/cytotoxic cells. In this study we investigated the immunohistological distribution of CD45 isoforms of T cells in 29 paraffin-embedded sarcoid lesions in mediastinal and open lung biopsies. Ten of these were assessed quantitatively, with single-staining of serial sections demonstrating a predominance of CD45RO memory T lymphocytes in granulomata and intergranulomatous areas. Ratios of CD45RO:CD45RA T lymphocytes (or the ratio of memory to naive T cells) were 42.0:1 for granulomata and 17.9:1 for intergranulomatous areas of sarcoid lesions counted. This finding is compatible with the hypothesis that nearly all the lymphocytes present in sarcoid lesions have been previously activated, and selectively home to sarcoid lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8137547

  1. Bone cysts in sarcoidosis: what is their clinical significance?

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, Halil; Pamuk, Omer Nuri

    2004-09-01

    The incidence of bone cysts in sarcoidosis, a multisystemic disease, varies in different series, and these cysts are generally asymptomatic. We evaluated bone cysts in 516 sarcoidosis patients with available hand X-rays and in 200 patients with foot X-rays. Bone cysts were present in 21 cases (19 females, two males). The cysts were localized in phalanges of the hand in all cases, in feet in five cases, and in nasal bone in one. Six patients with bone cysts also had lupus pernio. Among those with cystic bone lesions, females were more frequent; extrapulmonary and skin involvement and lupus pernio were significantly more common. We diagnosed cystic bone lesions in 3.6% of our sarcoidosis patients and conclude that cysts were more frequent in females and in patients with lupus pernio.

  2. Overexpression of IL-17RC associated with ocular sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a systemic granulomatous disorder affecting multiple organs including the eye. Both CD4+ T cell and macrophage have been linked to the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods The expression of IL-17RC was measured using FACS,immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Serum level of IL-17 was detected using ELISA. Results An elevated expression of IL-17RC on CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood was found in patients with ocular sarcoidosis as compared to healthy controls. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in the serum level of IL-17 in patients with ocular sarcoidosis as compared to healthy controls, which may be responsible for the induction of IL-17RC on CD8+ cells. In addition, IL-17RC appeared only in the retinal tissue of the patient with clinically active sarcoidosis. Conclusions Our results suggested a potential involvement of IL-17RC+CD8+ T cells in pathogenesis of ocular sarcoidosis. PMID:24885153

  3. WHOQOL-bREF questionnaire as a measure of quality of life in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Alilović, Marija; Peros-Golubicić, Tatjana; Radosević-Vidacek, Biserka; Koscec, Adrijana; Tekavec-Trkanjec, Jasna; Solak, Mirsala; Hećimović, Ana; Smojver-Jezek, Silvana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a short form of the WHOQOL questionnaire, the WHOQOL-BREF, which consists of 24 questions, in evaluating quality of life (QOL) in sarcoidosis patients. A group of 97 sarcoidosis patients and a matched group of 97 healthy controls took part in the study. Their QOL was examined by means of the WHOQOL-BREF, and the respiratory functions were measured in sarcoidosis patients. The WHOQOL-BREF revealed significantly poorer QOL of sarcoidosis patients in the domains of Physical and Psychological Health in comparison to healthy controls. In contrast, sarcoidosis patients perceived their QOL significantly better than healthy controls in the domains of Social Relations and Environment. Differences between sarcoidosis patients and healthy controls were found in several items from the WHOQOL-BREF and some of them were modified by gender. However, the WHOQOL-BREF did not prove to be a sensitive measure of fatigue, which is the most common symptom in sarcoidosis patients.

  4. Detection of HTLV-I proviral DNA in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Yajima, A; Kawada, A; Aragane, Y; Tezuka, T

    2001-01-01

    'Sarcoidosis-lymphoma syndrome' is known as an association of sarcoidosis with malignant lymphoma. We report a 56-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis who was seropositive for antibody against human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I). This patient showed integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA within cutaneous sarcoid nodules, but not in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neither atypical lymphocytes nor a T cell receptor beta1 gene rearrangement were observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in cutaneous nodules, indicating that the patient did not have a smouldering type of adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia. Detection of integration of HTLV-I proviral DNA in cutaneous sarcoid nodules could suggest that the sarcoid nodules might have been generated as a protective response to chronic stimuli of HTLV-I.

  5. Lichenoid sarcoidosis: a case with clinical and histopathological lichenoid features.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Ruiz, Maria C; Enguita-Valls, Ana B; de Arriba, Marta González; Vanaclocha, Francisco; Peralto, Jose Luis Rodriguez

    2008-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in the involved organs. Cutaneous involvement is about 25% with different clinical expressions, the lichenoid pattern being one of the rarest types of cutaneous sarcoidosis. Lichenoid sarcoidosis clinically manifests with multiple scale papules involving extensive skin areas, especially the trunk, limbs, and face mimicking a lichen planus. Although diverse histologic patterns have been previously related, a lichenoid granulomatous infiltrate involving the dermo-epidermal junction has never been reported in lichenoid sarcoidosis. We report a case of a 43-year-old woman presenting with skin-colored pruritic papules, slightly scaling in trunk, extremities, and ears. These symptoms condition continued to expand and worsen for several years. The patient was otherwise in good health with no lymphadenopathies. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy showed an upper dermal granulomatous infiltrate of epithelioid cells, without necrosis, distributed in a lichenoid pattern with many cytoid bodies. We consider this may be the first case presenting a characteristic microscopic granulomatous lichen-like pattern in the setting of a clinically lichenoid type of sarcoidosis.

  6. An atypical sarcoidosis involvement in FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Philippe; Benigni, Paolo; Feger, Benoit; Salaun, Pierre-Yves; Abgral, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis which involve various organs. Laryngeal involvement is extremely rare, with a prevalence of about 0.5 to 1%. Diagnoses: Here we present a case of laryngeal involvement of sarcoidosis demonstrated on 18F-Fluorodesoxyglucose Positron-Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG PET/CT). Patient concerns: A 63 year-old man suffering from dysphonia was referred to our department for characterization of laryngeal lesion suspicious for cancer with non-informative biopsy, the sample was not sufficient for diagnosis. Interventions: FDG PET/CT showed a pathological uptake on the right vocal cord, but also highlighted a bilateral uptake in intrathoracic hilar lymphadenopathy areas, typically found in several inflammatory diseases. Outcomes: New laryngeal targeted biopsies revealed non-caseating epithelioid granulomas suggesting sarcoidosis involvement. After 6 months of systemic steroid treatment, FDG PET/CT showed a significant decrease of the laryngeal uptake. Lessons: This case shows the usefulness of FDG PET/CT to accurately assess inflammatory activity in rare extra-pulmonary sarcoidosis involvement. Moreover, this case emphasizes that FDG PET/CT is an interesting tool for assessing therapeutic efficacy of inflammatory diseases such as sarcoidosis. PMID:28033265

  7. Upper Airway Obstruction Requiring Emergent Tracheostomy Secondary to Laryngeal Sarcoidosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Changwan; Herzog, Erica L.; Pan, Hongyi; Homer, Robert; Gulati, Mridu

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Female, 35 Final Diagnosis: Laryngeal sarcoidosis Symptoms: Hoarseness • stridor Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Tracheostomy Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Rare disease Background: Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, accounting for 0.33–2.1% of cases. A life-threatening complication of laryngeal sarcoidosis is upper airway obstruction. In this report we describe our experience in the acute and chronic care of a patient who required an emergent tracheostomy, with the aim to provide further insight into this difficult to manage disease. Case Report: A 37-year-old African American female with a 10-year history of stage 1 sarcoidosis presented with severe dyspnea. Laryngeal sarcoidosis was diagnosed three years previously, and she remained stable on low-dose prednisone until six months prior to admission, at which time she self-discontinued her prednisone for the homeopathic treatment Nopalea cactus juice. Her physical examination was concerning for impending respiratory failure as she presented with inspiratory stridor and hoarseness. Laryngoscopy showed a retroflexed epiglottis obstructing the glottis with edematous arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Otolaryngology performed an emergent tracheostomy to secure her airway and obtained epiglottic biopsies, which were consistent with sarcoidosis. She was eventually discharged home on prednisone 60 mg daily. Following months of corticosteroids, a laryngoscopy showed the epiglottis continuing to obstruct the glottis. The addition of methotrexate to a tapered dosage of prednisone 10 mg daily was unsuccessful, and she remains on prednisone 20 mg daily for disease control. Conclusions: Laryngeal sarcoidosis, a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, uncommonly presents as the life-threatening complication of complete upper airway obstruction. As such, laryngeal sarcoidosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring a high index

  8. Sarcoidosis detected due to tattoo swellings in an Indian female.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    A female patient presented with asymptomatic swellings in old blue-black tattoo marks of her forearms. On careful skin examination, few raised erythematous, circular plaques were also found on the non-tattooed skin on her back, about which she was unaware. The diagnosis of cutaneous and systemic sarcoidosis was confirmed after classical histopathological findings from skin lesions from her non tattooed back and from papulonodular tattooed lesions, ruling out other causes of granulomas and supported by a negative Mantoux test, raised serum angiotensin converting enzyme level, high resolution computed tomography thorax, etc. She responded well to oral steroid therapy. The importance of a careful skin examination, easy access provided by skin lesions in suspected cases of cutaneous/systemic sarcoidosis, the value of sudden tattoo changes in the diagnosis here and the possible contribution of tattoos toward the causation of cutaneous and/or systemic sarcoidosis are highlighted.

  9. Sarcoidosis and Histoplasmosis: Is One a Consequence of the Other? A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Anupam; Drewek, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis involves abnormal collections of inflammatory cells (granulomas) which may form as nodules in multiple organs. 90% of affected patients have respiratory tract abnormalities. We present a 61-year-old male with sarcoidosis who was admitted for respiratory distress. Fibrosing mediastinitis was seen in the chest computograph. Management was conservative and included steroids, antibiotics, and oxygen therapy. Sarcoidosis and fibrosing mediastinitis are rare. Fibrosing mediastinitis is more commonly seen with histoplasmosis. We explore the clinical similarities between histoplasmosis and sarcoidosis. We also explore the potential cause and effect relationship and workup for each disease entity. PMID:26345350

  10. Sarcoidosis vs. Sarcoid-like reactions: The Two Sides of the same Coin?

    PubMed

    Tchernev, Georgi; Tana, Claudio; Schiavone, Cosima; Cardoso, José-Carlos; Ananiev, Julian; Wollina, Uwe

    2014-07-01

    Differentiating between sarcoidosis as an autonomous disease and sarcoid-like reactions requires considerable efforts. The epithelioid cell granuloma is not equivalent to sarcoidosis because it may be identified in a number of infectious and noninfectious disorders, including neoplastic diseases. At the current state of knowledge, accurate distinction between different causes of epithelioid cell granulomas is in many cases not possible. Despite being characteristic of sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like reactions, the epithelioid cell granuloma is not their synonym, as numerous other causes can give rise to such a type of granulomatous infiltrate. Its etiology should be sought through careful additional investigations, including the genetic signature of both conditions.Sarcoid-like reactions may be grouped generally into several subtypes. The differentiation between each one of them requires a certain combination of diagnostic tests. The major objective of these tests is to exclude or to prove the presence of an infectious, tumoral, or immunogenic antigen on the one hand, and to characterize the genetic profile of the affected patients (for example, sarcoidosis-specific genes) on the other. Only thus may one accurately differentiate between the two pathologic conditions described earlier in the abstract.The clear differentiation between sarcoidosis as a separate disease and sarcoid-like pathologies leads to the more precise clarification of the final diagnosis, which may in turn allow for a more appropriate therapy and improvement in the quality of life of the patients. Equating sarcoid granulomas with sarcoidosis can lead to serious consequences in a number of patients. Sadly enough, after scrutinizing the current available data in the world literature, one cannot find criteria to allow such distinction in a high percentage of the investigated cases.This critical review provides a completely new pathogenetic and diagnostic algorithm, helping in the differentiation

  11. Dermoscopy could be useful in differentiating sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas even after treatment with systemic steroids

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Shahira; Hossam, Dalia; Saleh, Marwah A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing cutaneous sarcoidosis and necrobiotic granulomas is challenging. Objective: Assessing the value of dermoscopy in differentiating cutaneous sarcoidosis from necrobiotic granulomas and evaluating whether their dermoscopic features will be altered after treatment. Methods: Nineteen cutaneous sarcoidosis and 11 necrobiotic granuloma patients (2 necrobiosis lipoidica, 4 granuloma annulare and 5 rheumatoid nodule) were included in this study. The diagnosis was confirmed by skin biopsy. The lesions were examined using non-contact polarized dermoscope (Dermlite 2 HR-Pro; 3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA). Results: Ten out of 19 cutaneous sarcoidosis patients and 7/11 necrobiotic cases group were receiving treatments (topical, intralesional or systemic steroids ± chloroquine) but still have cutaneous lesions. Treatment duration in the sarcoidosis group ranged from 2 months to 10 years (median 3 years) and in the necrobiotic cases group ranged from 3 months to 16 years (median 2 years). Pink homogenous background, translucent orange areas, white scar-like depigmentation and fine white scales were significantly associated with the cutaneous sarcoidosis compared to necrobiotic cases group. On the other hand mixed pink, white and yellowish background was significantly associated with the necrobiotic cases group. No significant difference in the dermoscopic findings was detected between treated and non-treated patients. Conclusion: Some dermoscopic findings are shared between the cutaneous sarcoidosis group and the necrobiotic cases group, yet dermoscopy could be a useful aid in differentiating them even after treatment. PMID:27648379

  12. Unmasking sarcoidosis following surgery for Cushing disease

    PubMed Central

    Diernaes, Jon E.F.; Bygum, Anette; Poulsen, Per L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present a patient with Cushing disease apparently suppressing sarcoidosis, which was unmasked following surgical resection of a pituitary adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-producing microadenoma. Case report and a short review of the literature published in this area. A 46-year-old Caucasian woman presented with symptoms of hypercortisolism such as progressive weight gain, Cushingoid appearance, proximal myopathy, easy bruising, and amenorrhea. Blood testing including inferior petrosal sinus sampling uncovered an ACTH-producing microadenoma in the right aspect of the anterior pituitary gland for which the patient underwent transphenoidal resection. Maintenance corticosteroid therapy was implemented, and the signs and symptoms of Cushing disease began to resolve. Three months after surgery, multiple erythematous painful nodules developed on the patient's arms. Erythema nodosum (EN) was diagnosed clinically and a suspicion of underlying sarcoidosis was substantiated by lung imaging and elevated plasma interleukin (IL)-2 receptor. One month later, the lesions spontaneously resolved without therapy other than maintenance glucocorticoid replacement. Physicians should be aware that patients undergoing successful treatment of Cushing syndrome may have a flare-up or emergence of a corticosteroid-responsive disease. PMID:27375832

  13. Renal failure due to granulomatous interstitial nephritis after pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, W T; Jie, K; Lobatto, S; Weening, J J; Valentijn, R M

    1987-01-01

    Two patients, who had had pulmonary sarcoidosis, developed renal failure due to sarcoid granulomatous interstitial nephritis after their original pulmonary symptoms had subsided. Treatment with prednisone resulted in almost complete recovery of renal function. Lysozyme and angiotensin-converting enzyme levels and gallium scintigraphy can be of diagnostic value.

  14. Systemic sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure: about 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.

  15. "End-stage" pulmonary fibrosis in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Teirstein, Alvin T; Morgenthau, Adam S

    2009-02-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is an unusual "end stage" in patients with sarcoidosis. Fibrosis occurs in a minority of patients, and presents with a unique physiologic combination of airways dysfunction (obstruction) superimposed on the more common restrictive dysfunction. Imagin techniques are essential to the diagnosis, assessment and treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Standard chest radiographs and CT scans may reveal streaks, bullae, cephalad retraction of the hilar areas, deviation of the trachea and tented diaphragm. Positive gallium and PET scans indicate residual reversible granulomatous disease and are important guides to therapy decisions. Treatment, usually with corticosteroids, is effective in those patients with positive scans, but fibrosis does not improve with any treatment. With severe functional impariment and patient disability, pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure may supervene for which the patient will require treatment. Oxygen, careful diuresis, sildenafil and bosentan may be salutary. These patients are candidates for lung transplantation.

  16. Cardiac sarcoidosis: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, S W; Sharma, R; Underwood, R; Mittal, T

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac sarcoidosis is one of the most serious and unpredictable aspects of this disease state. Heart involvement frequently presents with arrhythmias or conduction disease, although myocardial infiltration resulting in congestive heart failure may also occur. The prognosis in cardiac sarcoidosis is highly variable, which relates to the heterogeneous nature of heart involvement and marked differences between racial groups. Electrocardiography and echocardiography often provide the first clue to the diagnosis, but advanced imaging studies using positron emission tomography and MRI, in combination with nuclear isotope perfusion scanning are now essential to the diagnosis and management of this condition. The identification of clinically occult cardiac sarcoidosis and the management of isolated and/or asymptomatic heart involvement remain both challenging and contentious. Corticosteroids remain the first treatment choice with the later substitution of immunosuppressive and steroid-sparing therapies. Heart transplantation is an unusual outcome, but when performed, the results are comparable or better than heart transplantation for other disease states. We review the epidemiology, developments in diagnostic techniques and the management of cardiac sarcoidosis.

  17. Clinical presentations and diagnostic work-up in sarcoidosis: a series of Turkish cases (clinics and diagnosis of sarcoidosis).

    PubMed

    Kıter, Göksel; Müsellim, Benan; Cetinkaya, Erdoğan; Türker, Hatice; Kunt Uzaslan, A Esra; Yentürk, Esin; Uzun, Oğuz; Sağlam, Leyla; Özdemir Kumbasar, Özlem; Celik, Gökhan; Okumuş, Gülfer; Arbak, Peri Meram; Altıay, Gündeniz; Tabak, Levent; Sakar Coşkun, Ayşın; Erturan, Serdar; Türktaş, Haluk; Yalnız, Enver; Akkoçlu, Atilla; Öğüş, Candan; Doğan, Ömer Tamer; Özkan, Metin; Özkan, Serir; Uzel, Fatma Işıl; Öngen, Gül

    2011-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic granulomatous disease. It usually affects the lung. The diagnosis may be problematic since the known causes of granulomatous inflammation must be excluded. This multicenter study aimed to evaluate the clinical presentations and diagnostic approaches of sarcoidosis. The study protocol was sent via internet, and the participants were asked to send the information (clinical, radiological and diagnostic) on newly diagnosed sarcoidosis cases. 293 patients were enrolled within two years. Pulmonary symptoms were found in 73.3% of the patients, and cough was the most common one (53.2%), followed by dyspnea (40.3%). Constitutional symptoms were occured in half of the patients. The most common one was fatigue (38.6%). The most common physical sign was eritema nodosum (17.1%). The most common chest radiograhical sign was bilateral hilar lymphadenomegaly (78.8%). Staging according to chest X-ray has revealed that most of the patients were in Stage I and Stage II (51.9% and 31.7%, respectively). Sarcoidosis was confirmed histopathologically in 265 (90.4%) patients. Although one-third of the bronchoscopy was revealed normal, mucosal hyperemi (19.8%) and external compression of the bronchial wall (16.8%) were common abnormal findings. The 100% success rate was obtained in mediastinoscopy among the frequently used sampling methods. Transbronchial biopsy was the most frequently used method with 48.8% success rate. Considering sarcoidosis with its most common and also rare findings in the differential diagnosis, organizing the related procedures according to the possibly effected areas, and the expertise of the team would favour multimodality diagnosis.

  18. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sarcoidosis? Many people who have sarcoidosis have no signs ... symptom is more common in women than men. Sarcoidosis Signs and Symptoms The illustration shows the major ...

  19. Upper Airway Obstruction Requiring Emergent Tracheostomy Secondary to Laryngeal Sarcoidosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Changwan; Herzog, Erica L; Pan, Hongyi; Homer, Robert; Gulati, Mridu

    2017-02-13

    BACKGROUND Laryngeal sarcoidosis is a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, accounting for 0.33-2.1% of cases. A life-threatening complication of laryngeal sarcoidosis is upper airway obstruction. In this report we describe our experience in the acute and chronic care of a patient who required an emergent tracheostomy, with the aim to provide further insight into this difficult to manage disease. CASE REPORT A 37-year-old African American female with a 10-year history of stage 1 sarcoidosis presented with severe dyspnea. Laryngeal sarcoidosis was diagnosed three years previously, and she remained stable on low-dose prednisone until six months prior to admission, at which time she self-discontinued her prednisone for the homeopathic treatment Nopalea cactus juice. Her physical examination was concerning for impending respiratory failure as she presented with inspiratory stridor and hoarseness. Laryngoscopy showed a retroflexed epiglottis obstructing the glottis with edematous arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds. Otolaryngology performed an emergent tracheostomy to secure her airway and obtained epiglottic biopsies, which were consistent with sarcoidosis. She was eventually discharged home on prednisone 60 mg daily. Following months of corticosteroids, a laryngoscopy showed the epiglottis continuing to obstruct the glottis. The addition of methotrexate to a tapered dosage of prednisone 10 mg daily was unsuccessful, and she remains on prednisone 20 mg daily for disease control. CONCLUSIONS Laryngeal sarcoidosis, a rare extrapulmonary manifestation of sarcoidosis, uncommonly presents as the life-threatening complication of complete upper airway obstruction. As such, laryngeal sarcoidosis is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring a high index of suspicion for timely diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Reduced expression of monocyte CD200R is associated with enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Simon D.; Sadofsky, Laura R.; Kaye, Paul M.; Hart, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    In sarcoidosis, the proinflammatory cytokines interferon gamma, tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-6 are released by monocyte-derived macrophages and lymphocytes in the lungs and other affected tissues. Regulatory receptors expressed on monocytes and macrophages act to suppress cytokine production, and reduced expression of regulatory receptors may thus promote tissue inflammation. The aim of this study was to characterise the role of regulatory receptors on blood monocytes in patients with sarcoidosis. Cytokine release in response to stimulation of whole blood was measured in healthy controls and Caucasian non-smoking patients with sarcoidosis who were not taking disease modifying therapy. Expression of the regulatory molecules IL-10R, SIRP-α/β, CD47, CD200R, and CD200L was measured by flow cytometry, and functional activity was assessed using blocking antibodies. Stimulated whole blood and monocytes from patients with sarcoidosis produced more TNF and IL-6 compared with healthy controls. 52.9% of sarcoidosis patients had monocytes characterised by low expression of CD200R, compared with 11.7% of controls (p < 0.0001). Patients with low monocyte CD200R expression produced higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines. In functional studies, blocking the CD200 axis increased production of TNF and IL-6. Reduced expression of CD200R on monocytes may be a mechanism contributing to monocyte and macrophage hyper-activation in sarcoidosis. PMID:27929051

  1. [A case of lichenoid sarcoidosis with characteristic clinical and histopathological findings].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Lopez, Josefa; Porriño-Bustamante, Ma Librada; Aneiros-Fernández, Jose; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramon; Fernández-Pugnaire, Ma Antonia

    2014-04-16

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disease characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in various organs and tissues. The majority of patients with systemic sarcoidosis will present with lung and lymph node involvement. In addition, 20% have skin involvement that may be the only manifestation of the disease or may be an important prognostic marker for involvement of other organs. There are multiple forms of presentation of cutaneous sarcoidosis, which may be a true challenge.We report a patient with a one month history of an eruption of skin colored papules. Some were grouped in a symmetrical distribution on the trunk, inner arms, and lumbar region. Pathologic examination revealed an infiltrate in the papillary dermis showing a band of noncaseating granulomas along with disruption of the basal lamina and lichenoid changes. The clinicopathological correlation confirmed the diagnosis of lichenoid sarcoidosis. We consider our case interesting owing to the clinical presentation and the lichenoid distribution of granulomas.

  2. Vitreous lavage fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid have equal diagnostic value in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kazuichi; Inaba, Tohru; Tamada, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we elucidate the immunological features of both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and vitreous lavage fluid (VLF) samples from patients with histopathologically verified sarcoidosis. In addition, we assess the safety of vitrectomy in sarcoidosis patients by investigating the occurrence of complications and the recovery of visual acuity. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with tissue-proven sarcoidosis were enrolled in this study. BALF and VLF samples were obtained and compared in each patient, and the clinical course (including visual acuity) was followed. The presence of sarcoidosis was assessed with a flow cytometric analysis of T-lymphocytes in the BALF and VLF samples. Our results indicated that the CD4 T-cell population and the CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly higher in the VLF T-lymphocytes than the BALF T-lymphocytes. On the other hand, the CD8+ T-cell population was significantly lower in the VLF T-lymphocytes. Therefore, our findings suggest that VLF samples have a high diagnostic value (equal to that of BALF samples) for sarcoidosis. Moreover, we found that the sample collection did not affect visual acuity and that there were no adverse events after surgery. A flow cytometric analysis of a VLF sample may therefore be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PMID:27930546

  3. Musculoskeletal and cutaneous sarcoidosis: exuberant case report*

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Natalie; de Oliveira, Jayme; Nasser, Kassila da Rosa; Corbett, Ana Maria França; Tebet, Ana Carolina Franco; Reis, Mariana Lacerda Junqueira

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown cause. The osteoarticular involvement in sarcoidosis is rare and is often associated with cutaneous and long-standing chronic multisystem disease. More common in black women, osseous sarcoidosis is difficult to diagnose, with an incidence of 3 to 13%. The most characteristic radiological clinical picture evidences rounded, well-defined cysts, with no periosteal reaction and without peripheral sclerosis. The small bones of hands and feet are the most frequently involved sites. This report aims to demonstrate a rare case of osteoarticular sarcoidosis with characteristic clinical presentation, and highlight the importance of detecting osteoarticular involvement in this pathology. PMID:25054759

  4. Sarcoidosis of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Said, Gérard

    2013-01-01

    Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are relatively rare but constitute a treatable cause of central and peripheral neurological manifestations. Regarding the peripheral nervous system, cranial nerves are predominantly affected, and peripheral facial nerve palsy, often bilateral, is the most common neurological manifestation of sarcoidosis. Multifocal peripheral neuropathy is a rare event in sarcoidosis. In some cases, however, peripheral neuropathy is the presenting manifestation and seemingly the only organ affected. Definite diagnosis of sarcoidosis rests ideally on histological demonstration of sarcoid granulomas in tissue biopsy specimens.

  5. Sarcoidosis associated with infliximab therapy in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gîlcă, Georgiana-Emmanuela; Diaconescu, Smaranda; Bălan, Gheorghe Gh.; Timofte, Oana; Ştefănescu, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Although immunomodulatory therapy has been clearly stated as an important landmark in treatment of ulcerative colitis, significantly improving the quality of life for patients with inflammatory bowel disease, there are several aspects to be considered regarding the possible side-effects of anti-TNF alpha agents. In spite of a good safety profile, biologic TNF antagonists may induce paradoxical inflammation, which can manifest as sarcoid-like granulomatosis, consisting of noncaseating granulomas in the affected organs. Patient concerns: We report the case of a 30-year-old male patient, with no personal or familial history of lung disease, with a personal history of ulcerative colitis (UC), under clinical remission following infliximab therapy in maintenance dose, who was admitted for treatment administration, but also for dyspnea, nocturnal sweating, and nonproductive cough. Diagnoses: Based on clinical manifestations, biological landmarks excluding various infections, CT scan, fibrobronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage for culture and immunohistochemical examination, followed by mediastinoscopy with sampling of paratracheal lymph node, which underwent histopathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with drug- induced stage II pulmonary sarcoidosis. Interventions: Since the patient had developed severe allergic reaction after being administered Infliximab at admission, the biological treatment was immediately discontinued. Following the diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis, corticotherapy was initiated. Patient outcomes: After corticotherapy was initiated, the patient had a favorable outcome at 3 months reevaluation, both regarding the course of ulcerative colitis and sarcoidosis. Lessons: Patients under biological therapy using anti-TNF alpha agents must be carefully monitored, in order to early identify potential paradoxical inflammation (such as sarcoidosis) as a side-effect. The drug-related pulmonary disease tends to improve upon

  6. Identification of HLA-DR–bound peptides presented by human bronchoalveolar lavage cells in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Wahlström, Jan; Dengjel, Jörn; Persson, Bengt; Duyar, Hüseyin; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanoviδc, Stefan; Eklund, Anders; Weissert, Robert; Grunewald, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, most commonly affecting the lungs. Activated CD4+ T cells accumulate in the lungs of individuals with sarcoidosis and are considered to be of central importance for inflammation. We have previously shown that Scandinavian sarcoidosis patients expressing the HLA-DR allele DRB1*0301 are characterized by large accumulations in the lungs of CD4+ T cells expressing the TCR AV2S3 gene segment. This association afforded us a unique opportunity to identify a sarcoidosis-specific antigen recognized by AV2S3+ T cells. To identify candidates for the postulated sarcoidosis-specific antigen, lung cells from 16 HLA-DRB1*0301pos patients were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. HLA-DR molecules were affinity purified and bound peptides acid eluted. Subsequently, peptides were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and analyzed by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. We identified 78 amino acid sequences from self proteins presented in the lungs of sarcoidosis patients, some of which were well-known autoantigens such as vimentin and ATP synthase. For the first time, to our knowledge, we have identified HLA-bound peptides presented in vivo during an inflammatory condition. This approach can be extended to characterize HLA-bound peptides in various autoimmune settings. PMID:17975675

  7. Primary Cardiac Sarcoidosis with Syncope and Refractory Atrial Arrhythmia: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Thangam, Manoj; Nathan, Sriram; Kar, Biswajit; Petrovic, Marija; Patel, Manish; Loyalka, Pranav; Buja, L. Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the case of a 38-year-old black man who presented at our hospital with his first episode of syncope, recently developed atrial arrhythmias refractory to pharmacologic therapy, and a left atrial thrombus. He was diagnosed with primary cardiac sarcoidosis characterized by predominant involvement of the epicardium that caused atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. Histologic analysis of his epicardial lesions yielded a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. This patient's atrial arrhythmia was successfully treated with a hybrid operation that involved resection of his atrial appendage, an Epicor maze procedure, and radiofrequency ablation during a catheter-based electrophysiologic study. The cardiac sarcoidosis was successfully managed with corticosteroid therapy. Our case report shows that sarcoidosis can initially manifest itself as syncope with new-onset atrial arrhythmia. Sarcoidosis is important in the differential diagnosis because of its progressive nature and its potential for treatment with pharmacologic, surgical, and catheter-based interventions. PMID:27303240

  8. Sarcoidosis in celiac disease: A page written by genetic variants in IL-18 miRNAs target site?

    PubMed

    Mormile, Raffaella

    2016-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic idiopathic granulomatous disease. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis shows characteristic microRNAs (miRNAs) profiles. MiRNAs have recently emerged as a new class of modulators of gene expression. MiRNAs are involved in susceptibility to a number of autoimmune diseases promoting and inhibiting the gene expression of different Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL18. Sarcoidosis has been connected with a variety of autoimmune disorders including celiac disease (CD). CD is a chronic, immune-mediated condition of the small intestine caused by permanent intolerance to dietary gluten. IL-18 has been reported to play an important role in inducing and maintaining inflammation after gluten exposure. MiRNAs expression is significantly altered in CD patients. We hypothesize that sarcoidosis and CD may be the result of common genetic variants in IL-18 miRNA target site.

  9. A Case of Sarcoidosis with Interstitial Lung Disease Mimicking Clinically Amyopathic Dermatomyositis and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nogi, Shinichi; Sasaki, Noriko; Chinen, Naofumi; Honda, Kiri; Saito, Eiko; Wakabayashi, Takayuki; Yamada, Chiho; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report a patient with sarcoidosis who developed edematous erythema and interstitial lung disease. At the initial visit, clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) with rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) was suspected because he had progressive dyspnea but no muscle weakness. The presence of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 autoantibodies was immediately assessed to facilitate a precise diagnosis, with negative results. Thereafter, skin and transbronchial lung biopsies revealed noncaseating granuloma with Langhans giant cells in both specimens, leading to a diagnosis of sarcoidosis. In this case, clinical features of skin and lung were unable to distinguish DM (including CADM) from sarcoidosis, but the lack of anti-CADM-140/MDA5 antibody was useful for differentiating CADM with RP-ILD mimicking sarcoidosis from bona fide sarcoidosis. PMID:25431723

  10. Cigarette smoking and male sex are independent and age concomitant risk factors for the development of ocular sarcoidosis in a new orleans sarcoidosis population

    PubMed Central

    Janot, Adam C.; Huscher, Dörte; Walker, McCall; Grewal, Harmanjot K.; Yu, Mary; Lammi, Matthew R.; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ system granulomatous disease of unknown origin with an incidence of 1–40/100,000. Though pulmonary manifestations are predominant, ocular sarcoidosis (OS) affects 25–50% of patients with sarcoidosis and can lead to blindness. Methods A retrospective, single-center chart review of sarcoidosis cases investigated variables associated with the development of OS. Inclusion criteria were biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, disease duration greater than 1 year, documented smoking status on chart review and documentation of sarcoid-related eye disease. Multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors for OS. Results Of 269 charts reviewed, 109 patients met inclusion criteria. The OS group had a significantly higher proportion of smokers (71.4%) than without OS (42.0%, p=0.027) with no difference (p=0.61) in median number of pack years. Male sex was significantly higher in the OS group (57.1% versus 26.1%, p=0.009). Median duration of sarcoidosis was higher in the OS group (10 versus 4 years, p=0.031). Multivariate regression identified tobacco exposure (OR=5.25, p=0.007, 95% CI 1.58–17.41), male sex (OR=7.48, p=0.002, 95% CI 2.15–26.01), and age (OR=1.114, p=0.002, 95% CI 1.04–1.19) as concomitant risk factors for the development of OS. Conclusion To date, there are few dedicated investigations of risk factors for OS, especially smoking. This investigation identified male sex, age, and tobacco exposure as independent risk factors for OS. Though disease duration did not withstand regression analysis in this moderately sized group, age at chart review suggests screening for OS should not remit but rather intensify in aging patients with sarcoidosis. PMID:26278693

  11. Ninth International Conference on Sarcoidosis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-15

    some neoplasms, extrinsic allergic alveolitis (e.g., farmer’s lung, bird fancier’s lung, bagassosis) and miscellaneous disorders such as sebaceous...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necesery mnd identify by block nuatbor) ACE lymphocytes alveolitis sarcoidosis...emphasis on immunologic aspects. Confining discussion to the lung, he pointed out that the granuloma there is preceded by alveolitis , an inflammatory

  12. Transcriptional Blood Signatures Distinguish Pulmonary Tuberculosis, Pulmonary Sarcoidosis, Pneumonias and Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Chloe I.; Graham, Christine M.; Berry, Matthew P. R.; Rozakeas, Fotini; Redford, Paul S.; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Zhaohui; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Kendrick, Yvonne; Devouassoux, Gilles; Ferry, Tristan; Miyara, Makoto; Bouvry, Diane; Dominique, Valeyre; Gorochov, Guy; Blankenship, Derek; Saadatian, Mitra; Vanhems, Phillip; Beynon, Huw; Vancheeswaran, Rama; Wickremasinghe, Melissa; Chaussabel, Damien; Banchereau, Jacques; Pascual, Virginia; Ho, Ling-pei; Lipman, Marc; O’Garra, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Rationale New approaches to define factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of pulmonary diseases including sarcoidosis and tuberculosis are needed to develop new treatments and biomarkers. Comparing the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis to other similar pulmonary diseases will advance knowledge of disease pathways and help distinguish diseases with similar clinical presentations. Objectives To determine the factors underlying the immunopathogenesis of the granulomatous diseases, sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, by comparing the blood transcriptional responses in these and other pulmonary diseases. Methods We compared whole blood genome-wide transcriptional profiles in pulmonary sarcoidosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, to community acquired pneumonia and primary lung cancer and healthy controls, before and after treatment, and in purified leucocyte populations. Measurements and Main Results An Interferon-inducible neutrophil-driven blood transcriptional signature was present in both sarcoidosis and tuberculosis, with a higher abundance and expression in tuberculosis. Heterogeneity of the sarcoidosis signature correlated significantly with disease activity. Transcriptional profiles in pneumonia and lung cancer revealed an over-abundance of inflammatory transcripts. After successful treatment the transcriptional activity in tuberculosis and pneumonia patients was significantly reduced. However the glucocorticoid-responsive sarcoidosis patients showed a significant increase in transcriptional activity. 144-blood transcripts were able to distinguish tuberculosis from other lung diseases and controls. Conclusions Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis revealed similar blood transcriptional profiles, dominated by interferon-inducible transcripts, while pneumonia and lung cancer showed distinct signatures, dominated by inflammatory genes. There were also significant differences between tuberculosis and sarcoidosis in the degree of their transcriptional activity, the

  13. Pulmonary granulomatous reaction: talc pneumoconiosis or chronic sarcoidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Tukiainen, P; Nickels, J; Taskinen, E; Nyberg, M

    1984-01-01

    A chronic pulmonary granulomatous reaction was associated with an almost identical clinical picture in two patients exposed to talc. In both patients lung biopsy showed the deposition of talc particles and a heavy granulomatous reaction. At the time of diagnosis the Kveim test result was negative in both patients, urinary calcium excretion was normal, and there were no extrapulmonary manifestations and no response to steroid treatment. These findings point against sarcoidosis. The serum angiotensin-converting enzyme level, however, was raised in both patients. It was concluded that the patient who was exposed to talc in the rubber industry had a true talc pneumoconiosis. The other patient, who was exposed to cosmetic talcum powder, suffered from chronic sarcoidosis with talc deposition in the lungs, since an enlarged axillar lymph node containing granulomatous inflammation was discovered after two years' follow up. These cases show that it may be extremely difficult to differentiate between chronic sarcoidosis and talc pneumoconiosis even after careful clinical and histological analysis. Images PMID:6691939

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Kveim Reagent Identifies Targets of Cellular Immunity in Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Robert; Siddiqui, Nazneen; Potiphar, Lee; Goldin, Rob; Timms, John F.; Wells, Athol U.; Kon, Onn M.; Wickremasinghe, Melissa; Mitchell, Donald; Weeks, Mark E.; Lalvani, Ajit

    2017-01-01

    Background Kveim-reagent (Kv) skin testing was a historical method of diagnosing sarcoidosis. Intradermal injection of treated sarcoidosis spleen tissue resulted in a granuloma response at injection site by 4–6 weeks. Previous work indicates proteins as the possible trigger of this reaction. We aimed to identify Kv-specific proteins and characterise the ex vivo response of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from sarcoidosis, tuberculosis and healthy control patients when stimulated with both Kv and selected Kv-specific proteins. Methods Kv extracts were separated by 1D-SDS-PAGE and 2D-DIGE and then underwent mass spectrometric analysis for protein identification. Sarcoidosis and control PBMCs were first stimulated with Kv and then with three selected recombinant protein candidates which were identified from the proteomic analysis. PBMC secreted cytokines were subsequently measured by Multiplex Cytokine Assay. Results We observed significantly increased IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion from Kv-stimulated PBMCs of sarcoidosis patients vs. PBMCs from healthy volunteers (IFN-γ: 207.2 pg/mL vs. 3.86 pg/mL, p = 0.0018; TNF-α: 2375 pg/mL vs. 42.82 pg/mL, p = 0.0003). Through proteomic approaches we then identified 74 sarcoidosis tissue-specific proteins. Of these, 3 proteins (vimentin, tubulin and alpha-actinin-4) were identified using both 1D-SDS-PAGE and 2D-DIGE. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005150. Increased cytokine secretion was subsequently observed with vimentin stimulation of sarcoidosis PBMCs vs. tuberculosis PBMCs (IFN-γ: 396.6 pg/mL vs 0.1 pg/mL, p = 0.0009; TNF-α: 1139 pg/mL vs 0.1 pg/mL, p<0.0001). This finding was also observed in vimentin stimulation of sarcoidosis PBMCs compared to PBMCs from healthy controls (IFN-γ: 396.6 pg/mL vs. 0.1 pg/mL, p = 0.014; TNF-α: 1139 pg/mL vs 42.29 pg/mL, p = 0.027). No difference was found in cytokine secretion between sarcoidosis and control PBMCs when stimulated with either tubulin

  15. T wave amplitude in lead aVR as a novel diagnostic marker for cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Konno, Tetsuo; Yoshida, Shohei; Tsuda, Toyonobu; Sakata, Kenji; Furusho, Hiroshi; Takamura, Masayuki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2017-03-01

    It is vital to identify cardiac involvement (CI) in patients with sarcoidosis as the condition could initially lead to sudden cardiac death. Although the T wave amplitude in lead aVR (TWAaVR) is reportedly associated with adverse cardiac events in various cardiovascular diseases, only scarce data are available concerning the utility of lead aVR in identifying CI in patients with sarcoidosis. We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic values of TWAaVR in patients with sarcoidosis in comparison with conventional electrocardiography parameters such as bundle branch block (BBB). From January 2006 to December 2014, 93 consecutive patients with sarcoidosis were enrolled (mean age, 55.7 ± 15.7 years; male, 31 %; cardiac involvement, n = 26). TWAaVR showed the greatest sensitivity (39 %) and specificity (92 %) in distinguishing between sarcoidosis patients with and without CI, at a cutoff value of -0.08 mV. The diagnostic value of BBB for cardiac involvement was significantly improved when combined with TWAaVR (sensitivity: 61-94 %, specificity: 97-89 %, area under the curve: 0.79-0.92, p = 0.018). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that TWAaVR and BBB were independent electrocardiography parameters associated with CI. In summary, we observed that sarcoidosis patients exhibiting a high TWAaVR were likely to have CI. Thus, the application of a combination of BBB with TWAaVR may be useful when screening for CI in sarcoidosis patients.

  16. HLA-DRB1*1101: A Significant Risk Factor for Sarcoidosis in Blacks and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Rossman, Milton D.; Thompson, Bruce; Frederick, Margaret; Maliarik, Mary; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Pandey, Janardan P.; Newman, Lee S.; Magira, Eleni; Beznik-Cizman, Bojana; Monos, Dimitri

    2003-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology, associated with an accumulation of CD4+ T cells and a TH1 immune response. Since previous studies of HLA associations with sarcoidosis were limited by serologic or low-resolution molecular identification, we performed high-resolution typing for the HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DRB3 loci and the presence of the DRB4 or DRB5 locus, to define HLA class II associations with sarcoidosis. A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS) enrolled biopsy-confirmed cases (736 total) from 10 centers in the United States. Seven hundred six (706) controls were case matched for age, race, sex, and geographic area. We studied the first 474 ACCESS patients and case-matched controls. The HLA-DRB1 alleles were differentially distributed between cases and controls (P<.0001). The HLA-DRB1*1101 allele was associated (P<.01) with sarcoidosis in blacks and whites and had a population attributable risk of 16% in blacks and 9% in whites. HLA-DRB1-F47 was the amino acid residue most associated with sarcoidosis and independently associated with sarcoidosis in whites. The HLA-DPB1 locus also contributed to susceptibility for sarcoidosis and, in contrast to chronic beryllium disease, a non–E69-containing allele, HLA-DPB1*0101, conveyed most of the risk. Although significant differences were observed in the distribution of HLA class II alleles between blacks and whites, only HLA-DRB1*1501 was differentially associated with sarcoidosis (P<.003). In addition to being susceptibility markers, HLA class II alleles may be markers for different phenotypes of sarcoidosis (DRB1*0401 for eye in blacks and whites, DRB3 for bone marrow in blacks, and DPB1*0101 for hypercalcemia in whites). These studies confirm a genetic predisposition for sarcoidosis and present evidence for the allelic variation at the HLA-DRB1 locus as a major contributor. PMID:14508706

  17. HLA-DRB1*1101: a significant risk factor for sarcoidosis in blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Rossman, Milton D; Thompson, Bruce; Frederick, Margaret; Maliarik, Mary; Iannuzzi, Michael C; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Pandey, Janardan P; Newman, Lee S; Magira, Eleni; Beznik-Cizman, Bojana; Monos, Dimitri

    2003-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology, associated with an accumulation of CD4+ T cells and a TH1 immune response. Since previous studies of HLA associations with sarcoidosis were limited by serologic or low-resolution molecular identification, we performed high-resolution typing for the HLA-DPB1, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB1, and HLA-DRB3 loci and the presence of the DRB4 or DRB5 locus, to define HLA class II associations with sarcoidosis. A Case Control Etiologic Study of Sarcoidosis (ACCESS) enrolled biopsy-confirmed cases (736 total) from 10 centers in the United States. Seven hundred six (706) controls were case matched for age, race, sex, and geographic area. We studied the first 474 ACCESS patients and case-matched controls. The HLA-DRB1 alleles were differentially distributed between cases and controls (P<.0001). The HLA-DRB1*1101 allele was associated (P<.01) with sarcoidosis in blacks and whites and had a population attributable risk of 16% in blacks and 9% in whites. HLA-DRB1-F(47) was the amino acid residue most associated with sarcoidosis and independently associated with sarcoidosis in whites. The HLA-DPB1 locus also contributed to susceptibility for sarcoidosis and, in contrast to chronic beryllium disease, a non-E(69)-containing allele, HLA-DPB1*0101, conveyed most of the risk. Although significant differences were observed in the distribution of HLA class II alleles between blacks and whites, only HLA-DRB1*1501 was differentially associated with sarcoidosis (P<.003). In addition to being susceptibility markers, HLA class II alleles may be markers for different phenotypes of sarcoidosis (DRB1*0401 for eye in blacks and whites, DRB3 for bone marrow in blacks, and DPB1*0101 for hypercalcemia in whites). These studies confirm a genetic predisposition for sarcoidosis and present evidence for the allelic variation at the HLA-DRB1 locus as a major contributor.

