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Sample records for cortisol adrenocorticotropic hormone

  1. Differential responses of cortisol and corticosterone to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in a subterranean rodent (Ctenomys talarum).

    PubMed

    Vera, Federico; Zenuto, Roxana Rita; Antenucci, Carlos Daniel

    2012-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the responses of cortisol, corticosterone, and blood glucose to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in males and females of the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum and addressed interannual variations in the plasma levels of both hormones. The most important results indicate that: (1) cortisol positively responds to the ACTH signal but corticosterone does not, even though corticosterone levels were higher than cortisol concentrations, (2) plasma corticosterone concentrations in free-living animals were 20 times higher compared to values reported for the same population during previous annual periods and, as cortisol levels were similar, this resulted in much lower cortisol/corticosterone ratios, (3) cortisol and corticosterone differentiated in their relative proportions in plasma in free-living males and females. These results indicate that cortisol and corticosterone are differentially regulated in our study species and emphasize that a remarkable temporal variation in the relative proportions of these hormones may occur in natural populations. Therefore, the conclusions regarding the presence of cortisol and corticosterone in plasma of wild animals may differ substantially depending on the moment when the study is conducted. Recent data indicate that cortisol and corticosterone are not interchangeable hormones in species of free-living vertebrates. We suggest that, in addition to the classical roles of glucocorticoids (GCs), it is crucial that other physiological functions be kept in mind when interpreting GC data from wild species.

  2. Comparison between blood serum and salivary cortisol concentrations in horses using an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    PubMed

    Peeters, M; Sulon, J; Beckers, J-F; Ledoux, D; Vandenheede, M

    2011-07-01

    In horses, serum cortisol concentration is considered to provide an indirect measurement of stress. However, it includes both free and bound fractions. The sampling method is also invasive and often stressful. This is not the case for salivary cortisol, which is collected using a more welfare-friendly method and represents a part of the free cortisol fraction, which is the biologically active form. To compare salivary and serum cortisol assays in horses, in a wide range of concentrations, using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test, in order to validate salivary cortisol for stress assessment in horse. In 5 horses, blood samples were drawn using an i.v. catheter. Saliva samples were taken using swabs. Cortisol was assayed by radioimmunoassay. All data were treated with a regression method, which pools and analyses data from multiple subjects for linear analysis. Mean ± s.d. cortisol concentrations measured at rest were 188.81 ± 51.46 nmol/l in serum and 1.19 ± 0.54 nmol/l in saliva. They started increasing immediately after ACTH injection and peaks were reached after 96 ± 16.7 min in serum (356.98 ± 55.29 nmol/l) and after 124 ± 8.9 min in saliva (21.79 ± 7.74 nmol/l, P<0.05). Discharge percentages were also different (225% in serum and 2150% in saliva, P<0.05). Correlation between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations showed an adjusted r(2) = 0.80 (P<0.001). The strong link between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations was also estimated by a regression analysis. The reliability of both RIAs and regression found between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations permits the validation of saliva-sampling as a noninvasive technique for cortisol level assessment in horses. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    del Rosario González-de-la-Vara, Marcela; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C.

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle. PMID:22210998

  4. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge and age on hair cortisol concentrations in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    González-de-la-Vara, Marcela del Rosario; Valdez, Ricardo Arturo; Lemus-Ramirez, Vicente; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro; Romano, Marta C

    2011-07-01

    Dairy cattle suffer stress from management and production; contemporary farming tries to improve animal welfare and reduce stress. Therefore, the assessment of long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function using non-invasive techniques is useful. The aims in this study were: to measure cortisol concentration in cow and calves hair by radioimmunoassay (RIA), to test cortisol accumulation in bovine hair after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenges, and determine the influence of hair color on cortisol concentrations. Fifteen Holstein heifers were allotted to 3 groups (n = 5 each): in control group (C), just the hair was sampled; in the saline solution group (SS), IV saline solution was administered on days 0, 7, and 14; and the ACTH group was challenged 3 times with ACTH (0.15 UI per kg of body weight) on days 0, 7, and 14. Serum samples from the SS and ACTH groups were obtained 0, 60 and 90 min post-injection. Serum cortisol concentration was greater 60 and 90 min after injection with ACTH. Hair was clipped on days 0, 14, 28, and 44. Hair cortisol was methanol extracted and measured by RIA. Hair cortisol was preserved for 11 mo. Hair cortisol concentrations in the ACTH group were greater than in the saline and control groups on days 14 and 28, but not on day 44. Concentrations were greater in calves than in cows and greater in white hair than in black hair. Cortisol accumulated in bovine hair after ACTH challenges, but the concentration was affected by both age and hair color. If hair color effects are taken into account, assessing cortisol concentration in hair is a potentially useful non-invasive method for assessing stress in cattle.

  5. Plasma cortisol and progesterone responses to low doses of adrenocorticotropic hormone in ovariectmized lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Chikako; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the responses of the plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations in ovariectomized lactating cows to low doses of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The estrous cycles in 3 lactating cows were synchronized, and the cows were ovariectomized in the luteal phase. ACTH challenge tests were conducted at doses of 3, 6, 12 and 25 IU. Blood samples were collected at 30 min intervals, and the plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations were analyzed by EIA. A concomitant rise in plasma progesterone and plasma cortisol was observed in cows treated with 12 IU or higher doses of ACTH. Significant increments in the plasma cortisol concentrations were observed at all doses of ACTH. The means (+/- SE) of the peak plasma progesterone concentrations after the 3, 6, 12 and 25 IU ACTH challenge tests were 0.6 +/- 0.1, 1.3 +/- 0.4, 1.5 +/- 0.3 and 2.4 +/- 0.3 ng/ml, respectively. The means of the peak plasma cortisol concentrations in the 3 cows after the ACTH challenge were 14.0 +/- 1.5, 17.0 +/- 2.5, 23.3 +/- 3.0, and 33.3 +/- 7.0 ng/ml, respectively. The effects of the doses, time after treatment, and their interaction on the plasma progesterone concentrations after the ACTH challenge were significant (P<0.01). Likewise, the effects of the doses, time after treatment, and their interaction on the plasma cortisol concentrations after the ACTH challenge were significant (P<0.01). The mean AUC values for the plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations after the ACTH treatments were also significantly affected by the dose of ACTH (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). A significantly positive correlation was obtained between the peak plasma progesterone and cortisol concentrations after different doses of ACTH (r=0.7, P<0.05). The results suggest that lactating dairy cows are capable of secreting a significant amount of adrenal progesterone, reaching up to the minimal concentration necessary to cause suppression of estrus in response

  6. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent cushing syndrome with bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas.

    PubMed

    Ku, Eu Jeong; Hong, A Ram; Kim, Ye An; Bae, Jae Hyun; Chang, Mee Soo; Kim, Sang Wan

    2013-06-01

    A 48-year-old woman was incidentally found to have bilateral adrenal masses, 2.8 cm in diameter on the right, and 2.3 cm and 1.7 cm in diameter on the left, by abdominal computed tomography. The patient had a medical history of hypertension, which was not being controlled by carvedilol, at a dose of 25 mg daily. She presented with signs and symptoms that suggested Cushing Syndrome. We diagnosed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing Syndrome based on the results of basal and dynamic hormone tests. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) was performed to localize a functioning adrenal cortical mass. AVS results were consistent with hypersecretion of cortisol from both adrenal glands, with a cortisol lateralization ratio of 1.1. Upon bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, bilateral ACTH-independent adrenal adenomas were found. The patient's signs and symptoms of Cushing Syndrome improved after surgery just as the blood pressure was normalized. After surgery, the patient was started on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy.

  7. Cortisol and immune measures in boars exposed to three-day administration of exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Bilandzić, N; Zurić, M; Lojkić, M; Simić, B; Milić, D; Barac, I

    2006-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of adrenal stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on blood cortisol concentration and on circulating total and differential leukocyte counts during and in the 16 days after ACTH administration. Swedish Landrace boars aged approximately 6-7 months were used. ACTH-treated animals (n = 7) were given ACTH intravenously at 10 microg/kg body mass for 3 days. A control group of animals (n = 7) received 1 ml of sterile 0.9% saline intramuscularly. ACTH induced a highly significant increase (p>0.0001) in serum cortisol in treated boars. On the day after the last ACTH dose, the cortisol concentration was significantly higher, but the level of significance was lower than during ACTH administration (p>0.05). During ACTH treatment, a significant increase was recorded in total leukocyte count and neutrophil percentage (p>0.05 to p>0.0001), along with the increase in blood cortisol concentration, whereas percentage lymphocyte count showed a significant decrease. Lymphopenia disappeared upon cessation of treatment, but neutropenia developed in the week after treatment. On all three days of ACTH challenge, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly increased. An increase in eosinophil percentage was recorded on treatment days 1 and 2, whereas ACTH treatment had no effect on basophil percentage. In conclusion, three-day administration of ACTH to young boars during restraint caused effects similar to acute stress situations, as suggested by disappearance of the effects on immune function after the last drug dosage.

  8. Quantifying Pituitary-Adrenal Dynamics and Deconvolution of Concurrent Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Data by Compressed Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Faghih, Rose T.; Dahleh, Munther A.; Adler, Gail K.; Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Brown, Emery N.

    2015-01-01

    Pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is governed by pulsatile release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. In return, cortisol has a negative feedback effect on ACTH release. Simultaneous recording of ACTH and cortisol is not typical, and determining the number, timing, and amplitudes of pulsatile events from simultaneously recorded data is challenging because of several factors: (I) stimulator ACTH pulse activity, (II) kinematics of ACTH and cortisol, (III) the sampling interval, and (IV) the measurement error. We model ACTH and cortisol secretion simultaneously using a linear differential equations model with Gaussian errors and sparse pulsatile events as inputs to the model. We propose a novel framework for recovering pulses and parameters underlying the interactions between ACTH and cortisol. We recover the timing and amplitudes of pulses using compressed sensing, and employ generalized cross validation for determining the number of pulses. We analyze serum ACTH and cortisol levels sampled at 10-minute intervals over 24 hours from 10 healthy women. We recover physiologically plausible timing and amplitudes for these pulses and model the feedback effect of cortisol. We recover 15 to 18 pulses over 24 hours, which is highly consistent with the results of another cortisol data analysis approach. Modeling the interactions between ACTH and cortisol allows for accurate quantification of pulsatile events, and normal and pathological states. This could lay the basis for a more physiologically-based approach for administering cortisol therapeutically. The proposed approach can be adapted to deconvolve other pairs of hormones with similar interactions. PMID:25935025

  9. Quantifying Pituitary-Adrenal Dynamics and Deconvolution of Concurrent Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Data by Compressed Sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2015-10-01

    Pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is governed by pulsatile release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary. In return, cortisol has a negative feedback effect on ACTH release. Simultaneous recording of ACTH and cortisol is not typical, and determining the number, timing, and amplitudes of pulsatile events from simultaneously recorded data is challenging because of several factors: 1) stimulator ACTH pulse activity, 2) kinematics of ACTH and cortisol, 3) the sampling interval, and 4) the measurement error. We model ACTH and cortisol secretion simultaneously using a linear differential equations model with Gaussian errors and sparse pulsatile events as inputs to the model. We propose a novel framework for recovering pulses and parameters underlying the interactions between ACTH and cortisol. We recover the timing and amplitudes of pulses using compressed sensing and employ generalized cross validation for determining the number of pulses. We analyze serum ACTH and cortisol levels sampled at 10-min intervals over 24 h from ten healthy women. We recover physiologically plausible timing and amplitudes for these pulses and model the feedback effect of cortisol. We recover 15 to 18 pulses over 24 h, which is highly consistent with the results of another cortisol data analysis approach. Modeling the interactions between ACTH and cortisol allows for accurate quantification of pulsatile events, and normal and pathological states. This could lay the basis for a more physiologically-based approach for administering cortisol therapeutically. The proposed approach can be adapted to deconvolve other pairs of hormones with similar interactions.

  10. Effects of ghrelin, growth hormone-releasing peptide-6, and growth hormone-releasing hormone on growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol release in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    de Sá, Larissa Bianca Paiva Cunha; Nascif, Sergio Oliva; Correa-Silva, Silvia Regina; Molica, Patricia; Vieira, José Gilberto Henriques; Dib, Sergio Atala; Lengyel, Ana-Maria Judith

    2010-10-01

    In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), growth hormone (GH) responses to provocative stimuli are normal or exaggerated, whereas the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis has been less studied. Ghrelin is a GH secretagogue that also increases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels, similarly to GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6). Ghrelin's effects in patients with T1DM have not been evaluated. We therefore studied GH, ACTH, and cortisol responses to ghrelin and GHRP-6 in 9 patients with T1DM and 9 control subjects. The GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-induced GH release was also evaluated. Mean fasting GH levels (micrograms per liter) were higher in T1DM (3.5 ± 1.2) than in controls (0.6 ± 0.3). In both groups, ghrelin-induced GH release was higher than that after GHRP-6 and GHRH. When analyzing Δ area under the curve (ΔAUC) GH values after ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH, no significant differences were observed in T1DM compared with controls. There was a trend (P = .055) to higher mean basal cortisol values (micrograms per deciliter) in T1DM (11.7 ± 1.5) compared with controls (8.2 ± 0.8). No significant differences were seen in ΔAUC cortisol values in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. Mean fasting ACTH values were similar in T1DM and controls. No differences were seen in ΔAUC ACTH levels in both groups after ghrelin and GHRP-6. In summary, patients with T1DM have normal GH responsiveness to ghrelin, GHRP-6, and GHRH. The ACTH and cortisol release after ghrelin and GHRP-6 is also similar to controls. Our results suggest that chronic hyperglycemia of T1DM does not interfere with GH-, ACTH-, and cortisol-releasing mechanisms stimulated by these peptides.

  11. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in calves after corticotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Veissier, I; van Reenen, C G; Andanson, S; Leushuis, I E

    1999-08-01

    The aim for this study was to analyze responsiveness of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis to exogenous bovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (bCRH) in calves. Two dose-response studies were carried out, using either bCRH alone (dose rates of 0, .01, .03, and .1 microg bCRH/kg live weight) or in combination with arginine-vasopressin (bCRH:AVP, 0:0, .1:.05, .5:.25, and 1:.5 microg kg live weight). The bCRH was administered i.v. to calves (n = 5 to 7 per dose) housed individually or in groups. Serial blood samples were obtained from before to 300 min after injection and analyzed for plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. The lowest bCRH dose that produced a response in all calves was .1 microg/kg. In the experiment using bCRH with AVP, increasing the bCRH dose from .1 to 1 microg/kg resulted in an increase in peak ACTH concentration (321 vs. 2,003 pg/mL) but did not significantly affect the peak cortisol concentration (37 vs. 40 ng/mL). The time to reach the peak cortisol concentration increased with the dose of bCRH with AVP (from 38 to 111 min). The ACTH and cortisol concentrations determined at any time between 20 and 90 min after bCRH injection were correlated to the integrated responses calculated as areas under the ACTH and the cortisol curves (r between .61 and .99, P<.05). In comparison with results from studies in humans, pigs, and sheep, our data showed that the pituitary of calves seems less sensitive to CRH than that of other mammals, despite a greater capacity to produce ACTH. Moreover, the calf's adrenals seem to have a lower capacity to produce cortisol than adrenals of other mammals. As in other species, it seems that AVP enhances the release of ACTH and cortisol. For CRH challenge to be used in calves, we suggest injecting at least .1 microg of bCRH/kg live weight either with or without AVP and taking several blood samples before injection and between 20 and 90 min after injection.

  12. Technical note: effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone on adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in steers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Earley, B; Ting, S T L; Leonard, N; Crowe, M A

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine an appropriate exogenous dose of bovine corticotropin-releasing hormone (bCRH) to stimulate the physiological effects of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in steers as a method to test the sensitivity of the pituitary and adrenal gland. Twenty 14-mo-old Holstein-Friesian steers were blocked by weight (443.7+/-2.5 kg) and randomly allotted to receive either saline (control) or bCRH (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, or 1.5 microg/kg BW). Animals were housed in a slatted-floor facility (n = 5 per pen). Indwelling jugular catheters, for both the administration of bCRH and blood collection, were fitted on d -1 of the experiment. Saline and bCRH were administered i.v. at time 0. Serial blood samples were collected at -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 165, and 180 min relative to time 0. Following administration of 0.1 microg of bCRH/kg BW, the peak ACTH response was not significantly different from pretreatment baseline concentrations (mean concentrations as measured at -15 and 0 min before bCRH administration). Mean ACTH concentrations from 0 to 180 min following 0.1 microg of bCRH/kg BW were not significantly different (P = 0.177) from controls. Administration of 0.3, 1.0, and 1.5 microg of bCRH/kg BW increased (P < 0.05) peak ACTH above pretreatment concentrations, and mean ACTH from 0 to 180 min for these treatments were greater (P < 0.05) than for controls. Peak cortisol responses to all bCRH treatments were greater (P < 0.05) than those to pretreatment concentrations. Mean cortisol concentrations from 0 to 180 min were greater (P < 0.05) in all bCRH-treated steers than in controls, but there were no significant differences among the bCRH treatments. The ratio of mean cortisol to mean ACTH for all bCRH doses tested differed (P < 0.05) from control values, indicating reactivity of the adrenals. In conclusion, bCRH challenge may be a useful method for testing the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

  13. Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, S; Kamei, C; Yoshida, T; Tasaka, K

    1993-08-01

    Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine (H(i)) were studied in dogs. Intracerebroventricular administration of Hi at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms/kg caused a significant increase in plasma ACTH, while more rapid and more marked increase in plasma cortisol was noticed after Hi injection at doses of 2-10 micrograms/kg. Similar results were obtained when 2-methylhistamine was injected; remarkable increases in both plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were observed at doses of 25 and 50 micrograms/kg. However, no such effect was elicited by 4-methylhistamine even at a dose of 50 micrograms/kg. The rate of plasma cortisol increase induced by either Hi or 2-methylhistamine was significantly faster than that of plasma ACTH. Simultaneous application of pyrilamine (intracerebroventricularly) with H(i) resulted in the significant inhibition of H(i)-induced hormone secretions, but in similar administration neither ACTH nor cortisol were affected by cimetidine. In hypophysectomized dogs, a significant increase in plasma cortisol level was also observed after H(i) injection at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg. Intravenous infusion of hexamethonium continued before and after H(i) injection failed to inhibit the increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels induced by H(i). From these findings, it can be concluded that intracerebroventricular injection of H(i) caused an increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels via H1-receptor, and it is suggested that to some extent, the cortisol release elicited by H(i) is certainly produced without participation of ACTH.

  14. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels directly correlate with childhood neglect and depression measures in addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Leonardi, Claudio; Cortese, Elena; Zaimovic, Amir; Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Petracca, Francesca; Caretti, Vincenzo; Baroni, Cristina; Donnini, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction has been reported to be involved in vulnerability to alcohol and drug dependence in humans, possibly underlying both addictive behaviour and depression susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible interactions between childhood adverse experiences, depressive symptoms and HPA axis function in addicted patients, in comparison with healthy control. Eighty-two abstinent heroin or cocaine dependent patients and 44 normal controls, matched for age and sex, completed the symptoms Check List-90 (SCL-90), measuring depressive symptoms, and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol basal plasma levels at 8:00 and 8:30 a.m. Addicted individuals showed significantly higher neglect and depression scores and ACTH-cortisol plasma levels respect to control subjects. Depression scores at SCL-90 in addicted patients positively correlated with plasma ACTH and cortisol values. In turn, plasma ACTH levels were directly associated with childhood neglect measures, reaching statistical significance with 'mother-neglect' scores. Plasma cortisol levels were related to 'father antipathy' among cocaine addicts. These findings suggest the possibility that childhood experience of neglect and poor parent-child attachment may have a persistent effect on HPA axis function as an adult, partially contributing, together with genetic factors and other environmental conditions, to both depressive traits and substance abuse neurobiological vulnerability.

  15. Decreased adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol responses to stress in healthy adults reporting significant childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Linda L; Carvalho, John P; Tyrka, Audrey R; Wier, Lauren M; Mello, Andrea F; Mello, Marcelo F; Anderson, George M; Wilkinson, Charles W; Price, Lawrence H

    2007-11-15

    Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress challenge has been reported in adult patients with major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. Plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test were examined in healthy adults (n = 50) without current psychopathology. Subjects with a self-reported history of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment (MAL) (n = 23) as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared with subjects without such a history (CTL) (n = 27). Compared with CTLs, MAL subjects exhibited significantly lower cortisol and ACTH baseline-to-peak deltas. A significant group effect was seen in the (repeated measures) cortisol response to the stress challenge, reflecting lower concentrations among MAL subjects. A significant group x time effect characterized the relatively blunted ACTH response of the MAL group. Emotional neglect (-.34, p = .02) and sexual abuse (.31, p = .03) strongly predicted maximal cortisol release. In adults without diagnosable psychopathology, childhood maltreatment is associated with diminished HPA axis response to a psychosocial stressor. Possible explanations for the finding are discussed.

  16. Technical note: comparison of salivary and serum cortisol concentrations after adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge in ewes.

    PubMed

    Yates, D T; Ross, T T; Hallford, D M; Yates, L J; Wesley, R L

    2010-02-01

    An ACTH challenge was conducted to determine if salivary cortisol concentration reflects serum cortisol concentration in ewes. Twelve yearling ewes (64.0 +/- 1.2 kg) were administered ACTH (100 IU, intravenously) or saline. Serum and salivary samples were collected at 30-min intervals for 2 h before ACTH administration, at 15-min intervals for 2 h after treatment, and at 30-min intervals for an additional 3 h, and cortisol concentration was determined by RIA. Although ewes responded to ACTH and saline, cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.001) in ACTH-treated ewes from 15 to 120 min and tended to be greater (P = 0.054) at 150 min after challenge in serum. In saliva, cortisol concentration was greater (P < 0.001) in ACTH-treated ewes from 30 to 120 min and tended to be greater (P = 0.092) at 15 min after challenge. No difference was observed between ACTH-treated ewes and controls for time to peak serum cortisol concentration (P = 0.126) and time to peak salivary cortisol concentration (P = 0.109), or between saliva and serum for time to peak cortisol concentration (P = 0.220) and return to baseline cortisol concentration (P = 0.341). The serum (P = 0.009) and salivary (P = 0.050) cortisol areas under the curve between 0 and 150 min were greater for ACTH-treated ewes than controls, and serum (P = 0.002) and salivary (P < 0.001) cortisol return to baseline concentration was longer for ACTH-treated ewes. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol concentrations was 0.88 (P < 0.001). These data indicate that salivary cortisol concentration is closely related to serum cortisol concentration and that the former may represent a suitable noninvasive alternative to blood collection for measurement of cortisol in sheep.

  17. Effect of acute heat stress on adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, interleukin-2, interleukin-12 and apoptosis gene expression in rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LI; LIU, FADONG; LUO, YAN; ZHU, LINGQIN; LI, GUANGHUA

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute heat stress on the neuroendocrine and immunological function in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups and respectively exposed to heat (32°C) or to room temperature (24°C). After 7 days of heat exposure, the heat-stress rat model was established. The organ coefficients of the pituitary and adrenal glands were determined. The body temperature was measured by telemetry. The average contents of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol (Cor), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 in serum were detected. The expression of apoptotic genes in the spleen was measured. The results showed that acute heat stress did not evidently affect the body temperature and body weight (P>0.05), but the exposure increased the organ coefficients of the pituitary and adrenal glands (P<0.05). Heat exposure significantly elevated the level of ACTH, Cor, IL-2 and IL-12 (P<0.05). The expression of caspase-3 and Bax were not changed significantly (P>0.05), while Bcl2 was reduced (P<0.05). PMID:26137249

  18. Free-running rhythms of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and melatonin in pigs.

    PubMed

    Griffith, M K; Minton, J E

    1991-04-01

    In the domestic pig, a circadian rhythm of plasma cortisol occurs, with greatest concentrations in the morning and lowest concentrations in the afternoon. However, photic entrainment of the rhythms of ACTH and melatonin in pigs have not been defined clearly. This experiment was designed to evaluate free-running rhythms of ACTH, cortisol and melatonin in pigs housed in constant light (LL) and constant darkness (DD). Twelve crossbred barrows, maintained under ambient photoperiod, were catheterized and tethered individually in two environmentally controlled rooms, one with LL and the other with DD. For animals in LL, fluorescent lights provided 202 +/- 15 (mean +/- standard deviation) lux of light at 65 cm above the floors. Incandescent nightlights equipped with 7 watt red bulbs provided 7 +/- 2 lux and were illuminated continuously in both rooms. Pigs were given at least 14 d exposure to LL and DD, then samples of plasma and serum were obtained at hourly intervals for 48 hr. Plasma was assayed for ACTH, and serum for cortisol and melatonin. Periodograms were constructed to analyze the data. For this type of analysis, a statistic, Qp, is calculated, and circadian periodicity is suggested if maximum Qp (Qp max) occurs at or near 24 hr. The period of the free-running rhythms (tau) at Qp max for ACTH, cortisol and melatonin for pigs in LL (23.80 +/- .01, 23.78 +/- .01, and 23.21 +/- .02 hr, respectively) did not differ significantly from those for pigs in DD (23.39 +/- .01, 23.20 +/- .01, and 22.55 +/- .02 hr, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Efficacy of single serum cortisol reading obtained between 9 AM and 10 AM as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Nao; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2016-07-01

    To find a simple method to screen for iatrogenic childhood adrenal insufficiency, we retrospectively examined the results of CRH stimulation tests performed 212 times on 111 subjects (68 males; age at commencement of initial treatment ranged 0.0-19.8 yr; median age, 5.8 yr). Before the commencement of this study, 97 subjects had been treated with glucocorticoids and 14 subjects with West syndrome had been treated with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone. Duration of the primary treatment ranged from 15 to 2150 days. CRH stimulation tests were conducted between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM and peak cortisol values less than 15 µg/dL were considered indicative of adrenal insufficiency. The receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the optimal basal serum cortisol cut-off values when screening for adrenal suppression ranged from 5.35 to 5.80 µg/dL depending on the primary disease. All subjects having a serum cortisol value of less than 2.3 µg/dL had insufficient adrenal function while all subjects having greater than 11 µg/dL had intact adrenal function. We concluded that single serum cortisol values obtained between 09:00 AM and 10:00 AM had the potential to serve as an index of adrenal function in children treated with glucocorticoids or synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone.

  20. Adrenocorticotropic hormone but not high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or salivary cortisol was a predictor of adrenal insufficiency in patients with septic shock.

    PubMed

    Festti, Josiane; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; Festti, Luciana; Mazzuco, Tânia Longo; Lima-Valassi, Helena Pantelion; Brito, Vinícius Nahime; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; Carrilho, Alexandre José Faria

    2014-07-01

    Relative adrenal insufficiency in sepsis has been extensively debated on; however, accurate diagnosis and therapeutic intervention remain controversial. The authors aimed to evaluate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), salivary cortisol, total cortisol and estimated plasma-free cortisol, cholesterol, and lipoproteins as predictors of adrenal insufficiency in patients within 24 h of septic shock diagnosis. This prospective study evaluated all hospitalized patients older than 18 years who developed septic shock and were using vasoactive drugs within 24 h of diagnosis. Blood and saliva samples were drawn at baseline and 60 min (T60) after 250 μg tetracosactide intravenous injection. Patients were divided into two groups: responders (Δ [T60 minus baseline] total cortisol >9 μg/dL) and nonresponders (Δ total cortisol ≤ 9 μg/dL or baseline total cortisol <10 μg/dL). The latter group was considered to have adrenal insufficiency. A total of 7,324 hospitalized patients were monitored, and 34 subjects with septic shock were included in the analysis. Adrenal insufficiency was found in 32.4%. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and salivary cortisol did not differ between groups. Estimated plasma-free cortisol was not better than total plasma cortisol in estimating adrenal function. Baseline endogenous ACTH was higher in nonresponders than responders (55.5 pg/mL vs. 18.3 pg/mL, respectively; P = 0.01). The cutoff ACTH value that discriminated patients with adrenal insufficiency was 31.5 pg/mL. Thus, endogenous ACTH measured within 24 h of septic shock diagnosis could predict adrenal response to tetracosactide.

  1. Treatable Bedridden Elderly―Recovery from Flexion Contracture after Cortisol Replacement in a Patient with Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takamasa; Terada, Norihiko; Fujikawa, Yoshiki; Fujimoto, Takushi

    2016-01-01

    Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) is a rare disorder with diverse clinical presentations. A 79-year-old man was bedridden for six months due to flexion contractures of the bilateral hips and knees, along with hyponatremia. He was diagnosed with IAD based on the results of endocrine tests. After one month of corticosteroid replacement, he recovered and was able to stand up by himself. Although flexion contracture is a rare symptom of IAD, steroid replacement therapy may be effective, even for seemingly irreversibly bedridden elderly patients. In bedridden elderly patients with flexion contractures, we should consider and look for any signs of adrenal insufficiency. PMID:27746435

  2. Treatable Bedridden Elderly -Recovery from Flexion Contracture after Cortisol Replacement in a Patient with Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takamasa; Terada, Norihiko; Fujikawa, Yoshiki; Fujimoto, Takushi

    Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) is a rare disorder with diverse clinical presentations. A 79-year-old man was bedridden for six months due to flexion contractures of the bilateral hips and knees, along with hyponatremia. He was diagnosed with IAD based on the results of endocrine tests. After one month of corticosteroid replacement, he recovered and was able to stand up by himself. Although flexion contracture is a rare symptom of IAD, steroid replacement therapy may be effective, even for seemingly irreversibly bedridden elderly patients. In bedridden elderly patients with flexion contractures, we should consider and look for any signs of adrenal insufficiency.

  3. ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pituitary (ectopic), such as in the lungs. Addison disease (primary adrenal insufficiency): decreased cortisol production due to ... the pituitary, usually in the lung) Increased Increased Addison disease (underactive or damaged adrenal glands) Decreased Increased Hypopituitarism ...

  4. Effects of cortisol secreted via a 12-h infusion of adrenocorticotropic hormone on mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism in ovariectomized cows.

    PubMed

    Kim, D; Yamagishi, N; Devkota, B; Furuhama, K

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of endogenously secreted cortisol on mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism in cows, 4 ovariectomized Holstein cows were infused for 12 h with either an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) solution (0.5 mg/2 L isotonic NaCl solution per cow) or isotonic NaCl solution in a 2×2 crossover design. ACTH infusion stimulated cortisol secretion and increased plasma cortisol concentrations for 18 h (P<0.001), leading to an elevated plasma glucose concentration until 36 h (P<0.001). Plasma calcium and magnesium concentrations in ACTH-infused cows fluctuated within normal ranges, whereas hypophosphatemia was observed unequivocally. The biochemical bone resorption markers tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b and hydroxyproline decreased following ACTH infusion (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Similarly, the bone formation marker, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, decreased continuously until 72 h after the ACTH infusion (P<0.001). These results demonstrate that increased secretion of cortisol via a 12-h ACTH infusion disrupted homeostasis of inorganic phosphate and suppressed bone metabolism in ovariectomized cows without involving gonadal steroid hormones.

  5. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and PI3K/Akt Inhibition Reduce eNOS Phosphorylation and Increase Cortisol Biosynthesis in Long-Term Hypoxic Ovine Fetal Adrenal Cortical Cells.

    PubMed

    Newby, Elizabeth A; Kaushal, Kanchan M; Myers, Dean A; Ducsay, Charles A

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the role of the MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways in cortisol production and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation (peNOS) in the ovine fetal adrenal in response to long-term hypoxia (LTH). Pregnant ewes were maintained at high altitude (3820 m) for the last 100 days of gestation (dGa). At 138 to 142 dGa, fetal adrenal cortical cells (FACs) were collected from LTH and age-matched normoxic fetuses. Cortisol production and peNOS were measured in response to pretreatment with the MEK/ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor UO126 (UO) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation. UO126 reduced ACTH-stimulated cortisol in both normoxic and LTH FACs. UO126 alone or in combination with ACTH reduced peNOS in the normoxic group, while ACTH alone or ACTH + UO inhibited peNOS in LTH FACs. Additionally, cortisol was measured in response to pretreatment with UO and treatment with 22R-hydroxycholesterol (22R-OHC) or water-soluble cholesterol (WSC) with and without ACTH stimulation. UO126 had no effect on 22R-OHC-treated cells, but reduced cortisol in cells treated with WSC and/or ACTH. Cortisol and peNOS were also measured in response to pretreatment with PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor Wortmannin (WT) and ACTH stimulation. Wortmannin further increased cortisol under ACTH-stimulated conditions and, like ACTH, reduced peNOS in LTH but not normoxic FACs. Together, these data suggest that in LTH FACs MEK/ERK1/2 does not regulate peNOS but that UO acts downstream from eNOS, possibly at cholesterol transport, to affect cortisol production in LTH FACs, while the PI3K/Akt pathway, along with ACTH, regulates peNOS and plays a role in the fetal adaptation to LTH in FACs.

  6. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. Results ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ≥90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ≥95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ≥90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Conclusions In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated

  7. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Prodam, Flavia; Ricotti, Roberta; Agarla, Valentina; Parlamento, Silvia; Genoni, Giulia; Balossini, Caterina; Walker, Gillian Elisabeth; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Bona, Gianni; Bellone, Simonetta

    2013-02-20

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ≥90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ≥95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ≥90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. High

  8. Plasma cortisol responses to remote adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) infusion in free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Ingram, J R; Matthews, L R; Carragher, J F; Schaare, P R

    1997-01-01

    A remote infusion and blood collection device (Dracpac) was used on free-ranging red deer stags to deliver i.v. a range of ACTH1-24 doses and collect blood for cortisol determination. In Experiment 1, conducted in September, saline and 1, 4, and 16 IU ACTH/100 kg bodyweight were infused (n = 5-7 per treatment). In Experiment 2 (November), 16 and 64 IU ACTH/100 kg were infused (n = 5 per treatment); and the response of animals to restraint was also assessed (n = 6). Pre-infusion concentrations of plasma cortisol were low (mean 6.5 +/- 1.0 ng/ml), and unaffected by infusion of saline. ACTH significantly elevated plasma cortisol concentrations, with mean peak concentrations occurring 20-40 min postinfusion. Duration of the response was dose dependent, ranging from 80-160 min. With increasing doses of ACTH, maximal peak heights plateaued at approximately 40 and 60 ng/ml in September and November, respectively; whereas the areas under the curves tended to increase. The minimum dose of ACTH that resulted in a maximal peak cortisol response was 4 IU. The maximum peak height of the cortisol response to 16 IU tended to be higher (P < 0.10) in November compared with September, suggesting that adrenal responsiveness may change over this period. The adrenal response to a 16-IU ACTH challenge in Experiment 2 resulted in similar plasma cortisol concentrations to an acute stress event (restraint). Four IU/100 kg ACTH i.v. is recommended as an appropriate dose for ACTH infusion studies in red deer stags. When used in conjunction with the Dracpac technique, it becomes a stress-free, repeatable procedure for assessing aspects of adrenal cortex physiology in free-ranging deer.

  9. [The value and comparison of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and urinary free cortisol in predicting long-term outcome after operation of Cushing's disease].

    PubMed

    Feng, M; Liu, X H; Bao, X J; Yong, C X; Lu, L; Deng, K; Lian, W; Xing, B; Zhu, H J; Ma, W B; Yan, Y; Wang, R Z

    2016-12-06

    Objective: To study and the value of morning plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and urinary free cortisol (24 h UFC) within 3 days after operation in patients with Cushing's disease in predicting the long-term outcome. Methods: The clinical data of 140 patients with Cushing's disease who were treated in Department of Neurosurgery of PUMCH from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.The univariate analysis, multivariate Logistic analysis, ROC curve analysis and other statistical methods were used to study the predicting value of morning plasma ACTH and 24 h UFC in 3 days post operation. Results: Univariate analysis showed that in the two groups of the early remission and no remission, there was significant statistical difference between the preoperative ACTH, preoperative 24 h UFC, postoperative ACTH and postoperative 24 h UFC (P<0.05, <0.01, <0.01). Logistic analysis showed that ACTH and 24 h UFC after operation of two groups had significant difference (P<0.01, <0.05). ROC curve analysis showed that postoperative cutoff values of ACTH and 24 h UFC were 4.11 pmol/L (18.7 pg/ml) and 281.42 nmol (102 μg)/24 h. ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the predicting performance of postoperative ACTH, resulting in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.917 (95%CI: 0.858-0.957, P<0.01). In comparison, 24 h UFC had an AUC of 0.814 (95%CI: 0.739-0.875, P<0.01). The predicting value of ACTH is significantly better than that of 24 h UFC (P=0.005). Conclusion: Early morning 24 h UFC and ACTH within 3 days after operation both showed considerable accuracy in predicting the long-term outcome of Cushing's disease, and the significance of ACTH was even greater than that of 24 h UFC.

  10. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency development during chemotherapy for gastric cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency is an endocrinological disorder characterized by loss of adrenocorticotropic hormone and resultant adrenal insufficiency. Affected patients often present with fatigue, anorexia, and hyponatremia. Although the number of reported cases has been recently increasing, isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency combined with malignant neoplasia is very rare. Here we describe a patient with gastric cancer who developed unexpected isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency during chemotherapy. Case presentation A 72-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital because of febrile neutropenia due to chemotherapy for gastric cancer recurrence. Although the neutropenia and fever immediately improved, he became unable to take any oral medications and was bedridden 1 week after admission. His serum sodium level abruptly decreased to 122mEq/L on the fifth day of hospitalization. We performed endocrinological studies to investigate the cause of his hyponatremia and plasma hyposmolality. His plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels were very low. However, his serum levels of all other anterior pituitary hormones were slightly elevated. We then performed a corticotropin-releasing hormone test, which showed that neither his plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone nor cortisol level responded to corticotropin-releasing hormone stimulation. We definitively diagnosed isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency based on these findings. Hydrocortisone replacement therapy was begun at 20mg/day, resulting in a marked improvement in his anorexia and general fatigue within a few days. His serum sodium level was also normalized immediately after the administration of hydrocortisone. He was discharged from our hospital on the 50th day of hospitalization. Conclusions The present case is the second report of a patient with concurrent isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and gastric cancer and the

  11. Metastatic esthesioneuroblastoma secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Galioto, Silvestre; Di Petrillo, Alessandro; Pastori, Mauro; Arecchi, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to report a pediatric case of secondary cervical esthesioneuroblastoma involving the parapharyngeal lymph nodes. A 3-year-old boy came to our clinical observation because of a right lymphonodal mass evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance and a diagnosis of Cushing syndrome associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion, moon face, central obesity, asthenia, and hirsutism. At the age of 10 months, the patient underwent endoscopic surgery for asportation of the World Health Organization stage IV esthesioneuroblastoma. At 38 months of age, the patient underwent right parapharyngeal lymphadenectomy with surgical access by a double mandibulectomy. After surgery, serum ACTH, cortisolemia, and urinary excretion of cortisol were within the reference range. Blood pressure was recorded at 110/70 mm Hg. Moon face disappeared, as well as central obesity and hirsutism. Clinical report is presented together with brief review of literature.

  12. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keigo; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Felizola, Saulo J A; Morimoto, Ryo; Satoh, Fumitoshi; Takanami, Kentaro; Katakami, Hideki; Hirota, Seiichi; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Meguro-Horike, Makiko; Horike, Shin-Ichi; Unno, Michiaki; Sasano, Hironobu

    2016-11-15

    Solitary fibrous tumors occasionally present with hypoglycemia because of the excessive release of insulin-like growth factor II. We report the first case of pancreatic solitary fibrous tumor causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome. An 82-year-old Japanese man presented with lower limb edema, uncontrolled hypertension, hypokalemia, and baseline hypercortisolism. Distal pancreatectomy was performed after the clinical diagnosis of a neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone. On histological examination, the tumor showed spindle cells in a fascicular arrangement. The diagnosis of the solitary fibrous tumor was confirmed by the identification of the NAB2-STAT6 fusion gene and positive immuno-histochemical staining for STAT6 and CD34. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, mRNA that encoded proopiomelanocortin, precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone, was detected. Proopiomelanocortin production through the demethylation of the promoter region Domain IV was detected. Pancreatic solitary fibrous tumors represent a new cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

  13. Type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanied by isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Yuji; Murakami, Masami

    2009-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus was admitted to our hospital because of appetite loss, nausea and vomiting. Gastroscopy revealed gastric cancer. Levels of plasma cortisol were decreased. Neither adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) nor cortisol levels were adequately increased in response to a mixed intravenous administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone, growth hormone-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and lutenizing hormone-releasing hormone, although other pituitary hormones were increased adequately. He was diagnosed as having isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD). Anti-pituitary antibody and anti-parietal cell antibody were positive. At least in part, these antibodies may play pathogenic roles of development of IAD and gastric cancer.

  14. Radioactive probes for adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, K.; Romovacek, H.; Stehle, C.J.; Finn, F.M.; Bothner-By, A.A.; Mishra, P.K.

    1986-03-25

    Our attempts to develop adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues that can be employed for ACTH receptor identification and isolation began with the synthesis of ACTH fragments containing N epsilon-(dethiobiotinyl)lysine (dethiobiocytin) amide in position 25 to be used for affinity chromatographic purification of hormone-receptor complexes on Sepharose-immobilized avidin resins. Because labeling ACTH or ACTH fragments by conventional iodination techniques destroys biological activity due to oxidation of Met4 and incorporation of iodine into Tyr2, we have prepared (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, (Phe2,Nle4,biocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide, and (Phe2,Nle4,dethiobiocytin25)ACTH1-25 amide by conventional synthetic techniques. The HPLC profiles and amino acid analyses of the final products indicate that the materials are of a high degree of purity. The amount of tertiary butylation of the Trp residue in the peptides was assessed by NMR and was found to be less than 0.5%. All three peptides are equipotent with the standard ACTH1-24 as concerns their ability to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP formation in bovine adrenal cortical cells. Iodination of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24, with iodogen as the oxidizing agent, has been accomplished without any detectable loss of biological activity. The mono- and diiodo derivatives of (Phe2,Nle4)ACTH1-24 have been prepared, separated by HPLC, and assayed for biological activity. Both peptides have the full capacity to stimulate steroidogenesis and cAMP production in bovine adrenal cortical cells.

  15. Adrenocorticotropic hormone analog use for podocytopathies

    PubMed Central

    Filippone, Edward J; Dopson, Shirley J; Rivers, Denise M; Monk, Rebeca D; Udani, Suneel M; Jafari, Golriz; Huang, Solomon C; Melhem, Arafat; Assioun, Bassim; Schmitz, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    Background Adrenocorticotropic hormone is being increasingly studied for treatment of various glomerulopathies, most notably membranous nephropathy. Less data are available regarding its use in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) secondary to minimal change disease (MCD) or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We report here our experience with H.P. Acthar® Gel (repository corticotropin injection) as first-line or subsequent therapy in patients with INS. Methods Data were taken from three patients with MCD and ten patients with FSGS from around the US, who were treated with Acthar Gel as initial or subsequent therapy. Treatment was solely at the discretion of the primary nephrologist without a specific protocol. A complete response (CR) was defined as final urine protein-to-creatinine ratio <500 mg/g and a partial response (PR) as 50% decrease without rise of serum creatinine. Side effects and tolerability were noted. Results All three patients with MCD received Acthar Gel as second-line or later immunosuppressive (IS) therapy and all responded (one CR and two PRs). Two of the ten patients with FSGS received Acthar Gel as first-line IS therapy, while the other eight had failed multiple agents. Four of the ten patients with FSGS had responses, including two CRs and two PRs. The three patients with MCD tolerated therapy well without side effects. Five patients with FSGS tolerated therapy well, while five had various steroid-like side effects, resulting in therapy discontinuation in two patients. Conclusion Acthar Gel is a viable alternative IS agent for treatment of INS in patients intolerant or resistant to conventional therapy. More data are needed to better define its appropriate place. PMID:27418857

  16. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1025 - Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) test system. 862.1025 Section 862.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  1. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age

    PubMed Central

    Wong, David M.; Vo, Dai Tan; Alcott, Cody J.; Stewart, Allison J.; Peterson, Anna D.; Sponseller, Brett A.; Hsu, Walter H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate total baseline plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in foals from birth to 12 wk of age. Plasma (baseline) cortisol and ACTH concentrations were measured in 13 healthy foals at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Each foal received cosyntropin (0.1 μg/kg) intravenously. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline), and 30, and 60 min after cosyntropin administration at birth and at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Compared with baseline, cortisol concentration increased significantly 30 min after administration of cosyntropin on all days. Cortisol concentration was highest at birth, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, compared with all other days. With the exception of birth measurements, cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 84, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, when compared with all other days. Baseline plasma ACTH was lowest at birth when compared with concentrations on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 42, 56, and 84. Administration of 0.1 μg/kg of cosyntropin, IV, reliably induces cortisol secretion in healthy foals. Differences in the magnitude of response to cosyntropin are observed depending on the age of the foal. These data should serve as a reference for the ACTH stimulation test in foals and should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill foals. PMID:19337398

  2. Topiramate and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as initial treatment for infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Bradley; Alonso, William D; Porter, Brenda E

    2009-04-01

    Historically, adrenocorticotropic hormone was used as a first-line treatment for infantile spasms; however, there has been increasing use of topiramate as initial therapy. Here, we report a retrospective study of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and topiramate as initial treatment for infantile spasms. The neurology patient database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was searched using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code for infantile spasms, and 50 patients were randomly chosen for chart review. We identified 31 patients receiving either adrenocorticotropic hormone or topiramate monotherapy (adrenocorticotropic hormone n = 12, topiramate n = 19) as a first-line treatment for infantile spasms. A total of 26 patients were symptomatic and 5 cryptogenic. Six patients treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone had resolution of clinical spasms and hypsarrhythmia within a month, but 3 relapsed. Of the 19 patients treated with topiramate, 4 patients eventually, though over a period of 0, 1, 8, or 69 months, had resolution of spasms and hypsarrhythmia.

  3. Improved response of growth hormone to growth hormone-releasing hormone and reversible chronic thyroiditis after hydrocortisone replacement in isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Miho; Sato, Haruhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiyasu; Hirukawa, Takashi; Sawaya, Asako; Miyakogawa, Takayo; Tatsumi, Ryoko; Kakuta, Takatoshi

    2009-07-20

    We report a 44-year-old Japanese man who showed a reversible blunted response of growth hormone (GH) to GH-releasing hormone (GRH) stimulation test and reversible chronic thyroiditis accompanied by isolated ACTH deficiency. He was admitted to our hospital because of severe general malaise, hypotension, and hypoglycemia. He showed repeated attacks of hypoglycemia, and his serum sodium level gradually decreased. Finally, he was referred to the endocrinology division, where his adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values were found to be low, and his GH level was slightly elevated. An increased value of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and decreased values of free triidothyronine and free thyroxine were observed along with anti-thyroglobulin antibody, suggesting chronic thyroiditis. Pituitary stimulation tests revealed a blunted response of ACTH and cortisol to corticotropin-releasing hormone, and a blunted response of GH to GRH. Hydrocortisone replacement was then started, and this improved the patient's general condition. His hypothyroid state gradually ameliorated and his titer of anti-thyroglobulin antibody decreased to the normal range. Pituitary function was re-evaluated with GRH stimulation test under a maintenance dose of 20 mg/day hydrocortisone and showed a normal response of GH to GRH. It is suggested that re-evaluation of pituitary and thyroid function is useful for diagnosing isolated ACTH deficiency after starting a maintenance dose of hydrocortisone in order to avoid unnecessary replacement of thyroid hormone.

  4. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KATO, AKIHISA; HAYASHI, KAZUKI; NAITOH, ITARU; SENO, KYOJI; OKADA, YUKIKO; BAN, TESSHIN; KONDO, HIROMU; NISHI, YUJI; UMEMURA, SHUICHIRO; HORI, YASUKI; NATSUME, MAKOTO; JOH, TAKASHI

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is rarely secreted by neuroendocrine tumors. Although neuroendocrine tumors may occur at any site in the gastrointestinal system, they very rarely occur in the ampulla of Vater and have a poor prognosis. The present study described the first Cushing's syndrome as a result of ectopic ACTH arising from the ampulla of Vater neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 69-year-old female was admitted with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, confirmed biochemically by hypokalemia, and elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol. In further investigations, a tumor of the ampulla of Vater and liver metastases were detected. Pathological analysis of the biopsy confirmed a neuroendocrine carcinoma, which was immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and ACTH. Therefore, the present study diagnosed a functional and metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater with ectopic ACTH production causing Cushing's syndrome. The patient succumbed to mortality 4 months later, despite administration of combined chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin. PMID:27330779

  5. Medullary thyroid carcinoma with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Seok; Kim, Min Joo; Moon, Chae Ho; Yoon, Jong Ho; Ku, Ha Ra; Kang, Geon Wook; Na, Im Il; Lee, Seung-Sook; Lee, Byung-Chul; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Hong Il; Ku, Yun Hyi

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is caused most frequently by a bronchial carcinoid tumor or by small cell lung cancer. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare etiology of ectopic ACTH syndrome. We describe a case of Cushing syndrome due to ectopic ACTH production from MTC in a 48-year-old male. He was diagnosed with MTC 14 years ago and underwent total thyroidectomy, cervical lymph node dissection and a series of metastasectomies. MTC was confirmed by the pathological examination of the thyroid and metastatic mediastinal lymph node tissues. Two years after his last surgery, he developed Cushingoid features, such as moon face and central obesity, accompanied by uncontrolled hypertension and new-onset diabetes. The laboratory results were compatible with ectopic ACTH syndrome. A bilateral adrenalectomy improved the clinical and laboratory findings that were associated with Cushing syndrome. This is the first confirmed case of ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by MTC in Korea.

  6. Effect of price increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone on treatment practices of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Wray, Carter D; Benke, Timothy A

    2010-09-01

    Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone putatively constitutes the most efficacious treatment for infantile spasms. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the United States is an "orphan drug," made by a single manufacturer. The price of adrenocorticotropic hormone increased almost 14-fold on August 27, 2007. We sought to evaluate the impact of this price increase on treatment practices at our institution, using a retrospective chart review of all children with infantile spasms treated during 2007-2009. We identified 97 patients whose spasms were treated using antiepileptic drugs, and we determined the length of stay for those hospitalized to initiate adrenocorticotropic hormone. Patients before the price increase were more likely to have been treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone as first medication, and were hospitalized 2.2 +/- 0.5 S.D. days for initiation. Patients after the price increase were more likely to have been treated initially with oral antiepileptic drugs rather than adrenocorticotropic hormone (P < 0.002). Those commencing adrenocorticotropic hormone after the price increase were hospitalized significantly longer (5.1 +/- 0.6 days S.D., P < 0.001). Treatment choices need to be evidence-based, but other factors often influence them.

  7. Limited Diagnostic Utility of Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone for Differentiation between Adrenal Cushing Syndrome and Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, A Ram; Kim, Jung Hee; Hong, Eun Shil; Kim, I Kyeong; Park, Kyeong Seon; Ahn, Chang Ho; Kim, Sang Wan; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level has been recommended as the first diagnostic test for differentiating between ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome (CS) and ACTH-dependent CS. When plasma ACTH values are inconclusive, a differential diagnosis of CS can be made based upon measurement of the serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) level and results of the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDST). The aim of this study was to assess the utility of plasma ACTH to differentiate adrenal CS from Cushing' disease (CD) and compare it with that of the HDST results and serum DHEA-S level. We performed a retrospective, multicenter study from January 2000 to May 2012 involving 92 patients with endogenous CS. The levels of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, 24-hour urine free cortisol (UFC) after the HDST, and serum DHEA-S were measured. Fifty-seven patients had adrenal CS and 35 patients had CD. The area under the curve of plasma ACTH, serum DHEA-S, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 0.954, 0.841, 0.950, and 0.997, respectively (all P<0.001). The cut-off values for plasma ACTH, percentage suppression of serum cortisol, and UFC after HDST were 5.3 pmol/L, 33.3%, and 61.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of plasma ACTH measurement were 84.2% and 94.3%, those of serum cortisol were 95.8% and 90.6%, and those of UFC after the HDST were 97.9% and 96.7%, respectively. Significant overlap in plasma ACTH levels was seen between patients with adrenal CS and those with CD. The HDST may be useful in differentiating between these forms of the disease, especially when the plasma ACTH level alone is not conclusive.

  8. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency associated with Hashimoto's disease and thyroid crisis triggered by head trauma. Case report.

    PubMed

    Tanei, Takafumi; Eguchi, Youko; Yamamoto, Yuka; Hirano, Masaki; Takebayashi, Shigenori; Nakahara, Norimoto

    2012-01-01

    A 47-year-old man presented to our hospital after suffering transient loss of consciousness and falling to the floor. On admission, his Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11 (E3V3M5), and he exhibited restlessness. Blood examination revealed hyperthyroidism. Computed tomography showed slight traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. He developed fever and tachycardia, and was diagnosed with thyroid crisis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a brain contusion in the right frontal lobe, and encephalopathy signs in the right frontal and insular cortex. Immunocytochemical examinations suggested Hashimoto's disease, and hormone examinations revealed plasma levels were undetectably low of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and low of cortisol. Pituitary stimulation tests showed inadequate plasma ACTH and cortisol response, consistent with isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD). The final diagnosis was IAD associated with Hashimoto's disease. Hydrocortisone replacement therapy was continued, and the patient was nearly free from neurological deficits after 18 months. The neuroimaging abnormalities gradually improved with time.

  9. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus prednisolone in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin; Snead, O Carter; Boyd, Jennifer; Go, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The Child Neurology Society/American Academy of Neurology practice parameter has recommended adrenocorticotropic hormone or vigabatrin in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. When vigabatrin is unavailable or ineffective and adrenocorticotropic hormone is not a treatment option because of the prohibitive cost, other forms of corticosteroids have been considered in the treatment of infantile spasms. This retrospective study reviewed the Hospital for Sick Children's experience with the short-term effectiveness of prednisolone versus adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with infantile spasms who have failed vigabatrin. The results showed that while adrenocorticotropic hormone was more likely to lead to short-term spasm freedom, there was no difference in the likelihood of longer-term spasm resolution without relapse. These findings can guide clinicians in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure.

  10. Unusual cause of ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone: Cushing syndrome attributable to small cell prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Alshaikh, Omalkhaire M; Al-Mahfouz, Abdulraof A; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Mahfouz, Ali Bin; Alzahrani, Ali S

    2010-01-01

    To report a rare cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion leading to severe Cushing syndrome. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of Cushing syndrome attributable to ectopic ACTH secretion from small cell cancer of the prostate. In a 70-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes, congestive heart failure developed. He was found to have severe hypokalemia (serum potassium, 1.7 mEq/L) and a huge pelvic mass on a computed tomographic scan performed because of a complaint of urinary retention. Transurethral biopsy of the prostate showed features of small cell prostate cancer. Hormonal evaluation revealed a high urine free cortisol excretion of 6,214.5 microg/d (reference range, 36 to 137), confirming the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. A serum ACTH level was elevated at 316 ng/dL (reference range, 10 to 52). An overnight high-dose (8 mg orally) dexamethasone suppression test was positive (serum cortisol levels were 43.2 and 41 microg/dL before and after suppression, respectively), and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland disclosed no abnormalities. A prostate biopsy specimen showed small cell prostate cancer with positive staining for ACTH. The tumor was found to be unresectable, and the poor condition of the patient did not allow for bilateral adrenalectomy. He was treated with ketoconazole and metyrapone, which yielded good temporary control of his Cushing syndrome (24-hour urine free cortisol decreased to 55.2 microg/d). He received 1 cycle of chemotherapy (etoposide and cisplatin), but he died 6 months later as a result of sepsis. Small cell prostate cancer is a rare subtype that can be associated with ectopic secretion of ACTH and severe Cushing syndrome. With this subtype of prostate cancer, Cushing syndrome should be considered and appropriately managed.

  11. Sensitivity of adrenal glands to adrenocorticotropic hormone in animals with alimentary obesity.

    PubMed

    Pankina, T V; Kuzminova, O I; Selyatitskaya, V G

    2008-12-01

    Blood concentration of corticosterone in obese rats did not differ from the control value. In vitro synthesis of progesterone and corticosterone in adrenal slices from obese rats was lower compared to control animals, but these differences disappeared after addition of adrenocorticotropic hormone to the incubation medium. In obese rats, blood content of corticosterone in response to administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone in vivo increased by 8 times, while in control animals this parameter increased by only 4.5 times.

  12. Isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    PU, JIUJUN; WANG, ZHIMING; ZHOU, HUI; ZHONG, AILING; JIN, KAI; RUAN, LUNLIANG; YANG, GANG

    2016-01-01

    Only a few cases of double or multiple pituitary adenomas have previously been reported in the literature; however, isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are even more rare. The present study reports a rare case of a 50-year-old female patient who presented with typical clinical features of Cushing's disease and was diagnosed with isolated double ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Endocrinological examination revealed an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a microadenoma with a lower intensity on the right side of the pituitary gland. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, which revealed another pituitary tumor in the left side of the pituitary gland. The two, clearly separated, pituitary adenomas identified in the same gland were completely resected. Immunohistochemistry and pathology revealed that the clearly separated double pituitary adenomas were positive for ACTH, thyroid-stimulating, growth and prolactin hormones. Postoperatively, the levels of ACTH and cortisol hormone decreased rapidly. The case reported in the present study is considerably rare, due to the presence of a second pituitary adenoma in the same gland, which was not detected by preoperative MRI scan, but was noticed during surgery. Intraoperative evaluation may be important in the identification of double or multiple pituitary adenomas. PMID:27347184

  13. Isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jiujun; Wang, Zhiming; Zhou, Hui; Zhong, Ailing; Jin, Kai; Ruan, Lunliang; Yang, Gang

    2016-07-01

    Only a few cases of double or multiple pituitary adenomas have previously been reported in the literature; however, isolated double adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas are even more rare. The present study reports a rare case of a 50-year-old female patient who presented with typical clinical features of Cushing's disease and was diagnosed with isolated double ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Endocrinological examination revealed an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma, and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a microadenoma with a lower intensity on the right side of the pituitary gland. The patient underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, which revealed another pituitary tumor in the left side of the pituitary gland. The two, clearly separated, pituitary adenomas identified in the same gland were completely resected. Immunohistochemistry and pathology revealed that the clearly separated double pituitary adenomas were positive for ACTH, thyroid-stimulating, growth and prolactin hormones. Postoperatively, the levels of ACTH and cortisol hormone decreased rapidly. The case reported in the present study is considerably rare, due to the presence of a second pituitary adenoma in the same gland, which was not detected by preoperative MRI scan, but was noticed during surgery. Intraoperative evaluation may be important in the identification of double or multiple pituitary adenomas.

  14. Surgical treatment of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome with intra-thoracic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Hang, Junbiao; Che, Jiaming; Chen, Zhongyuan; Qiu, Weicheng; Ren, Jian; Yang, Xiaoqing; Xiang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The study was to review the clinical manifestations and laboratory examinations of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome, and to analyze the efficacy of surgical treatment. Methods The clinical data, surgical therapy, and outcome of 23 cases of ectopic ACTH syndrome accompanied by intra-thoracic tumors were reviewed. The tumors were removed from all the patients according to the principles of radical resection. Results The tumors were confirmed as associated with ectopic ACTH secretion in 19 cases. Hyperglycemia and hypokalemia were recovered, while plasma cortisol, plasma ACTH and 24-hour urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels were significantly reduced after surgery in these 19 cases. Recurrences of the disease were found in six cases during following-up, and five of them died. Conclusions The thoracic cavity should be a focus in routine examinations of patients with symptoms of Cushing’s syndrome (CS), because ectopic ACTH-producing tumors are commonly found in bronchus/lung and mediastinum. Despite the incidence of the pulmonary nodule secondary to opportunistic infection in some cases, surgery is still the first choice if the tumor is localized. The surgical procedure should be performed according to the principles in resection of lung cancer and mediastinal tumor. The surgical efficacy is significant for short-term periods; however, the recurrence of the disease in long-term periods is in great part related to distal metastasis or relapse of the tumor. PMID:27162663

  15. [A Case of an Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Producing Pituitary Adenoma Removed via Electromagnetic-Guided Neuroendoscopy].

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yusuke; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kenichi; Otsuka, Fumio; Date, Isao

    2016-06-01

    The use of navigation systems is safe and reliable for neurological surgery. We performed endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery to totally resect an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenoma associated with oculomotor nerve palsy. A 70-year-old woman developed right ptosis 4 months before admission. She developed anisocoria 2 months later and was referred to the department of neurology from clinic. Brain magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)showed an intrasellar tumor that partially invaded the right cavernous sinus, and she was then referred to our department. She exhibited a round face ("moon face") and central obesity. Laboratory test results showed a high urinary cortisol level and high serum ACTH level, and neither the serum cortisol nor ACTH level was suppressed by a low-dose dexamethasone test. We performed transsphenoidal surgery using high-dimensional endoscopy under electromagnetic navigation. The tumor invading the cavernous sinus was visualized via endoscopy and confirmed on navigation using a flexible needle probe. Postoperative MRI showed total removal of the tumor, and the serum ACTH level recovered to the normal range. The patient's right oculomotor palsy resolved within 1 week postoperatively. In summary, electromagnetic navigation was useful for total resection of a pituitary tumor invading the cavernous sinus, contributing to normalization of the ACTH level and improvement in neurological symptoms.

