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Sample records for coruh mouth eastern

  1. An assessment of water quality in the Coruh Basin (Turkey) using multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Ayla

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of 24 water parameters, measured semi-annually between 2011 and 2013 in Coruh Basin (Turkey), based on the quality of the water. The study utilised analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) methods. The water-quality data was obtained from a total of four sites by the 26th Regional Directorate of the State Hydraulic Works (DSI). ANOVA was carried out to identify the differences between the parameters at the different measuring sites. The variables were classified using factor analysis, and at the end of the ANOVA test, it was established that there was a statistically significant difference between the downstream and upstream waste waters released by the Black Sea copper companies and between the Murgul and Borcka Dams, in terms of water quality, while no statistically significant difference was observed between the Murgul and Borcka Dams. It was determined through factor analysis that five factors explained 81.3% of the total variance. It was concluded that domestic, industrial and agricultural activities, in combination with physicochemical properties, were factors affecting the quality of the water in the Coruh Basin. PMID:26514804

  2. Serosurveillance for foot-and-mouth disease in Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) and livestock on the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Bolortsetseg, Sanjaa; Enkhtuvshin, Shiilegdamba; Nyamsuren, D; Weisman, Wendy; Fine, Amanda; Yang, Angela; Joly, Damien O

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species, and periodic outbreaks on Mongolia's Eastern Steppe affect Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) and livestock. During 2005-08, we collected sera from 36 and 57 calf and adult gazelles, respectively, and from adult domestic animals sympatric with the gazelles, including 138 sheep (Ovis aries), 140 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus), 139 Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus), and 138 cattle (Bos taurus). Our goal was to determine whether the prevalence of the antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in gazelles declined relative to previous estimates in the absence of FMD outbreaks. Overall, 2.0% (95% CI 0.7-3.3%, n=555) of the four livestock species were antibody-positive for nonstructural proteins of FMDV (FMDV-NS), whereas 30.3% (95% CI 26.5-34.1%, n=555) had antibodies for structural proteins (i.e., vaccination-derived antibodies). Seven of 57 free-ranging gazelle calves (7.5%, 95%CI 1.6-12.4%) were FMDV-NS positive. None of 36 adult gazelles sampled in 2008 were antibody-positive for exposure to FMDV, indicating a significant decline (χ(2)=18.99; P<0.001; df=1) in antibody prevalence among gazelles from the same area during a livestock outbreak in 2001. The episodic nature of FMD outbreaks on the Eastern Steppe, Mongolia, with evidence of FMDV exposure in gazelles only during or following concurrent outbreaks in livestock, suggests that FMDV may spill over into the gazelle population during livestock outbreaks and that successful control of FMD on the Eastern Steppe requires a focus on control in livestock populations through vaccination. PMID:22247371

  3. The geochemistry characteristic and dating of cold seepage carbonates of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, eastern of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yunxin; Fu, Shaoying

    2015-04-01

    Cold seepage carbonates are usually formed by the interaction of methane oxidizing archaea, sulfate reducing bacteria and cold seepage which contain abundant venting hydrocarbon gases. The presence of cold seepage carbonates on the seabed is one of the evidences that the area exist venting hydrocarbon gases, which are usually result by the dissociation of gas hydrate. The cold seepage property and fluid flow rate can influence the oxidation-deoxidation environment of the bottom water and sediment. Many previous studies focused on the mineral composition, microstructure, elemental composition, isotope composition of the cold seepage carbonates and isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates. The isotopic dating for the cold seepage carbonates can provide the information of the gas hydrate formation and dissociation in some area of the South China Sea. High precision TIMS-U dating and 14C dating are used as routine method for the dating of the Quaternary carbonates and fossils. The cold seepage carbonates in the study include the samples collected by ROV on the seabed and the drilling for gas hydrate in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, eastern of the South China Sea. The authigenic carbonate occurred in different depth in the A, B and C drilling site. They may be represent different events of gas hydrate formation and dissociation in the Quaternary. The dating study for all the cold seepage carbonates can provide the relative accurate eras of the gas hydrate dissociation events in certain area of the South China Sea.

  4. A geochemical investigation of crude oils from Eastern Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiamo, Fu; Cunmin, Pei; Guoying, Sheng; Dehan, Liu; Sizhong, Chen