  18. Diabetes insipidus secondary to sarcoidosis presenting with caseating granuloma.

    PubMed

    Alam, Taimour; Thomas, Steven

    2011-03-03

    Diabetes insipidus is a rare complication of sarcoid infiltration of the hypothalamic-pituitary region. Non-caseating granuloma formation is typical of sarcoidosis. Anterior and posterior pituitary function may be affected. MRI coupled with endocrinology assessment is the usual method of investigation. A 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant medical history presented with polyuria and polydipsia. Water deprivation test confirmed diabetes insipidus. CT scanning of the chest confirmed lymphadenopathy. Lymph node biopsy revealed caseating granuloma. Extensive investigation for tuberculosis was negative. The patient was started on intranasal desmopressin and steroids with marked improvement in symptoms. This is the first reported case of neurosarcoidosis with diabetes insipidus and caseation on histology that we are aware of. Differentiating between caseation due to sarcoidosis and tuberculosis on histology is possible by the use of special stains. Return of normal endocrine function is unusual and the patient is likely to require desmopressin therapy for life.

  19. Biopsy proven pituitary sarcoidosis presenting as a possible adenoma.

    PubMed

    Prayson, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a well-recognized systemic granulomatous process which involves the central nervous system in 5-15% of patients. One of the more frequent sites of central nervous system involvement is the pituitary and hypothalamic region. Involvement of the sellar region by sarcoidosis is overall an infrequent occurrence, comprising less than 1% of all intrasellar lesions. Patients typically present with an infiltrative lesion on imaging studies and clinically with symptoms related to diabetes insipidus or hyperprolactinemia. This report describes a 38-year-old woman who initially presented with a variety of symptoms including headaches, light sensitivity, nausea and vomiting, acute visual changes, cold intolerance, amenorrhea, decreased libido, fatigue and galactorrhea. She had an elevated serum prolactin level and evidence of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid. Imaging studies discovered a 1.8cm mass involving the pituitary gland and compressing the optic chiasm. The lesion was excised and microscopically was marked by a chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate and scattered nonnecrotizing granulomas. Stains and microbiologic cultures failed to demonstrate microorganisms. There was no evidence of other organ involvement on postoperative imaging. She was treated with prednisone with improvement of symptoms and subsequently required methotrexate to treat left eye pain and blurred vision, 29months after her surgery. Achieving treatment control in patients with pituitary and hypothalamic improvement in sarcoidosis still remains a challenge.

  20. Right ventricular sarcoidosis: is it time for updated diagnostic criteria?

    PubMed

    Vakil, Kairav; Minami, Elina; Fishbein, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    A 55-year-old woman with a history of complete heart block, atrial flutter, and progressive right ventricular failure was referred to our tertiary care center to be evaluated for cardiac transplantation. The patient's clinical course included worsening right ventricular dysfunction for 3 years before the current evaluation. Our clinical findings raised concerns about arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Noninvasive imaging, including a positron emission tomographic scan, did not reveal obvious myocardial pathologic conditions. Given the end-stage nature of the patient's right ventricular failure and her dependence on inotropic agents, she underwent urgent listing and subsequent heart transplantation. Pathologic examination of the explanted heart revealed isolated right ventricular sarcoidosis with replacement fibrosis. Biopsy samples of the cardiac allograft 6 months after transplantation showed no recurrence of sarcoidosis. This atypical presentation of isolated cardiac sarcoidosis posed a considerable diagnostic challenge. In addition to discussing the patient's case, we review the relevant medical literature and discuss the need for updated differential diagnostic criteria for end-stage right ventricular failure that mimics arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

  1. Sarcoidosis Extent Relates to Molecular Variability.

    PubMed

    Monast, Calixte S; Li, Katherine; Judson, Marc A; Baughman, Robert P; Wadman, Eric; Watt, Rosemary; Silkoff, Philip E; Barnathan, Elliot S; Brodmerkel, Carrie

    2017-02-16

    The molecular basis of sarcoidosis phenotype heterogeneity and its relationship to effective treatment of sarcoidosis have not been elucidated. Peripheral samples from sarcoidosis subjects who participated in a phase 2 study of golimumab (anti-TNFα) and ustekinumab (anti-IL12p40) were used to measure the whole blood transcriptome and levels of serum proteins. Differential gene and protein expression analyses were used to explore the molecular differences between sarcoidosis phenotypes as defined by extent of organ involvement. The same data were also used in conjunction with an enrichment algorithm to identify gene expression changes associated with treatment with study drugs compared to placebo. Our analyses revealed marked heterogeneity among the three sarcoidosis phenotypes included in the study cohort, including striking differences in enrichment of the Interferon Pathway. Conversely, enrichments of multiple pathways, including T Cell Receptor Signaling, were similar among phenotypes. We also identify differences between treatment with golimumab and ustekinumab that may explain the differences in trends for clinical efficacy observed in the trial. We find that molecular heterogeneity is associated with sarcoidosis in a manner that may be related to the extent of organ involvement. These findings may help explain the difficulty in identifying clinically efficacious sarcoidosis treatments and suggest hypotheses for improved therapeutic strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression Profile of Six RNA-Binding Proteins in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Novosadova, Eva; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael; Kullberg, Susanna; Kolek, Vitezslav; Grunewald, Johan; Petrek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Sarcoidosis is characterised by up-regulation of cytokines and chemokine ligands/receptors and proteolytic enzymes. This pro-inflammatory profile is regulated post-transcriptionally by RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). We investigated in vivo expression of six RBPs (AUF1, HuR, NCL, TIA, TIAR, PCBP2) and two inhibitors of proteolytic enzymes (RECK, PTEN) in pulmonary sarcoidosis and compared it to the expression in four control groups of healthy individuals and patients with other respiratory diseases: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs). Methods RT-PCR was used to quantify the mRNAs in bronchoalveolar (BA) cells obtained from 50 sarcoidosis patients, 23 healthy controls, 30 COPD, 19 asthmatic and 19 IIPs patients. Flow cytometry was used to assess intracellular protein expression of AUF1 and HuR in peripheral blood T lymphocytes (PBTLs) obtained from 9 sarcoidosis patients and 6 healthy controls. Results Taking the stringent conditions for multiple comparisons into consideration, we consistently observed in the primary analysis including all patients regardless of smoking status as well as in the subsequent sub-analysis limited for never smokers that the BA mRNA expression of AUF1 (p<0.001), TIA (p<0.001), NCL (p<0.01) and RECK (p<0.05) was decreased in sarcoidosis compared to healthy controls. TIA mRNA was also decreased in sarcoidosis compared to both obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD and asthma; p<0.001) but not compared to IIPs. There were several positive correlations between RECK mRNA and RBP mRNAs in BA cells. Also sarcoidosis CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ PBTLs displayed lower mean fluorescence intensity of AUF1 (p≤0.02) and HuR (p≤0.03) proteins than control healthy PBTLs. Conclusion mRNA expressions of three RBPs (AUF1, TIA and NCL) and their potential target mRNA encoding RECK in BA cells and additionally protein expression of AUF1 and HuR in PBTLs were down-regulated in our sarcoidosis

  3. Sarcoidosis of the cardio-pulmonary systems.

    PubMed

    Dubrey, Simon; Sharma, Rakesh; Underwood, Richard; Mittal, Tarun; Wells, Athol

    2016-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease with a wide range of phenotypes. Pulmonary involvement is the most frequently identified target for sarcoidosis and is responsible for the majority of deaths. Cardiac sarcoid is less commonly identified, may be occult, is significantly influenced by race, and can portend an unpredictable and sometimes fatal outcome. Sarcoidosis remains an enigmatic disease spectrum of unknown aetiology, frequently difficult to diagnose and with a variable disease course. This article summarises current views on the diagnosis and management of cardiopulmonary involvement.

  4. Sarcoidosis, cancer and molecular mimicry.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Wollina, U

    2013-01-01

    Molecular mimicry seems to be the most important factor for the heterogeneous clinical presentation and the immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Molecular mimicry may occur as a result of altered activity of oncogenes. This can lead to crossed-type mediated body reactions targeting structurally similar sections or regions from the tissue homeostasis. Available data suggest that structural analogy between tissue and foreign or de novo-appearing peptides is not always reliable. Nevertheless, lack of amino acid identity between the tissue and the de novo-generated tumour antigens does not exclude the phenomenon of molecular mimicry as the major generator of sarcoidosis. There is growing evidence of the mimicry phenomena, caused not only by the similarity between the amino acids but also between the elements which connect segments in the immunological cascade and which may also be affected by external factors. Molecular mimicry may occur between two identified peptides having similar antigenic surfaces (transitory or not), in the absence of a primary homology in amino acid sequence. As far as tumour antigens are concerned, a structural analogy to the de novo-appearing tumour antigens is more likely than transitory imitation resulting from the additional interference of other physical forces. Further research should be performed to confirm, or reject, the transitory imitation thesis or hypothesis.

  5. Thoracic Sarcoidosis: Imaging with High Resolution Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sarvinder; Jain, Megha; Singh, Satyendra Narayan; Sharma, Rajat Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown aetiology that primarily affects the lungs. Clinical and radiological findings with demonstration of non caseating granulomas on pathology is utilised for diagnosing the disease. Aim To assess and evaluate the features of thoracic sarcoidosis on High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) chest. Materials and Methods A total of 40 (31 males and 9 females) cases of pulmonary sarcoidosis in a period of three years were included in this study. Patients underwent detailed clinical evaluation, imaging, Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) and pathological confirmation of disease. Chest radiograph was obtained in all patients. HRCT was done on 16 slice Computed Tomography (CT) using 1 mm slice thickness and high spatial frequency algorithm for image re-construction. Images were viewed and evaluated using appropriate lung and mediastinal windows. The lymph nodes were classified as hilar and mediastinal with Maximum Short Axis Diameter (MSAD) more than 10 mm taken as cut-off for enlargement. Pulmonary opacities were classified as nodules (micronodules 1-4 mm and macronodules >5 mm), reticular opacities, fibrotic lesions, ground glass opacities and consolidations. Nodule distribution classified as perilymphatic centrilobular and random. Repeat scanning done on follow up or as clinically indicated. Results A total of five patients had Stage I disease, 24 patients had Stage II disease, eight patients had Stage III disease and three patients had stage IV disease. Mediastinal lymphdenopathy present in 29 patients. Bilateral hilar adenopathy was the predominant pattern seen in 22 patients. Lung parenchymal lesions excluding end stage disease noted in 32 patients. The characteristic HRCT lung parenchymal involvement of micronodules with a perilymphatic distribution was seen in 26 patients. HRCT features of predominant upper and middle lobe distribution seen in majority of patients. Documented atypical lesions and the characteristic

  6. Isolated muscular sarcoidosis causing fever of unknown origin: The value of gallium-67 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Krasnow, A.; Sebastian, J.L.; Collier, B.D.; Hellman, R.S.; Isitman, A.T. )

    1991-02-01

    An unusual case of a patient with a long-standing fever of unknown origin (FUO) is presented whose gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) images revealed increased activity only in the calf muscles bilaterally. Other imaging modalities also failed to show chest or other abnormal findings. Subsequent biopsy of the right gastrocnemius muscle revealed noncaseating granulomas consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. When using {sup 67}Ga to evaluate a patient with a FUO, imaging of the extremities should always be included. Also, when abnormal Ga-67 uptake is present in the extremities, sarcoidosis should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: Uptake in Lymph Nodes With Active Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Dias, André Henrique; Holm Vendelbo, Mikkel; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2017-03-01

    We describe 2 cases of Ga-PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer patients. Both cases demonstrated symmetrical bilateral involvement of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes besides findings in relation with prostatic disease. In both cases, endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy showed that the involvement of the thoracic lymph nodes was caused by nonnecrotic granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis. The cases demonstrated that increased Ga-PSMA uptake can be seen in lymph nodes with active sarcoidosis, with images mimicking those well known from FDG PET/CT. Because of these findings, granulomatous disease has to be included in the differential diagnostic evaluation of patients with Ga-PSMA-positive lymph nodes.

  8. Sarcoidosis in World Trade Center rescue workers presenting with rheumatologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Brian; Hasni, Sarfaraz; Gruber, Barry L

    2010-01-01

    The health consequences of the World Trade Center collapse are unknown, but likely to be significant and may take years to fully appreciate. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized pathologically by noncaseating granulomas. Inciting events, such as infectious agents or possible environmental exposures, have been postulated as the source of antigen exposure initiating an inflammatory cascade. We describe 2 cases of sarcoidosis in rescue workers with significant exposure from the World Trade Center collapse, who presented with extrapulmonary rheumatologic manifestations. Our first case involved a 33-year-old white New York City man detective found to have sarcoidosis following an evaluation of diffuse joint pain. The second case involved a 40-year-old African American man, New York City officer, who presented with uveitis, and was subsequently diagnosed with sarcoidosis. These 2 cases extend the spectrum of disorders resulting from the World Trade Center disaster and illustrate the need for clinicians to be aware of the diverse presentations of sarcoidosis in this patient population.

  9. Relationship between radiologic patterns, pulmonary function values and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells in newly diagnosed sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Zeleckienė, Ingrida; Matačiūnas, Mindaugas; Puronaitė, Roma; Jurgauskienė, Laimutė; Malickaitė, Radvilė; Strumilienė, Edita; Gruslys, Vygantas; Zablockis, Rolandas; Danila, Edvardas

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to identify specious radiologic and/or physiologic prognostic marker(s), which lead to optimize of the patient follow-up frequency. Methods Eighty consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis. Patients underwent chest radiography, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) examination, pulmonary function tests (PFT), bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung biopsy, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell examination. Results The reduction in PFT values seen in radiological sarcoidosis stage III was greater than that seen in stages I and II. The percentage of neutrophils in the lungs was found to increase in stages II and III. PFT indices were correlated negatively with the consolidation and ground glass opacities CT scores, but not with the micronodule or macronodule scores. The rise in the percentage of BALF lymphocytes was associated with the restriction pattern of PFT. The diagnostic value of BALF for sarcoidosis was higher when the typical radiologic patterns of stage I disease were found and that smoking decreased the diagnostic value of CD4/CD8 ratio. Conclusions This study supports the opinion that the staging of the pulmonary sarcoidosis with chest X-rays is still valuable from the prognostic point of view, because significant correlations between the radiologic stages of sarcoidosis and PFT parameters were found. Chest HRCT was significantly superior to chest X-ray in detecting mediastinal and pulmonary parenchymal changes. However, the prognostic role of HRCT needs to be better investigated evaluating serial examinations. Only consolidation and ground glass scores (neither of which are frequently found in sarcoidosis) hold prognostic value, since these were negatively correlated with PFT parameters. PMID:28203410

  10. Effectiveness of infliximab in refractory FDG PET-positive sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Vorselaars, Adriane D M; Crommelin, Heleen A; Deneer, Vera H M; Meek, Bob; Claessen, Anke M E; Keijsers, Ruth G M; van Moorsel, Coline H M; Grutters, Jan C

    2015-07-01

    Inconclusive evidence for the efficacy of infliximab in sarcoidosis hinders the global use of this potentially beneficial drug. To study infliximab efficacy in a clinical setting, we performed a prospective open-label trial in patients refractory to conventional treatment. Patients (n=56) received eight infusions of 5 mg·kg(-1) infliximab. Pulmonary function, disease activity measured by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) by positron emission tomography (PET) and quality of life were part of the clinical work-up. Infliximab levels were measured before every infusion. After 26 weeks of infliximab treatment, mean improvement in forced vital capacity (FVC) was 6.6% predicted (p=0.0007), whereas in the 6 months before start of treatment, lung function decreased. Maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) of pulmonary parenchyma on (18)F-FDG PET decreased by 3.93 (p<0.0001). High SUVmax of pulmonary parenchyma at baseline predicted FVC improvement (R=0.62, p=0.0004). An overall beneficial response was seen in 79% of patients and a partial response was seen in 17% of patients. No correlation between infliximab trough level (mean 18.0 µg·mL(-1)) and initial response was found. In conclusion, infliximab causes significant improvement in FVC in refractory (18)F-FDG PET positive sarcoidosis. Especially in pulmonary disease, high (18)F-FDG PET SUVmax values at treatment initiation predict clinically relevant lung function improvement. These results suggest that inclusion of (18)F-FDG PET is useful in therapeutic decision-making in complex sarcoidosis.

  11. Sarcoidosis imitating breast cancer metastasis: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Kochoyan, Teimuraz; Akhmedov, Mobil; Shabanov, Alexander; Terekhov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a benign systematic granulomatous disorder of unknown etiology and is associated with various malignancies. However, granulomatous and metastatic lymph node lesions are difficult to distinguish even when using precise and modern diagnostic methods, such as positron emission tomography. Thus, histological verification is the only method that can be used to accurately describe the nature of this disease. In this article, we report a case of non-luminal HER-2/neu-positive breast cancer in a patient without history of sarcoidosis and suspected to have metastatic disease. PMID:27807507

  12. Sarcoidosis of the cauda equina mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jagdish R; Lewis, Richard A

    2003-04-15

    Neurosarcoidosis is a great mimicker. It is often difficult to diagnose particularly when there is no prior history of systemic sarcoidosis. Although certain sites of the neuraxis are more commonly involved than others, any site of the central or peripheral nervous system can be affected. We report a case of sarcoidosis involving the cauda equina in a 38-year-old African American male without prior history of systemic disease. Initial clinical presentation was suggestive of Guillian-Barré syndrome, but the evaluation proved this case to be neurosarcoidosis involving the cauda equina. We have followed this patient for 8 years, and he remains clinically stable on prednisone 5 mg/day.

  13. Tadalafil therapy for sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Baughman, R. P.; Aris, R.; Engel, P.; Donohue, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) is estimated to occur in at least 5% or more of sarcoidosis patients, and it contributes to significant morbidity and mortality. Optimal therapy for SAPH is not well established. We performed a 24-week open-label trial of tadalafil for SAPH at 2 academic medical centers. Subjects were required to have confirmed sarcoidosis plus a right heart catheterization within 12 months of enrollment showing a mean pulmonary artery pressure ≥ 25 mmHg, a pulmonary artery wedge pressure ≤ 15 mmHg, and a calculated pulmonary vascular resistance ≥ 3 Wood units. Subjects received 20 mg/day of tadalafil for the first 4 weeks and then 40 mg/day for the subsequent 20 weeks. Sixteen patients were screened, 12 of whom met criteria for enrollment. At 24 weeks, there was no overall improvement in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Five of the 12 subjects dropped out of the study early (2 for social reasons, 3 for medical reasons). There was no significant change in short form 36, St. George’s respiratory questionnaire, or maximum Borg dyspnea scores over the 24 weeks. There were no significant adverse events or laboratory abnormalities clearly related to tadalafil in the cohort. The study did not meet the primary end point of change in 6MWD because of the small sample size. Tadalafil was generally safely administered in this cohort of SAPH patients. There was a relatively high dropout rate but no major adverse events and no clinical worsening. Larger studies are needed to explore this question further. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01324999) PMID:28090299

  14. Prevalence of cardiac sarcoidosis in white population: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Martusewicz-Boros, Magdalena M.; Boros, Piotr W.; Wiatr, Elżbieta; Zych, Jacek; Piotrowska-Kownacka, Dorota; Roszkowski-Śliż, Kazimierz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is a life-threatening and underdiagnosed manifestation of the disease, which requires a complicated and expensive diagnostic pathway. There is a need for simple tool for practitioners to determine the risk of CS without access to specialized equipment. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of CS in a group of patients diagnosed with or followed up because of sarcoidosis. A secondary objective was the search for factors associated with heart involvement. We performed a prospective case–control study (screening analysis) in consecutive sarcoidosis patients collected from October 2012 to September 2015. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging was performed to confirm or exclude cardiac involvement in all patients. The study was conducted in a hospital-based referral center for patients with sarcoidosis and other interstitial lung diseases. Analysis was performed in a group of 201 patients (all white) with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis, mean age 41.4 ± 10.2, 121 of them (60.2%) males. Four patients with previously recognized cardiac diseases, which make CMR imaging for CS inconclusive, were not included. Cardiac involvement was detected by CMR in 49 patients (24.4%). Factors associated with an increased risk of CS (univariate analyses) included male sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 1.21–5.16, P = 0.01), cardiac-related symptoms (OR: 3.53; 1.81–6.89, P = 0.0002), extrathoracic sarcoidosis (OR: 3.48; 1.77–6.84, P = 0.0003), elevated serum NT-proBNP (OR: 3.82; 1.55–9.42, P = 0.004), any electrocardiography abnormality (OR: 5.38; 2.48–11.67, P = 0.0001), and contemporary radiological progression sarcoidosis in the lungs (OR: 2.98; 1.52–5.84, P = 0.001). Abnormalities in echocardiography and Holter ECG were also risk factors, but not significant in multivariate analyses. A CS Risk Index was developed using a multivariate model to predict CS, achieving an accuracy of 82%, sensitivity of 50

  15. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia in cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Mina M; Hayes, Kevin; Field, Michael E; Scheinman, Melvin M; Hoffmayer, Kurt S

    2017-02-01

    A 73-year-old man with history of pulmonary sarcoidosis was found to have runs of non-sustained bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BVT) with two different QRS morphologies on a Holter monitor. Cardiac magnetic resonance delayed gadolinium imaging revealed a region of patchy mid-myocardial enhancement within the left ventricular basal inferolateral myocardium. An 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) showed increased uptake in the same area, consistent with active sarcoid, with no septal involvement. Follow-up FDG-PET one year later showed disease progression with new septal involvement. Cardiac sarcoidosis, characterized by myocardial inflammation and interstitial fibrosis that can lead to conduction system disturbance and macro re-entrant arrhythmias, should be considered in differential diagnosis of BVT. BVT may indicate septal involvement with sarcoidosis before the lesions are large enough to be detected radiologically.

  16. Sarcoidosis exclusion criteria: the “simple truth” for a “complicated diagnosis”.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Chokoeva, A A; Schiavone, C; D Erme, A M; Tana, C; Darling, M; Kaley, J; Gianfaldoni, S; Wollina, U; Lotti, T; Patterson, J W

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation between sarcoidosis and sarcoid-type reactions remains a clinical and histopathologic diagnostic dilemma. A definitive distinction is yet to be determined according to the current literature data. Sarcoid-like tissue reactions with identifiable infectious or other immunogenic antigens, should be classified as non-specific clinical manifestations of a specific disease. The current assignment of this type of reaction under the generic umbrella of “sarcoidosis” is incorrect and may result in the subsequent misinterpretation of the definition of the disease in general. On the other hand, this may lead to clinical studies with incorrectly selected inclusion criteria and, therefore, contradictory statements regarding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the disease. Thus we propose the introduction of new criteria for exclusion of sarcoidosis as an autonomous disease. Recent trials on patients with probable sarcoidosis have focused on ideal criteria, or have provided information about the genetic and immunological profile of patients with specific infections or other diseases, which manifest themself as sarcoidal granulomas. This could explain the heterogeneous clinical and/or genetic profiles of the reported patients, who in fact were not affected by the autonomous disease “sarcoidosis”. The simplification of the current available data regarding this issue will be of fundamental importance for the correct direction of future studies, whose aim is to unravel the pathogenesis of the immunological cascade in patients with sarcoidosis and sarcoid-like type of reaction. It is expected that the introduction of exclusion criteria will inevitably lead to a change in the approach to diagnosis as well as the fundamental understanding of this mysterious disease, known as sarcoidosis.

  17. Clinical Manifestations, Complications and Treatment of Ocular Sarcoidosis: Correlation between Visual Efficiency and Macular Edema as Seen on Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Paovic, Jelena; Paovic, Predrag; Sredovic, Vojislav; Jovanovic, Svetlana

    2016-09-14

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease which belongs to a group of systemic granulomatous diseases. It can be confirmed through characteristic systemic and ocular manifestations and histological findings. Biopsy is the golden standard for diagnosing sarcoidosis. Ocular sarcoidosis can be confirmed, probable, or possible. Over a two-year period, ocular manifestations were studied on a sample of 52 patients, each followed for four months and diagnosed with some form of systemic sarcoidosis. Most frequent systemic manifestations in patients with ocular sarcoidosis were pulmonary, skin, glandular, and systemic generalized sarcoidosis. The disease was diagnosed four times more frequently in females than males (42:10, respectively; p < 0.05). Most frequent, and statistically significant, manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis is anterior uveitis (64.61%; p < 0.01). Macular edema and periphlebitis associated with periarteritis were frequent, and statistically significant (43.90% and 29.26%, respectively; p < 0.05). Overall, with regards to gender and location (right eye; left eye), visual acuity was >0.5 and of statistical significance (76.92%; p < 0.01). The most common therapy consisted of systemic corticosteroids (26.67%) and/or a combination of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs (23.33%). In 16 eyes treated with repeated doses of sub-Tenon's injections, both initial and control visual acuity correlated with average thickness. There was positive correlation between several optical coherence tomography findings before and after treatment.

  18. Defining the clinical outcome status (COS) in sarcoidosis: results of WASOG Task Force.

    PubMed

    Baughman, R P; Nagai, S; Balter, M; Costabel, U; Drent, M; du Bois, R; Grutters, J C; Judson, M A; Lambiri, I; Lower, E E; Muller-Quernheim, J; Prasse, A; Rizzato, G; Rottoli, P; Spagnolo, P; Teirstein, A

    2011-07-01

    The clinical outcome of sarcoidosis is quite variable. Several scoring systems have been used to assess the level of disease and clinical outcome. The definition of clinical phenotypes has become an important goal as genetic studies have identified distinct genotypes associated with different clinical phenotypes. In addition, treatment strategies have been developed for patients with resolving versus non resolving disease. A task force was established by the World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous diseases (WASOG) to define clinical phenotypes of the disease based on the clinical outcome status (COS). The committee chose to examine patients five years after diagnosis to determine the COS. Several features of the disease were incorporated into the final nine categories of the disease. These included the current or past need for systemic therapy, the resolution of the disease, and current status of the condition. Sarcoidosis patients who were African American or older were likely to have a higher COS, indicating more chronic disease. The COS may be useful in future studies of sarcoidosis.

  19. Vertebral sarcoidosis: demonstration of bone involvement by computerized axial tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Dinerstein, S.L.; Kovarsky, J.

    1984-08-01

    A report is given of a rare case of vertebral sarcoidosis with negative conventional spinal x-ray films, yet with typical cystic lesions of the spine found incidentally during abdominal computerized axial tomography (CAT). The patient was a 28-year-old black man, who was admitted for evaluation of a 1 1/2-year history of diffuse myalgias, intermittent fever to 102 F orally, bilateral hilar adenopathy, and leukopenia. A technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed diffuse areas of increased uptake over the sternum, entire vertebral column, and pelvis. Conventional x-ray films of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, and an AP view of the pelvis were all normal. Chest x-ray film revealed only bilateral hilar adenopathy. During the course of an extensive negative evaluation for infection, an abdominal CAT scan was done, showing multiple, small, sclerotic-rimmed cysts at multiple levels of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine. Bone marrow biopsy revealed only changes consistent with anemia of chronic disease. Mediastinal lymph node biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. A tentative diagnosis of sarcoidosis was made, and treatment with prednisone, isoniazid and rifampin was begun. Within two weeks of initiation of prednisone therapy, the patient was symptom-free. A repeat technetium polyphosphate bone scan revealed only a small residual area of mildly increased uptake over the upper thoracic vertebrae.

  20. Disordered Toll-like receptor 2 responses in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Gabrilovich, M I; Walrath, J; van Lunteren, J; Nethery, D; Seifu, M; Kern, J A; Harding, C V; Tuscano, L; Lee, H; Williams, S D; Mackay, W; Tomashefski, J F; Silver, R F

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that the granulomatous disorder sarcoidosis is not caused by a single pathogen, but rather results from abnormal responses of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to conserved bacterial elements. Unsorted bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells from patients with suspected pulmonary sarcoidosis and healthy non-smoking control subjects were stimulated with representative ligands of TLR-2 (in both TLR-2/1 and TLR-2/6 heterodimers) and TLR-4. Responses were determined by assessing resulting production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. BAL cells from patients in whom sarcoidosis was confirmed displayed increased cytokine responses to the TLR-2/1 ligand 19-kDa lipoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (LpqH) and decreased responses to the TLR-2/6 agonist fibroblast stimulating ligand-1 (FSL)-1. Subsequently, we evaluated the impact of TLR-2 gene deletion in a recently described murine model of T helper type 1 (Th1)-associated lung disease induced by heat-killed Propionibacterium acnes. As quantified by blinded scoring of lung pathology, P. acnes-induced granulomatous pulmonary inflammation was markedly attenuated in TLR-2(-/-) mice compared to wild-type C57BL/6 animals. The findings support a potential role for disordered TLR-2 responses in the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

  1. AB042. Sarcoidosis or Berylliosis? Two diseases with similar histologic findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheva, Angeliki; Kilmpasani, Maria; Stathakis, Eustathios; Dimitriadis, Ioannis; Mpikos, Vasileios; Papaemmanouil, Styliani

    2016-01-01

    Background The case of a male patient, 71, who presented with bilateral pleural effusion and previously unknown mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Methods Resection of three left-sided paratracheal lymph nodes was performed, 0.6–1 cm in greatest diameter. The tissue material was embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Results Two out of the three lymph nodes demonstrated a destruction of their structure, due to the presence of abundant epithelioid, non-caseating granulomas within a collagenous/sclerotic stroma. The granulomas consisted of plenty of epithelioid histiocytes and multinucleated Langhans giant-cells. Schaumann bodies and asteroid bodies were recognised. Given the above, the diagnosis was that of a granulomatous inflammatory disease, like a sarcoidosis or berylliosis. After gathering a precise patient medical history, it was revealed that he had been working for many years in fertilizer manufacturing, with chronic exposure to beryllium. Conclusions Sarcoidosis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion, as there are no pathognomonic clinical features or diagnostic examinations. When pleural effusion is the first manifestation of the disease, clinical estimation is usually oriented to other diseases. Cases have been reported, in which the patient was misdiagnosed (e.g., with tuberculosis) and mistreated for several months, before sarcoidosis is diagnosed. The microscopic examination of mediastinal lymph nodes contributes to this diagnostic challenge, with a low complications risk. Sarcoidosis and berylliosis have similar clinical, imaging and histologic findings. Typical are the epithelioid, non-caseating granulomas. Schaumann bodies are found in 70% of sarcoidosis and asteroid bodies are more unusual, found in 2–9% of the cases. For the definite differential diagnosis between these entities, a detailed medical history of the patient is necessary, while the Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test (BeLPT) is also available.

  2. Sarcoidosis-Associated Aortoesophageal Fistula-Multistage Interdisciplinary Surgical Therapy for a Rare and Life-Threatening Condition.

    PubMed

    Gombert, Alexander; Grommes, Jochen; Schick, Guido; Binnebösel, Marcel; Klink, Christian; Jacobs, Michael J; Kotelis, Drosos

    2017-02-01

    Aortoesophageal fistulas (AEFs) are rare and life-threatening conditions. Till date, an association between an AEF and sarcoidosis has not been reported yet. The aim of this report is to demonstrate a case of AEF secondary to sarcoidosis and its multistage interdisciplinary surgical therapy. A 66-year-old male was diagnosed with sarcoidosis in 2014. He has been treated with glucocorticoids since then and no severe health restrictions due to the disease have occurred. In December 2015, the patient presented with acute thoracic pain and hematemesis: an esophagogastroscopy revealed an AEF. First, stent-graft implantation in the thoracic aorta was urgently performed as a "bridging" procedure. Second, esophagectomy and local debridement were performed, followed by explantation of the stent graft and reconstruction by means of xenograft replacement of the stented aorta in a third operation. Finally, retrosternal gastric pull-up was performed in a fourth operative procedure. Sixteen days after the last operation the patient could be discharged to a rehabilitation clinic. Follow-up is uneventful so far; the antibiotic therapy was stopped at the time of hospital discharge. The pathogenesis of sarcoidosis, a rare autoimmunological disease, has not been completely clarified yet. The diagnosis relies on clinical symptoms and radiological as well as histopathological findings. Many cases of sarcoidosis show spontaneous regression, but severe complications may occur. While tracheoesophageal fistulas have been described in the literature, AEFs related to sarcoidosis have not been mentioned yet. Despite surgical and antibiotic treatment, the morbidity and mortality rates of AEF are high. Because the endovascular treatment has been established for emergency procedures of the aorta, it is considered as an appropriate first-line "bridging" treatment option. To achieve good long-term results, surgical treatment has to involve esophagectomy with secondary reconstruction of the upper

  3. Parathyroid-hormone-related protein in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Zeimer, H. J.; Greenaway, T. M.; Slavin, J.; Hards, D. K.; Zhou, H.; Doery, J. C.; Hunter, A. N.; Duffield, A.; Martin, T. J.; Grill, V.

    1998-01-01

    Parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is the main mediator of the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. It is also detected in many normal adult and fetal tissues. Altered calcium metabolism occurs in sarcoidosis, and two cases of sarcoidosis with hypercalcemia and elevated plasma PTHrP are described. An archival study of 20 lymph node biopsies with the pathological diagnosis of sarcoidosis was performed. Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antiserum to human PTHrP and in situ hybridization using a riboprobe to human PTHrP were performed on the lymph node biopsies. Immunohistochemistry for PTHrP was also performed on the biopsies from the two cases with elevated plasma levels. Immunohistochemical analysis detected PTHrP in macrophages within granulomata in 17 of the 20 (85%) biopsies. In situ hybridization detected a positive signal for messenger RNA in the granulomata of 11 of 19 (58%) biopsies. PTHrP immunoreactivity and PTHrP gene expression are present in sarcoid granulomata. PTHrP may contribute to the hypercalcemia of sarcoidosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:9422518

  4. Tissue Doppler imaging in cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Smedema, J P

    2008-07-01

    A middle-aged African lady, who presented with ventricular tachycardias, mitral valve regurgitation and congestive heart failure, was diagnosed with cardiac sarcoidosis. Tissue Doppler imaging demonstrated abnormalities suggestive of myocardial scar, which was confirmed by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance.

  5. In-Hospital Disease Burden of Sarcoidosis in Switzerland from 2002 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Pohle, Susanne; Baty, Florent; Brutsche, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease with an unpredictable and sometimes fatal course while the underlying pathomechanism is still unclear. Reasons of the increasing hospitalization rate and mortality in the United States remain in dispute but incriminated are a number of distinct comorbidities and risk factors as well as the application of more aggressive therapeutic agents. Studies reflecting the recent development in central Europe are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the recent mortality and hospitalization rates as well as the underlying comorbidities of hospitalized sarcoidosis patients in Switzerland. In this longitudinal, nested case-control study, a nation-wide database provided by the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics enclosing every hospital entry covering the years 2002-2012 (n = 15,627,573) was analyzed. There were 8,385 cases with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis representing 0.054% (8,385 / 15,627,573) of all hospitalizations in Switzerland. These cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls without the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Hospitalization and mortality rates in Switzerland remained stable over the observed time period. Comorbidity analysis revealed that sarcoidosis patients had significantly higher medication-related comorbidities compared to matched controls, probably due to systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. Sarcoidosis patients were also more frequently re-hospitalized (median annual hospitalization rate 0.28 [IQR 0.15-0.65] vs. 0.19 [IQR 0.13-0.36] per year; p < 0.001), had a longer hospital stay (6 [IQR 2-13] vs. 4 [IQR 1-8] days; p < 0.001), had more comorbidities (4 [IQR 2-7] vs. 2 [IQR 1-5]; p < 0.001), and had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (2.6% [95% CI 2.3%-2.9%] vs. 1.8% [95% CI 1.5%-2.1%] (p < 0.001). A worse outcome was observed among sarcoidosis patients having co-occurrence of associated respiratory diseases. Moreover, age was an important risk factor for re-hospitalization.

  6. Sarcoidosis Blood Transcriptome Reflects Lung Inflammation and Overlaps with Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Owen D.; Peng, Jeffrey C.; Bhakta, Nirav R.; Nguyen, Christine P.; Woodruff, Prescott G.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, although M. tuberculosis may play a role in the pathogenesis. The traditional view holds that inflammation in sarcoidosis is compartmentalized to involved organs. Objectives: To determine whether whole blood gene expression signatures reflect inflammatory pathways in the lung in sarcoidosis and whether these signatures overlap with tuberculosis. Methods: We analyzed transcriptomic data from blood and lung biopsies in sarcoidosis and compared these profiles with blood transcriptomic data from tuberculosis and other diseases. Measurements and Main Results: Applying machine learning algorithms to blood gene expression data, we built a classifier that distinguished sarcoidosis from health in derivation and validation cohorts (92% sensitivity, 92% specificity). The most discriminative genes were confirmed by quantitative PCR and correlated with disease severity. Transcript profiles significantly induced in blood overlapped with those in lung biopsies and identified shared dominant inflammatory pathways (e.g., Type-I/II interferons). Sarcoidosis and tuberculosis shared more overlap in blood gene expression compared with other diseases using the 86-gene signature reported to be specific for tuberculosis and the sarcoidosis signature presented herein, although reapplication of machine learning algorithms could identify genes specific for sarcoidosis. Conclusions: These data indicate that blood transcriptome analysis provides a noninvasive method for identifying inflammatory pathways in sarcoidosis, that these pathways may be leveraged to complement more invasive procedures for diagnosis or assessment of disease severity, and that sarcoidosis and tuberculosis share overlap in gene regulation of specific inflammatory pathways. PMID:21852540

  7. Etiology of Sarcoidosis: Does Infection Play a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Saidha, Shiv; Sotirchos, Elias S.; Eckstein, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disorder of unclear etiology, which is known to affect multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, skin, central nervous system, and eyes, among others. For this reason, sarcoidosis represents a systemic medical disorder that is clinically relevant to multiple medical sub-specialties. Despite extensive research, the etiology of sarcoidosis has yet to be elucidated, although most evidence supports that the pathogenetic mechanism of sarcoidosis is an aberrant immune response, driven by an unidentified antigen (or antigens) in genetically susceptible individuals. Multiple candidate etiologic agents, including microbial organisms and environmental agents, have been investigated, but study results are inconclusive. In this review, we describe the known histologic and immunologic features of sarcoidosis and discuss the evidence supporting a role for infectious processes in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. PMID:22461752

  8. Tenth international conference on sarcoidosis and other granulomatous disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among three sections: Basic Mechanisms of Sarcoidosis; Other Granulomatous Disorders; and Clinical Studies of Sarcoidosis. Some of the paper titles are: Radionuclides in Detecting Active Granuloma Formation: Gallium-67 Scintigraphy and Histopathology with Autoradiographic; a European Survey on the Usefulness of /sup 67/Ga Lung Scans in Assessing Sarcoidosis: Experience in 14 Research Centers in Seven Different Countries; and Reassessing the Standard Chest Radiograph for Intraparenchymal Activity.

  9. [Sarcoidosis presenting with Raynaud's syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Nigro, A; Iannone, F; Grattagliano, V; Sanguedolce, F; Lapadula, G

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of association between sarcoidosis and Raynaud's syndrome. A 39 year old female presented fatigue, Raynaud's syndrome, IgG and erithrosedimentation rate (ESR) increase, polyarthralgy in which disseminated micronodular infiltration in the chest X-ray and histological demonstration of non-caseating epitheloid microgranulomas led to a diagnosis of concomitant sarcoidosis. Clues to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis coexisting with autoimmune disease are discussed.

  10. Sarcoidosis presenting as isolated gingival enlargement: a rare case entity.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pragya; Aggarwal, Jaihans; Chopra, Deepak; Bagga, Sukhchain; Sethi, Kanika

    2014-11-01

    Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous disease . It is a multiorgan inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Conditions affecting skin or other organs frequently involve oral cavity and rarely manifest as gingival disease. Here we are reporting a rare case in which gingival hyperplasia was the initial symptom which finally led to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Oral mucous membrane needs to be examined carefully as it may constitute in presenting first sign of systemic sarcoidosis.

  11. Pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kokuho, Nariaki; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Urushiyama, Hirokazu; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Morimoto, Taisuke; Azuma, Arata; Usuda, Jitsuo; Gemma, Akihiko; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Shimizu, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Differentiating low-grade lymphoma from preexisting sarcoidosis is difficult because of their pathological similarity. This article describes a case of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis. The patient, a 45-year-old Japanese man, presented with a 10-year history of pulmonary sarcoidosis and 5-year history of ocular sarcoidosis with histologic findings. Because only the right S3 lung nodule had gradually enlarged, partial resection was performed. Pathological study revealed noncaseous epithelioid granulomas with lymphoplasmacytic proliferation but also marked lymphoid cell proliferation with lymphoepithelial lesion findings that differed from findings of typical sarcoid lesions. Our lymphoepithelial lesion evaluation via immunohistochemistry and analysis of Ig heavy-chain gene rearrangements with assessment of Propionibacterium acnes-specific antibody reactions allow us to report, for the first time, this case of pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma associated with pulmonary sarcoidosis in exactly the same location, which may be significant for differentiating these diseases and understanding their pathogenic association.

  12. Prostacyclin and Oral Vasodilator Therapy in Sarcoidosis-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Gomberg-Maitland, Mardi; Vij, Rekha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether recent advances in pulmonary arterial hypertension therapy can be safely applied to sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH). Evidence for prostacyclin (PG) therapy in SAPH is limited. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, retrospective review of 46 patients with sarcoidosis, 26 of whom had SAPH. Thirteen received PG as monotherapy or in combination with oral vasodilators. RESULTS: Follow-up right-sided heart catheterization at a mean of 12.7 months revealed improved cardiac output, cardiac index, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Functional class and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels also improved in patients treated with PG. No significant change in oxygen requirement was seen with vasodilator therapy initiation. At 2 years, 15 patients with SAPH survived, including eight on PG, and at 5 years, seven survived, including five on PG. Survival was significantly reduced in patients with SAPH compared with patients who had sarcoidosis without pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the use of PG therapy in SAPH is not associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with severe SAPH showed significant hemodynamic and clinical improvement on long-term IV or subcutaneous PG therapy and had survival outcomes similar to patients with moderate SAPH on oral vasodilator therapy. PMID:26437815

  13. The Kmif (Kveim-induced macrophage migration inhibition factor) test in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, W. Jones; Pioli, E.; Jones, D. J.; Dighero, M.

    1972-01-01

    Circulating lymphocytes from 30 patients with sarcoidosis when stimulated in vitro with Kveim-induced macrophage migration factor, the Kmif test, produced a guinea-pig macrophage migration inhibition factor in 21 of 30 cases (70%). In those patients not on steroids the results showed a good correlation with the cutaneous Kveim test. One positive test was found in 16 normal subjects. Our results suggest that the Kmif test may prove a useful rapid alternative to the Kveim test. PMID:4675181

  14. Ventricular tachycardia as the first manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Mehrhof, Felix; Stockburger, Martin; Schuette, Hartwig; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Dietz, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The case of a 32-year-old man with sustained ventricular tachycardia and hypotension is described. Following pharmacological treatment the patient switched to a sinus rhythm and was transferred to a university hospital for further diagnostic procedures and treatment. Cardiac catherisation ruled out underlying coronary artery disease, and cardiac MRI as well as echocardiography demonstrated a moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, marked thickening of the interventricular septum and extensive intramural and epicardial infiltration of both ventricles. Endomyocardial biopsies were inconclusive; an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) was implanted in order to prevent a fatal arrhythmic event. Only repeated lymph node biopsies revealed typical findings of granulomatous disease, which together with the clinical course and the cardiac MRI findings strongly supported cardiac sarcoidosis. A few days after initiation of therapy with corticosteroids, the patient experienced the first of a number of ICD discharges, demanding aggressive anti-arrhythmic treatment regimen for the future. PMID:21686620

  15. Gene-environment interactions in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Culver, Daniel A.; Newman, Lee S.; Kavuru, Mani S.

    2007-01-01

    Susceptibility to most human diseases is polygenic, with complex interactions between functional polymorphisms of single genes governing disease incidence, phenotype, or both. In this context, the contribution of any discrete gene is generally modest for a single individual, but may confer substantial attributable risk on a population level. Environmental exposure can modify the effects of a polymorphism, either by providing a necessary substrate for development of human disease or because the effects of a given exposure modulate the effects of the gene. In several diseases, genetic polymorphisms have been shown to be context-dependent, i.e. the effects of a genetic variant are realized only in the setting of a relevant exposure. Since sarcoidosis susceptibility is dependent on both genetic and environmental modifiers, the study of gene-environment interactions may yield important pathogenetic information and will likely be crucial for uncovering the range of genetic susceptibility loci. However, the complexity of these relationships implies that investigations of gene-environment interactions will require the study of large cohorts with carefully-defined exposures and similar clinical phenotypes. A general principle is that the study of gene-environment interactions requires a sample size at least several-fold greater than for either factor alone. To date, the presence of environmental modifiers has been demonstrated for one sarcoidosis susceptibility locus, HLA-DQB1, in African-American families. This article reviews general considerations obtaining for the study of gene-environment interactions in sarcoidosis. It also describes the limited current understanding of the role of environmental influences on sarcoidosis susceptibility genes. PMID:17560304

  16. Pediatric Gastrointestinal Sarcoidosis: Successful Treatment with Infliximab

    PubMed Central

    Alawdah, Laila; Nahari, Ahmad; Alshahrani, Dayel; Fagih, Musa; Ghazi, Shahid; Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal sarcoidosis is a rare disease with very limited data in children. Here we report the first pediatric case of successful treatment with infliximab. The first case was an 8-year-old Saudi girl who presented with fever, weight loss, and abdominal pain that was followed in a few months with hematemesis and development of hepatosplenomegaly. The second case was a 9-year-old Sudanese boy who manifested with vomiting, epigastric pain, and weight loss. On upper endoscopy, both cases demonstrated severe erosive nodular gastric mucosa. Gastric and esophageal biopsies had shown noncaseating granulomatous inflammation. The first case had histopathological evidence of granulomatous hepatitis, and both cases demonstrated lung nodularity on computed tomography chest. The boy had elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level. Given the multisystem involvement with significant chest findings, tissue findings of granulomatous disease, and negative workup for other causes of granulomatous inflammation, both cases were diagnosed with active disseminated sarcoidosis, and treated with corticosteroids. The girl continued to be symptom-free for 4 years after tapering steroid therapy. The boy had relapses off steroids and the disease was brought into remission for 5 years off steroid therapy by infliximab. Pediatric GI sarcoidosis is a rare disease that exhibits heterogeneity in natural course. The chronic relapsing progressive form of the disease might benefit from infliximab therapy. PMID:27748327

  17. Coexistent Sarcoidosis and Tuberculosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Carbonelli, Cristiano; Giuffreda, Ernesto; Palmiotti, Antonio; Loizzi, Domenico; Lococo, Filippo; Carpagnano, Elisiana; Lacedonia, Donato; Sollitto, Francesco; Foschino, Maria Pia

    2017-02-09

    Necrotizing granulomatous diseases of the lungs are usually dependent on a narrow range of differential diagnoses. Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for the largest number of cases, while necrotizing sarcoidosis is generally considered a rare and easily distinguishable disease substantially based on histological features. However, this entity has become a viable diagnosis in the absence of mycobacteria isolation or when a remarkable clinical improvement cannot be achieved with the combination of anti-TB drugs at full dosage. The classic manifestations of TB and sarcoidosis have an overlapping range for which it is sometimes difficult to make a clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the role of mycobacteria as a trigger antigen capable of evoking the clinical expression of sarcoidosis is a hypothesis supported by evidence from some cases. We report a case of bilateral tuberculous pleurisy in a 45-year-old male native of a North-African region with an atypical severe multisystem disease characterized by a fever resistant to anti-TB therapy and respondent to corticosteroid treatment. The choice to continue both steroid and anti-TB therapy proved to be correct for the late evidence of TB mycobacterial growth only on pleural specimens. The case described is suggestive of a coexistent systemic sarcoid manifestation and low-antigen TB, which is an underrecognized entity in the medical literature.