  16. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas: An Underestimated Entity.

    PubMed

    Knappe, Ulrich J; Jaspers, Christian; Buschsieweke, Desirée; Reinbold, Wolf-Dieter; Alomari, Ali; Saeger, Wolfgang; Ehlenz, Klaus; Mann, W Alexander; Kann, Peter Herbert; Feldkamp, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of Cushing disease is based on endocrinological pa-rameters, with no single test being specific. In some patients, dynamic thin-slice sellar magnetic resonance imaging fails to detect a pituitary tumor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of ectopic pituitary adenoma in this situation. In a retrospective chart review, 5 patients (6%) with ectopic adenomas were identified in 83 consecutive patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas by 1 surgeon. In all 5 patients (all female, 32-41 years of age), an exclusively extrasellar ACTH-secreting adenoma was excised. Three adenomas were located in the cavernous sinus, 1 in the sphenoid sinus, and 1 in the ethmoidal cells. Histologically, none of the tumors showed signs of aggressiveness. Three of the 5 adenomas specifically expressed somatostatin receptor 5. In 4 patients with Cushing disease, postoperative remission was obtained, with 1 recurrence after 14 months. In the patient with Nelson syndrome, ACTH decreased from >800 to <80 pg/mL. Three patients underwent previous surgery elsewhere, including 1 hypophysectomy. In this case, the ectopic adenoma (positive for somatostatin receptor 5) in the ethmoidal cells turned out to be positive on gallium 68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The incidence of primarily ectopic ACTH-secreting adenomas in this series was 6%. In cases of negative MRI findings, an ectopic ACTH-secreting adenoma should be taken into account. 68 Ga DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography may identify ectopic pituitary adenomas. Hypophysectomy should always be avoided in primary surgery for CD.

  17. Glucocorticosteroid concentrations in feces and hair of captive caribou and reindeer following adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    PubMed

    Ashley, N T; Barboza, P S; Macbeth, B J; Janz, D M; Cattet, M R L; Booth, R K; Wasser, S K

    2011-07-01

    Climate change and industrial development are contributing to synchronous declines in Rangifer populations across the Arctic. Chronic stress has been implicated as a proximate factor associated with decline in free-ranging populations, but its role in Rangifer is unspecified. Analysis of glucocorticosteroid (GC) concentration in feces, and more recently in hair, is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the pituitary gland stimulates GC release from the adrenals and can be administered to reflect adrenal activation. In this study, we assessed concentrations of GC metabolites in feces and cortisol in hair of Alaskan caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) and reindeer (R. t. tarandus) following ACTH treatment. We predicted that ACTH challenge would increase concentrations of fecal GCs, but not hair cortisol because steroid deposited into the hair shaft occurs over an extended period of time (months) and is likely insensitive to acute adrenal stimulation. Adult caribou (n=10; mean age, 6.5 years old) exhibited a peak increase in fecal GCs 8h following a 2 IU/kg dose of ACTH compared to pre-injection concentrations. In contrast, sub-adult reindeer (n=10, 0.8 years old) elicited a diminished response to the same dose. Quadrupling the dose (8 IU/kg) prolonged the fecal GC response in female reindeer, but male reindeer were unresponsive. Hair cortisol was unaffected by a single ACTH challenge. Further investigation is required to ascertain whether subspecific differences in adrenal sensitivity are attributed to age or sex differences, or historical selective pressures from semi-domestication and/or sedentary life cycle in reindeer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Omnigen-AF reduces basal plasma cortisol, AWA cortisol release to adrencocorticotropic hormone or corticotrophin releasing hormone & vasopressin in lactating dairy cows under thermoneutral or acute heat stress conditions.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in the adrenal cortisol response of OmniGen-AF (OG) supplemented dairy cows to a corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin (VP) or an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge when housed at different temperature-humidity indices (THI) were studied. Holstein cows (n=12; 1...

  19. Atypical or typical adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pulmonary carcinoids and the usefulness of 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Wahlberg, Jeanette; Ekman, Bertil

    2013-03-19

    Pulmonary carcinoids associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion have a good prognosis if histological examination shows typical pulmonary carcinoid and low proliferation, whereas a poor outcome is linked to atypical pulmonary carcinoid and high proliferation. Here we describe the diagnostic challenges to find the tumor in Cushing's syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in two cases with an atypical and a typical pulmonary carcinoid, respectively. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with aggressive clinical features related to Cushing's syndrome, having very high levels of urinary cortisol and circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no pituitary tumor, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling revealed no central peripheral ratio of adrenocorticotropic hormone. Computed tomography and 111Indium-pentetreoide somatostatin receptor scintigraphy could not visualize any ectopic tumor. The patient was referred for an 11C-5-hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography, and a small 8mm nodule in her left lung was found. The tumor was removed via a lateral thoracic incision and wedge excision. The histological examination showed an atypical carcinoid with Ki-67 index of 9 to 10%, and an additional lobectomy was performed.The second patient, a 22-year-old Caucasian man, also presented with aggressive Cushing's syndrome, with very high urinary cortisol levels and increased circulating cortisol as well as adrenocorticotropic hormone levels. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of the pituitary showed no tumor, whereas a 12×9×14mm tumor was detected in the right lung on the primary computed tomography scan and no further investigation was performed. The tumor was removed via a lateral thoracic incision and wedge excision. A typical carcinoid with Ki-67 index of 1 to 2% was found and no further surgery was performed.After surgical removal, the biochemical disturbances

  20. THE EFFECT OF ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE ON INFLAMMATION DUE TO TUBERCULIN HYPERSENSITIVITY AND TURPENTINE AND ON CIRCULATING ANTIBODY LEVELS

    PubMed Central

    Osgood, Charles K.; Favour, Cutting B.

    1951-01-01

    The treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone of guinea pigs sensitized with heat-killed tubercle bacilli caused suppression of their skin reactivity to tuberculin. Similar animals treated with saline did not show this change. Normal guinea pigs treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone showed suppression of inflammation, but not necrosis, produced by intracutaneous oil of turpentine. There was slight, but probably not significant, diminution of inflammation during saline administration. Tuberculin complement-fixing antibody titers were not altered by either adrenocorticotropic hormone or saline administration. Adrenocorticotropic hormone produced marked eosinopenia and lymphopenia in guinea pigs. PMID:14888823

  1. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production

    PubMed Central

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET. PMID:27746436

  2. Metastatic Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor that Progressed to Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Syndrome with Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) Production.

    PubMed

    Tadokoro, Rie; Sato, Shotaro; Otsuka, Fumiko; Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Katakami, Hideki; Taniyama, Matsuo; Nagasaka, Shoichiro

    The patient was a 61-year-old woman who had a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) with lymph node metastasis. After 15 months of octreotide treatment, glucose control deteriorated and pigmentation of the tongue and moon face developed, leading to the diagnosis of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome. An abnormal secretion of growth hormone (GH) was identified, and the plasma growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) level was elevated. A tumor biopsy specimen positively immunostained for ACTH and GHRH. Ectopic hormone secretion seems to have evolved along with the progression of the PNET.

  3. Adrenocortical response in cows after intramuscular injection of long-acting adrenocorticotropic hormone (tetracosactide acetate zinc suspension).

    PubMed

    Thinh, N C; Yoshida, C; Long, S T; Yusuf, M; Nakao, T

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study were first to show adrenocortical response to a long-acting adrenocorticotropic hormone preparation (tetracosactide acetate zinc suspension) (ACTH-Z) and its effect on adrenocortical function in beef cows (Experiment 1) and second to apply the ACTH-Z challenge in dairy cows based on cortisol concentrations in milk collected at routine milking (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, four beef cows in luteal phase were challenged with ACTH-Z, and plasma cortisol concentrations were determined for 48 h after the injection at 30-min to 2-h intervals. A rapid ACTH test was conducted 3 days before and 2 h after the completion of ACTH-Z injection for 48 h to investigate the effect on adrenocortical function. Plasma cortisol concentrations increased significantly 30 min after ACTH-Z injection (p < 0.001), and the high cortisol levels were maintained for approximately 10 h after the injection. In Experiment 2, eight dairy cows were subjected to ACTH-Z challenge 1-2 weeks and 4-5 weeks post-partum. Blood and milk samples were taken at morning and afternoon milking. All the cows showed a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in plasma as well as in skim milk 8 h after ACTH-Z injection 1-2 weeks and 4-5 weeks post-partum (p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between plasma and skim milk cortisol concentrations 8 h after ACTH-Z challenge (r = 0.74, p < 0.001). The results obtained in this study suggest that elevated levels of plasma cortisol are maintained for approximately 10 h after ACTH-Z treatment without adverse effect on adrenocortical function and a long-acting ACTH-Z challenge based on cortisol concentrations in milk, which were collected at the morning and the afternoon milking, can be a useful tool to monitor adrenocortical function in cows. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Linkage of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency to the corticotropin releasing hormone locus using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kyllo, J.H.; Collins, M.M.; Vetter, K.L.

    1996-03-29

    Genetic screening techniques using simple sequence repeat polymorphisms were applied to investigate the molecular nature of congenital isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. We hypothesize that this rare cause of hypocortisolism shared by a brother and sister with two unaffected sibs and unaffected parents is inherited as an autosomal recessive single gene mutation. Genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis controlling cortisol sufficiency were investigated for a causal role in this disorder. Southern blotting showed no detectable mutations of the gene encoding pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the ACTH precursor. Other candidate genes subsequently considered were those encoding neuroendocrine convertase-1, and neuroendocrine convertase-2 (NEC-1, NEC-2), and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). Tests for linkage were performed using polymorphic di- and tetranucleotide simple sequence repeat markers flanking the reported map locations for POMC, NEC-1, NEC-2, and CRH. The chromosomal haplotypes determined by the markers flanking the loci for POMC, NEC-1, and NEC-2 were not compatible with linkage. However, 22 individual markers defining the chromosomal haplotypes flanking CRH were compatible with linkage of the disorder to the immediate area of this gene of chromosome 8. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the ACTH deficiency in this family is due to an abnormality of CRH gene structure or expression. These results illustrate the useful application of high density genetic maps constructed with simple sequence repeat markers for inclusion/exclusion studies of candidate genes in even very small nuclear families segregating for unusual phenotypes. 25 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome caused by neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kazuyo; Nakashima, Takatoshi; Sasaki, Kazunari; Hayashi, Kenichi; Hanafusa, Masao; Yoshida, Shiei; Myojo, Satoshi; Yoshida, Shun-Ichi; Sawai, Shigeaki; Sano, Nobuya

    A 48-year-old woman with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and taking long-term corticosteroid therapy presented with a 3-month history of general fatigue, abdominal distension, and pigmentation. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a tumor in the sigmoid colon and multiple metastatic nodules in the liver. A colonoscopy revealed an obstructing mass with the presence of an irregular ulcer in the sigmoid colon. Following biopsy and histopathological analysis, the patient was diagnosed with neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the colon. She received her first cycle of chemotherapy, with carboplatin and etoposide. During hospitalization, her pigmentation and hypertension worsened and hypokalemia was observed, all of which suggsted Cushing's syndrome. Her plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels were high, and an ectopic ACTH-producing tumor was suspected. After a second chemotherapy cycle, she developed neutropenic fever and subsequently died. At autopsy, two histological types were found in the tumor: small cell carcinoma and large cell NEC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed ACTH in the large cell NEC. This is the first reported case of an ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by NEC of the colon.

  6. Metabolic responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) vary with life-history stage in adult male northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Ensminger, David C; Somo, Derek A; Houser, Dorian S; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-08-01

    Strong individual and life-history variation in serum glucocorticoids has been documented in many wildlife species. Less is known about variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness and its impact on metabolism. We challenged 18 free-ranging adult male northern elephant seals (NES) with an intramuscular injection of slow-release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) over 3 sample periods: early in the breeding season, after 70+ days of the breeding fast, and during peak molt. Subjects were blood sampled every 30 min for 2h post-injection. Breeding animals were recaptured and sampled at 48 h. In response to the ACTH injection, cortisol increased 4-6-fold in all groups, and remained elevated at 48 h in early breeding subjects. ACTH was a strong secretagogue for aldosterone, causing a 3-8-fold increase in concentration. Cortisol and aldosterone responses did not vary between groups but were correlated within individuals. The ACTH challenge produced elevations in plasma glucose during late breeding and molting, suppressed testosterone and thyroid hormone at 48 h in early breeding, and increased plasma non-esterified fatty acids and ketoacids during molting. These data suggest that sensitivity of the HPA axis is maintained but the metabolic impacts of cortisol and feedback inhibition of the axis vary with life history stage. Strong impacts on testosterone and thyroid hormone suggest the importance of maintaining low cortisol levels during the breeding fast. These data suggest that metabolic adaptations to extended fasting in NES include alterations in tissue responses to hormones that mitigate deleterious impacts of acute or moderately sustained stress responses.

  7. Value of assessing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in differential diagnosis of hypercorticism.

    PubMed

    Penezić, Zorana; Zarković, Milos; Vujović, Svetlana; Beleslin, Biljana; Cirić, Jasmina; Drezgić, Milka

    2004-01-01

    Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome remains a challenge in clinical endocrinology. The aim of this study was to establish the value of assessing adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels in differential diagnosis of hypercorticism using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. We have evaluated 114 patients with Cushing's syndrome testing the value of pathohistological examination and postoperative testing. The control group consisted of 53 obese healthy persons. ACTH level was determined using a commercial RIA (CIS, France). ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma was found in 56.14% examinees, ectopic secretion in 6.14%, cortisol secreting adrenal adenoma in 37.57%, and adrenal carcinoma in 6.14% of all patients with Cushing's syndrome. Basal ACTH level for pituitary adenoma was 107.29 +/- 75.69 pg/mL; for ectopic secretion 181.63 +/- 149.84 pg/mL; for adrenal adenoma 4.22 +/- 2.32 pg/mL; for adrenal carcinoma 5.50 +/- 7.72 pg/mL; and 34.76 = 10.07 pg/mL in control group. Testing the value of assessing ACTH the area under ROC curve was 0.9965 +/- 0.0071. Test sensitivity was 99.89% and test specificity was 97%. For ACTH cut-off level of 8 pg/mL, test sensitivity was 88.50%, with specificity of 99%. For ACTH cut-off level of 22 pg/mL, test sensitivity was 99.30%, with specificity of 98%. Our intermediate zone from 8 to 22 pg/mL confirms that assessment of ACTH level is a reliable tool in differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

  8. Mechanisms of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone and other melanocortins relevant to the clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Berkovich, Regina; Catania, Anna; Lisak, Robert P; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic benefits of adrenocorticotropic hormone in multiple sclerosis are usually ascribed to its corticotropic actions. Evidence is presented that adrenocorticotropic hormone, approved for multiple sclerosis relapses, acts via corticosteroid-independent melanocortin pathways to engender down-modulating actions on immune-system cells and the cytokines they synthesize. Immune response-dampening effects are also brought about by agent-induced neurotransmitters that inhibit immunocytes. The likelihood that adrenocorticotropic hormone promotes microglial quiescence and counteracts glucocorticoid-mediated bone resorption is discussed. PMID:23034287

  9. Mechanisms of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone and other melanocortins relevant to the clinical management of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Barry G; Berkovich, Regina; Catania, Anna; Lisak, Robert P; Zaidi, Mone

    2013-02-01

    The therapeutic benefits of adrenocorticotropic hormone in multiple sclerosis are usually ascribed to its corticotropic actions. Evidence is presented that adrenocorticotropic hormone, approved for multiple sclerosis relapses, acts via corticosteroid-independent melanocortin pathways to engender down-modulating actions on immune-system cells and the cytokines they synthesize. Immune response-dampening effects are also brought about by agent-induced neurotransmitters that inhibit immunocytes. The likelihood that adrenocorticotropic hormone promotes microglial quiescence and counteracts glucocorticoid-mediated bone resorption is discussed.

  10. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed Central

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-01-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes. PMID:9601084

  11. Hormonal regulation of focal adhesions in bovine adrenocortical cells: induction of paxillin dephosphorylation by adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Vilgrain, I; Chinn, A; Gaillard, I; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1998-06-01

    A study of bovine adrenocortical cell shape on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge showed that the cells round up and develop arborized processes. This effect was found to be (1) specific for ACTH because angiotensin II and basic fibroblast growth factor have no effect; (2) mediated by a cAMP-dependent pathway because forskolin reproduces the effect of the hormone; (3) inhibited by sodium orthovanadate, a phosphotyrosine phosphatase inhibitor, but unchanged by okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor; and (4) correlated with a complete loss of focal adhesions. Biochemical studies of the focal-adhesion-associated proteins showed that pp125fak, vinculin (110 kDa) and paxillin (70 kDa) were detected in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction from adrenocortical cells. During cell adhesion on fibronectin as substratum, two major phosphotyrosine-containing proteins of molecular masses 125 and 68 kDa were immunodetected in the same fraction. A dramatic decrease in the extent of tyrosine phosphorylation of these proteins was observed within 60 min after treatment with ACTH. No change in pp125fak tyrosine phosphorylation nor in Src activity was detected. In contrast, paxillin was found to be tyrosine-dephosphorylated in a time-dependent manner in ACTH-treated cells. Sodium orthovanadate completely prevented the effect of ACTH. These observations suggest a possible role for phosphotyrosine phosphatases in hormone-dependent cellular regulatory processes.

  12. Failure of functional imaging with gallium-68-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide positron emission tomography to localize the site of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The diagnostic efficacy of biochemical and imaging modalities for investigating the causes of Cushing's syndrome are limited. We report a case demonstrating the limitations of these modalities, especially the inability of functional imaging to help localize the site of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. Case presentation A 37-year-old Arabian woman presented with 12 months of progressive Cushing's syndrome-like symptoms. Biochemical evaluation confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone -dependent Cushing's syndrome. However, the anatomical site of her excess adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion was not clearly delineated by further investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging of our patient's pituitary gland failed to demonstrate the presence of an adenoma. Spiral computed tomography of her chest only revealed the presence of a non-specific 7 mm lesion in her left inferobasal lung segment. Functional imaging, including a positron emission tomography scan using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose and gallium-68-DOTA-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide, also failed to show increased metabolic activity in the lung lesion or in her pituitary gland. Our patient was commenced on medical treatment with ketoconazole and metyrapone to control the clinical features associated with her excess cortisol secretion. Despite initial normalization of her urinary free cortisol excretion rate, levels began to rise eight months after commencement of medical treatment. Repeated imaging of her pituitary gland, chest and pelvis again failed to clearly localize a source of her excess adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. The bronchial nodule was stable in size on serial imaging and repeatedly reported as having a nonspecific appearance of a small granuloma or lymph node. We re-explored the treatment options and endorsed our patient's favored choice of resection of the bronchial nodule, especially given that her symptoms of cortisol excess were difficult to control and refractory. Subsequently

  13. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: a diagnostic challenge and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanjun; Aitelli, Cristi; Dobson, Robin W; Konduri, Kartik

    2010-10-01

    We present a case of a 60-year-old woman who initially presented with pneumonia and abdominal pain and was diagnosed with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome secondary to small cell lung cancer. We review published literature and summarize the typical challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic ACTH syndrome. Recent research has shed new light on the mechanism of ectopic ACTH production and provided a potential new target for treatment.

  14. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus pulsatile dexamethasone in the treatment of infantile epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Haberlandt, Edda; Weger, Christine; Sigl, Sara Baumgartner; Rauchenzauner, Markus; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine; Rostásy, Kevin; Karall, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    For treatment of intractable epilepsies, there are no data comparing conventional adrenocorticotropic hormone and pulsatile corticoid therapy with dexamethasone. A retrospective comparison of efficacy was therefore conducted for both forms of application. Between 1989 and 2001, a series of 11 children with West syndrome and 3 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (group 1); between 2003 and 2006, 7 children with West syndrome, 5 with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep, and 2 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome were treated with pulsatile corticoid therapy (group 2). In group 1 (n = 14), 9/11 West syndrome patients became seizure free, but none with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (0/3). In group 2 (n = 14), 4/7 West syndrome patients became seizure-free, 1/2 with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome exhibited seizure-frequency reduction, and 2/5 patients with electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep exhibited significant improvement according to electroencephalograms. In West syndrome, pulsatile corticoid therapy was an effective alternative treatment to adrenocorticotropic hormone, whereas in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in general steroids did not lead to a significant seizure reduction. In electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep, treatment with pulsatile corticoid therapy seems to be effective and should be investigated in a larger group of patients.

  15. Variability in leptin and adrenal response in juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Mashburn, Kendall L; Atkinson, Shannon

    2008-01-15

    Eight free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (SSL; 6 males, 2 females; 14-20 months) temporarily held under ambient conditions at the Alaska SeaLife Center were physiologically challenged through exogenous administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Four individuals (3 males, 1 female) underwent ACTH challenge in each of two seasons, summer and winter. Following ACTH injection serial blood and fecal samples were collected for up to 3 and 96 h, respectively. A radioimmunoassay (RIA) was validated for leptin, and using a previously validated RIA for cortisol, collected sera were analyzed for both cortisol and leptin. ACTH injection resulted in a 2.9-fold increase (P=0.164) in leptin which preceded a 3.2-fold increase (P=0.0290) in cortisol by 105 min in summer. In winter, a 1.7-fold increase in leptin (P=0.020) preceded a 2.1-fold increase (P=0.001) in serum cortisol by 45 min. Mean fecal corticosteroid maxima were 10.4 and 16.7-fold above baseline 28 and 12 h post-injection and returned to baseline 52 and 32 h post-injection, in summer and winter, respectively. Data indicate acute activity in juvenile adrenal glands is detectable in feces approximately 12-24 h post-stimulus in either season, with a duration of approximately 40 h in summer and 20 h in winter. Changes in serum cortisol proved statistically significant both seasons and elevated concentrations were detected by 30 min post-stimulus (baseline 64.8+/-4.2; peak 209.5+/-18.3 ng/ml: summer; baseline 87.0+/-15.7; peak 237.6+/-10.0 ng/ml: winter), whereas the changes that occurred in serum leptin proved to be significant only in winter (baseline 6.4+/-0.6; peak 18.7+/-7.0 ng/ml: summer; baseline 4.2+/-0.5; peak 7.5+/-0.6 ng/ml: winter). Changes in fecal corticosteroids proved significant only in summer (baseline 117.8+/-36.7; peak 1219.3+/-298.4 ng/g, P=0.038: summer; baseline 71.8+/-13.7; peak 1198.6+/-369.9 ng/g, P=0.053: winter) due to a high degree of individual variability in winter months. The

  16. Using the failure mode and effects analysis model to improve parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone testing

    PubMed Central

    Magnezi, Racheli; Hemi, Asaf; Hemi, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background Risk management in health care systems applies to all hospital employees and directors as they deal with human life and emergency routines. There is a constant need to decrease risk and increase patient safety in the hospital environment. The purpose of this article is to review the laboratory testing procedures for parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (which are characterized by short half-lives) and to track failure modes and risks, and offer solutions to prevent them. During a routine quality improvement review at the Endocrine Laboratory in Tel Hashomer Hospital, we discovered these tests are frequently repeated unnecessarily due to multiple failures. The repetition of the tests inconveniences patients and leads to extra work for the laboratory and logistics personnel as well as the nurses and doctors who have to perform many tasks with limited resources. Methods A team of eight staff members accompanied by the Head of the Endocrine Laboratory formed the team for analysis. The failure mode and effects analysis model (FMEA) was used to analyze the laboratory testing procedure and was designed to simplify the process steps and indicate and rank possible failures. Results A total of 23 failure modes were found within the process, 19 of which were ranked by level of severity. The FMEA model prioritizes failures by their risk priority number (RPN). For example, the most serious failure was the delay after the samples were collected from the department (RPN =226.1). Conclusion This model helped us to visualize the process in a simple way. After analyzing the information, solutions were proposed to prevent failures, and a method to completely avoid the top four problems was also developed. PMID:27980440

  17. Using the failure mode and effects analysis model to improve parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone testing.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Hemi, Asaf; Hemi, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Risk management in health care systems applies to all hospital employees and directors as they deal with human life and emergency routines. There is a constant need to decrease risk and increase patient safety in the hospital environment. The purpose of this article is to review the laboratory testing procedures for parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (which are characterized by short half-lives) and to track failure modes and risks, and offer solutions to prevent them. During a routine quality improvement review at the Endocrine Laboratory in Tel Hashomer Hospital, we discovered these tests are frequently repeated unnecessarily due to multiple failures. The repetition of the tests inconveniences patients and leads to extra work for the laboratory and logistics personnel as well as the nurses and doctors who have to perform many tasks with limited resources. A team of eight staff members accompanied by the Head of the Endocrine Laboratory formed the team for analysis. The failure mode and effects analysis model (FMEA) was used to analyze the laboratory testing procedure and was designed to simplify the process steps and indicate and rank possible failures. A total of 23 failure modes were found within the process, 19 of which were ranked by level of severity. The FMEA model prioritizes failures by their risk priority number (RPN). For example, the most serious failure was the delay after the samples were collected from the department (RPN =226.1). This model helped us to visualize the process in a simple way. After analyzing the information, solutions were proposed to prevent failures, and a method to completely avoid the top four problems was also developed.

  18. Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin on the phagocytic capacity of Tetrahymena.

    PubMed

    Köhidai, L; Lovas, B; Csaba, G

    1995-06-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and insulin negatively influenced the phagocytic activity of Tetrahymena. The two hormones had diverse effects after 4 hr of treatments on no-test-particle containing, "0-cells". At this time the number of "0 cells" was significantly lower in the ACTH-treated groups, while in the insulin-treated groups there was an increase of "0-cells" compared to the control and to the results of the starting experiment. Considering previous results, when small molecular weight hormones, if did at all, positively influenced phagocytosis in Tetrahymena, the experiments call the attention to the differences caused by the size of the signal molecules. In the light of the literary data on hormone effects to phagocytosis in mammals and men, the similarity of the effects in species being very far from each other in evolution, could be concluded.

  19. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy inhibits aquaporin 4 and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with blast-induced craniocerebral injury★

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Jian; Liu, Jiachuan; Wang, Jinbiao; Zhang, Yongming; Wang, Chunlin; Yang, Yanyan; Sun, Wenjiang; Xu, Shaonian

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, rabbits were treated with hyperbaric oxygen for 1 hour after detonator-blast- induced craniocerebral injury. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly reduced aquaporin 4 expression and adrenocorticotropic hormone expression in the pituitary gland of rabbits with craniocerebral injury. Aquaporin 4 expression was positively correlated with adrenocorticotropic hormone expression. These findings indicate that early hyperbaric oxygen therapy may suppress adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion by inhibiting aquaporin 4 expression. PMID:25624795

  20. Positive gallium scan in the syndrome of opsoclonus-myoclonus treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Gumbinas, M.; Gratz, E.S.; Johnston, G.S.; Schwartz, A.D.

    1984-09-01

    The syndrome of opsoclonus and myoclonus may be the first presenting symptom of neuroblastoma. The disorder is often controlled by treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). A child with this disorder and treated with ACTH gel had abnormal uptake of /sup 67/Ga in both adrenal glands during studies to attempt to detect an occult neuroblastoma. Repeat /sup 67/Ga scans proved to be normal once the ACTH was discontinued and the patient was treated with prednisone. It is concluded that ACTH stimulation of normal adrenal tissue was responsible for these abnormal findings.

  1. Breast metastases from an adrenocorticotropic hormone secreting thymic neuro-endocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Sumit; Ayyappan, Anoop P; Nahleh, Zeina

    2013-01-01

    Metastases to the breast from non-mammary sites are rare and pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. They can be mistaken for primary breast malignancy, which is much more common. In this case report we describe the clinical, radiological and pathological features of a patient who developed breast metastases from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting thymic neuro-endocrine carcinoma. Patient was initially felt to have a primary breast malignancy, however, after further ancillary testing a diagnosis of metastatic thymic neuro-endocrine tumor was made.

  2. Secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone induced by allergen inhalation in patients with atopic asthma.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, A; Kohno, N; Sakai, K; Kondo, K; Hamada, H; Hiwada, K

    2000-09-01

    Allergen inhalation in atopic patients results in cytokines production or release of preformed cytokines, some of which are known to induce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion in experimental conditions. We examined whether allergen inhalation can induce ACTH secretion in vivo. A significant elevation of ACTH levels was observed in 2 and 24 hr after allergen inhalation challenge. However, methacholine challenge with the same degree of airflow limitation did not induce ACTH elevation, indicating that this may not be due to bronchoconstriction per se. Our results indicate that allergen inhalation can trigger ACTH secretion in patients with atopic asthma.

  3. Hypofibrinogenemia caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Araya, Nami; Akasaka, Manami; Mizuma, Kanako; Asami, Maya; Tanifuji, Sachiko; Chida, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who developed hypofibrinogenemia (66.6 mg/dL; reference value, 170-405 mg/dL) during adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms. Although the patient showed no clinical signs of a bleeding diathesis, we recommend that plasma fibrinogen levels should be monitored during ACTH therapy, which should be discontinued when fibrinogen levels fall below hemostatic levels (60.0mg/dL) or when bleeding tendencies are recognized.

  4. Primary intracranial neuroendocrine tumor with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome: A rare and complicated case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LIU, HAILONG; ZHANG, MINGSHAN; WANG, XUAN; QU, YANMING; ZHANG, HONGWEI; YU, CHUNJIANG

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome are frequent in adult patients. However, primary intracranial NETs, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH, high serum ACTH level and treated with anterior skull base reconstruction, are rare and complicated. We herein present a case of a primary intracranial NET immunonegative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. A 40-year-old woman presented with intermittent rhinorrhea, rapid weight gain, polydipsia, polyuria, hypertension, dimness, bilateral exophthalmus, diminution of vision in the left eye and pigmentation of the skin of the face and trunk. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a sizeable enhancing tumor in the anterior cranial fossa, which infiltrated the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses bilaterally, the left maxillary sinus and the nasal cavity. Abdominal CT scans revealed bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. The biochemical findings included hypokalemia and high glucose, cortisol, plasma ACTH, 24-h urinary free cortisol and testosterone levels. The neoplasm was exposed through a right frontal craniotomy, while anterior skull base reconstruction was performed during surgery. The intracranial surgery achieved gross removal of the tumor; however, part of the tumor remained in the nasal cavity. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a low-grade small-cell NET, exhibiting immunonegativity for ACTH. A postoperative abdominal CT scan demonstrated bilateral regression of the adrenal gland hyperplasia and the serum ACTH level returned to normal after 16 days. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of primary intracranial NETs, immunohistochemically negative for ACTH, resulting in ectopic ACTH syndrome. PMID:27330775

  5. Paraneoplastic Dermatomyositis with Cutaneous and Myopathic Disease Responsive to Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Christopher; Lal, Karan; Dicostanzo, Damian; Gropper, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is a myopathic or amyopathic autoimmune connective tissue disease that presents with classic dermatologic findings ranging from: poikilodermatous photosensitivity (shawl sign), eyelid edema and violaceous-pigmentation (heliotrope sign), lichenoid eruptions on the knuckles and elbows (Gottron’s sign), periungual telangiectasias, and ragged cuticles (Samitz sign). Up to 30 percent of adult-onset cases of dermatomyositis may represent a paraneoplastic syndrome warranting a thorough work-up for malignancy. The authors present a case report of paraneoplastic dermatomyositis associated with triple negative, BRCA-1 positive, invasive intraductal carcinoma of the breast, whose myopathic and cuteanous symptoms were recalcitrant to high-dose corticosteroid therapy. Herein, the authors describe the first reported case of the use of an injectable adrenocorticotropic hormone agonist gel in a patient with myopathic paraneoplastic disease that achieved clinical resolution of both myopathic and cutaneous symptoms, but subseuqently developed significant hyperpigmentation of her face suspected to be secondary to a chemotherapeutic-induced pigmentary change which was augmented by adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy. PMID:28210382

  6. Isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency due to probable lymphocytic hypophysitis in a woman

    PubMed Central

    Kacem, Faten Hadj; Charfi, Nadia; Mnif, Mouna Feki; Kamoun, Mahdi; Akid, Faouzi; Mnif, Fatma; Naceur, Basma Ben; Rekik, Nabila; Mnif, Zainab; Abid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    We report a 22-year-old woman who presented with asthenia, weight loss and hypotension in which extensive pituitary and adrenal investigations were diagnostic of isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency (IAD) of pituitary origin. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hypothalamus and pituitary showed a normal-sized pituitary, with no mass lesion. The diagnosis of IAD probably secondary to lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) was made. IAD is able to be the way of presentation of LYH, although the disease could or could not turn into a panhypopituitarism. Prompt recognition of this potentially fatal condition is important because of the availability of effective treatment. Indeed, regular endocrine and imaging follow up is important for patients with IAD and normal initial pituitary imaging results to detect early new-onset pituitary hormones deficiencies or imaging abnormalities. PMID:24251125

  7. [Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-producing Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor Presenting as Cushing Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Daisuke; Sawada, Takahiro; Ebisui, Osamu; Kito, Katsumi; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2015-02-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old female who felt muscle weakness and visited a physician. Hypokalemia was pointed out, and she was referred to our hospital for detailed examination and treatment. Hormone-related tests and imaging were performed, and the patient was diagnosed as Cushing syndrome. Moreover, an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing tumor was suspected. The whole body was examined to find a tumor, but no apparent lesion was found, except for a small nodule of 5-mm in size was present in the right middle pulmonary lobe on chest computed tomography (CT). It was decided to perform surgical resection for both diagnosis and treatment. Pathological diagnosis was a typical carcinoid. On immunostaining, ACTH-positive cells were detected, and the lesion was definitely diagnosed as an ectopic ACTH-producing tumor. Since the ACTH level after surgery returned to normal, the lesion was concluded to be completely excised.

  8. Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion from a Meckel diverticulum neuroendocrine tumor: case report.

    PubMed

    Paun, Diana Loreta; Vija, Lavinia; Stan, Emilia; Banica, Alexandra; Bobeica, Elena; Terzea, Dana; Poiana, Catalina; Badiu, Corin; Paun, Sorin

    2015-11-26

    Ectopic production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by neuroendocrine tumours (NET) is a rare condition, occult presentations often hampering the diagnosis. Although NET are relatively frequent in the ileon and Meckel diverticulum, we describe the first Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic syndrome (CS-EAS) arising from a Meckel diverticulum. A 44-year-old man was admitted with recent onset of diabetes, myopathy, edema and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis consistent with Cushing's syndrome. Both basal and dynamic laboratory evaluation suggested CS-EAS. Laboratory testing also showed high serum levels of chromogranin A (CgA) and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA). Pituitary and neck/thorax/abdomen/pelvis imaging proved to be normal, while somatostatin analogue ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC) scintigraphy revealed increased focalized ileum uptake on the right iliac fossa. Pre-operative ketoconazole and sandostatin treatment controlled the hypercortisolism within a month. Pathological analysis of the resected submucosal 1.8 cm tumour of the Meckel diverticulum and a metastatic local lymph node confirmed a well differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (grade I), whereas immunohistochemistry was positive for ACTH, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Post-operative clinical and biochemical resolution of Cushing's syndrome was followed by normalization of both CgA and 5HIAA, which were maintained at the 6 month follow-up. The identification, characterization and follow-up of this rare cause of ectopic ACTH secretion is important in order to assess the long-term prognostic and management.

  9. A harmful traditional practice in newborns with adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndrome: branding.

    PubMed

    Baştuğ, Osman; Korkmaz, Levent; Korkut, Sabriye; Halis, Hülya; Güneş, Tamer; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-12-01

    Branding refers to a traditional practice of creating 'therapeutic' burns with hot iron rods over the skin in order to treat various diseases. Although branding is a harmful practice for the body, it has been used for various illnesses including physiologic jaundice in newborns, pneumonia, and convulsions. It causes serious morbidity and delays seeking proper medical care in neonates. Innovations of modern medicine and the use of evidence-based medicine should be preferred instead of these traditional practices. We present a branded mature newborn baby who was diagnosed as having adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndrome. This problem is very rare in Turkey; however, it is a very important health issue and has social aspects. Therefore, this case is presented to increase awareness.

  10. NFKB2 mutation in common variable immunodeficiency and isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chuan; Wang, Fen; Tong, Anli; Zhang, Xiao-Qian; Song, Hong-Mei; Liu, Zheng-Yin; Lyu, Wei; Liu, Yue-Hua; Xia, Wei-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) with central adrenal insufficiency is a recently defined clinical syndrome caused by mutations in the nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NFKB2) gene. We present the first case of NFKB2 mutation in Asian population. Methods and Results An 18-year-old Chinese female with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency was admitted due to adrenal crisis and pneumonia. She had a history of recurrent respiratory infections since childhood and ectodermal abnormalities were noted during physical examination. Immunologic tests revealed panhypogammaglobulinemia and deficient natural killer (NK)-cell function. DNA sequencing of NFKB2 identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation (c.2563 A>T, p.855: Lys>∗) in the patient but not her parents. Conclusion Clinicians should be alert to comorbidities of adrenal insufficiency and ectodermal dysplasia in CVID patients as these might suggest a rare hereditary syndrome caused by NFKB2 mutation. PMID:27749582

  11. A harmful traditional practice in newborns with adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndrome: branding

    PubMed Central

    Baştuğ, Osman; Korkmaz, Levent; Korkut, Sabriye; Halis, Hülya; Güneş, Tamer; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2016-01-01

    Branding refers to a traditional practice of creating ‘therapeutic’ burns with hot iron rods over the skin in order to treat various diseases. Although branding is a harmful practice for the body, it has been used for various illnesses including physiologic jaundice in newborns, pneumonia, and convulsions. It causes serious morbidity and delays seeking proper medical care in neonates. Innovations of modern medicine and the use of evidence-based medicine should be preferred instead of these traditional practices. We present a branded mature newborn baby who was diagnosed as having adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndrome. This problem is very rare in Turkey; however, it is a very important health issue and has social aspects. Therefore, this case is presented to increase awareness. PMID:28123337

  12. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Bronchial Carcinoid Diagnosed by Balloon-Occluded Pulmonary Arterial Sampling.

    PubMed

    Yotsukura, Masaya; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Asakura, Keisuke; Kamiyama, Ikuo; Ohtsuka, Takashi; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kurihara, Isao; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Asamura, Hisao

    2016-05-01

    We present the case of a 50-year-old man with Cushing syndrome caused by an ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumor. A small nodule was located in close association with the lateral segmental branch of the pulmonary artery in the left upper lobe. Blood samples were obtained from various branches of the pulmonary artery by balloon-occluded retrograde sampling for the measurement of location-specific serum ACTH levels. After confirmation that the pulmonary nodule was responsible for the increased ACTH secretion, lobectomy was performed. This report demonstrates the usefulness of balloon-occluded retrograde pulmonary arterial sampling for the preoperative diagnosis of an ACTH-producing tumor whose diagnosis is difficult to confirm.

  13. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients With Infantile Spasm and the Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Kocabas, Abdullah; Duman, Özgür; Dündar, Nihal Olgaç; Haspolat, Senay; Kardelen, Fırat

    2016-02-01

    Infantile spasm is an age-dependent epileptic-encephalopathy syndrome. Cardiac autonomic function is frequently altered in epilepsy. In this study, we examined heart rate variability in patients with infantile spasm before and after treatment. Nineteen patients with infantile spasm and 13 healthy comparisons were enrolled in the study. Cardiac rhythm was recorded with a Holter device for 24 hours before adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (Synacthen depot) and B6 vitamin administration and 1 month after treatment. Heart rate variability analysis found lower heart rate variability parameters in patients with infantile spasm at the onset of the syndrome, prior to treatment with ACTH. The time domain parameters of heart rate variability values showed a statistically significant increase following ACTH treatment. Our data suggest that patients with infantile spasm exhibit lower heart rate variability parameters, and the treatment of spasms with ACTH and B6 together diminished the autonomic dysfunction in our cohort.

  14. Altered expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the epileptic gerbil hippocampus following spontaneous seizure.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yun-Jung; Kim, Heung-No; Jeong, Ji-Heon; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Duk-Soo

    2013-02-01

    We investigated the temporal alterations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus after seizure onset. Expression of ACTH was observed within interneurons in the pre-seizure group of seizure sensitive gerbils, whereas its immunoreactivities were rarely detected in seizure resistant gerbil. Three hr after the seizure, ACTH immunoreactivity was significantly increased in interneurons within all hippocampal regions. On the basis of their localization and morphology through immunofluorescence staining, these cells were identified as GABAA α1-containing interneurons. At the 12 hr postictal period, ACTH expression in these regions was down-regulated, in a similar manner to the pre-seizure group of gerbils. These findings support the increase in ACTH synthesis that contributes to a reduction of corticotrophin-releasing factor via the negative feedback system which in turn provides an opportunity to enhance the excitability of GABAergic interneurons. Therefore, ACTH may play an important role in the reduction of excitotoxicity in all hippocampal regions.

  15. Stress and immunological response of heifers divergently ranked for residual feed intake following an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    PubMed

    Kelly, A K; Lawrence, P; Earley, B; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2017-01-01

    When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI). Data were collected on 34 Simmental weaning beef heifers the progeny of a well characterized and divergently bred RFI suckler beef herd. Residual feed intake was determined on each animal during the post-weaning stage over a 91-day feed intake measurement period during which they were individually offered adlibitum grass silage and 2 kg of concentrate per head once daily. The 12 highest [0.34 kg DM/d] and 12 lowest [-0.48 kg DM/d] ranking animals on RFI were selected for use in this study. For the physiological stress challenge heifers (mean age 605 ± 13 d; mean BW 518 ± 31.4 kg) were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters to facilitate intensive blood collection. The response of the adrenal cortex to a standardised dose of ACTH (1.98 IU/kg metabolic BW(0.75)) was examined. Serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol, ACTH and haematology variables. Heifers differing in RFI did not differ (P = 0.59) in ACTH concentrations. Concentration of ACTH peaked (P < 0.001) in both RFI groups at 20 min post-ACTH administration, following which concentration declined to baseline levels by 150 min. Similarly, cortisol systemic profile peaked at 60 min and concentrations remained continuously elevated for 150 min. A RFI × time interaction was detected for cortisol concentrations (P = 0.06) with high RFI heifers had a greater cortisol response than Low RFI from 40 min to 150 min relative to ACTH administration. Cortisol response was

  16. Adrenocorticotropic hormone ameliorates acute kidney injury by steroidogenic-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Si, Jin; Ge, Yan; Zhuang, Shougang; Juan Wang, Li; Chen, Shan; Gong, Rujun

    2013-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) has a renoprotective effect in chronic kidney disease; however, its effect on acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. In a rat model of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)–induced AKI, we found that ACTH gel prevented kidney injury, corrected acute renal dysfunction, and improved survival. Morphologically, ACTH gel ameliorated TNF-induced acute tubular necrosis, associated with a reduction in tubular apoptosis. While the steroidogenic response to ACTH gel plateaued, the kidney-protective effect continued to increase at even higher doses, suggesting steroid-independent mechanisms. Of note, ACTH also acts as a key agonist of the melanocortin system, with its cognate melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) abundantly expressed in renal tubules. In TNF-injured tubular epithelial cells in vitro, ACTH reinstated cellular viability and eliminated apoptosis. This beneficial effect was blunted in MC1R-silenced cells, suggesting that this receptor mediates the anti-apoptotic signaling of ACTH. Moreover, ACTH gel protected mice against cecal ligation puncture–induced septic AKI better than α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone: a protein equal in biological activity to ACTH except for steroidogenesis. Thus, ACTH has additive renoprotective actions achieved by both steroid-dependent mechanisms and MC1R-directed anti-apoptosis. ACTH may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat AKI. PMID:23325074

  17. Multiple sclerosis, relapses, and the mechanism of action of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy Perrin; Ben-Zacharia, Aliza; Harris, Colleen; Smrtka, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) are disruptive and frequently disabling for patients, and their treatment is often a challenge to clinicians. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS and development of new treatments for long-term management of MS, options for treating relapses have not changed substantially over the past few decades. Corticosteroids, a component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that modulate immune responses and reduce inflammation, are currently the mainstay of relapse treatment. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel is another treatment option. Although it has long been assumed that the efficacy of ACTH in treating relapses depends on the peptide's ability to increase endogenous corticosteroid production, evidence from research on the melanocortin system suggests that steroidogenesis may only partly account for ACTH influences. Indeed, the melanocortin peptides [ACTH and α-, β-, γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH)] and their receptors (Melanocortin receptors, MCRs) exert multiple actions, including modulation of inflammatory and immune mediator production. MCRs are widely distributed within the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues including immune cells (e.g., macrophages). This suggests that the mechanism of action of ACTH includes not only steroid-mediated indirect effects, but also direct anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating actions via the melanocortin system. An increased understanding of the role of the melanocortin system, particularly ACTH, in the immune and inflammatory processes underlying relapses may help to improve relapse management.

  18. Multiple Sclerosis, Relapses, and the Mechanism of Action of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Amy Perrin; Ben-Zacharia, Aliza; Harris, Colleen; Smrtka, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Relapses in multiple sclerosis (MS) are disruptive and frequently disabling for patients, and their treatment is often a challenge to clinicians. Despite progress in the understanding of the pathophysiology of MS and development of new treatments for long-term management of MS, options for treating relapses have not changed substantially over the past few decades. Corticosteroids, a component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that modulate immune responses and reduce inflammation, are currently the mainstay of relapse treatment. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel is another treatment option. Although it has long been assumed that the efficacy of ACTH in treating relapses depends on the peptide’s ability to increase endogenous corticosteroid production, evidence from research on the melanocortin system suggests that steroidogenesis may only partly account for ACTH influences. Indeed, the melanocortin peptides [ACTH and α-, β-, γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH)] and their receptors (Melanocortin receptors, MCRs) exert multiple actions, including modulation of inflammatory and immune mediator production. MCRs are widely distributed within the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues including immune cells (e.g., macrophages). This suggests that the mechanism of action of ACTH includes not only steroid-mediated indirect effects, but also direct anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating actions via the melanocortin system. An increased understanding of the role of the melanocortin system, particularly ACTH, in the immune and inflammatory processes underlying relapses may help to improve relapse management. PMID:23482896

  19. Pubertal shifts in adrenal responsiveness to stress and adrenocorticotropic hormone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Russell D; Minhas, Sumeet; Svirsky, Sarah E; Hall, Baila S; Savenkova, Marina; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2014-04-01

    Studies have indicated significant pubertal-related differences in hormonal stress reactivity. We report here that prepubertal (30 days) male rats display a more protracted stress-induced corticosterone response than adults (70 days), despite showing relatively similar levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Additionally, we show that adrenal expression of the ACTH receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor (Mc2r), is higher in prepubertal compared to adult animals, and that expression of melanocortin receptor accessory protein (Mrap), a molecule that chaperones MC2R to the cell surface, is greater in prepubertal males following stress. Given that these data suggest a pubertal shift in adrenal sensitivity to ACTH, we directly tested this possibility by injecting prepubertal and adult males with 6.25 or 9.375μg/kg of exogenous rat ACTH and measured their hormone levels 30 and 60min post-injection. As these doses resulted in different circulating levels of ACTH at these two ages, we performed regression analyses to assess the relationship between circulating ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. We found no difference between the ages in the correlation between ACTH and corticosterone levels at the 30min time point. However, 60min following the ACTH injection, we found prepubertal rats had significantly higher corticosterone concentrations at lower levels of ACTH compared to adults. These data suggest that prolonged exposure to ACTH leads to greater corticosterone responsiveness prior to puberty, and indicate that changes in adrenal sensitivity to ACTH may, in part, contribute to the protracted hormonal stress response in prepubertal rats.

  20. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  1. Space weightlessness and hormonal changes in human subjects and experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data from spaceflight and bed rest studies are briefly described and the difficulties in interpreting these results are discussed. Growth hormone, prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, insulin, aldosterone, and other hormones are addressed.

  2. Comparison of Ultraviolet Photodissociation and Collision Induced Dissociation of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robotham, Scott A.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to better characterize the fragmentation pathways promoted by ultraviolet photoexcitation in comparison to collision induced dissociation (CID), six adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) peptides in a range of charge states were subjected to 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD), 193 nm UVPD, and CID. Similar fragment ions and distributions were observed for 266 nm UVPD and 193 nm UVPD for all peptides investigated. While both UVPD and CID led to preferential cleavage of the Y-S bond for all ACTH peptides [except ACTH (1-39)], UVPD was far less dependent on charge state and location of basic sites for the production of C-terminal and N-terminal ions. For ACTH (1-16), ACTH (1-17), ACTH (1-24), and ACTH (1-39), changes in the distributions of fragment ion types ( a, b, c, x, y, z, and collectively N-terminal ions versus C-terminal ions) showed only minor changes upon UVPD for all charge states. In contrast, CID displayed significant changes in the fragment ion type distributions as a function of charge state, an outcome consistent with the dependence on the number and location of mobile protons that is not prominent for UVPD. Sequence coverages obtained by UVPD showed less dependence on charge state than those determined by CID, with the latter showing a consistent decrease in coverage as charge state increased.

  3. Preliminary evidence that hippocampal volumes in monkeys predict stress levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, David M.; Parker, Karen J.; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Schatzberg, Alan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hippocampal volumes previously determined in monkeys by magnetic resonance imaging are used to test the hypothesis that small hippocampi predict increased stress levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Methods Plasma ACTH levels were measured after restraint stress in 19 male monkeys pretreated with saline or hydrocortisone. Monkeys were then randomized to an undisturbed control condition or intermittent social separations followed by new pair formations. After 17-months of exposure to the intermittent social manipulations, restraint stress tests were repeated to determine test/retest correlations. Results Individual differences in post-restraint stress ACTH levels over the 17-month test/retest interval were remarkably consistent for the saline (rs=0.82, P=0.0004) and hydrocortisone (rs=0.78, P=0.001) pretreatments. Social manipulations did not affect post-restraint stress ACTH levels, but monkeys with smaller hippocampal volumes responded to restraint after saline pretreatment with greater increases in ACTH levels with total brain volume variation controlled as a statistical covariate (β= −0.58, P=0.031). Monkeys with smaller hippocampal volumes also responded with diminished sensitivity to glucocorticoid feedback determined by greater post-restraint ACTH levels after pretreatment with hydrocortisone (β= −0.68, P=0.010). Conclusions These findings support clinical reports that small hippocampi may be a risk for impaired regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans with stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:17573043

  4. Altered expression of adrenocorticotropic hormone in the epileptic gerbil hippocampus following spontaneous seizure

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yun-Jung; Kim, Heung-No; Jeong, Ji-Heon; Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Duk-Soo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the temporal alterations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus after seizure onset. Expression of ACTH was observed within interneurons in the pre-seizure group of seizure sensitive gerbils, whereas its immunoreactivities were rarely detected in seizure resistant gerbil. Three hr after the seizure, ACTH immunoreactivity was significantly increased in interneurons within all hippocampal regions. On the basis of their localization and morphology through immunofluorescence staining, these cells were identified as GABAA α1-containing interneurons. At the 12 hr postictal period, ACTH expression in these regions was down-regulated, in a similar manner to the pre-seizure group of gerbils. These findings support the increase in ACTH synthesis that contributes to a reduction of corticotrophin-releasing factor via the negative feedback system which in turn provides an opportunity to enhance the excitability of GABAergic interneurons. Therefore, ACTH may play an important role in the reduction of excitotoxicity in all hippocampal regions. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(2): 80-85] PMID:23433109

  5. Effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy for epileptic spasms developing after the age of 1 year.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Miho; Shimakawa, Shuichi; Kuki, Ichiro; Kawawaki, Hisashi; Mogami, Yukiko; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Sayaka; Okinaga, Takeshi

    2014-08-01

    Epileptic spasms sometimes begin after the first year of life, and such seizures are recognized as late-onset spasms (LOS). The prognosis of LOS is poor, and a treatment strategy has not been established. This study aimed to assess the short- and long-term effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for LOS. We investigated the rate of LOS in 22 patients (14 boys and 8 girls) treated with ACTH therapy. The age at onset of LOS and at the start of ACTH therapy ranged from 12 to 94 months (median, 31.6 ± 22.1 months) and from 12.5 to 116 months (median, 37.5 ± 23.7 months), respectively. We investigated the response rate of LOS treated with ACTH therapy, and compared the clinical features between responders (short-term) and nonresponders. Nine (41%) of the 22 patients showed cessation of epileptic spasms within 3 months. The epileptic spasms ceased in four of these nine patients for more than 1 year. The age at onset of LOS was significantly associated with short-term seizure cessation (p<0.05). Patients who achieved short-term cessation of seizures received ACTH therapy within 6 months from the onset of LOS. ACTH therapy is a potentially effective treatment when started within 6 months from the onset of LOS. A younger age at onset of LOS is associated with a favorable outcome. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive factors for relapse of epileptic spasms after adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yumiko; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Endoh, Fumika; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether serial electroencephalographic (EEG) findings can predict relapse of epileptic spasms after synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in patients with West syndrome (WS). Thirty-nine WS patients (8 cryptogenic and 31 symptomatic) were included in this study. These patients received ACTH therapy for the first time and were regularly followed up for more than three years at our hospital. Sixteen patients (41.0%) showed seizure relapse (relapse group) and 23 patients (59.0%) did not show relapse (non-relapse group). We used survival analysis to investigate the influence of etiology and presence of epileptic discharges after the ACTH therapy on seizure outcome. Immediately after the ACTH therapy, etiology was associated with seizure outcome (p=0.003). In the early stage (1 month after the ACTH therapy), only the presence of epileptic discharges (p=0.001) had a significant association with seizure outcome, regardless of etiology. Because all relapsed patients were in the symptomatic group, we performed the same statistical analysis on symptomatic WS patient data only. We found that the group with no epileptic discharges on EEG showed a significantly higher seizure-free rate than those with epileptic discharges in the early stage (p=0.0091). This study demonstrated that serial EEG findings after ACTH therapy are significantly related to relapse of epileptic spasms. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Peripheral nerve regeneration following transection injury to rat sciatic nerve by local application of adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Yadegarazadi, Mohammad-Javad; Amini, Keyvan

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess local effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on the functional recovery of the sciatic nerve in a transection model. Sixty male healthy white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 15 animals each: In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and the cut nerve ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the silicone graft group (SIL) a 10-mm defect was made and bridged using a silicone tube. The graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the treatment group a silicone tube (SIL/ACTH) was filled with 10 μL ACTH (0.1 mg/mL). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post operation. Behavioral testing, functional, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in SIL/ACTH than in SIL group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in SIL/ACTH than in SIL group. ACTH improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. This finding supports role of ACTH after peripheral nerve repair and may have clinical implications for the surgical management of patients after nerve transection.

  8. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and the melanocortin receptors: revisiting the work of Robert Schwyzer: a thirty-year retrospective.

    PubMed

    Dores, Robert M

    2009-04-01

    In 1977 Dr. Robert Schwyzer wrote the review ACTH: A Short Introductory Review, which provided a reference point for current structure/function studies on the interactions between adrenocorticotropic hormone and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and the melanocortin receptors. This mini review will evaluate how the predictions made in the 1977 review have held up and also propose a mechanism to explain the ligand selectivity properties of the melanocortin receptors.

  9. Dopamine-Regulated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Secretion in Lactating Rats: Functional Plasticity of Melanotropes

    PubMed Central

    Oláh, Márk; Fehér, Pálma; Ihm, Zsófia; Bácskay, Ildikó; Kiss, Timea; Freeman, Marc E.; Nagy, György M.; Vecsernyés, Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is processed to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-lipotropin in corticotropes of the anterior lobe, and to α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and β-endorphin in melanotropes of the intermediate lobe (IL) of the pituitary gland. While ACTH secretion is predominantly under the stimulatory influence of the hypothalamic factors, hormone secretion of the IL is tonically inhibited by neuroendocrine dopamine (NEDA) neurons. Lobe-specific POMC processing is not absolute. For example, D2 type DA receptor (D2R)-deficient mice have elevated plasma ACTH levels, although it is known that corticotropes do not express D2R(s). Moreover, observations that suckling does not influence α-MSH release, while it induces an increase in plasma ACTH is unexplained. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of the NEDA system in the regulation of ACTH secretion and the participation of the IL in ACTH production in lactating rats. Untreated and estradiol (E2)-substituted ovariectomized (OVX) females were also studied. The concentration of ACTH in the IL was higher in lactating rats than in OVX rats, while the opposite change in α-MSH level of the IL was observed. DA levels in the IL and the neural lobe were lower in lactating rats than in OVX rats. Suckling-induced ACTH response was eliminated by pretreatment with the DA receptor agonist, bromocriptine (BRC). Inhibition of DA biosynthesis by α-methyl-p-tyrosine (αMpT) and blockade of D2R by domperidone (DOM) elevated plasma ACTH levels, but did not influence plasma α-MSH levels in lactating rats. The same drugs had opposite effects in OVX and OVX + E2 animals. In lactating mothers, BRC was able to block ACTH responses induced by both αMpT and DOM. Surgical denervation of the IL elevated basal plasma levels of ACTH. Taken together, these data indicate that melanotropes synthesize ACTH during lactation and its release from these cells is regulated by NEDA neurons. PMID

  10. Short-term effects of cortisol implantation on blood biochemistry and thyroid hormones in previtellogenic great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implanted cortisol on various aspects of intermediary metabolism of great sturgeon, Huso huso. Prior to experimentation all fish were examined using an endoscope to observe the stage of ovarian development. Subsequently, the 3-year-old female fish in the previtellogenic stage (mean body weight of 6759±53.2g) were intraperitoneally implanted with cocoa butter pellets containing cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress. The implant doses were 0 (C0; as control), 5 (C5) and 50 (C50) mg cortisol/kg body weight. Blood samples were taken every seven days during the four weeks of the experiment and analyzed for cortisol, glucose, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), total protein, total lipid, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), cholesterol and triglyceride content. Growth was reduced in all experimental groups and was not affected by cortisol treatment. Surprisingly, serum cortisol levels were higher in the C5 group than in the C50 throughout the experiment. A significant increase in glucose levels was observed in the cortisol-implanted fish from day 14 onwards. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant increase in serum T3 and T4 levels. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose also showed increases in serum ACTH, total lipid and cholesterol levels throughout a 28-day experimental period. The present study reveals that the negative effects of endoscopic surgery remain for at least four weeks and that a sustained-release implant of cortisol to mimic the effects of chronic stress affects metabolic responses. Since the adverse effects of endoscopic surgery on sturgeon welfare can be amplified by cortisol, special attention should be paid to the potential effects of chronic stress on sturgeon in culture.