    A thorough petroleum exploration of the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB), South China Sea, began in 1983. At present, several oilfields have been found in the PRMB, mainly distributed in Dongsha Massif, Huizhou and Xijiang Depressions as well as Huilu Lowhigh, and one of them has been developed recently. The crude oils found in the basin can be classified into two types. One is normal waxy type, and the other is cyclic type, which may be caused by minor biodegration and is restricted to the Liuhua District of Dongsha Massif. However, on the basis of geochemical characteristics, all the crude oils are thermally mature, indicating that they are derived from source rocks which have entered the main oil generation period but their maturity is not high enough to reach the overmature stage. Moreover, in the biomarker distribution, the oils also share many similarities. Almost all the oils contain abundant C 30 4-methylsteranes with 24-ethyl side chain, ubiquitous oleanane and lower concentration of gammacerane, and possess high ratios of Ni/V, pristane to phytane and C 30 hopane over total C 29 steranes as well as high paraffin wax and low sulphur content, indicating that they originated from terrestrial organic matter deposited in lacustrine and marsh coal-forming environments. However, some characteristics resemble Brazilian offshore oils of salinewater lacustrine environment. The oils found in the PRMB can also be classified into three main genetic types based on the relative values of pristane over phytane ratio, C 29 sterane preference and the composition of the carbon isotope. Type I oils occurred in the Huizhou and the Xijiang Depressions and their adjacent Dongsha Massif. It has higher ratios of pristane to phytane (1.80-5.54 and 3.21 on the average scale) and heavier carbon isotopic composition, indicating that their source rocks contain much more abundant terrestrial higher plant input. Type II, encountered in Huilu Lowhigh and its bounding area of Dongsha Massif

  5. Mouth Growths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis Growths can ... Dry Mouth Mouth Growths Mouth Sores and Inflammation Toothache Malocclusion Teeth Grinding Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis NOTE: This ...

  6. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  7. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  8. Mouth Rinses

    MedlinePlus

    ... and bad breath. Anti-cavity mouth rinse uses fluoride to protect against tooth decay. Mouth rinses are ... anti-plaque/anti-gingivitis rinses or anti-cavity fluoride rinses, for example. Dentists will prescribe special rinses ...

  9. Mouth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... your mouth Leukoplakia - white patches of excess cell growth on the cheeks, gums or tongue, common in smokers Dry mouth - a lack of enough saliva, caused by some medicines and certain diseases Gum or tooth problems Bad breath Treatment for mouth disorders varies, ...

  10. Mouth sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals in the diet, including vitamin B12 or folate Less commonly, mouth sores can be a sign ... sores often, talk to your provider about taking folate and vitamin B12 to prevent outbreaks. To prevent ...

  11. Meth mouth.

    PubMed

    Heng, Christine K; Badner, Victor M; Schiop, Luminita Adela

    2008-01-01

    Methamphetamine (meth) is a drug traditionally sought by groups living on the fringes of society. But now, it has entered the mainstream. Over the last five years, meth has seen a surge in abuse, media coverage and attention from law-enforcement officers. Meth mouth is characterized by rampant caries, typically on the smooth surfaces of dentition. This article gives a history of meth use and abuse. It describes the condition of meth mouth and its etiology. Treatment options and other dental considerations are discussed.

  12. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic ... mouth trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking a burning feeling in the mouth a dry feeling in the throat cracked lips ...

  13. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or Xerostomia Request Permissions Print to PDF Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  14. Mouth Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... it. Or get soft foam mouth swabs to clean your teeth. (You can buy these at a drugstore.) Rinse toothbrush well in hot water after use and store in a cool, dry place. Use a non-abrasive toothpaste that contains fluoride. Note that whitening toothpastes may contain hydrogen peroxide, ...

  15. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River-mouth

  16. Ecological response of benthic foraminifera to the acid drainage from mine areas. An example from the Gromolo torrent mouth (Eastern Ligurian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamin, Luisa; Capello, Marco; Carbone, Cristina; Magno, Maria Celia; Consani, Sirio; Cutroneo, Laura; Ferraro, Luciana; Pierfranceschi, Giancarlo; Romano, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages react in short time to natural and anthropogenic environmental changes and, for this, they are considered as reliable indicators of environmental quality. An interesting application of these indicators is the study of their response to environmental changes in coastal marine areas, affected by dismissed mines and dump areas. The Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine was intensively exploited in 19th and 20th centuries, and the activity ended in 1962. The sulphide mineral assemblages consist of pyrite and chalcopyrite, with minor sphalerite and pyrrhotite, in a gangue of quartz and chlorite. The sulphide ore occurs within the Jurassic ophiolites of the Northern Apennines which were subjected to metamorphic and tectonic processes during the subsequent Apennine orogenesis. Waters circulating in the Libiola mine area, and discharging in the adjacent streams and creeks, are strongly polluted due to the diffuse occurrence of Acid Mine Drainage processes. The Gromolo torrent collects these acidic waters enriched of heavy metals which flow into Ligurian Sea. The study area is characterised by a shelf with a gentle slope, mainly constituted by sediment supplied by Entella torrent. The general circulation has trend from East to West and the coastal drift is generally eastwards. A total of 15 marine sediment samples (upper 2 cm) were collected by means of Van Veen grab in the coastal zone close to the Gromolo mouth and analyzed for living (rose Bengal stained) and dead benthic foraminifera, together with grain size, metals and trace elements, and metal fractioning. Quantitative foraminiferal parameters, like as abundance, species diversity, heterogeneity and assemblage composition, were determined and evaluated for environmental purpose. Additionally, possible increase above the natural background level of deformed specimens was considered as indicative of metal contamination. The grain-size analyses highlighted mainly sandy sediments, characterized by

  17. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health > Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being Treated With Chemotherapy ... Back to Top How Does Chemotherapy Affect the Mouth? Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to treat ...