  18. Blood myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells reflect Th1/Th2 balance in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Jarosław; Krawczyk, Paweł; Chocholska, Sylwia; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Kieszko, Robert; Michnar, Marek; Milanowski, Janusz; Roliński, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells play a specific regulatory role in the immune system. In this paper, the significance of myeloid and lymphoid dendritic cells in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) was evaluated. Myeloid dendritic cells are connected with Th1 type of immunological response, whereas lymphoid ones--with Th2 type. The latest findings indicate that both diseases are characterized by serious disturbances of Th1/Th2 response to Th1 dominance. Our studies seem to confirm these suggestions. In the peripheral blood of patients with sarcoidosis as well as with EAA, myeloid dendritic cells outnumbered lymphoid ones.

  19. Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bergin, C.J.; Bell, D.Y.; Coblentz, C.L.; Chiles, C.; Gamsu, G.; MacIntyre, N.R.; Coleman, R.E.; Putman, C.E.

    1989-06-01

    The appearances of the lungs on radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) scans were correlated with degree of uptake on gallium scans and results of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) in 27 patients with sarcoidosis. CT scans were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Patients were divided into five categories on the basis of the pattern of abnormality at CT: 1 = normal (n = 4); 2 = segmental air-space disease (n = 4); 3 = spherical (alveolar) masslike opacities (n = 4); 4 = multiple, discrete, small nodules (n = 6); and 5 = distortion of parenchymal structures (fibrotic end-stage sarcoidosis) (n = 9). The percentage of the volume judged to be abnormal (CT grade) was correlated with PFT results for each CT and radiographic category. CT grades were also correlated with gallium scanning results and percentage of lymphocytes recovered from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Patients in CT categories 1 and 2 had normal lung function, those in category 3 had mild functional impairment, and those in categories 4 and 5 showed moderate to severe dysfunction. The overall CT grade correlated well with PFT results expressed as a percentage of the predicted value. In five patients, CT scans showed extensive parenchymal disease not seen on radiographs. CT grades did not correlate with the results of gallium scanning or BAL lymphocytes. The authors conclude that patterns of parenchymal sarcoidosis seen at CT correlate with the PFT results and can be used to indicate respiratory impairment.

  20. Sarcoidosis: a diagnostic challenge in atypical radiologic findings of unilateral lymphadenopathy

    PubMed Central

    Meillier, Andrew; Commodore, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic disease with a wide array of clinical findings. Given that the clinical symptoms are not pathognomonic, chest radiographs have become essential to the initial diagnosis and choice of treatment modality. Diagnosis hinges on ruling out alternative diagnoses; sometimes, advanced radiologic techniques and histopathology are required. On this occasion, we present a case of a patient with generalized symptoms, no significant chest radiograph findings and lymphadenopathy where advanced imaging and pathology assisted in the diagnosis. PMID:26719811

  1. Dual Analysis for Mycobacteria and Propionibacteria in Sarcoidosis BAL

    PubMed Central

    Oswald-Richter, Kyra A.; Beachboard, Dia C.; Seeley, Erin H.; Abraham, Susamma; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Culver, Daniel A.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Drake, Wonder P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sarcoidosis is a non-caseating granulomatous disease for which a role for infectious antigens continues to strengthen. Recent studies have reported molecular evidence of mycobacteria or propionibacteria. We assessed for immune responses against mycobacterial and propionibacterial antigens in sarcoidosis bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using flow cytometry, and localized signals consistent with microbial antigens with sarcoidosis specimens, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS). Methods BAL cells from 27 sarcoidosis, 14 PPD- controls, and 9 subjects with nontuberculosis mycobacterial (NTM) infections were analyzed for production of IFN-γ after stimulation with mycobacterial ESAT-6 and Propionibacterium acnes proteins. To complement the immunological data, MALDI-IMS was performed to localize ESAT-6 and Propionibacterium acnes signals within sarcoidosis and control specimens. Results CD4+ immunologic analysis for mycobacteria was positive in 17/27 sarcoidosis subjects, compared to 2/14 PPD-subjects, and 5/9 NTM subjects (p=00.008 and p=00.71 respectively, Fisher's exact test). There was no significant difference for recognition of P. acnes, which occurred only in sarcoidosis subjects that also recognized ESAT-6. Similar results were also observed for the CD8+ immunologic analysis. MALDI-IMS localized signals consistent with ESAT-6 only within sites of granulomatous inflammation, whereas P. acnes signals were distributed throughout the specimen. Conclusions MALDI-IMS localizes signals consistent with ESAT-6 to sarcoidosis granulomas, whereas no specific localization of P. acnes signals is detected. Immune responses against both mycobacterial and P. acnes are present within sarcoidosis BAL, but only mycobacterial signals are distinct from disease controls. These immunologic and molecular investigations support further investigation of the microbial community within sarcoidosis granulomas. PMID:22552860

  2. Pitfalls of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the diagnosis of splenic sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tana, C; Iannetti, G; D'Alessandro, P; Tana, M; Mezzetti, A; Schiavone, C

    2013-01-01

    By observing the real-time behavior of focal liver lesions at three vascular phases (arterial, portal-venous, and late), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been successfully applied to differentiate benign from malignant hepatic nodules. In recent years, numerous studies highlighted the usefulness of CEUS also for other applications such as abdominal trauma, renal, pancreatic, thyroid, and inflammatory bowel diseases, supporting its role even in differentiating benign from malignant splenic nodules. Therefore, the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) recently updated the guidelines for the use of ultrasound contrast agents in clinical practice, pointing out the indication to characterize splenic parenchymal inhomogeneity or suspected lesions found on conventional ultrasound (BUS). We describe the case of a patient with a history of colon cancer and finding, at BUS and CEUS, of hypoechoic lesions with a highly suggestive pattern for metastases, subsequently histologically proved to be splenic localizations of a benign and multisystemic granulomatous disease such as sarcoidosis. We therefore reviewed the current literature focusing on the role of CEUS in differentiating benign from malignant splenic lesions, emphasizing on the lack of data and numerical shortage of sarcoidosis derived-lesions in the available studies. We conclude that sarcoidosis remains a diagnosis of exclusion and new studies are needed before defining precise indications of CEUS in these patients.

  3. Budd-Chiari Syndrome: An Unusual Presentation of Multisystemic Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Dhouha; Romdhane, Hayfa; Cheikh, Myriam; Nejma, Houda Ben; BelHadj, Najet

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown origin. All organs may be affected. Liver involvement is common but it is rarely symptomatic. Only a few cases of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) secondary to a hepatic sarcoidosis have been described so far. We describe a case of multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with BCS. A 42-year old female was referred to our department for chronic and anicteric cholestasis. Laboratory and imaging investigations disclosed features of chronic BCS associated with multisystemic sarcoidosis. The positive diagnosis was based on microscopic features, which showed hepatic, gastric and cutaneous non-caseating granulomas. Screening for an underlying thrombophilic disorder was negative. The diagnosis of BCS complicating hepatic sarcoidosis was the most likely. She was put on corticosteroids and anticoagulation therapy. To our knowledge, few cases of sarcoidosis-related BCS have been reported in the literature. In addition to being an uncommon presentation of sarcoidosis, this case illustrates the importance of recognizing an unusual cause of BCS and its therapeutic difficulties. PMID:26900444

  4. A Rare Presentation of Sarcoidosis as a Pancreatic Head Mass

    PubMed Central

    Mony, Shruti; Patil, Pradnya D.; English, Rebekah; Das, Ananya; Culver, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous syndrome of unknown etiology with noncaseating epithelioid granulomas being the pathognomonic pathological finding. Sarcoidosis most commonly involves the lungs and involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is uncommon. Pancreatic sarcoidosis is very rare, especially when it is the presenting feature of sarcoidosis and can masquerade as pancreatic cancer. Tissue infiltration in pancreatic sarcoidosis can lead to either a diffuse nodular appearance or a mass-like lesion. We present an interesting case of a 47-year-old woman with a 10-pack-year history of smoking who presented with sharp epigastric pain, weight loss, and elevated lipase level. CT and MRI imaging showed a 4 cm × 5 cm heterogeneous pancreatic mass with a dilated pancreatic duct and peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. Endoscopic ultrasound guided FNA revealed noncaseating granulomas with no evidence of malignancy or atypical infection. CT of the chest revealed bilateral mediastinal and hilar adenopathy with calcification, without any parenchymal abnormalities, and her angiotensin-converting enzyme level was elevated at 170 U/L. The clinical picture pointed to the diagnosis of pancreatic sarcoidosis. Given the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms related to pancreatic sarcoidosis, prednisone therapy at 0.5 mg/kg/day was initiated with complete resolution of symptoms at 8 weeks. PMID:28321355

  5. The alveolitis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Evaluation of natural history and alveolitis-dependent changes in lung function

    SciTech Connect

    Keogh, B.A.; Hunninghake, G.W.; Line, B.R.; Crystal, R.G.

    1983-08-01

    Current concepts of the pathogenesis of pulmonary sarcoidosis suggest that a mononuclear cell alveolitis, comprised of activated T-lymphocytes and activated alveolar macrophages, precedes and modulates the formation of granuloma and fibrosis. To evaluate the natural history of this alveolitis and determine the relationship it has to subsequent changes in lung function, 19 untreated patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary manifestations were studied with bronchoalveolar lavage, /sup 67/Ga scanning, and pulmonary function tests to evaluate lung T-cells, lung alveolar macrophages, and lung function, respectively. In patients with sarcoidosis, low intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells less than or equal to 28% of all lung effector cells and/or /sup 67/Ga scan negative) was much more common (80% of all observations) than high intensity alveolitis (lung T-cells greater than 28% and /sup 67/Ga scan positive, 20% of all observations). Conventional clinical, roentgenographic, or physiologic studies could not predict the alveolitis status. Interestingly, of the 51 alveolitis evaluations in the 19 patients, there were 24 occurrences (47%) where the alveolitis was ''split,'' i.e., /sup 67/Ga scans positive and T-cells low (39%) or /sup 67/Ga negative and T-cells high (8%). Most untreated patients with sarcoidosis without extrapulmonary symptoms may have some inflammatory processes ongoing in their alveolar structures. Overall, whenever a high intensity alveolitis episode occurred, it was followed by deterioration over the next 6 months in at least one lung function parameter. A low intensity alveolitis episode was followed by functional deterioration only 8% of the time. The alveolitis parameters (lavage and /sup 67/Ga scanning) clearly predicted prognosis. These observations should prove useful in understanding the natural history of pulmonary sarcoidosis, in staging patients with this disease, and in making rational therapy decisions.

  6. The Serum Expression of Selected miRNAs in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis with/without Löfgren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Novosadova, Eva; Chabronova, Alzbeta; Kolek, Vitezslav

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is associated with dysregulated expression of intracellular miRNAs. There is however only little information on extracellular miRNAs and their association with the disease course in sarcoidosis. We therefore assessed serum miRNAs in sarcoidosis classified according to the presence of Löfgren's syndrome (LS) as a hallmark of good prognosis in contrast to more advanced disease course. Methods. RT-PCR was used to assess 35 miRNAs in 13 healthy controls and 24 sarcoidosis patients (12 with X-ray (CXR) stage ≤ 1 and LS and 12 with insidious onset and CXR stage ≥ 3). Results. Compared to controls, we consistently observed dysregulated expressions of miR-146, miR-16, miR-425-5p, and miR-93-5p in both sarcoidosis groups irrespective of disease course. Specifically, patients without LS had dysregulated expressions of miR-150-5p, miR-1, and miR-212 compared to controls. Patients with LS had dysregulated expressions of miR-21-5p and miR-340-5p compared to controls. Bioinformatics predicted consistently “Pathways in cancer” to be modulated by both altered profiles in patients with/without LS. Three miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-340-5p, and miR-212-3p) differed between our patients with LS and those without LS; their cumulative effect may modulate “TGF-β signalling pathway.” Conclusions. Further study should focus on possible applications of serum miRNAs for diagnostics follow-up and for prognosis. PMID:28050119

  7. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: False-Positive Results due to Sarcoidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Robert M.; Djannatian, Manoutschehr; Czech, Norbert; Nitsche, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 72-year-old male patient who developed sarcoidosis of the mediastinal lymph nodes, the liver, and the prostate 11 years ago. Seven years later, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate by laser due to hematuria. Pathology of the resected chips showed a ‘granulomatous prostatitis with epitheloid cells’. Malignancy was histologically excluded at that time. Four years later, he was diagnosed with an undifferentiated prostate carcinoma, with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9. After initiation of antihormonal therapy, he underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, which revealed a pT3b pN1 carcinoma with infiltrated resection margins. Three months later, the prostate-specific antigen level was 1.4 ng/ml, and a local recurrence was suspected by ultrasound; consequently, a 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT was performed. This examination seemed to confirm the local recurrence, a right pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a hepatic metastasis. However, ultrasound with contrast medium could not confirm the metastatic spread to the liver. In palliative intention, radiotherapy of the pelvis was done. After 50 Gy, the supposed recurrence had markedly shrunk, and an additional boost dose with 16.2 Gy was applied. Two years later, the patient is still free of disease. Due to this clinical development, we doubt the diagnosis of a fulminant progression of the prostate cancer as suspected by PSMA-PET/CT. Instead, we suspect a recurrence of the previously proven sarcoidosis leading to false-positive results. Our focus in this report is on the interaction between PSMA-PET/CT and sarcoidosis. Another report on a case of sarcoidosis of the spleen seems to confirm this possibility [Kobe et al: Clin Nucl Med 2015;40: 897–898]. PMID:27721768

  8. [Necrotizing systemic sarcoidosis with pulmonary and central nervous system involvement].

    PubMed

    Ríos Fernández, R; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Guerrero Fernández, M; Serrano Falcón, M M; Ortego-Centeno, N

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease which diagnosis depends on the presence of nonnecrotizing granulomas in the biopsy. However there are variants such as necrotizing sarcoidal granulomas or nodular sarcoidosis which have atypical findings and make difficult the differential diagnosis with other infectious processes. We describe a case of a man who develops granulomas with extensive necrosis in a systemic sarcoidosis that affected the lung and the central nervous system. This finding made us to make the diagnosis of tuberculosis and delay the specific treatment.

  9. Endosonography‑guided fine‑needle aspiration in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis: a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kocoń, Piotr; Szlubowski, Artur; Kużdżał, Jarosław; Rudnicka-Sosin, Lucyna; Ćmiel, Adam; Soja, Jerzy; Włodarczyk, Janusz R; Talar, Piotr; Smęder, Tomasz; Gil, Tomasz; Warmus, Janusz; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2017-03-31

    INTRODUCTION    There are no widely accepted standards for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. OBJECTIVES    The aim of this study was to assess the relative diagnostic yield of endobronchial ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EBUS -FNA) and endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS -FNA), and to compare them with standard diagnostic techniques such as endobronchial biopsy (EBB), transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB), transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA), and mediastinoscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS    This was a prospective randomized study including consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of stage I or II sarcoidosis. EBB, TBLB, and TBNA were performed at baseline in all patients. Subsequently, patients were randomized to group A (EBUS -FNA) or group B (EUS -FNA). Next, a crossover control test was performed: all patients with negative results in group A underwent EUS -FNA and all patients with negative results in group B underwent EBUS -FNA. If sarcoidosis was not confirmed, mediastinoscopy was performed. RESULTS    We enrolled 106 patients, of whom 100 were available for the final analysis. The overall sensitivity and accuracy of standard endoscopic methods were 64% each. When analyzing each of the standard endoscopic methods separately, the diagnosis was confirmed with EBB in 12 patients (12%), with TBLB in 42 patients (42%), and with TBNA in 44 patients (44%). The sensitivity and accuracy of each endosonographic technique were significantly higher than those of EBB+TBLB+TBNA (P = 0.0112 vs P = 0.0134). CONCLUSIONS    The sensitivity and accuracy of EBUS -FNA and EUS -FNA are significantly higher than those of standard endoscopic methods. Moreover, the sensitivity and accuracy of EUS -FNA tend to be higher than those of EBUS -FNA.

  10. Bronchoalveolar mast cells in sarcoidosis: increased numbers and accentuation of mediator release.

    PubMed Central

    Flint, K C; Leung, K B; Hudspith, B N; Brostoff, J; Pearce, F L; Geraint-James, D; Johnson, N M

    1986-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out in 36 subjects with sarcoidosis and 20 control subjects undergoing bronchoscopy for routine diagnostic purposes. The proportion of mast cells in the lavage fluid of subjects with sarcoidosis (mean (SE) 0.84% 0.09%; p less than 0.01) when compared with that of controls (mean 0.32% (0.05%); p less than 0.01). This increase was greatest in subjects with positive gallium scans but was not correlated with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes or radiographic stage. Anti-IgE induced histamine release from the bronchoalveolar cells of 15 subjects with sarcoidosis was significantly increased at all effective doses of anti-IgE. This accentuation of histamine release was significantly greater in patients with positive gallium scans and correlated directly with the percentage recovery of lymphocytes (r = 0.7, p less than 0.005). The dose-response curve of anti-IgE induced histamine release from bronchoalveolar cells of subjects with more than 20% of lymphocytes in the lavage cell population was significantly greater than the dose-response curves of subjects with fewer than 20% of lymphocytes and of controls. PMID:2422776

  11. Infliximab therapy balances regulatory T cells, tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) expression and soluble TNFR2 in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Verwoerd, A; Hijdra, D; Vorselaars, A D M; Crommelin, H A; van Moorsel, C H M; Grutters, J C; Claessen, A M E

    2016-08-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that most commonly affects the lungs. Although elevated levels of regulatory T cells (Tregs ) have been reported, the extent to which they play a role in sarcoidosis pathogenesis remains unclear. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is thought to be one of the driving forces behind granuloma formation, illustrated by the efficacy of infliximab in severe sarcoidosis. Tregs express TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) highly. Here, we examined the influence of infliximab therapy on Tregs and (soluble) TNFR2 levels in sarcoidosis, and correlated these with response to therapy. We observed that relative frequencies of Tregs were significantly higher in patients (n = 54) compared to healthy controls (n = 26; median 6·73 versus 4·36%; P < 0·001) and decreased following therapy (4·95; P < 0·001). Baseline TNFR2 expression on Tregs was increased significantly in patients versus controls (99·4 versus 96·2%; P = 0·031), and also in responders to therapy versus non-responders (99·6 versus 97·3%; P = 0·012). Furthermore, baseline soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) was higher in responders than in non-responders (mean 174 versus 107 pg/ml; P = 0·015). After treatment, responders showed a significant reduction in sTNFR2 levels in peripheral blood (-44·7 pg/ml; P < 0·001), in contrast to non-responders (+3·59 pg/ml). Our results demonstrated that Treg frequencies and TNFR2 expression on Tregs are increased in sarcoidosis, followed by a decline during infliximab therapy, suggesting a pathophysiological role of this T cell subset. Interestingly, sTNFR2 levels at baseline differed significantly between responders and non-responders, making it a potential marker in predicting which patients might benefit from infliximab.

  12. An Isolated Mass in the Palm, Starting Manifestation of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbanhoseini, Mohammad; Yazdi, Hamidreza; Naseh, Hossein; Hafezi, Poopak

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that is characterized with noncaseating granulomatous nodules which present in multiple organs specially lungs (90%). Incidence of masses due to Sarcoidosis in upper extremity is low and most cases present in association with involvement of pulmonary hilary lymph nodes. In this article we present a rare case of Sarcoidosis which presented as a single soft tissue mass in hand without osseous or pulmonary hillary lymph node involvement. Incidence of involvement of musculoskeletal system is 1-5 %, mostly it occurs in small bones in hands and feet. In most cases involvement of soft tissue in extremities is accompanied with bone lesions. Those cases of soft tissue involvement are generally coincide with pulmonary lymph nodules. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first case of Sarcoidosis that presents without spreading in bones or pulmonary hilar lymph nodes. PMID:26894226

  13. Coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis and sarcoidosis: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Sanjay Kumar; Ghosh, Sudip; Mondal, Soumya Sarathi; Chatterjee, Sumanta

    2014-12-19

    Tuberculosis and sarcoidosis are multisystem diseases having different aetiology and management; however, they have similar clinical and histological characteristics. Very rarely they may coexist. We report a rare case of a 38-year-old woman who presented with chronic cough, low-grade fever and respiratory distress that was initially diagnosed as miliary tuberculosis. Diagnosis was supported by positive mycobacterial culture and initially responded to antitubercular treatment, but later recurrences led to further investigations and the diagnosis of coexisting sarcoidosis.

  14. Cardiac Sarcoidosis Diagnosed by Incidental Lymph Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Jun; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Roh, Solji; Tajima, Miyu; Maki, Hisataka; Kojima, Toshiya; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Nawata, Kan; Takeda, Norihiko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2017-02-07

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis sometimes provokes life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Steroid administration is one of the fundamental anti-arrhythmia therapies. For an indication of steroid therapy, a definitive diagnosis of sarcoidosis is required.(1)) However, cases that are clearly suspected of cardiac sarcoidosis based on their clinical courses sometimes do not meet the current diagnostic criteria and result in the loss of an appropriate opportunity to perform steroid therapy.Here we report a case that was diagnosed as sarcoidosis by incidental biopsy of an inguinal lymph node during cardiac resuscitation for cardiac tamponade.(2)) While the inguinal lymph node was not swollen on computed tomography, a specimen obtained from an incidental biopsy during the exposure of a femoral vessel for the establishment of extracorporeal cardio-pulmonary resuscitation showed a non-caseating granuloma.This findings suggest a non-swelling lymph node biopsy might be an alternative strategy for the diagnosis for sarcoidosis if other standard strategies do not result in a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  15. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) Study. Sarcoidosis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koth, Laura L.; Maier, Lisa A.; Morris, Alison; Drake, Wonder; Rossman, Milton; Leader, Joseph K.; Collman, Ronald G.; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Sweiss, Nadera J.; Zhang, Yingze; O’Neal, Scott; Senior, Robert M.; Becich, Michael; Hochheiser, Harry S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Gibson, Kevin F.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with tremendous clinical heterogeneity and uncertain pathobiology and lacking in clinically useful biomarkers. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study is an observational cohort study designed to explore the role of the lung microbiome and genome in these two diseases. This article describes the design and rationale for the GRADS study sarcoidosis protocol. The study addresses the hypothesis that distinct patterns in the lung microbiome are characteristic of sarcoidosis phenotypes and are reflected in changes in systemic inflammatory responses as measured by peripheral blood changes in gene transcription. The goal is to enroll 400 participants, with a minimum of 35 in each of 9 clinical phenotype subgroups prioritized by their clinical relevance to understanding of the pathobiology and clinical heterogeneity of sarcoidosis. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis undergo a baseline visit with self-administered questionnaires, chest computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, and blood and urine testing. A research or clinical bronchoscopy with a research bronchoalveolar lavage will be performed to obtain samples for genomic and microbiome analyses. Comparisons will be made by blood genomic analysis and with clinical phenotypic variables. A 6-month follow-up visit is planned to assess each participant’s clinical course. By the use of an integrative approach to the analysis of the microbiome and genome in selected clinical phenotypes, the GRADS study is powerfully positioned to inform and direct studies on the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and provide novel molecular phenotypes that could lead to improved personalized approaches to therapy for sarcoidosis. PMID:26193069

  16. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) Study. Sarcoidosis Protocol.

    PubMed

    Moller, David R; Koth, Laura L; Maier, Lisa A; Morris, Alison; Drake, Wonder; Rossman, Milton; Leader, Joseph K; Collman, Ronald G; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Sweiss, Nadera J; Zhang, Yingze; O'Neal, Scott; Senior, Robert M; Becich, Michael; Hochheiser, Harry S; Kaminski, Naftali; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gibson, Kevin F

    2015-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with tremendous clinical heterogeneity and uncertain pathobiology and lacking in clinically useful biomarkers. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study is an observational cohort study designed to explore the role of the lung microbiome and genome in these two diseases. This article describes the design and rationale for the GRADS study sarcoidosis protocol. The study addresses the hypothesis that distinct patterns in the lung microbiome are characteristic of sarcoidosis phenotypes and are reflected in changes in systemic inflammatory responses as measured by peripheral blood changes in gene transcription. The goal is to enroll 400 participants, with a minimum of 35 in each of 9 clinical phenotype subgroups prioritized by their clinical relevance to understanding of the pathobiology and clinical heterogeneity of sarcoidosis. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis undergo a baseline visit with self-administered questionnaires, chest computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, and blood and urine testing. A research or clinical bronchoscopy with a research bronchoalveolar lavage will be performed to obtain samples for genomic and microbiome analyses. Comparisons will be made by blood genomic analysis and with clinical phenotypic variables. A 6-month follow-up visit is planned to assess each participant's clinical course. By the use of an integrative approach to the analysis of the microbiome and genome in selected clinical phenotypes, the GRADS study is powerfully positioned to inform and direct studies on the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and provide novel molecular phenotypes that could lead to improved personalized approaches to therapy for sarcoidosis.

  17. A case of acute kidney injury caused by granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with sarcoidosis and concomitant presence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody.

    PubMed

    Yoshinori, Kamata; Arata, Azuma; Osamu, Hotta; Kensuke, Joh

    2016-01-18

    We encountered a case of granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with sarcoidosis, who was also found to show an elevated serum titer of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody. The serum creatinine level had been documented to be within normal range 8 months before the first visit. Gallium scintigraphy revealed bilateral kidney uptake, but no uptake in the pulmonary hilum. No typical findings of sarcoidosis, e.g., bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis or elevated serum ACE level were recognized in the early stage. Echocardiography showed basal thinning of the interventricular septum, a specific feature of cardiac sarcoidosis, and hilar lymph node uptake on gallium scintigraphy and anterior uveitis appeared during the disease course. Active tuberculosis, fungal infection, vasculitis and malignancy were clinically excluded. We performed a renal biopsy. Light microscopy revealed non-caseating granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis with multinucleated giant cells and normal glomeruli. Inflammatory reaction was seen only within the interstitial tubules. The serum creatinine level had increased to 4.52 mg/dl. The patient was administered methylprednisolone pulse therapy, followed by administration of oral prednisolone. The renal function improved immediately in response to this therapy. Based on the above, we made the final diagnosis of granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with sarcoidosis. While the serum titer of anti- GBM antibody was elevated, to our surprise, renal biopsy did not reveal linear anti-GBM antibody staining in this case. Furthermore, interestingly, the serum anti-GBM antibody titer in our patient decreased in parallel with the clinical improvement of sarcoidosis. Severe and progressive renal dysfunction was the most prominent clinical feature without other organ manifestations in our patient, which is a rare occurrence in sarcoidosis.

  18. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-guided sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Simonen, Piia; Lehtonen, Jukka; Kandolin, Riina; Schildt, Jukka; Marjasuo, Suvi; Miettinen, Heikki; Airaksinen, Juhani; Vihinen, Tapani; Tuohinen, Suvi; Haataja, Petri; Kupari, Markku

    2015-11-15

    Histologic proof of granulomatous inflammation is prerequisite for the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). Because of the limited sensitivity of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), confirmation of sarcoidosis often has to be acquired from extracardiac biopsies. We set out to review our experience of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) in guiding extracardiac tissue biopsies in suspected CS. We included in this work 68 consecutive patients with proved CS who had undergone cardiac F-18-FDG PET with (n = 57) or without whole-body imaging as part of initial diagnostic evaluation. Their hospital charts, imaging studies, and diagnostic biopsies were reviewed in retrospect. Whole-body PET images showed extracardiac foci of abnormally high F-18-FDG uptake in 39 of 57 patients, of whom 38 had involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN). Parallel F-18-FDG uptake was found in other lymph nodes (n = 10), lungs (n = 9), liver (n = 3), spleen (n = 2), and thyroid gland (n = 1). Adding the mediastinal findings at cardiac PET without whole-body imaging, abnormal F-18-FDG uptake in MLN was found in totally 43 of the 68 patients with CS (63%). Histology of systemic sarcoidosis was known at presentation of cardiac symptoms in 8 patients. Of the 60 patients with missing histology, 24 patients underwent mediastinoscopy for sampling of PET-positive MLN, most often (n = 20) after nondiagnostic EMB; microscopy revealed diagnostic noncaseating granulomatous inflammation in 24 of the 24 cases (sensitivity 100%). In the remaining 36 patients, sarcoidosis histology was confirmed by EMB (n = 30), by biopsy of lungs (n = 2) or peripheral lymph nodes (n = 2), or at autopsy (n = 1) or post-transplantation (n = 1). In conclusion, MLN accumulate F-18-FDG at PET in most patients with CS and provide a highly productive source for diagnostic biopsies either primarily or subsequent to nondiagnostic EMB.

  19. Resolution of Cutaneous Sarcoidosis Following Topical Application of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi Mushroom).

    PubMed

    Saylam Kurtipek, Gulcan; Ataseven, Arzu; Kurtipek, Ercan; Kucukosmanoglu, İlknur; Toksoz, Mustafa Rasid

    2016-03-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom) has been used in traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine as a herbal remedy for over 2000 years. Studies have shown that G. lucidum has anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory properties. A review of the literature revealed that there were no studies examining the use of G. lucidum for the treatment of skin diseases. Here, we report the case of a 44-year-old male patient who used soap enriched with G. lucidum and goat's milk for 3 days in treating annular cutaneous sarcoidosis. The patient showed almost complete regression of the lesions.

  20. Clinical and molecular study of 4 cases of pulmonary hypertension associated with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Baloira Villar, Adolfo; Pousada Fernández, Guillermo; Núñez Fernández, Marta; Valverde Pérez, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Sarcoidosis is a pleomorphic disease that can present with pulmonary hypertension (PH). What little information is available about the association of these two diseases comes mainly from small series of patients scheduled for transplant. We present 4 cases of mild pulmonary involvement in whom right catheterisation was performed and PH-specific therapy was administered. After obtaining written consent, a genetic study was performed that showed mutations in PH-related genes in 3 of the patients. This is the first study of its kind to yield genetic information for this type of PH.

  1. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing variables as predictors of long-term outcome in thoracic sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, A.J.; Menezes, S.L.S.; Dias, C.M.; Oliveira, J.F.; Mainenti, M.R.M.; Guimarães, F.S.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) plays an important role in the assessment of functional capacity in patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of this study was to identify CPET measures that might be helpful in predicting the vital capacity and diffusion capacity outcomes of patients with thoracic sarcoidosis. A longitudinal study was conducted on 42 nonsmoking patients with thoracic sarcoidosis (median age = 46.5 years, 22 females). At the first evaluation, spirometry, the measurement of single-breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCOsb) and CPET were performed. Five years later, the patients underwent a second evaluation consisting of spirometry and DLCOsb measurement. After 5 years, forced vital capacity (FVC)% and DLCOsb% had decreased significantly [95.5 (82-105) vs 87.5 (58-103) and 93.5 (79-103) vs 84.5 (44-102), respectively; P < 0.0001 for both]. In CPET, the peak oxygen uptake, maximum respiratory rate, breathing reserve, alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure gradient at peak exercise (P(A-a)O2), and Δ SpO2 values showed a strong correlation with the relative differences for FVC% and DLCOsb% (P < 0.0001 for all). P(A-a)O2 ≥22 mmHg and breathing reserve ≤40% were identified as significant independent variables for the decline in pulmonary function. Patients with thoracic sarcoidosis showed a significant reduction in FVC% and DLCOsb% after 5 years of follow-up. These data show that the outcome measures of CPET are predictors of the decline of pulmonary function. PMID:22331135

  2. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis: French nationwide case-control study of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case-control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease.We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease.We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03-25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6-204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3-500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002).The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome.

  3. Central skeletal sarcoidosis: a case report with sustained remission only on methotrexate, and a literature review on the imaging approach, treatment, and assessment of disease activity.

    PubMed

    Sakellariou, Grigorios T; Anastasilakis, Athanasios D; Karanikolas, Dimitrios; Vounotrypidis, Periklis; Berberidis, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of multifocal involvement of the central skeleton in a patient with long-term stage I pulmonary sarcoidosis who experienced sustained clinical remission of musculoskeletal symptoms while on methotrexate (MTX) alone. Concomitant normalization of laboratory tests [inflammatory markers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) levels] was observed, and improvements were seen in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine and bone scintigraphy. To date, there are no specific tools for the assessment of skeletal disease activity in sarcoidosis. Our case suggests that inflammatory markers and ACE levels, when initially elevated, bone scintigraphy, and-in the case of vertebral involvement-MRI could serve as such tools. A literature review on the imaging approach, treatment, and disease activity monitoring of skeletal sarcoidosis is also provided.

  4. HLA-DRB1*03, DRB1*11 or DRB1*12 and their respective DRB3 specificities in clinical variants of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Bogunia-Kubik, K; Tomeczko, J; Suchnicki, K; Lange, A

    2001-01-01

    Determination of DRB1 and DRB3 specificities in sarcoidosis patients identified that the presence of DRB1*03 and the absence of DRB1*11 and/or DRB1*12 favors a course of disease that is associated positively with Löfgren's syndrome (DRB1*03) and negatively with stage I disease (DRB1*11 and/or 12). In common with normal controls, DRB1*03 was associated with DRB3*0101 and DRB1*11/12 with DRB3*0201/2. An analysis of DRB1 and DRB3 associations in variants of sarcoidosis revealed that DRB1*03 and DRB3*0101 were associated with Löfgren's syndrome in a combined association fashion. Conversely, a lack of DRB1*11 and/or DRB1*12 but not DRB3*0201/2 favored the clinical course of sarcoidosis.

  5. Refractory pulmonary sarcoidosis – proposal of a definition and recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Korsten, Peter; Strohmayer, Katharina; Baughman, Robert P.; Sweiss, Nadera J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with sarcoidosis undergo spontaneous remission or may be effectively controlled with glucocorticoids alone in many cases. Progressive and refractory pulmonary sarcoidoisis constitute more than 10% of patients seen at specialized centers. Pulmonary fibrosis and associated complications, such as infections and pulmonary hypertension are leading causes of mortality. No universal definition of refractoriness exists, we therefore propose classifying patients as having refractory disease when the following criteria are fulfilled: (1) progressive disease despite at least 10 mg of prednisolone or equivalent for at least three months and need for additional disease-modifying anti-sarcoid drugs due to lack of efficacy, drug toxicity or intolerability and (2) treatment started for significant impairment of life due to progressive pulmonary symptoms. Both criteria should be fulfilled. Treatment options in addition to or instead of glucocorticoids for these patients include second- (methotrexate, azathioprine, leflunomide) and third-line agents (infliximab, adalimumab). Other immunmodulating agents can be used, but the evidence is very limited. Newer agents with anti-fibrotic properties, such as pirfenidone or nintedanib, might hold promise also for the pulmonary fibrosis seen in sarcoidosis. Treating physicians have to actively look for potentially treatable complications, such as pulmonary hypertension, cardiac disease or infections before patients should be classified as treatment-refractory. Ultimately, lung transplantation has to be considered as treatment option for patients not responding to medical therapy. In this review, we aim to propose a new definition of refractoriness, describe the associated clinical features and suggest the therapeutic approach. PMID:26973429

  6. Pulmonary sarcoidosis is associated with high-level inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) expression on lung regulatory T cells--possible implications for the ICOS/ICOS-ligand axis in disease course and resolution.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, P; Grunewald, J; Eklund, A; Bruder, D; Wahlström, J

    2016-02-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous inflammatory disorder of unknown aetiology. The increased frequency of activated lung CD4(+) T cells with a T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine profile in sarcoidosis patients is accompanied by a reduced proportion and/or impaired function of regulatory T cells (Tregs ). Here we evaluated the expression of the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) on lung and blood CD4(+) T cell subsets in sarcoidosis patients with different prognosis, by flow cytometry. Samples from the deep airways were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). We show that Tregs from the inflamed lung of sarcoidosis patients were characterized by a unique ICOS(high) phenotype. High-level ICOS expression was restricted to Tregs from the inflamed lung and was absent in blood Tregs of sarcoidosis patients as well as in lung and blood Tregs of healthy volunteers. In addition, lung Tregs exhibited increased ICOS expression compared to sarcoid-specific lung effector T cells. Strikingly, ICOS expression on Tregs was in particularly high in the lungs of Löfgren's syndrome (LS) patients who present with acute disease which often resolves spontaneously. Moreover, blood monocytes from LS patients revealed increased ICOS-L levels compared to healthy donors. Sarcoidosis was associated with a shift towards a non-classical monocyte phenotype and the ICOS-L(high) phenotype was restricted to this particular monocyte subset. We propose a potential implication of the ICOS/ICOS-L immune-regulatory axis in disease activity and resolution and suggest to evaluate further the suitability of ICOS as biomarker for the prognosis of sarcoidosis.

  7. Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Meeting the Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia Revised Criteria? Don't Forget Sarcoidosis!

    PubMed Central

    Vasaturo, Sabina; Ploeg, David E.; Buitrago, Guadalupe; Zeppenfeld, Katja; Veselic-Charvat, Maud

    2015-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman was referred for ventricular fibrillation with resuscitation. A CT-angiography showed signs of a right ventricular enlargement without obvious cause. A cardiac MRI demonstrated a dilated and hypokinetic right ventricle with extensive late gadolinium enhancement. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) was suspected according to the "revised ARVD task force criteria". An endomyocardial biopsy was inconclusive. The patient developed purulent pericarditis after epicardial ablation therapy and died of toxic shock syndrome. The post-mortem pathologic examination demonstrated sarcoidosis involving the heart, lungs, and thyroid gland. PMID:25995699

  8. Anomalies in the dominant sarcoidosis paradigm justify its displacement.

    PubMed

    Reich, Jerome M

    2017-04-01

    The prevailing paradigm defines sarcoidosis as a disease of unknown etiology characterized by a systemic noncaseating epithelioid granulomatous response (SGR). This formulation fails to account for the elusiveness of the etiological agent, the nature of the Kveim response, the paradox of cutaneous delayed type hypersensitivity anergy in a setting of intense immune response and the appearance of SGR, indistinguishable from sarcoidosis, in persons with lymphohematogenous and solid neoplasms and a variety of cellular immune deficiencies. Displacing this formulation with an evidence-based alternative in which the SGR is viewed as an etiologically diverse, primitive immunological fallback due to inefficient cellular immune processing eliminates these shortcomings, providing a unifying accounting for the puzzles and violations of expectations associated with the prevailing paradigm. Its clinical import resides in the reported annual three-percent increase in sarcoidosis mortality in the past two decades (Swigris et al., 2011), which may be attributable, in part, to unneeded suppressive treatment.

  9. [The evidence capacity of the lymphocyte-transformation-test and the quantitative immunoglobulin-determination in sarcoidosis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Zochert, J; Thomas, U; Bösel, B

    1977-08-01

    In 50 patients suffering from a cytologically or histologically confirmed sarcoidosis the unspecific transformation rate by PHA in the lymphocyte-transformation-test (LTT) and the immunoglobulins IgA, IgG, IgM and IgD have been determined by the help of a simple radial immunodiffusion. The evaluation of the LTT took place morphologically. 600 cells were counted each set-up (3 different smears each PHA-set-up). For the purpose of a better morphological presentation of lymphoblasts in the LTT a smear of alkalineous hydrolysis was fixed and followed by a colouring according to PAPPENHEIM. There was a decreased PHA-transformation-rate in sarcoidosis as a symptom for a partial defect within the cellular immune area. The levels of immunoglobulins showed no deviations as against to standard values.

  10. Etiologic aspect of sarcoidosis as an allergic endogenous infection caused by Propionibacterium acnes.

    PubMed

    Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Propionibacterium acnes is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions. Many P. acnes have been detected in sarcoid lymph nodes using quantitative PCR and in sarcoid granulomas by in situ hybridization. P. acnes trigger factor protein causes a cellular immune response only in sarcoid patients and induces pulmonary granulomas in mice sensitized with the protein and adjuvant, but only those with latent P. acnes infection in their lungs. Eradication of P. acnes by antibiotics prevents the development of granulomas in this experimental model. Although P. acnes is the most common commensal bacterium in the lungs and lymph nodes, P. acnes-specific antibody detected the bacterium within sarcoid granulomas of these organs. P. acnes can cause latent infection in the lung and lymph node and persist in a cell-wall-deficient form. The dormant form is activated endogenously under certain conditions and proliferates at the site of latent infection. In patients with P. acnes hypersensitivity, granulomatous inflammation is triggered by intracellular proliferation of the bacterium. Proliferating bacteria may escape granulomatous isolation, spreading to other organs. Latent P. acnes infection in systemic organs can be reactivated by another triggering event, leading to systemic sarcoidosis.

  11. Adipophilin expression in necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, and sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Joshua M; LeBoit, Philip E

    2015-03-01

    Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), granuloma annulare (GA), and sarcoidosis usually are distinguished by clinical presentation and routine microscopy, but their distinction can sometimes be challenging. Historically, a clue to diagnosing NL or GA has been the identification of lipid droplets in the areas of altered collagen, but such studies have required fresh frozen tissue, making them impractical. Here, we present the first report of immunohistochemical staining to detect adipophilin, a membrane protein in lipid droplets, in NL (n = 12), GA (n = 19), sarcoidosis (n = 12), and, as a control for nonspecific tissue damage, nongranulomatous cutaneous necrosis (n = 13). Four patterns of labeling were identified: (1) extracellular, within zones of altered collagen; (2) both intracellular and extracellular, after the distribution of palisaded or scattered histiocytes; (3) intracellular, within clustered histiocytes; and (4) periadnexal. All cases of NL demonstrated pattern 1; nearly all cases of GA (18/19) demonstrated pattern 2; most sarcoidosis (10/12) demonstrated pattern 3; and nongranulomatous necrosis demonstrated either pattern 4 (6/13) or did not stain (6/13), confirming that the antibody to adipophilin did not adhere nonspecifically to the damaged tissue. An additional set of 3 biopsies with overlapping or partially sampled features of NL, GA, and/or sarcoidosis subsequently confirmed the potential utility of adipophilin staining in diagnostically challenging cases. We conclude that the pattern of adipophilin expression is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of granulomatous dermatitis.

  12. Unilateral apical infiltrate as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tice, A W

    1981-11-01

    A unilateral, apical, pulmonary infiltrate was seen in an Air Force weapon systems officer stationed in the Philippines as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The most obvious diagnosis for that geographic area is tuberculosis. Diagnosis must be pursued to evaluate all differential possibilities, with resort to open-lung or bronchoscopic biopsy, if necessary.

  13. Chronic signaling via the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 induces macrophage granuloma formation and marks sarcoidosis progression.

    PubMed

    Linke, Monika; Pham, Ha Thi Thanh; Katholnig, Karl; Schnöller, Thomas; Miller, Anne; Demel, Florian; Schütz, Birgit; Rosner, Margit; Kovacic, Boris; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Niederreiter, Birgit; Blüml, Stephan; Kuess, Peter; Sexl, Veronika; Müller, Mathias; Mikula, Mario; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Haschemi, Arvand; Susani, Martin; Hengstschläger, Markus; Gambello, Michael J; Weichhart, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    The aggregation of hypertrophic macrophages constitutes the basis of all granulomatous diseases, such as tuberculosis or sarcoidosis, and is decisive for disease pathogenesis. However, macrophage-intrinsic pathways driving granuloma initiation and maintenance remain elusive. We found that activation of the metabolic checkpoint kinase mTORC1 in macrophages by deletion of the gene encoding tuberous sclerosis 2 (Tsc2) was sufficient to induce hypertrophy and proliferation, resulting in excessive granuloma formation in vivo. TSC2-deficient macrophages formed mTORC1-dependent granulomatous structures in vitro and showed constitutive proliferation that was mediated by the neo-expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Moreover, mTORC1 promoted metabolic reprogramming via CDK4 toward increased glycolysis while simultaneously inhibiting NF-κB signaling and apoptosis. Inhibition of mTORC1 induced apoptosis and completely resolved granulomas in myeloid TSC2-deficient mice. In human sarcoidosis patients, mTORC1 activation, macrophage proliferation and glycolysis were identified as hallmarks that correlated with clinical disease progression. Collectively, TSC2 maintains macrophage quiescence and prevents mTORC1-dependent granulomatous disease with clinical implications for sarcoidosis.

  14. Manganese superoxide dismutase, but not CuZn superoxide dismutase, is highly expressed in the granulomas of pulmonary sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis.