  11. Placental corticotropin-releasing hormone may be a stimulator of maternal pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, A; Shinkawa, O; Yoshinaga, K

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the physiological role of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), we measured plasma CRH, ACTH, and cortisol throughout pregnancy. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CRH levels and ACTH responsiveness to synthetic CRH were also quantified in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Maternal plasma CRH levels, which increased progressively during pregnancy, correlated well with both ACTH and cortisol in early labor, delivery, and postpartum samples, and also with cortisol levels in samples before labor. CSF CRH levels in term pregnant women did not differ from those of nonpregnant women. CRH infusion that attained similar plasma CRH levels to those found in late pregnancy elicited significant ACTH release in vivo and regular CRH test provoked normal ACTH response during early pregnancy but no response during late pregnancy. We concluded that: (a) maternal pituitary-adrenal axis correlates well with plasma CRH levels, which are high enough to provoke ACTH release from maternal pituitary; (b) hypothalamic CRH secretion in term pregnant women is not exaggerated; and (c) maternal pituitary is responsive to synthetic CRH in early but not late pregnancy, suggesting that maternal pituitary-adrenal axis is already activated by high circulating CRH. Placental CRH may be an important stimulator of the maternal pituitary-adrenal axis during pregnancy. Images PMID:2556451

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: A retrospective study of patients.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Golubovsky, Josh; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; Shah, Ummara; Olech, Ewa; Lomeo, Rosalia; Singh, Vijay; Busch, Howard; Strandberg, Mary Jane; Strandberg, Kayla; Horowitz, Leslie; Askanase, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Acthar Gel is a long-acting formulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) with anti-inflammatory effects thought to be mediated in part through melanocortin receptor activation. This study was initiated to understand the role of Acthar Gel in SLE treatment in rheumatology practices. Methods: This is a retrospective case series of nine adult female patients treated with Acthar Gel for at least six months at five academic centers. Treating physicians completed a one-page questionnaire on lupus medications, disease activity, and outcomes. Clinical response was defined using SLEDAI 2K and improvement in the clinical manifestation(s) being treated. Results: The most common clinical SLE manifestations/indications requiring therapy with Acthar Gel were arthritis, rash, and inability to taper corticosteroids. The mean SLEDAI 2K score at baseline was 5.8 ± 5.0 (range 0-16). Six patients were concomitantly treated with corticosteroids (mean dose 18.3mg/day). All patients were on background SLE medications including immunosuppressives. Seven of nine patients had an overall improvement, with a decrease in SLEDAI 2K from 5.8 ± 5.0 at baseline to 3.5 ± 2.7 (range 0-8); four of five patients had improvement or resolution in arthritis, and one of two patients had resolution of inflammatory rash. Four patients discontinued corticosteroids and one patient tapered below 50% of the initial dose by 3 months of treatment with Acthar Gel. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions: This study suggests a role for Acthar Gel as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of SLE. Acthar Gel appears to be safe and well-tolerated after 6 months of treatment, with a significant reduction in disease activity. PMID:27158444

  13. Stability and Pharmacological Effects of Gene-Recombinant Wild Type and Mutant Human Adrenocorticotropic Hormone.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yonglin; Pei, Yechun; Guan, Huai; Wei, Shuangshuang; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Yuan; Pei, Jinli; Chen, Lintao; Wang, Yuerong; Chen, Yibo; Han, Qian; Wang, Daming; Wang, Dayong

    2017-04-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is the only medicine for treating infantile spasms, however, it is catabolized rapidly. In order to make an ACTH derivative with prolonged effects, we prepared genetically engineered wild type (WT) and mutant ACTH candidates based on protease database analysis, and compared their stability and pharmacological effects. For analysis of stability, serum concentration of WT and mutant ACTH candidates were tested at different time after intravenous injection, and elimination curves were calculated to compare pharmacokinetic properties of WT and E5D-mutant ACTH. For comparison of their pharmacological effects, levels of glucocorticoids (GC) in the blood serum and secreted from cultured Y1 mouse adrenal cells were tested, and their effects on the signaling pathway mediating the expression of genes critical for GC synthesis were analyzed. The effects of ACTHs on transcription levels of the genes involved in GC synthesis were tested by qPCR. The blood concentration of E5D ACTH is higher than the WT after injection, and E5D mutation increased the t1/2 and AUC of ACTH. Pharmacological experiments showed that the effects of E5D and Y2S mutant ACTH on the production of GC and the critical signal transduction were equivalent to those of WT. WT, E5D and Y2S ACTH also have similar effects on the transcriptional levels of the genes for GC synthesis, including STAR, P450-scc, 3β-HSD, and SF-1. The stability of E5D mutant ACTH is higher than WT ACTH. The pharmacological effects of E5D ACTH is equivalent to those of WT ACTH.

  14. Adrenocorticotropic hormone gel in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus: A retrospective study of patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Golubovsky, Josh; Hui-Yuen, Joyce; Shah, Ummara; Olech, Ewa; Lomeo, Rosalia; Singh, Vijay; Busch, Howard; Strandberg, Mary Jane; Strandberg, Kayla; Horowitz, Leslie; Askanase, Anca

    2015-01-01

    Acthar Gel is a long-acting formulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) with anti-inflammatory effects thought to be mediated in part through melanocortin receptor activation. This study was initiated to understand the role of Acthar Gel in SLE treatment in rheumatology practices. This is a retrospective case series of nine adult female patients treated with Acthar Gel for at least six months at five academic centers. Treating physicians completed a one-page questionnaire on lupus medications, disease activity, and outcomes. Clinical response was defined using SLEDAI 2K and improvement in the clinical manifestation(s) being treated. The most common clinical SLE manifestations/indications requiring therapy with Acthar Gel were arthritis, rash, and inability to taper corticosteroids. The mean SLEDAI 2K score at baseline was 5.8 ± 5.0 (range 0-16). Six patients were concomitantly treated with corticosteroids (mean dose 18.3mg/day). All patients were on background SLE medications including immunosuppressives. Seven of nine patients had an overall improvement, with a decrease in SLEDAI 2K from 5.8 ± 5.0 at baseline to 3.5 ± 2.7 (range 0-8); four of five patients had improvement or resolution in arthritis, and one of two patients had resolution of inflammatory rash. Four patients discontinued corticosteroids and one patient tapered below 50% of the initial dose by 3 months of treatment with Acthar Gel. No adverse events were reported. This study suggests a role for Acthar Gel as an alternative to corticosteroids in the treatment of SLE. Acthar Gel appears to be safe and well-tolerated after 6 months of treatment, with a significant reduction in disease activity.

  15. Depressive-like behavior in adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats blocked by memantine.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Kenichi; Fujita, Yuko; Yamaji, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Recent studies suggest the role of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of MDD, and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists have shown antidepressant effects in both preclinical and clinical studies. However, little is known about the role of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) specifically in the glutamatergic response to HPA axis activation. Glutamate is an NMDA receptor agonist, and glycine and D-serine act as co-agonists. Here, we measured brain concentrations of these amino acids in rats given repeated administration of ACTH (100 μg/rat/day, sc, for 14 days). Further, we also evaluated behavioral effects of memantine, a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, on immobility time in the forced swimming test and on locomotor activity in ACTH-treated rats. Compared with control rats, glutamine, glycine, L-serine, and D-serine levels were increased in the hippocampus of ACTH-treated rats; glutamate, glutamine, glycine, L-serine, and D-serine were increased in the cerebellum; and glutamine and glycine were increased in the frontal cortex and striatum, all with statistical significance. Remarkably, these increases in agonists and co-agonists might have led to the augmentation of NMDA receptor activity. ACTH treatment increased immobility time in the forced swimming test and decreased locomotor activity in rats. On the contrary, memantine (10 mg/kg, ip) significantly decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test and increased locomotor activity in ACTH-treated rats. Furthermore, imipramine (15 mg/kg, ip) did not alter immobility time in the forced swimming test whereas this drug significantly decreased locomotor activity in ACTH-treated rats. These results suggest that depressive-like behaviors by chronic ACTH treatment could be blocked by memantine.

  16. Differential expression of functional adrenocorticotropic hormone receptors by subpopulations of lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, B.L.; Bost, K.L.

    1989-07-15

    In an effort to investigate the presence of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptors on rat lymphocytes, cells were separated by a panning procedure into T and B cell populations. By using the radiolabeled ACTH agonist, (/sup 125/I-Tyr23) phenylalanine2-norleucine4-ACTH1-24, substantial numbers of ACTH binding sites were detected on T and B lymphocytes, but not on thymocytes. Scatchard analysis revealed two types of binding sites on each cell population, one with Kd1 = 0.088 +/- 0.025 nM and one with Kd2 = 4.2 +/- 0.6 nM; however, the absolute number of binding sites per cell was different. B lymphocytes expressed approximately three times the number of Kd1 binding sites per cell when compared with T lymphocytes. However, ACTH receptor expression by these cell populations was not static as suggested by the ability to induce receptor expression via mitogens. B or T cells and thymocytes stimulated with the mitogens LPS or Con A, respectively, substantially increased their number of Kd1 binding sites per cell (approximately three-fold). Even more dramatic increases in Kd1 receptor expression (approximately 100-fold) were observed when comparing ''normal'' and stimulated thymocytes. To demonstrate that these ACTH binding sites were in fact functional, cAMP levels were measured in lymphocytes 10 min after exposure to varying concentrations of ACTH. Dose-dependent increases in cAMP levels were observed, with significant stimulation occurring with as little as 0.1 nM ACTH added. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the presence of functional ACTH receptors on normal, rat T and B lymphocytes.

  17. The central anorexigenic mechanism of adrenocorticotropic hormone involves the caudal hypothalamus in chicks.

    PubMed

    Shipp, Steven L; Yi, Jiaqing; Dridi, Sami; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), consisting of 39 amino acids, is most well-known for its involvement in an organism's response to stress. It also participates in satiety, as exogenous ACTH causes decreased food intake in rats. However, its anorexigenic mechanism is not well understood in any species and its effect on appetite is not reported in the avian class. Thus, the present study was designed to evaluate central ACTH's effect on food intake and to elucidate the mechanism mediating this response using broiler chicks. Chicks that received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 1, 2, or 4 nmol of ACTH reduced food intake, under both ad libitum and 180 min fasted conditions. Water intake was also reduced in ACTH-injected chicks under both feeding conditions, but when measured without access to feed it was not affected. Blood glucose was not affected in either feeding condition. Following ACTH injection, c-Fos immunoreactivity was quantified in key appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei including the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), dorsomedial hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamus (LH), arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the parvo- and magno-cellular portions of the paraventricular nucleus. ACTH-injected chicks had increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the VMH, LH, and ARC. Hypothalamus was collected at 1h post-injection, and real-time PCR performed to measure mRNA abundance of some appetite-associated factors. Neuropeptide Y, pro-opiomelanocortin, glutamate decarboxylase 1, melanocortin receptors 2-5, and urocortin 3 mRNA abundance was not affected by ACTH treatment. However, expression of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), urotensin 2 (UT), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and orexin (ORX), and melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mRNA decreased in the hypothalamus of ACTH-injected chicks. In conclusion, ICV ACTH causes decreased food intake in chicks, and is associated with VMH, LH, and ARC activation, and a decrease in hypothalamic mRNA abundance of CRF, UT, AgRP, ORX

  18. Mapping of enkephalins and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the squirrel monkey brainstem.

    PubMed

    Duque-Díaz, Ewing; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Angel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    An immunocytochemical technique has been used to study for the first time the distribution of fibers and cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin (leu-enk), methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the whole brainstem of the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Cell bodies containing leu-enk or met-enk were found in the superior colliculus and the formatio reticularis tegmenti mesencephali, respectively. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were observed. Leu-enk-immunoreactive fibers were observed in 40 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, fibers containing met-enk were found in 38 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions and fibers containing ACTH were found in 26 nuclei/tracts/regions. In the latter case, the density of immunoreactive fibers was always low. A high/moderate density of leu-enk- or met-enk-immunoreactive fibers were found in 18 and 16 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, respectively. The distribution of immunoreactive fibers containing leu-enk or met-enk was quite similar, with both leu-enk and met-enk observed in 82.5 % of the squirrel monkey brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions. This relationship is less marked for met-enk and ACTH (60.5 %) and even lower for leu-enk and ACTH (52.5 %). In 42.5 % of the nuclei/tracts/regions of the squirrel monkey brainstem (colliculus superior, substantia grisea centralis, nucleus interpeduncularis, nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini, nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus parabrachialis, formatio reticularis, substantia nigra), we observed fibers containing all three neuropeptides. The widespread distribution reported here suggests that enkephalins and ACTH can be involved in several physiological functions. The distribution of the immunoreactive fibers reported here is quite similar to that previously reported for enkephalins and ACTH in Macaca species and humans.

  19. Replacement therapy: arginine vasopressin (AVP), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, thyroxine, testosterone and estrogen.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D H; Owens, B

    1996-06-01

    Replacement therapy is routinely used to treat hormone deficiencies of patients who have had surgery or radiation therapy that damages the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. Hormones commonly replaced include: arginine vasopressin (AVP), growth hormone (GH), cortisol, thyroxine (T4), testosterone and estrogen. AVP, synthesized in the hypothalamus, is stored in and released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. GH is synthesized and released by the anterior pituitary gland. The other hormones are produced and released by target glands each of which is stimulated by a specific anterior pituitary hormone, which in turn is controlled by release of a specific hypothalamic hormone. Feedback control by a high circulating concentration of the target gland's hormone regulates hypothalamic hormone release. Deficiency of AVP, important for water balance in the body, is restored with the synthetic analogue, 1-desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP); it is given as a nasal spray or by injection. GH is required for normal growth in the developing child; recombinant GH, produced in bacteria, is injected subcutaneously. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) controls release of cortisol which is produced by the adrenal cortex and enables the body to cope with stress; cortisol is replaced with prednisolone given orally. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) controls release of the thyroid hormones, T4 and triiodothyronine (T3), which promote growth and development, and regulate energy metabolism; for replacement of T4, oral synthetic L-thyroxine is given. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) control release of testosterone, which promotes maturation of sperm and development of male sexual characteristics; replacement testosterone is administered intramuscularly. In females, FSH and LH control release of estrogens and progesterone which prepare the reproductive tract for release of the ovum, fertilization, implantation and development of the embryo

  20. Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone or Thyrotropin Deficiency Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Three Cases with Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Cho-Ok; Kim, Yu Ji; Kim, Ji Hye

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the clinical features and long-term outcomes of isolated pituitary hormone deficiencies after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Such deficiencies typically present at time intervals after TBI, especially after mild injuries such as concussions, which makes their diagnosis difficult without careful history taking. It is necessary to improve diagnosis and prevent life threatening or morbid conditions such as those that may occur in deficiencies of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (as known as thyrotropin, TSH), the two most important pituitary hormones in hypopituitarism treatment. Here, we report two cases of isolated ACTH deficiency and one case of isolated TSH deficiency. These patients presented at different time points after concussion and underwent long-term follow-ups. PMID:27169080

  1. Isolated Adrenocorticotropic Hormone or Thyrotropin Deficiency Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Three Cases with Long-Term Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Baek, Cho-Ok; Kim, Yu Ji; Kim, Ji Hye; Park, Ji Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the clinical features and long-term outcomes of isolated pituitary hormone deficiencies after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Such deficiencies typically present at time intervals after TBI, especially after mild injuries such as concussions, which makes their diagnosis difficult without careful history taking. It is necessary to improve diagnosis and prevent life threatening or morbid conditions such as those that may occur in deficiencies of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (as known as thyrotropin, TSH), the two most important pituitary hormones in hypopituitarism treatment. Here, we report two cases of isolated ACTH deficiency and one case of isolated TSH deficiency. These patients presented at different time points after concussion and underwent long-term follow-ups.

  2. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in serial cerebrospinal fluid in man - Subject to acute regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system?

    PubMed

    Kellner, Michael; Wortmann, Viola; Salzwedel, Cornelie; Kober, Daniel; Petzoldt, Martin; Urbanowicz, Tatiana; Pulic, Mersija; Boelmans, Kai; Yassouridis, Alexander; Wiedemann, Klaus

    2016-05-30

    Acute regulation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system has not been investigated in man. In a pilot study in healthy male volunteers we measured ACTH every twenty minutes in serial CSF for three hours after an intravenous placebo, hydrocortisone (100mg) or insulin (2mg/kg) injection. No acute inhibitory or stimulatory effects of these interventions were discovered. Our results corroborate previous findings in rhesus monkeys. The regulation of CSF ACTH and its potential relevance for behavioral alterations in health and disease (e.g. major depression or anorexia nervosa) in humans need further study.

  3. Case of multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B with probable ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting liver metastasis from medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Akira; Okada, Yosuke; Arao, Tadashi; Nakamoto, Yuji; Togashi, Kaori; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2013-09-01

    A 31 year old woman was diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2B at 10 years old. Dark pigmentation gradually developed on her skin and her serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was high, suggesting concurrent ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) loading test ruled out Cushing's disease and supported the diagnosis of EAS. Multiple low attenuation mass in the liver was observed in a computed tomography (CT) scan, and was suspected as ectopic ACTH-secreting metastatic tumor from medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). ACTH production by MTC is relatively rare, particularly in patients with MEN; patients with ectopic ACTH-secreting liver metastatic tumor from MTC in MEN 2B have never been reported previously.

  4. Combined quantification of corticotropin-releasing hormone, cortisol-to-cortisone ratio and progesterone by liquid chromatography-Tandem mass spectrometry in placental tissue.

    PubMed

    Fahlbusch, Fabian B; Ruebner, Matthias; Rascher, Wolfgang; Rauh, Manfred

    2013-09-01

    With mid-gestation the production of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) starts to steadily increase. The fetal peptide CRH excerts direct functions at the feto-maternal interface (vasodilatation, timing of birth) via its interaction with progesterone and indirectly ensures maturation and growth of fetal organ systems for delivery by driving fetal cortisol production via its induction of adrenocorticotropic hormone release. This feedback loop is tightly controlled by the amount of enzymatic cortisol/cortisone turnover in the placental syncytiotrophoblast by 11β-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2). Traditionally, placental tissue hormones have been quantified by immunological methods (e.g. RIA or ELISA), which have the drawback of possible cross-reactivity and tissue perturbations. Most importantly, it is not possible to quantify CRH and steroid hormones, such as cortisol, cortisone and progesterone together in the same sample with these methods. Hence, we aimed to develop and validate a quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) method for multi-modal quantification of these placental hormones: While CRH was readily detectable throughout the placenta, the placental levels of progesterone and especially cortisol and cortisone were higher at the placental base facing the maternal side. The HPLC-MS/MS procedure showed excellent selectivity and sufficient limit of quantification in placental tissue homogenates to allow for simultaneous detection of CRH, cortisol and cortisone, and progesterone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress-Induced Hormones Cortisol and Epinephrine Impair Wound Epithelization.

    PubMed

    Stojadinovic, Olivera; Gordon, Katherine A; Lebrun, Elizabeth; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2012-02-01

    Stress-induced disruption of hormonal balance in animals and humans has a detrimental effect on wound healing. After the injury, keratinocytes migrate over the wound bed to repair a wound. However, their nonmigratory phenotype plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic wounds. Despite many therapeutic approaches, there is a dearth of treatments targeting the molecular mechanisms mediated by stress that prevent epithelization. Recent studies show that epidermal keratinocytes synthesize stress hormones. During acute wound healing, cortisol synthesis in the epidermis is tightly controlled. Further, a key intermediate molecule in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), can bind glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and activate GR. Additionally, keratinocytes express beta-2-adrenergic-receptor (β2AR), a receptor for the stress hormone epinephrine. Importantly, migratory rates of keratinocytes are reduced by cortisol, FPP, epinephrine, and other β2AR agonists, thus indicating their role in the inhibition of epithelization. Topical inhibition of local glucocorticoid and FPP synthesis, as well as treatment with β2AR antagonists promotes wound epithelization. Modulation of local stress hormone production may represent an important therapeutic target for wound healing disorders. Topical administration of inhibitors of cortisol synthesis, statins, β2AR antagonists, and systemic beta-blockers can decrease cortisol synthesis, FPP, and epinephrine levels, respectively, thus restoring keratinocyte migration capacity. These treatment modalities could represent a novel therapeutic approach for wound healing disorders. Attenuation of the local stress-induced hormonal imbalance in epidermis may advance therapeutic modalities, thereby leading to enhanced epithelization and improved wound healing.

  6. Prostate Cancer, High Cortisol Levels and Complex Hormonal Interaction.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bibiana; Grosman, Halina; Gonzalez, Diego; Machulsky, Nahuel Fernandez; Repetto, Esteban M; Mesch, Viviana; Lopez, Miguel Angel; Mazza, Osvaldo; Berg, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common diseases in men. It is important to assess prognostic factors and whether high cortisol levels and complex hormonal interactions could be responsible for PCa development. We evaluated the relationship between cortisol, leptin and estrogens in 141 men, 71 with PCa and the remaining 70 constituting a low risk group (LRG). They were recruited for this study from a total of 2906 middleaged men (ages 4570 years) who completed an evaluation for prostatic diseases at the Urology Division, Hospital de Clinicas "Jose de San Martin", University of Buenos Aires, in May 2009. In this cross sectional study, cortisol, PSA, totaltestosterone, freetestosterone, bioavailable testosterone, LH and estradiol were measured in serum. We observed increased cortisol levels in PCa patients as compared to LRG cases (p=0.004,). Leptin and estradiol levels were also higher in PCa patients (p=0.048; p<0.0001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis indicated that serum cortisol (OR: 1.110 (95% CI 1.0161.213), p=0.022), estradiol (OR: 1.044 (95% CI 1.0081.081), p=0.016) and leptin (OR: 1.248 (95% CI 1.0481.487), p=0.013) explained 27% of the variance of dependent variables, even after adjusting for age, smoking, BMI and waist circumference. We found increased cortisol levels in PCa patients as compared to LRG, as well as an altered circulating hormonal profile.

  7. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: Data from two preliminary studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Jahn, Allison L.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants’ cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 hours. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 hours. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC vs. women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group. PMID:24773147

  8. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  9. Impact of corticotropin-releasing hormone on gastrointestinal motility and adrenocorticotropic hormone in normal controls and patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fukudo, S; Nomura, T; Hongo, M

    1998-01-01

    Background—Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) plays a key role in modulating intestinal motility in stressed animals. 
Aims—To evaluate the effect of CRH on intestinal motility in humans and to determine whether patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have an exaggerated response to CRH. 
Subjects—Ten IBS patients diagnosed by Rome criteria and 10 healthy controls. 
Methods—CRH (2 µg/kg) was intravenously administered during duodenal and colonic manometry and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was measured by radioimmunoassay. 
Results—CRH induced motility of the descending colon in both groups (p<0.001) and induced greater motility indexes in IBS patients than in controls (p<0.05). CRH produced duodenal phase III motor activity in 80% of the subjects and duodenal dysmotility in 40% of IBS patients. Abdominal symptoms evoked by CRH in IBS patients lasted significantly longer than those in controls (p<0.05). CRH induced significant increases in plasma ACTH levels in both groups (p<0.001) and produced significantly higher plasma ACTH levels in IBS patients than in controls (p<0.001). 
Conclusion—Human intestinal motility is probably modulated by exogenous CRH. The brain-gut in IBS patients may have an exaggerated response to CRH. 

 Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome; corticotropin releasing factor; adrenocorticotropic hormone; colonic motility; duodenal motility PMID:9691924

  10. Peripheral blood corticotropin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone and cytokine (Interleukin Beta, Interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha) levels after high- and low-dose total-body irradiation in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Girinsky, T.A.; Pallardy, M.; Comoy, E.; Benassi, T.; Roger, R.; Ganem, G.; Socie, G.; Cossett, J.M.; Magdelenat, H.

    1994-09-01

    Total-body irradiation (TBI) induces an increase in levels of granulocytes and cortisol in blood. To explore the underlying mechanisms, we studied 26 patients who had TBI prior to bone marrow transplantation. Our findings suggest that only a high dose of TBI (10 Gy) was capable of activating the hypothalamopituitary area since corticotropin-releasing factor and blood adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased at the end of the TBI. There was a concomitant increase in the levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor in blood, suggesting that these cytokines might activate the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Interleukin 1 was not detected. Since vascular injury is a common after radiation treatment, it is possible that interleukin 6 was secreted by endothelial cells. The exact mechanisms of the production of cyctokines induced by ionizing radiation remain to be determined. 25 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Cyclic AMP in female mouse brain is altered by the adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) analogue organon 2766.

    PubMed

    Schneider, D R; Felt, B T; Murphy, S; Goldman, H

    1981-09-01

    Cyclic AMP content was determined in 12 brain regions of young adult female mice at 30 min and at 24 h following an intraperitoneal injection of the tri-substituted adrenocorticotropic hormone(4-9) [ACTH(4-9)] analogue Organon 2766 [ORG 2766]. Animals were killed by focused 3.5 kW microwave radiation applied for 350 ms. Unlike previously reported responses in male mice, at 30 min post-injection there were no detectable differences in cyclic AMP content between the placebo and ORG 2766-treated animals. By contrast, 24 h after injection, the content of cyclic AMP was changed significantly in 8 of the 12 brain regions examined: medulla-pons, septal area, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and parietal and occipital cortices. In most of the regions examined, differences consisted of 50% or greater reductions of tissue cyclic AMP content. The changes were unrelated to the estrus cycle of these animals.

  12. Low dose adrenocorticotropic hormone test and adrenal insufficiency in critically ill acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Shashidhar, P. K.; Shashikala, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Prevalence of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is not uncommon in HIV infected population. However, AI is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice because many patients have non-specific symptoms and signs. Critical illness in such patients further complicates the evaluation of adrenal function. A 1μgm ACTH test can be used for diagnosis, since it results in more physiological levels of ACTH. A serum cortisol of <18 μg/dL, 30 or 60-minutes after ACTH test has been accepted as indicative of AI, but many experts advocate the normal cortisol response should exceed 25 μg/dL, in critically ill patients. Aim: To determine the prevalence of AI in critically ill AIDS patients, by using 1 μg ACTH test and also, to compare the diagnostic criteria for adrenal insufficiency between cortisol response of <18 μg/dL and <25 μg/dL. Settings and Design: This prospective study was done in the Department of Medicine. Materials and Methods: After taking blood for basal plasma cortisol from AIDS affected fifty adult men and women aged over 18 yrs, 1 μg ACTH was given intravenously, and blood samples were again collected at 30 and 60 minutes for plasma cortisol estimation. Statistical analysis: It was done by Mann-Whitney test. Results: Prevalence of AI was 74% (37 patients) and 92% (46 patients), when the peak stimulated cortisol level of <18 μg/dL and <25 μg/dL, respectively, was used. Conclusion: AI is more prevalent in critically ill AIDS patients. Hence, this test can be performed for early intervention and better management. PMID:22629505

  13. Impaired adrenocorticotropic hormone response to bacterial endotoxin in mice deficient in prostaglandin E receptor EP1 and EP3 subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Yoko; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Bito, Haruhiko; Ushikubi, Fumitaka; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takuya; Muro, Seiji; Satoh, Noriko; Kayahara, Tetsuro; Higashi, Mikito; Mizoguchi, Akira; Shichi, Hitoshi; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Nakao, Kazuwa; Narumiya, Shuh

    2003-01-01

    Sickness evokes various neural responses, one of which is activation of the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. This response can be induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1. Although prostaglandins (PGs) long have been implicated in LPS-induced HPA axis activation, the mechanism downstream of PGs remained unsettled. By using mice lacking each of the four PGE receptors (EP1–EP4) and an EP1-selective antagonist, ONO-8713, we showed that both EP1 and EP3 are required for adrenocorticotropic hormone release in response to LPS. Analysis of c-Fos expression as a marker for neuronal activity indicated that both EP1 and EP3 contribute to activation of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). This analysis also revealed that EP1, but not EP3, is involved in LPS-induced activation of the central nucleus of the amygdala. EP1 immunostaining in the PVN revealed its localization at synapses on corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons. These findings suggest that EP1- and EP3-mediated neuronal pathways converge at corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the PVN to induce HPA axis activation upon sickness. PMID:12642666

  14. Trauma exposure in relation to basal salivary cortisol and the hormone response to the dexamethasone/CRH test in male railway employees without lifetime psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Klaassens, Ellen R; Giltay, Erik J; van Veen, Tineke; Veen, Gerthe; Zitman, Frans G

    2010-07-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis is hypothesized to underlie stress-related psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We aimed to explore whether trauma exposure is associated with alterations in HPA-axis functioning in the absence of lifetime psychiatric morbidity. We included 39 trauma-exposed healthy male subjects (mean age=47 years; SD=9.2) and 24 non-exposed healthy male controls (mean age=47.4 years; SD=14.5). All subjects were free of lifetime psychopathology. Basal salivary cortisol levels (on two consecutive days) as well as the cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to the combined dexamethasone/corticotropin releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) challenge test were analyzed using general linear models (GLM) adjusted for body mass index, age and smoking status. A blunted salivary cortisol awakening response was found in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group (F(1,57)=5.46, p=.02). Consistent with these findings, salivary diurnal cortisol was lower in the trauma-exposed versus non-exposed group (F(1,57)=4.04, p=.05). No differences, however, were found between both groups for plasma cortisol or ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test. Low basal cortisol levels were found in trauma-exposed men, suggesting that HPA-axis alterations in men are associated with trauma exposure during adulthood, also in the absence of psychopathology. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stress-Induced Hormones Cortisol and Epinephrine Impair Wound Epithelization

    PubMed Central

    Stojadinovic, Olivera; Gordon, Katherine A.; Lebrun, Elizabeth; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    Background Stress-induced disruption of hormonal balance in animals and humans has a detrimental effect on wound healing. The Problem After the injury, keratinocytes migrate over the wound bed to repair a wound. However, their nonmigratory phenotype plays a role in pathogenesis of chronic wounds. Despite many therapeutic approaches, there is a dearth of treatments targeting the molecular mechanisms mediated by stress that prevent epithelization. Basic/Clinical Science Advances Recent studies show that epidermal keratinocytes synthesize stress hormones. During acute wound healing, cortisol synthesis in the epidermis is tightly controlled. Further, a key intermediate molecule in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), can bind glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and activate GR. Additionally, keratinocytes express beta-2-adrenergic-receptor (β2AR), a receptor for the stress hormone epinephrine. Importantly, migratory rates of keratinocytes are reduced by cortisol, FPP, epinephrine, and other β2AR agonists, thus indicating their role in the inhibition of epithelization. Topical inhibition of local glucocorticoid and FPP synthesis, as well as treatment with β2AR antagonists promotes wound epithelization. Clinical Care Relevance Modulation of local stress hormone production may represent an important therapeutic target for wound healing disorders. Topical administration of inhibitors of cortisol synthesis, statins, β2AR antagonists, and systemic beta-blockers can decrease cortisol synthesis, FPP, and epinephrine levels, respectively, thus restoring keratinocyte migration capacity. These treatment modalities could represent a novel therapeutic approach for wound healing disorders. Conclusion Attenuation of the local stress-induced hormonal imbalance in epidermis may advance therapeutic modalities, thereby leading to enhanced epithelization and improved wound healing. PMID:24527275

  16. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows.

    PubMed

    Geary, T W

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but it has been reported to be as great as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether activation of the hypophyseal-adrenal axis with ACTH would mimic a stressful response and cause pregnancy loss in beef cattle. A secondary objective was to determine if a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine would attenuate the stress response and suppress serum PGF(2α) concentrations to prevent pregnancy loss. Forty nonlactating beef cows that were 34 ± 0.33 d pregnant were used for this study. In a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, cows were randomly assigned to receive ACTH [0 or 0.5 IU/kg of BW, intramuscularly (i.m.)] at 0 and 2 h of the study and flunixin meglumine (0, 1.1, or 2.2 mg/kg of BW, i.m.) at 0 h. Blood samples were collected from all cows at 0 h and every 30 min for 4 h to measure serum cortisol and PGF(2α) metabolite (PGFM) concentrations. Rectal temperature was collected for each cow at 0, 120, and 240 min. Pregnancy exams were conducted 31 and 58 d after treatment by transrectal ultrasonography, and the presence of a fetal heartbeat was used as an indicator of fetal viability. Serum cortisol concentration was affected (P < 0.01) by ACTH, time, and the interaction of ACTH × time, but not by flunixin meglumine (P ≥ 0.14) or any other interactions. Cortisol concentrations increased (P < 0.01) in the serum of ACTH-treated cows immediately after ACTH treatment and remained increased (P < 0.01) throughout the 4-h sampling period. Serum PGFM concentration was not affected by ACTH (P = 0.97) or by any interactions (P > 0.35) with ACTH, but was affected (P < 0.01) by flunixin meglumine, time, and the interaction of flunixin meglumine × time. Regardless of dosage (1.1 or 2.2 mg/kg of BW), flunixin meglumine decreased (P < 0.01) serum PGFM concentrations in both ACTH-treated and control cows for

  17. Legionella pneumophila and Pneumocystis jirovecii coinfection in an infant treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasm: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Musallam, Nadira; Bamberger, Ellen; Srugo, Isaac; Dabbah, Husein; Glikman, Daniel; Zonis, Zeev; Kessel, Aharon; Genizi, Jacob

    2014-02-01

    We describe an 8-month-old infant with infantile spasms treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) who presented with fatal Legionella pneumophila and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection. Emphasis is placed on the ensuing immunosuppression and infectious sequelae of ACTH therapy. Given that ACTH therapy may increase the risk of fatal infection, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored, with particular attention paid to the functioning of the immune system.

  18. Gene array and real time PCR analysis of the adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone in pig

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Dominique; Liaubet, Laurence; SanCristobal, Magali; Mormède, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Background Variability in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity has been shown to be influenced by genetic factors and related to great metabolic differences such as obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate molecular bases of genetic variability of the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH, a major source of variability, in Meishan (MS) and Large White (LW) pigs, MS being reported to exhibit higher basal cortisol levels, response to ACTH and fatness than LW. A pig cDNA microarray was used to identify changes in gene expression in basal conditions and in response to ACTH stimulation. Results Genotype and/or ACTH affected the expression of 211 genes related to transcription, cell growth/maintenance, signal transduction, cell structure/adhesion/extra cellular matrix and protein kinase/phosphatase activity. No change in the expression of known key regulator proteins of the ACTH signaling pathway or of steroidogenic enzymes was found. However, Mdh2, Sdha, Suclg2, genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway, were over-expressed in MS pigs. Higher TCA cycle activity in MS than in LW may thus result in higher steroidogenic activity and thus explain the typically higher cortisol levels in MS compared to LW. Moreover, up-regulation of Star and Ldlr genes in MS and/or in response to ACTH suggest that differences in the adrenal function between MS and LW may also involve mechanisms requisite for cholesterol supply to steroidogenesis. Conclusion The present study provides new potential candidate genes to explain genetic variations in the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH and better understand relationship between HPA axis activity and obesity. PMID:18304307

  19. Effects of bupropion and pramipexole on cell proliferation in the hippocampus of adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Yuka; Kuwatsuka, Keiko; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Sendo, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine reuptake inhibitor bupropion and dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist pramipexole have been clinically proven to improve both depression and treatment-resistant depression. We examined its influence on the duration of immobility during the forced swim test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats and further analyzed the possible role of the dopamine nerve system in this effect. Bupropion and pramipexole significantly decreased the duration of immobility in normal and ACTH-treated rats. We previously demonstrated that the chronic administration of ACTH caused a significant decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. In this study, we used the mitotic marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyridine to investigate the effects of bupropion and pramipexole on cell proliferation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus following chronic treatment with ACTH. The ACTH treatment for 14 d decreased adult hippocampal cell proliferation. The chronic administration of bupropion for 14 d blocked the loss of cell proliferation resulting from the chronic treatment with ACTH, whereas pramipexole did not. The administration of bupropion may have treatment-resistant antidepressive properties, which may be partly attributed to the normalization of hippocampal cell proliferation.

  20. Rapid induction of neurotrophin mRNAs in rat glial cell cultures by Semax, an adrenocorticotropic hormone analog.

    PubMed

    Shadrina, M I; Dolotov, O V; Grivennikov, I A; Slominsky, P A; Andreeva, L A; Inozemtseva, L S; Limborska, S A; Myasoedov, N F

    2001-08-03

    The proliferation, differentiation and survival of neuronal and glial cells are affected by a number of neurotrophic factors, such as nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and others. In a previous study, we observed the effects of 'Semax' (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro), the physiologically active analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone(4--10), on neuronal cell survival in vitro. We hypothesized that these effects may be mediated by the regulation of expression of some neurotrophic factors. To test this hypothesis we analyzed NGF and BDNF gene expression in glial cells obtained from the basal forebrain of newborn rats, following in vitro treatment with 'Semax'. We observed changes in mRNA levels for both the NGF and BDNF genes. The greatest increase in expression was found after 30 min of 'Semax' administration. At this time, BDNF mRNA level was increased eight-fold in comparison with control, and NGF mRNA level was increased five-fold.

  1. A Case of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor with a Superimposed Aspergilloma Presenting As a Covert Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Yu, Ji Hee; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Young Hye; Kim, Young Sik; Seo, Ji A

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is a challenging diagnosis only responsible for approximately 10% of Cushing syndrome cases. It has been associated with a variety of benign and malignant tumors including a carcinoid tumor accompanied by aspergilloma in our case that was significantly difficult to be detected. We report a patient over 70 years old with uncontrolled hypertension and hypokalemia presenting with generalized edema. Laboratory results revealed ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome, but imaging studies did not show any discrete lesions secreting ACTH. The petrosal to peripheral ACTH gradient resulted in no evidence of pituitary adenoma. As the only lesion suspicious for ectopic ACTH secretion was a right lower round cystic lesion that did not appear to be a carcinoid tumor on computed tomography scan of the chest, the patient underwent video-assisted thoracic surgical resection to provide a definitive diagnosis. The final diagnosis was a small ectopic ACTH-secreting carcinoid tumor with unusual superimposed aspergilloma in the periphery of the lung. Postoperatively, the abnormal endocrine levels were normalized, and all of the clinical symptoms and signs were ameliorated. This is an informative case of ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) that was the cause of hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, and hypercortisolism despite its poorly specific cushingoid morphology and uncommon imaging findings. Therefore, we recommend that clinicians investigate any possible lesion as a potential source of EAS. PMID:28642733

  2. A Case of Pulmonary Carcinoid Tumor with a Superimposed Aspergilloma Presenting As a Covert Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung Jin; Yu, Ji Hee; Kim, Nan Hee; Kim, Young Hye; Kim, Young Sik; Seo, Ji A

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is a challenging diagnosis only responsible for approximately 10% of Cushing syndrome cases. It has been associated with a variety of benign and malignant tumors including a carcinoid tumor accompanied by aspergilloma in our case that was significantly difficult to be detected. We report a patient over 70 years old with uncontrolled hypertension and hypokalemia presenting with generalized edema. Laboratory results revealed ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome, but imaging studies did not show any discrete lesions secreting ACTH. The petrosal to peripheral ACTH gradient resulted in no evidence of pituitary adenoma. As the only lesion suspicious for ectopic ACTH secretion was a right lower round cystic lesion that did not appear to be a carcinoid tumor on computed tomography scan of the chest, the patient underwent video-assisted thoracic surgical resection to provide a definitive diagnosis. The final diagnosis was a small ectopic ACTH-secreting carcinoid tumor with unusual superimposed aspergilloma in the periphery of the lung. Postoperatively, the abnormal endocrine levels were normalized, and all of the clinical symptoms and signs were ameliorated. This is an informative case of ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) that was the cause of hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, and hypercortisolism despite its poorly specific cushingoid morphology and uncommon imaging findings. Therefore, we recommend that clinicians investigate any possible lesion as a potential source of EAS.

  3. Do Patients Require Inpatient Admission to Receive Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)? A Survey of US-Based Prescribers.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Charuta; Berg, Anne T; Wirrell, Elaine

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to determine variation in treatment of newly diagnosed infantile spasms, focusing on details of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration using a Redcap questionnaire sent to members of the Child Neurology Society. Two hundred fifty-seven members responded. Eighty-four percent prescribers used ACTH to treat infantile spasms. Seventy-six percent always admit patients. There is no difference between prescriber type (epileptologist or other) and prescriber location (state-funded or non-state-funded hospital) for decision to admit. Electroencephalographic (EEG) confirmation of spasms and education for injection were the commonest reasons to admit. Only 45% of prescribers accurately estimated the cost of ACTH. Participants in the hospital vial program were significantly more likely to always admit patients for ACTH than those who did not participate in such a program (P = .02). Although having the hospital sample vial allows time to complete investigation of infantile spasms and eliminates delays in initiating ACTH, it adds significantly to the cost of therapy.

  4. Inhibitory effects of trichostatin A on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and proliferation of corticotroph tumor AtT-20 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Yuki; Kageyama, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Aya; Desaki, Rie; Takayasu, Shinobu; Niioka, Kanako; Murasawa, Shingo; Ishigame, Noriko; Asari, Yuko; Iwasaki, Yasumasa; Daimon, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's disease is primarily caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing pituitary adenomas. Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1) expression, a hallmark of pituitary tumors, stimulates pituitary cell proliferation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play an important role in regulating gene transcription and HDAC inhibitors induce cellular differentiation and suppress tumor cell proliferation. HDAC inhibitors also repress PTTG1 mRNA levels. Trichostatin A (TSA) is a potent cell-permeable HDAC inhibitor that blocks cell cycle progression. In the present study, we determined the effect of TSA on ACTH production and cellular proliferation in mouse AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. TSA decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and reduced ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells. The TSA-induced decreases in POMC mRNA levels were not modulated when TSA and dexamethasone were simultaneously administered. Drug treatment also decreased AtT-20 cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and increased the percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase using flow cytometry. TSA decreased PTTG1 mRNA levels. Furthermore, PTTG1 knockdown inhibited cellular proliferation. Its knockdown also inhibited POMC mRNA and ACTH levels. TSA inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation. TSA may inhibit cellular proliferation, and ACTH synthesis and secretion by decreasing PTTG1 expression.

  5. Levels of central oxytocin and glucocorticoid receptor and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xufeng; Yan, Yating; Tai, Fadao; Wu, Ruiyong; Hao, Ping; Fang, Qianqian; Zhang, Shuwei

    2014-11-01

    Sociability is the prerequisite to social living. Oxytocin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis mediate various social behaviors across different social contexts in different rodents. We hypothesized that they also mediate levels of non-reproductive social behavior. Here we explored naturally occurring variation in sociability through a social preference test and compared central oxytocin, glucocorticoid receptors, serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone in mandarin voles with different levels of sociability. We found that low-social voles showed higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in open field tests, and had more serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone than high-social voles. High-social individuals had more glucocorticoid receptor positive neurons in the hippocampus and more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than low-social individuals. Within the same level of sociability, females had more oxytocin positive neurons in the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus than males. These results indicate that naturally occurring social preferences are associated with higher levels of central oxytocin and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptor and lower levels of anxiety and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone.

  6. Trait Anxiety and Salivary Cortisol During Free Living and Military Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    activates both physiologi- cal and behavioral responses to restore balance ( 6 ). The physiologic stress response, in turn, is generally believed to be...which then activates the anterior pituitary gland to produce adreno- corticotropic hormone. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, in turn, stimulates the adrenal...cortex to produce and re- lease glucocorticoid hormones ( 6 ). The primary glucocorticoid is cortisol, which affects many body tissues, including

  7. Human leukocyte interferon: structural and biological relatedness to adrenocorticotropic hormone and endorphins.

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, J E; Smith, E M

    1980-01-01

    Anti-alpha-corticotropin [anti-ACTH alpha (1-13)](also alpha-melanotropin) and anti-gamma-endorphin antisera neutralized human leukocyte interferon activity but not fibroblast interferon activity. Human leukocyte interferon was not neutralized by anti-human lutenizing hormone (lutropin) or follicle-stimulating hormone (follitropin) antisra. Conversely, antisera to human leukocyte interferon neutralized ACTH activity. The neturalization of human leukocyte interferon by anti-human leukocyte interferon serum was partially blocked by ACTH. These studies show strong antigenic relatedness among human leukocyte interferon, ACTH, and endorphins, implying that there are underlying structural similarities. Structural relatedness is shown by pepsin cleavage of ACTH activity from human leukocyte interferon. The implication for the natural functions of human leukocyte interferon are discussed. PMID:6160589

  8. Cushing syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in a 3-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Matarazzo, Patrizia; Tuli, Gerdi; Tessaris, Daniele; Verna, Francesca; Rabbone, Ivana; Lezo, Antonella; Brunati, Andrea; Salizzoni, Mauro; Carbonaro, Giulia; Terzolo, Massimo; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Lala, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome in paediatric age, due to tumours arising from different tissues. To date, only 11 reports of ACTH-secreting pancreatic tumours in children and adolescents exist in the literature. We present a paediatric case of Cushing syndrome caused by ectopic ACTH secretion. This was caused by a large acinar cell carcinoma that developed in the pancreas of a 3-year-old girl.

  9. Periconceptional undernutrition suppresses cortisol response to arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge in adult sheep offspring.

    PubMed

    Oliver, M H; Bloomfield, F H; Jaquiery, A L; Todd, S E; Thorstensen, E B; Harding, J E

    2012-02-01

    Poor maternal nutrition during pregnancy can result in increased disease risk in adult offspring. Many of these effects are proposed to be mediated via altered hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) function, and are sex and age specific. Maternal undernutrition around the time of conception alters HPAA function in foetal and early postnatal life, but there are limited conflicting data about later effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate periconceptional undernutrition on HPAA function of offspring of both sexes longitudinally, from juvenile to adult life. Ewes were undernourished from 61 days before until 30 days after conception or fed ad libitum. HPAA function in offspring was assessed by arginine vasopressin plus corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4, 10 and 18 months. Plasma cortisol response was lower in males than in females, and was not different between singles and twins. Periconceptional undernutrition suppressed offspring plasma cortisol but not adrenocorticotropic hormone responses. In males, this suppression was apparent by 4 months, and was more profound by 10 months, with no further change by 18 months. In females, suppression was first observed at 10 months and became more profound by 18 months. Maternal undernutrition limited to the periconceptional period has a prolonged, sex-dependent effect on adrenal function in the offspring.

  10. Effects of head down tilt upon cortisol and sex hormones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strollo, Felice; Pecorelli, Lia; Uva, Bianca Maria; Masini, Maria Angela; More, Massimo; Strollo, Giovanna; Riondino, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    Real and modelled μG conditions seem to induce reversible testicular failure. Suitable onground simulation methods are anyway needed in order to better aim further studies in humans in space. A 5- hour head down tilt (5h-HDT) was therefore performed in 22 male and female healthy volunteers looking at adrenal and gonadal hormones as compared to 12 age- and gender- matched controls. Cortisol and A decreased significantly in both genders, being cortisol decrease less pronounced in women, while leptin, LH, testosterone, estradiol and estrone failed to do so. The authors conclude that a 5h-HDT is only acceptable for adrenal adaptation studies whole longer duration HDT protocols are needed for gonadal investigations.

  11. In etanercept-treated psoriatic arthritis patients clinical improvement correlated with an increase of serum cortisol relative to other adrenal hormones.

    PubMed

    Atzeni, F; Sarzi-Puttini, P; DePortu, S; Cutolo, M; Carrabba, M; Straub, R H

    2008-01-01

    In patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), long-term therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies sensitizes the pituitary gland and improves adrenal androgen secretion in prednisolone-naïve patients. However, whether this is similar in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of 12 weeks of etanercept treatment upon the function of the HPA axis in patients with PsA. Eleven prednisolone-naïve patients (mean age 47.3+/-8.9 years) with PsA were included. We measured serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), cortisol, and androstenedione (ASD), at baseline and at 4 and 12 weeks after initiation of anti-TNF therapy (etanercept, 50 mg every week as a single dose by sc. injection). Clinical improvement was assessed using the Disease Activity Score-28 (DAS-28). Mean levels of serum ACTH, serum cortisol, serum 17OHP and serum ASD did not markedly change during 12 weeks of etanercept treatment. Similarly, the ratio of serum cortisol divided by serum ACTH did not change during 12 weeks of anti-TNF treatment. However, an increase of serum cortisol relative to serum 17OHP or ASD was related to clinical improvement. This indicates that improvement was linked to higher serum cortisol levels relative to others adrenal hormones. This is the first study to demonstrate baseline serum levels and the course of HPA axis-related hormones in patients with PsA. An increase of serum cortisol relative to others adrenocortical hormones (i.e., androstenedione and ACTH) was accompanied by clinical improvement.

  12. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cAMP inhibit noninactivating K+ current in adrenocortical cells by an A-kinase-independent mechanism requiring ATP hydrolysis

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express a noninactivating K+ current (IAC) that is inhibited by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) at picomolar concentrations. Inhibition of IAC may be a critical step in depolarization-dependent Ca2+ entry leading to cortisol secretion. In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from AZF cells, we have characterized properties of IAC and the signalling pathway by which ACTH inhibits this current. IAC was identified as a voltage-gated, outwardly rectifying, K(+)-selective current whose inhibition by ACTH required activation of a pertussis toxin-insensitive GTP binding protein. IAC was selectively inhibited by the cAMP analogue 8-(4- chlorophenylthio)-adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-pcpt-cAMP) with an IC50 of 160 microM. The adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (2.5 microM) also reduced IAC by 92 +/- 4.7%. Inhibition of IAC by ACTH, 8-pcpt-cAMP and forskolin was not prevented by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitors H-89 (5 microM), cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI[5-24]) (2 microM), (Rp)-cAMPS (500 microM), or by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine (100 nM) applied externally or intracellularly through the patch pipette. At the same concentrations, these kinase inhibitors abolished 8-pcpt-cAMP-stimulated A-kinase activity in AZF cell extracts. In intact AZF cells, 8-pcpt-cAMP activated A-kinase with an EC50 of 77 nM, a concentration 2,000-fold lower than that inhibiting IAC half maximally. The active catalytic subunit of A-kinase applied intracellularly through the recording pipette failed to alter functional expression of IAC. The inhibition of IAC by ACTH and 8-pcpt- cAMP was eliminated by substituting the nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue AMP-PNP for ATP in the pipette solution. Penfluridol, an antagonist of T-type Ca2+ channels inhibited 8-pcpt-cAMP-induced cortisol secretion with an IC50 of 0.33 microM, a concentration that effectively blocks Ca2+ channel in these cells

  13. Comparison of the serum cytokine levels before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in patients with infantile spasm.

    PubMed

    Türe, Esra; Kamaşak, Tülay; Cora, Merve; Şahin, Sevim; Arslan, Elif Acar; Kaklıkaya, Neşe; Cansu, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Infantile spasm is an age-dependent epileptic syndrome seen in infancy or early childhood. Although studies have investigated the epilepsy-cytokine relationship, there has been insufficient research into the relation between cytokines and infantile spasm. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of infantile spasm by investigating cytokine levels before and 1month after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy in patients diagnosed with the condition. Twenty patients aged between 1month and 2years and diagnosed with infantile spasm at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty Department of Child Health and Diseases Pediatric Neurology Clinic, Turkey, and 20 healthy children were included in the study. Patients received 11 doses of ACTH on 2days a week. Levels of TNF-alpha and IL-2, the main cytokines involved in inflammation and recently associated with infantile spasm, and of IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-17A, associated with epileptic seizures, and serum levels of the IL-17A activator IL-23 were investigated in all patients at the start of treatment and 1month after completion of treatment. No statistically significant difference was observed between pre- and post-treatment patient group and control group IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-23 or TNF-alpha levels. Pre-treatment IL-6 and IL-17A levels were significantly higher in the untreated patient group compared to the healthy control group (p<0.001 and p=0.002). Our study supports the recent idea that IL-6 and IL-17A are cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of infantile spasm. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Reduction in glutamine/glutamate levels in the cerebral cortex after adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy in patients with west syndrome.

    PubMed

    Munakata, Mitsutoshi; Togashi, Noriko; Sakamoto, Osamu; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Onuma, Akira; Iinuma, Kazuie; Kure, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    West syndrome (WS), an intractable epileptic encephalopathy of infancy, is refractory to many antiepileptic drugs; however, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is an effective treatment for WS. The mechanism behind the efficacy of ACTH is mediated by biochemical processes that remain unknown. We examined the effects of ACTH therapy with tetracosactide (TCS), a synthetic ACTH analogue, on brain metabolism in patients with WS, using (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-MRS). In six patients with cryptogenic WS, we performed single-voxel ¹H-MRS at the occipital lobe cortex. Measurements were taken prior to TCS treatment, a few days after therapy, and several months after therapy. Data were also compared with subjects having only mild psychomotor delays. The metabolites measured were glutamine plus glutamate (Glx), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), and myoinositol (mI); each was expressed as a ratio with creatine plus phosphocreatine (total creatine: tCr). The Glx/tCr ratio was significantly reduced after the TCS treatment. The NAA/tCr ratio was also significantly reduced after the treatment compared with the control group, although the change in NAA signal was heterogeneous among patients, correlating with respective outcomes. The Cho/tCr and mI/tCr ratios were not affected by TCS treatment. The reduction in Glx suggests a decrease in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, which plays a pivotal role in synthesizing neurotransmitters such as glutamate and GABA. TCS-induced Glx reduction may induce changes in synaptic signal transduction, thereby accounting for the effect of TCS on WS. The change in NAA indicates altered neuronal activity, which may be correlated with outcome in WS patients.

  15. Inhibitory effects of SOM230 on adrenocorticotropic hormone production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Murasawa, Shingo; Kageyama, Kazunori; Sugiyama, Aya; Ishigame, Noriko; Niioka, Kanako; Suda, Toshihiro; Daimon, Makoto

    2014-08-25

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by pituitary corticotroph adenomas is the main cause of Cushing's disease. A drug that targets pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas would aid treatment of Cushing's disease. Octreotide, a somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2)-preferring somatostatin analogue, has no effect on ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's disease. The multiligand SOM230 (pasireotide) displays a much higher affinity for SSTR1 and SSTR5 than octreotide and suppresses ACTH secretion in cultures of human corticotroph tumors to a greater extent than octreotide. In the present in vitro and in vivo study, we determined the effect of SOM230 on ACTH production and cell proliferation of AtT-20 corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 decreased proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA levels in AtT-20 cells and ACTH levels in the culture medium of these cells, suggesting that SOM230 suppresses ACTH synthesis and secretion in corticotroph tumor cells. SOM230 also decreased cell proliferation and both cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein and Akt phosphorylation in AtT-20 cells. SSTR5 knockdown inhibited the SOM230-induced decreases in cell proliferation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses revealed that SOM230 did not attenuate cell cycle progression. Tumor weight in mice xenografted with AtT-20 cells and treated with SOM230 was significantly lower than in AtT-20-xenografted control mice. SOM230 also significantly decreased plasma ACTH levels, and POMC and pituitary tumor transforming gene mRNA levels in the tumor cells. Thus, SOM230 inhibits ACTH production and corticotroph tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Effect of obesity and starvation on thyroid hormone, growth hormone, and cortisol secretion.

    PubMed

    Douyon, Liselle; Schteingart, David E

    2002-03-01

    Obesity and starvation have opposing affects on normal physiology and are associated with adaptive changes in hormone secretion. The effects of obesity and starvation on thyroid hormone, GH, and cortisol secretion are summarized in Table 1. Although hypothyroidism is associated with some weight gain, surveys of obese individuals show that less than 10% are hypothyroid. Discrepancies have been reported in some studies, but in untreated obesity, total and free T4, total and free T3, TSH levels, and the TSH response to TRH are normal. Some reports suggest an increase in total T3 and decrease in rT3 induced by overfeeding. Treatment of obesity with hypocaloric diets causes changes in thyroid function that resemble sick euthyroid syndrome. Changes consist of a decrease in total T4 and total and free T3 with a corresponding increase in rT3. untreated obesity is also associated with low GH levels; however, levels of IGF-1 are normal. GH-binding protein levels are increased and the GH response to GHRH is decreased. These changes are reversed by drastic weight reduction. Cortisol levels are abnormal in people with abdominal obesity who exhibit an increase in urinary free cortisol but exhibit normal or decreased serum cortisol and normal ACTH levels. These changes are explained by an increase in cortisol clearance. There is also an increased response to CRH. Treatment of obesity with very low calorie diets causes a decrease in serum cortisol explained by a decrease in cortisol-binding proteins. The increase in cortisol secretion seen in patients with abdominal obesity may contribute to the metabolic syndrome (insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension). States of chronic starvation such as seen in anorexia nervosa are also associated with changes in thyroid hormone, GH, and cortisol secretion. There is a decrease in total and free T4 and T3, and an increase in rT3 similar to findings in sick euthyroid syndrome. The TSH response to TRH is

  17. Direct activating effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on brown adipose tissue are attenuated by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    van den Beukel, Johanna C; Grefhorst, Aldo; Quarta, Carmelo; Steenbergen, Jacobie; Mastroberardino, Pier G; Lombès, Marc; Delhanty, Patric J; Mazza, Roberta; Pagotto, Uberto; van der Lely, Aart Jan; Themmen, Axel P N

    2014-11-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and brown-like cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) can dissipate energy through thermogenesis, a process mediated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). We investigated whether stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone contribute to BAT activation and browning of WAT. ACTH and corticosterone were studied in male mice exposed to 4 or 23°C for 24 h. Direct effects were studied in T37i mouse brown adipocytes and primary cultured murine BAT and inguinal WAT (iWAT) cells. In vivo effects were studied using (18)F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Cold exposure doubled serum ACTH concentrations (P=0.03) and fecal corticosterone excretion (P=0.008). In T37i cells, ACTH dose-dependently increased Ucp1 mRNA (EC50=1.8 nM) but also induced Ucp1 protein content 88% (P=0.02), glycerol release 32% (P=0.03) and uncoupled respiration 40% (P=0.003). In cultured BAT and iWAT, ACTH elevated Ucp1 mRNA by 3-fold (P=0.03) and 3.7-fold (P=0.01), respectively. In T37i cells, corticosterone prevented induction of Ucp1 mRNA and Ucp1 protein by both ACTH and norepinephrine in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent fashion. ACTH and GR antagonist RU486 independently doubled BAT (18)F-deoxyglucose uptake (P=0.0003 and P=0.004, respectively) in vivo. Our results show that ACTH activates BAT and browning of WAT while corticosterone counteracts this.

  18. Effect of hypercortisolism on bone mineral density and bone metabolism: A potential protective effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihong; Li, Fengao; Zhu, Chonggui; Wang, Baoping; Wang, Kunling; Dai, Chenlin; Jia, Hongwei; Wei, Hongyan; He, Qing; Cui, Jin; Yuan, Menghua; Tang, Shaofang; Liu, Wei; Zhu, Tiehong; Gao, Zhihong; Zheng, Fangqiu; Ma, Zhongshu; Qu, Huiqi; Zhu, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Cushing's disease (CD) and adrenal-dependent Cushing's syndrome (ACS) on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism. Methods Data were retrospectively collected for 55 patients with hypercortisolism (CD, n = 34; ACS n = 21) from January 1997 to June 2014. BMD was examined in all patients, and bone turnover markers were tested in some patients. Healthy controls (n = 18) were also recruited. Results The lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD were significantly lower in the ACS and CD groups than in the control group. Lumbar BMD was significantly lower in the ACS than CD group. The collagen breakdown product (CTX) concentrations were significantly higher while the osteocalcin and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) concentrations were significantly lower in the ACS and CD groups than in the control group. The PINP concentration was significantly lower while the CTX concentration was significantly higher in the ACS than CD group. In the CD group only, lumbar BMD and serum adrenocorticotropic hormone had a significant positive correlation. Conclusions Bone turnover markers indicated suppressed osteoblast and enhanced osteoclast activities. PINP and CTX changes might indicate bone mass deterioration. Adrenocorticotropic hormone might be protective for lumbar BMD in patients with CD.

  19. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    PubMed

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hormones: commentary. Riding the physiological roller coaster: adaptive significance of cortisol stress reactivity to social contexts.

    PubMed

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Peres, Jeremy C; Dismukes, Andrew R; Lee, Yoojin; Phan, Jenny M

    2014-02-01

    The authors conjecture that to understand normal stress regulation, including cortisol stress reactivity, it is important to understand why these biomarkers are released and what they function to accomplish within the individual. This perspective holds that high (or rising) cortisol has advantages and disadvantages that must be understood within a context to understand how individual differences unfold. This perspective is juxtaposed with a popular vantage point of this stress hormone or of stress exposure that emphasizes the deleterious consequences or problems of this hormone. While the costs and benefits of cortisol are emphasized for normal stress regulation, this dynamic context-dependent purpose of stress hormones should extend to the development of psychopathology as well. This functional and dynamic view of cortisol is helpful for interpreting why Tackett and colleagues (2014) appear to observe advantageous cortisol recovery from stress in individuals with elevated personality disorder symptoms.

  1. Investigation of the serum levels of anterior pituitary hormones in male children with autism.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Keiko; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Miyachi, Taishi; Shimmura, Chie; Suda, Shiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Matsumoto, Kaori; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Iwata, Yasuhide; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sugiyama, Toshirou; Sato, Kohji; Mori, Norio

    2011-10-19

    The neurobiological basis of autism remains poorly understood. The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioural characteristics because there are currently no reliable biological markers. To test whether the anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol could be useful as biological markers for autism, we assessed the basal serum levels of these hormones in subjects with autism and normal controls. Using a suspension array system, we determined the serum levels of six anterior pituitary hormones, including adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth hormone, in 32 drug-naive subjects (aged 6 to 18 years, all boys) with autism, and 34 healthy controls matched for age and gender. We also determined cortisol levels in these subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone and cortisol were significantly higher in subjects with autism than in controls. In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation between cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in autism. Our results suggest that increased basal serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone accompanied by increased cortisol and growth hormone may be useful biological markers for autism.

  2. Investigation of the serum levels of anterior pituitary hormones in male children with autism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The neurobiological basis of autism remains poorly understood. The diagnosis of autism is based solely on behavioural characteristics because there are currently no reliable biological markers. To test whether the anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol could be useful as biological markers for autism, we assessed the basal serum levels of these hormones in subjects with autism and normal controls. Findings Using a suspension array system, we determined the serum levels of six anterior pituitary hormones, including adrenocorticotropic hormone and growth hormone, in 32 drug-naive subjects (aged 6 to 18 years, all boys) with autism, and 34 healthy controls matched for age and gender. We also determined cortisol levels in these subjects by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, growth hormone and cortisol were significantly higher in subjects with autism than in controls. In addition, there was a significantly positive correlation between cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in autism. Conclusion Our results suggest that increased basal serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone accompanied by increased cortisol and growth hormone may be useful biological markers for autism. PMID:22011527

  3. Influence of feeding status, time of the day, and season on baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone and the response to thyrotropin releasing hormone-stimulation test in healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Diez de Castro, E; Lopez, I; Cortes, B; Pineda, C; Garfia, B; Aguilera-Tejero, E

    2014-07-01

    Equine pituitary pars intermedia function can be assessed by the measurement of baseline and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)-induced concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); however, these measurements may be affected by the environment. Therefore, a prospective observational study evaluated the influence of feeding, time of the day, and season on baseline and TRH-induced concentrations of ACTH in healthy horses. Baseline ACTH was measured in 50 horses before and 2 h after feeding. Six research horses were subjected to a crossover study in which 6 TRH tests were performed in 2 different seasons, March-April (MA) and July-September (JS), at 2 different times of the day, 8 AM and 8 PM, and, under 2 different conditions relative to feeding status, fasted and 2 h after feeding. Differences between fasted and fed horses were found in baseline ACTH, 17.1 ± 1.8 versus 46.1 ± 7.6 pg/mL (P = 0.003) and TRH-stimulated ACTH: 124.1 ± 21.3 versus 192.6 ± 33.1 pg/mL (P = 0.029) at 10 min, and 40.1 ± 4.9 versus 73.2 ± 13.4 pg/mL (P = 0.018) at 30 min post TRH injection. No differences were found between tests performed at different times of the day. Basal ACTH concentrations were greater in JS than in MA, 17.1 ± 1.8 versus 11.9 ± 0.6 pg/mL (P = 0.006). A seasonal influence was also found in stimulated ACTH values, which were much greater in JS 122.7 ± 36.7 versus 31.2 ± 7.4 pg/mL, at 10 min (P = 0.03) and 39.0 ± 7.2 versus 19.8 ± 3.1 pg/mL, at 30 min (P = 0.03). In addition to season, feeding is a potential confounding factor when measuring baseline or stimulated ACTH in horses. In conclusion, feeding status should be standardized for the diagnosis of equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction.

  4. Cortisol interferes with the estradiol-induced surge of luteinizing hormone in the ewe.

    PubMed

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Pierce, Bree N; Tilbrook, Alan J; Turner, Anne I; Karsch, Fred J

    2009-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol interferes with the positive feedback action of estradiol that induces the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Ovariectomized sheep were treated sequentially with progesterone and estradiol to create artificial estrous cycles. Cortisol or vehicle (saline) was infused from 2 h before the estradiol stimulus through the time of the anticipated LH surge in the artificial follicular phase of two successive cycles. The plasma cortisol increment produced by infusion was approximately 1.5 times greater than maximal concentrations seen during infusion of endotoxin, which is a model of immune/inflammatory stress. In experiment 1, half of the ewes received vehicle in the first cycle and cortisol in the second; the others were treated in reverse order. All ewes responded with an LH surge. Cortisol delayed the LH surge and reduced its amplitude, but both effects were observed only in the second cycle. Experiment 2 was modified to provide better control for a cycle effect. Four treatment sequences were tested (cycle 1-cycle 2): vehicle-vehicle, cortisol-cortisol, vehicle-cortisol, cortisol-vehicle. Again, cortisol delayed but did not block the LH surge, and this delay occurred in both cycles. Thus, an elevation in plasma cortisol can interfere with the positive feedback action of estradiol by delaying and attenuating the LH surge.

  5. Effects of benzyl glucoside and chlorogenic acid from Prunus mume on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and catecholamine levels in plasma of experimental menopausal model rats.

    PubMed

    Ina, Hiroji; Yamada, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kosai; Miyazaki, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of benzyl beta-D-glucopyranoside (BG) and chlorogenic acid (CA), the constituents of the fruit of Prunus mume, for relieving tension in experimental menopausal model rats (M-rats) caused by ether stress, the effects of BG and CA on adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and catecholamine (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) levels were examined in the plasma of M-rats. Caffeic acid, quinic acid, and rosmarinic acid, which are compounds structurally related to CA, were also examined. BG obviously recovered catecholamine levels decreased by ether stress and increased dopamine to high levels. On the other hand, CA significantly decreased the ACTH level increased by ether stress and showed the greatest effect of all compounds. These results suggest that BG and CA may contribute to relieving the tension in M-rats caused by ether stress.

  6. Adrenocorticotropic hormone therapy for the treatment of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and young adults: a systematic review of early clinical studies with contemporary relevance.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Kenneth V; Pavlova-Wolf, Anna

    2017-02-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as a treatment for proteinuria due to nephrotic syndrome (NS) has re-emerged over the last decade. Current clinical data are primarily limited to adults with treatment-resistant NS. Largely unknown to today's clinicians is the existence of early clinical studies, following ACTH's introduction in the late 1940s, showing sustained proteinuria response in idiopathic NS in predominantly pediatric, treatment-naïve patients. Before ACTH, patients suffered severe edema and high mortality rates with no reliable or safe treatment. ACTH dramatically altered NS management, initially through recognition of diuresis effects and then through sustained proteinuria remission. This review synthesizes early clinical literature to inform current NS patient management. We undertook a MEDLINE search using MeSH terms "adrenocorticotropic hormone" and "nephrotic syndrome," with limits 1945-1965 and English. Sixty papers totaling 1137 patients were found; 14 studies (9 short-term, five long-term, N = 419 patients) met inclusion criteria. Studies were divided into two groups: short-term (≤28 days) and long-term (>5 weeks; short-term initial daily treatment followed by long-term intermittent)ACTH therapy and results were aggregated. An initial response, defined as a diuresis, occurred in 74 % of patients/treatment courses across nine short-term ACTH studies. Analyzed in eight of these studies, proteinuria response occurred in 56 % of patients/treatment courses. Across five long-term ACTH studies, proteinuria response was shown in 71 % of patients and was sustained up to 4.7 years following treatment. The inventory and re-evaluation of early clinical data broadens the evidence base of clinical experiences with ACTH for implementation of current treatment strategies and aiding the design of future studies.

  7. Salivary cortisol and explicit memory in postmenopausal women using hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Elizabeth; Duff-Canning, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Circulating cortisol levels are known to influence explicit memory in humans and other primates. The present study investigated salivary cortisol and its association with explicit memory performance in 99 postmenopausal women (64 treated with conjugated equine estrogens or estradiol, and 35 matched controls not using any form of hormone therapy). Controls were compared with treated women taking estrogens alone (n=39), or taking estrogens in combination with a progestin (n=25). Mean time on hormone therapy was approximately 5 years, with initiation of treatment in close proximity to the onset of menopause. Explicit memory was assessed with the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Saliva was collected before (basal or resting sample) and after (post-test sample) completing a set of cognitive tasks. Cortisol was measured using a high-sensitivity radioimmunoassay. Treated women were found to have higher resting cortisol concentrations than controls matched for time of day. Basal cortisol was a modest predictor of learning and memory on the CVLT. Higher cortisol was associated with better recall and fewer memory errors, which is consistent with experimental studies examining explicit memory under small increases in circulating cortisol load. Potential cumulative effects on the central nervous system of sustained exposure to mildly increased cortisol in conjunction with the long-term use of oral estrogens are discussed in the context of aging and dementia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  9. The effect of neonatal maternal stress on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone, leptin, and ghrelin in adult male rats exposed to acute heterotypic stressor.

    PubMed

    Holubová, A; Štofková, A; Jurčovičová, J; Šlamberová, R

    2016-12-22

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is important for maintenance of homeostasis during stress. Recent studies have shown a connection between the HPA axis and adipose tissue. The present study investigated the effect of acute heterotypic stress on plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), corticosterone (CORT), leptin, and ghrelin in adult male rats with respect to neonatal maternal social and physical stressors. Thirty rat mothers and sixty of their male progeny were used. Pups were divided into three groups: unstressed control (C), stressed by maternal social stressor (S), stressed by maternal social and physical stressors (SW). Levels of hormones were measured in adult male progeny following an acute swimming stress (10 min) or no stress. ELISA immunoassay was used to measured hormones. The ACTH and CORT levels were significantly increased in all groups of adult progeny after acute stress; however, CORT levels were significantly lower in both neonatally stressed groups compared to controls. After acute stress, plasma leptin levels were decreased in the C and SW groups but increased in the S group. The data suggest that long-term neonatal stressors lead to lower sensitivity of ACTH receptors in the adrenal cortex, which could be a sign of stress adaptation in adulthood. Acute stress in adult male rats changes plasma levels of leptin differently relative to social or physical neonatal stressors.

  10. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  11. Hormonal contraceptive use diminishes salivary cortisol response to psychosocial stress and naltrexone in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.; Cohoon, Andrew J.; Lovallo, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The use of hormonal contraception (HC) may affect salivary cortisol levels at rest and in response to a pharmacological or stress challenge. Therefore, the current study used a secondary data analysis to investigate the effect of HC on salivary cortisol levels in response to the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone and a psychosocial stressor, and also across the diurnal curve. Two hundred and nine women (n = 72 using hormonal contraception; HC+) completed a two-session stress response study that consisted of a stress day, in which they were exposed to public speaking and mental arithmetic, and a rest day, in which unstimulated cortisol levels were measured to assess the diurnal rhythm. A subset of seventy women (n = 24 HC+) also completed a second study in which they were administered oral naltrexone (50 mg) or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind fashion. Women who were HC+ had a significantly reduced salivary cortisol response to both the psychosocial stressor (p < 0.001) and naltrexone (p < 0.05) compared to HC− women. Additionally, HC+ women had a significantly altered morning diurnal cortisol rhythm (p < 0.01), with a delayed peak and higher overall levels. The results of the current study confirm that HC attenuates salivary cortisol response to a psychosocial stressor and mu-opioid receptor antagonism, and also alters the morning diurnal cortisol curve. PMID:23672966

  12. Role of estradiol in cortisol-induced reduction of luteinizing hormone pulse frequency.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Amy E; Breen, Kellie M; Tilbrook, Alan J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2009-06-01

    Precise control of pulsatile GnRH and LH release is imperative to ovarian cyclicity but is vulnerable to environmental perturbations, like stress. In sheep, a sustained (29 h) increase in plasma cortisol to a level observed during stress profoundly reduces GnRH pulse frequency in ovariectomized ewes treated with ovarian steroids, whereas shorter infusion (6 h) is ineffective in the absence of ovarian hormones. This study first determined whether the ovarian steroid milieu or duration of exposure is the relevant factor in determining whether cortisol reduces LH pulse frequency. Prolonged (29 h) cortisol infusion did not lower LH pulse frequency in ovariectomized ewes deprived of ovarian hormones, but it did so in ovariectomized ewes treated with estradiol and progesterone to create an artificial estrous cycle, implicating ovarian steroids as the critical factor. Importantly, this effect of cortisol was more pronounced after the simulated preovulatory estradiol rise of the artificial follicular phase. The second experiment examined which component of the ovarian steroid milieu enables cortisol to reduce LH pulse frequency in the artificial follicular phase: prior exposure to progesterone in the luteal phase, low early follicular phase estradiol levels, or the preovulatory estradiol rise. Basal estradiol enabled cortisol to decrease LH pulse frequency, but the response was potentiated by the estradiol rise. These findings lead to the conclusion that ovarian steroids, particularly estradiol, enable cortisol to inhibit LH pulse frequency. Moreover, the results provide new insight into the means by which gonadal steroids, and possibly reproductive status, modulate neuroendocrine responses to stress.

  13. Effect of blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow on oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    González, R; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2013-10-01

    Reproduction may be affected by stressful events changing the female endocrine or metabolic profile. An altered environment during oocyte development could influence the delicate process of oocyte maturation. Here, the effect of simulated stress by media supplementation with blood plasma from sows after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration during the preovulatory period was assessed. Oocytes were matured for 46 hours in the presence of plasma from ACTH-treated sows, or plasma from NaCl-treated control sows, or medium without plasma (BSA group). The plasma used had been collected at 36 and 12 hours (±2 hours) before ovulation (for the first 24 hours + last 22 hours of maturation, respectively). Subsequent fertilization and embryo development were evaluated. Actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns were studied by confocal microscopy both in the oocytes and the resulting blastocysts. Nuclear maturation did not differ between treatments. Subtle differences were observed in the actin microfilaments in oocytes; however, mitochondrial patterns were associated with the treatment (P < 0.001). These differences in mitochondrial patterns were not reflected by in vitro outcomes, which were similar in all groups. In conclusion, an altered hormonal environment provided by a brief exposure to plasma from ACTH-treated sows during in vitro oocyte maturation could induce alterations in actin cytoskeleton and mitochondrial patterns in oocytes. However, these changes might not hamper the subsequent in vitro embryo development.

  14. Detection of endogenous cortisol in equine tears and blood at rest and after simulated stress.

    PubMed

    Monk, Caroline S; Hart, Kelsey A; Berghaus, Roy D; Norton, Natalie A; Moore, Phillip A; Myrna, Kathern E

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether cortisol is present in equine tears at rest and during simulated stress and compare tear cortisol to serum free and total cortisol. Fourteen healthy adult horses were included. Paired tear total cortisol and serum total and free cortisol concentrations were measured with ELISA, chemiluminescent immunoassay, and ultrafiltration methodology, respectively, in 10 horses at rest once daily for five consecutive days. In an additional four horses, paired tear and serum samples were collected for cortisol measurement before and after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation (cosyntropin, 1 μg/kg IV). Cortisol was detectable in equine tears at rest. Following ACTH stimulation, tear cortisol increased significantly from baseline at 60-120 min (P ≤ 0.001). Serum total and free cortisol also increased significantly at 30-180 min after ACTH stimulation (P ≤ 0.001). Both serum and tear cortisol returned to baseline concentrations by 360 min. Changes in tear cortisol were similarly associated with changes in serum total and free cortisol, although high tear cortisol concentrations suggest a portion of tear cortisol may be protein-bound. Cortisol is present in equine tears and increases in concert with serum cortisol following ACTH stimulation. Further study is needed to determine whether endogenous cortisol in tears contributes to ocular pathology. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Mu-opioid receptor A118G polymorphism in healthy volunteers affects hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis adrenocorticotropic hormone stress response to metyrapone

    PubMed Central

    Ducat, Elizabeth; Ray, Brenda; Bart, Gavin; Umemura, Yoshie; Varon, Jack; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    The mu-opioid receptor encoded by the gene OPRM1 plays a primary role in opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine addiction. Studies using opioid antagonists demonstrate that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) also mediates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis stress response. A common polymorphism in exon one of the MOP-r gene, A118G, has been shown to significantly alter receptor function and MOP-r gene expression; therefore, this variant likely affects HPA-axis responsivity. In the current study, we have investigated whether the presence of the 118AG variant genotype affects HPA axis responsivity to the stressor metyrapone, which transiently blocks glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex. Forty-eight normal and healthy volunteers (32 men, 16 women) were studied, among whom nine men and seven women had the 118AG genotype. The 118G allele blunted the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to metyrapone. Although there was no difference in basal levels of ACTH, subjects with the 118AG genotype had a more modest rise and resultant significantly lower ACTH levels than those with the prototype 118AA at the 8-hour time point (P < 0.02). We found no significant difference between genders. These findings suggest a relatively greater tonic inhibition at hypothalamic–pituitary sites through the mu-opioid receptor and relatively less cyclical glucocorticoid inhibition in subjects with the 118G allele. PMID:21507151

  16. Mu-opioid receptor A118G polymorphism in healthy volunteers affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis adrenocorticotropic hormone stress response to metyrapone.

    PubMed

    Ducat, Elizabeth; Ray, Brenda; Bart, Gavin; Umemura, Yoshie; Varon, Jack; Ho, Ann; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-03-01

    The mu-opioid receptor encoded by the gene OPRM1 plays a primary role in opiate, alcohol, cocaine and nicotine addiction. Studies using opioid antagonists demonstrate that the mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r) also mediates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response. A common polymorphism in exon one of the MOP-r gene, A118G, has been shown to significantly alter receptor function and MOP-r gene expression; therefore, this variant likely affects HPA-axis responsivity. In the current study, we have investigated whether the presence of the 118AG variant genotype affects HPA axis responsivity to the stressor metyrapone, which transiently blocks glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex. Forty-eight normal and healthy volunteers (32 men, 16 women) were studied, among whom nine men and seven women had the 118AG genotype. The 118G allele blunted the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) response to metyrapone. Although there was no difference in basal levels of ACTH, subjects with the 118AG genotype had a more modest rise and resultant significantly lower ACTH levels than those with the prototype 118AA at the 8-hour time point (P < 0.02). We found no significant difference between genders. These findings suggest a relatively greater tonic inhibition at hypothalamic-pituitary sites through the mu-opioid receptor and relatively less cyclical glucocorticoid inhibition in subjects with the 118G allele.

  17. A possible analytical and clinical role of endogenous antibodies causing discrepant adrenocorticotropic hormone measurement in a case of ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saiegh, Leonard; Odeh, Majed; Chen-Konak, Limor; Elias, Nizar; Sheikh-Ahmad, Mohammad; Reut, Maria; Slobodin, Gleb; Bejar, Jacob; Shechner, Carmela

    2014-07-01

    Heterophilic antibodies are well described, but poorly appreciated interferents and is often not a recognized problem affecting most immunoassays. We report a patient presented with ectopic Cushing's syndrome (CS), but repeated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range and not elevated, most probably as a result of antibody interference. A 36-year-old woman, presented with large gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and severe ectopic CS, while repeated plasma ACTH concentrations conducted by immunoassay were inappropriately within the reference range. As we expected ACTH concentration to be higher, we performed several tests to evaluate whether there was any assay interference causing falsely lower than expected ACTH results. We measured ACTH using a different immunoassay, assayed the sample in dilution, assayed the sample after being incubated in heterophilic antibody blocking agent tube and performed recovery studies. Tests indicated the presence of interfering compounds, most probably heterophilic antibodies. When clinicians find ACTH concentrations to be lower than expected, we recommend the laboratory investigate antibody interference.

  18. Mapping the human melanocortin 2 receptor (adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor; ACTHR) gene (MC2R) to the small arm of chromosome 18 (18p11. 21-pter)

    SciTech Connect

    Vamvakopoulos, N.C.; Chrousos, G.P. ); Rojas, K.; Overhauser, J. ); Durkin, A.S.; Nierman, W.C. )

    1993-11-01

    The human adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor (ACTHR) was recently cloned and shown to belong to the superfamily of membrane receptors that couple to guanine nucleotide-binding proteins and adenylyl cyclase. A genetically heterogeneous (including both X-linked and autosomally recessive forms) congenital syndrome of general hereditary adrenal unresponsiveness to ACTH has been documented in several kindreds. This inherited defect affects one of the steps in the cascade of events of ACTH action on glucocorticoid biosynthesis, without altering mineralocorticoid productions. Since candidate targets for pathophysiological manifestations of deficient responsiveness to ACTH include lesions of the ACTHR gene, the authors undertook to map it to a chromosomal location. They first used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of NIGMS Panel 1 DNA template to assign a 960-bp-long fragment of the human ACTHR gene to chromosome 18. Subsequently, they determined the location of the ACTHR gene within human chromosome 18 by PCR amplification of genomic DNA template from somatic cell hybrids that contain deletions of this chromosome.

  19. Aberrant luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone-stimulated adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in a patient with pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Ban, Y; Ban, Y; Taniyama, M; Hara, H; Abe, T; Katagiri, T

    2000-08-01

    We report a patient with primary hypothyroidism associated with an aberrant ACTH response to the LH-RH test. A 40-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital displaying headache, nausea, and numbness on the left side of her face, upper limbs, and tips of her toes. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass-like lesion in the pituitary. A high serum TSH concentration with concomitant low thyroid hormone concentrations resulted in a diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. To exclude the possibility of a coexisting pituitary tumor including a TSH-secreting tumor, we performed dynamic TSH secretion tests. TRH testing showed an excessive, delayed TSH response, typical of primary hypothyroidism. Serum TSH decreased not only after administration of CRH, octreotide, or L-DOPA, but also after administration of LH-RH. In this case, LH-RH testing induced ACTH secretion. To determine if aberrant ACTH secretion in response to LH-RH loading is a common phenomenon in severe primary hypothyroidism, we performed the LH-RH test on 4 additional patients with pituitary enlargement due to primary hypothyroidism. Two patients demonstrated aberrant ACTH secretion in response to LH-RH loading, but the others did not. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aberrant LH-RH-stimulated ACTH secretion in primary hypothyroidism.

  20. Sleep, Dreams, and Memory Consolidation: The Role of the Stress Hormone Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert…

  1. Hormonal modulation of the heat shock response: insights from fish with divergent cortisol stress responses.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Currie, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout. We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response but provided insight into stress-coping styles and environmental stress. HR fish also had a significantly greater and faster heat shock response and less oxidative protein damage than LR fish. Despite these clear differences in the physiological and cellular responses to heat shock, there were no differences in the thermal tolerance of HR and LR fish. Our results support the hypothesis that responsiveness to environmental change underpins the physiological differences in stress-coping styles. Here, we demonstrate that the heat shock response is a distinguishing feature of the HR and LR lines and suggest that it may have been coselected with the hormonal responses to stress.

  2. Seasonal and sex differences in responsiveness to adrenocorticotropic hormone contribute to stress response plasticity in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    PubMed

    Dayger, Catherine A; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2016-04-01

    As in many vertebrates, hormonal responses to stress vary seasonally in red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). For example, males generally exhibit reduced glucocorticoid responses to a standard stressor during the spring mating season. We asked whether variation in adrenal sensitivity to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) explains why glucocorticoid responses to capture stress vary with sex, season and body condition in red-sided garter snakes. We measured glucocorticoids at 0, 1 and 4 h after injection with ACTH (0.1 IU g(-1)body mass) or vehicle in males and females during the spring mating season and autumn pre-hibernation period. Because elevated glucocorticoids can influence sex steroids, we also examined androgen and estradiol responses to ACTH. ACTH treatment increased glucocorticoids in both sexes and seasons. Spring-collected males had a smaller integrated glucocorticoid response to ACTH than autumn-collected males. The integrated glucocorticoid response to ACTH differed with sex during the spring, with males having a smaller glucocorticoid response than females. Although integrated glucocorticoid responses to ACTH did not vary with body condition, we observed an interaction among season, sex and body condition. In males, ACTH treatment did not alter androgen levels in either season, but androgen levels decreased during the sampling period. Similar to previous studies, plasma estradiol was low or undetectable during the spring and autumn, and therefore any effect of ACTH treatment on estradiol could not be determined. These data provide support for a mechanism that partly explains how the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis integrates information about season, sex and body condition: namely, variation in adrenal responsiveness to ACTH.

  3. Blood plasma collected after adrenocorticotropic hormone administration during the preovulatory period in the sow negatively affects in vitro fertilization by disturbing spermatozoa function.

    PubMed

    González, R; Kumaresan, A; Bergqvist, A S; Sjunnesson, Y C B

    2015-04-15

    Successful fertilization is essential for reproduction and might be negatively affected by stressful events, which could alter the environment where fertilization occurs. The aim of the study was to determine whether an altered hormonal profile in blood plasma caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration could affect in vitro fertilization in the pig model. In experiment 1, gametes were exposed for 24 hours to plasma from ACTH-treated, non-ACTH-treated sows, or medium with BSA. Fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates were lower in the ACTH group compared with the no ACTH or BSA control groups (P < 0.01). In experiment 2, the exposure of matured oocytes for 1 hour before fertilization to the same treatments did not have an impact on their ability to undergo fertilization or on embryo development. In experiment 3, spermatozoa were incubated for 0, 1, 4, and 24 hours under the same conditions. There was no effect of treatment on sperm viability. The percentage of acrosome-reacted spermatozoa remained higher in the ACTH group compared with the non-ACTH-treated group through the incubation period (P < 0.001). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PTP) patterns were also affected by treatment (P < 0.001). The presence of an atypical PTP pattern was higher in the ACTH group at all the analyzed time points compared with the BSA and no ACTH groups (P < 0.001). In conclusion, this altered environment may not affect oocyte competence but might affect the sperm fertilizing ability through alterations in the acrosome reaction and correct sequence of PTP patterns.

  4. Thyroid, cortisol and growth hormone levels in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Udenze, Ifeoma Christiana; Olowoselu, Olusola Festus; Egbuagha, Ephraim Uchenna; Oshodi, Temitope Adewunmi

    2017-01-01

    The similarities in presentation of cortisol excess, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome suggest that subtle abnormalities of these endocrine hormones may play a causal role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of cortisol, thyroid and growth hormones in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the relationship between levels of these hormones and components of the syndrome. This was a case control study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty, age and sex matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Written Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Socio demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an over-night fast. The Ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the Student's t test. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Triiodotyronine (T3) was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and thyroxine (T4 ) significantly increased ( p<0.001) in metabolic syndrome compared to healthy controls. T3 correlated positively and significantly with waist circumference (p=0.004), glucose (p= 0.002), total cholesterol ( p=0.001) and LDL- cholesterol ( p<0.001 ) and negatively with body mass index ( p<0.001 )and triglyceride ( p=0.026). T4 had a negative significant correlation with waist circumference (p=0.004). Cortisol and growth hormone levels were similar in metabolic syndrome and controls. Cortisol however had a positive significant correlation with waist/hip ratio (p<0.001) while growth hormone correlated positively with

  5. Cortisol and hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis hormones in follicular-phase women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome and effect of depressive symptoms on these hormones

    PubMed Central

    Gur, Ali; Cevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal; Colpan, Leyla; Sarac, Serdar

    2004-01-01

    We investigated abnormalities of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis and cortisol concentrations in women with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) who were in the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle, and whether their scores for depressive symptoms were related to levels of these hormones. A total of 176 subjects participated – 46 healthy volunteers, 68 patients with fibromyalgia, and 62 patients with CFS. We examined concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, prolactin, and cortisol. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Cortisol levels were significantly lower in patients with fibromyalgia or CFS than in healthy controls (P < 0.05); there were no significant differences in other hormone levels between the three groups. Fibromyalgia patients with high BDI scores had significantly lower cortisol levels than controls (P < 0.05), and so did CFS patients, regardless of their BDI scores (P < 0.05). Among patients without depressive symptoms, cortisol levels were lower in CFS than in fibromyalgia (P < 0.05). Our study suggests that in spite of low morning cortisol concentrations, the only abnormalities in hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis hormones among follicular-phase women with fibromyalgia or CFS are those of LH levels in fibromyalgia patients with a low BDI score. Depression may lower cortisol and LH levels, or, alternatively, low morning cortisol may be a biological factor that contributes to depressive symptoms in fibromyalgia. These parameters therefore must be taken into account in future investigations. PMID:15142269

  6. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: The role of the stress hormone cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jessica D.; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert influence on many of the brain systems involved in memory. The concentration of cortisol escalates over the course of the night's sleep, in ways that we propose can help explain the changing nature of dreams across the sleep cycle. PMID:15576884

  7. Cortisol, growth hormone, free fatty acids, and experimentally evoked affective arousal.

    PubMed

    Brown, W A; Heninger, G

    1975-11-01

    Eight male volunteers who viewed selected control, suspense, and erotic films experienced significant changes in affect that were limited to fatigue, anxiety, and sexual arousal, respectively. All subjects showed free fatty acid elevations with the suspense and erotic films and those subjects with the most anxiety and sexual arousal showed cortisol elevation with the suspense and erotic films, respectively. Growth hormone elevations occurred independently of cortisol elevations and were not clearly related to film or affect. Thus, activation of the pituitary-adrenocortical and sympathetic nervous systems appears to occur not in relation to a specific dysphoric state but rather with nonspecific affective arousal.

  8. Sleep, dreams, and memory consolidation: the role of the stress hormone cortisol.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jessica D; Nadel, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between sleep, dreams, and memory, proposing that the content of dreams reflects aspects of memory consolidation taking place during the different stages of sleep. Although we acknowledge the likely involvement of various neuromodulators in these phenomena, we focus on the hormone cortisol, which is known to exert influence on many of the brain systems involved in memory. The concentration of cortisol escalates over the course of the night's sleep, in ways that we propose can help explain the changing nature of dreams across the sleep cycle.

  9. Fuel oil-induced adrenal hypertrophy in ranch mink (Mustela vison): effects of sex, fuel oil weathering, and response to adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Mohr, F C; Lasley, B; Bursian, S

    2010-01-01

    Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons from anthropogenic sources can be a cause of stress for free-ranging wildlife. The response of wildlife to chemical contaminants requires that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis be precisely regulated to allow for proper glucocorticoid-mediated adaptive responses. Chronic oral exposure to low concentrations of bunker C fuel oil causes the development of adrenal hypertrophy in male ranch mink (Mustela vison) without increasing serum or fecal glucocorticoid concentrations. This hypertrophy is an adaptive response to fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To determine if the same phenomenon occurs in female mink or male mink exposed to artificially weathered fuel oil, female mink were fed 0 ppm (mineral oil) or 420 ppm fuel oil and male mink were exposed to 0 ppm, 420 ppm fuel oil, or 480 ppm artificially weathered fuel oil in the diet for 60-62 days. At the end of the exposure, serum glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed along with body and organ weight measurements. Fecal glucocorticoid concentrations were assayed at time points throughout the exposure. Male mink fed fuel oil or weathered fuel oil and female mink fed fuel oil had adrenal enlargement without any significant increases in the serum or fecal concentration of glucocorticoids, which is consistent with fuel oil-induced adrenal insufficiency. To address the physiological consequences of adrenal insufficiency, fuel oil-exposed male mink were administered an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. Fuel oil-exposed animals had a smaller incremental increase in serum glucocorticoid concentration after ACTH challenge compared to control animals. Our findings provide further evidence that the HPA axis of fuel oil-exposed animals is compromised and, therefore, not able to respond appropriately to the diverse stressors found in the environment.

  10. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Enhances the Masculinity of an Electric Communication Signal by Modulating the Waveform and Timing of Action Potentials within Individual Cells

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Michael R.; Stoddard, Philip K.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that melanocortin peptides appear to serve as the mechanism by which weakly electric fish couple socially regulated and stress-regulated brain pathways to unique changes in the intrinsic excitability and action potential waveform of excitable membranes in peripheral cells involved in communication. Gymnotiform electric fish modulate their electric organ discharges (EODs) by reshaping the electric discharges of excitable cells in the periphery. These fish show circadian enhancement of the EOD waveform. They also enhance their EOD waveforms within minutes in response to stressors and changes in the social environment, thus altering the communication value of the signal. Changes in the EOD waveform that occur within minutes result from changes in the discharges of individual electrocytes (μEODs) mediated by the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway acting on ion channel kinetics. What activates the cAMP/PKA pathway in electrocytes has not been identified. In vivo injections of the melanocortin peptide adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increase the amplitude and duration of the electric signal waveform of the gymnotiform Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus over the course of 1 h. Applied to single electrocytes in vitro, ACTH increases μEOD amplitude and duration within minutes by differentially modulating the action potentials of the two excitable membranes of the electrocyte and changing the timing of these two spikes. Serotonin modulates the EOD in vivo but has no effect on the μEOD in vitro. The cAMP analog 8-bromo-cAMP mimicked the effects of ACTH, whereas inhibition of PKA by protein kinase A inhibitor 14–22 amide blocked the modulatory effects of ACTH, confirming the role of the cAMP/PKA pathway in μEOD modulation by ACTH. PMID:16177044

  11. Sources of variation in plasma corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in the male northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis): I. Seasonal patterns and effects of stress and adrenocorticotropic hormone.

    PubMed

    Fokidis, H Bobby

    2016-09-01

    The secretion of steroids from the adrenal gland is a classic endocrine response to perturbations that can affect homeostasis. During an acute stress response, glucocorticoids (GC), such as corticosterone (CORT), prepare the metabolic physiology and cognitive abilities of an animal in a manner that promotes survival during changing conditions. Although GC functions during stress are well established, much less is understood concerning how adrenal androgens, namely dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are influenced by stress. I conducted three field studies (one experimental and two descriptive) aimed at identifying how both CORT and DHEA secretion in free-living male northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), vary during acute stress; across different circulations (brachial vs. jugular); in response to ACTH challenge; and during the annual cycle. As predicted, restraint stress increased plasma CORT, but unexpectedly DHEA levels decreased, but the latter effect was only seen for blood sampled from the jugular vein, and not the brachial. The difference in DHEA between circulations may result from increased neural uptake of DHEA during stress. Injection with exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increased CORT concentrations, but failed to alter DHEA levels, thus suggesting ACTH is not a direct regulator of DHEA. Monthly field sampling revealed distinct seasonal patterns to both initial and restraint stress CORT and DHEA levels with distinct differences in the steroid milieu between breeding and non-breeding seasons. These data suggest that the CORT response to stress remains relatively consistent, but DHEA secretion is largely independent of the response by CORT. Although CORT functions have been well-studied in wild animals, little research exists for the role of DHEA and their variable relationship sets the stage for future experimental research addressing steroid stress responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Tipepidine, a non-narcotic antitussive, exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Ogata, Yukino; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats, which is known as a treatment-resistant depression model, and we studied the pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of tipepidine. Male Wistar rats (5-7 weeks old) were used in this study. Tipepidine (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was blocked by a catecholamine-depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (300 mg/kg, s.c.), but not by a serotonin-depleting agent, p-chlorophenylalanine. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was also blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02 mg/kg, s.c.) and an adrenaline α2 receptor antagonist, yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.). In microdialysis technique, tipepidine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the extracellular dopamine level of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in ACTH-treated rats. These results suggest that tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats, and that the effect of tipepidine is mediated by the stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors and adrenaline α2 receptors. The results also suggest that an increase in the extracellular dopamine level in the NAc may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of tipepidine in ACTH-treated rats.

  13. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs.

    PubMed

    Galac, S; Kars, V J; Klarenbeek, S; Teerds, K J; Mol, J A; Kooistra, H S

    2010-07-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We report on a screening of 23 surgically removed, cortisol-secreting ATs for the expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone (LH), gastric-inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), and vasopressin (V(1a), V(1b), and V(2)). Normal adrenal glands served as control tissues. Abundance of mRNA for these receptors was quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), and the presence and localization of these receptors were determined by immunohistochemistry. In both normal adrenal glands and ATs, mRNA encoding for all receptors was present, although the expression abundance of the V(1b) receptor was very low. The mRNA expression abundance for GIP and V(2) receptors in ATs were significantly lower (0.03 and 0.01, respectively) than in normal adrenal glands. The zona fasciculata of normal adrenal glands stained immunonegative for the GIP receptor. In contrast, islands of GIP receptor-immunopositive cells were detected in about half of the ATs. The zona fasciculata of both normal adrenal glands and AT tissue were immunopositive for LH receptor; in ATs in a homogenous or heterogenous pattern. In normal adrenal glands, no immunolabeling for V(1b)R and V(2) receptor was present, but in ATs, V(2) receptor-immunopositive cells were detected. In conclusion, QPCR analysis did not reveal overexpression of LH, GIP, V(1a), V(1b), or V(2) receptors in the ATs. However, the ectopic expression of GIP and V(2) receptor proteins in tumorous zona fasciculata tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis of canine cortisol-secreting ATs.

  14. Cortisol increases growth hormone-receptor expression in human osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Swolin-Eide, D; Nilsson, A; Ohlsson, C

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that high levels of glucocorticoids cause osteoporosis and that physiologic levels of growth hormone (GH) are required for normal bone remodeling. It has been suggested that glucocorticoids regulate GH-responses via the regulation of GH-receptor expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cortisol plays a role in the regulation of GH-receptor expression in cultured human osteoblasts. The effect of serum starvation and cortisol on GH-receptor expression was tested in human osteoblast (hOB)-like cells. Serum starvation for 24 h resulted in an increase in GH-receptor mRNA levels (90 +/- 1% over control culture). Cortisol increased GH-receptor mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner with a maximal effect at 10(-6)M. The stimulating effect of cortisol on GH-receptor mRNA levels was time-dependent, reaching a peak 12 h after the addition of cortisol (126 +/- 29% over control culture) and remaining up to 12 h later. The increase in GH-receptor mRNA levels was accompanied by an increase in 125I-GH binding which reached a maximum at 24 h (196 +/- 87% over control culture). In conclusion, glucocorticoids increase GH-receptor expression in hOB-like cells. Further studies are needed to clarify whether glucocorticoid-induced regulation of the GH-receptor is important in human bone physiology.

  15. CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling mediates inhibitory action by interferon-gamma on CRF-stimulated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release.

    PubMed

    Horiguchi, Kotaro; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Yoshida, Saishu; Higuchi, Masashi; Tateno, Kozue; Hasegawa, Rumi; Takigami, Shu; Ohsako, Shunji; Yashiro, Takashi; Kato, Takako; Kato, Yukio

    2016-05-01

    Secretion of hormones by the anterior pituitary gland can be stimulated or inhibited by paracrine factors that are produced during inflammatory reactions. The inflammation cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is known to inhibit corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-stimulated adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release but its signaling mechanism is not yet known. Using rat anterior pituitary, we previously demonstrated that the CXC chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), known as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) inducible protein 10 kDa, is expressed in dendritic cell-like S100β protein-positive (DC-like S100β-positive) cells and that its receptor CXCR3 is expressed in ACTH-producing cells. DC-like S100β-positive cells are a subpopulation of folliculo-stellate cells in the anterior pituitary. In the present study, we examine whether CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling between DC-like S100β-positive cells and ACTH-producing cells mediates inhibition of CRF-activated ACTH-release by IFN-γ, using a CXCR3 antagonist in the primary pituitary cell culture. We found that IFN-γ up-regulated Cxcl10 expression via JAK/STAT signaling and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression, while we reconfirmed that IFN-γ inhibits CRF-stimulated ACTH-release. Next, we used a CXCR3 agonist in primary culture to analyze whether CXCL10 induces Pomc-expression and ACTH-release using a CXCR3 agonist in the primary culture. The CXCR3 agonist significantly stimulated Pomc-expression and inhibited CRF-induced ACTH-release, while ACTH-release in the absence of CRF did not change. Thus, the present study leads us to an assumption that CXCL10/CXCR3 signaling mediates inhibition of the CRF-stimulated ACTH-release by IFN-γ. Our findings bring us to an assumption that CXCL10 from DC-like S100β-positive cells acts as a local modulator of ACTH-release during inflammation.

  16. Comparison of cortisol and thyroid hormones between tuberculosis-suspect and healthy elephants of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    PAUDEL, Sarad; BROWN, Janine L.; THAPALIYA, Sharada; DHAKAL, Ishwari P.; MIKOTA, Susan K.; GAIRHE, Kamal P.; SHIMOZURU, Michito; TSUBOTA, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We compared cortisol and thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) concentrations between tuberculosis (TB)-suspected (n=10) and healthy (n=10) elephants of Nepal. Whole blood was collected from captive elephants throughout Nepal, and TB testing was performed using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK® and DPP VetTB® serological assays that detect antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis in elephant serum. Cortisol, T3 and T4 were quantified by competitive enzyme immunoassays, and the results showed no significant differences in hormone concentrations between TB-suspect and healthy elephants. These preliminary data suggest neither adrenal nor thyroid function is altered by TB disease status. However, more elephants, including those positively diagnosed for TB by trunk wash cultures, need to be evaluated over time to confirm results. PMID:27452878

  17. Comparison of cortisol and thyroid hormones between tuberculosis-suspect and healthy elephants of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Sarad; Brown, Janine L; Thapaliya, Sharada; Dhakal, Ishwari P; Mikota, Susan K; Gairhe, Kamal P; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2016-12-01

    We compared cortisol and thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) concentrations between tuberculosis (TB)-suspected (n=10) and healthy (n=10) elephants of Nepal. Whole blood was collected from captive elephants throughout Nepal, and TB testing was performed using the ElephantTB STAT-PAK(®) and DPP VetTB(®) serological assays that detect antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis in elephant serum. Cortisol, T3 and T4 were quantified by competitive enzyme immunoassays, and the results showed no significant differences in hormone concentrations between TB-suspect and healthy elephants. These preliminary data suggest neither adrenal nor thyroid function is altered by TB disease status. However, more elephants, including those positively diagnosed for TB by trunk wash cultures, need to be evaluated over time to confirm results.

  18. The involvement of thyroid hormones and cortisol in the osmotic acclimation of Solea senegalensis.

    PubMed

    Arjona, F J; Vargas-Chacoff, L; Martín del Río, M P; Flik, G; Mancera, J M; Klaren, P H M

    2008-02-01

    The peripheral conversion of the prohormone 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (T4) to the biologically active 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), via enzymatic deiodination by deiodinases, is an important pathway in thyroid hormone metabolism. The aim of this study was to test if thyroid hormones and cortisol, as well as the outer ring deiodination (ORD) metabolic pathway, are involved in the osmoregulatory response of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis, Kaup 1858). We measured osmoregulatory and endocrine parameters in immature juveniles S. senegalensis acclimated to seawater (SW, 38 per thousand) and that were transferred and allowed to acclimate to different salinities (5 per thousand, 15 per thousand, 38 per thousand and 55 per thousand) for 17 days. An adjustment and a chronic regulatory period were identified following acclimation. The adjustment period immediately follows the transfer, and is characterized by altered plasma osmolalities. During this period, plasma cortisol levels increased while plasma free T4 (fT4) levels decreased. Both hormones levels returned to normal values on day 3 post-transfer. In the adjustment period, renal and hepatic ORD activities had increased concomitantly with the decrease in plasma fT4 levels in fishes transferred to extreme salinities (5 per thousand and 55 per thousand). In the chronic regulatory period, where plasma osmolality returned to normal values, plasma cortisol had increased, whereas plasma fT4 levels decreased in animals that were transferred to salinities other than SW. No major changes were observed in branchial ORD activity throughout the experiment. The inverse relationship between plasma cortisol and fT4 suggests an interaction between these hormones during both osmoregulatory periods while ORD pathway can be important in the short-term adjustment period.

  19. The stress hormone cortisol blocks perceptual learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Dinse, Hubert R; Kattenstroth, J C; Lenz, M; Tegenthoff, M; Wolf, O T

    2017-03-01

    Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid (GC) in humans, influences neuronal excitability and plasticity by acting on mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. Cellular studies demonstrated that elevated GC levels affect neuronal plasticity, for example through a reduction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). At the behavioural level, after treatment with GCs, numerous studies have reported impaired hippocampal function, such as impaired memory retrieval. In contrast, relatively little is known about the impact of GCs on cortical plasticity and perceptual learning in adult humans. Therefore, in this study, we explored the impact of elevated GC levels on human perceptual learning. To this aim, we used a training-independent learning approach, where lasting changes in human perception can be induced by applying passive repetitive sensory stimulation (rss), the timing of which was determined from cellular LTP studies. In our placebo-controlled double-blind study, we used tactile LTP-like stimulation to induce improvements in tactile acuity (spatial two-point discrimination). Our results show that a single administration of hydrocortisone (30mg) completely blocked rss-induced changes in two-point discrimination. In contrast, the placebo group showed the expected rss-induced increase in two-point discrimination of over 14%. Our data demonstrate that high GC levels inhibit rss-induced perceptual learning. We suggest that the suppression of LTP, as previously reported in cellular studies, may explain the perceptual learning impairments observed here.

  20. Corticosteroid-binding globulin, cortisol, free cortisol, and sex hormone-binding globulin responses following oral glucose challenge in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied men.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J G; Jones, L M; Legge, M; Elder, P A

    2010-11-01

    Circulating cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured retrospectively in plasma samples following the oral glucose tolerance test in 20 spinal cord-injured men and 20 able-bodied controls. Plasma-free cortisol responses attenuated more rapidly in the able-bodied men, compared to spinal cord-injured subjects, due to significant rise in circulating corticosteroid-binding globulin whereas changes in total plasma cortisol were similar in both groups. The changes in plasma-free cortisol in both groups paralleled changes in insulin and glucose and show that spinal cord-injured men had heightened exposure to free cortisol during this dynamic test. This raises the possibility that the mechanism of abdominal obesity and the propensity towards insulin resistance in spinal cord-injured men could be subtly mediated by perturbations in free cortisol. There were no significant changes in plasma sex hormone-binding globulin in either group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone co-secreting tumors in children and adolescents causing cushing syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma and how to solve it.

    PubMed

    Karageorgiadis, Alexander S; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Biro, Juliana; Keil, Meg F; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Quezado, Martha M; Merino, Maria; Schrump, David S; Kebebew, Electron; Patronas, Nicholas J; Hunter, Maya K; Alwazeer, Mouhammad R; Karaviti, Lefkothea P; Balazs, Andrea E; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic ACTH/CRH syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS), especially in children. The localization, work-up, and management of ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors are discussed. A retrospective study was conducted of patients under 21 years of age evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for CS and diagnosed with ectopic ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors during the period 2009-2014. Seven patients with ectopic ACTH/CRH CS are included in this study with a median age 13.6 years (range 1-21), and 3 are female. Clinical, biochemical, radiological features, treatment, and histological findings are described. Seven patients were found to have ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors, all with neuroendocrine features. The site of the primary lesion varied: pancreas (3), thymus (2), liver (1), right lower pulmonary lobe (1). PATIENTS underwent biochemical evaluation for CS, including diurnal serum cortisol and ACTH levels, urinary free cortisol levels (UFC), and CRH stimulation tests. All patients underwent radiological investigations including MRI, CT, and PET scan; imaging with octreotide and 68 gallium DOTATATE scans were performed in individual cases. Five patients underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling; 4 patients had sampling for ACTH and CRH levels from additional sites. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS), and 3 patients required bilateral adrenalectomy. Three patients (43%) died due to metastatic disease, demonstrating the high mortality rate. One of the unique findings in these seven patients is that in each case, their neuroendocrine tumors were ultimately proven to be co-secreting ACTH and CRH. This explains the enigmatic presentation, in which 3 patients initially thought to have Cushing's disease (CD) with corresponding pituitary hyperplasia underwent TSS prior to the correct localization of the causative tumor. Ectopic ACTH/CRH co-secreting tumors are extremely rare in children and adolescents. The diagnosis of this condition is frequently

  2. Plurihormonal pituitary adenoma with concomitant adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion: a report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Fahid Tariq; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Khan, Akbar Ali; Phadke, Rahul; Powell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Plurihormonal pituitary adenomas are tumours that show immunoreactivity for more than one hormone that cannot be explained by normal adenohypophysial cytodifferentiation. The most common combinations in these adenomas include growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and one or more glycoprotein hormone sub-units (β-TSH, β-FSH, β-LH and αSU). The authors report two cases of a plurihormonal pituitary adenoma expressing the rare combination of ACTH and GH. They both underwent successful transphenoidal hypophysectomy (TSH). Long-term post-operative follow-up revealed no evidence of tumour recurrence. Due to the multiple secretions and plurihormonal characteristics clinical diagnosis of composite pituitary adenomas can be difficult. The authors discuss the diagnosis and management of composite pituitary adenomas and review the literature regarding this rare phenomenon.

  3. Cortisol stimulates growth hormone gene expression in rainbow trout leucocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yada, Takashi; Muto, Kohji; Azuma, Teruo; Hyodo, Susumu; Schreck, Carl B

    2005-05-15

    Extrapituitary expression of the growth hormone (GH) gene has been reported for the immune system of various vertebrates. In the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), GH mRNA could be detected in several lymphoid organs and leucocytes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). To understand the control of GH expression in the fish immune system, mRNA levels for two distinct GH genes (GH1 and GH2) in trout leucocytes isolated from peripheral blood were quantified using a real-time PCR method. Both GH mRNAs could be detected in trout leucocytes, although their levels were extremely low compared to those in pituitary cells. The levels of GH2 mRNA in leucocytes were several times higher than those of GH1, while no difference was observed between GH1 and GH2 mRNA levels in the pituitary. Administration of dibutyryl cyclic AMP and cortisol produced a significant elevation of GH mRNA levels in trout leucocytes, although the levels were unchanged by T3. GH1 and GH2 mRNA levels showed similarities in responses to those factors. The effect of cortisol on GH mRNA appears biphasic; a dose-depending elevation of GH gene expression was observed in leucocytes treated with cortisol at below 200 nM, however, cortisol had no effect at 2000 nM. Cortisol-treated leucocytes showed no significant change in the mRNA level of beta-actin or proliferative activity during the experiments. Our results thus show that, at the low levels, GH gene expression in trout leucocytes is regulated by cortisol, which has been known as a regulatory factor of GH gene expression in pituitary cells, and suggest a physiological significance of paracrine GH produced in the fish immune system.

  4. Long-term bioeffects of 435-MHz radiofrequency radiation on selected blood-borne endpoints in cannulated rats. Volume 2. Plasma ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and plasma corticosterone. Final report, 20 August 1984-16 February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, V.P.; Toler, J.C.; Bonasera, S.J.; Popovic, P.P.; Honeycutt, C.B.

    1987-08-01

    Two hundred adult male white rats with chronically implanted aortic cannulas were randomly divided into two groups. Animals in the first group were exposed to low-level (1.0 mW/cm2) pulsed-wave 435-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR) for approximately 22 h daily, 7 days each week, for 6 months. Animals in the second group were maintained under identical conditions, but were not radiated. The cannulas were used to draw microsamples (0.3 mL) of aortic blood from the unrestrained, unanesthetized rats on a cyclic schedule. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassays hormone (ACTH) and plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassays. Statistical analysis of the results did not indicate increased plasma ACTH and plasma corticosterone concentrations in exposed animals when compared to sham-exposed animals. Exposure to this low-level radiofrequency environment did not induce stresses that were manifested as an alteration in plasma hormones.

  5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus methylprednisolone added to interferon β in patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing breakthrough disease: a randomized, rater-blinded trial

    PubMed Central

    Berkovich, Regina; Bakshi, Rohit; Amezcua, Lilyana; Axtell, Robert C.; Cen, Steven Y.; Tauhid, Shahamat; Neema, Mohit; Steinman, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate monthly intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) gel versus intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP) add-on therapy to interferon β for breakthrough disease in patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Methods: This was a prospective, open-label, examiner-blinded, 15-month pilot study evaluating patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 3.0–6.5 and at least one clinical relapse or new T2 or gadolinium-enhanced lesion in the previous year. Twenty-three patients were randomized to ACTH (n = 12) or IVMP (n = 11) and completed the study. The primary outcome measure was the cumulative number of relapses. Secondary outcomes included EDSS, Mental Health Inventory (MHI), plasma cytokines, MS Functional Composite (MSFC), Quality-of-Life (MS-QOL) score, bone mineral density (BMD), and new or worsened psychiatric symptoms per month. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was analyzed post hoc. This was a preliminary and small-scale study. Results: Relapse rates differed significantly [ACTH 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01–0.54 versus IVMP 0.80, 95% CI 0.36–1.75; rate ratio, IVMP versus ACTH: 9.56, 95% CI 1.23–74.6; p = 0.03]. ACTH improved (p = 0.03) MHI (slope 0.95 ± 0.38 points/month; p = 0.02 versus slope −0.38 ± 0.43 points/month; p = 0.39). On-study decreases (all p < 0.05) in eight cytokine levels occurred only in the ACTH group. However, on-study EDSS, MSFC, MS-QOL, BMD, and MRI lesion changes were not significant between groups. Psychiatric symptoms per patient were greater with IVMP than ACTH (0.55, 95% CI 0.12–2.6 versus 0; p < 0.0001). Other common adverse events were insomnia and urinary tract infections (IVMP, seven events each) and fatigue or flu symptoms (ACTH, five events each). Conclusions: This study provided class II evidence that ACTH produced better examiner-assessed cumulative rates of relapses per patient than IVMP in the adjunctive treatment of

  6. Serum concentrations of cortisol and cortisone in healthy dogs and dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism treated with trilostane.

    PubMed

    Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S; Boretti, F S; Wenger, M; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, C E

    2008-10-18

    The serum concentrations of cortisol and cortisone were measured in 19 healthy dogs and in 13 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) before and one hour after an injection of synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the dogs with pdh, the cortisol and cortisone concentrations were measured before and after one to two weeks and three to seven weeks of treatment with trilostane. The dogs with PDH had significantly higher baseline and poststimulation concentrations of cortisol and cortisone, and higher baseline cortisol:cortisone ratios than the healthy dogs. During the treatment with trilostane, the poststimulation cortisol, the baseline and poststimulation cortisone concentrations, and the baseline and poststimulation cortisol:cortisone ratios decreased significantly. The decrease in poststimulation cortisone was significantly smaller than the decrease in cortisol.

  7. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Co-Secreting Tumors in Children and Adolescents Causing Cushing Syndrome: A Diagnostic Dilemma and How to Solve It

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgiadis, Alexander S.; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Biro, Juliana; Keil, Meg F.; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Quezado, Martha M.; Merino, Maria; Schrump, David S.; Kebebew, Electron; Patronas, Nicholas J.; Hunter, Maya K.; Alwazeer, Mouhammad R.; Karaviti, Lefkothea P.; Balazs, Andrea E.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Ectopic ACTH/CRH syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS), especially in children. The localization, work-up, and management of ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors are discussed. Setting: A retrospective study was conducted of patients under 21 years of age evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for CS and diagnosed with ectopic ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors during the period 2009–2014. Patients: Seven patients with ectopic ACTH/CRH CS are included in this study with a median age 13.6 years (range 1–21), and 3 are female. Measurements: Clinical, biochemical, radiological features, treatment, and histological findings are described. Results: Seven patients were found to have ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors, all with neuroendocrine features. The site of the primary lesion varied: pancreas (3), thymus (2), liver (1), right lower pulmonary lobe (1). Patients underwent biochemical evaluation for CS, including diurnal serum cortisol and ACTH levels, urinary free cortisol levels (UFC), and CRH stimulation tests. All patients underwent radiological investigations including MRI, CT, and PET scan; imaging with octreotide and 68 gallium DOTATATE scans were performed in individual cases. Five patients underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling; 4 patients had sampling for ACTH and CRH levels from additional sites. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS), and 3 patients required bilateral adrenalectomy. Three patients (43%) died due to metastatic disease, demonstrating the high mortality rate. One of the unique findings in these seven patients is that in each case, their neuroendocrine tumors were ultimately proven to be co-secreting ACTH and CRH. This explains the enigmatic presentation, in which 3 patients initially thought to have Cushing's disease (CD) with corresponding pituitary hyperplasia underwent TSS prior to the correct localization of the causative tumor. Conclusions: Ectopic ACTH/CRH co-secreting tumors are extremely rare in children

  8. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    TØ, Bechshøft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD

    2012-01-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p′-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

  9. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D

    2012-07-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of cortisol on gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jae; Habibi, Hamid R; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Jung, Min-Min; Choi, Cheol Young

    2017-04-01

    Hypothalamic peptides, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin inhibitory hormone (GnIH), play pivotal roles in the control of reproduction and gonadal maturation in fish. In the present study we tested the possibility that stress-mediated reproductive dysfunction in teleost may involve changes in GnRH and GnIH activity. We studied expression of brain GnIH, GnIH-R, seabream GnRH (sbGnRH), as well as circulating levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in the cinnamon clownfish, Amphiprion melanopus. Treatment with cortisol increased GnIH mRNA level, but reduced sbGnRH mRNA and circulating levels of LH and FSH in cinnamon clownfish. Using double immunofluorescence staining, we found expression of both GnIH and GnRH in the diencephalon region of cinnamon clownfish brain. These findings support the hypothesis that cortisol, an indicator of stress, affects reproduction, in part, by increasing GnIH in cinnamon clownfish which contributes to hypothalamic suppression of reproductive function in A. melanopus, a protandrous hermaphroditic fish.

  11. Concentrations of the adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosterone and sex steroid hormones and the expression of the androgen receptor in the pituitary and adrenal glands of male turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Kiezun, J; Kaminska, B; Jankowski, J; Dusza, L

    2015-01-01

    Androgens take part in the regulation of puberty and promote growth and development. They play their biological role by binding to a specific androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of AR mRNA and protein in the pituitary and adrenal glands, to localize AR protein in luteinizing hormone (LH)-producing pituitary and adrenocortical cells, to determine plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone and the concentrations of corticosterone, testosterone (T), androstenedione (A4) and oestradiol (E2) in the adrenal glands of male turkeys at the age of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28weeks. The concentrations of hormones and the expression of AR varied during development. The expression of AR mRNA and protein in pituitary increased during the growth. The increase of AR mRNA levels in pituitary occurred earlier than increase of AR protein. The percentage of pituitary cells expressing ARs in the population of LH-secreting cells increased in week 20. It suggests that AR expression in LH-producing pituitary cells is determined by the phase of development. The drop in adrenal AR mRNA and protein expression was accompanied by an increase in the concentrations of adrenal androgens. Those results could point to the presence of a compensatory mechanism that enables turkeys to avoid the potentially detrimental effects of high androgen concentrations. Our results will expand our knowledge of the role of steroids in the development of the reproductive system of turkeys from the first month of age until maturity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A case of cervical carcinoma of the uterus presenting with hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma as a manifestation of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shirahige, Y; Watanabe, T; Oki, Y; Sonoda, T; Adachi, I

    1991-06-01

    A case of advanced cervical carcinoma of the uterus with ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is described. The patient was seen for general malaise 21 months after surgical treatment of the primary lesion whose histology was undifferentiated small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. She had extensive metastases in the liver and the abdominal wall. In addition to the typical clinical manifestations of Cushing's syndrome such as moon face, central obesity and acne vulgaris, hyperglycemia was so severe that she was in a hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma. Endocrinological examinations revealed elevated plasma ACTH and cortisol, and urinary excretion of 17-hydroxycorticosteroids and 17-ketosteroids, which were not suppressed by high-dose dexamethasone administration. Based on these clinical and laboratory findings, a diagnosis of ectopic ACTH syndrome was made. Among the results of other endocrinological examinations conducted to find the etiological cause of the hyperglycemic coma, which seemed to be unusual for ectopic ACTH syndrome, the plasma somatostatin level was abnormally high. Metastatic tumors in the liver obtained at the time of autopsy contained large amounts of both ACTH and somatostatin, and gel filtration studies revealed that the peptides produced by the tumor had the molecular sizes of the biologically active forms of the respective peptides. These observations suggest possible involvement of the somatostatin in deteriorating glucose intolerance to develop hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma as a drastic disturbance of metabolism.

  13. Hormones: empirical contribution. Cortisol reactivity and recovery in the context of adolescent personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Kushner, Shauna C; Josephs, Robert A; Harden, K Paige; Page-Gould, Elizabeth; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between stress responses and psychopathology were moderated by adolescent personality disorder (PD) traits. Participants were a community sample of 106 adolescents (47 male, Mage = 16.01) and their parents. Parents reported on adolescents' PD traits and behavioral problems. Changes in salivary cortisol were assessed in response to a laboratory-based stress induction. Moderated regression analyses revealed significant linear and quadratic interactions between cortisol recovery and PD traits in the prediction of behavioral problems. Although typically conceptualized as "adaptive," steeper poststressor recovery was associated with more behavioral problems when PD traits were high. These findings suggest that, in the presence of maladaptive personality traits, premature recovery from environmental stressors may indicate an inability to respond appropriately to negative environmental stimuli, thus reflecting a core disturbance in PD trait functioning. The results underscore the informative role that personality plays in illuminating the nature of hormone functioning in adolescents and are interpreted in a developmental psychopathology framework.

  14. Hormonal regulation of aquaporin 3: opposing actions of prolactin and cortisol in tilapia gill.

    PubMed

    Breves, Jason P; Inokuchi, Mayu; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Seale, Andre P; Hunt, Bethany L; Watanabe, Soichi; Lerner, Darren T; Kaneko, Toyoji; Grau, E Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Aquaporins (Aqps) are expressed within key osmoregulatory tissues where they mediate the movement of water and selected solutes across cell membranes. We leveraged the functional plasticity of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium to examine how Aqp3, an aquaglyceroporin, is regulated in response to osmoregulatory demands. Particular attention was paid to the actions of critical osmoregulatory hormones, namely, prolactin (Prl), growth hormone and cortisol. Branchial aqp3 mRNA levels were modulated following changes in environmental salinity, with enhanced aqp3 mRNA expression upon transfer from seawater to freshwater (FW). Accordingly, extensive Aqp3 immunoreactivity was localized to cell membranes of branchial epithelium in FW-acclimated animals. Upon transferring hypophysectomized tilapia to FW, we identified that a pituitary factor(s) is required for Aqp3 expression in FW. Replacement with ovine Prl (oPrl) was sufficient to stimulate Aqp3 expression in hypophysectomized animals held in FW, an effect blocked by coinjection with cortisol. Both oPrl and native tilapia Prls (tPrl177 and tPrl188) stimulated aqp3 in incubated gill filaments in a concentration-related manner. Consistent with in vivo responses, coincubation with cortisol blocked oPrl-stimulated aqp3 expression in vitro Our data indicate that Prl and cortisol act directly upon branchial epithelium to regulate Aqp3 in tilapia. Thus, within the context of the diverse actions of Prl on hydromineral balance in vertebrates, we define a new role for Prl as a regulator of Aqp expression. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. Physiologic implications of inter-hormonal interference in fish: lessons from the interaction of adrenaline with cortisol and thyroid hormones in climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch).