    PubMed

    Lakari, E; Pääkkö, P; Kinnula, V L

    1998-08-01

    The role of antioxidant defense mechanisms in the pathogenesis of granulomatous human lung diseases remains open to investigation. In this study we investigated the immunoreactivity of two important superoxide radical scavenging intracellular antioxidant enzymes, manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and copperzinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), in pulmonary sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In histologically normal lung MnSOD was variable but mostly positive in the cells of bronchial epithelium, alveolar epithelium especially in type II pneumocytes, and alveolar macrophages. Copperzinc SOD showed positive immunoreactivity most markedly in the bronchial epithelium. The biopsies of 22 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 10 with extrinsic allergic alveolitis indicated that MnSOD was highly stained in the granulomas of both diseases, with 60 to 100% of the granulomas showing intensive immunoreactivity. Western blots conducted on the cell samples of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid revealed significantly higher amounts of MnSOD in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis than in the controls. Immunohistochemistry on the cells obtained from BAL fluid showed positive immunoreactivity of MnSOD in the macrophages but not in the lymphocytes. In contrast, copperzinc SOD was not induced in either of these diseases. We conclude that MnSOD is highly expressed in the granulomas of pulmonary sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis, and variable but mostly positive in alveolar macrophages, possibly owing to cytokine mediated induction during the granuloma formation.

  15. Key messages from a rare case of annular sarcoidosis of scalp

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Premanshu; Thatte, Sarvesh S.; Singh, Avninder

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis, a multisystem disease of obscure etiology, is characterized by the formation of noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas in several organs or tissues. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis requires a compatible clinical picture, histologic demonstration of noncaseating granulomas, and exclusion of other diseases capable of producing similar histology or clinical features. The lung is the most commonly affected organ, but the skin is frequently involved. Sarcoidosis occurs worldwide and affects all ages and races with female predominance. Scalp involvement is decidedly rare among the myriad cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis. Alopecia is common in sarcoidosis and is generally scarring in nature. Annular sarcoidosis is a rare morphology and annular sarcoid of scalp is seldom reported. Herein we present a case of annular scalp sarcoid with systemic involvement and without alopecia. PMID:27294057

  16. Nail Sarcoidosis with and without Systemic Involvement: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro; Criado, Paulo; Gabbi, Tatiana; Avancini, João; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2015-09-01

    The most commonly seen nail change in sarcoidosis, often associated with chronic systemic disease, is onychodystrophy. Imaging of hands, feet and chest is of paramount importance when nail sarcoidosis is suspected, for evaluation of bone cysts and pulmonary involvement, respectively. We report 2 cases of sarcoidosis that developed nail involvement - one with pulmonary disease, and the other without any evidence of systemic involvement, which is very rare.

  17. Nail Sarcoidosis with and without Systemic Involvement: Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro; Criado, Paulo; Gabbi, Tatiana; Avancini, João; Di Chiacchio, Nilton

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly seen nail change in sarcoidosis, often associated with chronic systemic disease, is onychodystrophy. Imaging of hands, feet and chest is of paramount importance when nail sarcoidosis is suspected, for evaluation of bone cysts and pulmonary involvement, respectively. We report 2 cases of sarcoidosis that developed nail involvement – one with pulmonary disease, and the other without any evidence of systemic involvement, which is very rare. PMID:27170939

  18. Correlation Network Analysis Reveals Relationships between MicroRNAs, Transcription Factor T-bet, and Deregulated Cytokine/Chemokine-Receptor Network in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Dyskova, Tereza; Fillerova, Regina; Novosad, Tomas; Kudelka, Milos; Zurkova, Monika; Gajdos, Petr; Kolek, Vitezslav; Kriegova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory granulomatous disease with unknown etiology driven by cytokines and chemokines. There is limited information regarding the regulation of cytokine/chemokine-receptor network in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells in pulmonary sarcoidosis, suggesting contribution of miRNAs and transcription factors. We therefore investigated gene expression of 25 inflammation-related miRNAs, 27 cytokines/chemokines/receptors, and a Th1-transcription factor T-bet in unseparated BAL cells obtained from 48 sarcoidosis patients and 14 control subjects using quantitative RT-PCR. We then examined both miRNA-mRNA expressions to enrich relevant relationships. This first study on miRNAs in sarcoid BAL cells detected deregulation of miR-146a, miR-150, miR-202, miR-204, and miR-222 expression comparing to controls. Subanalysis revealed higher number of miR-155, let-7c transcripts in progressing (n = 20) comparing to regressing (n = 28) disease as assessed by 2-year follow-up. Correlation network analysis revealed relationships between microRNAs, transcription factor T-bet, and deregulated cytokine/chemokine-receptor network in sarcoid BAL cells. Furthermore, T-bet showed more pronounced regulatory capability to sarcoidosis-associated cytokines/chemokines/receptors than miRNAs, which may function rather as “fine-tuners” of cytokine/chemokine expression. Our correlation network study implies contribution of both microRNAs and Th1-transcription factor T-bet to the regulation of cytokine/chemokine-receptor network in BAL cells in sarcoidosis. Functional studies are needed to confirm biological relevance of the obtained relationships. PMID:26696750

  19. Bilateral parotitis as the initial presentation of childhood sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Banks, Gretchen C; Kirse, Daniel J; Anthony, Evelyn; Bergman, Simon; Shetty, Avinash K

    2013-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of bilateral parotid gland enlargement in children includes infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders. We present the case of a 13-year-old male who presented with a 5-week history of bilateral parotid swelling. On exam, both parotid glands were nontender, smooth, and diffusely enlarged. He had slightly elevated inflammatory markers, but other lab results were normal. A neck CT revealed symmetric enlargement of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. A chest CT revealed scattered peripheral pulmonary nodules and bilateral hilar adenopathy. A parotid gland biopsy showed multiple noncaseating granulomas with multinucleated giant cells surrounded by lymphocytes, consistent with the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Special stains for acid-fast and fungal organisms were negative. Using this illustrative case, we discuss the differential diagnosis of bilateral salivary gland enlargement in children and review the etiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations, and treatment of pediatric sarcoidosis.

  20. An oral lesion as the primary clinical manifestation of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Gill, I; Siddiqi, J

    2017-03-16

    An oral lesion as the first clinical presentation of sarcoidosis is extremely rare. We present the case of a 39-year-old woman who was referred to the oral and maxillofacial surgery department with a persistent asymptomatic nodular lesion in the hard palate. This was located adjacent to a grossly carious upper first molar and a provisional diagnosis of chronic periapical granuloma was made. An incisional biopsy of the lesion was carried out, which unexpectedly revealed the presence of a non-caseating granulomatous inflammatory reaction. A referral was sent to the respiratory medicine team and a diagnosis was later confirmed of stage II sarcoidosis. This case report highlights the need for clinicians to be aware of all possible causes of oral lesions, including rare manifestations of underlying systemic disease.

  1. The "mystery" of cutaneous sarcoidosis: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Cardoso, J C; Chokoeva, A A; Verma, S B; Tana, C; Ananiev, J; Gulubova, M; Philipov, S; Kanazawa, N; Nenoff, P; Lotti, T; Wollina, U

    2014-01-01

    The reason why the cutaneous form of sarcoidosis is well known in the literature is because of its spectrum of manifestations granting it the fame of a Great Imitator. The mystery shrouding the pathogenesis of this rare cutaneous disease is still there (in spite of the fundamental progress of the various diagnostic methods in current day medicine). The production of the morphological substrate - the epithelioid cell granuloma - which is considered to be characteristic of skin sarcoidosis, could, however, also be the end result of a reaction to i) various specific infectious agents such as Leishmaniasis cutis, coccidioidomycosis, etc., ii) certain residual bacterial or other mycobacterial antigens which, at the moment of setting the diagnosis are - by definition - non-infectious but still immunogenic, as well as iii) different tumor antigens in lesional tissue or other location. Often, differentiating between sarcodiosis and a sarcoid-like reaction, based on the updated criteria for cutaneous sarcoidosis, is problematic to downright impossible. A future characterization of the genetic signature of the two conditions, as well as the implementation of additional mandatory panels for i) the identification of certain infectious or ii) non-infectious but immunogenic and iii) tumor antigens in the epithelioid cell granuloma (or in another location in the organism), could be a considerable contribution to the process of differentiating between the two above-mentioned conditions. This will create conditions for greater accuracy when setting the subsequent therapeutic approaches.

  2. Genitourinary sarcoidosis: An essential review for the practicing clinician

    PubMed Central

    Block, Norman L.; Kava, Bruce R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease that commonly involves the lungs, but may also present with extrapulmonary manifestations. Genitourinary (GU) tract involvement has been traditionally thought to be rare, but that view may underestimate the true prevalence of the disease due to the often, silent presentation thereof. Methods: The literature pertaining to sarcoidosis from the general systemic point of view, etiology and therapy and with regard to specific organs was reviewed by identifying key words in a PubMed search. That material with special relevance to the Indian experience was emphasized. Results: There are a number of isolated case reports in the literature describing symptomatic and asymptomatic GU tract sarcoidosis. The world literature associated with the generalized syndrome was reviewed and summarized. Specific aspects of GU involvement are presented for each organ of the GU tract. Conclusions: It is critical for the practicing clinician to have a working knowledge of the clinical manifestations of this disease as it involves the GU tract, as well as to be able to distinguish it from tuberculosis and the various malignancies that affect this organ system. PMID:28197023

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis: an evaluation of the cardiac segments and layers that exhibit late gadolinium enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Komada, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Kojiro; Ishiguchi, Hiroaki; Kawai, Hisashi; Okumura, Takahiro; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Naganawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) can cause sudden death, which is the leading cause of mortality in patients with sarcoidosis in Japan. However, it is difficult to diagnose CS because of the lack of a sensitive diagnostic method for the condition. Late gadolinium-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrates improved sensitivity for diagnosing CS. Therefore, it is important to know the late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) characteristics of CS on cardiac MR images in order to diagnose CS accurately. In this study, we investigated the most common sites of LGE on cardiac MR images in CS. Late gadolinium-enhanced MR images of 9 consecutive patients with CS (obtained between August 2009 and July 2015) were reviewed by two radiologists. The distribution of LGE was evaluated using the American Heart Association 17-segment model of the left ventricle. The LGE in each segment was also classified into 4 patterns according to the myocardial layer in which it occurred (the subepicardial, subendocardial, intramural, and transmural layer patterns). All 9 patients exhibited LGE in their left ventricle, and 70 of 153 (46%) myocardial segments were enhanced. All of the patients displayed LGE in the basal septal wall. The patients' LGE layer patterns were as follows: subepicardial: 40% (28/70), intramural: 30% (21/70), subendocardial: 16% (11/70), and transmural: 14% (10/70). The basal septum wall and subepicardial layer often exhibit LGE on cardiac MR images in CS patients. LGE can be observed in other segments and layers in some cases. PMID:28008199

  4. A case of isolated sacral and pelvic sarcoidosis diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy.

    PubMed

    Garwood, Amy S; Mikuls, Ted R

    2003-10-01

    Although sarcoidosis frequently involves bone, it rarely presents as isolated osseous disease. We present a case in which sarcoidosis is limited to the sacrum and pelvis, a case that underscores the potential importance of both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone marrow biopsy in establishing the diagnosis. Additionally, we report the interval resolution of bony disease by MRI following glucocorticoid treatment.

  5. Lesion of a lower lip scar--an initial presentation of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro de Castro, Maria Cristina; Maya, Tullia Cuzzi; Pereira, Lea Freitas; Lugon, Nilza Viana; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2002-09-01

    The development of sarcoidosis at the site of previous scar is unusual and may be the first sign of systemic disease. Sarcoidosis on a lower lip scar persisting for 13 years, which pointed to examination for internal manifestations, is presented along with a review of the subject

  6. Hypercalcemia, Anemia, and Acute Kidney Injury: A Rare Presentation of Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neeraj; Tariq, Hassan; Uday, Kalpana; Skaradinskiy, Yevgeniy; Niazi, Masooma; Chilimuri, Sridhar

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with substernal chest pain. She was found to have elevated calcium levels, anemia, and acute kidney injury. The hypercalcemia persisted despite therapy with fluids and bisphosphonates. She was found to have nonparathyroid hormone (PTH) mediated hypercalcemia. The chest X-ray did not reveal any pathology. Our Initial impression was likely underlying hematologic malignancy such as lymphoma or multiple myeloma. A bone marrow biopsy was performed that revealed nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Further workup revealed elevated vitamin 1,25 dihydroxy level, beta-two microglobulin level, and ACE levels. Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan of chest showed bilateral apical bronchiectasis, but did not show any lymphadenopathy or evidence of malignancy. Subsequently, a fiber optic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy showed nonnecrotizing granulomatous inflammation consistent with sarcoidosis. After initiating glucocorticoid therapy, the patient's hypercalcemia improved and her kidney function returned to baseline. PMID:26199627

  7. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis pleurisy by medical thoracoscopy: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Sule; Pinelli, Valentina; Marchetti, Gian Pietro; Tassi, Gian Franco

    2008-01-01

    Pleural effusion in sarcoidosis is infrequent. The data on thoracoscopic observations of sarcoidosis pleurisy are limited. The present study describes three cases of sarcoid-related pleurisy diagnosed by medical thoracoscopy and discusses the thoracoscopic features of sarcoid pleuritis. The appearance of pleural nodules was completely different in the three cases, and the distribution of nodules of sarcoidosis was heterogenously located in the pleural surfaces. Pleural disease in sarcoidosis could be proved easily by sampling visible nodules, and pleural fluid could be aspirated without complications during thoracoscopy. Due to symptomatic pleurisy of sarcoidosis, therapy was given as systemic corticosteroid. In conclusion, thoracoscopy may be an appropriate alternative technique to obtain an accurate diagnosis in sarcoid pleurisy.

  8. Gene expression profiles in granuloma tissue reveal novel diagnostic markers in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Christophi, George P; Caza, Tiffany; Curtiss, Christopher; Gumber, Divya; Massa, Paul T; Landas, Steve K

    2014-06-01

    Sarcoidosis is an immune-mediated multisystem disease characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. The pathogenesis of sarcoidosis is unclear, with proposed infectious or environmental antigens triggering an aberrant immune response in susceptible hosts. Multiple pro-inflammatory signaling pathways have been implicated in mediating macrophage activation and granuloma formation in sarcoidosis, including IFN-γ/STAT-1, IL-6/STAT-3, and NF-κB. It is difficult to distinguish sarcoidosis from other granulomatous diseases or assess disease severity and treatment response with histopathology alone. Therefore, development of improved diagnostic tools is imperative. Herein, we describe an efficient and reliable technique to classify granulomatous disease through selected gene expression and identify novel genes and cytokine pathways contributing to the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. We quantified the expression of twenty selected mRNAs extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue (n = 38) of normal lung, suture granulomas, sarcoid granulomas, and fungal granulomas. Utilizing quantitative real-time RT-PCR we analyzed the expression of several genes, including IL-6, COX-2, MCP-1, IFN-γ, T-bet, IRF-1, Nox2, IL-33, and eotaxin-1 and revealed differential regulation between suture, sarcoidosis, and fungal granulomas. This is the first study demonstrating that quantification of target gene expression in FFPE tissue biopsies is a potentially effective diagnostic and research tool in sarcoidosis.

  9. Isolated Gastrointestinal Sarcoidosis Involving Multiple Gastrointestinal Sites Presenting as Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Gaye, Bilkisu; Makary, Raafat; Monteiro, Carmela; Eid, Emely

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic and systemic disorder characterized by the formation of non-caseating granulomas. Very few cases of isolated gastrointestinal sarcoidosis have been reported, and even fewer, if any, report gastrointestinal sarcoidosis within multiple gastrointestinal sites concomitantly. We present a 42-year-old white man with chronic diarrhea and abdominal pain for more than 3 years. Mucosal biopsies revealed non-caseating microgranulomas in the stomach, throughout the small intestine, colon, and rectum. Prednisone therapy was initiated with a rapid improvement in symptoms and complete resolution of diarrhea within 3 weeks. PMID:28119949

  10. Exacerbation of recalcitrant cutaneous sarcoidosis with adalimumab - a paradoxical effect? A case report*

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Guida; Sousa, Lourdes Emerenciano; João, Alexandre Miguel Bruno Lopes

    2013-01-01

    The paradoxical adverse effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonists have been described frequently as a result of the widespread use of these drugs. Among the TNF-alpha blocking agents, few reports exist relating the use of adalimumab in cutaneous sarcoidosis, although all of them show good results. More recently, sarcoidosis onsets have been reported with various TNF-alpha inhibitors. The current case is, to our knowledge, the first to describe the exacerbation of cutaneous lesions of sarcoidosis treated with adalimumab. PMID:24346872

  11. (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) PET may have the potential to detect cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Shozo, Okamoto; Shiga, Tohru; Uchiyama, Yuko; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Watanabe, Shiro; Toyonaga, Takuya; Kikuchi, Hisaya; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Tamaki, Nagara

    2017-02-01

    (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) is a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer that accumulates in hypoxic tissues. We here present a case of suspected cardiac sarcoidosis which was detected with increased FMISO uptake.

  12. Multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules masquerading as pulmonary metastasis; a case of nodular sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Mostafa; Farrokh, Donya; Mohammadpanah, Najmeh

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology that is manifested by the presence of non-caseating granulomas. Multiple pulmonary nodules are rare presentations of sarcoidosis. We report a case of nodular sarcoidosis in a young male of Middle-East origin who had initially presented with bilateral painful ankle edema. His chest X-ray showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. A high resolution computed tomography scan of the chest demonstrated multiple pulmonary nodular lesions and also mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. Subsequent biopsies revealed non-necrotizing granuloma with multi-nucleated giant cells indicative of sarcoidosis. An appropriate work-up was done to confirm the true nature of the nodules and facilitate treatment. PMID:27757192

  13. Mediastinal sarcoidosis mimicking lymph malignancy recurrence after anti-neoplastic therapy.

    PubMed

    El Hammoumi, Massine; El Marjany, Mohamed; Moussaoui, Driss; Doudouh, Aberahim; Mansouri, Hamid; Kabiri, El Hassane

    2015-07-01

    The aim of our work is to promote the awareness about the development of sarcoidosis after antineoplastic therapy in order to avoid diagnostic errors with FDG-PET/CT findings. We report the observation of three women with breast, cervix and stomach treated cancers who developed a sarcoidosis after the end of anti-neoplastic therapy. The utility of FDG-PET/CT is in pinpointing the organs candidates for diagnostic biopsy and not distinguishing between the malignancy and granulomatous or inflammatory diseases.

  14. Polycystic Liver Disease and Sarcoidosis: Unusual Coexisting Etiologies of Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jagroop, Sophia; Parthvi, Rukma

    2017-01-01

    Both polycystic liver disease (PLD) and sarcoidosis can involve liver. Most of the time, liver disease in both conditions is asymptomatic, but they can rarely cause portal hypertension. Our aim is to report a case of a 51-year-old female with a history of adult dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and sarcoidosis who presented with multiple episodes of hematemesis. An endoscopy showed grade 3 esophageal varices. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen showed ascites with polycystic liver, nodular contour, and calcified granuloma. PLD can cause portal hypertension due to fibrosis or large cysts compressing on the portal vein. On the other hand, sarcoidosis causes portal hypertension by formation of arteriovenous(AV) shunts or fibrosis in areas of granulomas. Both conditions are diagnosed on imaging. There is no approved medical treatment for PLD; the only curative treatment is liver transplantation. Asymptomatic hepatic sarcoidosis does not need any treatment. The recommended treatment is corticosteroids for both isolated and systemic sarcoidosis. ADPKD and sarcoidosis can involve multiple organs. The presence of both conditions can accelerate the disease process and could be a therapeutic challenge. Early abdominal imaging during the course of both diseases can improve the outcome by decreasing the diagnostic window. PMID:28280650

  15. Scar sarcoidosis on a finger mimicking a rapidly growing soft tissue tumour: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scar sarcoidosis is a rare and uncommon but specific cutaneous manifestation of sarcoidosis. In general it arises in pre-existing scars deriving from mechanical traumas. As most surgeons dealing with scars might not be aware of cutaneous sarcoidosis and its different types of appearance the appropriate staging and treatment might be missed or at least delayed. To our knowledge this is the first case in literature of scar sarcoidosis on a finger. Case presentation We present a case of a 33-year-old carpenter who developed scar sarcoidosis on his right index finger 4 years after the tendon of the long digital flexor got accidentally cut by an angle grinder. He was referred due to a swelling of the finger suspected to be a malignant soft tissue tumour. The circumference of the affected finger had almost doubled, adding up to 94 mm. Incision biopsy revealed typical noncaseating granulomas. Further investigation showed a systemic extent of the disease with involvement of the lung. A systemic treatment with oral steroids led to an almost full regression of the swelling with restoration of function and resolution of lung infiltrates. Conclusion In case of a suspicious and/or progressive swelling a definite diagnosis should be achieved by biopsy within a short time to enable a proper treatment. If scar sarcoidosis is proven further investigation is necessary to exclude a systemical involvement. A surgical treatment of the swelling is not indicated. PMID:23031186

  16. Unsuspected exposure to beryllium: potential implications for sarcoidosis diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Laczniak, Andrew N; Gross, Nathan A; Fuortes, Laurence J; Field, R William

    2014-07-21

    Exposure to Beryllium (Be) can cause sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) in some individuals.  Even relatively low exposures may be sufficient to generate an asymptomatic, or in some cases a symptomatic, immune response. Since the clinical presentation of CBD is similar to that of sarcoidosis, it is helpful to have information on exposure to beryllium in order to reduce misdiagnosis. The purpose of this pilot study is to explore the occurrence of Be surface deposits at worksites with little or no previous reported use of commercially available Be products.  The workplaces chosen for this study represent a convenience sample of businesses in eastern Iowa. One hundred thirty-six surface dust samples were collected from 27 businesses for analysis of Be. The results were then divided into categories by the amount of detected Be according to U.S. Department of Energy guidelines as described in 10 CFR 850.30 and 10 CFR 850.31. Overall, at least one of the samples at 78% of the work sites tested contained deposited Be above the analytical limit of quantitation (0.035 µg beryllium per sample).  Beryllium was detected in 46% of the samples collected. Twelve percent of the samples exceeded 0.2 µg/100 cm² and 4% of the samples exceeded a Be concentration of 3 µg/100 cm². The findings from this study suggest that there may be a wider range and greater number of work environments that have the potential for Be exposure than has been documented previously.  These findings could have implications for the accurate diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  17. Acute renal failure as a form of presentation of sarcoidosis in a young adult: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease. Renal involvement is a rare initial presentation of this disease. Few articles on renal involvement as an initial presentation of sarcoidosis have been published in the literature. Case presentation A 26-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute renal failure as an initial manifestation of sarcoidosis. Conclusions Renal involvement is an uncommon feature of sarcoidosis and it is essential to establish a fast and correct diagnosis because early therapy avoids progression to terminal renal failure. PMID:25124289

  18. Corticosteroid Responsive Sarcoidosis with Multisystemic Involvement Years after Initial Diagnosis: A Lymphoma Mimicker on 18-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Turker; Savas, Recep; Kocacelebi, Kenan; Ucan, Eyup Sabri

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas. 18-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computer tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is increasingly used in routine clinical practice to assess active sarcoidosis because it can detect active inflammatory granulomatous disease. However, active sarcoidosis lesions are observed to be hypermetabolic on FDG-PET/CT much like malignancies, which may lead to misinterpretation on imaging. In this case report, we present a rare case of sarcoidosis with multisystem involvement including lung, lymph nodes, bone, pleura, and soft tissue that mimicked lymphoma on FDG-PET/CT and responded to corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26312138

  19. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor level is more sensitive than angiotensin-converting enzyme or lysozyme for diagnosis of sarcoidosis and may be a marker of multiple organ involvement.

    PubMed

    Thi Hong Nguyen, Chuyen; Kambe, Naotomo; Kishimoto, Izumi; Ueda-Hayakawa, Ikuko; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2017-03-11

    Skin lesions in sarcoidosis are often the initial symptoms that enable the dermatologist to be the first to diagnose this granulomatosis. However, diagnosis is sometimes very problematic. In 2015, the diagnostic criteria for sarcoidosis were updated in Japan, with elevated serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) replacing negative tuberculin reaction. Therefore, we assessed the clinical utility of sIL-2R compared with two other common markers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and lysozyme, in patients who visited the dermatology clinic. Data from 72 patients showed that sIL-2R was more sensitive than both ACE and lysozyme in supporting a diagnosis of sarcoidosis (52.8%) compared with ACE (29%) and lysozyme (26.4%). Additionally, the sIL-2R level was significantly higher in patients with multiple organ involvement and parenchymal infiltration. Patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had higher serum ACE and lysozyme levels, a higher incidence of pulmonary involvement, more severe chest radiographic stage and a high incidence of expression-specific signs by imaging analysis. Receiver-operator curve analysis showed that sIL-2R was a better marker at the threshold cut-off point compared with ACE and lysozyme for identifying patients with multiple organ involvement, detecting patients with pulmonary disease and parenchymal infiltration as well as predicting the presence of specific signs in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Moreover, the kinetics of sIL-2R levels correlated closely with clinical manifestations, in contrast to the modest changes of ACE and lysozyme levels during the follow-up period. In conclusion, sIL-2R may be considered a good marker for diagnosis and a potential indicator of disease activity.

  20. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by Fas (CD95) mutation mimicking sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Müllauer, Leonhard; Emhofer, Josef; Wohlfart, Sabine; Pichlhöfer, Bettina; Stary, Susanne; Ebetsberger, Georg; Mannhalter, Christine; Chott, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is an inherited disorder associated with defects in apoptosis, characterized by childhood onset of lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and autoimmune disease. ALPS is most frequently associated with a mutation in the cell death receptor Fas (CD95). Very rarely a mutation in caspase 10 is present. An increase of CD4/CD8 double negative T cells in the peripheral blood and lymph nodes is a feature characteristic of ALPS. Additionally, histiocytic proliferations resembling sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease) were reported recently in patients with ALPS. In the rare cases with a caspase 10 mutation an accumulation of dendritic cells in lymphoid organs was noted. We describe a different, sarcoidosislike, histiocytic infiltration of lymph nodes that persisted for years in a girl, that was initially supposed to suffer from sarcoidosis, but was eventually diagnosed as ALPS, associated with a missense mutation in the intracellular death domain of Fas. This sarcoidosislike histologic picture extends the spectrum of histiocytic lymph node alterations observed in ALPS and alerts of a potential diagnostic pitfall.

  1. Resolution of abnormal cardiac MRI T2 signal following immune suppression for cardiac sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Crouser, Elliott D; Ruden, Emily; Julian, Mark W; Raman, Subha V

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac MR (CMR) with late gadolinium enhancement is commonly used to detect cardiac damage in the setting of cardiac sarcoidosis. The addition of T2 mapping to CMR was recently shown to enhance cardiac sarcoidosis detection and correlates with increased cardiac arrhythmia risk. This study was conducted to determine if CMR T2 abnormalities and related arrhythmias are reversible following immune suppression therapy. A retrospective study of subjects with cardiac sarcoidosis with abnormal T2 signal on baseline CMR and a follow-up CMR study at least 4 months later was conducted at The Ohio State University from 2011 to 2015. Immune suppression treated participants had a significant reduction in peak myocardial T2 value (70.0±5.5 vs 59.2±6.1 ms, pretreatment vs post-treatment; p=0.017), and 83% of immune suppression treated subjects had objective improvement in cardiac arrhythmias. Two subjects who had received inadequate immune suppression treatment experienced progression of cardiac sarcoidosis. This report indicates that abnormal CMR T2 signal represents an acute inflammatory manifestation of cardiac sarcoidosis that is potentially reversible with adequate immune suppression therapy.

  2. Extending Admixture Mapping to Nuclear Pedigrees: Application to Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    McKeigue, Paul M.; Colombo, Marco; Agakov, Felix; Datta, Indrani; Levin, Albert; Favro, David; Gray-Montgomery, Courtney; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe statistical methods that extend the application of admixture mapping from unrelated individuals to nuclear pedigrees, allowing existing pedigree-based collections to be fully exploited. Computational challenges have been overcome by developing a fast algorithm that exploits the factorial structure of the underlying model of ancestry transitions. This has been implemented as an extension of the program ADMIXMAP. We demonstrate the application of the method to a study of sarcoidosis in African Americans that has previously been analyzed only as an admixture mapping study restricted to unrelated individuals. Although the ancestry signals detected in this pedigree analysis are generally similar to those detected in the earlier analysis of unrelated cases, we are able to extract more information and this yields a much sharper exclusion map; using the classical criterion of an LOD score of minus 2, the pedigree analysis is able to exclude a risk ratio of 2 or more associated with African ancestry over 96% of the genome, compared with only 83% in the earlier analysis of unrelated individuals only. Although the pedigree extension of ADMIXMAP can use ancestry-informative markers only at relatively low density, it can use imputed ancestry states from programs such as WINPOP or HAPMIX that use dense SNP marker genotypes for admixture mapping. This extends both the efficiency and the range of application of this powerful gene mapping method. PMID:23371909

  3. Diffuse Anterior Retinoblastoma with Sarcoidosis-Like Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Koji; Nagata, Kenji; Yamanaka, Yukito; Kuwahara, Yasumichi; Iehara, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Sotozono, Chie

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinoblastomas account for 4% of malignancies in children, 1-2% of which are diffuse infiltrating retinoblastomas. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is rare and does not involve the retina. Here, we report on a diffuse anterior retinoblastoma with large sarcoidosis-like nodules on the iris that were responsive to anti-inflammatory therapy. Case We present a 6-year-old girl who had anterior uveitis with white nodules on the iris and posterior surface of the cornea in her right eye. The nodules initially responded well to anti-inflammatory treatment. However, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) showed that the nodules gradually grew, shrinking the iris. We then collected the aqueous humor for diagnosis. A biopsy revealed clusters of small cells with a high nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio with partial rosette formation. Therefore, we diagnosed diffuse anterior retinoblastoma without retinal involvement and performed enucleation of the right eye. The histopathology demonstrated undifferentiated cells similar to those seen on the biopsy, and tumor cells invaded the iris stroma, posterior surface of the cornea, ciliary body, and sclera. After the enucleation, she underwent chemotherapy and remains alive. Conclusion A differential diagnosis of retinoblastoma should be considered when white nodules refractory to anti-inflammatory therapy occur in the eye, even in the absence of obvious retinal masses. AS-OCT findings are useful in assessing retinoblastoma. PMID:26955346

  4. Polygenic risk assessment reveals pleiotropy between sarcoidosis and inflammatory disorders in the context of genetic ancestry.

    PubMed

    Lareau, C A; DeWeese, C F; Adrianto, I; Lessard, C J; Gaffney, P M; Iannuzzi, M C; Rybicki, B A; Levin, A M; Montgomery, C G

    2017-03-09

    Sarcoidosis is a complex disease of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of granulomatous inflammation. Though various immune system pathways have been implicated in disease, the relationship between the genetic determinants of sarcoidosis and other inflammatory disorders has not been characterized. Herein, we examined the degree of genetic pleiotropy common to sarcoidosis and other inflammatory disorders to identify shared pathways and disease systems pertinent to sarcoidosis onset. To achieve this, we quantify the association of common variant polygenic risk scores from nine complex inflammatory disorders with sarcoidosis risk. Enrichment analyses of genes implicated in pleiotropic associations were further used to elucidate candidate pathways. In European-Americans, we identify significant pleiotropy between risk of sarcoidosis and risk of asthma (R(2)=2.03%; P=8.89 × 10(-9)), celiac disease (R(2)=2.03%; P=8.21 × 10(-9)), primary biliary cirrhosis (R(2)=2.43%; P=2.01 × 10(-10)) and rheumatoid arthritis (R(2)=4.32%; P=2.50 × 10(-17)). These associations validate in African Americans only after accounting for the proportion of genome-wide European ancestry, where we demonstrate similar effects of polygenic risk for African-Americans with the highest levels of European ancestry. Variants and genes implicated in European-American pleiotropic associations were enriched for pathways involving interleukin-12, interleukin-27 and cell adhesion molecules, corroborating the hypothesized immunopathogenesis of disease.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 9 March 2017; doi:10.1038/gene.2017.3.

  5. Monitoring the Therapy of Extensive Osseous Sarcoidosis With FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hua; Numani, Shah; Liu, Shuang

    2017-02-24

    FDG PET/CT was performed in a 47-year-old man to evaluate possible malignancy of the spine revealed by MRI. The PET images revealed numerous focal FDG activity throughout the skeletal system. In addition, multiple foci of the increased activity in the mediastinal and hilar nodes were noted, suggestive of sarcoidosis, which was proven following biopsy. Therapy for sarcoidosis was initiated. In the subsequent 4 follow-up FDG PET/CT scans, the activity in both the bones and mediastinal/hilar regions fluctuated. However, anatomical abnormality in the bones on the CT images was never visualized during the entire clinical course.

  6. The natural history and long-term outcome of 57 limb sarcoidosis neuropathy cases.

    PubMed

    Burns, T M; Dyck, P J B; Aksamit, A J; Dyck, P J

    2006-05-15

    Fifty-seven patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis causing limb neuropathy were reviewed in order to delineate the characteristic symptoms, impairments, disability, course, outcome and response to corticosteroid treatment of limb sarcoid neuropathy. Typically the neuropathy had a definite date of symptomatic onset. Prominent were positive neuropathic sensory symptoms (P-NSS), especially pain, overshadowing weakness and sensory loss. P-NSS were the main cause of disability. Almost always the pattern was asymmetric and not length-dependent (unlike distal polyneuropathy). We inferred (from kind and distribution of symptoms, signs and electrophysiologic and other test results) that the pathologic process was focal or multifocal, involving most classes of nerve fibers and variable levels of proximal to distal levels of roots and peripheral nerves. Additional features aiding in diagnosis were: systemic symptoms such as fatigue, malaise, arthralgia, fever and weight loss; involvement of multiple tissues (i.e. skin, lymph nodes and eye); the patterns of neuropathy; MRI features; and ultimately tissue diagnosis. Axonal degeneration predominated, although an acquired demyelinating process was observed in 3 patients. For most cases, the disease had a chronic, monophasic course. MRI studies done in later years of affected neural structures were helpful in identifying leptomeningeal thickening, hilar adenopathy; and enlargement and T2 enhancement of nerve roots, plexuses, and limb nerves. Corticosteroid treatment appeared to ameliorate symptoms more than impairments. Several variables were associated with neuropathic improvement: CSF pleocytosis, short duration between symptom onset and treatment, and a higher grade of disability at first evaluation-a possible rationale for future earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Effect of Discontinuation of Prednisolone Therapy on Risk of Cardiac Mortality Associated With Worsening Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Toshiyuki; Nagano, Nobutaka; Sugano, Yasuo; Asaumi, Yasuhide; Aiba, Takeshi; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Kusano, Kengo; Noguchi, Teruo; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2016-03-15

    Prednisolone (PSL) therapy is the gold standard treatment in patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS). However, clinicians often have difficulty in deciding whether to discontinue PSL therapy in long-term management. Sixty-one consecutive patients with CS were divided into 2 groups based on the discontinuation of PSL during the median follow-up period of 9.9 years. PSL was discontinued in 12 patients because of improvement of clinical findings. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in age, gender, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), findings of imaging techniques, incidence of fatal arrhythmias and heart failure, and dose of PSL. After discontinuation of PSL, 5 patients had cardiac death, and discontinuation of PSL was significantly associated with higher cardiac mortality compared with continuation (p = 0.035). Although patients with discontinuation had improvement of LVEF after PSL treatment, LVEF decreased after discontinuation of PSL. Furthermore, discontinuation of PSL was associated with greater percent decrease in LVEF compared with continuation (p = 0.037) during the follow-up period. In conclusion, in the long-term management of patients with CS, discontinuation of PSL was associated with poor clinical outcomes and decreased LVEF, suggesting the importance of PSL maintenance therapy.

  8. Ga-67 positivity in sarcoidosis of the skin with coincident thyroid uptake of uncertain etiology

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, A.J.; Brown, J.M.; Salinas, J.A.; Feaster, B.L.; Brown, T.J.

    1984-03-01

    Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy of a 26-year-old woman with systemic sarcoidosis demonstrated abnormal radiotracer uptake within multiple biopsy-proven sarcoidal cutaneous lesions and within both lobes of the thyroid gland. The etiology of the thyroidal uptake of the Ga-67 was uncertain but it may represent sarcoidal involvement of the gland.

  9. Use of Narrow Band Imaging in the Diagnosis of Hypovascular Endobronchial Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Rimoun; Sabath, Bruce; Kaplan, Tugba; Yung, Rex

    2017-02-08

    Narrow band imaging (NBI) has been widely applied for the evaluation of numerous disease conditions that present with increased vascularity of the mucosa, most often malignancies. It is increasingly being used in benign conditions as well. We present the first case in which NBI was used, rather, to detect areas of bronchial hypovascularity due to its ability to increase the visual contrast between normal and hypovascular mucosa. Endobronchial biopsy of these nodules led to the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Had conventional white light alone been utilized, the diagnosis would likely have been missed because not only were these lesions difficult to visualize under white light but transbronchial lung biopsy and transbronchial needle aspiration were unremarkable. We propose that NBI should be considered in the bronchoscopic evaluation of possible sarcoidosis or any other condition that could present with airway hypovascularity.

  10. FDG PET/CT Evidence of Effective Treatment of Cardiac Sarcoidosis With Adalimumab.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christina T; Sweiss, Nadera J; Lu, Yang

    2016-05-01

    A 53-year-old man with mediastinal lymph node biopsy and cardiac MRI-proven cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) received treatment with pacemaker and steroids. FDG PET/CT showed active CS despite treatment with prednisone and methotrexate. Addition of weekly adalimumab (Humira) injections was introduced for 3 months. Follow-up FDG PET/CT showed complete resolution of CS as well as improvement of other sarcoid lesions in the thoracic lymph nodes.

  11. Beryllium-induced lung disease exhibits expression profiles similar to sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Silveira, Lori J.; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Gillespie, May; Mroz, Peggy M.; Mayer, Annyce S.; Fingerlin, Tasha E.; Maier, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    A subset of beryllium-exposed workers develop beryllium sensitisation (BeS) which precedes chronic beryllium disease (CBD). We conducted an in-depth analysis of differentially expressed candidate genes in CBD. We performed Affymetrix GeneChip 1.0 ST array analysis on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 CBD, 10 BeS and 10 beryllium-exposed, nondiseased controls stimulated with BeSO4 or medium. The differentially expressed genes were validated by high-throughput real-time PCR in this group and in an additional group of cases and nonexposed controls. The functional roles of the top candidate genes in CBD were assessed using a pharmacological inhibitor. CBD gene expression data were compared with whole blood and lung tissue in sarcoidosis from the Gene Expression Omnibus. We confirmed almost 450 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between CBD and controls. The top enrichment of genes was for JAK (Janus kinase)–STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) signalling. A JAK2 inhibitor significantly decreased tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ production. Furthermore, we found 287 differentially expressed genes overlapped in CBD/sarcoidosis. The top shared pathways included cytokine–cytokine receptor interactions, and Toll-like receptor, chemokine and JAK–STAT signalling pathways. We show that PBMCs demonstrate differentially expressed gene profiles relevant to the immunnopathogenesis of CBD. CBD and sarcoidosis share similar differential expression of pathogenic genes and pathways. PMID:27103383

  12. Caveats and truths in genetic, clinical, autoimmune and autoinflammatory issues in Blau syndrome and early onset sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Caso, Francesco; Costa, Luisa; Rigante, Donato; Vitale, Antonio; Cimaz, Rolando; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Sfriso, Paolo; Verrecchia, Elena; Tognon, Sofia; Bascherini, Vittoria; Galeazzi, Mauro; Punzi, Leonardo; Cantarini, Luca

    2014-12-01

    Blau syndrome (BS) and early onset sarcoidosis (EOS) are, respectively, the familial and sporadic forms of the pediatric granulomatous autoinflammatory disease, which belong to the group of monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes. Both of these conditions are caused by mutations in the NOD2 gene, which encodes the cytosolic NOD2 protein, one of the pivotal molecules in the regulation of innate immunity, primarily expressed in the antigen-presenting cells. Clinical onset of BS and EOS is usually in the first years of life with noncaseating epithelioid granulomas mainly affecting joints, skin, and uveal tract, variably associated with heterogeneous systemic features. The dividing line between autoinflammatory and autoimmune mechanisms is probably not so clear-cut, and the relationship existing between BS or EOS and autoimmune phenomena remains unclear. There is no established therapy for the management of BS and EOS, and the main treatment aim is to prevent ocular manifestations entailing the risk of potential blindness and to avoid joint deformities. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs, such as methotrexate or azathioprine, may be helpful; when patients are unresponsive to the combination of corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents, the tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor infliximab should be considered. Data on anti-interleukin-1 inhibition with anakinra and canakinumab is still limited and further corroboration is required. The aim of this paper is to describe BS and EOS, focusing on their genetic, clinical, and therapeutic issues, with the ultimate goal of increasing clinicians' awareness of both of these rare but serious disorders.

  13. Experimental pulmonary granuloma mimicking sarcoidosis induced by Propionibacterium acnes in mice.

    PubMed

    Iio, Kouji; Iio, Tomoe Ueno; Okui, Yuhei; Ichikawa, Hirohisa; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Miyahara, Nobuaki; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Nakata, Yasunari; Kataoka, Mikio

    2010-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated as an etiologic agent of sarcoidosis since the isolation of this bacterium from sarcoid lesions. We experimentally produced a murine pulmonary granuloma model using P. acnes with several features that simulate sarcoidosis. Mice were sensitized with heat-killed P. acnes and complete Freund's adjuvant and were subsequently challenged with heat-killed P. acnes at 2-week intervals. P. acnes-challenged mice developed epitheloid cell granulomas in the lungs. These mice showed a pulmonary immune response characterized by an increased number of T-lymphocytes, especially CD4+ cells, and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid also increased. Furthermore, significant elevations in both angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) serum levels and antibody titers against P. acnes were observed. Mice sensitized with P. acnes without complete Freund's adjuvant were capable of forming pulmonary granulomas, which appeared to be caused by indigenous P. acnes. The genome of P. acnes was found in the lungs, BAL cells, hilar lymph nodes, liver, and spleen in non-sensitized mice, which were thought to be germ-free. These results suggest that the immune response against indigenous P. acnes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of granuloma formation in a murine model.

  14. Autoinflammatory granulomatous diseases: from Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis to NOD2-mediated disease and Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Caso, Francesco; Galozzi, Paola; Costa, Luisa; Sfriso, Paolo; Cantarini, Luca; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    The recent identification of genetic mutations leading to dysfunction of inflammatory and apoptotic pathways, has allowed to characterise a group of diseases, recognised as monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes. Among those, Blau syndrome (BS) and early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) have been identified as familial and sporadic phenotypes of the same non-caseating granulomatous form. Both the diseases are caused by mutations in the CARD15/NOD2 gene, encoding the cytosolic NOD2 protein, one of the key molecules in the regulation of innate immunity. Clinical onset is typically located in the first years of life and phenotype is characterised by simultaneous or less articular, cutaneous and ocular non-caseating granulomatous inflammation, which can be variably associated with a heterogeneous systemic spectrum. The CARD15/NOD2 gene has also been identified as one of the genes linked to susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD), a common polygenic inflammatory granulomatous bowel disease. The heightened nuclear factor-κB activity, found in the intestinal tissue of patients affected by CD, has probably a genetic cause related to several CARD15/NOD2 polymorphisms. Other substitutions in the CARD15/NOD2 gene have also been found in a recently described disorder, called NOD2-associated autoinflammatory disease, which shares several clinical characteristics with BS and EOS. This review attempts to describe these diseases on the basis of the most recent evidences. We described genetic and clinical aspects, mainly focusing on BS and EOS, the most representative diseases of autoinflammatory granulomatous diseases, with the ultimate purpose to expand their knowledge. PMID:26509073

  15. The indirect costs of systemic autoimmune diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and sarcoidosis: a summary of 2012 real-life data from the Social Insurance Institution in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł P; Malinowski, Krzysztof P

    2015-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis and sarcoidosis are three different autoimmune systemic diseases that generate a significant burden to society due to treatment costs and also those caused by a work disability or absenteeism among patients. Relevant 2012 data referring to the three components of absenteeism produced by autoimmune systemic diseases, sick leave, short-term and long-term work disability, were obtained from the Social Insurance Institution in Poland (PSII). By applying the Human Capital Approach using gross domestic product per capita, gross value added per worker and gross income per worker in 2012, total indirect costs for the diseases were calculated. All costs were presented in euros and were valid for 2012. The PSII recorded 1600 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 500 patients with systemic sclerosis and 2700 patients with sarcoidosis in the 2012 - total indirect costs were as high as 7,260,595, 2,268,571 and 4,027,575 EUR, respectively. Costs were estimated using gross domestic product per capita; 17,485,412, 5,463,312 and 9,699,455 EUR, accordingly, calculated using gross value added per worker and 5,346,933, 1,670,648 and 2,966,034 EUR estimated using gross income per worker, respectively. Considering only data on absenteeism gathered by the PSII we can conclude that the three autoimmune systemic diseases bore great indirect costs. Their social burden for Poland could be even greater when considering presenteeism as well as other components of absenteeism such as loss of unpaid work, a gray economy or loss of leisure time.

  16. PAR-2, IL-4R, TGF-β and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage distinguishes extrinsic allergic alveolitis from sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Matěj, Radoslav; Smětáková, Magdalena; Vašáková, Martina; Nováková, Jana; Sterclová, Martina; Kukal, Jaromír; Olejár, Tomáš

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoidosis (SARC) and extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) share certain markers, making a differential diagnosis difficult even with histopathological investigation. In lung tissue, proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is primarily investigated with regard to epithelial and inflammatory perspectives. Varying levels of certain chemokines can be a useful tool for distinguishing EAA and SARC. Thus, in the present study, differences in the levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) and PAR-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were compared, using an ELISA method, between 14 patients with EAA and six patients with SARC. Statistically significant higher levels of IL-4R, PAR-2 and the PAR-2/TGF-β1 and PAR-2/TNF-α ratios were observed in EAA patients as compared with SARC patients. Furthermore, the ratios of TNF-α/total protein, TGF-β1/PAR-2 and TNF-α/PAR-2 were significantly lower in EAA patients than in SARC patients. The results indicated a higher detection of PAR-2 in EAA samples in association with TNF-α and TGF-β levels. As EAA and PAR-2 in parallel belong to the Th2-mediated pathway, the results significantly indicated an association between this receptor and etiology. In addition, the results indicated that SARC is predominantly a granulomatous inflammatory disease, thus, higher levels of TNF-α are observed. Therefore, the detection of PAR-2 and investigated chemokines in BALF may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis between EAA and SARC.

  17. [A case of sarcoidosis with hypercalcemia, urolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis and renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Nunohiro, T; Aoi, W; Kadota, J; Ueda, Y; Takahara, O; Yura, M

    1992-08-01

    A sixty nine-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of further examination of hypercalcemia. On July 1990, she complained of general fatigue and loss of appetite. She was pointed out to have hypercalcemia (15.1mg/dl), urolithiasis, and renal insufficiency. CT films of the chest showed swelling of the mediastinal lymphnodes and CT of the abdomen nephrocalcinosis. Ga-scintigraphy demonstrated an abnormal accumulation of gallium in the mediastinum. Levels of the parathyroid hormone was normal. Levels of the serum calcium (13.7mg/dl), angiotensin converting enzyme (30.4IU/L) and 1.25 (OH)2D (87PG/ml) were elevated. Giant cells were found in the biopsy specimen of the lung. A significant relationship between the serum calcium and creatinine were observed (r = 0.76, p < 0.02). Proximal fractional reabsorption of sodium showed to be suppressed (47.7%), and distal fractional reabsorption of sodium showed to be normal (88.4%). From these findings hypercalcemia and urolithiasis was suggested to result from sarcoidosis. The hypercalcemia and renal insufficiency improved with corticosteroid therapy.

  18. [Radiculopathy in patients with Heerfordt's syndrome: two case presentations and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Kousuke; Fukuhara, Aika; Tsugawa, Jun; Oma, Shinji; Tsuboi, Yoshio

    2013-08-01

    As a subtype of the clinical presentations associated with sarcoidosis, the combination of uveitis, parotid gland swelling, and facial nerve palsy is known as Heerfordt's syndrome. This syndrome is an extremely rare disorder that has been estimated to affect only 4.1-5.6% of patients with sarcoidosis. We present 2 cases of Heerfordt's syndrome associated with radiculopathy in the trunk. The 2 patients experienced unilateral or bilateral radiculopathy in the trunk and in the trigeminal nerve area associated with Heerfordt's syndrome. Radiculopathy is also a rare manifestation in patients with neurosarcoidosis. A literature review revealed that only 51 cases of radiculopathy associated with sarcoidosis have been documented. A diagnosis of Heerfordt's syndrome was observed in 7 out of these 51 cases. Together with our 2 cases, 9 out of 53 patients with radiculopathy associated with sarcoidosis have been diagnosed as having Heerfordt's syndrome (estimated frequency, 16.9%). In conclusion, radiculopathy is a common neurological manifestation in patients with Heerfordt's syndrome. On the basis of our experience, we suggest that physicians consider the possibility of Heerfordt's syndrome in cases of radiculopathy with unknown cause.

  19. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Blocker-Induced Erythrodermic Sarcoidosis in with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Kyung; Hwang, Pyung-Han; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2017-01-01

    The development of cutaneous sarcoidosis as a paradoxical adverse event of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers has been reported in the literature; however, an erythrodermic form of cutaneous sarcoidosis during anti-TNF-α therapy has not yet been reported. Herein, we report the first case of an erythrodermic form of cutaneous sarcoidosis during anti-TNF-α therapy and review previous studies of cutaneous sarcoidosis. A 6-year-old Korean girl who had been suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis presented with generalized erythematous skin eruption involving more than about 90% of her body surface area. After 14 months of etanercept treatment, the new erythematous skin eruption had developed and progressed into generalized erythroderma. Exclusion of suspected co-medication had been performed based on medication history. She had no other systemic symptoms, and ophthalmologic and neurologic examinations were normal. Histopathologic findings of the skin lesion revealed diffuse non-caseating granulomatous infiltrates composed of epithelioid histiocytes with sparse lymphocytes involving the entire dermis. Periodic-acid-Schiff and acid-fast stains were negative, and acid-fast bacilli was not detected by polymerase chain reaction of the skin biopsy. Based on clinicopathologic findings, she was diagnosed with etanercept-induced sarcoidal granuloma. After discontinuation of the suspected agent, the lesions spontaneously disappeared. PMID:28223750

  20. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Blocker-Induced Erythrodermic Sarcoidosis in with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Kyung; Hwang, Pyung-Han; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk; Park, Jin

    2017-02-01

    The development of cutaneous sarcoidosis as a paradoxical adverse event of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers has been reported in the literature; however, an erythrodermic form of cutaneous sarcoidosis during anti-TNF-α therapy has not yet been reported. Herein, we report the first case of an erythrodermic form of cutaneous sarcoidosis during anti-TNF-α therapy and review previous studies of cutaneous sarcoidosis. A 6-year-old Korean girl who had been suffering from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis presented with generalized erythematous skin eruption involving more than about 90% of her body surface area. After 14 months of etanercept treatment, the new erythematous skin eruption had developed and progressed into generalized erythroderma. Exclusion of suspected co-medication had been performed based on medication history. She had no other systemic symptoms, and ophthalmologic and neurologic examinations were normal. Histopathologic findings of the skin lesion revealed diffuse non-caseating granulomatous infiltrates composed of epithelioid histiocytes with sparse lymphocytes involving the entire dermis. Periodic-acid-Schiff and acid-fast stains were negative, and acid-fast bacilli was not detected by polymerase chain reaction of the skin biopsy. Based on clinicopathologic findings, she was diagnosed with etanercept-induced sarcoidal granuloma. After discontinuation of the suspected agent, the lesions spontaneously disappeared.

  1. A patient with a red eye and pulmonary oedema

    PubMed Central

    Kanji, R; Ghonim, S; Robertson, A; Dubrey, S W

    2014-01-01

    A middle-aged black male patient presented with symptoms and radiological features indicative of pulmonary oedema. Following several admissions for the same symptomology, and poor resolution of chest radiographic features, the patient developed a red eye. The latter was diagnosed as uveitis, which prompted consideration and proof of a diagnosis of cardiopulmonary sarcoidosis. The patient was subsequently treated with high dose steroids resulting in a partial recovery, complicated by issues of fluid retention. PMID:24591391

  2. A patient with a red eye and pulmonary oedema.

    PubMed

    Kanji, R; Ghonim, S; Robertson, A; Dubrey, S W

    2014-03-03

    A middle-aged black male patient presented with symptoms and radiological features indicative of pulmonary oedema. Following several admissions for the same symptomology, and poor resolution of chest radiographic features, the patient developed a red eye. The latter was diagnosed as uveitis, which prompted consideration and proof of a diagnosis of cardiopulmonary sarcoidosis. The patient was subsequently treated with high dose steroids resulting in a partial recovery, complicated by issues of fluid retention.

  3. Crohn's disease-associated interstitial lung disease mimicking sarcoidosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thao, Choua; Lagstein, Amir; Allen, Tadashi; Dincer, Huseyin Erhan; Kim, Hyun Joo

    2016-10-07

    Respiratory involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) is a rare manifestation known to involve the large and small airways, lung parenchyma, and pleura. The clinical presentation is nonspecific, and diagnostic tests can mimic other pulmonary diseases, posing a diagnostic challenge and delay in treatment. We report a case of a 60-year-old female with a history of CD and psoriatic arthritis who presented with dyspnea, fever, and cough with abnormal radiological findings. Diagnostic testing revealed an elevated CD4:CD8 ratio in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and cryoprobe lung biopsy results showed non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. We describe here the second reported case of pulmonary involvement mimicking sarcoidosis in Crohn's disease and a review of the literature on the approaches to making a diagnosis of CD-associated interstitial lung disease.

  4. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis Study. Alpha-1 Protocol.

    PubMed

    Strange, Charlie; Senior, Robert M; Sciurba, Frank; O'Neal, Scott; Morris, Alison; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Bowler, Russell; Hochheiser, Harry S; Becich, Michael J; Zhang, Yingze; Leader, Joseph K; Methé, Barbara A; Kaminski, Naftali; Sandhaus, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Severe deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin has a highly variable clinical presentation. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis α1 Study is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of adults older than age 35 years with PiZZ or PiMZ alpha-1 antitrypsin genotypes. It is designed to better understand if microbial factors influence this heterogeneity. Clinical symptoms, pulmonary function testing, computed chest tomography, exercise capacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will be used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes that can be studied with an integrated systems biology approach that includes plasma proteomics; mouth, BAL, and stool microbiome and virome analysis; and blood microRNA and blood mononuclear cell RNA and DNA profiling. We will rely on global genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome datasets. Matched cohorts of PiZZ participants on or off alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy, PiMZ participants not on augmentation therapy, and control participants from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study who match on FEV1 and age will be compared. In the primary analysis, we will determine if the PiZZ individuals on augmentation therapy have a difference in lower respiratory tract microbes identified compared with matched PiZZ individuals who are not on augmentation therapy. By characterizing the microbiome in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), we hope to define new phenotypes of COPD that explain some of the diversity of clinical presentations. As a unique genetic cause of COPD, AATD may inform typical COPD pathogenesis, and better understanding of it may illuminate the complex interplay between environment and genetics. Although the biologic approaches are hypothesis generating, the results may lead to development of novel biomarkers, better understanding of COPD phenotypes, and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic trials in AATD and COPD

  5. Off-Label Uses of Anti-TNF Therapy in Three Frequent Disorders: Behçet's Disease, Sarcoidosis, and Noninfectious Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Cano, Daniel; Callejas-Rubio, José Luis; Ruiz-Villaverde, Ricardo; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto

    2013-01-01

    Tumoral necrosis factor α plays a central role in both the inflammatory response and that of the immune system. Thus, its blockade with the so-called anti-TNF agents (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, and golimumab) has turned into the most important tool in the management of a variety of disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthropatties, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Nonetheless, theoretically, some other autoimmune disorders may benefit from these agents. Our aim is to review these off-label uses of anti-TNF blockers in three common conditions: Behçet's disease, sarcoidosis, and noninfectious uveitis. Due to the insufficient number of adequate clinical trials and consequently to their lower prevalence compared to other immune disorders, this review is mainly based on case reports and case series. PMID:23983404

  6. Cardiac sarcoidosis diagnosed by histological assessment of a left ventricular apical core excised for insertion of a left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Ryugo, Masahiro; Izutani, Hironori; Okamura, Toru; Shikata, Fumiaki; Okura, Masahiro; Nakamura, Yuki; Oogimoto, Akiyoshi; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2013-12-01

    A 58-year-old male with no history of heart disease was admitted to hospital for congestive heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction, and clinically diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy. He developed recurrent heart failure requiring several admissions to hospital and was finally referred to our institution with severe congestive heart failure. Despite medical treatment with inotropic agents, his symptoms gradually worsened. A left ventricular assist device (LVAD) was implanted together with mitral and tricuspid valve repair at 22 days after hospitalization. A histological assessment of a left ventricular apical core specimen revealed non-caseating granulomas consistent with cardiac sarcoidosis. The postoperative course was uneventful, and he remains under cardiac rehabilitation while waiting for cardiac transplantation.

  7. Learn About Sarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

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  8. Cardiac sarcoid: a chameleon masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy in the same patient.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Anushree; Sulemanjee, Nasir Z; Cheema, Omar; Downey, Francis X; Tajik, A Jamil

    2014-05-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem, granulomatous disease of unknown etiology often seen in young adults, with cardiac involvement in more than one-quarter of sarcoid patients. The clinical presentation of cardiac sarcoid depends upon the location and extent of myocardium involved. Although cardiac sarcoid may produce asymmetrical septal hypertrophy, it is most commonly considered in the differential diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. The hypertrophic stage of cardiac sarcoid is rarely seen. We describe a case of cardiac sarcoid in a young patient wherein a distinctive appearance of the cardiac sarcoid spectrum from "hypertrophic" stage to thinned/scarred stage, masquerading as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy followed by dilated cardiomyopathy, is demonstrated.

  9. Nod2-Nodosome in a Cell-Free System: Implications in Pathogenesis and Drug Discovery for Blau Syndrome and Early-Onset Sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Naoe; Ito, Yuki; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Heike, Toshio; Migita, Kiyoshi; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Kawakami, Atsushi; Morikawa, Shinnosuke; Mokuda, Sho; Kurata, Mie

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein (Nod) 2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, which recognizes muramyl dipeptide (N-Acetylmuramyl-L-Alanyl-D-Isoglutamine: MDP), a bacterial peptidoglycan component, and makes a NF-κB-activating complex called nodosome with adaptor protein RICK (RIP2/RIPK2). Nod2 mutants are associated with the autoinflammatory diseases, Blau syndrome (BS)/early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). For drug discovery of BS/EOS, we tried to develop Nod2-nodosome in a cell-free system. FLAG-tagged RICK, biotinylated-Nod2, and BS/EOS-associated Nod2 mutants were synthesized, and proximity signals between FLAG-tagged and biotinylated proteins were detected by amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay (ALPHA). Upon incubation with MDP, the ALPHA signal of interaction between Nod2-WT and RICK was increased in a dose-dependent manner. The ALPHA signal of interaction between RICK and the BS/EOS-associated Nod2 mutants was more significantly increased than Nod2-WT. Notably, the ALPHA signal between Nod2-WT and RICK was increased upon incubation with MDP, but not when incubated with the same concentrations, L-alanine, D-isoglutamic acid, or the MDP-D-isoform. Thus, we successfully developed Nod2-nodosome in a cell-free system reflecting its function in vivo, and it can be useful for screening Nod2-nodosome-targeted therapeutic molecules for BS/EOS and granulomatous inflammatory diseases. PMID:27403452

  10. Giant cell lichenoid dermatitis in a patient with baboon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Khelifa-Hamdani, Elhem; Touati-Serraj, Monia; Perriard, Jacqueline; Chavaz, Pierre; Saurat, Jean-Hilaire; Kaya, Gürkan

    2008-10-01

    Giant cell lichenoid dermatitis is a recently described pathological entity, which can be seen as an unusual lichenoid drug eruption, a manifestation of sarcoidosis or within herpes zoster scars. Histopathological findings include focal vacuolar alteration of the basal layer with cytoid bodies, dermal and intraepidermal multinucleated giant cells and a mixed chronic inflammatory infiltrate with a lichenoid pattern consisting of lymphocytes, histiocytes, eosinophils and plasma cells. Here, we report a giant cell lichenoid dermatitis in a 41-year-old male patient who developed, 3 days after intravenous treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for erysipelas of the left leg, a clinical picture suggesting a baboon syndrome characterized by an erythematous and pruritic eruption on the axillary, inguinal and popliteal areas and the anterior side of elbows. This is the first reported case of giant cell lichenoid dermatitis in a patient with baboon syndrome.

  11. Two patients with new granulomatous lung lesions during treatment of Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Satoshi; Akagi, Takanori; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Masaru; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Beppu, Takahiro; Nagahama, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nagata, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Two patients with granulomatous lung lesions thought to be related to Crohn's disease (CD) are reported. Patient 1 was a 43-year-old man who was diagnosed with CD at age 11 years. He developed a fever in the 38 °C, and a chest X-ray and CT scan showed infiltrates with air bronchograms in the right upper lobe and left lingular segment. Transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) revealed granulomatous lesions. Patient 2 was a 76-year-old woman who was diagnosed with CD at age 44 years. Chest CT showed infiltrates and nodular shadows in both lung fields. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in June 2012 revealed granulomatous lesions. Tuberculosis, fungal infections, drug-induced lung disorder, and sarcoidosis were ruled out as a cause of the granulomatous lesions in both patients. The aetiology was thought to be CD. PMID:26029529

  12. Elevated Levels of Cytokines Associated with Th2 and Th17 Cells in Vitreous Fluid of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Patients.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masaru; Sato, Tomohito; Tanaka, Atsushi; Muraoka, Tadashi; Taguchi, Manzo; Sakurai, Yutaka; Karasawa, Yoko; Ito, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are involved in low-grade inflammation in diabetes, and play pathogenic roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) by producing proinflammatory cytokines. T cells as well as other cells are also activated by proinflammatory cytokines, and infiltration into the vitreous of patients with PDR has been shown. In this study, we measured helper T (Th) cell-related cytokines in the vitreous of PDR patients to define the characteristics of Th-mediated immune responses associated with PDR. The study group consisted of 25 type 2 diabetic patients (25 eyes) with PDR. The control group consisted of 27 patients with epiretinal membrane (ERM), 26 patients with idiopathic macular hole (MH), and 26 patients with uveitis associated with sarcoidosis. Vitreous fluid was obtained at the beginning of vitrectomy, and centrifuging for cellular removals was not performed. Serum was also collected from PDR patients. IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, soluble sCD40L, and TNFα in the vitreous and serum samples were measured. Both percent detectable and levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21, IL-22, and TNFα in the vitreous were significantly higher than those in the serum in PDR patients. Vitreous levels of these cytokines and IL-31 were significantly higher in PDR than in ERM or MH patients. Vitreous levels of IL-4, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-31, and TNFα in PDR patients were also significantly higher than those of sarcoidosis patients. In PDR patients, vitreous IL-17A level correlated significantly with vitreous levels of IL-22 and IL-31, and especially with IL-4 and TNFα. Although it is unclear whether these cytokines play facilitative roles or inhibitory roles for the progression of PDR, the present study indicated that Th2- and Th17-related immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis of PDR.

  13. Lipoprotein macroaggregates in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease: comparison with idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis.

    PubMed Central

    Haslam, P L; Hughes, D A; Dewar, A; Pantin, C F

    1988-01-01

    Lipoprotein macroaggregates were present in cytocentrifuge preparations of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from four patients with diffuse lung diseases other than idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. In three patients the primary diagnosis was cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and in one sarcoidosis. We confirmed the presence of large multilamellar aggregates of lipoprotein by ultrastructural examination in patients with both interstitial lung disease and idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. The small lamellar bodies and amorphous debris found in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis were rare in the patients with interstitial lung disease. The lavage fluid from patient with interstitial lung disease did not show the substantial alterations in phospholipid composition that were seen in lavage fluid in idiopathic alveolar lipoproteinosis. These ultrastructural and biochemical features may help to distinguish idiopathic from other causes of alveolar lipoproteinosis, particularly at an early stage, when differential diagnosis may be difficult. Images PMID:3353885

  14. Microbial communities in the respiratory tract of patients with interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Garzoni, Christian; Brugger, Silvio D; Qi, Weihong; Wasmer, Sarah; Cusini, Alexia; Dumont, Philippe; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, Meri; Mühlemann, Kathrin; von Garnier, Christophe; Hilty, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular methods based on phylogenetic differences in the 16S rRNA gene are able to characterise the microbiota of the respiratory tract in health and disease. Objectives Our goals were (1) to characterise bacterial communities in lower and upper airways of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and (2) to compare the results with the microbiota of patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and normal controls. Methods We examined the upper and lower respiratory tract of 18 patients with ILD of whom 5, 6, and 7 had idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), non-IIP and sarcoidosis, respectively. In addition, six immune-compromised patients with PCP and nine healthy subjects were included as controls. Exclusion criteria were recent bacterial/viral respiratory tract infection, HIV-positivity and subjects receiving antibiotic therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and oropharyngeal swabs were simultaneously collected, and microbiota was characterised by ultra-deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Results The microbiota in lower airways of the majority of patients (30; 90%) primarily consisted of Prevotellaceae, Streptococcaceae and Acidaminococcaceae. α and β diversity measurements revealed no significant differences in airway microbiota composition between the five different groups of patients. Comparison of bacterial populations in upper and lower respiratory tract showed significant topographical discontinuities for 7 (23%) individuals. Conclusions IIP, non-IIP and sarcoidosis are not associated with disordered airway microbiota and a pathogenic role of commensals in the disease process is therefore unlikely. Nevertheless, molecular analysis of the topographical microbiota continuity along the respiratory tract may provide additional information to assist management of individual patients. PMID:23945167

  15. The devil is in the detail: Acute Guillain–Barré syndrome camouflaged as neurosarcoidosis in a critically ill patient admitted to an Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Sarada, Pooja Prathapan; Sundararajan, Krishnaswamy

    2016-01-01

    Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy, usually evoked by antecedent infection. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem chronic granulomatous disorder with neurological involvement occurring in a minority. We present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man who presented with acute ascending polyradiculoneuropathy with a recent diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The absence of acute flaccid paralysis excluded a clinical diagnosis of GBS in the first instance. Subsequently, a rapid onset of proximal weakness with multi-organ failure led to the diagnosis of GBS, which necessitated intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis to which the patient responded adequately, and he was subsequently discharged home. Neurosarcoidosis often masquerades as other disorders, leading to a diagnostic dilemma; also, the occurrence of a GBS-like clinical phenotype secondary to neurosarcoidosis may make diagnosing coexisting GBS a therapeutic challenge. This article not only serves to exemplify the rare association of neurosarcoidosis with GBS but also highlights the need for a high index of clinical suspicion for GBS and accurate history taking in any patient who may present with rapidly progressing weakness to an Intensive Care Unit. PMID:27303139

  16. Lung disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... they can't breathe deeply. Pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis are examples of lung tissue disease. Lung circulation ... tuberculosis Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia Patient Instructions Chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

  17. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Patient Instructions Eating extra calories when sick - adults ... team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Interstitial Lung Diseases Sarcoidosis Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. Autoimmune central diabetes insipidus in a patient with ureaplasma urealyticum infection and review on new triggers of immune response.

    PubMed

    Murdaca, Giuseppe; Russo, Rodolfo; Spanò, Francesca; Ferone, Diego; Albertelli, Manuela; Schenone, Angelo; Contatore, Miriam; Guastalla, Andrea; De Bellis, Annamaria; Garibotto, Giacomo; Puppo, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a disease in which large volumes of dilute urine (polyuria) are excreted due to vasopressin (AVP) deficiency [central diabetes insipidus (CDI)] or to AVP resistance (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). In the majority of patients, the occurrence of CDI is related to the destruction or degeneration of neurons of the hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. The most common and well recognized causes include local inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, vascular disorders, Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), sarcoidosis, tumors such as germinoma/craniopharyngioma or metastases, traumatic brain injuries, intracranial surgery, and midline cerebral and cranial malformations. Here we have the opportunity to describe an unusual case of female patient who developed autoimmune CDI following ureaplasma urealyticum infection and to review the literature on this uncommon feature. Moreover, we also discussed the potential mechanisms by which ureaplasma urealyticum might favor the development of autoimmune CDI.

  19. Adalimumab-induced acute interstitial lung disease in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Olívia Meira; Pereira, Daniel Antunes Silva; Baldi, Bruno Guedes; Costa, André Nathan; Athanazio, Rodrigo Abensur; Kairalla, Ronaldo Adib; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    The use of immunobiological agents for the treatment of autoimmune diseases is increasing in medical practice. Anti-TNF therapies have been increasingly used in refractory autoimmune diseases, especially rheumatoid arthritis, with promising results. However, the use of such therapies has been associated with an increased risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. In addition, the use of anti-TNF agents can cause pulmonary complications, such as reactivation of mycobacterial and fungal infections, as well as sarcoidosis and other interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). There is evidence of an association between ILD and the use of anti-TNF agents, etanercept and infliximab in particular. Adalimumab is the newest drug in this class, and some authors have suggested that its use might induce or exacerbate preexisting ILDs. In this study, we report the first case of acute ILD secondary to the use of adalimumab in Brazil, in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and without a history of ILD. PMID:24626274

  20. The association of other autoimmune diseases in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: Review of the literature and report of a large series of patients.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Elia, Giusy; Biricotti, Marco; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2016-12-01

    We have evaluated prospectively the prevalence of other autoimmune disorders in outpatient clinic in 3069 consecutive patients with diagnosed chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AT), with respect to two age- and sex-matched control groups: a) a control group of 1023 subjects, extracted from a random sample of the general population without thyroid disorders; b) 1023 patients with non-toxic multinodular goiter extracted from the same random sample of the general population, with similar iodine intake. The results of our study demonstrate a significant increase of the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in AT patients (with respect to both controls), for the following diseases: chronic autoimmune gastritis (CAG), vitiligo (Vit), rheumatoid arthritis, polymialgia rheumatica (Polym), celiac disease, diabetes, sjogren disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, alopecia, psoriathic arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and HCV-related cryoglobulinemia. While the statistical analysis reached near the significance for Addison's disease and ulcerative colitis. Interestingly, the association of three autoimmune disorders was observed almost exclusively in AT patients, and the most frequent associations were AT+CAG+Vit and AT+CAG+Polym. We suggest that patients with AT who remain unwell, or who develop new not specific symptoms (despite adequate treatment) should be screened for other autoimmune disorders, avoiding the delay in the diagnosis of these disorders.

  1. Risk of Band Keratopathy in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shih-Feng; Jan, Ren-Long; Chang, Chun; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Su, Shih-Bin; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Tseng, Sung-Huei; Chang, Yuh-Shin

    2016-01-01

    This study is a retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study to investigate the risk of band keratopathy following end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The study cohort included 94,039 ESRD on-dialysis patients identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), code 585 and registered between January 2000 to December 2009 at the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. An age- and sex-matched control group comprised 94,039 patients selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Information for each patient was collected from the index date until December 2011. In total, 230 ESRD patients and 26 controls had band keratopathy (P < 0.0001) during the follow-up period, indicating a significantly elevated risk of band keratopathy in the ESRD patients compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 12.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.14–18.32). After adjustment for potential confounders including sarcoidosis, hyperparathyroidism, iridocyclitis, and phthisis bulbi, ESRD patients were 11.56 times more likely to develop band keratopathy in the full cohort (adjusted HR = 11.56, 95% CI = 7.70–17.35). In conclusion, ESRD increases the risk of band keratopathy. Close interdisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists and ophthalmologists is important to deal with band keratopathy following ESRD and prevent visual acuity impairments. PMID:27346848

  2. An Uncommon Cause of a Small-Bowel Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Ali; Al Share, Bayan; Turk, Issam; Ahsan, Samira; Farra, Waseem

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Gastrointestinal (GI) system involvement that is clinically recognizable occurs in less than 0.9% of patients with sarcoidosis, with data revealing small intestine involvement in 0.03% of the cases. A high index of suspension is required in patients presenting with small-bowel obstruction and previous history of sarcoidosis. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of GI sarcoidosis depends on biopsy evidence of noncaseating granulomas, exclusion of other causes of granulomatous disease, and evidence of sarcoidosis in at least one other organ system. Treatment of GI sarcoidosis depends on symptomatology and disease activity. Herein, we are presenting a case of 67-year-old female patient who had acute small-bowel obstruction at the level of jejunum with postoperative histopathologic evidence of noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells, consistent with sarcoidosis.

  3. An Uncommon Cause of a Small-Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Al Share, Bayan; Turk, Issam; Farra, Waseem

    2017-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas. Gastrointestinal (GI) system involvement that is clinically recognizable occurs in less than 0.9% of patients with sarcoidosis, with data revealing small intestine involvement in 0.03% of the cases. A high index of suspension is required in patients presenting with small-bowel obstruction and previous history of sarcoidosis. Establishing a definitive diagnosis of GI sarcoidosis depends on biopsy evidence of noncaseating granulomas, exclusion of other causes of granulomatous disease, and evidence of sarcoidosis in at least one other organ system. Treatment of GI sarcoidosis depends on symptomatology and disease activity. Herein, we are presenting a case of 67-year-old female patient who had acute small-bowel obstruction at the level of jejunum with postoperative histopathologic evidence of noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells, consistent with sarcoidosis. PMID:28386490

  4. [Analysis of the cellular composition and of the inflammatory response activity in the lymph nodes of patients with sarcoidosis at different stages of the clinical course and treatment with systemic glucocorticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Ніколєнко, Дмитро Є; Бойко, Дмитро М

    2017-01-01

    Вступ: Вивченню динаміки запальних змін в лімфатичних вузлах хворих саркоїдозом на фоні лікування глюкокориткостероїдами (ГКС) та без них приділяється недостатня увага, що і обумовлює актуальність наукових пошуків у даному напрямку. Мета: Дослідити особливості клітинного складу та активності запальної реакції у лімфатичних вузлах хворих саркоїдозом на різних етапах перебігу та лікування ГКС з урахуванням часу встановлення діагнозу і ступеня активності патології. Матеріали та методи: До аналізу було залучено результати морфологічного дослідження біопсійного материалу, отриманого із уражених лімфатичних вузлів хворих на саркоїдоз. З метою встановлення клітинного складу та оцінки активності запальної реакції нами були додатково застосовані специфічні імуногістохімічні (ІГХ) маркери CD68, CD20, CD3 та Collagen IV. Результати: Призначення терапії системними ГКС у хворих з активним саркоїдозом сприяє зменшенню інтенсивності експресії ІГХ маркерів CD68, CD20, CD3, Collagen IV в осередках продуктивного запалення. За відсутності лікування ГКС в осередках продуктивного запалення у хворих на саркоїдоз зростає кількість судин, що експресують Collagen IV з підтримкою імунного запалення в центральній та периферичній частині гранульоми, що складається переважно з активних форм макрофагів (CD68) та Т-лімфоцитів (CD 3). Висновки: Застосування ГКС для лікування активного саркоїдозу дозволяє знизити інтенсивність запальної реакції та попередити поширення процесів фіброзування в ушкоджених лімфатичних вузлах пацієнтів.

  5. Do thallium myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities predict survival in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, E.L.; Caldwell, J.W. )

    1990-07-01

    Whereas the total mortality rate for sarcoidosis is 0.2 per 100,000, the prognosis, when the heart is involved, is very much worse. The authors used the difference in mortality rate to infer whether thallium 201 myocardial perfusion scan abnormalities correspond to myocardial sarcoid by making the simplifying assumption that if they do, then patients with abnormal scans will be found to have a death rate similar to patients with sarcoid heart disease. The authors therefore analyzed complete survival data on 52 sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms an average of eighty-nine months after they had been scanned as part of a protocol. By use of survival analysis (the Cox proportional hazards model), the only variable that was significantly associated with survival was age. The patients' scan pattern, treatment status, gender, and race were not significantly related to survival. The authors conclude that thallium myocardial perfusion scans cannot reliably be used to diagnose sarcoid heart disease in sarcoid patients without cardiac symptoms.

  6. CLIPPERS among patients diagnosed with non-specific CNS neuroinflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kerrn-Jespersen, B M; Lindelof, M; Illes, Zsolt; Blaabjerg, Morten; Lund, E L; Klausen, C; Christiansen, I; Sellebjerg, F; Kondziella, D

    2014-08-15

    Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory CNS disorder characterized by 1) subacute onset of cerebellar and brainstem symptoms, 2) peripontine contrast-enhancing perivascular lesions with a "salt-and-pepper" appearance on MRI, and 3) angiocentric, predominantly T-lymphocytic infiltration as revealed by brain biopsy. Inflammatory diseases including neuroinfections, CNS lymphoma and neurosarcoidosis must be excluded. Since CLIPPERS was described in 2010, many patients might have been misdiagnosed in the past. We therefore searched medical records from a large tertiary neurological center, the Department of Neurology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, for patients discharged between 1999 and 2013 with a diagnosis of "sarcoidosis with other localization", "other acute disseminating demyelination", "other demyelinating disease in the CNS" or "encephalitis, myelitis or encephalomyelitis". Of 206 identified patients, 24 had been examined by brain biopsy and were included for further evaluation. Following clinical, neuroradiological and neuropathological review, 3 patients (12.5%) were reclassified as having CLIPPERS. Median long-term follow-up was 75 months. The present results suggest that clinical re-evaluation of patients previously diagnosed with unspecified inflammatory demyelinating CNS disease or atypical neurosarcoidosis may increase the detection rate of CLIPPERS. Further, potentially severe neurological deficits and progressive parenchymal atrophy on MRI may suggest neurodegenerative features, which emphasizes the need for early immunomodulatory treatment.

  7. Primary Sjögren syndrome in a 2-year-old patient: role of the dentist in diagnosis and dental management with a 6-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcio Augusto; De Rezende, Nathalie Pepe Medeiros; Maia, Célia Márcia Fernandes; Gallottini, Marina

    2011-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Primary Sjögren syndrome is a rare autoimmune disease, especially in children, mainly affecting girls (77%), and usually diagnosed around 10 years of age. Diagnosis during childhood is difficult, especially because of the diversity of the clinical presentation and difficulty obtaining reliable history data, accounting for a higher frequency of underdiagnosed cases. Differential conditions should be considered, especially the ones that promote xerostomia, such as diabetes, ectodermal dysplasia, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, HIV and HTLV infection. Conditions associated with parotid enlargement should also be excluded, including juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP), sialadenosis, sarcoidosis, lymphoma, infectious parotitis caused by streptococcal and staphylococcal infections, viral infections (paramyxovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and parvovirus), and diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (associated with HIV infection), and rare congenital conditions, such as polycystic parotid disease. CASE REPORT. A paediatric female patient was referred to our clinic for dental treatment complaining about dry mouth, oral discomfort, and dysphagia. The patient presented five of the required criteria to establish the diagnosis of pSS, including ocular symptoms, oral symptoms, evidence of keratoconjunctivitis sicca, focal sialadenitis confirmed by minor salivary gland biopsy, and evidence of major salivary gland involvement. Our patient did not have positive SS-A and SS-B autoantibodies. According to the literature, about 29% of individuals with pSS can present seronegativity for SS-A (anti-Ro) antibodies and about 33% can present seronegativity for SS-B (anti-La) antibodies. CONCLUSION. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient reported in the scientific English literature with pSS. Primary Sjögren syndrome has a wide clinical and immunologic spectrum and may progress with

  8. [Cardiological follow-up in patients with Fabry disease].

    PubMed

    Pieruzzi, Federico; Pieroni, Maurizio; Chimenti, Cristina; Frustaci, Andrea; Sarais, Cristiano; Cecchi, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Fabry disease is a rare tesaurismosis due to a deficit of the lysosomal enzyme activity of alpha-galactosidase, needed for the normal catabolism of globotriaosylceramides (GL3). Fabry cardiac involvement has several clinical manifestations: concentric left ventricular hypertrophy without left ventricular dilation and severe loss of left ventricular systolic function, mitral and aortic valvulopathy, disorders of the atrioventricular conduction or repolarization, and compromised diastolic function. Differentiating Fabry disease from similar conditions is often quite straightforward, e.g., cardiac amyloidosis is often associated with low electrocardiographic voltages, and systemic symptoms are usually associated with hemochromatosis and sarcoidosis. However, sometimes second-level (genetic analysis, alpha-galactosidase levels) or invasive investigations are required, which can include endomyocardial biopsy. Diagnostic imaging techniques have been described, but they lack specificity. Echocardiographic imaging with tissue Doppler analysis and/or strain rate analysis can allow diagnosis of Fabry disease even before left ventricular hypertrophy becomes apparent. This review illustrates the techniques for staging cardiac involvement and damage in Fabry disease and for the long-term follow-up of Fabry patients with or without cardiac involvement. Careful cardiac monitoring is especially important in elderly female carriers, who often develop renal disorders and/or left ventricular hypertrophy as the only manifestations of their late Fabry disease. In some clinical series, Fabry disease was diagnosed in 12% of women with adult-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cardiological problems and outcomes of enzyme replacement therapy, associated with or without other cardiological treatments, are also discussed.

  9. Tolerance and short term efficacy of rituximab in 43 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gottenberg, J; Guillevin, L; Lambotte, O; Combe, B; Allanore, Y; Cantagrel, A; Larroche, C; Soubrier, M; Bouillet, L; Dougados, M; Fain, O; Farge, D; Kyndt, X; Lortholary, O; Masson, C; Moura, B; Remy, P; Thomas, T; Wendling, D; Anaya, J; Sibilia, J; Mariette, X; t for

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the tolerance and efficacy of rituximab in patients with various autoimmune diseases seen in daily rheumatological practice. Methods: 866 rheumatology and internal medicine practitioners were contacted by email to obtain the files of patients treated with rituximab for systemic autoimmune diseases. Patients with lymphoma were analysed if the evolution of the autoimmune disease could be evaluated. Results: In all, 43 of 49 cases could be analysed, including 14 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), six with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), five with systemic vasculitis, and five with other autoimmune diseases. Rituximab was prescribed for lymphoma in two patients with RA and two with pSS. In the 39 other cases, rituximab was given because of the refractory character of the autoimmune disease. The mean follow up period was 8.3 months (range 2 to 26). There were 11 adverse events in 10 patients and treatment had to be discontinued in six. Efficacy was observed in 30 patients (70%): RA 11, SLE 9, pSS 5, vasculitis 2, antisynthetase syndromes 2, sarcoidosis 1. The mean decrease in corticosteroid intake was 9.5 mg/d (range 0 to 50) in responders. Seven patients experienced relapse after mean 8.1 months (5 to 15). Three patients died because of refractory autoimmune disease. Conclusions: Despite absence of marketing authorisation, rituximab is used to treat various refractory autoimmune diseases in daily rheumatological practice. This study showed good tolerance and short term clinical efficacy, with marked corticosteroid reduction in patients with SLE, pSS, vasculitis, and polymyositis. PMID:15550531

  10. Google-driven search for big data in autoimmune geoepidemiology: analysis of 394,827 patients with systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Kostov, Belchin; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni; Bosch, Xavier; Buss, David; Trilla, Antoni; Stone, John H; Khamashta, Munther A; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-08-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, although their epidemiological profile varies significantly country by country. We explored the potential of the Google search engine to collect and merge large series (>1000 patients) of SADs reported in the Pubmed library, with the aim of obtaining a high-definition geoepidemiological picture of each disease. We collected data from 394,827 patients with SADs. Analysis showed a predominance of medical vs. administrative databases (74% vs. 26%), public health system vs. health insurance resources (88% vs. 12%) and patient-based vs. population-based designs (82% vs. 18%). The most unbalanced gender ratio was found in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), with nearly 10 females affected per 1 male, followed by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) (ratio of nearly 5:1). Each disease predominantly affects a specific age group: children (Kawasaki disease, primary immunodeficiencies and Schonlein-Henoch disease), young people (SLE Behçet disease and sarcoidosis), middle-aged people (SSc, vasculitis and pSS) and the elderly (amyloidosis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and giant cell arteritis). We found significant differences in the geographical distribution of studies for each disease, and a higher frequency of the three SADs with available data (SLE, inflammatory myopathies and Kawasaki disease) in African-American patients. Using a "big data" approach enabled hitherto unseen connections in SADs to emerge.

  11. Impact of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Before and After Definitive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Apparently Solitary Plasmacytoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Paul J.; Hicks, Rodney J.; Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail; Seymour, John F.; Prince, H. Miles

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on management of patients with apparently isolated plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a central PET database. They were either candidates for or had received definitive radiation therapy (RT). Results: Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11) or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%). Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site (n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative). Conclusions: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse prognosis.

  12. Annual Progress Report FY-82. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Sarcoidosis . (FY-80 F) xvii I DEPARTMENT OF MEDICINE continued PAGE Hematology-Oncology Service continued 1692 WRAMC #8005, Use of Sodium Salt of...Alternate Day 245 Prednisone Therapy in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis . (FY-80 I) 1704 High Frequency Positive Pressure Ventiliation 246 (HFPPV) in Patients...COMIC01IO 10-A? KEY lbRDS: Monocyte, Sarcoidosis Tin.E a~ Prno.cr: WRAHC #8004 Monocyte Function in Periphera~l Blood and Bone Marrow in Patients with

  13. Prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia: is it a necessity in pulmonary patients on high-dose, chronic corticosteroid therapy without AIDS?

    PubMed

    Liebling, Maryjane; Rubio, Edmundo; Ie, Susanti

    2015-04-01

    The benefit of prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is well documented in immunocompromised patients, particularly those with HIV and/or AIDS; therefore, guidelines dictate this as standard of care. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding those without HIV and/or AIDS who are potentially predisposed to PJP, including patients with sarcoidosis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, interstitial lung disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who may require high dose of prolonged corticosteroids for disease maintenance or to prevent relapses. In this review, the authors examine the available literature regarding prophylaxis in these groups, elaborate on the pathogenesis of PJP, when to suspect PJP in these patients, as well as explore current recommendations that guide clinical practice regarding implementation of PJP prophylaxis, namely with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole being the preferred agent. In summary, the role of PJP prophylaxis in non-HIV patients on chronic steroids remains controversial. The authors present a review of the literature to provide better guidance to the clinician regarding the need to initiate PJP prophylaxis in this patient population.

  14. Morphologic Features of the Recipient Heart in Patients Having Cardiac Transplantation and Analysis of the Congruence or Incongruence Between the Clinical and Morphologic Diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, William C.; Roberts, Carey Camille; Ko, Jong Mi; Filardo, Giovanni; Capehart, John Edward; Hall, Shelley Anne

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac transplantation (CT) has been one of the great medical advances of the last nearly 50 years. We studied the explanted hearts of 314 patients having CT at Baylor University Medical Center Dallas from 1993 to 2012, and compared the morphologic diagnoses to the clinical diagnoses before CT. Among the 314 patients the morphologic and clinical diagnoses were congruent in 272 (87%) and incongruent in 42 (13%). Most of the incongruity occurred among the 166 patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (non-IC) (36/166 [22%]), and of that group the major incongruity occurred among the patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (7/17 [41%]), non-compaction left ventricular cardiomyopathy (NCLVC) (3/3 [100%]), mononuclear myocarditis (3/3 [100%]), arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) (4/4 [100%]), and cardiac sarcoidosis (8/8 [100%]). The phrase “non-IC” is a general term that includes several subsets of cardiac diseases and simply means “insignificant narrowing of 1 or more of the epicardial coronary arteries,” but it does not specify the specific cause of the heart failure leading to CT. A number of cardiac illustrations are provided to demonstrate the morphologic variability occurring among the patients with IC and non-IC. PMID:25181314

  15. Levels of Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Patients with Various Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kamo, Tetsuro; Tasaka, Sadatomo; Tokuda, Yuriko; Suzuki, Shoji; Asakura, Takanori; Yagi, Kazuma; Namkoong, Ho; Ishii, Makoto; Hasegawa, Naoki; Betsuyaku, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multiligand receptor of S100/calgranulins, high-mobility group box 1, and others, and it is associated with the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and circulatory diseases. The soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is a decoy receptor and competitively inhibits membrane-bound RAGE activation. In this study, we measured sRAGE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 78 patients, including 41 with interstitial pneumonia, 11 with sarcoidosis, 9 with respiratory infection, 7 with ARDS, 5 with lung cancer, and 5 with vasculitis. Among them, sRAGE was detectable in BALF of 73 patients (94%). In patients with ARDS and vasculitis, the sRAGE levels were significantly higher than in the control subjects and those with interstitial pneumonia. The sRAGE levels were positively correlated with total cell counts in BALF and serum levels of surfactant protein-D, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein. There was an inverse correlation between PaO2/FIO2 ratio and sRAGE levels. These results indicate that sRAGE in BALF might be considered as a biomarker of lung inflammatory disorders, especially ARDS and vasculitis. PMID:27147899

  16. Primary Sarcoid of the Breast with Incidental Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Isley, Laura M.; Cluver, Abbie R.; Leddy, Rebecca J.; Baker, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    Breast sarcoidosis is rare and usually presents in patients with known sarcoid involving other organ systems. In the breast, sarcoidosis may mimic malignancy which must be excluded by core biopsy. We report a very unusual case of primary breast sarcoidosis with incidentally discovered breast carcinoma. The roles of mammography, ultrasound, and MRI in the diagnosis as well as other potential differential diagnosis are discussed. PMID:22919560

  17. Present Concepts in Internal Medicine. Volume 13, Number 1. Endocrinology Research Symposium,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    hypercalcemia of sarcoidosis is associated with a hypersensitivity to vitamin D. The biochemical basis for this is not clear. Glucocorticoid therapy...mechanism is not defined. Although this antagonism is useful in the treatment of sarcoidosis , it is an undesirable side effect accompanying most other...abnormal sensitivity to vitamin D in a patient with sarcoidosis during episode of nephritis. Ann Intern Med 61:702-710, 1964. 60. Anderson J, Harper C

  18. Clinical Investigation Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    Phillips, G.L.: Sarcoidosis and Cervical Carcinoma: Gausal vs Casual Association. Presented: COG Meeting, Dallas, TX, April 1982. Hall, J.B., Jones...patients had a variety of illnesses other than Idiopathic ILD (i.e. sarcoidosis , malrodantin lung, and allergic alveolitis vs bronchiectasis). Thus, to

  19. Proteomic Analyses of Cellular Events Mediating/Inhibiting Chemical-Induced Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    cells in patients with sarcoidosis , an innammatory disease which is onen located in the lungs [27,28J. Cell signaling in the NRF-2 Mediated Oxidative...bronchoalveolar lavage cells in sarcoidosis . J Clin Invest 2007, 117:3576-3582. 28. Yang Y, Fujita J, Bandoh 5, Ohtsuki Y, Yamadori I, Yoshinouchi T

  20. Clinical Investigations Service.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-30

    AD, Kmiecik JE: Extra Pulmonary Uptake of Gallium-67 Citrate in a Patient with Sarcoidosis . Submitted to Nuc Med Dec 1978. Morrison RE, Brown J...Ateriography. Radiology 131:199, 1979. AlcCartney WH, Lindner LE, Prather JL, Nusynowitz HL. Brain Scan Abnormalities in Intracerebral Sarcoidosis . Clin

  1. Infectious Diseases,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-29

    was of importance in arresting the disease. On the other hand, tuberculous patients may develop a sarcoidosis -like hypersensitivity to vitamin D; if...action of vitamin D and become hypercalcemic, as in sarcoidosis . Normal quantities of vitamins and other nutrients help to maintain host resistance at

  2. Long-term tolerance of airway silicone stent in patients with post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Akash; Um, Sang-Won; Koh, Won-Jung; Suh, Gee Young; Chung, Man Pyo; Kwon, O Jung; Kim, Hojoong

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is a well-recognized modality of treatment for benign tracheobronchial stenosis. However, in some benign disease groups, such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, war gas exposure, and inhalation burns, multiplicity of involvement or long length of stenosed segment heightens surgical challenge. We investigated the outcomes and long-term tolerability of the Natural stent (N-stent) in such patients with post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis. A retrospective review was done for 17 patients who underwent silicone stenting (N-stent) for post-tuberculosis tracheobronchial stenosis during January 2000-December 2003 but needed persistent stent placement and still require the stent. Significant increase in the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) to forced vital capacity (FVC), expressed as FEV1%, as well as in forced percentual vital capacity (FVC%) (Δ24% and Δ11%, respectively) in the short term and sustained increase in the FEV1% and FVC% (Δ26.5% and Δ16.5%, respectively) in the long term were noted at a median (range) interval of 1 (0.5-72) month and 72 (12-114) months, respectively, along with symptomatic relief. No procedure-related death occurred. Stent-related late complications included granulation tissue formation (76%), migration (70%), and mucostasis (17%). The median duration for which N-stents were tolerated was 7.9 (range, 3-11) years. N-stents are well-tolerated for a prolonged period. Stent-related complications occur, but are easily managed. These results might carry medical implications for those who have airway lesions difficult to correct surgically.