    PubMed

    George, Nimta; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2013-01-15

    Adrenaline and cortisol, the major stress hormones, are known for its direct control on stress response in fish. Likewise, as an important stress modifier hormone, thyroid hormone has also been implicated in stress response of fish. We tested whether the hypothesis on the phenomenon of inter-hormonal interference, a process that explains the hormonal interactions, operates in fish particularly between adrenaline, cortisol and thyroid hormones. To achieve this goal, indices of acid-base, osmotic and metabolic regulations were quantified after adrenaline challenge in propranolol pre-treated air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus). Short-term adrenaline (10 ng g(-1)) injection for 30 min produced a rise in plasma cortisol without affecting plasma T(3) and T(4). On the contrary, blocking of adrenaline action with a non-selective blocker, propranolol (25 ng g(-1)) for 90 min reduced plasma cortisol along with plasma T(4) and that indicate a possible interference of these hormones in the absence of adrenaline challenge. Similarly, a reduction in plasma T(3) was found after adrenaline challenge in propranolol pre-treated fish and that suggests a functional synergistic interference of adrenaline with T(3). Adrenaline challenge in these fish, however, failed to abolish this propranolol effect. The remarkable systemic hypercapnia and acidosis by propranolol pre-treatment were reversed by adrenaline challenge, pointing to a direct action of adrenaline on acid-base indices probably by a mechanism which may not require β-adrenergic receptor systems. Interestingly, the prominent adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia, hyperlactemia and hyperuremea were not altered by propranolol treatment. Similarly, adrenaline challenge promoted and propranolol reduced the osmotic competencies of the gills, kidneys and liver of this fish as evident in the sodium and proton pump activities. The modified physiologic actions of adrenaline and its modified interaction with THs and cortisol in blocked

  16. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR139 is activated by the peptides: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), α-, and β-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, and β-MSH), and the conserved core motif HFRW.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, Anne Cathrine; Shehata, Mohamed A; Hauser, Alexander S; Isberg, Vignir; Mokrosinski, Jacek; Andersen, Kirsten B; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Gloriam, David E; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-01-01

    GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed primarily in the brain. Not much is known regarding the function of GPR139. Recently we have shown that GPR139 is activated by the amino acids l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine (EC50 values of 220 μM and 320 μM, respectively), as well as di-peptides comprised of aromatic amino acids. This led us to hypothesize that GPR139 may be activated by peptides. Sequence alignment of the binding cavities of all class A GPCRs, revealed that the binding pocket of the melanocortin 4 receptor is similar to that of GPR139. Based on the chemogenomics principle "similar targets bind similar ligands", we tested three known endogenous melanocortin 4 receptor agonists; adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and α- and β-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH and β-MSH) on CHO-k1 cells stably expressing the human GPR139 in a Fluo-4 Ca(2+)-assay. All three peptides, as well as their conserved core motif HFRW, were found to activate GPR139 in the low micromolar range. Moreover, we found that peptides consisting of nine or ten N-terminal residues of α-MSH activate GPR139 in the submicromolar range. α-MSH1-9 was found to correspond to the product of a predicted cleavage site in the pre-pro-protein pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Our results demonstrate that GPR139 is a peptide receptor, activated by ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, the conserved core motif HFRW as well as a potential endogenous peptide α-MSH1-9. Further studies are needed to determine the functional relevance of GPR139 mediated signaling by these peptides.

  17. Cortisol and ACTH levels in drug-naive adolescents with first-episode early onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Aktaş, Hüseyin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in adolescents with first-episode early onset schizophrenia. A total of 23 adolescent patients, who did not receive prior therapy and who were diagnosed with psychosis according to DSM-IV, were included. Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale were conducted with the participants. No significant differences were found between the patients and the control subjects in serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (P > .05). Our study's findings do not support the hypothesis of increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in first-episode early onset schizophrenia.

  18. Delayed adrenal insufficiency long after unilateral adrenalectomy: prolonged glucocorticoid therapy reduced reserved secretory capacity of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro; Ohiwa, Takafumi; Sanayama, Kyo; Nagata, Mikio

    2005-06-01

    A 51-year-old woman with Cushing's syndrome underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for left adrenal adenoma. After 7 years of prednisolone treatment (with some interruptions), followed by 4 years of total withdrawal from prednisolone treatment, she presented with hypotension, weight loss, general fatigue, nausea, hyponatremia and hypoglycemia. These clinical features together with a low response in the rapid adrenocorticotropic hormone test led to the diagnosis of acute adrenal insufficiency. Relatively low serum adrenocorticotropic hormone levels in the face of increased demand for cortisol during adrenal crisis suggested a disordered hypothalamic-pituitary function, indicating secondary adrenal insufficiency. This patient demonstrated the etiology of acute adrenal insufficiency long after unilateral adrenalectomy in association with subsequent glucocorticoid therapy. A reduction in the reserved secretory capacity of cortisol after prolonged prednisolone treatment was considered to have induced secondary adrenal insufficiency, even after 4 years of total withdrawal from prednisolone.

  19. Apelin is involved in postprandial responses and stimulates secretion of arginine-vasopressin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and growth hormone in the ruminant.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Takahashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Hagino, A; Roh, S G; Katoh, K

    2012-04-01

    Apelin and its mRNA are expressed in several tissues, including the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus. Although apelin is reported to be involved in the regulation of fluid homeostasis, little is known about the postprandial dynamics of apelin in plasma and its regulatory effects on the anterior pituitary hormones of ruminants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the following: (1) changes in plasma apelin concentrations in response to food intake under conditions of hydration (free access to water) or dehydration (water restriction), and (2) the effects of intravenous administration of apelin on plasma concentrations of arginine-vasopressin (AVP), ACTH, GH, and insulin. In Experiment 1 with the use of goats, the postprandial plasma apelin concentration was significantly increased under the dehydration condition compared with the hydration condition, and this increase was accompanied by increased plasma concentrations of AVP and ACTH after 24 h of dehydration. In Experiment 2 with the use of sheep and hydration conditions, the intravenous administration of apelin ([Pyr(1)]-apelin-13; 0.5 mg/head) caused a tendency to increase or caused a significant increase in plasma concentrations of AVP, ACTH, GH, insulin, and glucose. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that apelin is involved in the feeding process, and it regulates endocrine functions in the anterior pituitary gland via AVP in ruminant animals.

  20. Effects of handling regime and sex on changes in cortisol, thyroid hormones and body mass in fasting grey seal pups.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kimberley A; Moss, Simon E W; Pomeroy, Paddy; Speakman, John R; Fedak, Mike A

    2012-01-01

    Survival of seal pups may be affected by their ability to respond appropriately to stress. Chronic stress can adversely affect secretion of cortisol and thyroid hormones, which contribute to the control of fuel utilisation. Repeated handling could disrupt the endocrine response to stress and/or negatively impact upon mass changes during fasting. Here we investigated the effects of handling regime on cortisol and thyroid hormone levels, and body mass changes, in fasting male and female grey seal pups (Halichoerus grypus). Females had higher thyroid hormone levels than males throughout fasting and showed a reduction in cortisol midway through the fast that was not seen in males. This may reflect sex-specific fuel allocation or development. Neither handling frequency nor cumulative contact time affected plasma cortisol or thyroid hormone levels, the rate of increase in cortisol over the first five minutes of physical contact or the pattern of mass loss during fasting in either sex. The endocrine response to stress and the control of energy balance in grey seal pups appear to be robust to repeated, short periods of handling. Our results suggest that routine handling should have no additional impact on these animals than general disturbance caused by researchers moving around the colony. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Associations of cortisol/testosterone and cortisol/sex hormone-binding globulin ratios with atherosclerosis in middle-age women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju-Mi; Colangelo, Laura A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Yano, Yuichiro; Siscovick, David S; Seeman, Teresa; Schreiner, Pamela J; Liu, Kiang J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Greenland, Philip

    2016-05-01

    The cortisol/testosterone (C/T) ratio has been hypothesized to be a better predictor of atherosclerosis than cortisol alone. No study has assessed whether the C/T and C/sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) ratios are associated with atherosclerosis in a U.S. population sample. This substudy included 367 women who had both cortisol from year 15 and testosterone and SHBG at year 16 of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, an ongoing observational cohort in the United States. Of these, intima-media thickness (IMT) was available at follow-up year 20 in 339 (n = 332 with measurement at carotid bulb), and 303 were free of prevalent coronary artery calcium (CAC) at year 15. Area under the curve (AUC) of salivary cortisol was available in 302 individuals. Ratios of AUCs of cortisol to total testosterone, free testosterone, and SHBG were categorized into tertiles. Associations with CAC and IMT were assessed by regression models adjusted for age, race, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, menopause, oral contraceptive use, diabetes, alcohol, and smoking. Only the highest tertile of the AUC/free testosterone ratio was positively associated with carotid bulb IMT (β = 0.088, P = 0.006). This tertile was also positively associated with new onset CAC between year 15 and 25 (OR 3.45, 95% CI 1.18-10.06). Tertiles of cortisol or testosterone alone were not associated with new onset CAC. AUC/Free testosterone ratio may be more associated with atherosclerosis in women than either indicator alone. The ratio may serve as a suitable biomarker of cortisol-linked stress. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Feed efficiency and body composition are related to cortisol response to adrenocorticotropin hormone and insulin-induced hypoglycemia in rams.

    PubMed

    Knott, S A; Cummins, L J; Dunshea, F R; Leury, B J

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic rate and energy consumption increase through the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis when an animal is exposed to a stressor. Residual feed intake (RFI) as a measure of efficiency has been shown to be related to exogenous adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-stimulated cortisol concentrations, which is indicative of the relationship between an animal's response to stress and the efficiency with which the energy is used for growth and production. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sheep with low post-ACTH serum cortisol concentration relative to the other sheep in the flock have lower RFI values and lower cortisol concentrations following insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (2.0 microg/kg body weight)-stimulated cortisol concentrations were measured in 100 sheep. The extreme responders were selected (n = 12 high cortisol, n = 12 low cortisol), and feed efficiency and body composition parameters were measured. A second ACTH challenge and an insulin challenge were administered. More efficient sheep (more negative RFI value) were found to have lower (P < 0.05) cortisol concentrations following both an ACTH challenge and an insulin challenge. Low-cortisol sheep (low response to ACTH or insulin) were found to have a lower (P < 0.05) proportion of fat tissue in comparison to the high-cortisol animals. These data clearly indicate that an animal's response to exogenous ACTH or insulin-induced hypoglycemia as a stressor is related (P < 0.05) to efficiency of energy use when measured as RFI. These data have important implications in enabling identification of animals that are superior in terms of feed efficiency and for understanding the physiological mechanisms underlying efficiency of energy use. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The hypothalamic-pituitary response in SLE. Regulation of prolactin, growth hormone and cortisol release.

    PubMed

    Rovenský, J; Blazícková, S; Rauová, L; Jezová, D; Koska, J; Lukác, J; Vigas, M

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that neuroendocrine regulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis and activation of autoimmune diseases. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the hypothalamic-pituitary response to a well-defined stimulus under standardised conditions in patients with SLE. Plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol were determined in venous blood drawn through an indwelling cannula during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia (0.1 U/kg b.w., i.v.) in ten patients and in 12 age-, gender- and weight-matched healthy subjects. Basal PRL concentrations were higher in patients vs healthy controls (12 vs 6 ng/ml, P < 0.01), though still within the physiological range. Insulin-induced plasma PRL and GH were significantly increased both in patients and healthy subjects; however, the increments or areas under the curves were not different in the two groups. Plasma cortisol response showed moderate attenuation in patients. Sensitivity of pituitary lactotrothrops to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) administration (200 microg, i.v.) was the same in patients and control subjects. In SLE patients with low activity of the disease the sensitivity of pituitary PRL release to TRH administration remained unchanged. The hypothalamic response to stress stimulus (hypoglycaemia) was comparable in patients and healthy subjects.

  4. [Expression and roles of corticotropin-releasing hormone, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in preterm labour].

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi-ling; He, Ai-hua

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the effect of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in pathogenesis of preterm labor. A cross-sectional study was conducted including 80 pregnant women in the following categories: (1) preterm delivery in labor (PL, n=26), (2) term in labor (TL, n=29), (3) term not in labor (n=25). The expression and localizations of CRH mRNA in placentas and fetal membranes in three groups respectively were examined by in situ hybridization. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the levels of corticotropin releasing hormone, cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in fetal umbilical cord blood in three groups. (1) By in situ hybridization, we localized CRH mRNA to the syncytiotrophoblasts of placenta, the amniotic epithelial cells and chorion cells. (2) The positive index of expression of CRH mRNA in fetal membranes of PL (5.4 +/- 1.4) and TL, (5.4 +/- 1.5) was higher than that in term not in labor, (2.0 +/- 1.4, P<0.01). And there was no difference between PL and TL (P>0.05). The positive index of expression of CRH mRNA in placentas of PL (5.5 +/- 1.4) and TL (5.4 +/- 1.5) was higher than that in term not in labor (2.7 +/- 1.5, P<0.01). And there was no difference between PL and TL (P>0.05). The expression of CRH mRNA was not distinct between placentas and fetal membranes in three groups (P>0.05). (3) The levels of CRH and DHEA-S in umbilical cord blood of PL (7.8 +/- 3.3) ng/L, and (514 +/- 295) microg/L, respectively and of TL (7.7 +/- 4.1) ng/L, and (483 +/- 207) microg/L, were higher than that in term not in labor (4.8 +/- 2.4) ng/L, and (360 +/- 80) microg/L, respectively (P<0.05). And there was no difference between PL and TL (P>0.05). In PL, the level of CRH in umbilical cord blood and the expression of CRH mRNA in placentas and fetal membranes were correlated with each other (r=0.935 and 0.853, P<0.01). Also in TL, the levels of CRH and CRH mRNA were correlated with each other (r=0.902 and 0.825, P<0.01). (4

  5. Effects of cortisol and thyroid hormone on peripheral outer ring deiodination and osmoregulatory parameters in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    PubMed

    Arjona, Francisco J; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Martín Del Río, María P; Flik, Gert; Mancera, Juan M; Klaren, Peter H M

    2011-03-01

    The thyroid gland in fish mainly secretes the thyroid prohormone 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine (T₄), and extrathyroidal outer ring deiodination (ORD) of the prohormone to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T₃) is pivotal in thyroid hormone economy. Despite its importance in thyroid hormone metabolism, factors that regulate ORD are still largely unresolved in fish. In addition, the osmoregulatory role of T₃ is still a controversial issue in teleosts. In this study, we investigated the regulation of the ORD pathway by cortisol and T₃ in different organs (liver, kidney, and gills) of Solea senegalensis and the involvement of T₃ in the control of branchial and renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity, a prime determinant of the hydromineral balance in teleosts. Animals were treated with i.p. slow-release coconut oil implants containing cortisol or T₃. Hepatic and renal ORD activities were up-regulated in cortisol-injected animals. T₃-treated fish showed a prominent decrease in plasma-free T₄ levels, whereas ORD activities did not change significantly. Branchial and renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities were virtually unaffected by T₃, but were transiently up-regulated by cortisol. We conclude that cortisol regulates local T₃ bioavailability in S. senegalensis via ORD in an organ-specific manner. Unlike T₃, cortisol appears to be directly implicated in the up-regulation of branchial and renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activities.

  6. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  7. Effects of inhaling the vapor of Lavandula burnatii super-derived essential oil and linalool on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), catecholamine and gonadotropin levels in experimental menopausal female rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kenji; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Sashida, Yutaka

    2005-02-01

    The effects of inhaling the vapor of Lavandula burnatii super-derived essential oil and one of the main components of lavender oil, linalool on plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), catecholamine and gonadotropin levels in menopausal model rats under ether-inhalation were studied. The increased plasma ACTH levels induced by ether-inhalation tended to decrease by pre-inhalation of Lavandula burnetii super and linalool vapor was induced the decrease of ACTH level. The decrease in adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine levels induced by ether-inhalation tended to recover, especially, the dopamine level significantly recovered to the normal level by the inhalation of Lavandula burnetii super and linalool vapor. However, the increased plasma gonadotropin levels in ovariectomized retired female rats (menopausal model rats) was significantly decreased by the inhalation of linalool. These results suggest that lavender oil or one of the main components, linalool may contribute to relieving tension and may be applicable to the treatment of menopausal disorders in human beings.

  8. Hypoestrogenism does not mediate social suppression of cortisol in subordinate female marmosets.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, Wendy; Hogan, Brynn K; Allen, Amy J; Horman, Brian M; Abbott, David H

    2006-07-01

    Behaviorally subordinate female marmosets undergo social suppression of ovulation and hypoestrogenism, as well as chronic reductions in circulating basal cortisol concentrations. Because estrogen elevates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and circulating glucocorticoid levels in other species, we tested the hypothesis that socially induced hypoestrogenism contributes to cortisol reductions in subordinate female marmosets. We characterized morning basal plasma cortisol levels, as well as cortisol responses to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 0, 1, or 10 microg/kg), in seven anovulatory subordinate females and six ovariectomized, non-subordinate females under two conditions: during long-term treatment with estradiol (E2) and control. Circulating E2 and cortisol levels were compared to those of six dominant females undergoing ovulatory cycles. Basal cortisol concentrations in the control condition were significantly lower in subordinates than in both dominant and ovariectomized females. E2 treatment elevated circulating E2 levels of subordinate and ovariectomized females into the range seen in dominant females but did not increase either mean basal or ACTH-stimulated cortisol levels. To the contrary, E2 treatment caused a decline in basal cortisol levels over time, especially in ovariectomized animals. These results indicate that treatment with exogenous estrogen does not elevate circulating cortisol levels in previously hypoestrogenemic female marmosets and, correspondingly that socially induced hypoestrogenism does not diminish cortisol levels in subordinate females.

  9. [Hormones in depressive illness. The role of cortisol and sexual steroids (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Lignières, B; Mauvais-Jarvis, P

    1979-01-01

    It is actually highly probable than depression is linked to a decrease in noradrenergic activity in brain, at least in some areas including hypothalamus. The complexity of relations between dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems lead to multiple possibilities in hypothetical etiologic factors and in therapeutic interventions. A plasmatic drop in testosterone in men and estradiol in women is one of the situation able to induce a decrease in noradrenergic activity. It seems to be of primordial influence on depression at least in patients with predominant clinical hypogonadic symptoms. We still don't know the frequency on hypogonadism in peoples with predominant depressive symptoms. However this incidence may be fairly high because it is now demonstrated than environmental stress could impaired testicular and ovarian function by the means of anxiety hormones, catecholamines and cortisol, and also by a direct effect on hypothalamus. In no case this hormonal reactions are adaptative by means of anti-anxiety or anti-depressive effects. In contrary, they contribute to maintain the psycho-endocrine syndrome.

  10. Localization of the genes encoding the melanocortin-2 (Adrenocorticotropic hormone) and melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosomes 18p11. 2 and 20q13. 2-q13. 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Gantz, I.; Tashiro, Takao; Konda, Yoshitaka; Shimoto, Yoshimasa; Miwa, Hiroto; Munzert, G.; Barcroft, C.; Glover, T.; Yamada, Tadataka )

    1993-10-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and [alpha]-, [beta]-, and [gamma]-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) are products of propiomelanocortin post-translational processing. These compounds are collectively labeled as melanocortins (MC). Aside from their established effects on the regulation of the adrenal cortex (ACTH) and melanocytes ([alpha]-MSH), the melanocortins have been implicated in a broad array of physiological events. Melanocortins mediate their effects through cell membrane receptors belonging to the superfamily of seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptors. Using the technique of polymerase chain reaction with primers based on conserved areas of the seven transmembrane G-protein-linked receptor family, the authors recently isolated an [open quotes]orphan[close quotes] subfamily of this receptor group. Within the past year, two of these receptors were identified as specific for [alpha]-MSH (MC1) and ACTH (MC2). They have recently described a third melanocortin receptor (MC3) that appears to recognize the core heptapeptide sequence of melanocortins with equal potency and efficacy and identified its presence in the brain, placenta, and gut. Using the FISH technique, they localized the ACTH and the melanocortin-3 receptors to chromosome loci 18p11.2 and 20q12.3-q13.2, respectively. 19 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Women's intercollegiate athletic competition: cortisol, testosterone, and the dual-hormone hypothesis as it relates to status among teammates.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2013-06-01

    Recent research suggests that testosterone and cortisol jointly regulate dominance motivation and, perhaps, the status relationships that are affected by it. For this article, the results of six different studies of women's intercollegiate athletic competition were combined to give a sample size of almost ninety women for whom we had before- and after-competition values for salivary cortisol and testosterone for at least one and sometimes two competitions. For many of these women, we had surveys that allowed us to assess their status with teammates. In no matter what sport (soccer, softball, volleyball, and tennis) levels of salivary cortisol and testosterone increased when women participated in athletic competition. Salivary levels of C and T appear to rise in parallel during competition and increases in levels of one hormone are significantly related to increases in the other. Salivary levels of these hormones typically decreased for teammates who did not play but watched the competition from the sidelines. For women who played in two competitions, individual differences in the positive effect of competition on cortisol and testosterone were conserved from one competition to the next, affirming the personal consistency of endocrine responses to competition. Status with teammates was positively related to before-competition levels of testosterone, but only for women with relatively low before-competition levels of cortisol. This result provides novel support for the "dual-hormone hypothesis" as it relates to predicting social status in women's athletic teams - natural social groups of individuals who know each other and whose social hierarchy has evolved over the course of practice and play for at least one and, in some cases, several years of intercollegiate athletic competition.

  12. Growth hormone differentially regulates muscle myostatin1 and -2 and increases circulating cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Biga, Peggy R; Cain, Kenneth D; Hardy, Ronald W; Schelling, Gerald T; Overturf, Kenneth; Roberts, Steven B; Goetz, Frederick W; Ott, Troy L

    2004-08-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates muscle growth in vertebrates. Salmonids produce two myostatin transcripts from separate genes. Surprisingly, quantitative analyses indicate different regulatory mechanisms for the two myostatin genes in rainbow trout. MSTN1 mRNA levels were elevated 26% following recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH) treatment, while MSTN2 mRNA levels were reduced 74% compared to controls. MSTN precursor protein (42kDa) levels were elevated in rbGH treated fish compared to controls. In addition, circulating cortisol levels were elevated 71% following rbGH treatment compared to controls. In treated and control fish, cortisol levels were elevated 245% at day 0 compared to subsequent days. Treated fish exhibited cortisol levels 207% higher than controls at 0.5 day, and remained at least 50% higher for 7 days following treatment. This pattern of change was positively correlated to MSTN1 mRNA levels. This is the first time a direct relationship has been reported between GH, cortisol, and myostatin. In addition, following rbGH administration, myosin protein concentrations in skeletal muscle samples increased, suggesting that GH regulates expression of the most abundant muscle protein. These results indicate the two myostatin genes are differentially regulated and may possess different functions in rainbow trout muscle, and suggests a possible interaction between GH, cortisol, and muscle growth.

  13. Plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone and cortisol concentrations and perceived stress among pregnant women with preterm and term birth.

    PubMed

    Himes, Katherine P; Simhan, Hyagriv N

    2011-06-01

    We sought to determine if pregnant women with poor psychosocial status or high levels of perceived stress had higher concentrations of plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) or cortisol. This was a secondary analysis of a case-controlled study nested within a multicenter, prospective observational cohort study. Plasma CRH and cortisol concentrations and the Abbreviated Scale for the Assessment of Psychosocial Status in Pregnancy (ASAPS) were available for cases and controls. Among cases and controls, concentrations of CRH and cortisol and overall performance on the ASAPS as well as the individual components of the ASAPS were compared using Kruskal-Wallis or chi-square. There was no association between CRH or cortisol concentrations and performance on the ASAPS overall. Additionally, there was no relationship between CRH or cortisol and perceived stress. In this study, biological measures of stress assessed in the second trimester were not associated with overall psychosocial status or perceived stress. The factors contributing to the elevation in CRH that precedes some preterm birth are complex and poorly understood.

  14. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  15. Secretory pattern of GH, TSH, thyroid hormones, ACTH, cortisol, FSH, and LH in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome following systemic injection of the relevant hypothalamic-releasing hormones.

    PubMed

    Riedel, W; Layka, H; Neeck, G

    1998-01-01

    To study the hormonal perturbations in FMS patients we injected sixteen FMS patients and seventeen controls a cocktail of the hypothalamic releasing hormones: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) and observed the hormonal secretion pattern of the pituitary together with the hormones of the peripheral endocrine glands. We found in FMS patients elevated basal values of ACTH and cortisol, lowered basal values of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and of triiodothyronine (T3), elevated basal values of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lowered basal values of estrogen. Following injection of the four releasing-hormones, we found in FMS patients an augmented response of ACTH, a blunted response of TSH, while the prolactin response was exaggerated. The effects of LHRH stimulation were investigated in six FMS patients and six controls and disclosed a significantly blunted response of LH in FMS. We explain the deviations of hormonal secretion in FMS patients as being caused by chronic stress, which, after being perceived and processed by the central nervous system (CNS), activates hypothalamic CRH neurons. CRH, on the one hand, activates the pituitary-adrenal axis, but also stimulates at the hypothalamic level somatostatin secretion which, in turn, causes inhibition of GH and TSH at the pituitary level. The suppression of gonadal function may also be attributed to elevated CRH by its ability to inhibit hypothalamic LHRH release, although it could act also directly on the ovary by inhibiting FSH-stimulated estrogen production. We conclude that the observed pattern of hormonal deviations in FMS patients is a CNS adjustment to chronic pain and stress, constitutes a specific entity of FMS, and is primarily evoked by activated CRH neurons.

  16. Effect of stocking density on growth and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii.

    PubMed

    Li, Dapeng; Liu, Zidong; Xie, Congxin

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of different stocking densities on growth and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Amur sturgeon, Acipenser schrenckii. Fish were reared at low, medium, and high stocking densities (initial experimental densities were 0.30, 0.75, and 1.78 kg m(-2), respectively) for 70 days. The results showed that high stocking density had negative effects on growth and feeding efficiency, and altered serum levels of thyroid hormones and cortisol in Amur sturgeon. A significant decrease in specific growth rate was observed as stocking density was increased. The feeding rate decreased significantly in the medium and high density groups, indicating that high stocking density reduced the food consumption of sturgeon. Food conversion ratio increased with increasing stocking density, suggesting that high stocking density might inhibit fish growth through decreasing food conversion efficiency. Serum concentrations of total triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and free triiodothyronine were inversely related to stocking densities, whereas serum total thyroxine level of sturgeon stocked at different densities remained stable. Also, higher stocking density resulted in an elevation of serum cortisol level, indicating that the sturgeon stocked at the higher density experienced density-dependent physiological stress. These results suggest growth suppression caused by high stocking density might be related to both crowding stress and the declines in peripheral circulating levels of thyroid hormones, as well as associated with the reductions in both food consumption and food conversion efficiency.

  17. Effects of Evolocumab on Vitamin E and Steroid Hormone Levels: Results From the 52-Week, Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled DESCARTES Study.

    PubMed

    Blom, Dirk J; Djedjos, C Stephen; Monsalvo, Maria Laura; Bridges, Ian; Wasserman, Scott M; Scott, Rob; Roth, Eli

    2015-09-25

    Vitamin E transport and steroidogenesis are closely associated with low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) metabolism, and evolocumab can lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) to low levels. To determine the effects of evolocumab on vitamin E and steroid hormone levels. After titration of background lipid-lowering therapy per cardiovascular risk, 901 patients with an LDL-C ≥2.0 mmol/L were randomized to 52 weeks of monthly, subcutaneous evolocumab, or placebo. Vitamin E, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and gonadal hormones were analyzed at baseline and week 52. In a substudy (n=100), vitamin E levels were also measured in serum, LDL, high-density lipoprotein, and red blood cell membranes at baseline and week 52. Absolute vitamin E decreased in evolocumab-treated patients from baseline to week 52 by 16% but increased by 19% when normalized for cholesterol. In the substudy, vitamin E level changes from baseline to week 52 mirrored the changes in the lipid fraction, and red blood cell membrane vitamin E levels did not change. Cortisol in evolocumab-treated patients increased slightly from baseline to week 52, but adrenocorticotropic hormone and the cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio did not change. No patient had a cortisol:adrenocorticotropic hormone ratio <3.0 (nmol/pmol). Among evolocumab-treated patients, gonadal hormones did not change from baseline to week 52. Vitamin E and steroid changes were consistent across subgroups by minimum postbaseline LDL-C <0.4 and <0.6 mmol/L. As expected, vitamin E levels changed similarly to lipids among patients treated for 52 weeks with evolocumab. No adverse effects were observed in steroid or gonadal hormones, even at very low LDL-C levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01516879. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Serum sex hormone-binding globulin and cortisol concentrations are associated with overreaching during strenuous military training.

    PubMed

    Tanskanen, Minna M; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Uusitalo, Arja L; Huovinen, Jukka; Nissilä, Juuso; Kinnunen, Hannu; Atalay, Mustafa; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose was (a) to study the effect of an 8-week Finnish military basic training period (BT) on physical fitness, body composition, mood state, and serum biochemical parameters among new conscripts; (b) to determine the incidence of overreaching (OR); and (c) to evaluate whether initial levels or training responses differ between OR and noOR subjects. Fifty-seven males (19.7 ± 0.3 years) were evaluated before and during BT. Overreaching subjects had to fulfill 3 of 5 criteria: decreased aerobic physical fitness (VO2max), increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in 45-minute submaximal test at 70% of VO2max or sick absence from these tests, increased somatic or emotional symptoms of OR, and high incidence of sick absence from daily service. VO2max improved during the first 4 weeks of BT. During the second half of BT, a stagnation of increase in VO2max was observed, basal serum sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) increased, and insulin-like growth factor-1 and cortisol decreased. Furthermore, submaximal exercise-induced increases in cortisol, maximum heart rate, and postexercise increase in blood lactate were blunted. Of 57 subjects, 33% were classified as OR. They had higher basal SHBG before and after 4 and 7 weeks of training and higher basal serum cortisol at the end of BT than noOR subjects. In addition, in contrast to noOR, OR subjects exhibited no increase in basal testosterone/cortisol ratio but a decrease in maximal La/RPE ratio during BT. As one-third of the conscripts were overreached, training after BT should involve recovery training to prevent overtraining syndrome from developing. The results confirm that serum SHBG, cortisol, and testosterone/cortisol and maximal La/RPE ratios could be useful tools to indicate whether training is too strenuous.

  19. The corticotropin-releasing hormone test in normal short children: comparison of plasma adrenocorticotropin and cortisol responses to human corticotropin-releasing hormone and insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Goji, K

    1989-03-01

    The human corticotropin-releasing hormone (hCRH) tests were performed in twelve normal short children, and the responses of plasma ACTH and cortisol to iv administration of 1 micrograms/kg hCRH were compared with those to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. After administration of hCRH, the mean plasma ACTH level rose from a basal value of 3.3 +/- 0.4 pmol/l (mean +/- SEM) to a peak value of 9.2 +/- 0.8 pmol/l at 30 min, and the mean plasma cortisol level rose from a basal value of 231 +/- 25 nmol/l to a peak value of 546 +/- 30 nmol/l at 30 min. The ACTH response after insulin-induced hypoglycemia was greater than that after hCRH administration; the mean peak level (P less than 0.01), the percent maximum increment (P less than 0.01), and the area under the ACTH response curve (P less than 0.01) were all significantly greater after insulin-induced hypoglycemia than those after hCRH administration. Although the mean peak cortisol level after insulin-induced hypoglycemia was about 1.3-fold higher than that after hCRH administration (P less than 0.01), neither the percent maximum increment in plasma cortisol nor the area under the cortisol response curve after insulin-induced hypoglycemia was significantly different from that after hCRH administration. Consequently, the acute increases in plasma ACTH after the administration of 1 microgram/kg hCRH stimulated the adrenal gland to almost the same cortisol response as that obtained with a much greater increase in plasma ACTH after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. These results suggest that a plasma ACTH peak of 9-11 pmol/l produces near maximum acute stimulation of adrenal steroidogenesis.

  20. Influence of the stress hormone cortisol on fear conditioning in humans: evidence for sex differences in the response of the prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver T; Tabbert, Katharina; Kagerer, Sabine; Zimmermann, Mark; Kirsch, Peter; Schienle, Anne; Vaitl, Dieter

    2006-09-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is known to influence declarative memory and associative learning. In animals, stress has often been reported to have opposing effects on memory and learning in males and females. In humans, the effects of cortisol have mainly been studied at the behavioral level. The aim of the present experiment was to characterize the effects of a single cortisol dose (30 mg) on the hemodynamic correlates of fear conditioning. In a double-blind group comparison study subjects (17 females and 17 males) received 30 mg cortisol or placebo orally before participating in a discriminative fear conditioning paradigm. Results revealed that cortisol impaired electrodermal signs of learning (the first interval response) in males, while no conditioned SCRs emerged for the females independent of treatment. fMRI results showed that cortisol reduced activity for the CS+ > CS- comparison in the anterior cingulate, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex in males. Opposite findings (increase in these regions under cortisol) were detected in females. In addition, cortisol reduced the habituation in the CS+ > CS- contrast in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex independent of sex. Finally, cortisol also modified the response to the electric shock (the UCS) by enhancing the activity of the anterior as well as the posterior cingulate. In sum, these findings demonstrate that in humans cortisol mostly influences prefrontal brain activation during fear conditioning and that these effects appear to be modulated by sex.

  1. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland.more » AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.« less

  2. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.

  3. Effects of continuous and interval running training on serum growth and cortisol hormones in junior male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Büyükyazi, G; Karamizrak, S O; Islegen, C

    2003-01-01

    Effects of two different eight-week aerobic training programs consisting of continuous (CR) or extensive interval running (IR) on serum growth (GH) and cortisol hormones in 33 male basketball players aged 15-16 were assessed. The CR group ran 4.8 km and the IR group ran 4 x 1.2 km, using equal work-to-rest ratio, three times per week. Aerobic power scores of all subjects and anaerobic power marks of the training subjects increased (p<0.01). Upon exertion, though serum GH levels increased in both exercise groups (p<0.01) prior to and following training; cortisol levels increased only in the IR group prior to training, and in both exercise groups following training (p<0.05). Following the eight week period, resting cortisol levels rose in the training (p<0.05) and control (p<0.01) groups. To conclude, an 8-week training program consisting of continuous or extensive interval running has been effective on acute GH and cortisol secretion in 15-16 year-old male athletes.

  4. Long-Term Bioeffects of 435MHz Radiofrequency Radiation on Selected Blood-Borne Endpoints in Cannulated Rats. Volume 2. Plasma ACTH (adrenocorticotropic Hormone) and Plasma Corticosterone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    stress hormone concentrations. In this study , an increase in plasma corticosterone was observed after barbiturate anesthesia (Fig. 5). Plasma ACTH...C.H., and Schindler, J. In vitro and vivo adrenal corticosterone secretion following stress. Am J Physiol 196:579-582 (1959). 16. Gale, G.C...related thereto. The animals involved in this study were procured, maintained, and used in accordance with the Animal Welfare Act and the "Guide for

  5. Significant attenuation of stimulated cortisol in early Graves disease without adrenal autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Price, Sally A; Thondam, Sravan; Bondugulapati, Laxmi N R; Kamath, Chandan; Adlan, Mohammed; Premawardhana, Lakdasa D

    2012-01-01

    To investigate cortisol responses to adrenocorticotropic hormone during thyrotoxic (G1) and euthyroid (G2) phases in patients with Graves disease (GD) who were without adrenal autoimmunity. Fifteen patients with GD, who were thyrotropin receptor antibody positive and 21-hydroxylase antibody negative, were recruited to this prospective pilot study. A modified short Synacthen test (SST) was performed, in which cortisol was measured every 30 minutes for 2 hours during G1 and G2. The median times to SST were 3 weeks (G1) and 27 weeks (G2) after diagnosis of GD. Integrated stimulated cortisol levels were significantly lower at G1 in comparison with G2: mean ± standard error of the mean for area under the curve was 78,091.6 ± 4,462.1 nmol/L (G1) versus 89,055 ± 4,434 nmol/L at 120 minutes (G2), P = .017; and for delta area under the curve was 36,309.9 ± 3,526 nmol/L (G1) versus 44,041.7 ± 2,147 nmol/L at 120 minutes (G2), P = .039. Mean cortisol levels were significantly lower for G1 versus G2 at 60, 90, and 120 minutes of the SST (P = .001 to .013). The cortisol level was abnormal in 2 patients (13%) at 30 minutes during G1 but in none during G2. There was no correlation of integrated cortisol with free thyroxine or thyrotropin receptor antibody. There was no significant difference in median adrenocorticotropic hormone level (17 versus 20.4 ng/mL at G1 and G2, respectively; P = .14). Significant attenuation of stimulated cortisol occurs in the early thyrotoxic phase in comparison with the euthyroid phase in patients with GD without adrenal autoimmunity. Clinicians treating patients with GD should have a low threshold for investigating symptoms suggestive of hypoadrenalism at times of "stress."

  6. The stress hormone cortisol: a (co)regulator of biofilm formation in Flavobacterum columnare?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previously, we demonstrated a direct effect of cortisol on Flavobacterium columnare, a notorious fish pathogenic bacterium, engendering a new perspective to bacteria-host communication in aquaculture. As stressed fish harbour increased cortisol levels in the skin and gill mucus, highly virulent F. c...

  7. THE MECHANISM OF ACTION OF 17-HYDROXY-11-DEHYDROCORTICOSTERONE (COMPOUND E) AND OF THE ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE IN EXPERIMENTAL HYPERSENSITIVITY IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Germuth, Frederick G.; Oyama, Jiro; Ottinger, Barbara

    1951-01-01

    The concurrent administration of compound E at a daily dosage of 2 mg. per kg. to rabbits receiving daily intracutaneous injections of crystalline egg albumin markedly inhibited the development of anaphylactic hypersensitivity of the Arthus type. ACTH, when given at a similar dosage, produced a much less marked effect. Both hormones suppressed circulating antibody and as with the Arthus reaction, the suppression produced by compound E was much greater than that obtained with ACTH. When treatment with compound E was started following sensitization, there was a rapid decline in circulating antibody and, if the pretreatment serum antibody was low, there was also a progressive decrease in skin reactivity, becoming negative after 5 days of treatment. When the pretreatment serum antibody concentration was great, so that by the termination of treatment the antibody concentration was still above the level ordinarily sufficient for a maximal skin response, the Arthus reaction was unaffected by treatment. These considerations as well as the failure of compound E to inhibit the systemic passive Arthus reaction suggest that the inhibitory effect of compound E and ACTH on the development of experimental hypersensitivity results from the hormonal reduction of circulating antibody. Treatment with compound E had no effect on the rate of disappearance of circulating antibody in the passively immunized rabbit. This finding suggests that ACTH and compound E reduce circulating antibody by inhibiting antibody formation rather than by promoting antibody destruction. The question is raised as to whether the marked lymphoid atrophy produced by these hormones may be related to the interference with antibody production. PMID:14861375

  8. Reciprocal regulation of a glucocorticoid receptor-steroidogenic factor-1 transcription complex on the Dax-1 promoter by glucocorticoids and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gummow, Brian M; Scheys, Joshua O; Cancelli, Victoria R; Hammer, Gary D

    2006-11-01

    Numerous genes required for adrenocortical steroidogenesis are activated by the nuclear hormone receptor steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1) (NR5A1). Dax-1 (NR0B1), another nuclear hormone receptor, represses SF-1-dependent activation. Glucocorticoid products of the adrenal cortex provide negative feedback to the production of hypothalamic CRH and pituitary ACTH. We hypothesized that glucocorticoids stimulate an intraadrenal negative feedback loop via activation of Dax-1 expression. Reporter constructs show glucocorticoid-dependent synergy between SF-1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the activation of Dax-1, which is antagonized by ACTH signaling. We map the functional glucocorticoid response element between -718 and -704 bp, required for activation by GR and synergy with SF-1. Of three SF-1 response elements, only the -128-bp SF-1 response element is required for synergy with GR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrate that dexamethasone treatment increases GR and SF-1 binding to the endogenous murine Dax-1 promoter 10- and 3.5-fold over baseline. Serial ChIP assays reveal that that GR and SF-1 are part of the same complex on the Dax-1 promoter, whereas coimmunoprecipitation assay confirms the presence of a protein complex that contains both GR and SF-1. ACTH stimulation disrupts the formation of this complex by abrogating SF-1 binding to the Dax-1 promoter, while promoting SF-1 binding to the melanocortin-2 receptor (Mc2r) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) promoters. Finally, dexamethasone treatment increases endogenous Dax-1 expression and concordantly decreases StAR expression. ACTH signaling antagonizes the increase in Dax-1 yet strongly activates StAR transcription. These data indicate that GR provides feedback regulation of adrenocortical steroid production through synergistic activation of Dax-1 with SF-1, which is antagonized by ACTH activation of the adrenal cortex.

  9. Influence of adrenocorticotrophin hormone challenge and external factors (age, sex, and body region) on hair cortisol concentration in Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Terwissen, C V; Mastromonaco, G F; Murray, D L

    2013-12-01

    Land use changes are a significant factor influencing the decline of felid populations. However, additional research is needed to better understand how these factors influence populations in the wild. Hormone analysis can provide valuable information on the basic physiology and overall health of an animal, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) are generally used for hair hormone analysis but must first be validated for the substrate of choice and species of interest. To date, hormone assays from hair have not been validated for Felidae, despite that the method holds considerable promise for non-invasive sampling of free-ranging animals. We sought to: (1) evaluate whether increased adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) during the period of hair growth results in elevated hair cortisol; (2) validate the enzyme immunoassay used; and (3) identify any variations in hair cortisol between age, sex and body regions, using Canada lynx. We quantified hair cortisol concentrations in captive animals through an ACTH challenge and collected samples from legally harvested lynx to compare variability between body regions. An EIA was validated for the analysis of hair cortisol. Lynx (n=3) had a qualitative increase in hair cortisol concentration following an ACTH challenge in captive animals (20 IU/kg of body weight weekly for 5 weeks), thereby supporting the use of an EIA to quantify cortisol values in hair. Based on our analysis of sampled lynx pelts, we found that hair cortisol did not vary between age and sex, but varied within the foot/leg region to a greater extent than between individuals. We recommend that future studies identify a standardized location for hair cortisol sampling.

  10. The effects of adrenocorticotrophic hormone and an equivalent dose of cortisol on the serum concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anna-Lena; Rafnsson, Arnar Thor; Johannsson, Magnus; Dallongeville, Jean; Arnadottir, Margret

    2006-08-01

    Previous studies have shown a strong lipid-lowering effect of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in healthy individuals and in patients with different kinds of dyslipoproteinemia. The mechanism behind this effect has not been established and its direct ACTH-specific nature has been questioned. Therefore, the present study was performed. Thirty healthy young males were randomized into 3 groups of equal size: one group received ACTH1-24 1 mg IM, daily for 4 days, another group was treated with cortisol 150 mg ID (50 mg tid) daily for 4 days, whereas a control group was observed for 4 days. Fasting blood samples were collected before and after treatment or observation. The serum concentrations of cholesterol (12%, P < .05), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (24%, P < .01), and apolipoprotein (apo) B (31%, P < .01) decreased significantly in the ACTH group but not in the cortisol and control groups. The statistical workup confirmed that only ACTH had a lowering effect on the apo B-containing lipoproteins. In contrast, the results indicated conformity between the treatment groups with respect to increases in the serum apo E concentrations. There were inconsistent changes in the serum concentrations of the triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apo A, and lipoprotein(a). The main results were clear: the lowering effect of ACTH on the serum concentration of apo B-containing lipoproteins could not be ascribed to cortisol. These, in combination with previous in vitro results, indicated an ACTH-specific effect.

  11. The acute testosterone, growth hormone, cortisol and interleukin-6 response to 164-km road cycling in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Vingren, Jakob L; Budnar, Ronald G; McKenzie, Amy L; Duplanty, Anthony A; Luk, Hui-Ying; Levitt, Danielle E; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the acute endocrine responses to a 164-km road cycling event in a hot environment. Thirty-four male experienced cyclists (49.1 ± 8.3 years, 86.8 ± 12.5 kg, 178.1 ± 5.1 cm) participating in a 164-km road cycling event were recruited. Blood samples were collected within 0.3-2.0 h before the start (PRE: ~0500-0700 h) and immediately following the ride (POST). Samples were analysed for testosterone, growth hormone (GH), cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The temperature and humidity during the event were 35.3 ± 4.9°C and 47.2 ± 14.0%, respectively. Based on the finishing time, results for the fastest (FAST, 305 ± 10 min) and the slowest (SLOW, 467 ± 31 min) quartiles were compared. At POST, testosterone concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) lower (PRE, 20.8 ± 8.6; POST, 18.2 ± 6.7 nmol · L(-1)), while GH (PRE, 0.3 ± 0.1; POST, 2.3 ± 0.3 µg · L(-1)), cortisol (PRE, 661 ± 165; POST, 1073 ± 260 nmol · L(-1)) and IL-6 (PRE, 4.0 ± 3.4; POST, 22.4 ± 15.2 pg · mL(-1)) concentrations were significantly higher than those at PRE. At POST, GH and cortisol were significantly higher for the FAST group than for the SLOW group (GH, 3.6 ± 2.0 and 1.0 ± 0.8 µg · L(-1); cortisol, 1187 ± 209 and 867 ± 215 nmol · L(-1)). Participation in an ultra-endurance road cycling event in a hot environment induced significant acute changes in concentrations of circulating hormones, with a greater augmentation of GH and cortisol in those completing the ride fastest.

  12. Validation of a radioimmunoassay for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites in the hystricomorph rodent, Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Sandra; Hayes, Loren D; Ebensperger, Luis A

    2009-08-01

    Determination of fecal steroid metabolites is a noninvasive technique that characterizes the physiological state of organisms without the physiological and psychological stress of handling. Although this technique has many applications in the study of wildlife and/or captive animals without the necessity of capturing individuals, it requires a species-specific validation before use. A complete validation includes an analytical and a physiological one. In the latter changes in fecal hormone metabolites are induced by previous manipulations of the respective plasma hormones. Here we validated a method for measuring fecal cortisol metabolites (FCM) in the hystricomorph rodent Octodon degus. We extracted feces with 80% ethanol and quantified steroids using a commercial available cortisol radioimmunoassay. We first compared baseline levels of blood cortisol and FCM, and then performed a challenge test with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to demonstrate that FCM accurately reflect adrenocortical activity. We found a significantly positive relationship between concentrations of blood cortisol and its fecal metabolites. During the ACTH challenge test, blood cortisol levels peaked 30 min after injection, and FCM mirrored this peak with a delay of about 6 hr. Our successfully validated noninvasive method provides new opportunities for studies assessing the influence of social and ecological factors on degus under natural conditions.

  13. Sellar gangliocytoma with adrenocorticotropic and prolactin adenoma.

    PubMed

    Kissiedu, Juliana O; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with weight gain, headaches, dizziness, erectile dysfunction and decreased libido. He was found to have elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and prolactin serum levels. The imaging studies revealed a 1.4 cm sella/suprasellar mass which was compressing the optic chiasm. Histologic slides of the lesion showed a pituitary adenoma, marked by a proliferation of biphenotypic appearing cells, associated with a gangliocytoma, and marked by a proliferation of atypical appearing neuronal cells arranged against a glial-appearing background. Pituitary adenoma-gangliocytomas are benign combination tumors that rarely occur in the sellar region. Adenomas in this setting are sometimes functional, and rare patients with mixed adenomas (adenomas secreting more than one hormone) have been reported. To our knowledge, there has been only one other report of a combined ACTH and prolactin-producing adenoma with gangliocytoma, reported in a patient who also had acromegaly. In our patient, the immunohistochemical stains demonstrated that the bulk of the adenoma cells stained with prolactin antibody, and scattered clusters of cells within the adenoma stained positively for ACTH. The adenoma did not stain with antibodies to any of the other anterior pituitary hormones. Postoperatively, the elevated prolactin and ACTH levels returned to normal levels and there was no evidence of residual tumor. Adequate sampling and immunohistochemistry are important in rendering a correct diagnosis and in identifying the hormone status of mixed adenoma-gangliocytomas.

  14. [Hormone replacement therapy with transdermal estradiol lowers insulin-cortisol and lipoproteins levels in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Basurto, Lourdes; Saucedo, Renata; Ochoa, Raquel; Hernández, Marcelino; Zárate, Arturo

    2002-10-01

    Increased levels of circulating insulin and cortisol, interpreted as part of aging process, have been associated with an increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Because estrogens affect insulin balance, hypoestrogenism in menopausal women may lead to elevations in both insulin and cortisol. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of transdermal estradiol administration on the insulin-cortisol binomial. A prospective study was carried out in 30 menopausal women aged 48 to 55 yr, receiving transdermal estradiol 50 micrograms/day during three months. Ten healthy menopausal women (49 to 58 yr) were the control group. Serum levels of cortisol, insulin, lipoproteins, and leptin were quantified by specific assays before and after 3 months of transdermal estradiol therapy. Baseline cortisol levels decreased significantly from 143.4 +/- 10.6 ng/mL to 110.2 +/- 6.7 ng/mL (M +/- SE) (p < 0.001) after 3 months of transdermal estradiol. In parallel, augmented baseline insulin levels diminished significantly from 26.1 +/- 2.0 microlitersU/mL to 21.7 +/- 1.2; (M +/- SE) (p < 0.05). Glucose level were unaffected by this therapy, but it was restored to normal the augmented baseline levels of both triglycerides and low-density cholesterol. Total cholesterol and high-density-cholesterol as well as circulating leptin were unchanged. Transdermal estrogen induced-decrease in circulating cortisol, insulin, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol to normal values may have a beneficial metabolic effect in menopausal women.

  15. Effects of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol on gene expression of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in sea bream hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Y; Woo, Norman Y S

    2010-11-01

    The present study investigated the regulatory effects of growth hormone (GH), human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I), thyroxine (T(4)), triiodothyronine (T(3)) and cortisol, on mRNA expression of key enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), glycogen synthase (GS), glycogen phosphorylase (GP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in hepatocytes isolated from silver sea bream. Genes encoding GK, G6Pase, GS and GP were partially cloned and characterized from silver sea bream liver and real-time PCR assays were developed for the quantification of the mRNA expression profiles of these genes in order to evaluate the potential of these carbohydrate metabolic pathways. GK mRNA level was elevated by GH and hIGF-I, implying that GH-induced stimulation of GK expression may be mediated via IGF-I. GH was found to elevate GS and G6Pase expression, but reduce G6PDH mRNA expression. However, hIGF-I did not affect mRNA levels of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH, suggesting that GH-induced modulation of GS, G6Pase and G6PDH expression levels is direct, and occurs independently of the action of IGF-I. T(3) and T(4) directly upregulated transcript abundance of GK, G6Pase, GS and GP. Cortisol significantly increased transcript amounts of G6Pase and GS but markedly decreased transcript abundance of GK and G6PDH. These changes in transcript abundance indicate that (1) the potential of glycolysis is stimulated by GH and thyroid hormones, but attenuated by cortisol, (2) gluconeogenic and glycogenic potential are augmented by GH, thyroid hormones and cortisol, (3) glycogenolytic potential is upregulated by thyroid hormones but not affected by GH or cortisol, and (4) the potential of the pentose phosphate pathway is attenuated by GH and cortisol but unaffected by thyroid hormones.

  16. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome caused by neuroendocrine tumors of the thymus: 30-year experience with 16 patients at a single institute in the People’s Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ye-ye; Li, Shan-qing; Liu, Hong-sheng; Qin, Ying-zhi; Li, Li; Huang, Cheng; Bi, Ya-lan; Meng, Yun-xiao; He, Jia; Zhou, Xiao-yun; Ma, Dong-jie

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Thymic neuroendocrine carcinomas (TNECs) are extremely uncommon. Certain cases of TNECs can produce the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cause ectopic ACTH syndrome (EAS). The current literature on this topic consists mainly of case reports, and therapeutic guidelines are lacking. The aim of this study was to discuss the diagnosis, surgical management, and prognosis of EAS caused by TNECs to improve clinical experience with this rare disease. Methods From June 1984 to June 2014, at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital, the surgical interventions and follow-up outcomes of 16 consecutive patients (eight men and eight women) with EAS caused by TNECs were retrospectively analyzed. Results The median age was 32.5 years (range: 13–47 years), and the median disease duration was 8.5 months (range: 1–150 months). All patients presented with clinical and biochemical evidence indicating a diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome. Contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography scans were critical to locating the ACTH-producing tumor and evaluating the feasibility of resection. All patients underwent surgery. One patient died of septicemia in the intensive care unit 2 weeks after surgery. No other morbidity or mortality occurred during the perioperative period. The median overall survival (OS) was 41 months (95% CI: 30.3–51.7 months), and the progression-free survival was 28 months (95% CI: 21.6–34.3 months). Both overall survival (P=0.002) and progression-free survival (P=0.030) improved significantly after complete resection. Conclusion TNEC is an extremely aggressive disease that should be considered when treating patients with Cushing’s syndrome due to ectopic ACTH secretion. In particular, all suspected patients should undergo contrast-enhanced thoracic computed tomography scans to facilitate early diagnosis. The current first-line treatment is surgical resection, and complete resection is a favorable prognostic factor. However

  17. Salivary cortisol in pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia.

    PubMed

    Lilliecreutz, Caroline; Theodorsson, Elvar; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Josefsson, Ann

    2011-10-01

    Stress and/or anxiety during pregnancy affect maternal and fetal well-being and can cause premature delivery and postnatal pathology in the child. Women suffering from phobias related to blood and injections are prone to high levels of stress, including anxiety and sometimes panic attacks, during pregnancy. Cortisol is amongst the mediators through which the neurohormonal expressions of maternal psychological factors may be transduced to the fetus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia have raised cortisol levels or are characterized by unusual diurnal salivary cortisol profiles compared with healthy controls. The sample consisted of 110 pregnant women with blood and injection phobia and 110 pregnant healthy controls. Both groups provided morning and evening saliva samples in weeks 25 and 36 for the assay of cortisol. In gestational week 25, when blood was drawn for the mandatory blood testing, extra blood was taken to analyze corticotrophin-releasing factor, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and cortisol in serum. The diurnal decline in salivary cortisol as well as increased cortisol levels were observed during pregnancy. Pregnant women suffering from blood and injection phobia had a higher output of cortisol compared with women without the phobia (F = 6.25, df = 1, p = 0.014), but no marked difference in the diurnal cortisol rhythm was found between groups. Our findings indicate that untreated blood and injection phobia during pregnancy increases cortisol concentrations. Blood and injection phobia is treatable, and cognitive behavioral therapy can be used. Women with blood and injection phobia during pregnancy therefore need to be recognized and offered treatment without delay in early pregnancy.

  18. The influence od melatonin receptors antagonists, luzindole and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT), on melatonin-dependent vasopressin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the rat hypothalamo-hypophysial system. In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, M; Roszczyk, M; Kowalczyk, E; Stempniak, B

    2014-12-01

    Melatonin exerts its biological role acting via G protein-coupled membrane receptors - MT1 and MT2, as well as through cytoplasmic and/or nuclear receptors. Melatonin has previously been shown to change vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion dependently on its concentration. To determine whether the response of vasopressinergic neurones to different concentrations of melatonin is mediated through the membrane MT1 and/or MT2 receptors, the influence of luzindole - an antagonist of both MT1 and MT2 receptors, and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (4-P-PDOT) - a selective MT2 receptor antagonist, on melatonin-dependent AVP release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial (H-NH) system was studied in vitro (melatonin at the concentrations of 10(-9), 10(-7) and 10(-3) M) and in vivo (melatonin at the concentrations of 10(-9) and 10(-7) M). Moreover, the second goal of this study was to find out whether melatonin receptors MT1 and/or MT2 are involved in the regulation of ACTH and corticosterone secretion into the blood. We have demonstrated that melatonin, at the concentrations of 10(-9) and 10(-7) M, significantly inhibited AVP secretion from isolated rat H-NH explants when antagonists solvent (i.e. 0.1% DMSO) was present in the medium. Neither luzindole, nor 4-P-PDOT, applied without melatonin, did influence AVP release in vitro. Luzindole applied together with melatonin (10(-7) M and 10(-9) M) significantly suppressed melatonin-dependent effect, while 4-PPDOT did not eliminate the inhibitory influence of 10(-7) M and 10(-9) M melatonin on AVP secretion from isolated rat H-NH explants. Melatonin at a concentration of 10(-3) M significantly increased AVP release when the H-NH explants were incubated in the medium containing luzindole or 4-P-PDOT. Under present experimental in vivo conditions, infused intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) melatonin, at a concentration close to its physiological level in the blood, significantly diminished AVP

  19. Association of hormonal responses and performance of student pilots during acceleration training on the human centrifuge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, D.; Rohleder, N.; Welsch, H.

    2005-08-01

    Prediction of student pilots' +Gz tolerance by stress hormone levels would be a useful tool in aviation medicine. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between neuroendocrine parameters with performance during acceleration training on the human centrifuge (HC).We investigated 21 student pilots during self-controlled acceleration training on the HC. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were measured after individual training sessions and at rest. Performance was defined by several characteristics including maximum tolerated acceleration. ACTH and cortisol, were significantly higher 20 minutes after acceleration training compared to the resting condition. Subjects tolerated a maximal acceleration of +6.69 Gz. HPA hormone levels and responses were associated with maximum tolerated acceleration +Gz. These findings support the expectation that acceleration- induced increases in stress hormones may enable the organism to tolerate a higher acceleration and could therefore be used as predictors for acceleration tolerance.

  20. The relation of cortisol and sex hormone levels to results of psychological, performance, IQ and memory tests in military men and women.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hampl, Richard; Černochová, Dana; Preiss, Marek; Bičíková, Marie; Sieger, Ladislav; Příplatová, Lenka; Kaňková, Šárka; Klose, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol, along with other hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, belongs to one of the main factors influencing psychological and pathognomic factors, intelligence, and memory. The aim of our study was to review a large battery of psychological, performance, IQ and memory tests as to their relation with cortisol, testosterone and estrogen levels in groups of 100 men and 93 women who attended the Central Military Hospital in Prague for regular entrance psychological examinations for military personnel. In men, we detected positive correlations between cortisol and emotional lability, and negative correlations with impulsivity, while in women hypochondria and psychopathology were negatively correlated, and aggression measured with the Meili selective memory test had a positive relation to cortisol level. Testosterone correlated positively with emotional liability and negatively with impulsivity in men, and negatively with hypochondria and psychasteny, indirect aggression, irritability and paranoia in women. Estradiol correlated positively with psychopathology in men, and negatively with phobia. It was positively correlated with negativism in women. No clear correlation was observed between the concentration of steroid hormones and psychomotor performance or intelligence. Concentrations of steroid hormones correlate with results of several psychological tests, the sign and magnitude of these correlations, however, very often differ in military men and women.

  1. Effects of Elevated Circulating Cortisol Concentrations on Maternal Behavior in Common Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Both acute and chronic stress can impair maternal behavior and increase rates of infant abuse in several species. The mechanisms inducing these effects are unknown, but experimental manipulation of circulating corticosterone levels alters maternal behavior in rats, and circulating or excreted cortisol concentrations have been found to correlate either positively or negatively with maternal behavior in humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that both acute and chronic treatment with exogenous glucocorticoids would alter maternal behavior in a primate, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Multiparous females, approximately 3−5 weeks postpartum, received daily injections of either cortisol (hydrocortisone sodium succinate and hydrocortisone acetate; N = 7) or vehicle (N = 7) for 8 days, and maternal behavior was characterized under baseline conditions as well as during exposure to a noise stressor. Cortisol treatment successfully elevated both morning and afternoon plasma cortisol concentrations and suppressed circulating levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone. In home-cage observations, cortisol-treated females carried their infants significantly less than control mothers, and in noise-stressor tests, several hours after the first cortisol or vehicle treatment, cortisol-treated mothers inspected their infants significantly more often than controls. Aggression towards infants was infrequent and mild, and did not differ between treatment groups. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that cortisol elevations can alter maternal behavior in primates. As these effects were limited in scope, however, they suggest that other stress-responsive hormones or neuropeptides may additionally play a role in mediating the effects of stress on maternal behavior. PMID:19362777

  2. [Cornelia de Lange Syndrome and multiple hormonal deficiency, an unusual association. Clinical case].

    PubMed

    Mora-Bautista, Víctor M; Mendoza-Rojas, Víctor; Contreras-García, Gustavo A

    2017-06-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome is a genetic disease characterized by distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, microcephaly and several malformations associated. Its main endocrinological features are anomalies of the genitalia. We present a 13-year-old boy, who suffered from complicated aspiration pneumonia and showed Cornelia de Lange syndrome phenotype, with global developmental delay, suction-swallowing abnormalities, short stature and abnormal genitalia associated. His bone age was delayed, so he underwent full endocrinological panel. Central hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency and low luteinizing hormone-follicle-stimulating hormone levels were observed and multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies diagnosis was made. Basal cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone and prolactin levels were normal. He received thyroid hormonal substitution. Multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies are an unusual feature of De Lange syndrome. We suggest evaluating all different endocrine axes in these patients. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  3. Fecal cortisol metabolite analysis for noninvasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Terio, K A; Citino, S B; Brown, J L

    1999-12-01

    A radioimmunoassay was validated for quantifying excreted cortisol metabolites in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) feces. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that immunoreactivity was associated with a water-soluble metabolite in fecal extracts from males and females. None of the immunoreactivity corresponded with free cortisol or corticosterone but rather was associated with a more polar, unidentified metabolite. To determine the biologic relevance of excreted immunoreactive cortisol metabolites, cheetahs were exposed to a variety of situations anticipated to increase cortisol secretion. First, to assess acute changes in adrenal activity, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 400 IU i.m.) was administered to two adult males and two adult females. Pre-ACTH baseline serum cortisol and fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations varied among individuals. Serum cortisol concentrations were elevated above baseline within 10 min of ACTH injection, followed by corresponding increases in fecal cortisol metabolite concentrations (690-4,194% above baseline) 48 hr later in three of four cheetahs. In the fourth cheetah, a smaller increase (334% above baseline) in fecal cortisol metabolite excretion was observed 96 hr after ACTH injection. Seven cheetah females also were subjected to a variety of potentially stressful manipulations, including immobilization, translocation, and introduction to a male to assess the ability of this technique to detect physiologic changes in adrenal activity. Increased fecal corticoid metabolite excretion was observed 24-72 hr after exposure to these exogenous stressors. Results indicate that adrenocortical activity can be monitored noninvasively in the cheetah through analysis of these metabolites. This technique could be valuable for evaluating, and thus optimizing, environmental and management conditions and for investigating the role of stress in disease pathogenesis and the usually poor reproductive performance of this species in

  4. Serum concentrations of cortisol, sex hormones of adrenal origin, and adrenocortical steroid intermediates in healthy dogs following stimulation with two doses of cosyntropin.

    PubMed

    Frank, Linda A; Davis, Jacqueline A; Oliver, Jack W

    2004-12-01

    To compare the effects of 2 doses of cosyntropin (5 microg/kg vs 250 microg, IV) on serum concentrations of cortisol, sex hormones of adrenal origin, and adrenocortical steroid intermediates and determine the optimal sample collection time after adrenal stimulation with cosyntropin. 10 healthy, privately owned, neutered dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to initially receive cosyntropin at 5 microg/kg or as a total dose of 250 microg, IV. Dogs received the alternate dose 1 to 2 weeks later. Serum was obtained from blood samples collected before (0 minutes) and 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after cosyntropin administration. Maximum stimulation of cortisol, androstenedione, progesterone, and 17-hydroxyprogesterone production was achieved at 60 minutes following IV administration of cosyntropin at 5 microg/kg or as a total dose of 250 microg. Serum estradiol concentration did not increase in response to either cosyntropin dose. For all hormones, no significant difference in serum hormone concentrations was found among sample collection times of 0, 30, 60, and 90 minutes when comparing the 2 doses of cosyntropin. Cosyntropin, when administered at 5 microg/kg, IV, effectively stimulated maximum production of cortisol, sex hormones of adrenal origin, and adrenocortical steroid intermediates at 1 hour after administration.

  5. Effects of psychological stress on plasma interleukins-1 beta and 6, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor alpha, anti-diuretic hormone and serum cortisol.

    PubMed

    Dugué, B; Leppänen, E A; Teppo, A M; Fyhrquist, F; Gräsbeck, R

    1993-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine whether psychological stress influences immunobiological functions and is an important preanalytical factor to be considered in connection with blood specimen collection. Two kinds of stress were applied, the Stroop colour conflict test and the thrill of a novice about to make the first jump with a parachute. In both test situations, the level of the stress indicators cortisol or anti-diuretic hormone rose significantly. The concentrations of the cytokines studied did not change significantly. However, in the parachute test significant positive correlations were found, e.g. between the changes of cortisol and C-reactive protein and between anti-diuretic hormone and interleukin-1 beta. This suggests that there is an interaction between the endocrine and the immune systems in the response to a psychological stress.

  6. Normalized Early Postoperative Cortisol and ACTH Values Predict Nonremission After Surgery for Cushing Disease.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, David; Chatain, Grégoire P; Hayes, Christina; Benzo, Sarah; McGlotten, Raven; Keil, Meg; Beri, Andrea; Sharma, Susmeeta T; Nieman, Lynnette; Lodish, Maya; Stratakis, Constantine; Lonser, Russell R; Oldfield, Edward H; Chittiboina, Prashant

    2017-07-01

    Perioperative increases in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol mimic results of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulation testing. This phenomenon may help identify patients with residual adenoma after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushing disease (CD). To predict nonremission after TSS for CD. Retrospective case-control study of patients treated at a single center from December 2003 until July 2016. Early and medium-term remission were assessed at 10 days and 11 months. Two hundred and ninety-one consecutive TSS cases from 257 patients with biochemical evidence of CD seen at a clinical center. Normalized early postoperative values (NEPVs) for cortisol and ACTH were calculated as immediate postoperative cortisol or ACTH levels minus preoperative post-CRH-stimulation test levels. Prediction of early nonremission was evaluated using logistic regression. Prediction of medium-term remission was assessed using Cox regression. Predictive ability was quantified by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). NEPVs for cortisol and ACTH predicted early nonremission [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 1.1; P = 0.016 and adjusted OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.0; P = 0.048, respectively]. AUROC for NEPV of cortisol was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.95); for NEPV of ACTH, it was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.61, 0.98). NEPVs for cortisol and ACTH predicted medium-term nonremission [hazard ratio (HR): 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.1; P = 0.023 and HR: 1.0; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.0; P = 0.025, respectively]. NEPVs for cortisol and ACTH predicted nonremission after TSS for CD.

  7. Physiological increases in cortisol inhibit basal vasopressin release in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Papanek, P E; Raff, H

    1994-06-01

    Glucocorticoid deficiency leads to elevated plasma vasopressin (AVP), while chronic endogenous hypercortisolism may inhibit osmotically stimulated AVP, suggesting that glucocorticoids may be feedback inhibitors of AVP secretion. We evaluated the effect of physiological increases in cortisol (65 mg/day iv) for 7 days on basal AVP and oxytocin (OT) in five conscious, male dogs. Cortisol increased from 1.3 +/- 0.1 to 5.0 +/- 0.8 micrograms/dl during infusion. Basal plasma AVP significantly decreased from 3.5 +/- 0.2 to 2.6 +/- 0.3 pg/ml during cortisol infusion. Plasma OT, osmolality, and sodium did not change while arterial pressure decreased (from 107 +/- 3 to 102 +/- 2 mmHg) on days 4 and 6. Increases in cortisol led to a physiologically significant, nonosmotic decrease in AVP. The effect was specific to AVP and independent of changes in arterial pressure. Glucocorticoid administration significantly decreased basal AVP within 24 h, which is comparable to the negative feedback control of adrenocorticotropic hormone. The inverse relationship between cortisol and AVP may account for the nonosmotic change in AVP in patients with disorders of glucocorticoid secretion.

  8. Does aerobic exercise affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal hormonal response in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Genc, Aysun; Tur, Birkan Sonel; Aytur, Yesim Kurtais; Oztuna, Derya; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is not clear. This study aimed to analyze the effects of a 6-week aerobic exercise program on the HPA axis in patients with fibromyalgia and to investigate the effects of this program on the disease symptoms, patients’ fitness, disability, and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty fibromyalgia patients were randomized to Group 1 (stretching and flexibility exercises at home for 6 weeks) and Group 2 (aerobic exercise three times a week and the same at-home exercises as Group 1 for 6 weeks). Serum levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, and growth hormone were analyzed at baseline and at the end of, and 1 hr after an exercise stress test. [Results] Group 2 showed better improvement in morning stiffness duration and pain. Growth hormone levels significantly increased after intervention and cortisol levels significantly decreased at time-time interaction in both groups. No significant differences in adrenocorticotropic hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 were found. [Conclusion] The results of this study seem to support the hypothesis that there is a dysregulation of the HPA axis in patients with FM, and that a six-week exercise program can influence symptoms and affect the HPA axis hormones. PMID:26311959

  9. The pro-social neurohormone oxytocin reverses the actions of the stress hormone cortisol in human ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MANKARIOUS, AMANDA; DAVE, FORAM; PADOS, GEORGE; TSOLAKIDIS, DIMITRIS; GIDRON, YORI; PANG, YEFEI; THOMAS, PETER; HALL, MARCIA; KARTERIS, EMMANOUIL

    2016-01-01

    The journey patients with ovarian cancer travel from non-specific symptoms causing delayed diagnosis through surgery and chemotherapy, culminating in a 5-year survival rate of 43%, must have a profound and detrimental psychological impact on patients. Emerging studies link higher levels of oxytocin (OT) and increased social support, an independent prognostic factor in cancer, with a moderating effect on stress. In contrast, there is a known association of tumour cell proliferation with elevated cortisol (stress hormone) levels. We hypothesise therefore that there is cross-talk between cortisol and oxytocin at a molecular level. Three ovarian cancer cell lines, used as in vitro models, were treated with cortisol at concentrations mimicking physiological stress in vivo in the presence or absence of OT. OT reduced cell proliferation and migration, induced apoptosis and autophagy for all three cell lines, partially reversing the effects of cortisol. Quantitative RT-PCR of tissue taken from ovarian cancer patients revealed that the glucocorticoid receptor (splice variant GR-P) and OT receptor (OTR) were significantly upregulated compared to controls. Tissue microarray revealed that the expression of GRα was lower in the ovarian cancer samples compared to normal tissue. OT is also shown to drive alternative splicing of the GR gene and cortisol-induced OTR expression. OT was able to transactivate GR in the presence of cortisol, thus providing further evidence of cross-talk in vitro. These data provide explanations for why social support might help distressed ovarian cancer patients and help define novel hypotheses regarding potential therapeutic interventions in socially isolated patients. PMID:26935408

  10. Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Mar M; McCormack, Kai; Grand, Alison P; Fulks, Richelle; Graff, Anne; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physically abused by their mothers in the first few months of life and in 21 nonabused controls. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects' first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion in response to CRH, especially at 6 months of age. Although there were no significant sex differences in abuse experienced early in life, females showed a greater cortisol response to CRH than males at all ages. There were no significant sex differences in the ACTH response to CRH, or significant interactions between sex and abuse in the ACTH or cortisol response. Our findings suggest that early parental maltreatment results in greater adrenocortical, and possibly also pituitary, responsiveness to challenges later in life. These long-term alterations in neuroendocrine function may be one the mechanisms through which infant abuse results in later psychopathologies. Our study also suggests that there are developmental sex differences in adrenal function that occur irrespective of early stressful experience. The results of this study can enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment as well as our knowledge of the development of the HPA axis in human and nonhuman primates.

  11. Effects of sex and early maternal abuse on adrenocorticotropin hormone and cortisol responses to the corticotropin-releasing hormone challenge during the first 3 years of life in group-living rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    SANCHEZ, MAR M.; MCCORMACK, KAI; GRAND, ALISON P.; FULKS, RICHELLE; GRAFF, ANNE; MAESTRIPIERI, DARIO

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the development of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in 21 group-living rhesus monkeys infants that were physically abused by their mothers in the first few months of life and in 21 nonabused controls. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) responses to a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) challenge were assessed at 6-month intervals during the subjects’ first 3 years of life. Abused infants exhibited greater cortisol responses to CRH than controls across the 3 years. Abused infants also exhibited blunted ACTH secretion in response to CRH, especially at 6 months of age. Although there were no significant sex differences in abuse experienced early in life, females showed a greater cortisol response to CRH than males at all ages. There were no significant sex differences in the ACTH response to CRH, or significant interactions between sex and abuse in the ACTH or cortisol response. Our findings suggest that early parental maltreatment results in greater adrenocortical, and possibly also pituitary, responsiveness to challenges later in life. These long-term alterations in neuroendocrine function may be one the mechanisms through which infant abuse results in later psychopathologies. Our study also suggests that there are developmental sex differences in adrenal function that occur irrespective of early stressful experience. The results of this study can enhance our understanding of the long-term effects of child maltreatment as well as our knowledge of the development of the HPA axis in human and nonhuman primates. PMID:20102646

  12. Effects of oral contraceptives on diurnal profiles of insulin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, growth hormone and cortisol in endurance athletes with menstrual disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Rickenlund, A.; Thorén, M.; Nybacka, Å.; Frystyk, J.; Hirschberg, A. Lindén

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Menstrual disturbances in female athletes are often explained as a consequence of energy deficiency. Oral contraceptive (OC) treatment may have favorable metabolic effects. We evaluated effects of OCs on diurnal secretions of insulin, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol in relation to changes in body composition in athletes with menstrual disturbance compared with regularly menstruating athletes and controls. METHODS Age- and BMI-matched groups of endurance athletes with menstrual disturbance (OAM, n = 9) and regularly cycling athletes (RM, n = 8) and sedentary controls (CTRL, n = 8) were examined, and hormone levels measured, before and after 8 months of treatment with a low-dose combined OC (30 µg ethinyl estradiol + 150 µg levonorgestrel). RESULTS Before OC treatment, the diurnal profile of insulin was lower (P < 0.01) and levels of IGFBP-1 (P < 0.05) and cortisol (P < 0.05) were higher in OAM athletes than in CTRL, whereas GH secretion was higher than in RM athletes (P < 0.05). After treatment, diurnal secretions of these hormones were similar between groups with an increase of IGFBP-1 in the regularly menstruating subjects only (P < 0.001). OC treatment increased body fat mass in OAM athletes (P < 0.01 versus baseline). The change in total fat mass correlated positively with pretreatment diurnal levels of GH (rs = 0.67, P < 0.01) and cortisol (rs = 0.64, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS OC treatment in endurance athletes with menstrual disturbance increases body fat mass and results in diurnal levels of insulin, IGFBP-1, GH and cortisol that are comparable to those in regularly menstruating subjects. These results suggest that OCs improve metabolic balance in OAM athletes. PMID:19840988

  13. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K63.a,b: Non-peptide hormones in serum: cortisol and progesterone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S-C Tai, Susan; Duewer, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate many life functions. Deviations from normal hormone levels can have serious health consequences. Accurate measurement of hormone levels in serum can be beneficial in diagnosing, monitoring, and treating a number of diseases. Two steroid hormones, cortisol and progesterone, were selected by the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) to evaluate its member Institutes' measurement capabilities for this important class of measurand. Serum concentrations of cortisol range from 30 ng/mL to 230 ng/mL. Serum concentrations of progesterone in adult females range from 0.15 ng/mL to 25 ng/mL but can rise to approx230 ng/mL during pregnancy. The ability to measure cortisol is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones at concentration levels similar to cortisol. The ability to measure progesterone is indicative of a laboratory's ability to measure steroid hormones with similar functional groups and concentration levels, such as testosterone. Pilot studies CCQM-P77.a and CCQM-P77.b on the determination of cortisol and progesterone in human serum were completed in 2006. There was good agreement among the results reported by participants who used isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (ID/MS) with either gas chromatography (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In 2007 the OAWG decided to proceed with key comparison (KC) CCQM-K63.a, cortisol in human serum, and CCQM-K63.b, progesterone in human serum. Thus, following established OAWG procedure, only results from participants that (1) used an ID/MS-based method, (2) participated in the relevant pilot study, and (3) used a metrologically traceable primary standard were to be eligible for use in calculating the key comparison reference value (KCRV) for each measurand. Six laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.a and eight laboratories participated in CCQM-K63.b. The same pooled frozen female serum material was used in both of the KCs. The mean value for the six ID

  14. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  15. Effect of modafinil on plasma melatonin, cortisol and growth hormone rhythms, rectal temperature and performance in healthy subjects during a 36 h sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Brun, J; Chamba, G; Khalfallah, Y; Girard, P; Boissy, I; Bastuji, H; Sassolas, G; Claustrat, B

    1998-06-01

    Modafinil is an alerting substance which has been used successfully to treat narcolepsy. Nothing is known about its effect on hormone secretions. For this purpose, eight healthy young men were enrolled in a double blind trial to test the effects of modafinil on daily plasma melatonin, cortisol and growth hormone (GH) rhythms. Blood was sampled for hormone assays, every hour during the daytime and every 30 min during the nighttime. In addition, rectal temperature and mental performances were determined during the study which comprised 3 sessions, two weeks apart: a 24 h control session including a night with sleep (S1) and two 48 h sessions S2 and S3 with a sleep-deprived night (N1) followed by a recovery night (N2). Modafinil (300 mg x 2) or placebo were randomly attributed during N1 at 22 h and 8 h. As expected, performance was improved after modafinil administration and body temperature was maintained or increased. Plasma melatonin and cortisol profiles were similar after modafinil and placebo administration. The levels observed during the recovery and the control nights (N2) displayed no difference. For GH, during both sleep deprived nights, secretion was dramatically reduced compared with the control one, although the number of secretory episodes was unchanged. These data show that the alerting property of modafinil is not related to an alteration of hormone profiles and suggest that the acute modafinil administration is devoid of short-term side-effects.

  16. Cortisol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... cortisol, or to help diagnose adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , conditions associated with deficient cortisol. Cortisol is a ... a low level of cortisol, adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , such as: Weight loss Muscle weakness Fatigue Low ...

  17. Effects of cortisol and growth hormone on the metabolism of liver and bone in children with malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Güler, A; Sapan, N; Salantur, E

    1992-01-01

    A protein-energy deficit produces stress in the organism affecting all systems. Proportional to the degree of disease, cortisol and GH are mostly responsible for some of these effects. To investigate the effects on liver and bone, cortisol, GH, AST, ALT, ALP activities and Ca(T) and P(i) in serum were measured in 21 marasmus, nine kwashiorkor and 34 control children. In the marasmus group, we found a positive correlation between cortisol and AST, ALT and Ca(T) and a negative correlation between cortisol and ALP. In the kwashiorkor group there were positive correlations between the same parameters, although, they were of a lesser degree. Furthermore, in the kwashiorkor group we established a positive correlation between GH and ALP. Cortisol stimulates transaminases directly and suppresses ALP activity, thus indirectly increasing Ca(T), whereas GH has no direct effect on these enzymes. As the disease progresses and as liver functions deteriorate, AST, ALT and ALP increase in serum.

  18. Acute administration of buspirone increases the escape of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis hormones from suppression by dexamethasone in depression.

    PubMed

    Maes, M; Van Gastel, A; Meltzer, H Y; Cosyns, P; Blockx, P; Desnyder, R

    1996-01-01

    Recently, our laboratory found a significant enhancing effect of L-5-hydroxy-tryptophan (L-5-HTP) on post-dexamethasone (DST) plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels in major-but not in minor-depression. To further elucidate the effects of central serotonin (5-HT) activity on the negative feedback of glucocorticoids on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function in depression, this study investigates the effects of buspirone, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist, on post-DST ACTH and cortisol levels in 75 depressed subjects. Plasma post-DST ACTH and cortisol concentrations were significantly increased by the acute administration of buspirone (30 mg PO) compared to placebo. There were no differences in buspirone-induced post-DST ACTH or cortisol responses between minor and major depression. There were significant correlations between post-DST ACTH and cortisol, and between post-DST-buspirone ACTH and cortisol. The buspirone-induced post-DST cortisol responses were significantly higher in depressed women than men. It is concluded that buspirone may augment ACTH and, consequently, cortisol escape from suppression by dexamethasone in major as well as in minor depression.

  19. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  20. Cortisol response patterns in depressed women and their healthy daughters at risk: Comparison with healthy women and their daughters.

    PubMed

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Tunay, Sebnem; Polat, Irmak; Simsek, Fatma; Aksoy, Burcu; Kizilates, Gozde; Erdogan, Yigit; Coburn, Kerry L

    2017-02-01

    A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. This design allowed a comparison of HPA axis functional differences among daughter and mother groups. HPA axis function was evaluated with a modified dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, which was performed after obtaining the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values at 8:00, 16:00, and 23:00 h. We found that MDD mothers and their daughters had low morning cortisol and the MDD mothers additionally had low-morning ACTH compared with controls. Dexamethasone suppressed both cortisol and ACTH in all groups and subsequent HPA axis stimulation by CRH-evoked a lower cortisol response but a higher ACTH response among subjects with MDD mothers. Although high-risk daughters had comparable cortisol levels after CRH infusion, the AUC for ACTH was greater than those of controls. These patterns of results suggest that multiple level HPA dysfunctions are present in both MDD patients and their high-risk carrying daughters. However, insufficient cortisol secretion was only present in MDD mothers, while the daughters could compensate cortisol levels during CRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cytokine and hormonal changes after cholecystectomy. Effect of ibuprofen pretreatment.

    PubMed Central

    Chambrier, C; Chassard, D; Bienvenu, J; Saudin, F; Paturel, B; Garrigue, C; Barbier, Y; Boulétreau, P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Surgical stress induces hormonal and cytokine responses proportional to the extent of the injury. Therefore, the authors assessed the effect of ibuprofen pretreatment on metabolic and hormonal changes after surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Postoperative administration of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor reduces cytokine production and nitrogen losses. METHODS: The authors studied the plasma hormones and metabolic and cytokines changes after perioperative ibuprofen administration in 22 patients undergoing cholecystectomy under inhalational anesthesia. Suppositories containing ibuprofen (500 mg) or placebo were administered 12 and 2 hours before surgery, and every 8 hours until the third postoperative day. Blood samples were collected 24 and 2 hours before surgery and 2, 4, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery for glucose, C-reactive protein, leukocytes, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 determinations. RESULTS: In both groups, plasma cortisol levels remained elevated for 3 days, whereas plasma ACTH levels returned to the basal level at day 1. The ACTH (p < 0.01), cortisol (p < 0.01), and glucose changes (p < 0.001) were smaller in the ibuprofen group and their duration was shorter. The interleukin-6 levels increased gradually after skin incision until the sixth hour and were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in the ibuprofen group. CONCLUSION: Ibuprofen pretreatment in perioperative course is able to reduce the endocrine response and cytokine release. Therefore, ibuprofen may be useful in decreasing the stress response in severely surgical patients. PMID:8757381

  2. A Novel Method for the Assessment of Cortisol Hormone in Different Body Fluids Using A New Photo Probe Thiazole Derivative.

    PubMed

    Attia, M S; El-Swafy, E; Youssef, A O; Hefny, H A; Khalil, M H

    2014-03-01

    A low cost and accurate method for the detection and analytical determination of the cortisol in pharmaceutical preparation, blood serum and urine was developed. The method was based upon the enhancement of fluorescence intensity of the band at 424 nm of the photo probe by different cortisol concentrations in acetonitrile at (pH 5.7, λex = 320 nm). The influence of the different parameters, e.g. pH, solvent, cortisol concentration and foreign ions concentrations that control the enhancement process of fluorescence intensity of the band of photo probe was critically investigated. The remarkable enhancement of the fluorescence intensity at 424 nm in acetonitrile by various concentrations of cortisol was successfully used as a photo- probe for the assessment of cortisol concentration. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 8.0 × 10(-6)-5.5 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) cortisol with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 4.7 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). The developed method is simple and proceeds without practical artifacts compared to the other determination methods.

  3. Corticotropic axis drive of overnight cortisol secretion is suppressed in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Animesh N; Wigham, Jean; Veldhuis, Johannes D

    2014-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a pro-inflammatory stress state, which, with its attendant hyperglycemia, likely disrupts hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) control, further dysregulating glucose homeostasis. To test the hypothesis that endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-cortisol dose-responsive drive, estimated analytically, is significantly accentuated in adolescents and young adults with T1DM compared with healthy individuals. This was a pilot study of 11 volunteers with T1DM and 10 controls, ages 16-30 yr, at a medical center. Subjects underwent overnight frequent blood sampling (every 10 min for ACTH and cortisol and every 60 min for blood glucose) from 10 pm to 8 am. T1DM volunteers maintained their home insulin regimen. Deconvolution analysis and dose-response estimates were the key outcomes. Mean free cortisol, but not ACTH, concentrations were lower in the T1DM group compared with controls (p = 0.012). Non-invasive ACTH-cortisol dose-response estimates revealed that T1DM patients had reduced ACTH efficacy (maximal cortisol secretion, p = 0.009), reduced ACTH potency as quantified by greater EC50 (ACTH concentration driving half-maximal cortisol secretion, p = 0.04), and increased ACTH sensitivity (more positive ACTH-cortisol slope, p = 0.03). Post-hoc gender comparisons indicated that these differences were limited to females. Linear regression in women showed a strong correlation of both ACTH efficacy and EC50 with C-peptide levels (both p < 0.01). Compared with healthy individuals, T1DM patients manifest decreased overnight adrenal responsiveness to endogenous ACTH leading to lower free cortisol concentrations. These findings suggest impaired stress-related adaptations of the HPA axis in T1DM. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n = 40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2 h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

  5. Suppression of cortisol responses to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and the occurrence of side effects attributable to glucocorticoid excess, in cats during therapy with megestrol acetate and prednisolone.

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, D J; Watson, A D; Howe, C J; Caterson, I D

    1987-01-01

    The major purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of prednisolone and megestrol acetate in cats on the adrenal cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone during drug administration at dose rates employed for management of some inflammatory feline dermatoses. Prednisolone (at least 2 mg/kg/day) and megestrol acetate (5 mg/cat/day) were each administered orally to seven cats from days 1 to 16. Three additional cats received no therapy. Basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, food and water intake, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalyses, and hepatic and cutaneous histology were studied in all cats before, during, and two weeks following the end of treatment. Cats given prednisolone or megestrol acetate had significant suppression of stimulated cortisol levels on day 8. This change was more marked on day 15, when the suppression in cats given megestrol acetate was also significantly more severe than in those receiving prednisolone. Recovery of adrenal reserve was considered present on day 30 in six of seven cats given prednisolone, but in only three of seven receiving megestrol acetate. Eosinopenia, glycosuria and hepatocyte swelling from glycogen deposition were occasionally recorded in treated cats of both groups, providing additional circumstantial evidence for glucocorticoid activity of megestrol acetate in cats. It is advised that abrupt withdrawal of prednisolone or megestrol acetate therapy be avoided in this species to reduce the chance of precipitating clinical signs of hypoadrenocorticism, even after treatment for as little as one week. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3032391

  6. Suckling and salsolinol attenuate responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to stress: focus on catecholamines, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, cortisol and prolactin secretion in lactating sheep.

    PubMed

    Hasiec, M; Tomaszewska-Zaremba, D; Misztal, T

    2014-12-01

    In mammals, the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stress is reduced during lactation and this mainly results from suckling by the offspring. The suckling stimulus causes a release of the hypothalamic 1-metyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol) (a derivative of dopamine), one of the prolactin-releasing factors. To investigate the involvement of salsolinol in the mechanism suppressing stress-induced HPA axis activity, we conducted a series of experiments on lactating sheep, in which they were treated with two kinds of isolation stress (isolation from the flock with lamb present or absent), combined with suckling and/or i.c.v infusion of salsolinol and 1-methyl-3,4-dihydro-isoqinoline (1-MeDIQ; an antagonistic analogue of salsolinol). Additionally, a push-pull perfusion of the infundibular nucleus/median eminence (IN/ME) and blood sample collection with 10-min intervals were performed during the experiments. Concentrations of perfusate corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and catecholamines (noradrenaline, dopamine and salsolinol), as well as concentrations of plasma adenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and prolactin, were assayed. A significant increase in perfusate noradrenaline, plasma ACTH and cortisol occurred in response to both kinds of isolation stress. Suckling and salsolinol reduced the stress-induced increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol concentrations. Salsolinol also significantly reduced the stress-induced noradrenaline and dopamine release within the IN/ME. Treatment with 1-MeDIQ under the stress conditions significantly diminished the salsolinol concentration and increased CRH and cortisol concentrations. Stress and salsolinol did not increase the plasma prolactin concentration, in contrast to the suckling stimulus. In conclusion, salsolinol released in nursing sheep may have a suppressing effect on stress-induced HPA axis activity and peripheral prolactin does not appear to participate in

  7. Psychosocial stress inhibits amplitude of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2009-02-01

    Our laboratory has developed a paradigm of psychosocial stress (sequential layering of isolation, blindfold, and predator cues) that robustly elevates cortisol secretion and decreases LH pulse amplitude in ovariectomized ewes. This decrease in LH pulse amplitude is due, at least in part, to a reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, caused by cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The first experiment of the current study aimed to determine whether this layered psychosocial stress also inhibits pulsatile GnRH release into pituitary portal blood. The stress paradigm significantly reduced GnRH pulse amplitude compared with nonstressed ovariectomized ewes. The second experiment tested if this stress-induced decrease in GnRH pulse amplitude is mediated by cortisol action on the type II GR. Ovariectomized ewes were allocated to three groups: nonstress control, stress, and stress plus the type II GR antagonist RU486. The layered psychosocial stress paradigm decreased GnRH and LH pulse amplitude compared with nonstress controls. Importantly, the stress also lowered GnRH pulse amplitude to a comparable extent in ewes in which cortisol action via the type II GR was antagonized. Therefore, we conclude that psychosocial stress reduces the amplitude of GnRH pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II GR. The present findings, combined with our recent observations, suggest that the mechanisms by which psychosocial stress inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine activity at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels are fundamentally different.

  8. Cortisol and finfish welfare.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Tim; Yildiz, Hijran Yavuzcan; López-Olmeda, Jose; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tort, Lluis; Øverli, Øyvind; Martins, Catarina I M

    2012-02-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and is relevant to fish welfare as it affects physiological and brain functions and modifies behaviour. However, we argue that cortisol has little value if welfare is viewed purely from a functional (or behavioural) perspective-the cortisol response itself is a natural, adaptive response and is not predictive of coping as downstream impacts on function and behaviour are dose-, time- and context-dependent and not predictable. Nevertheless, we argue that welfare should be considered in terms of mental health and feelings, and that stress in relation to welfare should be viewed as psychological, rather than physiological. We contend that cortisol can be used (with caution) as a tractable indicator of how fish perceive (and feel about) their environment, psychological stress and feelings in fish. Cortisol responses are directly triggered by the brain and fish studies do indicate cortisol responses to psychological stressors, i.e., those with no direct physicochemical action. We discuss the practicalities of using cortisol to ask the fish themselves how they feel about husbandry practices and the culture environment. Single time point measurements of cortisol are of little value in assessing the stress level of fish as studies need to account for diurnal and seasonal variations, and environmental and genetic factors. Areas in need of greater clarity for the use of cortisol as an indicator of fish feelings are the separation of (physiological) stress from (psychological) distress, the separation of chronic stress from acclimation, and the interactions between feelings, cortisol, mood and behaviour.

  9. Insight into the neuroendocrine site and cellular mechanism by which cortisol suppresses pituitary responsiveness to gonadotropin-releasing hormone.

    PubMed

    Breen, Kellie M; Davis, Tracy L; Doro, Lisa C; Nett, Terry M; Oakley, Amy E; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Rispoli, Louisa A; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2008-02-01

    Stress-like elevations in plasma glucocorticoids rapidly inhibit pulsatile LH secretion in ovariectomized sheep by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. This effect can be blocked by a nonspecific antagonist of the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR) RU486. A series of experiments was conducted to strengthen the evidence for a mediatory role of the type II GR and to investigate the neuroendocrine site and cellular mechanism underlying this inhibitory effect of cortisol. First, we demonstrated that a specific agonist of the type II GR, dexamethasone, mimics the suppressive action of cortisol on pituitary responsiveness to GnRH pulses in ovariectomized ewes. This effect, which became evident within 30 min, documents mediation via the type II GR. We next determined that exposure of cultured ovine pituitary cells to cortisol reduced the LH response to pulse-like delivery of GnRH by 50% within 30 min, indicating a pituitary site of action. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that suppression of pituitary responsiveness to GnRH in ovariectomized ewes is due to reduced tissue concentrations of GnRH receptor. Although cortisol blunted the amplitude of GnRH-induced LH pulses within 1-2 h, the amount of GnRH receptor mRNA or protein was not affected over this time frame. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that cortisol acts via the type II GR within the pituitary gland to elicit a rapid decrease in responsiveness to GnRH, independent of changes in expression of the GnRH receptor.

  10. Effects of different spawning agents on serum levels of reproductive steroid hormones and cortisol level in adult female Barbus sharpeyi (Gunther, 1874).

    PubMed

    Mohammadian, Takavar; Malekpouri, Pedram; Zare, Mojtaba; Zainodini, Mohammad Anwar

    2015-12-01

    The question of whether, as hormone therapies, spawning agents differ from each other to induce physiological pathways of gametogenesis and oocyte maturation in fish remains important, because it could modify undesirable changes, regulated by endocrine systems of individual fish. A series of experimental treatments were applied to investigate the underlying mechanism(s) in which female bunnei (Barbus sharpeyi) fish respond differently to hormone therapies. Female broodstocks were injected twice (with 12 h interval) by three different treatments namely A, B and C. The treatment A received carp pituitary extract (CPE) + luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogs (LHRHα2) (0.5 mg CPE kg(-1) BW for first injection and 2 mg CPE kg(-1) BW + 10 µg LHRHα2 kg(-1) for second injection), treatment B received CPE (0.5 and 3.5 mg kg(-1) BW), and treatment C received ovaprim (0.1 and 0.15 ml kg(-1) BW). Blood samples were collected at four different time intervals, including prior to injections, 6 h after first injection, 6 h after second injection and at the time of spawning, and serum steroid hormones, including testosterone, progesterone and estradiol-17β as well as cortisol, were measured. Results showed significant increases in serum estradiol-17β following all treatments, but the most profound response was found in treatments A and B. Testosterone was higher in larger broodfish than in small-sized broodfish (>1.5 vs. <1.5 kg) in all treatments. CPE led to higher concentration of testosterone rather than two other treatments. CPE also increases the progesterone following first injection and approximately remains unchanged till the end of experiment. Change in progesterone level was only significant after second injection of ovaprim as well as after spawning compared with previous time. Linear regression analyses indicated that cortisol had adverse effects on progesterone and testosterone levels of weight group <1.5 kg. These results suggest that among inducing

  11. Plasma ghrelin in anorexia, bulimia, and binge-eating disorder: relations with eating patterns and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Troisi, Alfonso; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Lega, Ilaria; Tesauro, Manfredi; Bertoli, Aldo; Leo, Roberto; Iantorno, Micaela; Pecchioli, Chiara; Rizza, Stefano; Turriziani, Mario; Lauro, Renato; Siracusano, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the relations between plasma ghrelin concentrations, eating patterns, and circulating concentrations of cortisol and thyroid hormones in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder. The patterns of disordered eating behavior were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and the Bulimia Test-Revised (BULIT-R). In women with eating disorders, but not in healthy control women, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) and plasma concentrations of thyreotropin (TSH), free T3 and free T4, and positively correlated with plasma concentrations of cortisol. The ghrelin concentrations of women with binge-eating and purging behavior were significantly lower than those of women with anorexia nervosa, restricting type, and there was a negative relation between the frequency and severity of binge-eating and purging behavior, as measured by the BULIT-R total score, and ghrelin concentrations. In a multivariate regression model controlling for the confounding effects of body mass index (BMI) and age, higher ghrelin concentrations were correlated with lower BULIT-R total scores. The results of this study did not confirm the hypothesis advanced in previous studies that ghrelin concentrations are higher in patients with binge-eating/purging forms of eating disorders. Based on these data, we suggest that, in women with eating disorders, ghrelin concentrations best reflect nutritional status rather than specific patterns of disordered eating behavior. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Resilience is decreased in irritable bowel syndrome and associated with symptoms and cortisol response.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Naliboff, B D; Shih, W; Presson, A P; Videlock, E J; Ju, T; Kilpatrick, L; Gupta, A; Mayer, E A; Chang, L

    2017-07-18

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a stress-sensitive disorder associated with early adverse life events (EALs) and a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Resilience is the ability to recover and adapt positively to stress but has not been well studied in IBS. The aims of this study are to compare resilience in IBS and healthy controls (HCs) and to assess its relationships with IBS symptom severity, quality of life (QOL), EALs, and HPA axis response. Two hundred fifty-six subjects (154 IBS, 102 HCs) completed questionnaires for resilience (Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale [CD-RISC] and Brief Resilience Scale [BRS]), IBS symptoms, IBS-QOL, and EALs. Ninety-six of these subjects had serial serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels to exogenous corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) and ACTH measured. The relationship between IBS status, resilience, and other variables of interest was assessed by regression analysis after adjusting for demographics and neuroticism, a predictor of resilience. Resilience was significantly lower in IBS compared to HCs (CD-RISC: 72.16±14.97 vs 77.32±12.73, P=.003; BRS: 3.29±0.87 vs 3.93±0.69, P<.001); however, only BRS was significant after controlling for neuroticism (P=.001). Lower BRS scores were associated with greater IBS symptom severity (P=.002), poorer IBS-QOL (P<.001), and a higher number of EALs (P=.01). There was a significant interaction between BRS resilience and IBS status for ACTH-stimulated cortisol response (P=.031); more resilient IBS subjects had lower cortisol response, and more resilient HCs had higher cortisol response. Lower resilience is associated with IBS status, worse IBS symptom severity, lower IBS-QOL, greater EALs, and stress hyperresponsiveness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the

  15. Cytokine modulation by stress hormones and antagonist specific hormonal inhibition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney primary cell culture.

    PubMed

    Khansari, Ali Reza; Parra, David; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluís

    2017-09-01

    A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The results showed a striking difference when comparing the response obtained in trout and seabream. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of immune-related genes in sea bream but not in rainbow trout and this cortisol effect was reverted by the antagonist mifepristone but not spironolactone. On the other hand, while adrenaline reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) in rainbow trout, the opposite effect was observed in sea bream showing an increased expression (IL-1β, IL-6). Interestingly, this effect was reverted by antagonist propranolol but not phentolamine. Overall, our results confirm the regional interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity to the hormonal stimuli between the two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. During a corticotropin-releasing hormone test in healthy subjects, administration of a beta-adrenergic antagonist induced secretion of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and inhibited secretion of ACTH.

    PubMed

    Kizildere, Selda; Glück, Thomas; Zietz, Bettina; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Straub, Rainer H

    2003-01-01

    In chronic inflammatory diseases, serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate (DHEAS) are low. Interestingly, several non-inflammatory diseases display similarly low levels of DHEAS which points to other inhibitory factors such as an activated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) (e.g. in patients with heart failure, fibromyalgia, or cancer cachexia). We aimed to identify the influence of the SNS tone on stimulated adrenal steroid secretion in 16 male and 12 female healthy subjects. One group were given oral propranolol 2 h before a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test, and levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP), androstenedione, DHEA, and DHEAS were measured. Propranolol treatment decreased heart rate (by 20%), diastolic blood pressure (by 20%), and plasma ACTH, and increased serum cortisol, serum DHEAS, and the molar ratio of cortisol/17OHP, cortisol/DHEA, and DHEAS/DHEA similarly in female and male subjects. A beta-adrenergic influence seems to decrease CRH-stimulated cortisol in relation to ACTH and 17OHP, and decreases DHEAS in relation to DHEA. Although other workers have found beta-adrenergic stimulation of steroid secretion in cultured adrenocortical cells, the overall systemic influence of the SNS via beta-adrenoceptors seems to inhibit adrenal steroids under unstimulated and stimulated conditions. Sympathetic hyperactivity may be a common denominator for low levels of DHEAS in inflammatory and non-inflammatory diseases.

  17. Modeling Bivariate Longitudinal Hormone Profiles by Hierarchical State Space Models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziyue; Cappola, Anne R; Crofford, Leslie J; Guo, Wensheng

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is crucial in coping with stress and maintaining homeostasis. Hormones produced by the HPA axis exhibit both complex univariate longitudinal profiles and complex relationships among different hormones. Consequently, modeling these multivariate longitudinal hormone profiles is a challenging task. In this paper, we propose a bivariate hierarchical state space model, in which each hormone profile is modeled by a hierarchical state space model, with both population-average and subject-specific components. The bivariate model is constructed by concatenating the univariate models based on the hypothesized relationship. Because of the flexible framework of state space form, the resultant models not only can handle complex individual profiles, but also can incorporate complex relationships between two hormones, including both concurrent and feedback relationship. Estimation and inference are based on marginal likelihood and posterior means and variances. Computationally efficient Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms are used for implementation. Application of the proposed method to a study of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia reveals that the relationships between adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in the patient group are weaker than in healthy controls.

  18. [Regulatory mechanism of hormones of the pituitary-target gland axes in kidney-Yang deficiency based on a support vector machine model].

    PubMed

    Xiufeng, Wang; Lei, Zhang; Rongbo, Huang; Qinghua, Wu; Jianxin, Min; Na, Ma; Laicheng, Luo

    2015-04-01

    To study the development mechanism of kidney-Yang deficiency through the establishment of support vector machine models of relevant hormones of the pituitary-target gland axes in rats with kidney-Yang deficiency syndrome. The kidney-Yang deficiency rat model was created by intramuscular injection of hydrocortisone, and contents of the hormones of the pituitary-thyroid axis: thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4); hormones of the pituitary-adrenal gland axis: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT); and hormones of the pituitary-gonadal axis: luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone (T), were determined in the early, middle, and advanced stages. Ten support vector regression (SVR) models of the hormones were established to analyze the mutual relationships among the hormones of the three axes. The feedback control action of the pituitary-adrenal axis began to lose efficacy from the middle stage of kidney-Yang deficiency. The contents all hormones of the three pituitary-target gland axes decreased in the advanced stage. Relative errors of the jackknife test of the SVR models all were less than 10%. Imbalances in mutual regulation among the hormones of the pituitary-target gland axes, especially loss of effectiveness of the pituitary-adrenal axis, is one pathogenesis of kidney-Yang deficiency. The SVR model can accurately reflect the complicated non-linear relationships among pituitary-target gland axes in rats with of kidney-Yang deficiency.

  19. Hormonal and Behavioral Responses to Stress in Lactating and Non-lactating Female Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Wendy; Abbott, David H.

    2011-01-01

    In several mammalian species, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and behavioral responses to stressors are down-regulated in lactating females, possibly preventing stress-induced disruptions of maternal care. Experimental elevations of HPA axis hormones have been found to inhibit maternal behavior in lactating common marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus), raising the question of whether lactating female marmosets also have blunted endogenous responses to stress. Therefore, we compared HPA and behavioral responses to standardized stressors in reproductively experienced female common marmosets that were undergoing ovulatory cycles and that either were (N=7) or were not lactating (N=8). Each marmoset underwent (1) a restraint stressor during the early follicular phase of the ovarian cycle (approximately 5 weeks postpartum for lactating females) and (2) exposure to a simulated hawk predator during the early to mid-luteal phase (approximately 7 weeks postpartum for lactating females). Lactating females were tested in the presence of one of their infants. Blood samples were collected before, during, and immediately after each test for determination of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol concentrations. Both stressors caused significant elevations in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels, and significant decreases in cortisol:ACTH ratios; however, lactating and non-lactating females showed no significant differences in their endocrine or behavioral responses to either stressor, or in baseline ACTH or cortisol levels. These findings suggest that in contrast to several other mammalian species, lactating female marmosets maintain full behavioral and HPA responsiveness to stress, at least in the presence of their infants. PMID:21600906

  20. Circadian hormone profiles and insulin sensitivity in patients with Addison's disease: a comparison of continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion with conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Björnsdottir, Sigridur; Øksnes, Marianne; Isaksson, Magnus; Methlie, Paal; Nilsen, Roy M; Hustad, Steinar; Kämpe, Olle; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian; Nyström, Thomas; Bensing, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    Conventional glucocorticoid replacement therapy in patients with Addison's disease (AD) is unphysiological with possible adverse effects on mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The diurnal cortisol profile can likely be restored by continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion (CSHI). The aim of this study was to compare circadian hormone rhythms and insulin sensitivity in conventional thrice-daily regimen of glucocorticoid replacement therapy with CSHI treatment in patients with AD. An open, randomized, two-period, 12-week crossover multicentre trial in Norway and Sweden. Ten Norwegian patients were admitted for 24-h sampling of hormone profiles. Fifteen Swedish patients underwent euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp. Thrice-daily regimen of oral hydrocortisone (OHC) and CSHI treatment. We measured the circadian rhythm of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1, (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), glucose, insulin and triglycerides during OHC and CSHI treatment. Euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp was used to assess insulin sensitivity. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion provided a more physiological circadian cortisol curve including a late-night cortisol surge. ACTH levels showed a near normal circadian variation for CSHI. CSHI prevented a continuous decrease in glucose during the night. No difference in insulin sensitivity was observed between the two treatment arms. Continuous subcutaneous hydrocortisone infusion replacement re-established a circadian cortisol rhythm and normalized the ACTH levels. Patients with CSHI replacement had a more stable night-time glucose level compared with OHC without compromising insulin sensitivity. Thus, restoring night-time cortisol levels might be advantageous for patients with AD. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Reduced cortisol in the absence of bacterial infection in patients with hepatitis B virus cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Yu, H-W; Li, J; Zhu, Y-K; Wang, K-F; Jia, L; Meng, Q-H

    2015-07-17

    In liver cirrhosis with bacterial infection, hepatoadrenal syndrome has been described recently as a progressive impairment in the adrenocortical reserve, with deficient production or action of glucocorticoids resulting in adrenal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of cortisol in hepatitis B virus (HBV) cirrhosis patients in the absence of bacterial infection. Fasting peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 107 patients with HBV cirrhosis in the absence of bacterial infection and 18 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection at 7 a.m. in the morning. The carbohydrate, cortisol-binding globulin, routine chemistry, liver function, and hepatitis B indicators were tested, and free cortisol was calculated. Cortisol (COR) levels were 18.72 ± 6.60 μg/dL in the CHB group and 14.20 ± 7.55 μg/dL in the HBV cirrhosis group (P = 0.002). COR levels were 15.11 ± 5.56, 14.88 ± 6.96, and 12.68 ± 8.36 μg/dL in Child-Pugh class A, B, and C cirrhotic patients, respectively (P = 0.006). Adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were 35.42 ± 24.49, 26.57 ± 15.72, and 19.65 ± 10.72 pg/mL in Child-Pugh class A, B, and C cirrhotic patients, respectively (P = 0.000). Patients with HBV cirrhosis had significantly lower serum COR levels compared with those of CHB patients, even if they are in the absence of bacterial infection. COR levels negatively correlated with Child-Pugh scores. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis might be damaged in patients with HBV cirrhosis.

  2. POSTSURGICAL RECURRENT CUSHING DISEASE: CLINICAL BENEFIT OF EARLY INTERVENTION IN PATIENTS WITH NORMAL URINARY FREE CORTISOL.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Ty B; Javorsky, Bradley R; Findling, James W

    2016-10-01

    To assess the performance of biochemical markers in the detection of recurrent Cushing disease (CD), as well as the potential benefit of early intervention in recurrent CD patients with elevated late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) and normal urinary free cortisol (UFC). The design was a single-center, retrospective chart review. Patients treated by the authors from 2008-2013 were included. Recurrence was defined by postsurgical remission of CD with subsequent abnormal LNSC, UFC, or dexamethasone suppression test (DST). We identified 15 patients with postsurgical recurrent CD after initial remission; all but one underwent testing with LNSC, DST, and UFC. Although 12 of 15 patients had normal UFC at time of recurrence, DST was abnormal in 11 of 15, and all 14 patients with LNSC results had ≥1 elevated measurement. Nine patients (7 with normal UFC) showed radiologic evidence of a pituitary tumor at time of recurrence. Among the 14 patients with available follow-up data, 12 have demonstrated significant improvement since receiving treatment. Five patients underwent repeat pituitary surgery and 4 achieved clinical and biochemical remission. Eight patients received mifepristone or cabergoline, and 6 showed clinical and/or biochemical improvement. Three patients (2 with prior mifepristone) underwent bilateral adrenalectomy and 2 demonstrated significant clinical improvements. LNSC is more sensitive than UFC or DST for detection of CD recurrence. Prompt intervention when LNSC is elevated, despite normal UFC, may yield significant clinical benefit for many patients with CD. Early treatment for patients with recurrent CD should be prospectively evaluated, utilizing LNSC elevation as an early biochemical marker. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CS = Cushing syndrome CV = coefficient of variation DST = dexamethasone suppression test IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol QoL = quality of life TSS = transsphenoidal

  3. Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

    2012-05-15

    The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may

  4. Stress hormones at rest and following exercise testing predict coronary artery disease severity and outcome.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Dejana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Djordjevic, Tea; Martic, Dejana; Ignjatovic, Svetlana; Milinkovic, Neda; Banovic, Marko; Lasica, Ratko; Petrovic, Milan; Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross

    2017-08-28

    Despite considerable knowledge regarding the importance of stress in coronary artery disease (CAD) pathogenesis, its underestimation persists in routine clinical practice, in part attributable to lack of a standardized, objective assessment. The current study examined the ability of stress hormones to predict CAD severity and prognosis at basal conditions as well as during and following an exertional stimulus. Forty Caucasian subjects with significant coronary artery lesions (≥50%) were included. Within 2 months of coronary angiography, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) on a recumbent ergometer was performed in conjunction with stress echocardiography (SE). At rest, peak and after 3 min of recovery following CPET, plasma levels of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) were measured by immunoassay sandwich technique, radioimmunoassay, and radioimmunometric technique, respectively. Subjects were subsequently followed a mean of 32 ± 10 months. Mean ejection fraction was 56.7 ± 9.6%. Subjects with 1-2 stenotic coronary arteries (SCA) demonstrated a significantly lower plasma cortisol levels during CPET compared to those with 3-SCA (p < .05), whereas ACTH and NT-pro-BNP were not significantly different (p > .05). Among CPET, SE, and hormonal parameters, cortisol at rest and during CPET recovery demonstrated the best predictive value in distinguishing between 1-, 2-, and 3-SCA [area under ROC curve 0.75 and 0.77 (SE = 0.11, 0.10; p = .043, .04) for rest and recovery, respectively]. ΔCortisol peak/rest predicted cumulative cardiac events (area under ROC curve 0.75, SE = 0.10, p = .049). Cortisol at rest and following an exercise test holds predictive value for CAD severity and prognosis, further demonstrating a link between stress and unwanted cardiac events.

  5. Zymosan-induced immune challenge modifies the stress response of hypoxic air-breathing fish (Anabas testudineus Bloch): Evidence for reversed patterns of cortisol and thyroid hormone interaction, differential ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response.

    PubMed

    Simi, S; Peter, Valsa S; Peter, M C Subhash

    2016-11-18

    Fishes have evolved physiological mechanisms to exhibit stress response, where hormonal signals interact with an array of ion transporters and regulate homeostasis. As major ion transport regulators in fish, cortisol and thyroid hormones have been shown to interact and fine-tune the stress response. Likewise, in fishes many interactions have been identified between stress and immune components, but the physiological basis of such interaction has not yet delineated particularly in air-breathing fish. We, therefore, investigated the responses of thyroid hormones and cortisol, ion transporter functions and non-specific immune response of an obligate air-breathing fish Anabas testudineus Bloch to zymosan treatment or hypoxia stress or both, to understand how immune challenge modifies the pattern of stress response in this fish. Induction of experimental peritonitis in these fish by zymosan treatment (200ngg(-1)) for 24h produced rise in respiratory burst and lysozomal activities in head kidney phagocytes. In contrast, hypoxia stress for 30min in immune-challenged fish reversed these non-specific responses of head kidney phagocytes. The decline in plasma cortisol in zymosan-treated fish and its further suppression by hypoxia stress indicate that immune challenge suppresses the cortisol-driven stress response of this fish. Likewise, the decline in plasma T3 and T4 after zymosan-treatment and the rise in plasma T4 after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish indicate a critical role for thyroid hormone in immune-stress response due to its differential sensitivity to both immune and stress challenges. Further, analysis of the activity pattern of ion-dependent ATPases viz. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, H(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/NH4(+)-ATPase indicates a functional interaction of ion transport system with the immune response as evident in its differential and spatial modifications after hypoxia stress in immune-challenged fish. The immune-challenge that produced differential pattern

  6. [Comparison of efficacy between the serum cortisol and 24 hour urine free cortisol in combined dexamethasone suppression test in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Chen, J H; Zhu, H J; Song, A L; Li, M; Chen, S; Pan, H; Gong, F Y; Wang, R Z; Xing, B; Yao, Y; Feng, M; Lu, Z L

    2016-07-19

    To compare the sensitivity and specificity between the 24 hour urine free cortisol (24 h UFC) and serum cortisol in dexamethasone suppression test (DST) in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome (CS). Combined low dose DST (LDDST) and high dose DST (HDDST) were carried out in 67 cases of CS with surgically confirmed cases in recent 3 years(from January 2011 to November 2015). The serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were collected simultaneously for each subject and the sensitivity and specificity of serum cortisol and 24 h UFC were compared. There were Cushing disease (CD) group (n=53), ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome group (n=7) and ACTH-independent Cushing syndrome group (n=7) according to the etiology of hypercorticordism.There were no significant differences among 3 groups in gender and age.The sensitivity of serum cortisol of different cut off points(50, 110, 140 nmol/L and 50% of control)after LDDST was 97.01%, 86.57%, 83.58% and 70.15% respectively.Meanwhile, the sensitivity of cutoff point of 24 h UFC <32 nmol in combined LDDST was 92.54% in the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome.There was no significant differences in two groups between serum cortisol <110 nmol/L and 24 h UFC <32 nmol.However, the sensitivity of serum cortisol <50 nmol/L was significantly higher than 24 h UFC<32 nmol (P<0.05). Furthermore, in combined HDDST, if the suppression rate was ≥50%, the sensitivity of serum cortisol and 24 h UFC in differentiating the etiology of Cushing disease was 60.38% and 90.57%, and the specificity was 91.43% and 96.00% respectively.There were significant differences between serum cortisol and 24 h UFC in both of sensitivity and specificity (both P<0.05). In addition, if the suppression rate of 24 h UFC in HDDST was adjusted to 60.85% according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, it could have the best levels of sensitivity (92.6%) with the specificity of 85.7%. If the suppression rate of serum cortisol was adjusted to 61.53% in HDDST

  7. Cortisol and DHEA in development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kamin, Hayley S; Kertes, Darlene A

    2017-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol are the most abundant hormones of the human fetal and adult adrenals released as end products of a tightly coordinated endocrine response to stress. Together, they mediate short- and long-term stress responses and enable physiological and behavioral adjustments necessary for maintaining homeostasis. Detrimental effects of chronic or repeated elevations in cortisol on behavioral and emotional health are well documented. Evidence for actions of DHEA that offset or oppose those of cortisol has stimulated interest in examining their levels as a ratio, as an alternate index of adrenocortical activity and the net effects of cortisol. Such research necessitates a thorough understanding of the co-actions of these hormones on physiological functioning and in association with developmental outcomes. This review addresses the state of the science in understanding the role of DHEA, cortisol, and their ratio in typical development and developmental psychopathology. A rationale for studying DHEA and cortisol in concert is supported by physiological data on the coordinated synthesis and release of these hormones in the adrenal and by their opposing physiological actions. We then present evidence that researching cortisol and DHEA necessitates a developmental perspective. Age-related changes in DHEA and cortisol are described from the perinatal period through adolescence, along with observed associations of these hormones with developmental psychopathology. Along the way, we identify several major knowledge gaps in the role of DHEA in modulating cortisol in typical development and developmental psychopathology with implications for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Single vagus nerve stimulation reduces early postprandial C-peptide levels but not other hormones or postprandial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tang, M W; van Nierop, F S; Koopman, F A; Eggink, H M; Gerlag, D M; Chan, M W; Zitnik, R; Vaz, F M; Romijn, J A; Tak, P P; Soeters, M R

    2017-04-08

    A recent study in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using electrical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) to activate the inflammatory reflex has shown promising effects on disease activity. Innervation by the autonomic nerve system might be involved in the regulation of many endocrine and metabolic processes and could therefore theoretically lead to unwanted side effects. Possible effects of VNS on secretion of hormones are currently unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of a single VNS on plasma levels of pituitary hormones and parameters of postprandial metabolism. Six female patients with RA were studied twice in balanced assignment (crossover design) to either VNS or no stimulation. The patients selected for this substudy had been on VNS therapy daily for at least 3 months and at maximum of 24 months. We compared 10-, 20-, and 30-min poststimulus levels to baseline levels, and a 4-h mixed meal test was performed 30 min after VNS. We also determined energy expenditure (EE) by indirect calorimetry before and after VNS. VNS did not affect pituitary hormones (growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone), postprandial metabolism, or EE. Of note, VNS reduced early postprandial insulin secretion, but not AUC of postprandial plasma insulin levels. Cortisol and catecholamine levels in serum did not change significantly. Short stimulation of vagal activity by VNS reduces early postprandial insulin secretion, but not other hormone levels and postprandial response. This suggests VNS as a safe treatment for RA patients.

  9. Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  10. Non-invasive monitoring of stress hormones in the bat Eptesicus isabellinus - Do fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations correlate with survival?

    PubMed

    Kelm, Detlev H; Popa-Lisseanu, Ana G; Dehnhard, Martin; Ibáñez, Carlos

    2016-01-15

    Chronic stress may negatively impact fitness and survival in wildlife. Stress hormone analysis from feces is a non-invasive tool for identifying stressors and deducing about individual and population level fitness. Although many bat populations are endangered, fecal stress hormone analysis has not been established in bats as a method for focusing conservation efforts. The isabelline serotine bat, Eptesicus isabellinus, is exposed to human disturbance as its roosts are mostly found in anthropogenic structures. Moreover, this bat is host to various diseases and survival rates between colonies may vary significantly. To validate the analysis of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites, we applied an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge and tested four different enzyme immunoassays (EIA) for measuring glucocorticoid concentrations. Cortisol and its metabolites showed the highest increase in blood and feces after the ACTH challenge, but corticosterone and its metabolites also increased significantly. Baseline fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) concentrations did not increase until 1.5h after the animals were captured, which is a convenient time lag for sample collection from captured animals. We furthermore compared baseline FCM concentrations between five colonies of E. isabellinus in Andalusia, Spain, and tested for their correlation with survival rates. FCM concentrations did not vary between colonies, but FCM levels increased with the animals' age. FCM analysis may prove a useful tool for identifying bat colonies that experience uncommon environmental stress. However, inter-individual variation in hormone secretion, due to factors such as age, may require additional information to properly interpret differences in hormone concentrations.

  11. Subjective Sleep Quality and hormonal modulation in long-term yoga practitioners.

    PubMed

    Vera, Francisca M; Manzaneque, Juan M; Maldonado, Enrique F; Carranque, Gabriel A; Rodriguez, Francisco M; Blanca, Maria J; Morell, Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Yoga represents a fascinating mind-body approach, wherein body movements (asana), breathing exercises (pranayama) and meditation are integrated into a single multidimensional practice. Numerous beneficial mental and physical effects have been classically ascribed to this holistic ancient method. The purpose of the present study has been to examine the effects of long-term yoga practice on Subjective Sleep Quality (SSQ) and on several hormonal parameters of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Twenty-six subjects (16 experimental and 10 controls) were recruited to be part of the study. Experimental subjects were regular yoga practitioners with a minimum of 3 years of practice. Blood samples for the quantification of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) were drawn from all subjects. Likewise, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was employed to assess SSQ. As statistical analysis, Mann-Whitney U-test was performed. The yoga group displayed lower PSQI scores and higher blood cortisol levels than control subjects. Therefore, it can be concluded that long-term yoga practice is associated with significant psycho-biological differences, including better sleep quality as well as a modulatory action on the levels of cortisol. These preliminary results suggest interesting clinical implications which should be further researched.

  12. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-Hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh; Choi, Jihye

    2017-03-30

    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog.