  3. Patient Rights

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a patient bill of rights. An important patient right is informed consent. This means that if you need a treatment, your health care provider must give you the information you need to make a decision. Many hospitals have patient advocates who can help you if you have ...

  4. Multiple granulomatous lung lesions in a patient with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Granulomatous lesions are commonly encountered abnormalities in pulmonary pathology, and often pose a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of granulomatous lung disease with uncommon characteristics, which developed following Epstein-Barr-virus-induced mononucleosis and new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. We aim to highlight a diagnostic approach for the condition and to raise awareness of the possibility of it being related to the immunological reaction caused by Epstein-Barr virus infection. Case presentation A 36-year-old Japanese man, who had been diagnosed with Epstein-Barr-virus-induced infectious mononucleosis, new-onset systemic lupus erythematosus, and secondary Sjögren’s syndrome three weeks previously, presented to our facility with fever and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed multiple small nodules in both lungs. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lymphocytosis with predominance of T lymphocytes. A histological examination of a lung biopsy taken during video-assisted thoracic surgery showed randomly distributed tiny granulomatous lesions with infiltration of eosinophils. The differential diagnoses included hypersensitivity pneumonitis, sarcoidosis, and pulmonary involvement of Crohn’s disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren’s syndrome, but the clinical and pathological findings were not consistent with any of these. Our patient’s condition did not improve; therefore, prednisolone therapy was started because of the possibility of specific immunological reactions associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection. After steroid treatment, our patient showed radiological and clinical improvement. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient developing randomly distributed multiple granulomatous lung lesions with eosinophilic infiltrates after Epstein-Barr virus infection and systemic lupus erythematosus. On the

  5. Yield of new versus reused endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration needles: A retrospective analysis of 500 patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Gupta, Nalini; Ram, Babu; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) requires a dedicated needle for aspiration of mediastinal lesions. There is no data on reuse of these needles. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA with either new or reused EBUS-TBNA needles. The needles were reused after thorough cleaning with filtered water and organic cleaning solution, disinfection with 2.4% glutaraldehyde solution followed by ethylene oxide sterilization. The yield of EBUS-TBNA was compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 500 EBUS-TBNA procedures (351 new, 149 reused needles) were performed. The baseline characteristics were different in the two groups with suspected granulomatous disorders (sarcoidosis or tuberculosis) being significantly more common in the new compared to the reused needle group. Similarly, the median, interquartile range number of lymph node stations sampled, and the total number of passes were significantly higher in the new versus the reused needle group. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher with new needle as compared to reused needle (65.2% vs. 53.7%, P = 0.02). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, clinical suspicion of granulomatous disorders (odds ratio 1.86 [95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.87], P = 0.005) was the only predictor of diagnostic yield, after adjusting for the type of needle (new or reused), total number of passes and the number of lymph node stations sampled. No case of mediastinitis was encountered in either group. Conclusions: The yield of EBUS-TBNA might be similar with single reuse of needles as compared to new needles. However, reuse of needle should be performed only when absolutely necessary. PMID:27578927

  6. PATIENT NAVIGATION

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Kristen J.; Battaglia, Tracy A.; Dudley, Donald J.; Garcia, Roland; Greene, Amanda; Calhoun, Elizabeth; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Paskett, Electra D.; Raich, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Background First implemented in 1990, patient navigation interventions are emerging as an approach to reduce cancer disparities. However, there is lack of consensus about how patient navigation is defined, what patient navigators do, and what their qualifications should be. Little is known about the efficacy and cost effectiveness of patient navigation. Methods We conducted a qualitative synthesis of published literature on cancer patient navigation. Using the keywords “navigator” or “navigation” and “cancer,” we identified 45 articles from Pubmed and reference searches that were published or in press through October 2007. 16 provided data on efficacy of navigation in improving timeliness and receipt of cancer screening, diagnostic follow-up care, and treatment. Patient navigation services are defined and differentiated from other outreach services. Results Overall there is evidence for some degree of efficacy for patient navigation in increasing participation in cancer screening and adherence to diagnostic follow-up care following an abnormality, with increases in screening ranging from 10.8% to 17.1% and increases in adherence to diagnostic follow-up care ranging from 21% to 29.2%, when compared to control patients. There is less evidence regarding efficacy of patient navigation in reducing either late stage cancer diagnosis or delays in initiation of cancer treatment or improving outcomes during cancer survivorship. There were methodological limitations in most studies, such as lack of control groups, small sample sizes, and contamination with other interventions. Conclusions Although cancer-related patient navigation interventions are being increasingly adopted across the U.S. and Canada, further research is necessary to evaluate their efficacy and cost-effectiveness in improving cancer care. PMID:18780320

  7. Adverse Events Associated with Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Patients with Cancer: A Systematic Review of Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Wahab, Noha; Shah, Mohsin; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Three checkpoint inhibitor drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in specific types of cancers. While the results are promising, severe immunotherapy-related adverse events (irAEs) have been reported. Objectives To conduct a systematic review of case reports describing the occurrence of irAEs in patients with cancer following checkpoint blockade therapy, primarily to identify potentially unrecognized or unusual clinical findings and toxicity. Data Sources We searched Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed ePubs, and Cochrane CENTRAL with no restriction through August 2015. Study Selection Studies reporting cases of cancer develop irAEs following treatment with anti CTLA-4 (ipilimumab) or anti PD-1 (nivolumab or pembrolizumab) antibodies were included. Data Extraction We extracted data on patient characteristics, irAEs characteristics, how irAEs were managed, and their outcomes. Data Synthesis 191 publications met inclusion criteria, reporting on 251 cases. Most patients had metastatic melanoma (95.6%), and the majority were treated with ipilimumab (93.2%). Autoimmune colitis, hepatitis, endocrinopathies, and cutaneous irAEs were the most frequently reported irAEs in ipilimumab treated patients. A broad spectrum of toxicities were reported for almost every body system. Moreover, well-defined diseases such as sarcoidosis, polyarthritis, polymyalgia rheumatica/arteritis, lupus, celiac disease, dermatomyositis, and Vogt-Koyanagi-like syndrome were reported. The most frequent irAEs reported with anti-PD1 agents were dermatitis for pembrolizumab, and thyroid disease and pneumonitis for nivolumab. Complete resolution of adverse events occurred in most cases. However, persistent irAEs and death were reported, mainly in patients treated with ipilimumab. Limitations Our study is limited by information available in the original reports. Conclusions Evidence from case reports shows that cancer patients develop irAEs following

  8. Patient management.

    PubMed

    Guptill, Lynn

    2015-03-01

    Hospital-associated infections, including those caused by zoonotic agents, represent an increasing concern in veterinary practice. Veterinarians and hospital staff are obligated and expected to provide education about and protection from transmission of pathogens among animal patients and between animal patients and human beings (eg, veterinary staff, volunteers, owners) who come into contact with infected animals. Patient management involves assessing risks of pathogen transmission, identification of animals either suspected of or proved to be infected with a transmissible infectious disease agent, and the implementation of measures that minimize the likelihood of transmission of the infectious agent.

  9. Patient Empowerment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chat Social Home FAQ Start Here Learn About Kidney Cancer Guidelines for Patients Statistics and Survival Data (NIH) Cancer Term Dictionary (NCI) Surgery for Kidney Cancer Print Surgery Information Therapies for Advanced Kidney Cancer ...

  10. Patterns of uveitis at the Apex Institute for Eye Care in India: Results from a prospectively enrolled patient data base (2011-2013).

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Gogia, Varun; Shah, Bhavin; Gupta, Shikha; Sagar, Pradeep; Garg, Satpal

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the clinical and etiological profile of uveitis at the apex institute for eye care in India. This is a prospective, prevalence study. 980 consecutive patients with uveitis referred to uvea clinic, Dr. RP Centre for Ophthalmic Sciences (Ophthalmology division, All India Institute of Medical Sciences). Demographic data of each patient were noted and a thorough ocular examination including slit lamp examination and dilated fundus evaluation was carried out. OCT and fluorescein angiography were undertaken whenever indicated. Uveitis was classified based on the anatomic location of inflammation (IUSG classification). Relevant serological and radiological investigations were obtained based on systemic symptomatology, and if the uveitis was recurrent (even in the absence of systemic symptoms). The presence of a systemic disease was confirmed by obtaining an internist consultation. The main outcome measures include pattern of uveitis according to anatomical classification and the etiology. Out of 980 patients with uveitis, 413 (42.14 %) patients had anterior uveitis, 131 (13.36 %) had intermediate uveitis, 165 (16.83 %) had posterior uveitis, 91 (9.2 %) had panuveitis, 47 (4.7 %) had retinal vasculitis, 22 (2.24 %) had scleritis, 17 (1.7 %) had masquerade syndromes, 8 (0.8 %) had keratouveitis, 22 (2.24 %) had sclerokeratouveitis, 19 (1.9 %) had endophthalmitis and 45 (4.5 %) had other causes of inflammation including trauma and intraocular surgery. Out of all uveitic patients definite etiological correlation could be made out in 225 (23 %) patients; thus 77 % were categorised as idiopathic. Only 9 % of all patients were found to have uveitis with an infectious etiology. Amongst infectious causes of uveitis tuberculosis was the leading cause, accounting for sixty percent of all infectious uveitis (approximately 5 % of overall uveitis). Non-infectious uveitis etiology accounted for more than 90 % of all cases with

  11. Patient Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In photo above, the electrocardiogram of a hospitalized patient is being transmitted by telemetry. Widely employed in space operations, telemetry is a process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where the signals are reconverted to usable information. In this instance, heart readings are picked up by the electrode attached to the patient's body and delivered by wire to the small box shown, which is a telemetry transmitter. The signals are relayed wirelessly to the console in the background, which converts them to EKG data. The data is displayed visually and recorded on a printout; at the same time, it is transmitted to a central control station (upper photo) where a nurse can monitor the condition of several patients simultaneously. The Patient Monitoring System was developed by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, in conjunction with Abbott Medical Electronics, Houston, Texas. In developing the system, SCI drew upon its extensive experience as a NASA contractor. The company applied telemetry technology developed for the Saturn launch vehicle and the Apollo spacecraft; instrumentation technology developed for heart, blood pressure and sleep monitoring of astronauts aboard NASA's Skylab long duration space station; and communications technology developed for the Space Shuttle.

  12. Looking beyond the cosmetic tattoo lesion near the eyebrow: Screening the lungs.

    PubMed

    Naeini, F Fatemi; Pourazizi, M; Abtahi-Naeini, B; Saffaei, A; Bagheri, F

    2017-01-01

    Cosmetic tattooing has become a risk factor for several adverse reactions related to inks, procedures, and associated clinical conditions. Development of a sarcoid reaction to the inserted tattoo pigment in the skin is not common. We report a 45 year-old patient with history of dyspnea and mild cough since two years who had subsequently developed reddish, scaly lesions in her 15-year old tattoo done near her right eyebrow. Skin biopsy of the tattoo lesion revealed cutaneous sarcoidosis which led to further investigations and a diagnosis of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The present case highlights the fact that cutaneous sarcoidosis can develop in a long-standing tattoo. Also such a patient should be screened for systemic sarcoidosis disease.

  13. Comparison of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings between Pathologically Proven Cases of Atypical Tubercular Spine and Tumour Metastasis: A Retrospective Study in 40 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Mohd; Sabir, Aamir Bin; Khalid, Saifullah

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To note the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) differences between pathologically proven cases of atypical spinal tuberculosis and spinal metastasis in 40 cases. Overview of Literature Spinal tuberculosis, or Pott's spine, constitutes less than 1% of all cases of tuberculosis and can be associated with a neurologic deficit. Breast, prostate and lung cancer are responsible for more than 80% of metastatic bone disease cases, and spine is the most common site of bone metastasis. Thus, early diagnosis and prompt management of these pathologies are essential in preventing various complications. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 40 cases of atypical tuberculosis and metastasis affecting the spine from the year 2012 to 2014, with 20 cases each that were proven by histopathological examination. MR imaging was performed on 1.5 T MR-Scanner (Magnetom Avanto, Siemens) utilizing standard surface coils of spine with contrast injection. Chi-square test was used for determining the statistical significance and p-values were calculated. Results The most common site of involvement was the thoracic spine, seen in 85% cases of metastasis and 65% cases of Pott's spine (p=0.144). The mean age of patients with tubercular spine was found to be 40 years and that of metastatic spine was 56 years. The following MR imaging findings showed statistical significance (p<0.05): combined vertebral body and posterior elements involvement, skip lesions, solitary lesion, intra-spinal lesions, concentric collapse, abscess formation and syrinx formation. Conclusions Tuberculosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of various spinal lesions including metastasis, fungal spondylodiskitis, sarcoidosis and lymphoma, particularly in endemic countries. Spinal tuberculosis is considered one of the great mimickers of disease as it could present in a variety of typical and atypical patterns, so proper imaging must be performed in order to facilitate

  14. [Patient advice].

    PubMed

    Lucio-Villegas Menéndez, M Eulalia; González, Laura López; Gutiérrez Pérez, M Isabel; Lluch, Natalia Aresté; Morató Agustí, M Luisa; Cachafeiro, Santiago Pérez

    2014-05-01

    In wound care, knowing what to do is as important as knowing what not to do. The first step is to evaluate the severity of the lesion and to know whether it is necessary to attend a health center or not. If the wound is simple, the recommended course of action is cleansing with serum or water after washing one's hands, followed by wound disinfection with the most appropriate antiseptic. Antiseptics not should be used for wound cleansing (physiological serum or tap water should be used) or for wound healing with granulation tissue. Equally, antiseptics should not be used in the ear or near the eyes; if there is accidental application, the eye should be washed in abundant water. Povidone iodine should not be used in pregnant women, nor should iodine preparations be used in neonates, in patients with thyroid alterations or in those allergic to iodine. Currently, merbromine/mercurochrome is not used because of its mercury content. Before an antiseptic is applied, all inorganic residues (foreign bodies) and dead tissue should be removed; detritus, slough, purulent exudate, scabs… This will aid healing and the action of antiseptics, since they become inactive in the presence of organic material.

  15. Achieving patient satisfaction: resolving patient complaints.

    PubMed

    Oxler, K F

    1997-07-01

    Patients demand to be active participants on and partners with the health care team to design their care regimen. Patients bring unique perceptions and expectations and use these to evaluate service quality and satisfaction. If customer satisfaction is not achieved and a patient complaint results, staff must have the skills to respond and launch a service recovery program. Service recovery, when done with style and panache, can retain loyal customers. Achieving patient satisfaction and resolving patient complaints require commitment from top leadership and commitment from providers to dedicate the time to understand their patients' needs.

  16. Patient-centered Radiology.

    PubMed

    Itri, Jason N

    2015-10-01

    Patient-centered care (ie, care organized around the patient) is a model in which health care providers partner with patients and families to identify and satisfy patients' needs and preferences. In this model, providers respect patients' values and preferences, address their emotional and social needs, and involve them and their families in decision making. Radiologists have traditionally been characterized as "doctor-to-doctor" consultants who are distanced from patients and work within a culture that does not value patient centeredness. As medicine becomes more patient driven and the trajectory of health care is toward increasing patient self-reliance, radiologists must change the perception that they are merely consultants and become more active participants in patient care by embracing greater patient interaction. The traditional business model for radiology practices, which devalues interaction between patients and radiologists, must be transformed into a patient-centered model in which radiologists are reintegrated into direct patient care and imaging processes are reorganized around patients' needs and preferences. Expanding radiology's core assets to include direct patient care may be the most effective deterrent to the threat of commoditization. As the assault on the growth of Medicare spending continues, with medical imaging as a highly visible target, radiologists must adapt to the changing landscape by focusing on their most important consumer: the patient. This may yield substantial benefits in the form of improved quality and patient safety, reduced costs, higher-value care, improved patient outcomes, and greater patient and provider satisfaction.

  17. Pharmacist-Patient Interaction and Patient Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Edward M.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The nature of the professional interaction between the pharmacist and the patient was explored, with data collected from 3,743 questions asked of 16 pharmacists during an 8-week period. Factors that might affect the nature of the pharmacist-patient interaction are identified along with a cognitive-based profile of patient wants. (LBH)

  18. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  19. Physician accountability, patient safety and patient compensation.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E

    2006-01-01

    In Canada, the response to adverse medical events follows one or more of three main paths: patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation. While their goals differ, each of these responses serves a valuable function. There are however competing imperatives inherent in each response, particularly in terms of information disclosure: Effective patient safety depends on the full and protected disclosure of all information relevant to an adverse event and requires a "no blame" environment. While natural justice demands that a physician be held accountable for his actions, the doctor should be accorded the right of due process and be judged against an established standard of care. This is necessarily a fault-finding activity. Patient compensation meets both accountability demands and the social justice imperatives of supporting a patient injured through physician negligence. The most effective approach is one that achieves balance between competing imperatives. With clear information disclosure rules, patient safety, physician accountability and patient compensation can operate synergistically.

  20. [Patient education in France].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Dominique

    2011-10-01

    Patient education is an increasingly important component of therapeutic strategies, especially for chronic illnesses, which currently affect about 12% of the French population and will undoubtedly increase in coming years. Patient education aims to enhance patients' personal responsibility and participation in their therapeutic management and quality of life. Article 84 of French health legislation passed in 2009 inscribes patient education in the Public Health Code for the first time. It distinguishes personalized therapeutic education, patient accompaniment, and learning programs. Direct links between patients and drug companies are prohibited. However, the notion of patient accompaniment remains to be defined, along with the evaluation of patient education, funding sources and practical modalities.

  1. 'Patient satisfaction' in hospitalized cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Skarstein, Jon; Dahl, Alv A; Laading, Jacob; Fosså, Sophie D

    2002-01-01

    Predictors of 'patient satisfaction' with hospitalization at a specialized cancer hospital in Norway are examined in this study. Two weeks after their last hospitalization, 2021 consecutive cancer patients were invited to rate their satisfaction with hospitalization, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Compliance rate was 72% (n = 1453). Cut-off levels separating dissatisfied from satisfied patients were defined. It was found that 92% of the patients were satisfied with their stay in hospital, independent of cancer type and number of previous admissions. Performance of nurses and physicians, level of information perceived, outcome of health status, reception at the hospital and anxiety independently predicted 'patient satisfaction'. The model explained 35% of the variance with an area under the curve of 0.76 of the Receiver Operator Curve. Cancer patients' satisfaction with their hospital stay was high, and predicted by four independently predictive variables related to the performance of caregivers. These suggest areas for further improvement in the healthcare service.

  2. Patient Satisfaction by Design.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Karen

    2016-11-01

    The concept of the patient experience as it relates to patient satisfaction is a complex dynamic. It is a dynamic that is becoming increasingly more important as patients are faced with multiple choices for their hearing and balance care. As reimbursement and performance policies have become more normative within health care, patient satisfaction has become a metric to measure quality. Patient satisfaction is no longer contained to just the interaction with the audiologist. It extends to the entire experience-the staff, the service, the product, and other factors. Many practices fail to capitalize on one of the primary components of the patient experience-office design. This article discusses the role of evidence-based design in facility planning as it relates to patient satisfaction. It will illustrate how design principles and ideal attributes may be used to send conscious and subconscious cues that will motivate staff, facilitate patient-centered care, and ultimately increase patient satisfaction.

  3. The Angry Dying Patient.

    PubMed

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  4. Repositioning the Patient:

    PubMed Central

    Mold, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Summary This article explores how and why the patient came to be repositioned as a political actor within British health care during the 1960s and 1970s. Focusing on the role played by patient organizations, it is suggested that the repositioning of the patient needs to be seen in the light of growing demands for greater patient autonomy and the application of consumerist principles to health. Examining the activities of two patient groups—the National Association for the Welfare of Children in Hospital (NAWCH) and the Patients Association (PA)—indicates that while such groups undoubtedly placed more emphasis on individual autonomy, collective concerns did not entirely fall away. The voices of patients, as well as the patient, continued to matter within British health care. PMID:23811711

  5. Frequency and distribution per species, biotypes, resistance to antibiotics and beta-lactamase production of the haemophils isolated from patients with respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Mihancea, N

    1998-01-01

    A number of 150 samples were prelevated from respiratory tract secretions of 88 patients with respiratory infections and three healthy subjects; 162 haemophilus strains were isolated, identified and studied and the following results were obtained: H. parainfluenzae was isolated from tonsillitis and laryngitis--over 70%, bronchitis--58% and pharyngitis--56.6%; H. influenzae was isolated from pharyngitis--26.4%, bronchitis--16.1% and tonsillitis--13.6% cases; H. parahaemolyticus from bronchitis--19.3%, tonsillitis--13.6% and laryngitis. H. paraphrophilus was isolated (6.8%) from pharyngitis, tonsillitis, sinusitis, bronchitis and pulmonary abscess and H. paraphrohaemolyticus was isolated--4.5% from pharyngitis, synusitis, bronchitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Most of the isolates belonged to biotype II H. influenzae and biotypes II, I, III H. parainfluenzae. Haemophils were 100% sensitive to Ofloxacin and resistant to Cro--13.5%, Do--17.9%, C and Caz--22.2%, Aml--24.6%, Rd--40.7%, Amp--41.9% and Te--63.5%; varying according to the haemophilus species. H. influenzae was resistant to Do--14.2%, Caz and C--21.4%, H. parainfluenzae was resistant to Cro--11%, Do--22%, whilst H. parahaemolyticus was resistant to Do--9% and to Aml, Caz and Cro--13.6%. Haemophils isolated from sputum showed a resistance higher by 12-34% and 6-17% than those isolated from other specimens, such as pharyngeal exudate, where the resistance to rifadin was lower by 10%. beta-lactamases were present in 27.7% of the strains: H. parainfluenzae--36%, H. paraphrohaemolyticus--25%, H. influenzae--17.8% and H. parahaemolyticus--15.7%; in strains from sputum--34.2%, pharyngeal exudate--28.8% and from other specimens--6.6%. No correlations were noticed between the biotype and the clinical manifestation or the resistance to the antibiotic, a higher frequency of beta-lactamase production being reported in H. influenzae biotype V and H. parainfluenzae biotypes II and IV.

  6. Managing patients with encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Matata, Claire; Easton, Ava; Michael, Benedict; Evans, Becky; Ward, Deborah; Solomon, Tom; Kneen, Rachel

    2015-11-11

    This article provides an overview of encephalitis and addresses its diagnosis, some of the common presenting signs and symptoms, and the different aspects of nursing care required for these patients. In particular, it addresses how to explain encephalitis to the patient's relatives, the rehabilitation needs of these patients, and important aspects of discharge planning. Tests that are necessary for diagnosis in patients with suspected encephalitis and the importance of these are explained.

  7. Patient blood management equals patient safety.

    PubMed

    Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R

    2016-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) can be defined in many ways and may consist of hundreds of single measures to improve patient safety. Traditionally, PBM is based on three pillars and defined as (i) optimization of the endogenous red blood cell (RBC) mass through the targeted stimulation of erythropoiesis and the treatment of modifiable underlying disorders; (ii) minimization of diagnostic, interventional, and surgical blood loss to preserve the patient's RBC mass; and (iii) optimization of the patient-specific tolerance to anemia through strict adherence to physiological transfusion thresholds [1-4]. However, for this review, we have chosen the following three peri-interventional parts: (1) diagnosis and therapy of anemia, (2) optimal hemotherapy, and (3) minimization of hospital-acquired anemia. PBM is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary preventive, and therapeutic approach focusing each patient. The PBM concept involves the use of safe and effective medical and surgical methods and techniques designed to prevent peri-interventional anemia, rationalize use of blood products, and set good blood management measures in an effort to improve patient safety and outcome.

  8. VASCULAR LESIONS IN SARCOIDOSIS—Probable Relationship to Steroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Carl C.

    1957-01-01

    In two patients with sarcoidosis treated with cortisone, localized vascular lesions, proven by biopsy, subsequently developed. Vascular lesions occurring in sarcoidosis, basically a granulomatous disease, are rarely described. However, a clinical picture of combined arteritis-sarcoidosis with overlapping features is not infrequently observed. Hence clinical differentiation may be difficult. Some observers suggest an interrelationship, perhaps a common etiological grouping in the hypersensitivity disease classification, because of the basic pathological lesions of granuloma and arteritis. The possible relationship of steroid therapy to the development of diffuse vascular lesions or arteritis appears to be gaining recognition, particularly in the case of susceptible patients with rheumatoid arthritis, although in the two cases here reported the disease for which steroids were administered was sarcoidosis and the arterial lesions observed subsequent to therapy were localized rather than diffuse. Since it seems unlikely that arteritis would be part of the clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis, it is implied that a higher incidence of such lesions (localized or diffuse) may be related to prolonged steroid therapy. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:13489498

  9. Patient-centered Communication

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Sara L; Buell, Stephanie; Zettler, Patti; White, Martha; Ruston, Delaney C; Lo, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate patient preferences for a patient-centered or a biomedical communication style. DESIGN Randomized study. SETTING Urgent care and ambulatory medicine clinics in an academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS We recruited 250 English-speaking adult patients, excluding patients whose medical illnesses prevented evaluation of the study intervention. INTERVENTION Participants watched one of three videotaped scenarios of simulated patient-physician discussions of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Each participant watched two versions of the scenario (biomedical vs. patient-centered communication style) and completed written and oral questionnaires to assess outcome measurements. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Main outcome measures were 1) preferences for a patient-centered versus a biomedical communication style; and 2) predictors of communication style preference. Participants who preferred the patient-centered style (69%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 63 to 75) tended to be younger (82%[51/62] for age < 30; 68%[100/148] for ages 30–59; 55%[21/38] for age > 59; P < .03), more educated (76%[54/71] for postcollege education; 73%[94/128] for some college; 49%[23/47] for high school only; P = .003), use CAM (75%[140/188] vs. 55%[33/60] for nonusers; P = .006), and have a patient-centered physician (88%[74/84] vs. 30%[16/54] for those with a biomedical physician; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with preferring the patient-centered style included younger age, use of herbal CAM, having a patient-centered physician, and rating a “doctor's interest in you as a person” as “very important.” CONCLUSIONS Given that a significant proportion of patients prefer a biomedical communication style, practicing physicians and medical educators should strive for flexible approaches to physician-patient communication. PMID:15566435

  10. Why measure patient satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Riskind, Patty; Fossey, Leslie; Brill, Kari

    2011-01-01

    A practice that consistently and continuously measures patient perceptions will be more efficient and effective in its daily operations. With pay-for-performance requirements on the horizon and consumer rating sites already publicizing impressions from physician encounters, a practice needs to know how it is performing through the eyes of the patients. Azalea Orthopedics has used patient feedback to coach its physicians on better patient communication. The Orthopaedic Institute has used patient satisfaction results to reduce wait times and measure the return on investment from its marketing efforts. Patient survey results that are put to work can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of practice operations as well as position the practice for increased profitability.

  11. Patient Education: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Jeannette

    Topics included in this annotated bibliography on patient education are (1) background on development of patient education programs, (2) patient education interventions, (3) references for health professionals, and (4) research and evaluation in patient education. (TA)

  12. Histoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, C A; Israel, K S; Smith, J W; White, A C; Schwarz, J; Brooks, G F

    1978-06-01

    Infection with Histoplasma capsulatum in 58 patients whose immune responses were suppressed (Immunosuppressed patients) (16 from the present series and 42 described previously) was analyzed. The most common underlying diseases were Hodgkin's disease (29 per cent), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (19 per cent) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (17 per cent). Sixty-three per cent of the patients had received cytotoxic drugs, and 57 per cent had taken corticosteroids. Widely disseminated infection occurred in 88 per cent of the patients, with predominant involvement of lungs and organs of the reticuloendothelial system. Localized pulmonary infection was present in the remaining patients. The most useful diagnostic method was bone marrow biopsy with microscopic examination for the intracellular yeast form of H. capsulatum. Biopsy of oral lesions, lung, liver and lymph node also proved diagnostically helpful. Growth of H. capsulatum in culture was frequently too slow to be beneficial in diagnosing histoplasmosis in ill patients. Serologic methods were of little diagnostic help in this population of immunosuppressed patients. The response to amphotericin B therapy was excellent (6.7 per cent mortality rate) in those patients in whom the diagnosis was established early and in whom a full course of antifungal therapy could be given. In contrast, the mortality rate in patients who received no antifungal therapy or less than 1 g of amphotericin B was 100 per cent.

  13. The critically ill immunosuppressed patient

    SciTech Connect

    Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H. )

    1987-01-01

    This book discusses the papers on the diagnosis and management of immunosuppressed patient. Some of the topics are: life-threatening organ failure in immunosuppressed patients; diagnosis and therapy of respiratory disease in the immunosuppressed patient; CNS complication of immunosuppression; infections; antineoplastic therapy of immunosuppressed patient; radiation therapy-issues in critically ill patient; AIDS; and management of bone marrow transplant patients.

  14. A Patient Assessment Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Dorothy; Rosenaur, Janet Allan

    1974-01-01

    Use of a nursing assessment/patient history tool developed by project faculty at the school of nursing, University of California, San Francisco and used in a primary care clinic assisted nursing students in collecting patient information, making home visits, functioning as team members, recording data, and in defining their nursing role. (EA)

  15. Patient Telmonitoring at Home

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fraga , M. Lama and J. Vila. “Intelligent telemonitoring of critical care patients,” IEEE Eng. Med. & Biol. Mag., vol. 18, pp. 80-88, July/August...1999. [6] J. Presedo, D. Castro, J. Vila, M. Fernández-Delgado, S. Fraga , M. Lama and S. Barro. “Wireless interface for monitored patients in Coronary

  16. Patient Education Thesaurus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Lynn

    This thesaurus was compiled to make the materials in the Patient Education Room of the Donald J. Vincent Medical Library at Riverside Methodist Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, more accessible to patients. Subjects are grouped in fairly broad categories (e.g., Aging & Problems of Aging; Alcohol & Alcohol Abuse; Careers in the Medical Field; Childhood and…

  17. [Physiotherapy of cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Gomez, Izabella; Szekanecz, Éva; Szekanecz, Zoltán; Bender, Tamás

    2016-07-01

    Physiotherapy of cancer patients is one of the most controversial issues in our country. Malignant diseases are firstly mentioned as a contraindication of physiotherapy. Until now, physiotherapy was not suggested (or only in limited accessibility) for those patients who had malignant disease in medical history. International medical practice was less restrictive in managing this topic. The development of imaging techniques put this question in a new light. On the basis of evidence, the majority of articles have reported beneficial effects of physiotherapy in cancer patients, and only few articles mentioned it as harmful. Of course, each patient requires an individual assessment, however, if we exclude the possibility of tumor recurrence and metastasis, most of physiotherapy procedures can be used safely. One of the aims of this review is to support the physicians' decisions when to prescribe treatments, in such a way, that more patients could receive physiotherapy. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(31), 1224-1231.

  18. Doctor-patient relationship

    PubMed Central

    Chamsi-Pasha, Hassan; Albar, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship is an intricate concept in which patients voluntarily approach a doctor and become part of a contract by which they tend to abide by doctor’s instructions. Over recent decades, this relationship has changed dramatically due to privatization and commercialization of the health sector. A review of the relevant literature in the database of MEDLINE published in English between 1966 and August 2015 was performed with the following keywords: doctor-patient relationship, physician-patient relationship, ethics, and Islam. The Muslim doctor should be familiar with the Islamic teachings on the daily issues faced in his/her practice and the relationship with his/her patients. PMID:26837392

  19. Patients living with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha; Guilcher, Sara; Maulkhan, Niraj; Milligan, James; Lee, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the potential risk factors for lower-quality primary care, the potential markers of unmet needs in primary care, and the willingness to participate in future research among primary care patients with versus without physical disabilities. Design A waiting room survey using a convenience sample. Setting A family health team (FHT) in Kitchener-Waterloo, Ont, with a designated Mobility Clinic. Participants A total of 40 patients seen at the FHT Mobility Clinic and 80 patients from the general patient population of the same FHT. Main outcome measures Socioeconomic status and social capital, number of self-reported emergency department visits and hospitalizations in the preceding year, and willingness of the patients in the 2 groups to participate in future research studies. Results Patients from the Mobility Clinic were more than twice as likely to be receiving benefits or social assistance (75.0% vs 32.1%, P < .001), were twice as likely to report an annual household income of less than $40000 (58.6% vs 29.2%, P = .006), and were more likely to report their health status to be fair or poor (42.5% vs 16.2%, P = .002). Half of Mobility Clinic patients had visited the emergency department at least once in the preceding year, compared with 29.7% in the general patient population (P = .027). When asked if they would be willing to provide their health card number in the future so that it could be linked to health care data for research, 82.5% of Mobility Clinic patients agreed versus 55.0% of those in the general patient population (P = .004). Conclusion In this study, patients with disabilities were at a social disadvantage compared with their peers without disabilities and were more likely to use the emergency department, suggesting that they had unmet health needs. Future research should continue to explore this patient population and to investigate if an interprofessional primary health care team approach focused on patients with disabilities can

  20. Patients with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Amar, Jacques

    2007-06-01

    Hypertension remains uncontrolled in the majority of treated patients, especially those with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. This was demonstrated by a French study that showed that 70% of treated hypertensive patients are not controlled to the target level of 140/90 mmHg. This proportion reached 84% in hypertensive patients with diabetes (target level 130/85 mmHg). What are the reasons for this disappointing situation? Observational studies have shown that only a minority of patients with uncontrolled hypertension receive triple therapy including a diuretic. In this respect, self-measurement of blood pressure should improve the situation by allowing clinicians to base their decision to intensify hypertension treatment on more solid evidence than consultation blood pressure measurements alone. Patient-related factors may also contribute to this situation. Treated patients with uncontrolled hypertension often have multiple risk factors. This is associated with or is a source of poor treatment observance linked to patient psychological factors or a result of the increased consumption of medication. Finally, risk factors themselves may be responsible for problems with blood pressure control as a result of their detrimental effects on large arteries as well as the microvascular network. The early correction of such vascular anomalies is vital for medium and long-term blood pressure control.

  1. Bacteremia in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Masashi; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Moriya, Kyoji

    2016-01-01

    Infection is a common complication and is the second leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients. The risk of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients is 26-fold higher than in the general population, and 1/2-3/4 of the causative organisms of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients are Gram-positive bacteria. The ratio of resistant bacteria in hemodialysis patients compared to the general population is unclear. Several reports have indicated that hemodialysis patients have a higher risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The most common site of infection causing bacteremia is internal prostheses; the use of a hemodialysis catheter is the most important risk factor for bacteremia. Although antibiotic lock of hemodialysis catheters and topical antibiotic ointment can reduce catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), their use should be limited to necessary cases because of the emergence of resistant organisms. Systemic antibiotic administration and catheter removal is recommended for treating CRBSI, although a study indicated the advantages of antibiotic lock and guidewire exchange of catheters over systemic antibiotic therapy. An infection control bundle recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention succeeded in reducing bacteremia in hemodialysis patients with either a catheter or arteriovenous fistula. Appropriate infection control can reduce bacteremia in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27872830

  2. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients.

  3. Respecting patient confidentiality.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2015-02-03

    Nurses face a particular challenge in respecting the confidentiality of patients in a world where information is quickly shared and where information about illness can be sensitive. We have a duty of care towards patients. That duty includes maintaining privacy (protecting them from undue intrusion), and confidentiality (by the discreet management of information about themselves that they share with us). Legislation on confidentiality comes from different sources and should be interpreted in the clinical setting. This article summarises the principal requirements set out in the legislation and directs readers to questions and tools designed to help them explore the extent to which patient confidentiality is respected where they work.

  4. Evaluation of Patient Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Piedmont, Eugene B.; Dornblaser, Bright M.

    1970-01-01

    A multifaceted attempt is made to measure patients' well-being quantitatively in a complex interdisciplinary research and experimental construction project. Parallel studies were conducted in adjoining traditionally shaped and spoke-design hospital buildings. Major innovations were made, in both plants, in the organization of nursing staffs and in communications and logistical support. Smaller nursing staffs achieved significant increases in time spent in direct patient (“bedside”) care, without negative effects on patient welfare, in both buildings; but these effects were maximized in the spoke-design building. PMID:5494267

  5. The patient with ataxia.

    PubMed

    Maggs, F G

    2014-01-01

    In this article we look at the causes of ataxia, and how the patient presenting with ataxia should be managed. One of the difficulties in managing the patient with ataxia is that acute ataxia has many causes, but usually these can be teased out by means of a careful history and examination. Investigations can then be targeted at confirming or disproving the differential diagnosis. Some patients with ataxia need to be managed in hospital, but many can be investigated, and receive therapy, as an outpatient.

  6. Primary Systemic Amyloidosis and High Levels of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Praena-Segovia, J.; Sanchez-Gastaldo, A.; Bernabeu-Wittel, M.; Ocete-Pérez, R.; Ávila-Polo, R.; Martino, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Infiltrative heart diseases are caused by a heterogeneous group of disorders; amyloidosis and sarcoidosis are two frequent causes of myocardial infiltration, which differ in clinical and biological outcome and treatment issues. The presence of high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in a patient with infiltrative heart disease may increase suspicion of sarcoidosis. Nevertheless, no mention about increased ACE levels in extracerebral primary systemic amyloidosis is available. We present two cases of primary systemic amyloidosis, which are cardiac involvement and elevated ACE levels. PMID:24826302

  7. Dry cough in a middle-aged man

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sheetu; Singh, Nishtha; Jindal, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Cough is often a distressing feature and may be caused due to varied reasons. A 39-year-old man presented with complaints of cough and had significant pigeon exposure. His chest X-ray revealed mediastinal enlargement and computed tomography chest revealed air trapping and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Both endobronchial and transbronchial biopsies revealed granulomas. Thus, the patient was diagnosed as a case of sarcoidosis and started on steroids. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis may often mimic sarcoidosis; however, the presence of endobronchial granulomas will diagnose the latter condition. PMID:27890996

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil as a steroid-sparing agent in sarcoid-associated renal disease.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Anita A; DeVita, Maria V; Michelis, Michael F; Rosenstock, Jordan L

    2015-01-01

    Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for renal sarcoidosis. Many patients with sarcoidosis are chronically dependent on steroids and there is limited data on the use of steroid-sparing agents. This is a case of a patient that has remained in remission using mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) as a steroid-sparing agent. The patient is a 56-year-old female with a history of sarcoidosis diagnosed by lymph node biopsy who developed 3 episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the setting of exacerbations of her sarcoidosis, each responding to prednisone treatment. Due to possible lifelong need for prednisone, MMF was started as a steroid-sparing treatment. She tolerated the MMF well and has now been steroidfree for 22 months. There have been only a few case reports about the use of MMF as a steroid-sparing agent in sarcoid-associated renal disease, in which patients could be successfully weaned off steroids. This is the longest reported follow-up of a patient being off steroids while on MMF. It is also notable for the patient having a relapse on the MMF which responded to an increased dose. MMF should be studied further as a potential steroid-sparing agent in the treatment of sarcoid associated renal disease.

  9. MRSA Information for Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be spread when patients contact contaminated bed linens, bed rails, and medical equipment. Top of Page ... razors. Wash and dry your clothes and bed linens in the warmest temperatures recommended on the labels. ...

  10. Patient Treatment Tracking Chart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic ... Patient Treatment Tutorial return to top CONNECT Veterans Crisis Line: 1-800-273-8255 (Press 1) Social ...

  11. [Patient safety: Glossary].

    PubMed

    Sabio Paz, Verónica; Panattieri, Néstor D; Cristina Godio, Farmacéutica; Ratto, María E; Arpí, Lucrecia; Dackiewicz, Nora

    2015-10-01

    Patient safety and quality of care has become a challenge for health systems. Health care is an increasingly complex and risky activity, as it represents a combination of human, technological and organizational processes. It is necessary, therefore, to take effective actions to reduce the adverse events and mitigate its impact. This glossary is a local adaptation of key terms and concepts from the international bibliographic sources. The aim is providing a common language for assessing patient safety processes and compare them.

  12. Patient care in radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography.

  13. Refractory Sarcoid Arthritis in World Trade Center- Exposed New York City Firefighters: a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Loupasakis, Konstantinos; Berman, Jessica; Jaber, Nadia; Zeig-Owens, Rachel; Webber, Mayris P.; Glaser, Michelle S.; Moir, William; Qayyum, Basit; Weiden, Michael D.; Nolan, Anna; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Kelly, Kerry J.; Prezant, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe cases of sarcoid arthritis in firefighters from the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY) who worked at the World Trade Center (WTC) site. Methods All WTC-exposed FDNY firefighters with sarcoidosis and related chronic inflammatory arthritis (n=11) are followed jointly by the FDNY-WTC Health Program and the Rheumatology Division at the Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS). Diagnoses of sarcoidosis were based on clinical, radiographic and pathological criteria. Patient characteristics, WTC-exposure information, smoking status, date of diagnosis and pulmonary findings were obtained from FDNY-WTC database. Joint manifestations (symptoms and duration, distribution of joints involved), radiographic findings, treatment responses were obtained from chart review. Results Nine of 60 FDNY firefighters who developed sarcoidosis since 9/11/2001 presented with polyarticular arthritis. Two others diagnosed pre-9/11/2001 developed sarcoid arthritis post-WTC-exposure. All 11 were never cigarette smokers and all performed rescue/recovery at the WTC-site within 3 days of the attacks. All had biopsy-proven pulmonary sarcoidosis and all required additional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) for adequate control (stepwise progression from hydroxychloroquine to methotrexate to anti-TNFα agents) of their joint manifestations. Conclusion Chronic inflammatory polyarthritis appears to be an important manifestation of sarcoidosis in FDNY firefighters with sarcoidosis and WTC-exposure. Their arthritis is chronic, and unlike arthritis in non-WTC-exposed sarcoid patients, inadequately responsive to conventional oral DMARDs, often requiring anti-TNFα agents. Further studies are needed to determine the generalizability of these findings to other groups with varying levels of WTC-exposure or with other occupational/environmental exposures. PMID:25539429

  14. Turning patients over in bed

    MedlinePlus

    Roll patients in bed ... following steps should be followed: Explain to the patient what you are planning to do so the ... Stand on the side of the bed the patient will be turning towards and lower the bed ...

  15. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregivers Flu Treatment for Cancer Patients and Survivors Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Information for Patients and Caregivers Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cancer patients ...

  16. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in Immunocompetent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Tasleem, Syed H; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus colitis is common in immunocompromised patients, but rare in immunocompetent patients. The present study not only represents the colonoscopy and pathological findings, but also applies the method of diagnosing and treating cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27980888

  17. [Urosepsis in Geriatric Patients].

    PubMed

    Heppner, H J; Yapan, F; Wiedemann, A

    2016-02-01

    Due to the demographic shift, increasing numbers of geriatric patients are admitted to acute care hospitals of all levels of care. This means that special challenges must be met in the medical care and management of these patients.Immunosenescence and multimorbidity make elderly patients vulnerable to infectious diseases. Urinary tract infections range from "simple" cystitis to pyelonephritis and urosepsis and, at 25%, are the second most common form of infection in geriatric patients. It is often difficult to make a diagnosis because typical symptoms do not always occur. Urosepsis, a hyperactive and uncontrolled immune response of the organism due to exogenous damage, is based on bacterial infection of the urogenital tract. Urinary retention, immunosuppressive medication, malignancy, diabetes mellitus and renal or prostatic processes promote the risk for urosepsis. Complicated urosepsis additionally comprises a structural or functional abnormality, including ureteral obstruction. Risk factors for urosepsis are urinary incontinence, an indwelling urinary catheter, hydronephrosis or ureteral calculi. Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus are also at a higher risk for urosepsis. When diagnosing elderly patients, one has to consider that the classic symptoms can be masked by multimorbidity, or septic encephalopathy and acute confusion (delirium) may be the only symptoms. Body temperature is lower in elderly patients and does not necessarily rise to 38°C or more in the acute phase. In patients older than 75 years who are suspicious for sepsis, temperatures as low as 37.4°C should be rated as fever. Treatment of urosepsis basically includes clearing the focus, antimicrobial treatment, stabilisation of circulation and replacement of failed organ functions. Initial empiric antibiotic treatment, depending on local resistance, should be done with acylaminopenicilline and beta-lactamase inhibitors (e. g. piperacillin/combactam or tazobactam or group 3 cephalosporins

  18. Mastocytosis among elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available. The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features. The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available. Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis. PMID:27310990

  19. Thromboprophylaxis in nonsurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Streiff, Michael B; Lau, Brandyn D

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in medically ill patients. Randomized controlled trials indicate that pharmacologic prophylaxis reduces deep venous thrombosis (relative risk [RR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.59) and pulmonary embolism (RR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33-0.72) with a nonsignificant trend toward more bleeding (RR = 1.36; 95% CI, 0.80-2.33]. Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin are equally efficacious in preventing deep venous thrombosis (RR = 0.85; 95% CI, 0.69-1.06) and pulmonary embolism (RR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.47-2.38), but LMWH is associated with significantly less major bleeding (RR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.23-0.85). LMWH is favored for VTE prophylaxis in critically ill patients. New VTE and bleeding risk stratification tools offer the potential to improve the risk-benefit ratio for VTE prophylaxis in medically ill patients. Intermittent pneumatic compression devices should be used for VTE prophylaxis in patients with contraindications to pharmacologic prophylaxis. Graduated compression stockings should be used with caution. VTE prevention in medically ill patients using extended-duration VTE prophylaxis and new oral anticoagulants warrant further investigation. VTE prophylaxis prescription and administration rates are suboptimal and warrant multidisciplinary performance improvement strategies.