  13. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog. PMID:27297418

  14. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase by moclobemide: effects on monoamine metabolism and secretion of anterior pituitary hormones and cortisol in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Koulu, M; Scheinin, M; Kaarttinen, A; Kallio, J; Pyykkö, K; Vuorinen, J; Zimmer, R H

    1989-01-01

    1. Single oral doses (100, 200 and 300 mg) of moclobemide, a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO) with predominant effects on the A-type of the enzyme, were administered to eight young, healthy male volunteers in a double-blind, random-order, placebo-controlled study. The investigation was thereafter continued in an open fashion by administering a single 10 mg dose of the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl to the same subjects. 2. Deamination of catecholamines was powerfully and dose-dependently inhibited by moclobemide, as evidenced by up to 40% decreases in the urinary excretion of deaminated catecholamine metabolites, corresponding increases in the excretion of non-deaminated, methylated metabolites, and up to 79% average decreases in the plasma concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG), a deaminated metabolite of noradrenaline (NA), and up to 75% average decreases in the plasma concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), a deaminated metabolite of dopamine. The urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) was only slightly reduced. In contrast, deprenyl, in a dose which almost totally inhibited MAO-B activity in blood platelets, did not appreciably affect the plasma concentrations of DHPG or DOPAC. 3. Due to the rapid, reversible, dose-dependent and MAO-A specific effect of moclobemide on plasma concentrations of DHPG, it is suggested that DHPG in plasma may be a useful indicator of the magnitude and duration of MAO-A inhibition in man. 4. Sympatho-adrenal function at rest was not significantly altered by moclobemide, as judged by unchanged plasma catecholamine concentrations and stable blood pressure and heart rate recordings. 5. Monoamine oxidase type B activity in blood platelets was slightly (less than 30%) and transiently inhibited after moclobemide. 6. The secretion of prolactin was dose-dependently stimulated by moclobemide, whereas the plasma concentrations of growth hormone (hGH) and cortisol remained unchanged. PMID

  15. Determination of steroid hormones in a human-serum reference material by isotope dilution--mass spectrometry: A candidate definitive method for cortisol

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.G.; Patterson, M.B.; Culbreth, P.H.; Fast, D.M.; Holler, J.S.; Sampson, E.J.; Bayse, D.D.

    1984-05-01

    We report a method, based on isotope dilution--mass spectrometry, for determining cortisol in a pooled specimen of human serum. Isotopically labeled cortisol is added to 5.0 mL of serum so that the molar concentrations of labeled cortisol and unlabeled cortisol are approximately equal. The specimen and two calibration standards are extracted with dichloromethane, and the extracted cortisol is converted to the methoxime-trimethylsilyl ether derivative. Samples and standards are analyzed by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry by monitoring the peak areas for m/z 605 and 608. The cortisol concentration is calculated by linear interpolation between the two bracketing standards. Variances of data collected during six weeks showed that the overall coefficient of variation (CV) was 0.69% (n . 32); the within-vial CV, 0.63%; the among-vial CV, 0.22%; and the among-day CV, 0.15% (means . 3.973 nmol/vial). Method specificity was demonstrated by liquid chromatographic as well as C/sub 8/ mini-column cleanup of samples before derivation, by alternative ion monitoring at m/z 636 and 639, and by negative-ion chemical ionization at m/z 459 and 462. Derivatives of all observed degradation products of cortisol under basic, neutral, and acidic conditions did not interfere.

  16. Increased testosterone to cortisol ratio in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Andrea L.; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.; Gao, Yu; Granger, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Only a few studies have examined hormones in psychopathy and results have been mixed. It has been suggested that since hormone systems are highly interconnected, it may be important to examine multiple systems simultaneously to gain a clearer picture of how hormones work together to predispose for a certain construct. In the present study, we attempt to clarify the role of the hormones cortisol and testosterone in psychopathy by examining both hormones in a community sample of 178 adults demonstrating a wide range of psychopathy scores. Results showed that psychopathy scores were associated with an increased ratio of testosterone (baseline) to cortisol responsivity to a stressor. Psychopathy was not associated with either of these measures independently, or with baseline cortisol levels. These findings suggest that these highly interconnected hormone systems may work in concert to predispose to psychopathy. PMID:21133509

  17. Cortisol - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... Cushing syndrome Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  18. Cortisol level

    MedlinePlus

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism , in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... disease Cushing disease Cushing syndrome Ectopic Cushing syndrome Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  19. Assessment of adrenocortical activity by non-invasive measurement of faecal cortisol metabolites in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Sid-Ahmed, Omer-Elfaroug; Sanhouri, Ahmed; Elwaseela, Badr-Eldin; Fadllalah, Imad; Mohammed, Galal-Eldin Elazhari; Möstl, Erich

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether glucocorticoid production could be monitored non-invasively in dromedary camels by measuring faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs). Five Sudanese dromedaries, two males and three females, were injected with a synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogue. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-ACTH injection. Faeces were sampled after spontaneous defecation for five consecutive days (2 days before and 3 days after ACTH injection). Baseline plasma cortisol values ranged from 0.6 to 10.8 ng/ml in males and from 1.1 to 16.6 ng/ml in females, while peak values after ACTH injection were 10.9-41.9 in males and 10-42.2 ng/ml in females. Peak blood cortisol values were reached between 1.5 and 2.0 h after ACTH injection. The concentration of FCMs increased after ACTH injection in the faeces of both sexes, although steroid levels peaked earlier in males [24 h; (286.7-2,559.7 ng/g faeces)] than in females [36-48 h; (1,182.6-5,169.1 ng/g faeces)], reflecting increases of 3.1-8.3- and 4.3-8-fold above baseline levels. To detect chromatographic patterns of immunoreactive FCMs, faecal samples with high FCM concentrations from both sexes were pooled and subjected to reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). RP-HPLC analysis revealed sex differences in the polarity of FCMs, with females showing more polar FCMs than males. We concluded that stimulation of adrenocortical activity by ACTH injection resulted in a measurable increase in blood cortisol that was reliably paralleled by increases in FCM levels. Thus, measurement of FCMs is a powerful tool for monitoring the adrenocortical responses of dromedaries to stressors in field conditions.

  20. No Postoperative Adrenal Insufficiency in a Patient with Unilateral Cortisol-Secreting Adenomas Treated with Mifepristone Before Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Saroka, Rachel M.; Kane, Michael P.; Robinson, Lawrence; Busch, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Glucocorticoid replacement is commonly required to treat secondary adrenal insufficiency after surgical resection of unilateral cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas. Here, we describe a patient with unilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas in which the preoperative use of mifepristone therapy was associated with recovery of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, eliminating the need for postoperative glucocorticoid replacement. CASE PRESENTATION A 66-year-old Caucasian man with type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity was hospitalized for Fournier’s gangrene and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed three left adrenal adenomas measuring 1.4, 2.1, and 1.2 cm and an atrophic right adrenal gland. Twenty-four-hour urinary free cortisol level was elevated (237 µg/24 hours, reference range 0–50 µg/24 hours). Hormonal evaluation after resolution of the infection showed an abnormal 8 mg overnight dexamethasone suppression test (cortisol postdexamethasone 14.5 µg/dL), suppressed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; <5 pg/mL, reference range 7.2–63.3 pg/mL), and low-normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (50.5 µg/dL, male reference range 30.9–295.6 µg/dL). Because of his poor medical condition and uncontrolled diabetes, his Cushing’s syndrome was treated with medical therapy before surgery. Mifepristone therapy was started and, within five months, his diabetes was controlled and insulin discontinued. The previously suppressed ACTH increased to above normal range accompanied by an increase in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels, indicating recovery of the HPA axis and atrophic contralateral adrenal gland. The patient received one precautionary intraoperative dose of hydrocortisone and none thereafter. Two days postoperatively, ACTH (843 pg/mL) and cortisol levels (44.8 µg/dL) were significantly elevated, reflecting an appropriate HPA axis response to

  1. Plasma cortisol activity in rats under conditions of chronic stress supplemented with resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado Salazar, Alejandro; Uribe-Velásquez, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the activity of cortisol in rats treated with exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and a resveratrol supplement. Methods: Forty-eight adult female rats and 16 male rats of the strain (Rattus norvegicus) that were three months old and with body weights ranging from 200 to 250 g for females and 300 to 350 g for males were used and kept in controlled environmental conditions: temperature of 20±2° C and light-dark cycles of 14 and 10 hours. They were fed a balanced diet and had free access to water. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: group 1 - was treated with 5 µg/kg of ACTH i.p. every twelve hours; group 2 - received the same treatment with ACTH plus a grape extract supplement (resveratrol) of 40 mg/kg; group 3 - only received grape extract (resveratrol); and group 4 - received a saline solution (0.9%) i.p. and oral, and served as controls. The experimental design was a 2×2 factorial with two levels ACTH and two polyphenol levels (grape extract). Results: No significant differences were found in blood cortisol concentrations, by day and gender, or by treatment effects (0.75 µg/dL ± 0.11; p <0.001). Conclusion: Results suggest that chronic stress and consumption of resveratrol did not directly alter levels of plasmatic cortisol in either stressed or unstressed rats. It was concluded that the given dosage levels of ACTH possibly did not produce sufficient stimulation of the adrenal gland for these animals. PMID:24893196

  2. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy

    2010-06-01

    Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals.

  3. Stress Hormones and their Regulation in a Captive Dolphin Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    stimulation experiments, an animal’s hormonal and physiological response to a simulated stressor can be evaluated. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Stress Hormones and Their Regulation in a Captive...will determine baseline levels of putative stress hormones and evaluate the functional consequences of increased stress in the bottlenose dolphin

  4. Relation of Stress Hormones (Urinary Catecholamines/Cortisol) to Coronary Artery Calcium in Men Versus Women (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    PubMed

    Zipursky, Rachel T; Press, Marcella Calfon; Srikanthan, Preethi; Gornbein, Jeff; McClelland, Robyn; Watson, Karol; Horwich, Tamara B

    2017-06-15

    The relation between high levels of psychosocial stress and the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) has been increasingly recognized, especially in women. We hypothesized that simple biomarkers of stress, urinary catecholamines/cortisol levels, are associated with more coronary artery calcium (CAC), an indicator of CAD, and that this relation is stronger in women compared with men. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Stress study, we examined the relation between urinary catecholamines/cortisol and CAC. The study cohort (n = 654) was 53% women, and 56.4% of the cohort had detectable CAC. Multivariable regression analyses assessed the relation between urinary catecholamines/cortisol and CAC (odds CAC >0 through logistic and ln CAC through Tobit model). There was an association between increased cortisol and increased CAC and an inverse association between dopamine and CAC. These relations were seen in men and women, with no difference between the genders. In conclusion, higher cortisol and lower dopamine levels are independently associated with higher CAC to a similar degree in men and women. These simple urinary biomarkers contribute to our understanding of the role of stress in the pathogenesis of CAD and may be incorporated into future strategies to prevent and treat CAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Megestrol acetate to correct the nutritional status in an adolescent with growth hormone deficiency: Increase of appetite and body weight but only by increase of body water and fat mass followed by profound cortisol and testosterone depletion.

    PubMed

    Schmid, I; Stachel, D K; Freudenberg, S; Schmitt, M; Schuster, F; Haas, R J

    2002-01-01

    Megestrol acetate (MA) is a synthetic, orally active derivative of the naturally occurring hormone progesterone. MA is increasingly used to correct loss of appetite and improve the nutritional status. We used MA in an adolescent with growth hormone (GH) deficiency due to former irradiation therapy in order to evaluate if MA can improve the nutritional status. In fact, MA increased appetite and weight dose-dependent. The energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry changed from hypo- to normometabolism. However, weight gain was first primarily due to an increase in body water and then in fat mass. The gain of fat mass was much more prominent than the gain of fat free mass. As important side-effect, MA lead to rapid and profound cortisol and testosterone depletion after only 10 days with a long-lasting effect on testosterone depletion. Therefore, MA as a single therapy cannot be recommended to improve the nutritional status. If MA is given, cortisol and testosterone levels have to be monitored and supplemented as needed.

  6. Somatotype and stress hormone levels in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Handziska, E; Handziski, Z; Gjorgoski, I; Dalip, M

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between somatotype and cortisol and adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) hormone concentrations at rest or after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points throughout a soccer season is not understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between somatotype and cortisol and ACTH concentrations at rest and after exercise in adolescent soccer players at different time points during a soccer season. During the first 4 months of the soccer season, 47 soccer players (between 15-17 years of age) were tested at three different time points including at baseline, after 6 weeks, and at the end of 4 months. Testing included anaerobic threshold (AnT, km/h) and maximal speed of running (Max, km/h) were measured with Conconi protocol on treadmill. Before and after a maximal exercise Test, plasma levels of cortisol (ug/dL) and ACTH (pg/ml) were assessed by chemiluminometry enzyme amplificated method. Heath-Carter anthropometric somatotype model was used to determine 13 elements of somatotype. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05). Body composition and AnT were not significantly different between each time point of testing. The mesomorph-ectomorph (N.=21), balanced mesomorph (N.=8) and balanced ectomorph (N.=7) were the most frequent somatotypes. There were significant decrements of cortisol plasma levels (at rest 33.4%; after test 27.46%), with insignificant changes of ACTH plasma levels, after 6 weeks of preparation phase and after finishing of half season, at rest and after maximal treadmill test. There were significant correlation between ACTH levels at rest (R=0.44; P<0.01) and some somatotypes (mesomorph endomorph, central and balanced endomorph) and ACTH levels after maximal exercise test (R=0.36; P<0.05) and balanced ectomorph and endomorph mesomorph. There were significant correlation between cortisol levels after maximal exercise test at the beginning of training

  7. Circadian variation in ghrelin and certain stress hormones in crib-biting horses.

    PubMed

    Hemmann, Karin; Raekallio, Marja; Kanerva, Kira; Hänninen, Laura; Pastell, Matti; Palviainen, Mari; Vainio, Outi

    2012-07-01

    Crib-biting is classified as an oral stereotypy, which may be initiated by stress susceptibility, management factors, genetic factors and gastrointestinal irritation. Ghrelin has been identified in the gastric mucosa and is involved in the control of food intake and reward, but its relationship to crib-biting is not yet known. The aim of this study was to examine the concentration and circadian variation of plasma ghrelin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin in crib-biting horses and non-crib-biting controls. Plasma samples were collected every second hour for 24h in the daily environment of eight horses with stereotypic crib-biting and eight non-crib-biting controls. The crib-biting horses had significantly higher mean plasma ghrelin concentrations than the control horses. The circadian rhythm of cortisol was evident, indicating that the sampling protocol did not inhibit the circadian regulation in these horses. Crib-biting had no statistically significant effect on cortisol, ACTH or β-endorphin concentrations. The inter-individual variations in β-endorphin and ACTH were higher than the intra-individual differences, which made inter-individual comparisons difficult and complicated the interpretation of results. Further research is therefore needed to determine the relationship between crib-biting and ghrelin concentration.

  8. Ontogeny of the cortisol stress response in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cortisol is a glucocorticoid hormone which is an endocrine signaling molecule in all vertebrates and acts through intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Cortisol affects many biological functions including immunity, stress, growth, ion homeostasis, and reproduction. The objective of this stu...

  9. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), current suicidal ideation and attempt in female patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bora; Kang, Eun-Suk; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Soskin, David; Yu, Bum-Hee; Lee, Dongsoo; Lee, Dong-Yun; Park, Hyung-Doo; Jeon, Hong Jin

    2013-12-30

    Current suicidal ideation and attempts are more commonly found in female patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) than in males. However, little is known about the relationship between activity of female reproductive hormones and suicide. The study population consisted of 490 female MDD patients of age ≥18. They were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. At the same visit, we measured blood Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone, Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), cortisol, thyroid hormones, and prolactin. Blood FSH showed a significant difference among female MDD patients with suicide attempt, those with ideation, and those without within the previous month. Post-hoc analysis also showed that FSH was significantly lower in MDD patients with suicide attempt and ideation than those without, whereas other hormones showed no differences between those with and without attempt. FSH was negatively associated with current suicidality scores after adjustment for age and education years in all age groups. FSH was significantly lower in those with current suicide ideation or attempt than those without in age 45 years or under, but not in other age groups. In conclusion, blood FSH is significantly lower in female MDD patients with current suicide attempt or ideation than those without, especially in age 45 years or under.

  10. Salivary cortisol and cortisone in the clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Blair, Joanne; Adaway, Jo; Keevil, Brian; Ross, Richard

    2017-06-01

    A resurgence of interest in salivary biomarkers has generated evidence for their value in assessing adrenal function. The advantages of salivary measurements include only free hormone is detected, samples can be collected during normal daily routines and stress-induced cortisol release is less likely to occur than during venepuncture. We review the use of salivary biomarkers to diagnose and monitor patients for conditions of cortisol excess and deficiency and discuss the value of measuring salivary cortisone versus salivary cortisol. Developments in laboratory techniques have enabled the measurement of salivary hormones with a high level of sensitivity and specificity. In states of altered cortisol binding, salivary biomarkers are more accurate measures of adrenal reserve than serum cortisol. Salivary cortisone is a superior marker of serum cortisol compared with salivary cortisol, specifically when serum cortisol is low and during hydrocortisone therapy when contamination of saliva may result in misleading salivary cortisol concentrations. Salivary cortisol and cortisone can be used to assess cortisol excess, deficiency and hydrocortisone replacement, with salivary cortisone having the advantage of detection when serum cortisol levels are low and there is no interference from oral hydrocortisone.

  11. Evaluation of the Cortisol-to-ACTH Ratio in Dogs with Hypoadrenocorticism, Dogs with Diseases Mimicking Hypoadrenocorticism and in Healthy Dogs.

    PubMed

    Boretti, F S; Meyer, F; Burkhardt, W A; Riond, B; Hofmann-Lehmann, R; Reusch, C E; Sieber-Ruckstuhl, N S

    2015-01-01

    The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test is the gold standard for diagnosing hypoadrenocorticism (HA) in dogs. However, problems with the availability of synthetic ACTH (tetracosactrin/cosyntropin) and increased costs have prompted the need for alternative methods. To prospectively evaluate the cortisol-to-ACTH ratio (CAR) as a screening test for diagnosing canine HA. Twenty three dogs with newly diagnosed HA; 79 dogs with diseases mimicking HA; 30 healthy dogs. Plasma ACTH and baseline cortisol concentrations were measured before i.v. administration of 5 μg/kg ACTH in all dogs. CAR was calculated and the diagnostic performance of ACTH, baseline cortisol, CAR and sodium-to-potassium ratios (SPRs) was assessed based on receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves calculating the area under the ROC curve. The CAR was significantly lower in dogs with HA compared to that in healthy dogs and in those with diseases mimicking HA (P < .0001). There was an overlap between HA dogs and those with HA mimicking diseases, but CAR still was the best parameter for diagnosing HA (ROC AUC 0.998), followed by the ACTH concentration (ROC AUC 0.97), baseline cortisol concentration (ROC AUC 0.96), and SPR (ROC AUC 0.86). With a CAR of >0.01 the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 99%, respectively. Calculation of the CAR is a useful screening test for diagnosing primary HA. As a consequence of the observed overlap between the groups, however, misdiagnosis cannot be completely excluded. Moreover, additional studies are needed to evaluate the diagnostic reliability of CAR in more dogs with secondary HA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Does cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in response to psychosocial stress?

    PubMed

    Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Pytiak, Andrew V; Tilbrook, Alan J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the importance of cortisol in mediating inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion in sheep exposed to a psychosocial stress. First, we developed an acute psychosocial stress model that involves sequential layering of novel stressors over 3-4 h. This layered-stress paradigm robustly activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and unambiguously inhibited pulsatile LH secretion. We next used this paradigm to test the hypothesis that cortisol, acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mediates stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion. Our approach was to determine whether an antagonist of the type II GR (RU486) reverses inhibition of LH pulsatility in response to the layered stress. We used two animal models to assess different aspects of LH pulse regulation. With the first model (ovariectomized ewe), LH pulse characteristics could vary as a function of both altered GnRH pulses and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. In this case, antagonism of the type II GR did not prevent stress-induced inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion. With the second model (pituitary-clamped ovariectomized ewe), pulsatile GnRH input to the pituitary was fixed to enable assessment of stress effects specifically at the pituitary level. In this case, the layered stress inhibited pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and antagonism of the type II GR reversed the effect. Collectively, these findings indicate acute psychosocial stress inhibits pulsatile LH secretion, at least in part, by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Cortisol, acting via the type II GR, is an obligatory mediator of this effect. However, under conditions in which GnRH input to the pituitary is not clamped, antagonism of the type II GR does not prevent stress-induced inhibition of LH pulsatility, implicating an additional pathway of suppression that is independent of cortisol acting via this receptor.

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress: Effects of biological sex and circulating sex hormones

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Mary Ann C.; Mahon, Pamela B.; McCaul, Mary E.; Wand, Gary S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to

  14. Testosterone and cortisol changes in professional basketball players through a season competition.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Alfredo Cordova; Seco Calvo, Jesus; Tur Marí, Josep A; Abecia Inchaurregui, Luis Carlos; Orella, Enrique Echevarría; Biescas, Antoni Pons

    2010-04-01

    We analyze the outcome on testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) responses in 12 professional basketball players during a season of competition. Serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), C, total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) levels were analyzed in October, December, March, and April. A day after the games, blood samples were taken. Serum ACTH levels were maintained at the initial levels during the season. However, basal C significantly changed during the season, with lower levels in December and in April. Basal serum TT levels increased during the season until a maximum in March. No differences were presented in the TT values in December, March, and April. Basal FT presented high levels in October and December, followed by a low level in March, remaining low in April. The T/C increased during the season, attaining a maximum level in December, followed by a significant decrease in March. Free T/C ratio decreased during the season (lower level in March). In conclusion, the players maintained a good anabolic-catabolic balance. In our opinion, to prevent the stress provoked during the season, and control the recovery periods, it is useful to monitor C, T, and the level of training.

  15. Effect of salinity changes on olfactory memory-related genes and hormones in adult chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Na; Choi, Young Jae; Lim, Sang-Gu; Jeong, Minhwan; Jin, Deuk-Hee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2015-09-01

    Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity change (seawater→50% seawater→freshwater). NRs were significantly detected in the diencephalon and telencephalon and OR was significantly detected in the olfactory epithelium. The expression of NRs, OR, and ACTH increased after the transition to freshwater. We also determined that treatment with MK-801, an antagonist of NRs, decreased NRs in telencephalon cells. In addition, a reduction in salinity was associated with increased levels of dopamine, ACTH, and cortisol (in vivo). Reductions in salinity evidently caused NRs and OR to increase the expression of cortisol and dopamine. We concluded that memory capacity and olfactory imprinting of salmon is related to the salinity of the environment during the migration to spawning sites. Furthermore, salinity affects the memory/imprinting and olfactory abilities, and cortisol and dopamine is also related with olfactory-related memories during migration.

  16. The effect of alprazolam on serum cortisol and luteinizing hormone pulsatility in normal women and in women with stress-related anovulation.

    PubMed

    Judd, S J; Wong, J; Saloniklis, S; Maiden, M; Yeap, B; Filmer, S; Michailov, L

    1995-03-01

    Alprazolam, a benzodiazepine derivative, stimulates specific gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptors and has been found to inhibit CRH activity in the brain. This study examined the effect of alprazolam on serum cortisol and LH pulsatility in six women in the early follicular phase (EFP), six women in the midluteal phase (MLP), and six women with stress-related anovulation (SRA) of normal weight, but with a previous history of anorexia nervosa. Subjects were given alprazolam (2 mg, orally) or an identical placebo capsule at 0900 h, and blood samples were collected through an indwelling venous catheter every 10 min for 8 h in the SRA women and 10 h in EFP and MLP women. Women with SRA were also given clomiphene (100 mg/day) for 5 days before a further 8-h blood sampling session. As expected, there was a diurnal decline in serum levels of cortisol, which was significantly less in women with SRA (55 +/- 4%) than those in both EFP (76 +/- 4%) and MLP women (75 +/- 3%; P < 0.005). The food-related rise of cortisol that follows lunch in normal women was absent in women with SRA. Alprazolam accentuated the decline in serum cortisol, and in all three groups, the mean serum cortisol level after alprazolam treatment was significantly less (P < 0.05) than that after placebo. In SRA women, alprazolam restored visible LH pulses in all women and increased the mean LH pulse frequency (P < 0.02) and pulse amplitude (P < 0.05). This was associated with an increase in mean serum LH from 1.3 +/- 0.3 to 3.0 +/- 0.06 IU/L (P < 0.02). In EFP women, alprazolam reduced the frequency of LH pulsatility from a mean of 5.8 +/- 0.7 to 3.2 +/- 0.5 pulses/10 h (P < 0.02) and increased the mean pulse amplitude from 2.4 +/- 0.5 to 5.0 +/- 1.1 IU/L (P < 0.0005). Alprazolam had no significant effect on LH pulsatility or amplitude in MLP women. To explain this variation in response to alprazolam, we propose that alprazolam accelerates the GnRH pacemaker in SRA women by inhibiting excessive CRH activity

  17. [Concentrations of adrenal steroids and sex hormones in postmenopausal women suffering from coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Sablik, Zbigniew; Samborska-Sablik, Anna; Goch, Jan Henryk

    2008-10-01

    The lack of the benefits in the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) from the hormonal substitution with preparations of estradiol (E2) suggests that higher frequency of CAD in postmenopausal women (PMW) may be influenced by a hormonal mechanism different from the postmenopausal hypoestrogenism. Due to the fact adrenal glands are the important source of steroids in PMW the aim of our research was the assessment of the concentrations of the adrenal hormones and their possible relations with CAD. W-CAD group--31 PMW at the age of 66 +/- 9 years with angiographically proven CAD; 3/4 of them suffered from myocardial infarction. W-H group--17 healthy women at the age of 59 +/- 7 years. Common clinical and biochemical risk factors were searched for in each and every of the PMW. In the venous blood samples taken from them by means of immunological methods the concentrations of the hormones were assessed: starving insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), E2, progesterone, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), cortisol, aldosterone, androstenedione, folliculotropic hormone and luteinising hormone. The levels of the hormones were compared between the groups. Logistic regression analysis was used to discover possible relations among the clinical and hormonal parameters and CAD. In W-CAD mean concentration of DHEAS was lower than in W-H, close to the significant value (75 +/- 76 vs 102 +/- 79 microg/dl, p<0,08). In PMW with CAD mean concentration of cortisol (18 +/- 5 vs 15 +/- 6 microg/dl, p<0,07) and ACTH was higher, but mean concentration of aldosterone was more than twice as small as in the healthy ones. The levels of the rest aforementioned hormones were similar in the groups. In the univariate model created by logistic regression analysis DHEAS was the only hormone that revealed the significant relation between its level and the occurrence of CAD. In PMW diminished concentration of DHEAS is correlated with occurrence of CAD. The differences of

  18. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Cortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (P<0.001). Impaired cortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically

  19. Reduced cortisol metabolism during critical illness.

    PubMed

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J; Vander Perre, Sarah; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2013-04-18

    Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Cortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (P<0.001). Impaired cortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the

  20. Cortisol, high cortisol diseases and anti-cortisol therapy.

    PubMed

    Sapse, A T

    1997-01-01

    Elevated cortisol is found in many diseases, including infectious, aging-related, depression and depression-associated conditions; even in some with no known origin, and no known therapy. While it was initially thought that 'high cortisol' is the result of these diseases, there is mounting evidence to the contrary, namely, that high cortisol actually plays a major role in inducing them, opening the possibility that anti-cortisol drugs might represent a new beneficial therapy. Evidence is here presented, showing that the use of anti-cortisol drugs has already induced beneficial results in conditions ranging from AIDS to depression. A main reason for not realizing the major role played by cortisol is due to a defective interpretation of cortisol results. If cortisol is within normal range of 0800 h or 1700 h, it has been considered normal, without realizing that swings, sometimes at immunosuppressive levels, might occur during its 24 h circadian rhythm. We suggest that a first step toward unveiling the role of cortisol in diseases would be to develop a standardized cortisol circadian rhythm chart that would show normal levels at any time during a 24 h period, enabling a more accurate comparison with cortisol values obtained under pathological conditions.

  1. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles: how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players.

    PubMed

    Schmikli, Sándor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Brink, Michel S; Backx, Frank Jg

    2012-11-01

    To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field test to detect the performance changes. Players with a performance decrease lasting at least 1 month were compared with control players without a performance decrease on mood scores and pre-exercise and postexercise levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. Ninety-four young elite soccer players were monitored during the 2006-2008 seasons. Twenty-one players were invited to the laboratory, seven of whom showed a significant performance decrease. Performance change over time, scores on the profile of mood states and premaximal and postmaximal exercise serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Players with a performance decrease showed psychological and hormonal changes typical of the non-functional state of over-reaching. Scores were higher on depression and anger, whereas the resting GH levels and ACTH levels after maximal exercise were reduced. ACTH and GH were capable of classifying all but one player correctly as either NFOR or control. Performance-related criteria in field tests are capable of identifying players with worsened mood and adaptations of the endocrine system that fit the definition of NFOR. Performance, mood and hormone levels may therefore be considered as valid instruments to diagnose NFOR in young elite soccer players.

  2. Melanocortin receptor subtypes in interrenal cells and corticotropic activity of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormones in barfin flounder, Verasper moseri.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yuki; Chiba, Hiroaki; Yamanome, Takeshi; Schiöth, Helgi B; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the pituitary-interrenal axis in barfin flounder, a flatfish. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) have been shown to be indispensable substances in pituitary and interrenal cells for cortisol release, respectively. We previously identified ACTH in the pars distalis of the barfin flounder pituitary gland, and detected transcripts of Mc1r, Mc4r, and Mc5r in the head kidney wherein interrenal cells are located. We have now demonstrated the presence of MC2R, which is a specific receptor for ACTH, in interrenal cells by molecular cloning of Mc2r cDNA and in situ hybridization, and confirmation of the in vitro cortisol-releasing activity of ACTH. These results show the presence of a classical pituitary-interrenal axis in this fish. We also evaluated the role of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and its related peptides. In situ hybridization was used to demonstrate the expression of Mc5r in interrenal cells; both desacetyl-α-MSH and diacetyl-α-MSH showed in vitro cortisol-releasing activities, while the activity of α-MSH was negligible. These findings indicate the presence of an additional pituitary-interrenal axis consisting of α-MSH-like peptides secreted from the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary and MC5R in the interrenal cells. The cortisol-releasing activity of desacetyl-α-MSH and diacetyl-α-MSH, compared with the low activity of α-MSH, suggest a unique and specific functional role of these forms of MSH peptides. The interrenal co-expression of two subtypes of Mcrs may play a role in this specialization.

  3. Dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on threat escapability.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack; Bos, Peter A; Terburg, David

    2015-11-01

    Evolution has provided us with a highly flexible neuroendocrine threat system which, depending on threat imminence, switches between active escape and passive freezing. Cortisol, the "stress-hormone", is thought to play an important role in both fear behaviors, but the exact mechanisms are not understood. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging we investigated how cortisol modulates the brain's fear systems when humans are under virtual-predator attack. We show dissociated neural effects of cortisol depending on whether escape from threat is possible. During inescapable threat cortisol reduces fear-related midbrain activity, whereas in anticipation of active escape cortisol boosts activity in the frontal salience network (insula and anterior cingulate cortex), which is involved in autonomic control, visceral perception and motivated action. Our findings suggest that cortisol adjusts the human neural threat system from passive fear to active escape, which illuminates the hormone's crucial role in the adaptive flexibility of fear behaviors.

  4. Hormone therapy in acne.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Chembolli

    2013-01-01

    Underlying hormone imbalances may render acne unresponsive to conventional therapy. Relevant investigations followed by initiation of hormonal therapy in combination with regular anti-acne therapy may be necessary if signs of hyperandrogenism are present. In addition to other factors, androgen-stimulated sebum production plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acne in women. Sebum production is also regulated by other hormones, including estrogens, growth hormone, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, glucocorticoids, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and melanocortins. Hormonal therapy may also be beneficial in female acne patients with normal serum androgen levels. An understanding of the sebaceous gland and the hormonal influences in the pathogenesis of acne would be essential for optimizing hormonal therapy. Sebocytes form the sebaceous gland. Human sebocytes express a multitude of receptors, including receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters and the receptors for steroid and thyroid hormones. Various hormones and mediators acting through the sebocyte receptors play a role in the orchestration of pathogenetic lesions of acne. Thus, the goal of hormonal treatment is a reduction in sebum production. This review shall focus on hormonal influences in the elicitation of acne via the sebocyte receptors, pathways of cutaneous androgen metabolism, various clinical scenarios and syndromes associated with acne, and the available therapeutic armamentarium of hormones and drugs having hormone-like actions in the treatment of acne.

  5. Evaluation of serum concentrations of cortisol and sex hormones of adrenal gland origin after stimulation with two synthetic ACTH preparations in clinically normal dogs.

    PubMed

    Ginel, Pedro J; Sileo, Maria T; Blanco, Beatriz; Garfia, Bartolomé; Quintavalla, Fausto

    2012-02-01

    To compare the adrenocortical response of healthy dogs to a commonly used dose of a nonadsorbed tetracosactide product (tetracosactide) with responses to 2 doses of a depot formulation of tetracosactide (depot tetracosactide). 14 dogs. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive tetracosactide (5 mg/kg, IV) or depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM, or 5 μg/kg, IM). Dogs received each treatment once with a 2-week interval between treatments. Blood samples were assayed for cortisol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol concentrations. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than the preadministration (baseline) concentrations for all treatments 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Peak cortisol concentration was detected 180 minutes after IM administration of 250 μg of the depot tetracosactide. Serum concentrations of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione did not differ significantly from baseline concentrations after stimulation with the 5 μg/kg dose of depot tetracosactide. Adrenal gland progesterone response was significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 60 minutes after administration of the 250-μg dose of depot tetracosactide, and the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione responses were significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 120 minutes. Compared with the response to tetracosactide, adrenocortical response was higher and more sustained following administration of the depot tetracosactide, except for androstenedione concentration, which had a nonsignificant response. Except for androstenedione concentrations, a high dose of the depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM) induced an adrenocortical response similar to that after administration of tetracosactide. Thus, depot tetracosactide may represent an alternative to the nonadsorbed tetracosactide product.

  6. Centrifugal acceleration to 3Gz is related to increased release of stress hormones and decreased mood in men and women.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Guardiera, Simon; Kleinert, Jens; Steinbacher, Anja; Abel, Thomas; Carnahan, Heather; Strüder, Heiko K

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that the central and peripheral neural processes (CPNP) are affected by gravitational changes. Based on the previous experiments during parabolic flights, central and peripheral changes may not only be due to the changed gravitational forces but also due to neuroendocrine reactions related to the psycho-physiological consequences of gravitational changes. The present study focuses on the interaction of neuroendocrine changes and the physical and mental states after acceleration to three-time terrestrial gravity (3Gz). Eleven participants (29.4+/-5.1 [SD] years (male (n=8): 30+/-5.1 years; female (n=3): 27.7+/-2.1 years) underwent a 15 min acceleration to 3Gz in a human centrifuge. Before and after the acceleration to 3Gz circulating stress hormone concentrations (cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine) and perceived physical and mental states were recorded. A second control group of 11 participants underwent the same testing procedure in a laboratory session. Serum cortisol concentration during exposure to the centrifugal acceleration increased by 70%, plasma concentration of ACTH increased threefold, prolactin twofold, epinephrine by 70% and norepinephrine by 45%, whereas the perceived physical well-being decreased. These findings demonstrate that psycho-physiological changes have to be regarded as a relevant factor for the changes in CPNP during phases of hypergravity exposure.

  7. Release of Multiple Hormones by a Direct Action of Interleukin-1 on Pituitary Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-23

    monolayer culture was investigated. Recombinant human IL-I beta stimulated the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone, luteinizing hormone, growth ... hormone , and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Prolactin secretion by the monolayers was inhibited by similar doses. These concentrations of IL-I are within

  8. Testosterone, cortisol, and psychopathic traits in men and women.

    PubMed

    Welker, Keith M; Lozoya, Elianna; Campbell, Jocelyn A; Neumann, Craig S; Carré, Justin M

    2014-04-22

    Cortisol and testosterone are theorized to independently and jointly influence antisocial behaviors. The current research examined the independent and interactive effects of baseline testosterone and cortisol on individual differences in psychopathic traits in a relatively large non-clinical sample (N=237). Participants completed the Self-Report Psychopathy - Short Form (SRP; Paulhus, Neumann, & Hare, in press) and provided saliva samples. Analyses indicated that testosterone and cortisol were positively correlated with psychopathic traits in men, but beyond these effects, cortisol moderated the relationship between testosterone and psychopathy in men. The relationship between testosterone and psychopathy within men was positive when cortisol levels were high, but negative when cortisol levels were low. These results have implications for work surrounding the dual hormone hypothesis and suggest that nonclinical variability in psychopathy can be predicted by baseline testosterone and cortisol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Two emerging concepts for elite athletes: the short-term effects of testosterone and cortisol on the neuromuscular system and the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones.

    PubMed

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian; Cardinale, Marco; Weatherby, Robert P; Lowe, Tim

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight two emerging concepts for the elite athlete using the resistance-training model: (i) the short-term effects of testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) on the neuromuscular system; and (ii) the dose-response training role of these endogenous hormones. Exogenous evidence confirms that T and C can regulate long-term changes in muscle growth and performance, especially with resistance training. This evidence also confirms that changes in T or C concentrations can moderate or support neuromuscular performance through various short-term mechanisms (e.g. second messengers, lipid/protein pathways, neuronal activity, behaviour, cognition, motor-system function, muscle properties and energy metabolism). The possibility of dual T and C effects on the neuromuscular system offers a new paradigm for understanding resistance-training performance and adaptations. Endogenous evidence supports the short-term T and C effects on human performance. Several factors (e.g. workout design, nutrition, genetics, training status and type) can acutely modify T and/or C concentrations and thereby potentially influence resistance-training performance and the adaptive outcomes. This novel short-term pathway appears to be more prominent in athletes (vs non-athletes), possibly due to the training of the neuromuscular and endocrine systems. However, the exact contribution of these endogenous hormones to the training process is still unclear. Research also confirms a dose-response training role for basal changes in endogenous T and C, again, especially for elite athletes. Although full proof within the physiological range is lacking, this athlete model reconciles a proposed permissive role for endogenous hormones in untrained individuals. It is also clear that the steroid receptors (cell bound) mediate target tissue effects by adapting to exercise and training, but the response patterns of the membrane-bound receptors remain highly speculative. This information

  10. The effect of different doses of isotretinoin on pituitary hormones.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Ayse Serap; Takci, Zennure; Ertugrul, Derun Taner; Bilgili, Serap Gunes; Balahoroglu, Ragip; Takir, Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    There are a limited number of studies investigating the side effects and effectiveness of various doses of isotretinoin (ISO). We have previously shown that high-dose ISO affects pituitary hormones. To our knowledge, there is no study in the literature looking into the effects of various doses of ISO on pituitary hormones. We searched pituitary hormones in three groups of different doses in acne patients. We included 105 acne vulgaris patients from two different centers. We divided the patients into three groups; the first group received 0.5-1 mg/kg/day, the second 0.2-0.5 mg/kg/day and the third intermittent 0.5-1 mg/kg/day (only 1 week in 1 month) ISO treatment. Blood samples were collected for biochemistry and hormone analysis, before the treatment and after 3 months. After 3 months of treatment with ISO, luteinizing hormone (LH) (p < 0.001), prolactin (p < 0.001), total testosterone (p < 0.001), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (p < 0.001), cortisol (p < 0.001), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (p < 0.001), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (p = 0.002), growth hormone (GH) (p = 0.002) and free T3 (fT3) (p < 0.001) levels had decreased significantly. Furthermore, we split data into three different groups. Among the patients receiving intermittent-dose ISO, LH, ACTH, IGF-1, GH and fT3 measurements lost significance. Most of the significant measurements observed in the whole group were also significant among the patients receiving high-dose ISO. Additionally, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (p = 0.003) levels increased, and free T4 levels decreased significantly. ISO affects pituitary hormones at all of these three doses. The differences in pituitary hormones are more pronounced in high-dose treatment. The weakest effect was observed in the intermittent-dose group. Choosing lower doses of ISO may decrease side effects, however the effectiveness of the treatment may also be diminished. ISO, by affecting the PPARγ/RXR system, may affecting hormone

  11. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  12. Enhanced Cortisol Response to Stress in Children in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spratt, Eve G.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Hatcher, Charles R.; Meekins, Kirk A.; Furlanetto, Richard W.; Charles, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a…

  13. Alleviation of cyclic heat stress in broilers by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide and Lactobacillus-based probiotic: dynamics of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and humoral immunity.

    PubMed

    Sohail, M U; Ijaz, A; Yousaf, M S; Ashraf, K; Zaneb, H; Aleem, M; Rehman, H

    2010-09-01

    Heat stress (HS), one of the major problems of tropical and subtropical countries, adversely affects the production performance of poultry. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to investigate some of the biological markers of HS in broilers as modulated by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (LBP), either alone or in combination. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old-chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS to the conclusion of study, d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based basal diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP group), or their combination. Birds were immunized against Newcastle disease virus on d 4 (intraocular; live attenuated) and d 20 (drinking water; live attenuated) and infectious bursal disease virus on d 8 (intraocular; live intermediate strain) and d 24 (drinking water; live attenuated). Birds were killed on d 42 to collect serum for determination of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and postvaccinal antibody titers. Results revealed that dietary supplementations decreased (P < 0.05) the serum cortisol and cholesterol concentrations and increased (P < 0.05) thyroxine concentration compared with the HS group without affecting triiodothyronine concentration. The percentage of the C-reactive protein-positive birds was higher (P < 0.05) in the HS group compared with the TN group. Dietary supplementations improved humoral immunity against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus during HS. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of either MOS or LBP alone or in combination can reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS in broilers.

  14. Expensive Egos: Narcissistic Males Have Higher Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Reinhard, David A.; Konrath, Sara H.; Lopez, William D.; Cameron, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, low empathy, and entitlement. There has been limited research regarding the hormonal correlates of narcissism, despite the potential health implications. This study examined the role of participant narcissism and sex on basal cortisol concentrations in an undergraduate population. Methods and Findings Participants were 106 undergraduate students (79 females, 27 males, mean age 20.1 years) from one Midwestern and one Southwestern American university. Narcissism was assessed using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and basal cortisol concentrations were collected from saliva samples in a laboratory setting. Regression analyses examined the effect of narcissism and sex on cortisol (log). There were no sex differences in basal cortisol, F(1,97) = .20, p = .65, and narcissism scores, F(1,97) = .00, p = .99. Stepwise linear regression models of sex and narcissism and their interaction predicting cortisol concentrations showed no main effects when including covariates, but a significant interaction, β = .27, p = .04. Narcissism was not related to cortisol in females, but significantly predicted cortisol in males. Examining the effect of unhealthy versus healthy narcissism on cortisol found that unhealthy narcissism was marginally related to cortisol in females, β = .27, p = .06, but significantly predicted higher basal cortisol in males, β = .72, p = .01, even when controlling for potential confounds. No relationship was found between sex, narcissism, or their interaction on self-reported stress. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the HPA axis is chronically activated in males with unhealthy narcissism. This constant activation of the HPA axis may have important health implications. PMID:22292062

  15. Responsiveness to corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin in canine Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    van Wijk, P A; Rijnberk, A; Croughs, R J; Wolfswinkel, J; Selman, P J; Mol, J A

    1994-04-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin are the most important hypothalamic factors regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion. In this study we have investigated the responsiveness of the pituitary-adrenocortical axis to intravenous administration of CRH or lysine vasopressin (LVP) in 16 control dogs, 22 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism and five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumor, using doses of CRH and LVP that caused equivalent ACTH responses in the control dogs. After CRH administration, the increment in plasma ACTH was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (221 +/- 53 ng/l) than that in control dogs (279 +/- 41 ng/l). In the dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, the relative increases in ACTH after CRH were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those after LVP. Despite the absence of an increase in ACTH following LVP administration in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumor, there was a significant increase in plasma cortisol, the increment (790 +/- 238 nmol/l) being not statistically different from that in the control dogs (412 +/- 37 nmol/l). We conclude that in spite of the changes inherent to pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, i.e. neoplastic transformation of corticotropic cells and hypercortisolism, there is persistence of responsiveness to hypophysiotropic hormones. The ACTH secretion by corticotropic cells in pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism was relatively less sensitive to stimulation with CRH than with LVP. Adrenocortical tumors develop an aberrant sensitivity to LVP.

  16. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  17. Variation in the ovine cortisol response to systemic bacterial endotoxin challenge is predominantly determined by signalling within the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

    SciTech Connect

    You Qiumei; Karrow, Niel A. Cao Honghe; Rodriguez, Alexander; Mallard, Bonnie A.; Boermans, Herman J.

    2008-07-01

    Bi-directional communication between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is designed, in part, to maintain or restore homeostasis during physiological stress. Exposure to endotoxin during Gram-negative bacterial infection for example, elicits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines that activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA). The secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids subsequently down regulates the host inflammatory response, minimizing potential tissue damage. Sequence and epigenetic variants in genes involved in regulating the neuroendocrine and immune systems are likely to contribute to individual differences in the HPAA response, and this may influence the host anti-inflammatory response to toxin exposure and susceptibility to inflammatory disease. In this study, high (HCR) and low (LCR) cortisol responders were selected from a normal population of 110 female sheep challenged iv with Escherichia coli endotoxin (400 ng/kg) to identify potential determinants that contribute to variation in the cortisol response phenotype. This phenotype was stable over several years in the HCR and LCR animals, and did not appear to be attributed to differences in expression of hepatic immune-related genes or systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations. Mechanistic studies using corticotrophin-releasing factor (0.5 {mu}g/kg body weight), arginine vasopressin (0.5 {mu}g/kg), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (0.5 {mu}g/kg) administered iv demonstrated that variation in this phenotype is largely determined by signalling within the HPAA. Future studies will use this ovine HCR/LCR model to investigate potential genetic and epigenetic variants that may contribute to variation in cortisol responsiveness to bacterial endotoxin.

  18. LCI699, a potent 11β-hydroxylase inhibitor, normalizes urinary cortisol in patients with Cushing's disease: results from a multicenter, proof-of-concept study.

    PubMed

    Bertagna, Xavier; Pivonello, Rosario; Fleseriu, Maria; Zhang, Yiming; Robinson, Paul; Taylor, Ann; Watson, Catherine E; Maldonado, Mario; Hamrahian, Amir H; Boscaro, Marco; Biller, Beverly M K

    2014-04-01

    The clinical features and increased mortality associated with Cushing's syndrome result from a chronic excess of circulating cortisol. As LCI699 potently inhibits 11β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of cortisol synthesis, it is a potential new treatment for Cushing's disease, the most common cause of endogenous Cushing's syndrome. Adult patients with moderate-to-severe Cushing's disease (urinary free cortisol [UFC] levels >1.5 × ULN [upper limit of normal]) received oral LCI699 for 10 weeks in this proof-of-concept study. LCI699 was initiated at 4 mg/d in two equal doses; the dose was escalated every 14 days to 10, 20, 40, and 100 mg/d until UFC normalized, whereupon the dose was maintained until treatment ended (day 70). The primary endpoint was UFC ≤ ULN or a ≥50% decrease from baseline at day 70. Twelve patients were enrolled and completed the study. Baseline UFC ranged over 1.6-17.0 × ULN. All 12 patients achieved UFC ≤ULN or a ≥50% decrease from baseline at day 70; 11 (92%) had normal UFC levels at that time. After treatment discontinuation (day 84), UFC was >ULN in 10 patients with available measurements. Mean 11-deoxycortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone, and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels increased during treatment and declined after discontinuation. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased from baseline by 10.0 and 6.0 mmHg, respectively. LCI699 was generally well tolerated; most adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate. The most common AEs included fatigue (7/12), nausea (5/12), and headache (3/12). No serious drug-related AEs were reported. LCI699 was efficacious and well tolerated in patients with Cushing's disease enrolled in this proof-of-concept study.

  19. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress Responses in a Large Cross-Sectional Sample of Elephant Seals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) challenges and characterize the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress...number. 1. REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Variability of Hormonal Stress Markers and Stress

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Pain, Stress, Neuropeptide Y, ACTH, and Cortisol Levels Between a Conventional Postoperative Care Protocol and a Fast-Track Recovery Program in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kapritsou, Maria; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D; Bozas, Evangelos; Korkolis, Dimitrios P; Konstantinou, Evangelos A; Kaklamanos, Ioannis; Giannakopoulou, Margarita

    2017-03-01

    Fast-track (FT) postoperative protocol in oncological patients after major abdominal surgery reduces complications and length of postoperative stay compared to the conventional (CON) protocol. However, stress and pain responses have not been compared between the two protocols. To compare stress, pain, and related neuropeptidic responses (adrenocorticotropic hormone [ACTH], cortisol, and neuropeptide Y [NPY]) between FT and CON protocols. A clinical trial with repeated measurements was conducted (May 2012 to May 2014) with a sample of 63 hepatectomized or pancreatectomized patients randomized into two groups: FT ( n = 29) or CON ( n = 34). Demographic and clinical data were collected, and pain (Visual Analog Scale [VAS] and Behavioral Pain Scale [BPS]) and stress responses (3 self-report questions) assessed. NPY, ACTH, and cortisol plasma levels were measured at T1 = day of admission, T2 = day of surgery, and T3 = prior to discharge. ACTHT1 and ACTHT2 levels were positively correlated with self-reported stress levels (ρ = .43 and ρ = .45, respectively, p < .05) in the FT group. NPY levels in the FT group were higher than those in the CON group at all time points ( p ≤ .004); this difference remained significant after adjusting for T1 levels through analysis of covariance for age, gender, and body mass index ( F = .003, F = .149, F = .015, respectively, p > .05). Neuropeptidic levels were higher in the FT group. Future research should evaluate this association further, as these biomarkers might serve as objective indicators of postoperative pain and stress.

  1. Maternal Cortisol Mediates Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Interrenal Axis Development in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Nesan, Dinushan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    In zebrafish (Danio rerio), de novo synthesis of cortisol in response to stressor exposure commences only after hatch. Maternally deposited cortisol is present during embryogenesis, but a role for this steroid in early development is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that maternal cortisol is essential for the proper development of hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis activity and the onset of the stressor-induced cortisol response in larval zebrafish. In this study, zygotic cortisol content was manipulated by microinjecting antibody to sequester this steroid, thereby making it unavailable during embryogenesis. This was compared with embryos containing excess cortisol by microinjection of exogenous steroid. The resulting larval phenotypes revealed distinct treatment effects, including deformed mesoderm structures when maternal cortisol was unavailable and cardiac edema after excess cortisol. Maternal cortisol unavailability heightened the cortisol stress response in post-hatch larvae, whereas excess cortisol abolished the stressor-mediated cortisol elevation. This contrasting hormonal response corresponded with altered expression of key HPI axis genes, including crf, 11B hydroxylase, pomca, and star, which were upregulated in response to reduced cortisol availability and downregulated when embryos had excess cortisol. These findings for the first time underscore a critical role for maternally deposited cortisol in programming HPI axis development and function in zebrafish. PMID:26940285

  2. Expanding the actions of cortisol and corticosterone in wild vertebrates: A necessary step to overcome the emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Vera, Federico; Zenuto, Roxana; Antenucci, C Daniel

    2017-05-15

    We conducted a review of scientific articles published between 2000 and 2014 and evaluated how frequently various aspects of cortisol and corticosterone (CORT) actions have been considered in studies on wild vertebrates. Results show that (1) the notion that CORT are stress-responsive hormones is central in our theoretical frameworks and it is reflected by the fact that several articles refer to CORT as "stress hormones". (2) The large majority of studies do not contemplate the possibility of decrease and no change in CORT levels in response to chronic stressors. (3) Our ideas about CORT actions on energy balance are slanted towards the mobilization of energy, though there are several studies considering -and empirically addressing- CORT's orexigenic actions, particularly in birds. (4) The roles of CORT in mineral-water balance, though widely documented in the biomedical area, are virtually ignored in the literature about wild vertebrates, with the exception of studies in fish. (5) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) independent regulation of CORT secretion is also very scarcely considered. (6) The preparative, permissive, suppressive and stimulatory actions of CORT, as described by Sapolsky et al. (2000), are not currently considered by the large majority of authors. We include an extension of the Preparative Hypothesis, proposing that the priming effects of baseline and stress-induced CORT levels increase the threshold of severity necessary for subsequent stimuli to become stressors. Studies on animal ecology and conservation require integration with novel aspects of CORT actions and perspectives developed in other research areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring cortisol in serum, urine and saliva - are our assays good enough?

    PubMed

    El-Farhan, Nadia; Rees, D Aled; Evans, Carol

    2017-05-01

    Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced in response to stress. It is essential for maintaining health and wellbeing and leads to significant morbidity when deficient or present in excess. It is lipophilic and is transported bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin; a small fraction (∼10%) of total serum cortisol is unbound and biologically active. Serum cortisol assays measure total cortisol and their results can be misleading in patients with altered serum protein concentrations. Automated immunoassays are used to measure cortisol but lack specificity and show significant inter-assay differences. Liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) offers improved specificity and sensitivity; however, cortisol cut-offs used in the short Synacthen and Dexamethasone suppression tests are yet to be validated for these assays. Urine free cortisol is used to screen for Cushing's syndrome. Unbound cortisol is excreted unchanged in the urine and 24-h urine free cortisol correlates well with mean serum-free cortisol in conditions of cortisol excess. Urine free cortisol is measured predominantly by immunoassay or LC-MS/MS. Salivary cortisol also reflects changes in unbound serum cortisol and offers a reliable alternative to measuring free cortisol in serum. LC-MS/MS is the method of choice for measuring salivary cortisol; however, its use is limited by the lack of a single, validated reference range and poorly standardized assays. This review examines the methods available for measuring cortisol in serum, urine and saliva, explores cortisol in disease and considers the difficulties of measuring cortisol in acutely unwell patients and in neonates.

  4. Adrenal gland hormone secretion (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The adrenal gland secretes steroid hormones such as cortisol and aldosterone. It also makes precursors that can be converted to ... steroids (androgen, estrogen). A different part of the adrenal gland makes adrenaline (epinephrine). When the glands produce more ...

  5. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Basal cortisol and ACTH in the immediate postoperative period in ACTH-producing hypophyseal adenomas].

    PubMed

    Gómez, J M; Camps, I; Villabona, C; Leyes, P; Montaña, E; Bonnin, R; Soler, J

    1993-12-01

    Evaluate the usefulness of basal cortisol and ACTH during the immediate postoperative period following hypophyseal surgery, as early indicators of remission in patients with Cushing's disease. Nine patients with Cushing's disease and on whom selective transphenoidal adenomectomy was performed were included in the study. Basal cortisol and ACTH levels were compared the first week after surgery, with definitive results being obtained after a month's time during which basal cortisol levels below 165 nmol/l indicated patients cured of Cushing's disease. Cortisol levels determined post-op, in five patients in remission, were found to be lower than those in patients who were not cured (63 +/- 55.8 versus 606 +/- 267 nmol/l, p < 0.01). However, ACTH levels were not lower. All the patients in remission had initial cortisol levels lower than 182 nmol/l, whereas the uncured patients had levels higher than 404 nmol/l. There was a correlation between cortisol measured in the first week and the definitive value (r = 0.81, p < 0.01). Cortisol in the immediate postoperative period following hypophyseal surgery is a good indicator of definitive adrenocorticotropic function and permits the identification of those patients in remission.

  7. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S.; Fletcher, Paul C.; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-01-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  8. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-04

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability.

  9. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  10. Effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and cortisol interaction on steroid-binding capacity in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, J P; de Loecker, W

    1979-01-01

    The specificity of the cortisol-receptor protein is examined in plasma and liver cytosol of rats. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate does not inhibit the binding of cortisol to transcortin, nor does it affect the binding capacity of dexamethasone to the intracellular glucocorticoid receptor, but, by interacting with the cortisol molecule, it interferes with hormone-mediated processes in the cell. PMID:534535

  11. Development of a formula for estimating plasma free cortisol concentration from a measured total cortisol concentration when elastase-cleaved and intact corticosteroid binding globulin coexist.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong T T; Lewis, John G; Sneyd, James; Lee, Rita S F; Torpy, David J; Shorten, Paul R

    2014-05-01

    Cortisol bound to corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) contributes up to 90% of the total cortisol concentration in circulation. Therefore, changes in the binding kinetics of cortisol to CBG can potentially impact on the concentration of free cortisol, the only form that is responsible for the physiological function of the hormone. When CBG is cleaved into elastase-cleaved CBG (eCBG) by the activity of neutrophil elastase, its affinity for cortisol is reduced. Therefore, when eCBG coexists with intact CBG (iCBG) in plasma, the calculation of free cortisol concentration based on the formulae that considers only one CBG pool with the same affinity for cortisol may be inappropriate. In this study, we developed in vivo and in vitro models of cortisol partitioning which considers two CBG pools, iCBG and eCBG, with different affinities for cortisol, and deduce a new formula for calculating plasma free cortisol concentration. The formula provides better estimates of free cortisol concentration than previously used formulae when measurements of the concentrations of the two CBG forms are available. The model can also be used to estimate the affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in different clinical groups. We found no significant difference in the estimated affinity of CBG and albumin for cortisol in normal, sepsis and septic shock groups, although free cortisol was higher in sepsis and septic shock groups. The in vivo model also demonstrated that the concentration of interstitial free cortisol is increased locally at a site of inflammation where iCBG is cleaved to form eCBG by the activity of elastase released by neutrophils. This supports the argument that the cleavage of iCBG at sites of inflammation leads to more lower-affinity eCBG and may be a mechanism that permits the local concentration of free cortisol to increase at these sites, while allowing basal free cortisol concentrations at other sites to remain unaffected.

  12. The effects of physical therapeutic agents on serum levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tönük, Şükrü Burak; Serin, Erdinc; Ayhan, Fikriye Figen; Yorgancioglu, Zeynep Rezan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the effects of physical agents on the levels of stress hormones in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, hot packs, and therapeutic ultrasound were applied to the lumbar region and knees of patients with OA. Blood samples were taken for the measurement of the serum levels of glucose, insulin (INS), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), cortisol (COR), and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immediately before and after the 1st session, to investigate the acute effects of those physical agents on the endocrine system. The hormone levels were also measured every 5 sessions in a total of 10 sessions. The treatment response was also evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS), Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) throughout the therapy period. After the 1st session, there was a decrease in INS levels and a mild decrease in PRL levels (P = 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Throughout the 10-session therapy period, the INS levels increased, whereas the ACTH and COR levels decreased (P < 0.05 for all). The VAS-spine, RMDQ, VAS-knee, and WOMAC scores decreased (P = 0.001 for VAS-spine and P < 0.001 for all others). A positive correlation was detected between the changes in serum COR and WOMAC-pain score (P < 0.05). Although the combination therapy caused changes in INS level accompanied with steady glucose levels, the application of physical agents did not adversely affect the hormone levels. The decrease in ACTH and COR levels may be attributed to the analgesic effect of agents and may be an indicator of patient comfort through a central action. PMID:27583888

  13. LATE-NIGHT SALIVARY CORTISOL IS UNALTERED IN PATIENTS WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS), IRRESPECTIVE OF DISEASE PHENOTYPE, AND IN OBESE WOMEN, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE PRESENCE OF PCOS.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Hande Mefkure; Keskin, Fatma Ela; Tuten, Abdullah; Korkmaz, Ebru; Oktay, Hulya Zeynep; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2017-09-01

    To determine cutoff values of late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) using an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay and investigate whether the diagnostic performance of the assay is influenced by the presence of obesity or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A total of 124 subjects comprising 25 patients with Cushing syndrome (CS), 44 with PCOS (22 nonobese and 22 obese), 21 with constitutional obesity (CO), and 34 healthy subjects (HS) were included in the study. Two consecutive LNSC samples were collected from all participants. The median LNSC levels of patients with CS were significantly higher than LNSC levels of HS, patients with CO, and obese and nonobese patients with PCOS, respectively (P<.01 for all). Healthy subjects, patients with CO, and obese and nonobese patients with PCOS did not differ in terms of median LNSC levels (P>.05 for all). The cutoff values and corresponding sensitivity and specificity were similar between the groups. The comparisons of the area under curve of the first LNSC (0.963; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.910 to 0.989), second LNSC (0.954; 95% CI, 0.898 to 0.984), and the mean of two consecutive LNSC (mLNSC) values (0.962; 95% CI, 0.909 to 0.989) did not differ significantly (P>.05 for all). A cutoff value for mLNSC of 7.45 nmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87.5% in HS. In conclusion, LNSC is a reliable test with high diagnostic accuracy in both HS and patients with PCOS and obesity. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AUC = area under the curve BMI = body mass index CO = constitutional obesity CS = Cushing syndrome E2 = estradiol ECLIA = electrochemiluminescent immunoassay FPG = fasting plasma glucose FSH = follicle-stimulating hormone HOMA-IR = homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance HPA = hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal HS = healthy subjects IQR = interquartile range LH = luteinizing hormone LNSC = late-night salivary cortisol LR = likelihood ratio mLNSC = mean of two consecutive LNSC samples PCOS

  14. Endocrine basis for disruptive effects of cortisol on preovulatory events.

    PubMed

    Breen, Kellie M; Billings, Heather J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Wessinger, Emily W; Karsch, Fred J

    2005-04-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to enhanced glucocorticoid secretion and concurrently inhibits gonadotropin secretion and disrupts ovarian cyclicity. Here we tested the hypothesis that stress-like concentrations of cortisol interfere with follicular phase endocrine events of the ewe by suppressing pulsatile LH secretion, which is essential for subsequent steps in the preovulatory sequence. Cortisol was infused during the early to midfollicular phase, elevating plasma cortisol concentrations to one third, one half, or the maximal value induced by isolation, a commonly used model of psychosocial stress. All cortisol treatments compromised at least some aspect of reproductive hormone secretion in follicular phase ewes. First, cortisol significantly suppressed LH pulse frequency by as much as 35%, thus attenuating the high frequency LH pulses typical of the preovulatory period. Second, cortisol interfered with timely generation of the follicular phase estradiol rise, either preventing it or delaying the estradiol peak by as much as 20 h. Third, cortisol delayed or blocked the preovulatory LH and FSH surges. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that stress-like increments in plasma cortisol interfere with the follicular phase by suppressing the development of high frequency LH pulses, which compromises timely expression of the preovulatory estradiol rise and LH and FSH surges. Moreover, the suppression of LH pulse frequency provides indirect evidence that cortisol acts centrally to suppress pulsatile GnRH secretion in follicular-phase ewes.