  20. Single-centre experience of granulomatous interstitial nephritis-time for a new approach?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ben; Jayawardene, Satish; Shah, Sapna

    2017-04-01

    Background: Differentiating between renal-limited sarcoidosis and tuberculosis (TB) infection as a cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) can be difficult. This series compares clinical features and response to treatment between the different underlying aetiologies in order to propose a management algorithm for GIN to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Methods: This retrospective study reports on all patients presenting with a histological diagnosis of GIN between 2000 and 2012 at our unit. Results: Twenty-one patients were identified, 57% were male and the mean age was 53 years. Eight cases were associated with sarcoidosis with evidence of extra-renal disease and five with renal-limited sarcoidosis. Five patients had GIN that may have been related to TB infection or to renal-limited sarcoidosis, and three were idiopathic or drug related. All those with sarcoidosis were treated with steroids and renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), improved from a mean of 24 mL/min at baseline to 37 mL/min at 1 year. Baseline eGFR was 19 mL/min in those with possible TB infection. Four received steroids as well as anti-TB drugs. Anti-TB therapy was delayed in four patients by a mean of 22 months due to difficulties in diagnosis. Two patients with TB developed end-stage kidney disease and the remaining three patients had a mean eGFR of 28 mL/min at 1 year. Conclusions: This series represents the largest cohort of patients with GIN in the UK and supports previous findings that patients with sarcoid have a favourable outcome with steroid treatment. Those with TB have an inferior prognosis, perhaps due to delayed diagnosis. We suggest an algorithm when investigating a diagnosis of GIN with the aim of expediting diagnosis and considering a trial of anti-TB therapy in order to prevent deterioration of renal function.

  1. Single-centre experience of granulomatous interstitial nephritis—time for a new approach?

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardene, Satish; Shah, Sapna

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Differentiating between renal-limited sarcoidosis and tuberculosis (TB) infection as a cause of granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) can be difficult. This series compares clinical features and response to treatment between the different underlying aetiologies in order to propose a management algorithm for GIN to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Methods: This retrospective study reports on all patients presenting with a histological diagnosis of GIN between 2000 and 2012 at our unit. Results: Twenty-one patients were identified, 57% were male and the mean age was 53 years. Eight cases were associated with sarcoidosis with evidence of extra-renal disease and five with renal-limited sarcoidosis. Five patients had GIN that may have been related to TB infection or to renal-limited sarcoidosis, and three were idiopathic or drug related. All those with sarcoidosis were treated with steroids and renal function, as measured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), improved from a mean of 24 mL/min at baseline to 37 mL/min at 1 year. Baseline eGFR was 19 mL/min in those with possible TB infection. Four received steroids as well as anti-TB drugs. Anti-TB therapy was delayed in four patients by a mean of 22 months due to difficulties in diagnosis. Two patients with TB developed end-stage kidney disease and the remaining three patients had a mean eGFR of 28 mL/min at 1 year. Conclusions: This series represents the largest cohort of patients with GIN in the UK and supports previous findings that patients with sarcoid have a favourable outcome with steroid treatment. Those with TB have an inferior prognosis, perhaps due to delayed diagnosis. We suggest an algorithm when investigating a diagnosis of GIN with the aim of expediting diagnosis and considering a trial of anti-TB therapy in order to prevent deterioration of renal function.

  2. The moderators of patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jessie L

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which Department of Defense (DOD) active duty patient sociodemographic, health status, geographic location, and utilization factors, predict overall patient satisfaction with health care in military facilities. A theoretical framework developed from patient satisfaction and social identity theories and from previous empirical findings was used to develop a model to predict patient satisfaction and delineate moderating variables. The major finding indicated in this study was the significance of patients' characteristics in moderating their satisfaction. Principal components factor analysis and hierarchical linear regression revealed that patient specific factors predicted patients' satisfaction after controlling for factors depicting patients' evaluations of health system characteristics. Patient specific factors provided added, although very minimal, explanatory value to the determination of patients' satisfaction. The study findings can aid in the development of targeted, objectively prioritized programs of improvement and marketing by ranking variables using patients' passively derived importance schema.

  3. Hypertension in aging patients.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is commonly found in older (60-79 years of age) and elderly (≥80 years of age) people. Antihypertensive drug therapy should be considered in all aging hypertensive patients, as treatment greatly reduces cardiovascular events. Most classes of antihypertensive medications may be used as first-line treatment with the possible exception of α- and β-blockers. An initial blood pressure treatment goal is less than 140/90 mmHg in all older patients and less than 150/80 mmHg in the nonfrail elderly. The current paradigm of delaying therapeutic interventions until people are at moderate or high cardiovascular risk, a universal feature of hypertensive patients over 60 years of age, leads to vascular injury or disease that is only partially reversible with treatment. Future management will likely focus on intervening earlier to prevent accelerated vascular aging and irreversible arterial damage.

  4. Patients' preferences for information

    PubMed Central

    Kindelan, K.; Kent, G.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of patients' views of the type of information they would like to receive from the doctor 265 patients from four general practices were given a list of five areas of information — diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, aetiology and social effects of their illness — and asked to rank these in order of importance for that visit. In general, information on diagnosis and prognosis was the most highly valued, while the ways the illness would affect daily activities was the least preferred. Although information on treatment was rarely selected as the first preference it was often the second or third preference. Conversely, diagnosis was the first choice of the largest proportion of patients and the least valued information for 26%. PMID:3440990

  5. Handedness in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, J J; Dalton, R; Standage, K F

    1977-11-01

    Eight hundred psychiatric patients and eight hundred controls completed a handedness preference questionnaire. There was no significant difference in handedness between the two samples, but, contrary to some previous reports, excess of sinistrality was not associated with male sex. The distribution of handedness was similar in neurotics and controls, but among psychotics in general there was a higher proportion of fully right-handed subjects. Among schizophrenics there was a significantly higher proportion of left-handed writers among males than females. There were relatively few left-handed writers of either sex among patients with affective psychosis. Female patients with personality disorders had a significantly higher proportion of mixed handedness than controls. The findings are considered in relation to suggestions that functional psychoses may be associated with asymmetrical cerebral dysfunction, and that poorly lateralized function may be related to anomalous psychological development.

  6. Creating virtual ARDS patients.

    PubMed

    Das, Anup; Haque, Mainul; Chikhani, Marc; Wenfei Wang; Hardman, Jonathan G; Bates, Declan G

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the methodology used in patient-specific calibration of a novel highly integrated model of the cardiovascular and pulmonary pathophysiology associated with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). We focus on data from previously published clinical trials on the static and dynamic cardio-pulmonary responses of three ARDS patients to changes in ventilator settings. From this data, the parameters of the integrated model were identified using an optimization-based methodology in multiple stages. Computational simulations confirm that the resulting model outputs accurately reproduce the available clinical data. Our results open up the possibility of creating in silico a biobank of virtual ARDS patients that could be used to evaluate current, and investigate novel, therapeutic strategies.

  7. Online patient information.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Amanda

    2002-09-01

    Information appropriate for patients with skin diseases is readily available on the Internet. Patients primarily seek disease-related information, but may also search for a dermatologist, shop for skin care products, or look to a consumer organization for support. Authoritative educational material is supplied by academic dermatologic associations and institutions and distributed by independent websites, large health portals, and search directories. Interactive opportunities include bulletin boards, ask-an-expert forums, and live chat. Although it is easy to find excellent dermatological information, the Internet is dynamic and unmoderated and patients can be misled or exploited by inaccurate or fraudulent websites. Health on the Net and other organizations have developed ethical principles to aid consumers in evaluating the quality of health-related information.

  8. [Toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients].

    PubMed

    Machala, L; Kodym, P; Malý, M; Geleneky, M; Beran, O; Jilich, D

    2015-06-01

    In humans, toxoplasmosis mostly occurs as a latent infection, but in immunocompromised individuals, the agent may reactivate and cause severe to life-threatening disease. HIV positive individuals and transplant recipients, in particular hematopoietic stem cell transplant and heart transplant recipients, are at highest risk. The disease most often affects the central nervous system but can involve any organ. Because of the alteration of the immune response in these patients, the serodiagnosis is not reliable and direct detection of the causative agent is needed--namely by microscopy and DNA PCR. If inadequately treated or left untreated, toxoplasmosis generally has a fatal prognosis in immunocompromised patients and therefore, the treatment must be started as early and energetically as possible. The gold standard both in the treatment of reactivation and secondary prophylaxis is the pyrimethamine-sulfadiazine combination while co-trimoxazole can be used in the primary prophylaxis for high-risk patients.

  9. [Respecting patient intimacy].

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    Transparency as a general rule for all our professional acts casts doubts about the statement of the Hippocratic Oath that says "Whatever I see or hear in the lives of my patients, I will keep secret, as considering all such things to be private". Medical secrecy protects the intimacy of patients, who reveal to their physicians their most hidden secrets aiming to recover their health. Therefore, physicians should receive those secrets with reverence and care, as servers and not as their owners. The values associated with the respect for personal intimacy are the anthropological basis of medical confidentiality. A medical act is performed by definition between two equally honorable individuals. Therefore, the professional honors the trust of his patient, maintaining strict confidence of what is revealed. Therefore, medical secrecy must be strengthened rather than weakened, pursuing common wealth and dignity.

  10. Thromboprophylaxis for trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Luis Manuel Barrera; Perel, Pablo; Ker, Katharine; Cirocchi, Roberto; Farinella, Eriberto; Morales, Carlos Hernando

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects of thromboprophylaxis in trauma patients on mortality and incidence of DVT and PE. To compare the effects of different thromboprophylaxis interventions and their relative effects according to the type of trauma. PMID:25267908

  11. [Healthcare patient loyalty].

    PubMed

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    If the "old economy" preached standardization of products/services in order to reduce costs, the "new economy" is based on the recognition of the needs and the management of information. It is aimed at providing better and more usable services. One scenario is a national health service with regional management but based on competition between hospitals/companies.This led to a different handling of the user/patient, which has become the center of the health system: marketing seeks to retain the patient, trying to push a client-patient to not change their healthcare service provider. In costs terms, it is more economical to retain a customer rather than acquire a new one: a satisfied customer is also the best sounding board for each company. Customer equity is the management of relations with patients which can result in a greater customer value: it is possible to recognize an equity of the value, of the brand and of the report. Loyalty uses various marketing activities (basic, responsive, responsible, proactive and collaborative): each hospital/company chooses different actions depending on how many resources it plans to invest in loyalty.

  12. The Adolescent Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, William A., Jr.

    Written to orient the physician and paramedical personnel to the adolescent patient, the book provides information concerning the changes of adolescence, and age-related problems and illnesses. Part 1 discusses the essence of adolescence by describing physical, mental, and emotional growth and development. Part 2, the major section, consists of 21…

  13. A Patient's Best Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggard, Ann

    1985-01-01

    The author describes the development of a pet therapy program at a rehabilitation unit of a hospital. She discusses documentation of the success of pet therapy programs, picking out the right pets, responsibilities of caring for the pet, training the pet, patient response, and program policies. (CT)

  14. Gastric Cancer in Young Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhobi, Manzoor A.; Wani, Khursheed Alam; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Wani, Rouf A.; Peer, G. Q.; Abdullah, Safiya; Wani, Imtiyaz A.; Wani, Muneer A.; Shah, Mubashir A.; Thakur, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to see the clinical, pathological, and demographic profile of young patients with stomach carcinoma besides association with p53. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of young patients with stomach carcinoma from January 2005 to December 2009. A total of 50 patients with age less than 40 years were studied. Results. Male female ratio was 1 : 1.08 in young patients and 2.5 : 1 in older patients. A positive family history of stomach cancer in the first degree relatives was present in 10% of young patients. Resection was possible only in 50% young patients. 26% young patients underwent only palliative gastrojejunostomy. The most common operation was lower partial gastrectomy in 68%. Amongst the intraoperative findings peritoneal metastasis was seen in 17.4% in young patients. 50% young patients presented in stage IV as per AJCC classification (P value .004; sig.). None of the patients presented as stage 1 disease in young group. Conclusion. Early detection of stomach carcinoma is very important in all patients but in young patients it is of paramount importance. PMID:24381753

  15. Visualising patient flow.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Andrew; Boyle, Justin; Khanna, Sankalp

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development of a method to distil routinely collected clinical data into patient flow information to aid hospital bed management. Using data from state-wide emergency department and inpatient clinical information systems, a user-friendly interface was developed to visualise patient flow conditions for a particular hospital. The historical snapshots employ a variable time scale, allowing flow to be visualised across a day, week, month or year. Flow information includes occupancy, arrival and departure rates, length-of-stay and access block observations, which can be filtered by age, departure status, diagnosis, elective status, triage category, and admission unit. The tool may be helpful in supporting hospital bed managers in their daily decision making.

  16. Communicating with Latino patients.

    PubMed

    de Pheils, Pilar Bernal; Saul, Naledi Marie

    2009-09-01

    This article describes the efforts of the University of California, San Francisco, School of Nursing to develop the Spanish language and cultural competency skills of advanced practice nursing students by establishing an elective course, Communicating with the Latino Patient. The need for this training is reflected in the literature, which has shown that language barriers decrease patient satisfaction and quality of care and increase the likelihood of medical error. Fifty-seven first-year master's students participated in this course. The effectiveness of the training was monitored during and after each course by self-assessment surveys of the participants' language acquisition. The data suggest that the most successful outcomes result from limiting class size, emphasizing high interactivity, and incorporating clinical experiences in the instruction, as well as focusing exclusively on intermediate-level speakers when resources are limited. Training can be time consuming and costly, yet graduates agreed that the training was imperative and valuable.

  17. Teleophthalmology: improving patient outcomes?

    PubMed Central

    Sreelatha, Omana Kesary; Ramesh, Sathyamangalam VenkataSubbu

    2016-01-01

    Teleophthalmology is gaining importance as an effective eye care delivery modality worldwide. In many developing countries, teleophthalmology is being utilized to provide quality eye care to the underserved urban population and the unserved remote rural population. Over the years, technological innovations have led to improvement in evidence and teleophthalmology has evolved from a research tool to a clinical tool. The majority of the current teleophthalmology services concentrate on patient screening and appropriate referral to experts. Specialty care using teleophthalmology services for the pediatric group includes screening as well as providing timely care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Among geriatric eye diseases, specialty teleophthalmology care is focused toward screening and referral for diabetic retinopathy (DR), glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), and other sight-threatening conditions. Comprehensive vision screening and refractive error services are generally covered as part of most of the teleophthalmology methods. Over the past decades, outcome assessment of health care system includes patients’ assessments on their health, care, and services they receive. Outcomes, by and large, remain the ultimate validators of the effectiveness and quality of medical care. Teleophthalmology produces the same desired clinical outcome as the traditional system. Remote portals allow specialists to provide care over a larger region, thereby improving health outcomes and increasing accessibility of specialty care to a larger population. A high satisfaction level and acceptance is reported in the majority of the studies because of increased accessibility and reduced traveling cost and time. Considering the improved quality of patient care and patient satisfaction reported for these telemedicine services, this review explores how teleophthalmology helps to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26929592

  18. The visually impaired patient.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eric A; Sperazza, Laura C

    2008-05-15

    Blindness or low vision affects more than 3 million Americans 40 years and older, and this number is projected to reach 5.5 million by 2020. In addition to treating a patient's vision loss and comorbid medical issues, physicians must be aware of the physical limitations and social issues associated with vision loss to optimize health and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Exudative macular degeneration is treated with laser therapy, and progression of nonexudative macular degeneration in its advanced stages may be slowed with high-dose antioxidant and zinc regimens. The value of screening for glaucoma is uncertain; management of this condition relies on topical ocular medications. Cataract symptoms include decreased visual acuity, decreased color perception, decreased contrast sensitivity, and glare disability. Lifestyle and environmental interventions can improve function in patients with cataracts, but surgery is commonly performed if the condition worsens. Diabetic retinopathy responds to tight glucose control, and severe cases marked by macular edema are treated with laser photocoagulation. Vision-enhancing devices can help magnify objects, and nonoptical interventions include special filters and enhanced lighting.

  19. "The impatient patient".

    PubMed

    Bos, Lodewijk; Carroll, Denis; Marsh, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Modern Healthcare Systems that have embraced ICT and Internet technologies (referred to as Health 1.0) are evolving towards self management but from a clinical knowledge perspective. In contrast, from a user experience perspective, and using the latest web 2.0 technologies, the developing healthcare social networking communities (referred to as Health 2.0) are evolving towards becoming online medical portals. The growing Grand Challenge for healthcare is therefore: how will health care services (Health 1.0) work together with user-generated health care (Health 2.0) in a consumer market place delivering self management services for a healthier lifestyle and medical compliance. What is foreseen is that the self care information tool of the future will be a combination between the patient's observation record and the Internet, with the doctor and the patient positioned together at the intersection but not having to pay attention to the technology. This article deals with various aspects related to this Grand Challenge like the paradigm shift towards a needs-led and consumer-oriented healthcare, the role, supply and quality of information and the changing doctor-patient relationship.

  20. Pain in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J; Choinère, M

    1995-08-01

    While severe pain is a constant component of the burn injury, inadequate pain management has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Pain-generating mechanisms in burns include nociception, primary and secondary hyperalgesia and neuropathy. The clinical studies of burn pain characteristics reveal very clear-cut differences between continuous pain and pain due to therapeutic procedures which have to be treated separately. Some of the main features of burn pain are: (1) its long-lasting course, often exceeding healing time, (2) the repetition of highly nociceptive procedures which can lead to severe psychological disturbances if pain control is inappropriate. Pharmaco-therapy with opioids is the mainstay for analgesia in burned patients, but non-pharmacological techniques may be useful adjuncts. Routine pain evaluation is mandatory for efficient and safe analgesia. Special attention must be given to pain in burned children which remains too often underestimated and undertreated. More educational efforts from physicians and nursing staff are necessary to improve pain management in burned patients.

  1. Angle closure in younger patients.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Brian M; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Angle-closure glaucoma is rare in children and young adults. Only scattered cases associated with specific clinical entities have been reported. We evaluated the findings in patients in our database aged 40 or younger with angle closure. METHODS: Our database was searched for patients with angle closure who were 40 years old or younger. Data recorded included age at initial consultation; age at the time of diagnosis; gender; results of slit-lamp examination, gonioscopy, and ultrasound biomicroscopy (from 1993 onward); clinical diagnosis; and therapy. Patients with previous incisional surgery were excluded, as were patients with anterior chamber proliferative mechanisms leading to angle closure. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients (49 females, 18 males) met entry criteria. Mean age (+/- SD) at the time of consultation was 34.4 +/- 9.4 years (range, 3-68 years). Diagnoses included plateau iris syndrome (35 patients), iridociliary cysts (8 patients), retinopathy of prematurity (7 patients), uveitis (5 patients), isolated nanophthalmos (3 patients), relative pupillary block (2 patients), Weill-Marchesani syndrome (3 patients), and 1 patient each with Marfan syndrome, miotic-induced angle closure, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, and idiopathic lens subluxation. CONCLUSION: The etiology of angle closure in young persons is different from that in the older population and is typically associated with structural or developmental ocular anomalies rather than relative pupillary block. Following laser iridotomy, these eyes should be monitored for recurrent angle closure and the need for additional laser or incisional surgical intervention. PMID:12545694

  2. The challenge of patient adherence

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Leslie R; Williams, Summer L; Haskard, Kelly B; DiMatteo, M Robin

    2005-01-01

    Quality healthcare outcomes depend upon patients' adherence to recommended treatment regimens. Patient nonadherence can be a pervasive threat to health and wellbeing and carry an appreciable economic burden as well. In some disease conditions, more than 40% of patients sustain significant risks by misunderstanding, forgetting, or ignoring healthcare advice. While no single intervention strategy can improve the adherence of all patients, decades of research studies agree that successful attempts to improve patient adherence depend upon a set of key factors. These include realistic assessment of patients' knowledge and understanding of the regimen, clear and effective communication between health professionals and their patients, and the nurturance of trust in the therapeutic relationship. Patients must be given the opportunity to tell the story of their unique illness experiences. Knowing the patient as a person allows the health professional to understand elements that are crucial to the patient's adherence: beliefs, attitudes, subjective norms, cultural context, social supports, and emotional health challenges, particularly depression. Physician–patient partnerships are essential when choosing amongst various therapeutic options to maximize adherence. Mutual collaboration fosters greater patient satisfaction, reduces the risks of nonadherence, and improves patients' healthcare outcomes. PMID:18360559

  3. Physician-Patient Communication and Patient Compliance: A Theoretical Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clampitt, Phillip G.; Williams, M. Lee

    This paper synthesizes much of the literature concerning physician/patient communication as it relates to patient compliance. Using the theoretical perspective that deals with belief, attitude, intention, and behavior (a perspective generated by Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen), a new theoretical orientation for predicting patient compliance is…

  4. Choosing effective patient education materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... education. Tell your patient what to pay special attention to. Be sure to review any materials you plan to use before sharing them with the patient. Keep in mind that no resource is a substitute ...

  5. Patient Safety: Do Your Homework

    MedlinePlus

    American Society of Plastic Surgeons Home Cosmetic Reconstructive Before & After Photos Find A Surgeon Patient Safety News Patients of Courage About ASPS Menu More Call for a nearby plastic surgeon you can trust | 1-800-514-5058 ...

  6. Nutritional screening in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J S; Burrough, C A; Green, J L; Brown, G L

    1984-03-01

    Routine nutritional screening of patients admitted to the surgical services confirms a substantial prevalence of malnutrition. Identification of the malnourished patient and the patient who is likely to become malnourished should be done as early as possible in the hospital stay and usually requires only simple, readily available parameters. Nutritional screening is only the first step in the optimal nutritional management of surgical patients. This information should be used to determine the need for further nutritional assessment, the appropriate consultation, and nutritional therapy.

  7. Profile of Your Geriatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Longhurst, Mark F.; Slade, Debra

    1990-01-01

    The family doctor cares for many geriatric patients. Many of these patients enter the family practice for the first time, having either recently moved to the area or to a nearby long-term care facility. Obtaining a meaningful patient profile is essential to the physicians' care, allowing future medical decisions to be made in the best interest of that person. Patients' beliefs motivate their functioning in a system. Any system has its own history, structure, and function. PMID:21234029

  8. Systems Thinking and Patient Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    1 Prologue Systems Thinking and Patient Safety Paul M. Schyve Patient safety is a prominent theme in health care delivery today. This should...been “unenlightened,” to say the least; we would not have been able to apply systems thinking to patient safety. Even today, preventable patient...in the minds of many, to be met with blame and punishment. But systems thinking is now ubiquitous in health care—due, in large measure, to its

  9. The patient-friendly practice.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Sharon Kay

    2006-01-01

    In today's medical marketplace, patients see themselves as consumers of healthcare with certain customer-service expectations. The medical practice that is indifferent or resistant to these changes is at risk. Having a good understanding of patient-friendly changes can help a practice survive in a changing environment. A patient-friendly office will continue to meet the needs of the patient by adopting this new practice style.

  10. Patient-centered healthcare design.

    PubMed

    Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2011-12-01

    Patient-centered care focuses on the patient's and family's experience in the hospital, and the design of the healthcare environment should support the patient-centered care concept. The purpose of this facility design department is to expand nurse leaders' knowledge and competencies in health facility design and enable them to take leadership roles in design efforts. This article focuses on healthcare design guiding principles and features to support organizational cultural initiatives such as patient- and family-centered care and Planetree.

  11. Podcasting: contemporary patient education.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Daniel V; Tamura, Thomas K; Sipp, J Andrew; Keamy, Donald G; Eavey, Roland D

    2008-04-01

    Portable video technology is a widely available new tool with potential to be used by pediatric otolaryngology practices for patient and family education. Podcasts are media broadcasts that employ this new technology. They can be accessed via the Internet and viewed either on a personal computer or on a handheld device, such as an iPod or an MP3 player. We wished to examine the feasibility of establishing a podcast-hosting Web site. We digitally recorded pediatric otologic procedures in the operating room and saved the digital files to DVDs. We then edited the DVDs at home with video-editing software on a personal computer. Next, spoken narrative was recorded with audio-recording software and combined with the edited video clips. The final products were converted into the M4V file format, and the final versions were uploaded onto our hospital's Web site. We then downloaded the podcasts onto a high-quality portable media player so that we could evaluate their quality. All of the podcasts are now on the hospital Web site, where they can be downloaded by patients and families at no cost. The site includes instructions on how to download the appropriate free software for viewing the podcasts on a portable media player or on a computer. Using this technology for patient education expands the audience and permits portability of information. We conclude that a home computer can be used to inexpensively create informative surgery demonstrations that can be accessed via a Web site and transferred to portable viewing devices with excellent quality.

  12. Managing the chronically late patient.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Every practice has patients who are chronically late. This wrecks havoc with your schedule and makes you less productive. Patients can be trained to respect your time and arrive in the office on time. This article discusses several approaches to managing the chronically late patient.

  13. Dental problems in epileptic patients.

    PubMed

    Zioło, Anna; Mielnik-Błaszczak, Maria

    2004-01-01

    On the grounds of literature and own clinical experience, pathological changes in epilepitic patients have been described. Dental management procedures in these patients have also been presented. The unquestionable importance of prophylaxis, which may markedly minimize the impact of epilepsy on the incidence of mouth diseases, has been emphasised. It has also been stated that epileptic patients should receive specialised and integrated dental treatment.

  14. Medical Services: Patient Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    participants in Domestic Action Programs (formerly para 4-63). o Rescinds eligibility references to the Citizens Military Training Corps (formerly para 5...consolidated regulation p r e s c r i b e s p o l i c i e s a n d m a n d a t e d t a s k s governing the management and adminis- tration of patients...Security beneficiaries • 3–34, page 25 Micronesian citizens • 3–35, page 25 American Samoan citizens • 3–36, page 25 Section VIII Miscellaneous Categories

  15. Carctol: Profit before Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, Edzard

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Carctol is a herbal remedy that recently was widely reported to offer a cure for a range of cancers. This article is aimed at evaluating the evidence that supports this claim. Methods In addition to numerous websites, we conducted systematic searches in six electronic databases. Any factual information relating to Carctol was considered. Results The websites provided the composition of the herbal mixture and numerous claims as to its effectiveness. However, not a single scientific study of any style was found. Conclusions The claim that Carctol is of any benefit to cancer patients is not supported by scientific evidence. PMID:20877681

  16. Cardiac sarcoidosis—state of the art review

    PubMed Central

    Hulten, Edward; Aslam, Saira; Osborne, Michael; Abbasi, Siddique; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology resulting in formation of non-caseating granulomas. Cardiac involvement—which is associated with worse prognosis—has been detected in approximately 25% of individuals based on autopsy or cardiac imaging studies. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis is challenging due to the low yield of endomyocardial biopsy, and the limited accuracy of various clinical criteria. Thus, no gold standard diagnostic criterion exists. This review will summarize the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis with a focus on advanced cardiovascular imaging, We review the evidence to support a role for cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in the initial evaluation of selected patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis, with cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) as an alternative or complementary initial diagnostic test in a subgroup of patients in whom CMR may be contra-indicated or when CMR is negative with continued clinical concern for myocardial inflammation. In addition to the diagnostic value of these tests, CMR and PET are also useful in identifying patients who have higher risk of adverse events such as ventricular tachycardia or death, in whom preventive therapies such as defibrillators should be more strongly considered. Although no randomized controlled trials for treatment of cardiac sarcoidosis exist, immunosuppressive therapy is often used. We review emerging evidence regarding the use of cardiac PET to identify and quantity the amount of myocardial inflammation as well as to guide the use of immunotherapy. Future studies are needed to determine the benefit of imaging guided therapies aimed at improving patient outcomes. PMID:26885492

  17. Caring for Latino patients.

    PubMed

    Juckett, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Latinos comprise nearly 16 percent of the U.S. population, and this proportion is anticipated to increase to 30 percent by 2050. Latinos are a diverse ethnic group that includes many different cultures, races, and nationalities. Barriers to care have resulted in striking disparities in quality of health care for these patients. These barriers include language, lack of insurance, different cultural beliefs, and in some cases, illegal immigration status, mistrust, and illiteracy. The National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services address these concerns with recommendations for culturally competent care, language services, and organizational support. Latinos have disproportionately higher rates of obesity and diabetes mellitus. Other health problems include stress, neurocysticercosis, and tuberculosis. It is important to explore the use of alternative therapies and belief in traditional folk illnesses, recognizing that health beliefs are dependent on education, socioeconomic status, and degree of acculturation. Many-but not all-folk and herbal treatments can be safely accommodated with conventional therapy. Physicians must be sensitive to Latino cultural values of simpatia (kindness), personalismo (relationship), respeto (respect), and modestia (modesty). The LEARN technique can facilitate cross-cultural interviews. Some cultural barriers may be overcome by using the "teach back" technique to ensure that directions are correctly understood and by creating a welcoming health care environment for Latino patients.

  18. Patient Zero”:

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This article contextualizes the production and reception of And the Band Played On, Randy Shilts’s popular history of the initial recognition of the American AIDS epidemic. Published over twenty-five years ago, the book and its most notorious character, “Patient Zero,” are in particular need of a critical historical treatment. The article presents a more balanced consideration—a “patient’s view”—of Gaétan Dugas’s experience of the early years of AIDS. I oppose the assertion that Dugas, the so-called Patient Zero, ignored incontrovertible information about the condition and was intent on spreading his infection. Instead I argue that scientific ideas in 1982 and 1983 about AIDS and the transmissibility of a causative agent were later portrayed to be more self-evident than they were at the time. The article also traces how Shilts’s highly selective—and highly readable—characterization of Dugas rapidly became embedded in discussions about the need to criminalize the reckless transmission of HIV. PMID:24769806

  19. [Neurological complications in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Hundsberger, Thomas; Roth, Patrick; Roelcke, Ulrich

    2014-08-20

    Neurological symptoms in cancer patients have a great impact on quality of life and need an interdisciplinary approach. They lead to significant impairment in activities of daily living (gait disorders, dizziness), a loss of patients independency (vegetative disturbances, wheel-chair dependency) and interfere with social activities (ban of driving in case of epilepsy). In this article we describe three main and serious neurological problems in the context of oncological patients. These are chemotherapy-induced polyneuropathy, malignant spinal cord compression and epileptic seizures. Our aim is to increase the awareness of neurological complications in cancer patients to improve patients care.

  20. Financial Distress in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Jonas A.; Wong, Yu-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Novel diagnostic and therapeutic options offer hope to cancer patients with both localized and advanced disease. However, many of these treatments are often costly and even well-insured patients can face high out-of-pocket costs. Families may also be at risk of financial distress due to lost wages and other treatment-related expenses. Research is needed to measure and characterize financial distress in cancer patients and understand how it affects their quality of life. In addition, health care providers need to be trained to counsel patients and their families so they can make patient-centered treatment decisions that reflect their preferences and values. PMID:24349677

  1. Bibliotherapy in a Patients' Library *

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, David J.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes the involvement of patients in the Patients' Library at McLean Hospital, and the relationship between them and the librarian in library activities. The publication of a patients' magazine is discussed, with case histories of persons who had taken part in its production. The Patients' Librarian has a personal role in patient therapy, and accounts are given of various activities such as play-reading, poetry-reading, and the discussion of poems by established writers, with therapeutic aims in view. Actual clinical experiences are given. PMID:5146769

  2. Neurosarcoidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Sarcoidosis - nervous system ... Sarcoidosis is a long-term disorder that affects many parts of the body, mostly the lungs. In ... with one or more nerves. A history of sarcoidosis followed by nerve-related symptoms highly suggests neurosarcoidosis. ...

  3. American College of Chest Physicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... April 10, 2017 CHEST Foundation and Foundation for Sarcoidosis Research campaign aims to raise awareness of little-known condition, sarcoidosis To coincide with National Sarcoidosis Awareness Month in ...

  4. [Treatment of patients with osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Vargas Negrín, Francisco; Medina Abellán, María D; Hermosa Hernán, Juan Carlos; de Felipe Medina, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic management of patients with osteoarthritis aims to decrease pain and inflammation, improve physical function, and to apply safe and effective treatments. A patient-centered approach implies the active participation of the patient in the design of the treatment plan and in timely and informed decision-making at all stages of the disease. The nucleus of treatment is patient education, physical activity and therapeutic exercise, together with weight control in overweight or obese patients. Self-care by the individual and by the family is fundamental in day-to-day patient management. The use of physical therapies, technical aids (walking sticks, etc.) and simple analgesics, opium alkaloids, and antiinflammatory drugs have demonstrated effectiveness in controlling pain, improving physical function and quality of life and their use is clearly indicated in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Conservative surgery and joint replacement is indicated when treatment goals are not achieved in specific patients.

  5. [Autonomy of the patient with chronic diseases: from passive patient to active patient].

    PubMed

    González Mestre, Assumpció

    2014-01-01

    Due to social, economic and cultural changes, there has been a transformation of Health Services around the world. A new figure has emerged from this: the Active Patient, more responsible, with more information and willing to change his life as a chronic patient. In order to respond to this new situation, several countries have established initiatives such as self-reliance programmes for chronic patients. The aim of this article is to underline the Expert Patient Programme Catalonia(®) and to explain its operation and the results obtained up until now. The purpose of this program is to improve the experience of chronic disease by patients, from meetings in which an expert patient provides his knowledge and experiences to a group of patients with the same disease, with the aim of promoting changes in habits and lifestyles that improve the quality of life and the coexistence of the person with his chronic process.

  6. Improving emergency department patient flow.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Paul Richard Edwin

    2016-06-01

    Emergency departments (ED) face significant challenges in delivering high quality and timely patient care on an ever-present background of increasing patient numbers and limited hospital resources. A mismatch between patient demand and the ED's capacity to deliver care often leads to poor patient flow and departmental crowding. These are associated with reduction in the quality of the care delivered and poor patient outcomes. A literature review was performed to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the amount of time patients spend in the ED in order to improve patient flow and reduce crowding in the ED. The use of doctor triage, rapid assessment, streaming and the co-location of a primary care clinician in the ED have all been shown to improve patient flow. In addition, when used effectively point of care testing has been shown to reduce patient time in the ED. Patient flow and departmental crowding can be improved by implementing new patterns of working and introducing new technologies such as point of care testing in the ED.

  7. Creating the ideal patient experience.

    PubMed

    Purcărea, Th.V

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare industry continues to evolve under conditions of intense competition in approaching health prevention, protection, and promotion. Therefore, healthcare providers are challenged to always ensure better patient experience, winning patients' satisfaction, and loyalty and remain competitive on today's healthcare market. Healthcare markets bring together professionals and their patients into real collaborative relationships, which empower patients to contribute to the healthcare improvement. Within this competitive landscape, which is also characterized by digital health tools boosting patients' awareness and controlling their own health, medical providers need to be perceived as skilled and trustworthy in relying on patients' needs, expectations, and sacrifices are required in order to obtain the promised benefits. Moreover, while constantly providing a holistic assessment of the healthcare services' and experience attributes, acting on feedback and reaching healthcare service excellence, providing a better understanding of all the touch points with their patients and improving the quality and consistency of all these touch points, all these are achieved by employees, who are truly connected to the healthcare business. Today, patients are systematically becoming aware of the diversity of their choices, being increasingly involved in making better healthcare choices, and, so, more and more innovative products are introduced, targeting new patient segments. Findings from the last three years have shown that patients may achieve better outcomes due to the stakeholders' commitment to innovation within the context of the big-data revolution, by building new values.

  8. Hallux ulceration in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    ElMakki Ahmed, Mohamed; Tamimi, Abdulhakim O; Mahadi, Seif I; Widatalla, Abubakr H; Shawer, Mohamed A

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a prospective cohort study to assess risk factors associated with hallux ulceration, and to determine the incidence of healing or amputation, in consecutive patients with diabetes mellitus who were treated over the observation period extending from September 2004 to March 2005, at the Jabir Abu Eliz Diabetic Centre, Khartoum City, Sudan. There were 122 diabetic patients in the cohort (92 males and 30 females) with an overall mean age of 58 +/- 9 years. Fifty-three percent of patients had complete healing within 8 weeks and 43% healed within 20 weeks. The overall mean time to healing was 16 +/- 8 weeks. In 32 (26.2%) patients, osteomyelitic bone was removed, leaving a healed and boneless hallux. The hallux was amputated in 17 (13.9%) patients; in 2 (1.6%) patients it was followed by forefoot amputation and in 7 (5.7%) patients by below-the-knee amputation. In 90 (73.8%) patients the initial lesion was a blister. In conclusion, hallux ulceration is common in patients with diabetes mellitus and is usually preceded by a blister. Neuropathy, foot deformity, and wearing new shoes are common causative factors; and ischemia, osteomyelitis, any form of wound infection, and the size of the ulcer are main outcome determinants. Complete healing occurred in 103 (85%) of diabetic patients with a hallux ulcer. Vascular intervention is important relative to limb salvage when ischemia is the main cause of the ulcer.

  9. Improving emergency department patient flow

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Paul Richard Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (ED) face significant challenges in delivering high quality and timely patient care on an ever-present background of increasing patient numbers and limited hospital resources. A mismatch between patient demand and the ED’s capacity to deliver care often leads to poor patient flow and departmental crowding. These are associated with reduction in the quality of the care delivered and poor patient outcomes. A literature review was performed to identify evidence-based strategies to reduce the amount of time patients spend in the ED in order to improve patient flow and reduce crowding in the ED. The use of doctor triage, rapid assessment, streaming and the co-location of a primary care clinician in the ED have all been shown to improve patient flow. In addition, when used effectively point of care testing has been shown to reduce patient time in the ED. Patient flow and departmental crowding can be improved by implementing new patterns of working and introducing new technologies such as point of care testing in the ED. PMID:27752619

  10. Patient-Specific Orthopaedic Implants.

    PubMed

    Haglin, Jack M; Eltorai, Adam E M; Gil, Joseph A; Marcaccio, Stephen E; Botero-Hincapie, Juliana; Daniels, Alan H

    2016-11-01

    Patient-specific orthopaedic implants are emerging as a clinically promising treatment option for a growing number of conditions to better match an individual's anatomy. Patient-specific implant (PSI) technology aims to reduce overall procedural costs, minimize surgical time, and maximize patient outcomes by achieving better biomechanical implant fit. With this commercially-available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used in conjunction with specialized computer programs to create preoperative patient-specific surgical plans and to develop custom cutting guides from 3-D reconstructed images of patient anatomy. Surgeons can then place these temporary guides or "jigs" during the procedure, allowing them to better recreate the exact resections of the computer-generated surgical plan. Over the past decade, patient-specific implants have seen increased use in orthopaedics and they have been widely indicated in total knee arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, and corrective osteotomies. Patient-specific implants have also been explored for use in total shoulder arthroplasty and spinal surgery. Despite their increasing popularity, significant support for PSI use in orthopaedics has been lacking in the literature and it is currently uncertain whether the theoretical biomechanical advantages of patient-specific orthopaedic implants carry true advantages in surgical outcomes when compared to standard procedures. The purpose of this review was to assess the current status of patient-specific orthopaedic implants, to explore their future direction, and to summarize any comparative published studies that measure definitive surgical characteristics of patient-specific orthopaedic implant use such as patient outcomes, biomechanical implant alignment, surgical cost, patient blood loss, or patient recovery.

  11. Patient reported outcomes and patient empowerment in clinical genetics services.

    PubMed

    McAllister, M; Dearing, A

    2015-08-01

    Evaluation of clinical genetics services (CGS), including genetic counseling and genetic testing, has been problematic. Patient mortality and morbidity are unlikely to be directly improved by interventions offered in CGS. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are not routinely measured in CGS evaluation, but this may change as patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) become a key part of how healthcare services are managed and funded across the world. However, there is no clear consensus about which PROMs are most useful for CGS evaluation. This review summarizes the published research on how PROs from CGS have been measured and how patients may benefit from using those services, with a focus on patient empowerment. Many patient benefits (PROs) identified repeatedly in the research literature can be re-interpreted within a patient empowerment framework. Other important PROs identified include family functioning, social functioning, altruism, sense of purpose, enabling development of future research and treatment/participating in research. Well-validated measures are available to capture (dimensions of) patient empowerment. Although generic measures of family functioning are available, suitable measures capturing social functioning, development of future treatments, and altruism were not identified in this review. Patient empowerment provides one useful approach to measuring PROs from CGS.

  12. [Anemia in peritoneal dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Lausević, Mirjana; Nesić, Vidosava; Jovanović, Natasa; Stojimirović, Biljana

    2006-01-01

    A normocytic normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of renal failure. Since anemia increases morbidity and mortality, its elimination is one of the essential objectives of the treatment. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has changed the therapeutical approach to anemia. The aim of the present study was to compare efficacy of anemia correction in peritoneal dialysis patients depending on treatment and dialysis modality. The study is the retrospective analysis of 64 patients who presented to our Clinic in 2003. Eighteen (28.13%) patients were treated with rHuEPO, 14 (28%) underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 2 (100%)--automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and 2 (33.3%)--intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). Mean hemoglobin level was 98.6 +/- 17.82 g/l in patients treated with rHuEPO versus 98.81 +/- 15.14 g/l in patients without rHuEPO treatment. Erythropoietin requirements were 3392.85 +/- 1211.77 IU/week All patients received iron supplementation during rHuEPO therapy. Mean serum ferritin levels were 463.41 +/- 360 ug/l. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) was 0.35 +/- 0.16%. No difference of serum iron and TSAT levels was found between CAPD and IPD patients. The degree of anemia significantly differed between CAPD and IPD patients. A total of 17.11% of PD patients were given blood transfusions, most frequently during the first three months after the onset of dialysis. Our conclusion is that the number of patients receiving rHuEPO should be increased, as 50% of our patients should be substituted, while only 28% are being treated. As 50% of patients receiving rHuEPO failed to reach target Hgb levels, higher EPO doses should be considered. Iron stores should be continuously monitored, particularly in patients receiving rHuEPO, since iron deficiency is an important problem for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, especially during erythropoietin therapy. Oral iron supplementation is satisfactory in the majority of patients, and iron

  13. Oral lesions in haemopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Grande, M; Milano, V; Desiate, A; Martinelli, A; Iaffaldano, B

    1990-03-01

    This paper deals with the oral manifestations observed in patients with haemolymphopathies and oral complications associated with systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. We report the percentage of oral manifestations observed in 30 patients treated with cytotoxic drugs for malignant haemolymphopathies or other tumors after 2-4 cycles of systemic combinations chemotherapy. No sex or age differences were recorded except for abnormalities of taste present only in 13% treated patients older than 50. Stomatitis was more frequent in patients with malignant haemolymphopathies than in patient with other neoplastic diseases, probably due to the fact that in the former group neutropenia and thrombocytopenia induced by bone marrow infiltration or by more aggressive combination chemotherapy are most frequent. An oral care protocol for these patients is suggested.

  14. Pneumonia in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, D. M.; Marrie, T. J.; Janigan, D. T.; MacKeen, A. D.; Belitsky, P.; MacDonald, A. S.; Lannon, S. G.; Cohen, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    Between January 1976 and March 1982, 28 episodes of pneumonia occurred in 26 renal transplant patients. The overall mortality rate was 46%. Of the 16 patients with nosocomial pneumonia 9 (56%) died, whereas of the 12 patients with community-acquired pneumonia 4 (33%) died. In all 9 cases of unknown cause the response to empiric treatment was prompt, whereas in 4 of the 10 cases of monomicrobial pneumonia and 8 of the 9 cases of polymicrobial pneumonia the patient died. Cytomegalovirus was the sole cause of the pneumonia in two patients and a contributing cause, along with aerobic gram-negative bacteria, in another five, four of whom also had a fungal infection. Two patients, both of whom survived, had nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. PMID:6342741

  15. Prioritization strategies for patient evacuations.

    PubMed

    Childers, Ashley Kay; Mayorga, Maria E; Taaffe, Kevin M

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation from a health care facility is considered last resort, and in the event of a complete evacuation, a standard planning assumption is that all patients will be evacuated. A literature review of the suggested prioritization strategies for evacuation planning-as well as the transportation priorities used in actual facility evacuations-shows a lack of consensus about whether critical or non-critical care patients should be transferred first. In addition, it is implied that these policies are "greedy" in that one patient group is given priority, and patients from that group are chosen to be completely evacuated before any patients are evacuated from the other group. The purpose of this paper is to present a dynamic programming model for emergency patient evacuations and show that a greedy, "all-or-nothing" policy is not always optimal as well as discuss insights of the resulting optimal prioritization strategies for unit- or floor-level evacuations.

  16. Trading patients. Lessons from Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Botten, Grete; Grepperud, Sverre; Nerland, Sölve Mikal

    2004-09-01

    The next few decades will bring about more trade in services, among them health care. This paper describes a recent project on cross-border trading of patients initiated by the Norwegian parliament (The Patient Bridge). This health policy reform met some resistance among hospital physicians. However, patients were willing to participate if being properly informed and supported by local health care workers. The Patient Bridge turned out to be a relatively expensive project partly because of the transaction costs involved (transportation and escort) and partly because of high treatment costs. Excessive treatment costs were a result of insufficient cost-consciousness in the purchasing organization. The Patient Bridge revealed large price differentials not only between Norwegian and foreign hospitals, but also between hospitals abroad, even within the same country. This finding points to the possibilities of reaching mutual gains from trading patients across borders.

  17. Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Patient ... for evaluation and possible surgical management. Sources For Aging Patients: Administration on Aging (AoA), U.S. Department of ...