  15. Does cortisol influence core executive functions? A meta-analysis of acute cortisol administration effects on working memory, inhibition, and set-shifting.

    PubMed

    Shields, Grant S; Bonner, Joseph C; Moons, Wesley G

    2015-08-01

    The hormone cortisol is often believed to play a pivotal role in the effects of stress on human cognition. This meta-analysis is an attempt to determine the effects of acute cortisol administration on core executive functions. Drawing on both rodent and stress literatures, we hypothesized that acute cortisol administration would impair working memory and set-shifting but enhance inhibition. Additionally, because cortisol is thought to exert different nongenomic (rapid) and genomic (slow) effects, we further hypothesized that the effects of cortisol would differ as a function of the delay between cortisol administration and cognitive testing. Although the overall analyses were nonsignificant, after separating the rapid, nongenomic effects of cortisol from the slower, genomic effects of cortisol, the rapid effects of cortisol enhanced response inhibition, g+ = 0.113, p=.016, but impaired working memory, g+ = -0.315, p=.008, although these effects reversed over time. Contrary to our hypotheses, there was no effect of cortisol administration on set-shifting. Thus, although we did not find support for the idea that increases in cortisol influence set-shifting, we found that acute increases in cortisol exert differential effects on working memory and inhibition over time.

  16. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood.

  17. Enhanced cortisol response to stress in children in autism.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Eve G; Nicholas, Joyce S; Brady, Kathleen T; Carpenter, Laura A; Hatcher, Charles R; Meekins, Kirk A; Furlanetto, Richard W; Charles, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Children with Autism often show difficulties in adapting to change. Previous studies of cortisol, a neurobiologic stress hormone reflecting hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, in children with autism have demonstrated variable results. This study measured cortisol levels in children with and without Autism: (1) at rest; (2) in a novel environment; and (3) in response to a blood draw stressor. A significantly higher serum cortisol response was found in the group of children with autism. Analysis showed significantly higher peak cortisol levels and prolonged duration and recovery of cortisol elevation following the blood-stick stressor in children with autism. This study suggests increased reactivity of the HPA axis to stress and novel stimuli in children with autism.

  18. Oral contraceptive usage alters the effects of cortisol on implicit fear learning.

    PubMed

    Merz, Christian Josef; Tabbert, Katharina; Schweckendiek, Jan; Klucken, Tim; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf; Wolf, Oliver Tobias

    2012-09-01

    An important feature of the human defense system comprises fear learning, which stress hormones can crucially modulate. However, stress hormones might influence men and women differently, in part because of interactions with sex hormones. In women, distinct stages of the menstrual cycle or the intake of oral contraceptives (OC) affect sex hormone levels. In this study, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with electrical stimulation as unconditioned stimulus (UCS) following one neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS+), but not another (CS-).To investigate implicit fear learning, participants were distracted from detecting the contingencies between CS and UCS. To address interaction effects of sex and stress hormones, 32 men, 30 women in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (FO), 30 women in the luteal phase (LU), and 30 OC women received either 30 mg cortisol or a placebo. In the contrast CS+ minus CS-, an interaction between cortisol administration and sex hormone status emerged in the anterior parahippocampal gyrus and the hippocampus. Cortisol reduced fear learning in men, FO, and LU women, but enhanced it in OC women. Additionally, cortisol attenuated differential amygdala activation in the entire group. These results demonstrate that OC usage substantially modifies cortisol effects on emotional learning in women, particularly in memory-related medial temporal lobe regions. Further, a high dose of cortisol reduces amygdala differentiation pointing to a lowered learning ability of the defense system under high cortisol concentrations, irrespective of current sex hormone availability.

  19. Adrenal Vein Sampling in Primary Aldosteronism: Sensitivity and Specificity of Basal Adrenal Vein to Peripheral Vein Cortisol and Aldosterone Ratios to Confirm Catheterization of the Adrenal Vein.

    PubMed

    Mailhot, Jean-Philippe; Traistaru, Manuela; Soulez, Gilles; Ladouceur, Martin; Giroux, Marie-France; Gilbert, Patrick; Zhu, Ping Shi; Bourdeau, Isabelle; Oliva, Vincent L; Lacroix, André; Therasse, Eric

    2015-12-01

    To assess the sensitivity and specificity for ratios of adrenal vein cortisol level (Ca) to peripheral vein cortisol level (Cp), adrenal vein aldosterone level (Aa) to peripheral vein aldosterone level (Ap), and combined cortisol and aldosterone levels ("combined ratio") for the detection of successful adrenal vein catheterization ("selectivity") in adrenal vein sampling (AVS) without adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection at different cutoff values. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was waived. AVS was performed in 160 consecutive patients (49 women and 111 men; mean age, 53.6 years) between December 1989 and January 2014. Cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured in samples from the adrenal veins and left iliac vein every 5 minutes, two times before (basal) and three times after intravenous cosyntropin (ACTH 1-24) injection. Selectivity was defined by Ca/Cp or Aa/Ap ratio of at least 5 in at least one sampling after ACTH administration. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of selective adrenal vein catheterization were calculated for basal Ca/Cp ratio, Aa/Ap ratio, and combined ratios for three cutoff values reported in the literature. The McNemar test was used to assess differences in sensitivity and specificity to detect selective adrenal vein catheterization. The sensitivity and specificity for the cutoff values of at least 3, at least 2, and at least 1.1 for the detection of AVS selectivity were respectively 50.4% and 100%, 70.8% and 100%, and 98.5% and 76.9% for Ca/Cp ratio; 61.3% and 100%, 70.8% and 100%, and 94.2% and 53.8% for Aa/Ap ratio; and 75.2% and 100%, 88.3% and 100%, and 99.3% and 46.2% for combined ratios (sensitivity at the ≥2 cutoff value: P < .0001 for combined ratio vs Ca/Cp ratio and for combined ratio vs Aa/Ap ratio). Basal combined ratio has the best sensitivity for the detection of AVS selectivity at all cutoff values, and for all ratios, the cutoff value of

  20. Immunohistochemical detection of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the brain and pituitary of the hagfish, Eptatretus burgeri.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masafumi; Amiya, Noriko; Yokoyama, Takehiko; Onikubo, Kengo; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2016-09-15

    The distribution of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the brain and pituitary of the hagfish Eptatretus burgeri, representing the earliest branch of vertebrates, was examined by immunohistochemistry to better understand the neuroendocrine system of hagfish. CRH-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies were detected in the preoptic nucleus, periventricular preoptic nucleus, infundibular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and in the nucleus "A" of Kusunoki et al. (1982) in the medulla oblongata. In the brain, CRH-ir fibers were detected in almost all areas except for the olfactory bulb and telencephalon. Bundles of CRH-ir fibers were detected in the dorsal wall of the neurohypophysis. However, CRH-ir fibers were distant from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) cells in the adenohypophysis, as studied by dual-label immunohistochemistry. Cortisol and corticosterone were detected in the plasma by a combination of reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. These results suggest that in the hagfish, CRH, ACTH, and corticosteroids exist and that CRH released in the neurohypophysis likely reaches the adenohypophysis via diffusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Glucoreceptors located in different areas mediate the hypoglycemia-induced release of growth hormone, prolactin, and adrenocorticotropin in man.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Tatár, P; Jurcovicová, J; Jezová, D

    1990-03-01

    In young male volunteers, the changes in growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release in response to insulin injection combined with the infusion of saline, glucose, and fructose were evaluated. Glucose infusion in a dose which prevented insulin hypoglycemia completely abolished endocrine responses. Infusion of fructose, which is known not to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), did not influence the GH release during hypoglycemia; however, it inhibited PRL secretion. The ACTH response was slightly attenuated and delayed, while the hypoglycemia-induced rise in cortisol levels was not modified by fructose infusion. These data indicate that the glucoreceptors mediating the signals for a complete counterregulatory neuroendocrine response are not located in a single brain structure. Stimuli for GH release are produced in areas of the central nervous system protected by the BBB, while those for PRL release are presumably present in structures not protected by the BBB. Glucoreceptors triggering ACTH release are located both inside and outside the BBB.

  2. Cortisol and 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Neurohormonal Aspects of Bioenergetic Stress in Ecstasy Users

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can affect both neurotransmitter and neurohormonal activity. This review will debate the role of the metabolic activation hormone cortisol for the psychobiological effects of ecstasy/MDMA. Methods The empirical literature on cortisol release following acute MDMA administration and cortisol functioning in drug-free recreational ecstasy/MDMA users will be reviewed. This will be followed by an overview of cortisol as a bioenergetic stress neurohormone, and a debate on how it could be modulating the acute and chronic psychobiological effects of MDMA. Results Cortisol release is increased by stimulatory factors, including physical activity, thermal stress and stimulant drugs. In laboratory studies MDMA leads to an acute cortisol increase of around 150% in sedentary humans. In MDMA-using dance clubbers, the cortisol levels are increased by around 800%, possibly due to the combined factors of stimulant drug, physical exertion and psychosocial stimulation. Regular ecstasy/MDMA users also demonstrate changes in baseline cortisol levels and cortisol reactivity, with compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity. Nonpharmacological research has shown how cortisol is important for psychological aspects such as memory, cognition, sleep, impulsivity, depression and neuronal damage. These same functions are often impaired in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users, and cortisol may be an important modulatory co-factor. Conclusions The energizing hormone cortisol is involved in the psychobiology of MDMA, probably via its effects on energy metabolism. Acute cortisol release may potentiate the stimulating effects of MDMA in dance clubbers. Chronically, cortisol may contribute to the variance in functional and structural consequences of repeated ecstasy usage. PMID:19893332

  3. Within-Person Coupling of Changes in Cortisol, Testosterone, and DHEA Across the Day in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Hastings, Paul D.; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11–16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development. PMID:24166536

  4. Within-person coupling of changes in cortisol, testosterone, and DHEA across the day in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Ruttle, Paula L; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Paul D; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2015-09-01

    We comprehensively examined within-person and between-person associations between cortisol and DHEA and cortisol and testosterone across the day. Data are from a sample of 213 adolescents aged 11-16 (M = 13.7, SD = 1.5 years) from the Northeastern US who were oversampled for psychopathology symptoms. Six repeated measures of hormone levels across 3 days were used to test three specific questions of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone associations within individuals (coupling) across the day, and one question of cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone diurnal slopes were associated between adolescents. Results consistently revealed positive cortisol-DHEA and cortisol-testosterone coupling across the day, often more pronounced in girls relative to boys. Cortisol and DHEA slopes were positively associated, whereas cortisol and testosterone were negatively associated between-adolescents. Findings suggest multiple mechanisms and highlight the multifaceted nature of associations of hormone changes during adolescence and importance of considering both axes for between- and within-person aspects of neuroendocrine development.

  5. Social regulation of cortisol receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Korzan, Wayne J.; Grone, Brian P.; Fernald, Russell D.

    2014-01-01

    In many social species, individuals influence the reproductive capacity of conspecifics. In a well-studied African cichlid fish species, Astatotilapia burtoni, males are either dominant (D) and reproductively competent or non-dominant (ND) and reproductively suppressed as evidenced by reduced gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH1) release, regressed gonads, lower levels of androgens and elevated levels of cortisol. Here, we asked whether androgen and cortisol levels might regulate this reproductive suppression. Astatotilapia burtoni has four glucocorticoid receptors (GR1a, GR1b, GR2 and MR), encoded by three genes, and two androgen receptors (ARα and ARβ), encoded by two genes. We previously showed that ARα and ARβ are expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the preoptic area (POA), which regulates reproduction, and that the mRNA levels of these receptors are regulated by social status. Here, we show that GR1, GR2 and MR mRNAs are also expressed in GnRH1 neurons in the POA, revealing potential mechanisms for both androgens and cortisol to influence reproductive capacity. We measured AR, MR and GR mRNA expression levels in a microdissected region of the POA containing GnRH1 neurons, comparing D and ND males. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we found D males had higher mRNA levels of ARα, MR, total GR1a and GR2 in the POA compared with ND males. In contrast, ND males had significantly higher levels of GR1b mRNA, a receptor subtype with a reduced transcriptional response to cortisol. Through this novel regulation of receptor type, neurons in the POA of an ND male will be less affected by the higher levels of cortisol typical of low status, suggesting GR receptor type change as a potential adaptive mechanism to mediate high cortisol levels during social suppression. PMID:25013108

  6. Effects of ACTH and cAMP on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and P450 11beta-hydroxylase messenger RNAs in rainbow trout interrenal cells: relationship with in vitro cortisol production.

    PubMed

    Hagen, I Julie; Kusakabe, Makoto; Young, Graham

    2006-02-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transfers cholesterol over the inner mitochondrial membrane, thereby making the molecule available for cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, which carries out the first conversion in the steroidogenic pathway. In mammals, StAR controls this rate limiting step in steroidogenesis, and both StAR protein and StAR mRNA levels become rapidly elevated in response to tropic hormone stimulation. The relationship between StAR gene expression and steroid production in fish has not yet been well explored. We investigated the relationship between adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)- and cAMP-stimulated cortisol production in vitro and levels of StAR transcripts in interrenal cells of rainbow trout. To assess the effect of ACTH on mRNA levels of a downstream steroidogenic enzyme, we also investigated the effects of ACTH on transcripts encoding 11beta hydroxylase (P450 11beta). In a series of experiments, juvenile rainbow trout head kidney tissue containing interrenal cells was incubated with either ACTH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP). Cortisol in incubation media were measured by radioimmunoassay and total RNA was isolated from the tissue for Northern analysis or for quantitative real-time PCR. Incubation of tissue with 150 ng/mL ACTH for 1-18 h induced a progressive increase in cortisol accumulation in media, but StAR mRNA levels increased modestly and mostly insignificantly over 18 h, irrespective of treatment. Exposure of tissue for 18 h to 5, 150, 500 or 1,500 ng ACTH/mL resulted in a strong increase in cortisol production, with a peak response (15-fold increase over controls) achieved with 150 ng/mL ACTH. Although there was a trend towards a dose-response effect, mean StAR mRNA levels were only significantly affected by the highest concentration of ACTH used (1,500 ng/mL), which induced a less than 2-fold increase in StAR transcripts. However, there was a significant linear relationship between StAR mRNA levels and ACTH

  7. Hormonal changes around the parturition in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Suzuki, H; Hattori, Y; Noda, K

    1981-09-01

    Concentrations of serum oxytocin, cortisol, progesterone and estradiol in pregnant rats were assayed by radioimmunoassay methods. The levels of these hormones increased in pregnancy. Around the parturition, oxytocin or estradiol did not show any change, cortisol increased, and progesterone decreased prominently. The trigger of initiation of labor was discussed.

  8. Work stress models and diurnal cortisol variations: The SALVEO study.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess components, subscales, and interactions proposed by the popular Job Demand-Control (JDC), Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS), and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) work stress models in relation to diurnal variation of the stress hormone cortisol. Participants included 401 day-shift workers employed from a random sampling of 34 Canadian workplaces. Questionnaires included the Job Content Questionnaire to measure psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to measure effort, reward, and overcommitment. Salivary cortisol was collected on 2 working days at awaking, +30 min after awaking, 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Multilevel regressions with 3 levels (time of day, workers, workplaces) were performed. Results revealed that JDC, JDCS and ERI interactions were not statistically associated with variations in diurnal cortisol concentrations. By contrast when assessing specific work stress subscales, increased psychological demands were linked to decreased bedtime cortisol, increased job recognition was linked to increased cortisol +30 min after waking and at bedtime, and finally increased overcommitment was linked to increased awakening cortisol and decreased cortisol at 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Sex moderation effects principally among men were additionally detected for psychological demands, total social support, and supervisor support. Our findings suggest that components and subsubscales of these popular work stress models rather than theorized interactions are more meaningful in explaining diurnal cortisol variations. In particular, psychological demands, job recognition, overcommitment, and to a lesser extent social support at work are the most significant predictors of diurnal cortisol variation in this large sample of Canadian workers. Importantly, the overall effect sizes of these subscales that explained diurnal cortisol concentrations were weak.

  9. Cortisol and CBG - Getting cortisol to the right place at the right time.

    PubMed

    Henley, David; Lightman, Stafford; Carrell, Robin

    2016-10-01

    Cortisol is transported in the blood by corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), a non-inhibitory member of the serpin family of serine protease inhibitors. Recent structural advances reveal how CBG acts as a releasing-agent as well as a carrier of cortisol. Taken together, the structures of the various forms of CBG and of the closely related thyroxine binding-globulin, show how the inherent conformational mechanism of the serpins has been adapted to modulate hormone release to the tissues by changes in binding affinities. A deduction from this, of the temperature dependence of hormone binding, is remarkably borne out with CBG, with a doubling in plasma free cortisol as the body temperature rises to 39°C. Another insight, against a dogma in the corticosteroid field, is that the proteolytic cleavage of CBG in inflammation results in a partial and not a complete loss of cortisol binding. This becomes of medical importance in conjunction with recent evidence of a pool of the circulating cleaved-form of CBG. It is now evident that tissue levels of free cortisol are buffered by two responsive plasma pools, intact CBG with a high binding-affinity and, particularly in inflammation and sepsis, a further pool of cleaved-CBG with a ten-fold lower affinity. The new molecular understandings, as well as providing insights into the differential release of circulating hormones, also open prospects for therapeutic interventions and draw attention to the potential of CBG and TBG as vehicles for the targeted delivery of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Academic self-concept of ability and cortisol reactivity.

    PubMed

    Minkley, N; Westerholt, D M; Kirchner, W H

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between a school-specific trait (academic self-concept of ability [ASCA]) and hormonal stress response by using a trait-compatible stressor (test). First, we determined 52 students' ASCA scores for biology and measured their salivary cortisol concentration before and after a biology test (experimental group, n=28) or a free writing task (control group, n=24). For participants who took the test, statistical analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between ASCA score and cortisol response. In contrast, the control group showed a decrease in cortisol concentrations between test times and no correlation between cortisol concentration and ASCA scores were found. These findings indicated an interaction between ASCA scores and hormonal stress response when an academic-related stressor is present. Furthermore, these variables might influence each other adversely: high cortisol concentrations during a test situation may lead to greater feelings of insecurity, resulting in low ASCA scores and awareness of these low scores may lead to a further increase in cortisol, creating a vicious cycle.

  11. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Meissner, H O; Mscisz, A; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mrozikiewicz, P; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T; Kedzia, B; Lowicka, A; Barchia, I

    2006-12-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene's Score (GMS) and Kupperman's Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT).

  12. Hormone-Balancing Effect of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Lepidium peruvianum Chacon): (III) Clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to Maca in double blind, randomized, Placebo-controlled, crossover configuration, outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Meissner, H. O.; Mscisz, A.; Reich-Bilinska, H.; Mrozikiewicz, P.; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, T.; Kedzia, B.; Lowicka, A.; Barchia, I.

    2006-01-01

    This is the second, conclusive part of the clinical study on clinical responses of early-postmenopausal women to standardized doses of pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO). Total of 34 Caucasian women volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, four months outpatient crossover configuration Trial. After fulfilling the criteria of being early-postmenopausal: blood Estrogen (E2<40 pg/ml) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH>30 IU/ml) at admission, they were randomly allocated to Placebo (P) and Maca-GO (M) treatments (2 groups of 11 participants each). Two 500 mg vegetable hard gel capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo powder were self-administered twice daily with meals (total 2 g/day). At admission and follow-up monthly intervals, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, levels of gonadal, pituitary, thyroid and adrenal hormones, lipids and key minerals were measured. Bone markers were determined after four months M and P use in 12 participants. Menopausal symptoms were assessed according to Greene’s Score (GMS) and Kupperman’s Index (KMI). Data were analyzed using multivariate technique on blocs of monthly. Results and canonical variate technique was applied to GMS and KMI matrices. Two months application of Maca-GO stimulated (P<0.05) production of E2, suppressed (P<0.05) blood FSH, Thyroid (T3) and Adrenocorticotropic hormones, Cortisol, and BMI, increased (P<0.05) low density lipoproteins, blood Iron and alleviated (P<0.001) menopausal symptoms. Maca-GO noticeably increased bone density markers. In conclusion, Maca-GO applied to early-postmenopausal women (i) acted as a toner of hormonal processes along the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovarian axis, (ii) balanced hormone levels and (iii) relieved symptoms of menopausal discomfort, (hot flushes and night sweating in particular), thus, (iv) exhibited a distinctive function peculiar to adaptogens, providing an alternative non-hormonal plant option to reduce dependence on hormone therapy programs (HRT). PMID

  13. Time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of emotional memories.

    PubMed

    van Ast, Vanessa A; Cornelisse, Sandra; Meeter, Martijn; Joëls, Marian; Kindt, Merel

    2013-12-01

    The inability to store fearful memories into their original encoding context is considered to be an important vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder. Altered memory contextualization most likely involves effects of the stress hormone cortisol, acting via receptors located in the memory neurocircuitry. Cortisol via these receptors induces rapid nongenomic effects followed by slower genomic effects, which are thought to modulate cognitive function in opposite, complementary ways. Here, we targeted these time-dependent effects of cortisol during memory encoding and tested subsequent contextualization of emotional and neutral memories. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 64 men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 30 minutes (rapid cortisol effects) before a memory encoding task; 2) received 10 mg hydrocortisone 210 minutes (slow cortisol) before a memory encoding task; or 3) received placebo at both times. During encoding, participants were presented with neutral and emotional words in unique background pictures. Approximately 24 hours later, context dependency of their memories was assessed. Recognition data revealed that cortisol's rapid effects impair emotional memory contextualization, while cortisol's slow effects enhance it. Neutral memory contextualization remained unaltered by cortisol, irrespective of the timing of the drug. This study shows distinct time-dependent effects of cortisol on the contextualization of specifically emotional memories. The results suggest that rapid effects of cortisol may lead to impaired emotional memory contextualization, while slow effects of cortisol may confer protection against emotional memory generalization. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  14. Increased serum cortisol binding in chronic active hepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Orbach, O.; Schussler, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    A high serum cortisol concentration, apparently due to increased cortisol-binding globulin (CBG), was found in a patient (index case) with chronic active hepatitis (CAH). We therefore performed further studies to determine whether increased cortisol binding is generally associated with CAH. Serum samples were obtained from 15 hospitalized patients with long-term liver function test elevations but no evidence of cirrhosis, 15 normal subjects without a history of hepatitis, four healthy pregnant women, and 10 alcoholic patients with stigmata of cirrhosis. Serum cortisol binding was measured by an adaptation of a previously described charcoal uptake method. Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and sex hormone-binding globulin were determined by radioimmunoassays. Charcoal uptake of 125I cortisol from sera of normal subjects and additional patients with CAH revealed that increased serum cortisol binding by a saturable site, presumably CBG, was associated with CAH. Cortisol binding was significantly correlated with immunoassayable TBG, suggesting that in CAH, similar mechanisms may be responsible for increasing the serum concentrations of CBG and TBG.

  15. Adrenocorticotropic hormone protects learning and memory function in epileptic Kcna1-null mice.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Morris H; Chun, Kyoung-Chul; Ma, Shun-Chieh; Rho, Jong M; Kim, Do Young

    2017-04-03

    ACTH, a member of the melanocortin family of peptides, is often used in the treatment of the developmental epileptic encephalopathy spectrum disorders including, Ohtahara, West, Lennox Gastaut and Landau-Kleffner Syndromes and electrical status epilepticus of sleep. In these disorders, although ACTH is often successful in controlling the seizures and/or inter-ictal EEG abnormalities, it is unknown whether ACTH possesses other beneficial effects independent of seizure control. We tested whether ACTH can ameliorate the intrinsic impairment of hippocampal-based learning and memory in epileptic Kcna1-null (KO) mice. We found that ACTH - administered in the form of Acthar Gel given i.p. four times daily at a dose of 4 IU/kg (16 IU/kg/day) for 7days - prevented impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP) evoked with high-frequency stimulation in CA1 hippocampus and also restored spatial learning and memory on the Barnes maze test. However, with this treatment regimen, ACTH did not exert a significant effect on the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Together, our findings indicate that ACTH can ameliorate memory impairment in epileptic Kcna1-null mice separate from seizure control, and suggest that this widely used peptide may exert direct nootropic effects in the epileptic brain.

  16. Kaposi sarcoma secondary to endogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mayor-Ibarguren, A; Roldán-Puchalt, M C; Sancho-Bueso, T; Pérez-López, C; Álvarez-Linera, J; Frutos, R; Álvarez-Escolá, C; Regojo-Zapata, R; Beato-Merino, M J; Herranz-Pinto, P; Lecumberri, B

    2016-06-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative tumour that develops as a result of an infection by human herpesvirus 8, which is considered a necessary cause but not sufficient. Other factors - genetic, immunological and environmental - might play a role in the development of the disease. We report a case of KS secondary to endogenous Cushing syndrome (ECS) due to a pituitary adenoma, an association that has been reported only once. We also conducted a search through the Medline and PubMed databases for cases involving KS and ECS, finding only three additional cases that shared common clinical and prognostic features with ours. ECS might favour the development of KS due to immunosuppression. Dermatologists and other clinicians should be aware of this association, as it might be an underdiagnosed condition. It also has an important impact on the management of KS, and based on this review it relies on a good prognosis when ECS is well controlled. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Effects of adrenocorticotropic hormone and flunixin meglumine on pregnancy retention in beef cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pregnancy loss in beef cattle after d 28 of gestation is variable, but has been reported to be as high as 14% and has been related to transportation or handling stress. The objective of this study was to determine effects of ACTH administration on mimicking a stress response and whether this respon...

  18. Entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Mavroudis, Panteleimon D.; Scheff, Jeremy D.; Calvano, Steve E.; Lowry, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythmicity in mammals is primarily driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), often called the central pacemaker, which converts the photic information of light and dark cycles into neuronal and hormonal signals in the periphery of the body. Cells of peripheral tissues respond to these centrally mediated cues by adjusting their molecular function to optimize organism performance. Numerous systemic cues orchestrate peripheral rhythmicity, such as feeding, body temperature, the autonomic nervous system, and hormones. We propose a semimechanistic model for the entrainment of peripheral clock genes by cortisol as a representative entrainer of peripheral cells. This model demonstrates the importance of entrainer's characteristics in terms of the synchronization and entrainment of peripheral clock genes, and predicts the loss of intercellular synchrony when cortisol moves out of its homeostatic amplitude and frequency range, as has been observed clinically in chronic stress and cancer. The model also predicts a dynamic regime of entrainment, when cortisol has a slightly decreased amplitude rhythm, where individual clock genes remain relatively synchronized among themselves but are phase shifted in relation to the entrainer. The model illustrates how the loss of communication between the SCN and peripheral tissues could result in desynchronization of peripheral clocks. PMID:22510707

  19. Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor for the detection of salivary cortisol using the Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Hyun Lee, Jung; Kim, MinGin; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Jung, Hyo-Il; Lee, Wooyoung

    2013-09-01

    We present a study of a thermal biosensor based on bismuth nanowire that is fabricated for the detection of the human stress hormone cortisol using the Thomson effect. The Bi nanowire was grown using the On-Film Formation of Nanowires (OFF-ON) method. The thermal device was fabricated using photolithography, and the sensing area was modified with immobilized anti-cortisol antibodies conjugated with protein G for the detection of cortisol. The voltages were measured with two probe tips during surface modification to investigate the biochemical reactions in the fabricated thermal biosensor. The Bi nanowire-based thermal biosensor exhibited low detection limit and good selectivity for the detection of cortisol.

  20. [Understanding cortisol action in acute inflammation: A view from the adrenal gland to the target cell].

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Julia

    2017-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (cortisol in humans) are essential for numerous biological functions. Among critically ill patients, therapy with cortisol has gained strength in recent years, but clinical results have been mixed. A series of events, that may explain the diversity of clinical responses, occur from the synthesis of cortisol in the adrenal gland to the activation of the cortisol receptor by the hormone when it enters the nucleus of the target cell. Some of these events are revised; a proposition for identifying critically ill patients who may benefit with this therapy is suggested.

  1. Anti-fatigue activity of Hovenia dulcis on a swimming mouse model through the inhibition of stress hormone expression and antioxidation.

    PubMed

    Na, Chun-Soo; Yoon, Sun Young; Kim, Jin Beom; Na, Dae-Seung; Dong, Mi-Sook; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Hong, Cheol Yi

    2013-01-01

    Hovenia dulcis (H. dulcis) Thunb., which is distributed in Korea, China, and Japan, has been known to show hepatoprotective and free radical scavenging effects and enhance physical activity. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to determine the anti-fatigue activity of hot-water extract from H. dulcis peduncle, and to find the reason why H. dulcis extract (HDE)-ingested mice had enhanced physical activity against swimming performance. The mice orally administrated with HDE (HDE-mice) dramatically enhanced their swimming time compared to the control mice. HDE significantly decreased serum levels of stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in mice. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were dramatically decreased in gastrocnemius muscle from both 100 mg/kg of HDE (LHDE) and 200 mg/kg of HDE (HHDE)-ingested mice compared to the control mice. The liver activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased in HHDE-mice with increasing tendency in LHDE-mice. In addition, HHDE-mice significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (T-Chol), and triglyceride (TG). These results suggest that HDE had a significant anti-fatigue effect via its anti-stress and antioxidant activities, and thereby enhanced physical activity in swimming performance.

  2. Effects of handling and vehicle injections on adrenocorticotropic and corticosterone concentrations in Sprague-Dawley compared with Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Deutsch-Feldman, Molly; Picetti, Roberto; Seip-Cammack, Katharine; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a key factor in the trajectory of the addiction-like cycle (a pattern of behavior characterized by escalating drug use, withdrawal, and relapse) in preclinical and clinical studies. Concentrations of HPA hormones change in laboratory animals in response to standard experimental procedures, including handling and vehicle injections. We compared HPA activity in adult male Lewis (inbred) and Sprague-Dawley (outbred) rats, 2 common strains in rodent models of addiction, after different schedules of handling and saline injections, to explore the extent to which HPA responses differ by strain and whether interindividual differences underlie addiction vulnerability. The 4 treatment conditions were no, short, or long handling and saline injections. In handled groups, rats were handled for 1 to 2 min for 3 times daily and were euthanized after 7 d (short handling) or 14 d (long handling). The injection schedule in the saline injection group mimicked that in a model of binge-like cocaine exposure. Across all treatment groups, concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone were higher in Sprague-Dawley than in Lewis rats. In Sprague-Dawley rats, corticosterone concentrations decreased after continued handling but remained constant in Lewis rats. Interindividual variability in hormone levels was greater in Sprague-Dawley than Lewis rats, although corticosterone variability decreased after continued handling. Prolactin did not differ between groups of either Sprague-Dawley and Lewis rats before or after handling. This study underscores the importance of prolonged handling before experimenter-provided drug-administration paradigms and of strain-associated differences that may affect study outcomes.

  3. Effects of Handling and Vehicle Injections on Adrenocorticotropic and Corticosterone Concentrations in Sprague–Dawley Compared with Lewis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch-Feldman, Molly; Picetti, Roberto; Seip-Cammack, Katharine; Zhou, Yan; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a key factor in the trajectory of the addiction-like cycle (a pattern of behavior characterized by escalating drug use, withdrawal, and relapse) in preclinical and clinical studies. Concentrations of HPA hormones change in laboratory animals in response to standard experimental procedures, including handling and vehicle injections. We compared HPA activity in adult male Lewis (inbred) and Sprague–Dawley (outbred) rats, 2 common strains in rodent models of addiction, after different schedules of handling and saline injections, to explore the extent to which HPA responses differ by strain and whether interindividual differences underlie addiction vulnerability. The 4 treatment conditions were no, short, or long handling and saline injections. In handled groups, rats were handled for 1 to 2 min for 3 times daily and were euthanized after 7 d (short handling) or 14 d (long handling). The injection schedule in the saline injection group mimicked that in a model of binge-like cocaine exposure. Across all treatment groups, concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone were higher in Sprague–Dawley than in Lewis rats. In Sprague–Dawley rats, corticosterone concentrations decreased after continued handling but remained constant in Lewis rats. Interindividual variability in hormone levels was greater in Sprague–Dawley than Lewis rats, although corticosterone variability decreased after continued handling. Prolactin did not differ between groups of either Sprague–Dawley and Lewis rats before or after handling. This study underscores the importance of prolonged handling before experimenter-provided drug-administration paradigms and of strain-associated differences that may affect study outcomes. PMID:25651089

  4. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p<0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g(-1) lipid, p>0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, p<0.05) and ∑PCDD/Fs (r=0.61, p<0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r=0.61, p<0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to

  5. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

  6. Suppression of cortisol levels in subordinate female marmosets: reproductive and social contributions.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, W; Schultz-Darken, N J; Wegner, F H; Wittwer, D J; Abbott, D H

    1998-02-01

    Socially subordinate female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have markedly lower plasma cortisol levels than dominant females. Subordinate females also undergo hypoestrogenemic anovulation, and estrogen can elevate glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we previously hypothesized that this cortisol difference is mediated by rank-related differences in reproductive hormones, probably estradiol. To test this possibility, we characterized the effects of the ovarian cycle and ovariectomy on plasma cortisol concentrations. Beginning in the early follicular phase, basal blood samples were collected from seven cycling female marmosets daily for 16 days and at 2- to 3-day intervals for another 16 days. Samples were collected identically from seven anovulatory subordinate females and seven long-term ovariectomized females. Cortisol levels changed reliably across the ovarian cycle, with levels in the mid- to late follicular, peri-ovulatory, and early luteal phases higher than those in the remainder of the cycle. Cortisol levels of cycling females were significantly higher than those of subordinates at all parts of the cycle, but were significantly higher than those of ovariectomized females only during the midcycle elevation. Unexpectedly, subordinates had significantly lower cortisol levels than ovariectomized females, as well as higher estradiol and estrone levels and lower progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. These results confirm that circulating cortisol concentrations are modulated by reproductive function in female marmosets but also indicate that low cortisol levels in subordinate females cannot be attributed simply to hypoestrogenemia. Instead, other factors, such as direct effects of social subordination or suppression of LH levels, contribute to suppression of cortisol in subordinates.

  7. Effects of hormones on sleep.

    PubMed

    Steiger, A; Antonijevic, I A; Bohlhalter, S; Frieboes, R M; Friess, E; Murck, H

    1998-01-01

    Administration of hormones to humans and animals results in specific effects on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and nocturnal hormone secretion. Studies with pulsatile administration of various neuropeptides in young and old normal controls and in patients with depression suggest they play a key role in sleep-endocrine regulation. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) stimulates GH and slow wave sleep (SWS) and inhibits cortisol, whereas corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) exerts opposite effects. Changes in the GHRH:CRH ratio contribute to sleep-endocrine aberrations during normal ageing and acute depression. In addition, galanin and neuropeptide Y promote sleep, whereas, in the elderly, somatostatin impairs sleep. The rapid eye movement (REM)-nonREM cycle is modulated by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Cortisol stimulates SWS and GH, probably by feedback inhibition of CRH. Neuroactive steroids exert specific effects on the sleep EEG, which can be explained by gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) receptor modulation.

  8. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-07-28

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P = 0.0019; after heroin administration: P = 0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction.

  9. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts

    PubMed Central

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P=0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P=0.0019; after heroin administration: P=0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  10. Cortisol in human tissues at different stages of life.

    PubMed

    Costa, A; Benedetto, C; Fabris, C; Giraudi, G F; Testori, O; Bertino, E; Marozio, L; Varvello, G; Arisio, R; Ariano, M; Emanuel, A

    1996-01-01

    Aim of the work was to measure the cortisol level in human tissues at different stages of life, by means of radioimmunoassay and by chromatography. Viable samples of 13 different tissues were obtained during surgical intervention from 30 to 70 years old patients of either sex. Mean tissue cortisol concentration was 78 +/- 35 ng/g, ranging from 20 +/- 10 ng/g in the thyroid to 124 +/- 76 ng/g in the kidney. Similar values were measured in the corresponding tissues from not decayed corpses, so that paired values could be mediated. However the pancreas, and corrupted autopsy tissues, gave nil or exceedingly high cortisol concentration values; in some cases, opposite extreme values were measured in different organs of the same body. Cortisol concentration was also measured in 11 sound different tissues of spontaneously aborted or stillbirth fetuses, between 16 and 36 weeks of gestation. Mean value was 63 +/- 27 ng/g, ranging from 30 +/- 25 ng/g in the liver to 104 +/- 52 ng/g in the lungs. Also in fetuses nil or exceedingly high cortisol values occurred in altered tissues. One hundred and fourteen samples of limbs and carcasses of 7 to 12 gestational weeks embryos, obtained from voluntary abortions, were also examined: 20% gave nil result, in the remaining mean cortisol concentration was 32 ng/g. In 33 samples of embryos' mixed viscera, RIA and chromatography gave unreliable exceedingly high values. The nil and the exceedingly high values measured in the altered autoptic tissue specimens were inconsistent with the cortisol blood level measured in the patients, as were those measured in embryonic tissues with the acknowledged blood and adrenals cortisol levels at that stage of life. Thus cortisol may be measured by RIA and by chromatography in sound tissues, while the values obtained in the pancreas, in corrupted tissues, and in embryonal viscera do not represent the hormonal milieu, but are likely artifacts due to impeachment of the diagnostic system.

  11. Effects of basal and acute cortisol on cognitive flexibility in an emotional task switching paradigm in men.

    PubMed

    Dierolf, Angelika Margarete; Arlt, Lea Esther; Roelofs, Karin; Kölsch, Monika; Hülsemann, Mareike Johanna; Schächinger, Hartmut; Naumann, Ewald

    2016-05-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is assumed to influence cognitive functions. While cortisol-induced alterations of declarative memory in particular are well-investigated, considerably less is known about its influence on executive functions. Moreover, most research has been focused on slow effects, and rapid non-genomic effects have not been studied. The present study sought to investigate the impact of acute cortisol administration as well as basal cortisol levels on cognitive flexibility, a core executive function, within the non-genomic time frame. Thirty-eight healthy male participants were randomly assigned to intravenously receive either cortisol or a placebo before performing a task switching paradigm with happy and angry faces as stimuli. Cortisol levels were measured at six points during the experiment. Additionally, before the experiment, basal cortisol measures for the cortisol awakening response were collected on three consecutive weekdays immediately following awakening and 30, 45, and 60min after. First and foremost, results showed a pronounced impact of acute and basal cortisol on reaction time switch costs, particularly for angry faces. In the placebo group, low basal cortisol was associated with minimal switch costs, whereas high basal cortisol was related to maximal switch costs. In contrast, after cortisol injection, basal cortisol levels showed no impact. These results show that cognitive flexibility-enhancing effects of acute cortisol administration are only seen in men with high basal cortisol levels. This result supports the context dependency of cortisol administration and shows the relevance of taking basal cortisol levels into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gender differences in acculturation, stress, and salivary cortisol response among former Soviet immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Lisa M; Miller, Arlene Michaels; Schwertz, Dorie; Sorokin, Olga

    2013-06-01

    Post-immigration adaptation is characterized by chronic and acute acculturative stressors. Salivary cortisol is a commonly used hormonal marker of stress, but few studies have investigated its use as an indicator of acculturative stress and adjustment in immigrants. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among predictors of adjustment (environmental and language mastery), self-reported stress outcomes (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, alienation), and salivary cortisol response in immigrants from the former Soviet Union. The sample included 137 married men and women aged 42-80 who lived in the U.S. for 1-13 years. Results indicated that while men and women had similar values for cortisol response, relationships among adjustment measures, stress outcomes, and cortisol differed by gender. Among men, environmental mastery significantly reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and cortisol response. Among women, environmental mastery also reduced depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and alienation, but language mastery increased cortisol response and decreased alienation.

  13. Blunted salivary and plasma cortisol response in patients with panic disorder under psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Petrowski, Katja; Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Schaarschmidt, Marco; Bornstein, Stefan R; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-04-01

    Panic disorder (PD) has been associated with an altered activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-cortical (HPA) axis. Recent findings from a patient sample with PD with secondary depression on psychotropic medication using salivary cortisol as outcome measure suggest a non-responsiveness of the HPA-axis under acute psychosocial stress. Salivary cortisol does not necessarily reflect the total plasma cortisol due to interfering variables. Whether the present findings can be replicated on a patient sample with pure PD using both salivary cortisol and total plasma cortisol as outcome variables remains to be elucidated. For this study, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was implemented to assess the HPA-axis reactivity indicated by the plasma adreno-corticotropin-hormone (ACTH), plasma cortisol, and salivary cortisol release. The sample included 32 patients diagnosed with PD in a Structured Clinical Interview (SCID). Twelve male and fifteen female patients [mean age=32.87years, SD=11.23] were matched with 32 healthy controls by age and gender. The plasma ACTH, total plasma cortisol and salivary cortisol release increased significantly in both groups due to the psychosocial stress test. The patients with PD showed a decreased plasma and salivary cortisol response as compared to the healthy controls. Plasma cortisol and salivary cortisol were highly correlated in both groups. These findings provide strong evidence for a hypo-responsiveness of the HPA-axis as measured in both blood and saliva. Salivary and total plasma cortisol showed a strong concordance of results. Thus, future investigations could consider salivary cortisol as reliable marker of the HPA-axis under psychosocial stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of immune and stress status in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena): can hormones and mRNA expression levels serve as indicators to assess stress?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The harbour porpoise is exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in its marine environment. Numerous offshore wind farms are planned or under construction in the North and Baltic Seas, which will increase underwater noise during both construction and operation. A better understanding of how anthropogenic impacts affect the behaviour, health, endocrinology, immunology and physiology of the animals is thus needed. The present study compares levels of stress hormones and mRNA expression of cytokines and acute-phase proteins in blood samples of harbour porpoises exposed to different levels of stress during handling, in rehabilitation or permanent human care. Free-ranging harbour porpoises, incidentally caught in pound nets in Denmark, were compared to harbour porpoises in rehabilitation at SOS Dolfijn in Harderwijk, the Netherlands, and individuals permanently kept in human care in the Dolfinarium Harderwijk and Fjord & Belt Kerteminde, Denmark. Blood samples were investigated for catecholamines, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, as well as for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, metanephrine and normetanephrine. mRNA expression levels of relevant cell mediators (cytokines IL-10 and TNFα, acute-phase proteins haptoglobin and C-reactive protein and the heat shock protein HSP70) were measured using real-time PCR. Results Biomarker expression levels varied between free-ranging animals and porpoises in human care. Hormone and cytokine ranges showed correlations to each other and to the health status of investigated harbour porpoises. Hormone concentrations were higher in free-ranging harbour porpoises than in animals in human care. Adrenaline can be used as a parameter for the initial reaction to acute stress situations; noradrenaline, dopamine, ACTH and cortisol are more likely indicators for the following minutes of acute stress. There is evidence for different correlations between production of normetanephrine

  15. Differential Activation in Amygdala and Plasma Noradrenaline during Colorectal Distention by Administration of Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone between Healthy Individuals and Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yukari; Kanazawa, Motoyori; Kano, Michiko; Morishita, Joe; Hamaguchi, Toyohiro; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; Tack, Jan; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Tashiro, Manabu; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) often comorbids mood and anxiety disorders. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, but it is not clear how CRH agonists change human brain responses to interoceptive stimuli. We tested the hypothesis that brain activation in response to colorectal distention is enhanced after CRH injection in IBS patients compared to healthy controls. Brain H215O- positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 16 male IBS patients and 16 age-matched male controls during baseline, no distention, mild and intense distention of the colorectum using barostat bag inflation. Either CRH (2 μg/kg) or saline (1:1) was then injected intravenously and the same distention protocol was repeated. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol and plasma noradrenaline levels were measured at each stimulation. At baseline, CRH without colorectal distention induced more activation in the right amygdala in IBS patients than in controls. During intense distention after CRH injection, controls showed significantly greater activation than IBS patients in the right amygdala. Plasma ACTH and serum cortisol secretion showed a significant interaction between drug (CRH, saline) and distention. Plasma noradrenaline at baseline significantly increased after CRH injection compared to before injection in IBS. Further, plasma noradrenaline showed a significant group (IBS, controls) by drug by distention interaction. Exogenous CRH differentially sensitizes brain regions of the emotional-arousal circuitry within the visceral pain matrix to colorectal distention and synergetic activation of noradrenergic function in IBS patients and healthy individuals.

  16. Effect of testosterone and cortisol administration on the reproductive tract of male Antechinus stuartii (Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    McAllan, B M

    1998-03-01

    The life history of Antechinus stuartii, a marsupial, is highly synchronized and culminates in a brief mating period that is followed by complete male mortality. The accessory reproductive tracts of male A. stuartii enlarge in association with testosterone and cortisol hormone concentrations, but this appears to be unrelated to the spermatogenic cycle. The present study examined the effects of testosterone and cortisol on the male reproductive tract. Four groups of adult males from May (when plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations are low) were given depot injections of testosterone esters or synthetic cortisol in doses that mimic concentrations found in males in the breeding period (August). Males were given either saline, testosterone only, cortisol only, or testosterone plus cortisol. Experimental groups did not differ in the seminiferous tubule morphology. However, the cells from the caudal end of the epididymides of both testosterone groups were considerably hypertrophied compared with males treated with saline or cortisol only. Testosterone treatment significantly increased prostate and bulbourethral gland mass, although addition of cortisol to the testosterone administration diminished this effect. The morphology of the accessory reproductive tract of males treated with either saline or cortisol only was similar to that of untreated males at the same time of year, and the morphology of the accessory reproductive tract of males treated with testosterone plus cortisol was similar to that of untreated males in the breeding season. Like some other marsupials, the spermatogenic cycle in A. stuartii is apparently not correlated with androgen activity, while the accessory reproductive tract is affected by androgens.

  17. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, MSH 11-13 KPV and adrenocorticotropic hormone signalling in human keratinocyte cells.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Richard J; Szabo, Marika; Wagner, Mark J; Kemp, E Helen; MacNeil, Sheila; Haycock, John W

    2004-04-01

    alpha-MSH signals by binding to the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC-1R) and elevating cyclic AMP in several different cells. The anti-inflammatory properties of this peptide are also believed to be cyclic AMP dependent. The carboxyl terminal tripeptides of alpha-MSH (KPV / KP-D-V) are the smallest minimal sequences reported to prevent inflammation but it is not known if they operate via MC-1R or cyclic AMP. The aim of this study was to examine the intracellular signalling of key MSH and ACTH peptides in human keratinotocytes. No elevation in cyclic AMP was detected in either HaCaT or normal human keratinocytes in response to alpha-MSH, KPV or ACTH peptides. Rapid and acute intracellular calcium, however, were observed in HaCaT keratinocytes in response to alpha-MSH (10(-15)-10(-7) M), KPV (10(-15)-10(-7) M), KP-D-V (10(-15)-10(-7) M) and ACTH (10(-15)-10(-7) M), but only in the presence of PIA, an adenosine agonist that inhibits the cyclic AMP pathway. Normal keratinocytes responded to all the above peptides but in addition responded to ACTH 1-17 (10(-13)-10(-7) M) in contrast to the HaCaT keratinocytes. Stable transfection of Chinese hamster ovary cells with the MC-1 receptor showed that alpha-MSH and the KPV peptides elevated intracellular calcium.

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms in preadolescents: the role of parental psychosocial risk and monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-05-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities experience persistent health disparities due in part to their exposure to chronic SES and psychosocial risk. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and its hormonal end product, cortisol, are believed to mediate the associations between chronic stress and poor health. In this study, racial/ethnic differences in diurnal salivary cortisol rhythms in 179 preadolescent youths and the contributing roles of SES risk, psychosocial risk, perceived discrimination, harsh parenting, and parental monitoring were examined. The analyses revealed racial/ethnic differences in diurnal cortisol rhythms, with African Americans having significantly flatter morning-to-evening cortisol slopes than Caucasians and with Latinos having significantly lower evening cortisol levels than Caucasians. Greater psychosocial risk and less parental monitoring were associated with flatter cortisol slopes. Racial/ethnic differences on the cortisol measures persisted when controlling for SES, psychosocial risk, and parenting quality. The need to assess chronic risk across the lifespan and disentangle possible genetic from environmental contributors is discussed.

  19. A Pharmacokinetic Model of a Tissue Implantable Cortisol Sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael A; Bakh, Naveed; Bisker, Gili; Brown, Emery N; Strano, Michael S

    2016-12-01

    Cortisol is an important glucocorticoid hormone whose biochemistry influences numerous physiological and pathological processes. Moreover, it is a biomarker of interest for a number of conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder, Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and others. An implantable biosensor capable of real time monitoring of cortisol concentrations in adipose tissue may revolutionize the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders, as well as provide an invaluable research tool. Toward this end, a mathematical model, informed by the physiological literature, is developed to predict dynamic cortisol concentrations in adipose, muscle, and brain tissues, where a significant number of important processes with cortisol occur. The pharmacokinetic model is applied to both a prototypical, healthy male patient and a previously studied Cushing's disease patient. The model can also be used to inform the design of an implantable sensor by optimizing the sensor dissociation constant, apparent delay time, and magnitude of the sensor output versus system dynamics. Measurements from such a sensor would help to determine systemic cortisol levels, providing much needed insight for proper medical treatment for various cortisol-related conditions.

  20. Testosterone, cortisol and anxiety in elite field hockey players.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Raúl; Jiménez, Manuel; Alvero-Cruz, José R

    2013-07-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the change in the levels of testosterone and cortisol after victory and defeat in male field hockey players during an important tournament. In the beginning of the game series, the players were ranked very closely to achieve (for the first time) the championship rising to The Honor Division-A, the highest status national category. The first game resulted in a 7-4 victory, the second game resulted in a 6-1 victory, and the third game resulted in a 1-2 defeat. As expected, there were changes in testosterone levels after the competition, dropping in the game which ended in defeat, and rising slightly in the two games which ended in victory; there were also changes in cortisol levels, rising in the game which ended in defeat, and showing no variations in the games which ended in victory; correlational analyses congruently showed that defeat led to rises in cortisol whereas victory led to rises in testosterone; anticipatory somatic anxiety was related to cortisol levels prior to games, and physical exertion during competition was related to the change in testosterone levels (suggesting an inhibitory effect) but not to the change in cortisol levels. Hence, this pattern of hormonal responses to a real-life dominance challenge complied with Mazur's (1985) [16] biosocial model of status and dominance motivation, by showing that testosterone and cortisol are linked to victory and defeat in a theoretically predictable fashion.

  1. HPA Axis Genetic Variation, Cortisol, and Psychosis in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Schatzberg, Alan F.; Keller, Jennifer; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Lembke, Anna; Williams, Gordon; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Sarginson, Jane E.; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Murphy, Greer M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation underlying hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis over-activity in healthy controls and patients with severe forms of major depression has not been well explored but could explain risk for cortisol dysregulation. 95 participants were studied: 40 patients with psychotic major depression (PMD); 26 patients with nonpsychotic major depression (NPMD); and 29 healthy controls (HC). Collection of genetic material was added one third of the way into a larger study on cortisol, cognition, and psychosis in major depression. Subjects were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Blood was collected hourly for determination of cortisol from 6pm to 9am and for the assessment of alleles for 6 genes involved in HPA Axis regulation. Two of the 6 genes contributed significantly to cortisol levels, psychosis measures or depression severity. After accounting for age, depression, and psychosis, and medication status, only allelic variation for the glucocorticoid receptor gene (GR) accounted for significant variance for mean cortisol levels from 6pm to 1am (r2=.317) and from 1am to 9am (r2=.194). Interestingly, neither depression severity nor psychosis predicted cortisol variance. In addition, GR and corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRH-R1) contributed significantly to psychosis measures and CRH-R1 contributed significantly to depression severity rating. PMID:24166410

  2. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17β-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in

  3. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  4. Plasma adrenocorticotropin, cortisol and catecholamines response to various exercises.

    PubMed

    Nagata, S; Takeda, F; Kurosawa, M; Mima, K; Hiraga, A; Kai, M; Taya, K

    1999-07-01

    The responses of plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol, noradrenaline and adrenaline in 5 Thoroughbred horses to an incremental exercise and 2 relative workload exercises, at 105 and 80% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), on a treadmill were examined. These hormone concentrations increased (P < 0.05) with each exercise and the maximal plasma concentrations of ACTH, cortisol were observed between 5 and 30 min after the end of the exercise, while maximal catecholamine concentrations occurred just at exhaustion time. The plasma ACTH, noradrenaline and adrenaline responses during exercise were more sensitive to the intensity of exercise than that of cortisol and showed a significant correlation with blood lactate concentrations (r = 0.605, P < 0.001 for ACTH; r = 0.718, P < 0.001 for noradrenaline; r = 0.738, P < 0.001 for adrenaline). The plasma cortisol response appeared to be connected with the duration of exercise (r = 0.71, P < 0.05). The recovery of these hormones was related to the exercise styles. These results suggest that the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary-adrenal axis of the horse are efficiently stimulated by various treadmill exercises, and these hormones may be used in the evaluation of exercise-induced stress.

  5. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  6. Validation and use of hair cortisol as a measure of chronic stress in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus)

    PubMed Central

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F.; Gunn, Kelsey; McCurdy-Adams, H.; Edwards, D. B.; Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I.

    2014-01-01

    Stress levels of individuals are documented using glucocorticoid concentrations (including cortisol) in blood, saliva, urine or faeces, which provide information about stress hormones during a short period of time (minutes to days). In mammals, use of hair cortisol analysis allows for the assessment of prolonged stress over weeks and months and provides information on chronic stress levels without bias associated with handling. Here, we validate hair cortisol analysis in wild rodents using exogenous adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH challenge) and apply the technique to evaluate stress in eastern chipmunks inhabiting logged and natural sites. Chipmunks were subjected to a mark–recapture study and injected weekly with ACTH (Synacthen Depot) or saline, with hair being collected at the conclusion of the challenge. Subsequently, faecal and hair samples were collected from chipmunks occupying logged and natural sites to assess the utility of hair cortisol in comparison with faecal cortisol metabolites. Following extraction, cortisol concentrations were quantified in hair and faecal extracts by enzyme immunoassay. Hair cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated in samples from ACTH-injected chipmunks compared with saline-injected control animals (five times higher). Chipmunks inhabiting logged sites had increased faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations compared with those in natural sites, but no differences were observed in hair cortisol concentrations. Faecal cortisol metabolite levels were positively correlated with hair cortisol levels in chipmunks. Hair cortisol levels reflect changes in circulating cortisol levels and can be used to evaluate the adrenal stress response, and thus stress, in natural populations. Nonetheless, because of the differences in the temporal scale of stress that hair and faeces represent, we caution the use of hair cortisol for detecting differences in physiological stress when comparing individuals within populations and

  7. Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol…

  8. Social Behavior Correlates of Cortisol Activity in Child Care: Gender Differences and Time-of-Day Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tout, Kathryn; de Haan, Michelle; Campbell, Elizabeth Kipp; Gunnar, Megan R.

    1998-01-01

    Examined relations between social behavior and daily patterns of a stress-sensitive hormone production in preschool children attending center-based child care. For boys, externalizing behavior was positively associated with cortisol reactivity, while internalizing behavior was negatively associated with median (typical) cortisol. Median cortisol…

  9. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R. Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N.; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders’ financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways. PMID:26135946

  10. Cortisol and testosterone increase financial risk taking and may destabilize markets.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-07-02

    It is widely known that financial markets can become dangerously unstable, yet it is unclear why. Recent research has highlighted the possibility that endogenous hormones, in particular testosterone and cortisol, may critically influence traders' financial decision making. Here we show that cortisol, a hormone that modulates the response to physical or psychological stress, predicts instability in financial markets. Specifically, we recorded salivary levels of cortisol and testosterone in people participating in an experimental asset market (N = 142) and found that individual and aggregate levels of endogenous cortisol predict subsequent risk-taking and price instability. We then administered either cortisol (single oral dose of 100 mg hydrocortisone, N = 34) or testosterone (three doses of 10 g transdermal 1% testosterone gel over 48 hours, N = 41) to young males before they played an asset trading game. We found that both cortisol and testosterone shifted investment towards riskier assets. Cortisol appears to affect risk preferences directly, whereas testosterone operates by inducing increased optimism about future price changes. Our results suggest that changes in both cortisol and testosterone could play a destabilizing role in financial markets through increased risk taking behaviour, acting via different behavioural pathways.

  11. Cortisol administration induces sex change from ovary to testis in the protogynous Wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus.

    PubMed

    Nozu, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Steroid hormones have been shown to play important roles in triggering sex change. However, the upstream mechanism that regulates the secretion of sex steroid hormones controlling sex change is not yet known. Cortisol, the primary glucocorticoid in teleost fish, is known to exhibit anti-stress action and is involved in many physiological functions, including regulation of steroidogenesis. Therefore, cortisol could be one of the candidate factors involved in the onset of sex change. In this study, we investigated the role of cortisol in sex change in the three-spot wrasse, Halichoeres trimaculatus, by prolonged administration of cortisol. Our results showed that gonads of all individuals treated with cortisol (1,000 µg/g diet) for 6 weeks contained spermatogenic germ cells. One of them exhibited matured testes with an ovarian cavity, indicating sex change. Additionally, the plasma estradiol-17β level in the cortisol treatment group was significantly lower than in the control group suggesting that cortisol plays a direct and/or indirect role in the regulation of estrogen production. These data imply that cortisol might be involved in the regulation of steroidogenesis by causing a decrease in the estrogen level, leading to the onset of sex change.

  12. Seizure occurrence and the circadian rhythm of cortisol: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Valentijn, Floris A; Jansen, Floor E; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-06-01

    Stress is the seizure precipitant most often reported by patients with epilepsy or their caregivers. The relation between stress and seizures is presumably mediated by stress hormones such as cortisol, affecting neuronal excitability. Endogenous cortisol is released in a circadian pattern. To gain insight into the relation between the circadian rhythm of cortisol and seizure occurrence, we systematically reviewed studies on the diurnal distribution of epileptic seizures in children and adults and linked the results to the circadian rhythm of cortisol. A structured literature search was conducted to identify relevant articles, combining the terms 'epilepsy' and 'circadian seizure distribution', plus synonyms. Articles were screened using predefined selection criteria. Data on 24-hour seizure occurrence were extracted, combined, and related to a standard circadian rhythm of cortisol. Fifteen relevant articles were identified of which twelve could be used for data aggregation. Overall, seizure occurrence showed a sharp rise in the early morning, followed by a gradual decline, similar to cortisol rhythmicity. The occurrence of generalized seizures and focal seizures originating from the parietal lobe in particular followed the circadian rhythm of cortisol. The diurnal occurrence of epileptic seizures shows similarities to the circadian rhythm of cortisol. These results support the hypothesis that circadian fluctuations in stress hormone level influence the occurrence of epileptic seizures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortisol fluctuations relate to interictal epileptiform discharges in stress sensitive epilepsy.

    PubMed

    van Campen, Jolien S; Hompe, E Lorraine; Jansen, Floor E; Velis, Demetrios N; Otte, Willem M; van de Berg, Fia; Braun, Kees P J; Visser, Gerhard H; Sander, Josemir W; Joels, Marian; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2016-06-01

    People with epilepsy often report seizures precipitated by stress. This is believed to be due to effects of stress hormones, such as cortisol, on neuronal excitability. Cortisol, regardless of stress, is released in hourly pulses, whose effect on epileptic activity is unknown. We tested the relation between cortisol levels and the incidence of epileptiform abnormalities in the electroencephalogram of people with focal epilepsy. Morning cortisol levels were measured in saliva samples obtained every 15 min. Interictal epileptiform discharges were determined in the same time periods. We investigated the relationship between cortisol levels and the epileptiform discharges distinguishing persons with from those without stress-precipitated seizures (linear mixed model), and an