  18. [Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Cancer Patients].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-07-01

    Dyspnea occurs in most cancer patients and is often associated with severe pain. Pulmonary rehabilitation has become increasingly important to improve ADL and QOL and to relieve pain that results from dyspnea. Although pulmonary rehabilitation is now provided mainly during the perioperative period, it has been recognized as an effective procedure for patients before, during, or after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is also useful for patients with advanced or terminal cancer. However, an evidence-based cancer rehabilitation procedure has to be established.

  19. Scripting patienthood with patient clothing.

    PubMed

    Topo, Päivi; Iltanen-Tähkävuori, Sonja

    2010-06-01

    The potential of care environments to promote patient healing has gained increasing attention over the last decade, with evidence-based designs used to explore developments in this field. Medical textiles, such as clothes provided to patients, are part of the care environment in many countries. Our study focuses on patients' experiences of such clothing. The goal of this research is to understand how patienthood is constructed in relation to patient clothing and the practices around their use. The study is based on four group interviews involving a total of 12 people with experience of being patients in a hospital or of visiting residential care environments. We employed an active interview format, and the medical textiles currently used in Finnish hospitals and residential care facilities were available for scrutiny during the interviews. Content analyses were carried out on the interview transcripts. Patient clothing was critically evaluated by the participants; they experienced giving up their own clothes as akin to a rite of passage into their new role as a patient. The low status of a patient in a hospital environment was symbolised by the outworn appearance of patient clothing and the problems in protecting privacy. Patient clothing was also felt to provide limited possibilities for being active and in some cases was found to be annoying or even harmful and upsetting. For patients, being dressed in patient clothing may be symbolic of lower status and narrowed agency in everyday life. We can conclude that artefacts such as clothing worn in care environments need to be given attention when considering possibilities for improving care.

  20. Expert patients: learning from HIV.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Molly

    2011-04-01

    The outbreak of HIV in the early 1980s saw widespread activism among patients and community supporters. The author, a young physician in San Francisco at the time, describes how coming of age as a clinician in the midst of this activism affected her concept of the patient-physician relationship. The insistence of a particular patient, Robert, on specifying his treatment goals illustrates that even people with substantial cognitive challenges can participate in their own care in an egalitarian and active manner.

  1. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    cornea’s defense mechanisms and subsequent events that may lead to cornea opacification and the need for cornea transplant . Currently these patients...cornea’s defense mechanisms and subsequent events that may lead to cornea opacification and the need for cornea transplant . Currently these patients...resistant crosslinked amniotic membranes for treating cornea of burn patients that were produced in Years 1 and 2. Major findings: Identified

  2. Tempus Pro Patient Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-03

    AFRL-SA-WP-TR-2015-0006 Tempus Pro Patient Monitoring System Nigel D. Pritchard 3 April 2015 Final Report... System 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Nigel D. Pritchard 5e. TASK NUMBER...subsequent demonstration of the Tempus Pro patient monitoring system to include the AF3899L critical care patient movement record. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  3. [Sophrology for patients in oncology].

    PubMed

    Barré, Chantal; Falcou, Marie-Christine; Mosseri, Véronique; Carrié, Sylvie; Dolbeault, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    It is important to support patients with cancer during their care pathway and even beyond. They undergo long and difficult treatments, all anxiety-causing situations and sources of stress. Sophrological techniques help patients to find calm, lessen their fears and offer them the opportunity to work on themselves through simple easily reproducible exercises. This observation has been verified by a study carried out at the Institut Curie with patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  4. Implementing national patient safety alerts.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sally; Taylor, Natalie; Lawton, Rebecca; Slater, Beverley

    National patient safety alerts are sometimes difficult to implement in an effective way. All trusts have to declare compliance with alerts as part of a three-step process to improve patient safety. This article discusses an alternative way of implementing national patient safety alerts and describes how behaviour-change methods can be used to successfully implement lasting changes in practice at ward or departmental level.

  5. The clinical characteristics of sarcoid arthropathy based on a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, Senol; Sever, Fidan; Usluer, Ozan; Goksel, Tuncay; Orman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sarcoidosis is known as a Th1-mediated disease, which can mimic many primary rheumatologic diseases or sometimes co-exist with them. Clinical characteristics of sarcoid arthropathy are not well described and the studies reported in the literature so far are mostly based on data from referrals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and clinical characteristics of sarcoid arthropathy. Methods: All our patients were prospectively evaluated in our rheumatology outpatient center from 2011 to 2015. A total of 114 (32 male) patients with sarcoidosis who were admitted to our clinic were included in the study. Clinical, demographical, laboratory, radiological and histological data of these patients obtained during 4-year follow-up and treatment period were compiled and analyzed. Results: The mean patient age was 48.1 years (range, 20–82 years), and the mean disease duration was 40.5 months (range, 1–300 months). Sarcoid arthritis was observed in 71 (62.3%), and arthralgia in 106 (92.9%) patients. Out of the 71 patients with arthritis, 61 (85.9%) had involvement of ankle, 7 (9.8%) knee, 2 (2.8%) wrist, MCP and PIP joints, and 1 (1.4%) had shoulder periarthritis. Oligoarthritis (two to four joints) was the most common pattern followed by monoarthritis and polyarthritis. Arthritis and erytjhema nodosum and arthritis and female sex was found to be correlated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.001). Again, in patients with arthritis, even higher levels of CRP/ESR as well as ANA and RF positivity were observed (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, p = 0.01, and p = 0.02, respectively). A total of 11 patients had another rheumatic pathology concurrent with sarcoidosis. Conclusions: Inflammatory arthritis occurs in a majority of patients with sarcoidosis. Acute arthritis with bilateral ankle involvement is the most common pattern of sarcoid arthropathy. Sarcoidosis can mimic many primary rheumatic diseases or may coexist with them. Sarcoidosis should be considered not only as a

  6. Nutritional assessment of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Stegman, M R

    1988-10-01

    In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies.

  7. Strategies for improving patient compliance.

    PubMed

    Strand, J

    1994-01-01

    Achieving patient compliance in taking prescribed medications is a formidable challenge for all clinicians. As PAs, we have daily opportunities to communicate with patients and improve their compliance. An office-based compliance program, combining patient education and behavior-modification components, can be beneficial in this regard. Strategies for improving compliance include giving clear, concise, and logical instructions in familiar language, adapting drug regimens to daily routines, eliciting patient participation through self-monitoring, and providing educational materials that promote overall good health in connection with medical treatment.

  8. Orthodontic treatment in oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Mituś-Kenig, Maria; Łoboda, Magdalena; Marcinkowska-Mituś, Agata; Durka-Zajac, Magdalena; Pawłowska, Elzbieta

    2015-01-01

    The progress in oncological treatment has led to the current increase of childhood cancer survival rate to 80%. That is why orthodontists more and more frequently consult patients who had completed a successful anti-cancer therapy in childhood. Oncological treatments such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy or supportive immunosuppressive therapy cause numerous side effects in growing patients, connected i.a. with growth, the development of teeth or the viscerocranium. This is a special group of patients that needs an optimised plan of orthodontic treatment and often has to accept a compromise result. The purpose of the current work is to discuss the results of orthodontic treatment in patients after an anti-cancer therapy. Time of treatment was 12,5 months. In 6 patients (from 40 undergoing orthodontic therapy) we haven't reached a normocclusion, in 9 patients we should have stopped the therapy because of the recurrence. In 11 patients we found mucosa inflammation and in 1 patient the therapy stopped before the end because of very low oral hygiene level. Bearing in mind the limited number of original works on the above topic in Polish medical literature, the study has been carried out in order to make Polish orthodontists more acquainted with the topic and the standards of dealing with an oncological patient.

  9. Engaging patients through your website.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Kimberlee; Ornes, Lynne L; Paulson, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Legislation requires the healthcare industry to directly engage patients through technology. This paper proposes a model that can be used to review hospital websites for features that engage patients in their healthcare. The model describes four levels of patient engagement in website design. The sample consisted of 130 hospital websites from hospitals listed on 2010 and 2011 Most Wired Hospitals. Hospital websites were analyzed for features that encouraged patient interaction with their healthcare according to the levels in the model. Of the four levels identified in the model, websites ranged from "informing" to "collaborative" in website design. There was great variation of features offered on hospital websites with few being engaging and interactive.

  10. Effective writing that attracts patients.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Doctors today not only must communicate verbally, they must also realize that the written word is important to their ability to connect with the patients that they already have and also to attract new patients. Doctors will be expected to write blogs, to create content for their Web sites, to write articles for local publications, and even to learn to express themselves in 140 characters or less (i.e., Twitter). This article presents 10 rules for selecting the right words to enhance your communication with existing patients and potentially to attract new patients to your practice.

  11. Government influence on patient organizations.

    PubMed

    Van de Bovenkamp, Hester M; Trappenburg, Margo J

    2011-12-01

    Patient organizations increasingly play an important role in health care decision-making in Western countries. The Netherlands is one of the countries where this trend has gone furthest. In the literature some problems are identified, such as instrumental use of patient organizations by care providers, health insurers and the pharmaceutical industry. To strengthen the position of patient organizations government funding is often recommended as a solution. In this paper we analyze the ties between Dutch government and Dutch patient organizations to learn more about the effects of such a relationship between government and this part of civil society. Our study is based on official government documents and existing empirical research on patient organizations. We found that government influence on patient organizations has become quite substantial with government influencing the organizational structure of patient organizations, the activities these organizations perform and even their ideology. Financing patient organizations offers the government an important means to hold them accountable. Although the ties between patient organizations and the government enable the former to play a role that can be valued as positive by both parties, we argue that they raise problems as well which warrant a discussion on how much government influence on civil society is acceptable.

  12. Psychological distress and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Greenley, J R; Young, T B; Schoenherr, R A

    1982-04-01

    Psychologically distressed patients and clients of health care and social service organizations are found to report somewhat more dissatisfaction with services than do the nondistressed. Four explanations for this relationship are examined: 1) the psychologically distressed are generally dissatisfied; 2) service providers react negatively to the psychologically distressed; 3) psychologically distressed patients are dissatisfied when service providers do not respond to their psychological needs; and 4) patients who deny their psychological distress tend to be dissatisfied. The results show that the psychologically distressed report more dissatisfaction because of the very high levels of dissatisfaction found among patients who deny having personal problems.

  13. Violent psychiatric patients: a study.

    PubMed

    Kermani, E J

    1981-04-01

    In a study of fifty-three violent psychiatric patients in a psychiatric hospital setting, it was found that there are two distinct major groups of violent patients--one of patients with a long history of antisocial behavior who are often chronically homicidal and suicidal, and another of patients who neither have a history of destructive behavior nor exhibit homicidal or suicidal tendencies. The latter become acutely assaultive only during the course of psychiatric illness. The personality traits and background associated with these two groups offer additional contrasts. Each group presents different problems and, of major importance to the psychiatric practioner, each group requires different management.

  14. Patients' responsibilities in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Draper, Heather; Sorell, Tom

    2002-08-01

    Patients have not been entirely ignored in medical ethics. There has been a shift from the general presumption that 'doctor knows best' to a heightened respect for patient autonomy. Medical ethics remains one-sided, however. It tends (incorrectly) to interpret patient autonomy as mere participation in decisions, rather than a willingness to take the consequences. In this respect, medical ethics remains largely paternalistic, requiring doctors to protect patients from the consequences of their decisions. This is reflected in a one-sided account of duties in medical ethics. Duties fall mainly on doctors and only exceptionally on patients. Medical ethics may exempt patient from obligations because they are the weaker or more vulnerable party in the doctor-patient relationship. We argue that vulnerability does not exclude obligation. We also look at other ways in which patient responsibilities flow from general ethics: for instance, from responsibilities to others and to the self, from duties of citizens, and from the responsibilities of those who solicit advice. Finally, we argue that certain duties of patients counterbalance an otherwise unfair capacity of doctors as helpers.

  15. Patient Education Leads to Better Care for Heart Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Stanley G.

    The staff of a heart and circulatory disease program of a State department of health conducted a special project at a city hospital which showed that a well-organized treatment and education program for patients with congestive heart failure increased the patient's knowledge of his disease, medication, and diet as well as his adherence to a…

  16. Patient or customer?

    PubMed

    Parker, J M

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates caring in practice within the context of the global imperative of increasing rationalisation of care based on an economic ethic. The notion of the global marketplace has spread to the domain of health services, so that 'health' has come to be seen as a commodity, with the body as its site, and the 'patient' a customer; clinicians work to construct standard pathways through the healthcare supermarket. The challenge for nurses is to work within but also to challenge and resist the reductionist impetus of economically based and commercially driven approaches to health care. They must retain the sense of the value of the wholeness of the person, the deeply personal and profoundly significant professional-recipient relationship, and find ways of demonstrating their capacity to deliver high-quality care in a cost-effective way. Proper and appropriate accountability is a key strategy to maintaining quality nursing as a significant aspect of care. The expansion of the role of the advanced practice nurse is very useful in providing holistic and cost-effective care, though there are currently limitations to scope of practice that need to be removed. The metaphor of the marketplace, underpinned by powerful global economic forces, can draw us into unthinking compliance with its imperatives--but other metaphors are available. Metaphor and creativity are linked, and we need to consider how the creative use of language can facilitate the emergence of new ways of understanding in health care.

  17. Current status of patient-controlled analgesia in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, C; Bruera, E

    1997-03-01

    Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is a relatively new technique in which patients are able to self-administer small doses of opioid analgesics when needed. Many different devices are available for opioid infusion, including a syringe pump, disposable plastic cylinder, and battery-operated computer-driven pump. These devices allow patients to choose an intermittent (demand) bolus, continuous infusion, or both modes of administration. Parameters, such as route, drug concentration dose, frequency, and maximum daily or hourly dose, are programmed by the physician. The patient decides whether or not to take a dose. Devices can be used to deliver the drug into a running intravenous infusion, the epidural space, or subcutaneously. Controlled trials indicate that PCA is probably superior to regular opioid administration in postoperative pain. Reported advantages include greater patient satisfaction, decreased sedation and anxiety, and reduced nursing time and hospitalization. Preliminary experience suggests that PCA is also useful and safe for cancer pain, but further research is greatly needed.

  18. Elderly patients also have rights

    PubMed Central

    Pérez‐Cárceles, M D; Lorenzo, M D; Luna, A; Osuna, E

    2007-01-01

    Background Sharing information with relatives of elderly patients in primary care and in hospital has to fit into the complex set of obligations, justifications and pressures concerning the provision of information, and the results of some studies point to the need for further empirical studies exploring issues of patient autonomy, privacy and informed consent in the day‐to‐day care of older people. Objectives To know the frequency with which “capable” patients over 65 years of age receive information when admitted to hospital, the information offered to the families concerned, the person who gives consent for medical intervention, and the degree of satisfaction with the information received and the healthcare provided. Method A descriptive questionnaire given to 200 patients and 200 relatives during the patients' stay in hospital. Results Only 5% of patients confirmed that they had been asked whether information could be given to their relatives. A significantly higher proportion of relatives received information on the successive stages of the care offered than did patients themselves. As the age of the patients increased, so the number who were given information, understood the information and were asked for their consent for complementary tests decreased. The degree of satisfaction with the information offered was high for both patients and relatives (86.5% and 84%, respectively), despite the irregularities observed. Conclusions The capacity of elderly patients to participate in the decision‐making process is frequently doubted simply because they have reached a certain age and it is thought that relatives should act as their representatives. In Spain, the opinion of the family and doctors appears to play a larger role in making decisions than does the concept of patient autonomy. PMID:18055902

  19. National survey of hospital patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bruster, S.; Jarman, B.; Bosanquet, N.; Weston, D.; Erens, R.; Delbanco, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To survey patients' opinions of their experiences in hospital in order to produce data that can help managers and doctors to identify and solve problems. DESIGN--Random sample of 36 NHS hospitals, stratified by size of hospital (number of beds), area (north, midlands, south east, south west), and type of hospital (teaching or non-teaching, trust or directly managed). From each hospital a random sample of, on average, 143 patients was interviewed at home or the place of discharge two to four weeks after discharge by means of a structured questionnaire about their treatment in hospital. SUBJECTS--5150 randomly chosen NHS patients recently discharged from acute hospitals in England. Subjects had been patients on medical and surgical wards apart from paediatric, maternity, psychiatric, and geriatric wards. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' responses to direct questions about preadmission procedures, admission, communication with staff, physical care, tests and operations, help from staff, pain management, and discharge planning. Patients' responses to general questions about their degree of satisfaction in hospitals. RESULTS--Problems were reported by patients, particularly with regard to communication with staff (56% (2824/5020) had not been given written or printed information); pain management (33% (1042/3162) of those suffering pain were in pain all or most of the time); and discharge planning (70% (3599/5124) had not been told about warning signs and 62% (3177/5119) had not been told when to resume normal activities). Hospitals failed to reach the standards of the Patient's Charter--for example, in explaining the treatment proposed and giving patients the option of not taking part in student training. Answers to questions about patient satisfaction were, however, highly positive but of little use to managers. CONCLUSIONS--This survey has highlighted several problems with treatment in NHS hospitals. Asking patients direct questions about what happened

  20. Patient preference: a comparison of electronic patient-completed questionnaires with paper among cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Martin, P; Brown, M C; Espin-Garcia, O; Cuffe, S; Pringle, D; Mahler, M; Villeneuve, J; Niu, C; Charow, R; Lam, C; Shani, R M; Hon, H; Otsuka, M; Xu, W; Alibhai, S; Jenkinson, J; Liu, G

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we compared cancer patients preference for computerised (tablet/web-based) surveys versus paper. We also assessed whether the understanding of a cancer-related topic, pharmacogenomics is affected by the survey format, and examined differences in demographic and medical characteristics which may affect patient preference and understanding. Three hundred and four cancer patients completed a tablet-administered survey and another 153 patients completed a paper-based survey. Patients who participated in the tablet survey were questioned regarding their preference for survey format administration (paper, tablet and web-based). Understanding was assessed with a 'direct' method, by asking patients to assess their understanding of genetic testing, and with a 'composite' score. Patients preferred administration with tablet (71%) compared with web-based (12%) and paper (17%). Patients <65 years old, non-Caucasians and white-collar professionals significantly preferred the computerised format following multivariate analysis. There was no significant difference in understanding between the paper and tablet survey with direct questioning or composite score. Age (<65 years) and white-collar professionals were associated with increased understanding (both P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in understanding between the tablet and print survey in a multivariate analysis. Patients overwhelmingly preferred computerised surveys and understanding of pharmacogenomics was not affected by survey format.

  1. [Delirium in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Agnieszka; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    Delirium is a frequent complication of cancer. It is the cause of patients' suffering and due to worsening of communication, the impediment to clinical assessment. It lowers the quality of life of family caregivers as well. Instant diagnosis and therapy of delirium are essential in clinical practice. In this review etiology, prevalence, clinical features and management of delirium in cancer patients are described.

  2. Viscoelastic cushion for patient support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauers, D. G.

    1971-01-01

    Flexible container, filled with liquid, provides supportive device which conforms to patient's anatomy. Uniform cushion pressure prevents formation of decubitus ulcers, while the porous sponge substructure damps fluid movement through cushion response so that patient is not dumped when his weight shifts.

  3. Art Therapy with Laryngectomy Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Susan Ainlay; Anand, Vinod K.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on the experiences of patients with laryngeal cancer who used art therapy. Drawing on 14 years of experience and 109 laryngeal cancer patients, describes treatment results and the case material substantiating the distinct role of art therapy. Provides an overview of the special medical and therapeutic needs of this group. (RJM)

  4. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect solution...of the degradation-resistant crosslinked amniotic membranes for treating cornea of burn patients that were produced in Years 1 and 2. Major findings...Identified membrane stiffness as a critical parameter for a successful cornea -protective membrane and quantitatively assessed this parameter

  5. Corneal Protection for Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    cornea transplant . Currently these patients receive frequent application of topical lubricants and anti-inflammatory medications, an imperfect... cornea as is done in amniotic membrane transplantation . However we proposed and, have now tested, an alternative method for securing the... cornea of burn patients that were produced in Year 1. Major findings: Established that 2 and 3 layer crosslinked amniotic membrane composites are more

  6. Burns in Morbidly Obese Patients,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    tract infection and one episode C obesity. The clinical records of these patients were reviewed in of sinusitis. Two patients had documented bacteremias...veloped pneumonia and two developed tracheobronchitis. 0 Research, seven of whom clearly fulfilled the criteria for morbid There were one urinary

  7. Virtual Patients in Geriatric Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Zaldy S.; Mulhausen, Paul L.; Smith, Stephen R.; Ruiz, Jorge G.

    2010-01-01

    The virtual patient is a case-based computer program that combines textual information with multimedia elements such as audio, graphics, and animation. It is increasingly being utilized as a teaching modality by medical educators in various fields of instruction. The inherent complexity of older patients and the shortage of geriatrics educators…

  8. Virtual Patients in Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Jabbur-Lopes, Monique O.; Mesquita, Alessandra R.; Silva, Leila M. A.; De Almeida Neto, Abilio

    2012-01-01

    A review of the literature relating to the use of virtual patients in teaching pharmaceutical care to pharmacy students was conducted. Only 7 articles met the inclusion criteria for the review and 4 of the studies were conducted in North America. Few articles identified by the review used virtual patient technology that was true-to-life and/or validated. PMID:22761533

  9. Gadobutrol in Renally Impaired Patients

    PubMed Central

    Michaely, Henrik J.; Aschauer, Manuela; Deutschmann, Hannes; Bongartz, Georg; Gutberlet, Matthias; Woitek, Ramona; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Kucharczyk, Walter; Hammerstingl, Renate; De Cobelli, Francesco; Rosenberg, Martin; Balzer, Thomas; Endrikat, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Materials and Methods We performed a prospective, international, multicenter, open-label study in 55 centers. Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for any gadobutrol-enhanced MRI were included. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight. The primary target variable was the number of patients who develop NSF within a 2-year follow-up period. Results A total of 908 patients were enrolled, including 586 with moderate and 284 with severe renal impairment who are at highest risk for developing NSF. The mean time since renal disease diagnosis was 1.83 and 5.49 years in the moderate and severe renal impairment cohort, respectively. Overall, 184 patients (20.3%) underwent further contrast-enhanced MRI with other gadolinium-based contrast agents within the 2-year follow-up. No patient developed symptoms conclusive of NSF. Conclusions No safety concerns with gadobutrol in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment were identified. There were no NSF cases. PMID:27529464

  10. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  11. The Coronary Patient in Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1971-01-01

    The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.

  12. Patient Disclosure of Medical Misdeeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Clara; Stivers, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Modern patients walk a tightrope between respecting medical authority and acting as knowledgeable advocates regarding health issues, with the agency and responsibilities that come with this. This article uses conversation analysis to explore this balance in relation to patient disclosures of medical misdeeds in video-recorded primary care medical…

  13. Idiom Comprehension in Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papagno, Costanza; Tabossi, Patrizia; Colombo, Maria Rosa; Zampetti, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Idiom comprehension was assessed in 10 aphasic patients with semantic deficits by means of a string-to-picture matching task. Patients were also submitted to an oral explanation of the same idioms, and to a word comprehension task. The stimuli of this last task were the words following the verb in the idioms. Idiom comprehension was severely…

  14. Rhinoplasty in Middle Eastern Patients.

    PubMed

    Sajjadian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Rhinoplasty in patients of Middle Eastern origin requires complete understanding of nasal morphology and an individualized approach to create a racially congruent and aesthetically pleasing outcome. In this article, common anatomic features and characteristics and detailed steps, surgical techniques, and operative maneuvers that can lead to predictable outcome in rhinoplasty of Middle Eastern patients are discussed.

  15. Patient safety: honoring advanced directives.

    PubMed

    Tice, Martha A

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare providers typically think of patient safety in the context of preventing iatrogenic injury. Prevention of falls and medication or treatment errors is the typical focus of adverse event analyses. If healthcare providers are committed to honoring the wishes of patients, then perhaps failures to honor advanced directives should be viewed as reportable medical errors.

  16. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  17. Inflatable stretcher to transport patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. C.; Gordon, F. T., Jr.; Schmidt, C. B.

    1970-01-01

    Inflatable plastic bag inside strong, inflexible outer bag facilitates emergency transport of seriously burned or disabled patients. When the bag is inflated the patient is completely immobilized and cushioned from external shock. Air for breathing, temperature controls and communications may be provided by appropriate plug-in connections.

  18. Are rhinoplasty patients potentially mad?

    PubMed

    Slator, R; Harris, D L

    1992-01-01

    Rhinoplasty patients have long been considered to be psychologically unstable and therefore a "risky" group upon which to operate. Patients who had rhinoplastic operations more than 5 years ago were contacted by post and their psychological health assessed by the use of psychometric tests. The results show no evidence to support earlier suggestions that requests for rhinoplasty may be early symptoms of severe psychiatric disease. However, several points do emerge. Male patients show more symptoms of anxiety and depression than normal, and female patients who give no history of injury preceding their operation behave in a more extrovert and sociable manner than normal. Furthermore, patients of both sexes who give no history of injury before their operation, even though pleased with the operative results, are more self-conscious of their appearance than those who were injured prior to their rhinoplasty.

  19. Oocyte cryopreservation in oncological patients.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Eleonora; Fabbri, Raffaella; Damiano, Giuseppe; Fratto, Rosita; Giunchi, Susanna; Venturoli, Stefano

    2004-04-05

    The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in oncological patients may reduce their reproductive potential. Sperm cryopreservation has been already used in men affected by neoplastic disease. Oocyte cryopreservation might be an important solution for these patients at risk of losing ovarian function. A program of oocyte cryopreservation for oncological patients is also present in our center. From June 1996 to January 2000, 18 patients awaiting chemotherapy and radiotherapy for neoplastic disease were included in our oocyte cryopreservation program. Our experience documents that oocyte storage may be a concrete and pragmatic alternative for oncological patients. The duration of oocyte storage does not seem to interfere with oocyte survival as pregnancies occurred even after several years of gamete cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen.

  20. Endodontics and the ageing patient.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, M; Parashos, P

    2015-03-01

    Patients are living longer and the rate of edentulism is decreasing. Endodontic treatment is an essential part of maintaining the health and well-being of the elderly. Retention of natural teeth improves the quality of life and the overall health and longevity of ageing patients. Also, teeth that might be otherwise extracted may be strategically valuable to retain a prosthesis, and elderly patients are more likely to have medical complications that may prevent dental extractions from being safely performed. The technical goals of endodontic treatment in the elderly are the same as those for younger patients. However, the pulpo-dentinal complex undergoes calcific changes over time, which may pose challenges for the clinician. The purposes of this review are to discuss age changes in the pulp and the challenges posed by diagnosing, treatment planning and treating the elderly endodontic patient.

  1. Developing patient safety in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pemberton, M N

    2014-10-01

    Patient safety has always been important and is a source of public concern. Recent high profile scandals and subsequent reports, such as the Francis report into the failings at Mid Staffordshire, have raised those concerns even higher. Mortality and significant morbidity associated with the practice of medicine has led to many strategies to help improve patient safety, however, with its lack of associated mortality and lower associated morbidity, dentistry has been slower at systematically considering how patient safety can be improved. Recently, several organisations, researchers and clinicians have discussed the need for a patient safety culture in dentistry. Strategies are available to help improve patient safety in healthcare and deserve further consideration in dentistry.

  2. Hormone therapy for transgender patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many transgender men and women seek hormone therapy as part of the transition process. Exogenous testosterone is used in transgender men to induce virilization and suppress feminizing characteristics. In transgender women, exogenous estrogen is used to help feminize patients, and anti-androgens are used as adjuncts to help suppress masculinizing features. Guidelines exist to help providers choose appropriate candidates for hormone therapy, and act as a framework for choosing treatment regimens and managing surveillance in these patients. Cross-sex hormone therapy has been shown to have positive physical and psychological effects on the transitioning individual and is considered a mainstay treatment for many patients. Bone and cardiovascular health are important considerations in transgender patients on long-term hormones, and care should be taken to monitor certain metabolic indices while patients are on cross-sex hormone therapy. PMID:28078219

  3. Patient With Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Dorothy E.

    1989-01-01

    Every family practice includes people who are difficult to manage. Persons with a borderline personality disorder can be the most difficult of all. They will trust no one, and consequently few, if any, others will be able to tolerate their profoundly difficult interpersonal communication style. These patients will present to their family physician more and more often with a variety of somatic and emotional symptoms. They will demand, either verbally or silently, that these symptoms be relieved immediately. This increasing demand for immediate response may eventually cause the physician to reject the patient. An understanding of this condition and how it develops in infancy may enable the physician to help the patient. A family physician who can set appropriate limits to the patient's demands may slowly convince the patient that he can trust and not be hurt. PMID:21248944

  4. Longitudinal deteriorations in patient reported outcomes in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Oga, Toru; Nishimura, Koichi; Tsukino, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Susumu; Hajiro, Takashi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2007-01-01

    Goals of effective management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include relieving their symptoms and improving their health status. We examined how such patient reported outcomes would change longitudinally in comparison to physiological outcomes in COPD. One hundred thirty-seven male outpatients with stable COPD were recruited for the study. The subjects health status was evaluated using the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ). Their dyspnoea using the modified Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and their psychological status using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were assessed upon entry and every 6 months thereafter over a 5-year period. Pulmonary function and exercise capacity as evaluated by peak oxygen uptake (VO2) on progressive cycle ergometry were also followed over the same time. Using mixed effects models to estimate the slopes for the changes, scores on the SGRQ, the CRQ, the MRC and the HADS worsened in a statistically significant manner over time. However, changes only weakly correlated with changes in forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) and peak (VO2). We demonstrated that although changes in pulmonary function and exercise capacity are well known in patients with COPD, patient reported outcomes such as health status, dyspnoea and psychological status also deteriorated significantly over time. In addition, deteriorations in patient reported outcomes only weakly correlated to changes in physiological indices. To capture the overall deterioration of COPD from the subjective viewpoints of the patients, patient reported outcomes should be followed separately from physiological outcomes.

  5. Do patient assessments of primary care differ by patient ethnicity?

    PubMed Central

    Taira, D A; Safran, D G; Seto, T B; Rogers, W H; Inui, T S; Montgomery, J; Tarlov, A R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if patient assessments (reports and ratings) of primary care differ by patient ethnicity. DATA SOURCES/STUDY DESIGN: A self-administered patient survey of 6,092 Massachusetts employees measured seven defining characteristics of primary care: (1) access (financial, organizational); (2) continuity (longitudinal, visit based); (3) comprehensiveness (knowledge of patient, preventive counseling); (4) integration; (5) clinical interaction (communication, thoroughness of physical examinations); (6) interpersonal treatment; and (7) trust. The study employed a cross-sectional observational design. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Asians had the lowest primary care performance assessments of any ethnic group after adjustment for socioeconomic and other factors. For example, compared to whites, Asians had lower scores for communication (69 vs. 79, p = .001) and comprehensive knowledge of patient (56 vs. 48, p = .002), African Americans and Latinos had less access to care, and African Americans had less longitudinal continuity than whites. CONCLUSIONS: We do not know what accounts for the observed differences in patient assessments of primary care. The fact that patient reports as well as the more subjective ratings of care differed by ethnicity suggests that quality differences might exist that need to be addressed. PMID:11775667

  6. Preoperative patient assessment: Identifying patients at high risk.

    PubMed

    Boehm, O; Baumgarten, G; Hoeft, A

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative mortality remains alarmingly high with a mortality rate ranging between 0.4% and 4%. A small subgroup of multimorbid and/or elderly patients undergoing different surgical procedures naturally confers the highest risk of complications and perioperative death. Therefore, preoperative assessment should identify these high-risk patients and stratify them to individualized monitoring and treatment throughout all phases of perioperative care. A "tailored" perioperative approach might help further reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. This article aims to elucidate individual morbidity-specific risks. It further suggests approaches to detect patients at the risk of perioperative complications.

  7. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis: a clinicopathologic study of 46 cases from a single institution.

    PubMed

    Bijol, Vanesa; Mendez, Gonzalo P; Nosé, Vânia; Rennke, Helmut G

    2006-01-01

    Acute interstitial nephritis is commonly seen in kidney biopsies of patients with acute renal failure; however, granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) is rare. We identified 46 cases of GIN in a 17-year period in this institution and we investigated their most probable etiologies. Complete clinical information was available in 38 patients. Seventeen of 38 patients (44.7%) were classified as drug-induced. Renal sarcoidosis was responsible for 28.9% of cases, and the remaining 15.9% of cases included Wegeners granulomatosis, foreign body giant cell reaction, GIN secondary to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for bladder cancer, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Clinical investigation failed to reveal possible etiology in 4 patients (10.5%), classified as idiopathic. We concluded that three quarters of our cases were either drug-induced or due to sarcoidosis; only a small proportion of our cases occurred secondary to any other cause or to unknown factors.

  8. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  9. [The AIDS patient in anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Jalowy, A; Flesche, C W; Lorenz, C

    1997-02-01

    Treatment of a patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is very challenging, and makes great demands on the anaesthesiologist. Any of an AIDS patient's vital organ systems may be compromised, either by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) itself, opportunistic infections, by tumours, or as a result of AIDS-related drug therapies. Infections of the lungs (e.g., Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia) are prevalent, and cardiac impairment can be found in as many as 50% of AIDS patients. In addition, disorders of the central and peripheral nervous system and water and electrolyte imbalances are often seen. Perioperatively, the AIDS patient is especially prone to infections as a result of a compromised immune system. The choice of anaesthetic procedure for the AIDS patient-aside from the type of operation-depends on the severity of the illness and progression of organ impairment. All anaesthesia personnel must be careful to avoid infection, as they frequently come in contact with the blood or body fluids of their patients. However, the risk of being infected by an AIDS patient is very low, provided hygiene regulations are followed strictly. The rate of seroconversion after accidental needle-stick injury is below 1%. If exposure does occur, regular serologic controls should be continued for one year. Prophylactic treatment with azidothymidine after exposition to HIV is recommended.

  10. [Adrenal insufficiency in cirrhotic patients].

    PubMed

    Orozco, Federico; Anders, María; Mella, José; Antinucci, Florencia; Pagano, Patricia; Esteban, Paula; Cartier, Mariano; Romero, Gustavo; Francini, Bettina; Mastai, Ricardo

    Relative adrenal insufficiency (RAI) is a common finding in cirrhotic patients with severe sepsis, and increased mortality. Its significance is unknown in stable conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of RAI in stable cirrhotic patients at different stages of the disease. Also, the impact of RAI on the survival was evaluated and basal cortisol levels between plasma and saliva was correlated in control subjects and cirrhotic patients. Forty seven ambulatory patients and 16 control subjects were studied. RAI was defined as a serum cortisol increase of less than 9 υg/dl from baseline after the stimulation with 250 mg of synthetic ACTH. Twenty two had Child-Pugh = 8 and 25 = 9. The prevalence of RAI in patients with stable cirrhosis was 22%. A higher incidence of RAI was observed in patients with a Child-Pugh = 9 (8/32) than in those with = 8 (3/13, p < 0.05). A correlation between salivary cortisol and basal plasma cortisol (r = 0.6, p < 0.0004) was observed. Finally, survival at 1 year (97%) and 3 years (91%) was significantly higher without RAI than those who developed this complication (79% and 51%, p < 0.05, respectively). In summary, the prevalence of RAI is frequent in patients with stable cirrhosis and that it is related to the severity of liver diseaseand increased mortality.

  11. Creating the ideal patient experience

    PubMed Central

    Purcărea, Th.V

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare industry continues to evolve under conditions of intense competition in approaching health prevention, protection, and promotion. Therefore, healthcare providers are challenged to always ensure better patient experience, winning patients’ satisfaction, and loyalty and remain competitive on today’s healthcare market. Healthcare markets bring together professionals and their patients into real collaborative relationships, which empower patients to contribute to the healthcare improvement. Within this competitive landscape, which is also characterized by digital health tools boosting patients’ awareness and controlling their own health, medical providers need to be perceived as skilled and trustworthy in relying on patients’ needs, expectations, and sacrifices are required in order to obtain the promised benefits. Moreover, while constantly providing a holistic assessment of the healthcare services’ and experience attributes, acting on feedback and reaching healthcare service excellence, providing a better understanding of all the touch points with their patients and improving the quality and consistency of all these touch points, all these are achieved by employees, who are truly connected to the healthcare business. Today, patients are systematically becoming aware of the diversity of their choices, being increasingly involved in making better healthcare choices, and, so, more and more innovative products are introduced, targeting new patient segments. Findings from the last three years have shown that patients may achieve better outcomes due to the stakeholders’ commitment to innovation within the context of the big-data revolution, by building new values. PMID:27928442

  12. Confabulations in alcoholic Korsakoff patients.

    PubMed

    Borsutzky, Sabine; Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-11-01

    Besides forgetting, memory is also prone to distortions, errors and illusions. Confabulation is one type of memory distortion that may occur in cases of brain damage. Although confabulations are described anecdotally in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (KS), there are few systematic investigations of the presence and nature of these types of false memories in KS. Moreover, it is unclear whether KS patients' confabulations evenly affect all types of memories, or whether certain memory domains are more susceptible. Our study attempted to clarify two questions: first, whether confabulations are a critical feature of the cognitive impairment associated with long-term KS in a large sample of patients (N=42). Second, we investigated which memory domain is most likely affected by confabulations in KS. To elicit confabulations, we used a Confabulation Interview containing questions from different memory domains. We found that KS patients overall confabulated more compared to a group of healthy subjects. Furthermore, we found that patients confabulated most within the episodic/autobiographical memory domain. Our results imply that besides pronounced memory deficits typically associated with KS, confabulation can also be regarded as a clinical feature of the disease. The preponderance of episodic confabulation obtained here by using a standardized test, confirms anecdotic reports that KS patients confabulate in everyday life mainly with respect to their personal past and present. Thus, for a detailed description of the memory profile of KS patients, the screening of confabulation tendencies may be a useful supplementary clinical tool.

  13. Psychological care in trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Mohta, Medha; Sethi, A K; Tyagi, Asha; Mohta, Anup

    2003-01-01

    The clinician manages trauma patients in the emergency room, operation theatre, intensive care unit and trauma ward with an endeavour to provide best possible treatment for physical injuries. At the same time, it is equally important to give adequate attention to behavioural and psychological aspects associated with the event. Knowledge of the predisposing factors and their management helps the clinician to prevent or manage these psychological problems. Various causes of psychological disturbances in trauma patients have been highlighted. These include pain, the sudden and unexpected nature of events and the procedures and interventions necessary to resuscitate and stabilise the patient. The ICU and trauma ward environment, sleep and sensory deprivation, impact of injury on CNS, medications and associated pre-morbid conditions are also significant factors. Specific problems that concern the traumatised patients are helplessness, humiliation, threat to body image and mental symptoms. The patients react to these stressors by various defence mechanisms like conservation withdrawal, denial, regression, anger, anxiety and depression. Some of them develop delirium or even more severe problems like acute stress disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Physical, pharmacological or psychological interventions can be performed to prevent or minimise these problems in trauma patients. These include adequate pain relief, prevention of sensory and sleep deprivation, providing familiar surroundings, careful explanations and reassurance to the patient, psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment whenever required.

  14. [Neurologically critical patient. Nurses' care].

    PubMed

    López Díaz, Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Handling a neurologically critical patient requires some necessary knowledge and aptitudes in order to avoid risks and complications which could worsen a patient's prognosis. To that end, in this article the author deals with two important points nursing personnel need to bear in mind: the distinct methods and catheters which can be used to monitor intracranial pressure, obtaining an important parameter for evaluation purposes and therapeutic follow-up on these patients, placing special emphasis on ventricular drainage and nursing care, and the operations nurses take when dealing with patients who present a risk of intracranial hypertension, setting up a protocol based on seven necessities in the Virginia Henderson model: breathing, elimination, temperature, hygiene and skin, feeding and hydration, mobility and safety. In each of these necessities, the author studies the problems these patients present, identifying them with a series of diagnoses according to NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association), and defining the care or nursing activities for each of them, which will prove essential to prevent cerebral ischemia after suffering a primary cerebral injury due to a "TCE"(Cranial Encephalic Trauma) hemorrhage, etc. Nurses' role in caring for neurologically critical patients proves to be of vital importance since these professionals must be capable of evaluating, preventing, controlling and identifying those risk situations which neurologically critical patients could present, avoiding possible complications, aiding their recuperation, and providing quality health care.

  15. Informational Needs of Postmastectomy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yeşilyurt, Duygu Soydaş; Fındık, Ümmü Yıldız

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine informational needs of postmastectomy patients. Materials and Methods This descriptive study was conducted in the general surgery clinics of a university health center for medical research and practice with 72 voluntary patients. For data collection, a patient identification form was used, which was prepared by the researchers in accordance with the literature. Results The mean age of the patients was 52.66±13.39 years, 87% were married, 58% had primary school education, 76% had moderate economic status, and 53% had undergone simple mastectomy. It was determined that 83% of the patients wanted to be informed about hospital and home care interventions, 82% about symptoms and prevention of post-surgical problems, 76% regarding breast cancer and treatment options, and in the range of 54–68%, patients wanted information on the effects of surgery on the body, shoulder and arm exercises, breast self-examination, the effects of breast cancer on family and work life, lymphedema and prevention interventions. Conclusion We recommend that patients with mastectomy should be informed about topics including care interventions, breast cancer and treatment options, effects of surgery, and reducing these effects.

  16. Patient satisfaction: focusing on "excellent".

    PubMed

    Otani, Koichiro; Waterman, Brian; Faulkner, Kelly M; Boslaugh, Sarah; Burroughs, Thomas E; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2009-01-01

    In an emerging competitive market such as healthcare, managers should focus on achieving excellent ratings to distinguish their organization from others. When it comes to customer loyalty, "excellent" has a different meaning. Customers who are merely satisfied often do not come back. The purpose of this study was to find out what influences adult patients to rate their overall experience as "excellent." The study used patient satisfaction data collected from one major academic hospital and four community hospitals. After conducting a multiple logistic regression analysis, certain attributes were shown to be more likely than others to influence patients to rate their experiences as excellent. The study revealed that staff care is the most influential attribute, followed by nursing care. These two attributes are distinctively stronger drivers of overall satisfaction than are the other attributes studied (i.e., physician care, admission process, room, and food). Staff care and nursing care are under the control of healthcare managers. If improvements are needed, they can be accomplished through training programs such as total quality management or continuous quality improvement, through which staff employees and nurses learn to be sensitive to patients' needs. Satisfying patients' needs is the first step toward having loyal patients, so hospitals that strive to ensure their patients are completely satisfied are more likely to prosper.

  17. Quality of Doctor-Patient Communication through the Eyes of the Patient: Variation According to the Patient's Educational Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aelbrecht, Karolien; Rimondini, Michela; Bensing, Jozien; Moretti, Francesca; Willems, Sara; Mazzi, Mariangela; Fletcher, Ian; Deveugele, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Good doctor-patient communication may lead to better compliance, higher patient satisfaction, and finally, better health. Although the social variance in how physicians and patients communicate is clearly demonstrated, little is known about what patients with different educational attainments actually prefer in doctor-patient communication. In…

  18. Contribution of patient and hospital characteristics to adverse patient incidents.

    PubMed Central

    Elnicki, R A; Schmitt, J P

    1980-01-01

    The 1974 medical malpractice "crisis" brought about extensive legislation and insurance regulation in the United States. Hospitals in many states are now required to support risk management programs that include investigation and systematic analyses of adverse patient incidents. However, no research supports the hypothesis that systematic analysis of adverse patient incidents can identify contributory factors. In this study, a simple prediction model was used to estimate relationships between adverse incidents and selected patient and environmental characteristics in a large hospital. While some of the incident-characteristic relationships were significant, none of the estimated equations yielded results that could be logically translated into policy recommendations for the hospital. These results point to the need for further research. The benefits that positive research results would have for patients, hospitals, an the bill-paying public are obvious. Additional negative results would suggest that many legislative bodies and regulatory agencies were presumptions in requiring hospitals to conduct analyses of incidents. PMID:7461973

  19. Maintaining primacy of the patient perspective in the development of patient-centered patient reported outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Garver, Amanda; Ljungberg, Inger H.; Schladen, Manon M.; Groah, Suzanne L.

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe and demonstrate a new model of developing patient reported outcomes (PROs) that are patient-centered, and to test the hypothesis that following this model would result in a qualitatively different PRO than if the typical PRO development model were followed. The typical process of developing PROs begins with an initial list of signs or symptoms originating from clinicians or PRO developers; patient validation of this list ensures that the list (i.e., the new PRO) is interpretable by patients, but not that patient perspectives are central or even represented. The new model begins with elicitation from clinicians and patients independently and separately. These perspectives are formally analyzed qualitatively, and the results are iteratively integrated by researchers, supporting clinical relevance and patient centeredness. We describe the application of this new model to the development of a PRO for urinary signs and symptoms in individuals with neuropathic bladder, and test the hypothesis that the two processes generate qualitatively different instruments using a national validation sample of 300 respondents. Of its 29 items, the new instrument included 13 signs/symptoms derived from existing clinical practice guidelines, with 16 others derived from the patient/focus groups. The three most-endorsed items came from the patients, and the three least-endorsed items came from clinical guidelines. Thematic qualitative analysis of the elicitation process, as well as the results from our national sample, support the conclusion that the new model yields an instrument that is clinically interpretable, but more patient-centered, than the typical model would have done in this context. PMID:28257414

  20. [Patients's with aphasia communication problems].

    PubMed

    Matuszak, Katarzyna; Bonikowska, Agata; Kuczma, Monika; Hagner, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Aphasia is a speech disorder caused by disorders of speech centre in brain cortex. Patient with aphasia compensates communication disorders by communication strategy, witch are spontaneous mechanisms, and uses individual rehabilitation methods. Compensation mechanisms are divided in to: phonetic, inflective, formative, semantic, discursive and structural. Patients with aphasia early therapy have to be individual and consists in not only articulation correction, but in establish over verbal contact or verbal, and improvement this contacts, to create patients ability of communication with society. Later therapy is oriented on improvement of cognitive functions for possibility of participation in social live and if it is possible for return to work.