  18. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. PMID:27209717

  19. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  20. Mouth and Throat

    MedlinePlus

    ... lips) or the oropharynx (the part of the throat at the back of the mouth). PDF Learning ... booklet covers: The anatomy of the mouth and throat Treatments for oral cancer, including taking part in ...

  1. Mouth Problems and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... orientation. This information is for people who have mouth (oral) problems related to HIV infection. It explains ... look like. It also describes where in the mouth they occur and how they are treated. They ...

  2. Reemergence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, South Korea, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Tark, Dong-Seob; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2014-01-01

    Five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have occurred in South Korea during 2000–2011. Macro-analysis of these outbreaks showed a correlation with outbreaks in countries in eastern Asia. Genetic analyses of food-and-mouth disease viruses in South Korea showed a correlation with viruses that are prevalent in neighboring countries. PMID:25417549

  3. Reemergence of foot-and-mouth disease, South Korea, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Hyeon; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Kim, Su-Mi; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Ko, Young-Joon; Tark, Dong-Seob; Shin, Yeun-Kyung; Seo, Min-Goo; Kim, Byounghan

    2014-12-01

    Five outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease have occurred in South Korea during 2000-2011. Macro-analysis of these outbreaks showed a correlation with outbreaks in countries in eastern Asia. Genetic analyses of food-and-mouth disease viruses in South Korea showed a correlation with viruses that are prevalent in neighboring countries.

  4. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... iron) Infection in the mouth, such as a yeast infection Acid reflux Back to Top Treatment Your ... the underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or yeast infection, is treated. If a drug is causing ...

  5. 7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, showing (1-r) north wall of Pier 10 and south wall of Pier 11. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 2. Detail gate spanning mouth of dry dock between Piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Detail gate spanning mouth of dry dock between Piers 10 and 11, view is to southwest, with Pier 10 in distance left. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Mouth and neck radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... DO NOT eat spicy foods, acidic foods, or foods that are very hot or cold. These will bother your mouth and throat. Use lip care products to keep your lips from drying out and cracking. Sip water to ease mouth ...

  8. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  9. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jimson, Sudha; Rajesh, E; Krupaa, R Jayasri; Kasthuri, M

    2015-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a complex disorder that is characterized by warm or burning sensation in the oral mucosa without changes on physical examination. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tip of the tongue, lateral borders, lips, hard and soft palate. This condition is probably of multi-factorial origin, often idiopathic, and its etiopathogensis is unknown. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms namely primary and secondary BMS. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required for better control of the symptoms. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. PMID:26015707

  10. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klasser, Gary D; Grushka, Miriam; Su, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an enigmatic, misunderstood, and under-recognized painful condition. Symptoms associated with BMS can be varied, thereby providing a challenge for practitioners and having a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life for patients. Management also remains a challenge for practitioners because it is currently only targeted for symptom relief without a definitive cure. There is an urgent need for further investigations to determine the efficacy of different therapies because this is the only way viable therapeutic options can be established for patients with this chronic and painful syndrome. PMID:27475513

  11. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can sometimes occur in adults. Symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease include fever, mouth sores, and a skin rash. More About Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) Describes causes of the disease, its symptoms, ...

  12. The lancelet and ammocoete mouths.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kinya; Kaji, Takao

    2008-10-01

    The evolutionary history of the vertebrate mouth has long been an intriguing issue in comparative zoology. When the prevertebrate state was considered, the oral structure in adult lancelets (amphioxus) was traditionally referred to because of its general similarity to that of the ammocoete larva of lampreys. The larval mouth in lancelets, however, shows a peculiar developmental mode. Reflecting this, the affinity of the lancelet mouth has long been argued, but is still far from a consensus. The increase in available data from molecular biology, comparative developmental biology, paleontology, and other related fields makes it prudent to discuss morphological homology and homoplasy. Here, we review how the lancelet mouth has been interpreted in the study of evolution of the vertebrate mouth, as well as recent advances in chordate studies. With this background of increased knowledge, our innervation analysis supports the interpretation that the morphological similarity in the oral apparatus between ammocoetes and lancelets is a homoplasy caused by their similar food habits.

  13. Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamala, K A; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, S G; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  14. Flies and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Yazan; Scully, Crispian; Aguida, Miranda; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2014-05-01

    Oral infections caused by flies are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and consequently, there is a paucity of information in the medical and dental literature about these conditions. In the present article, we present a concise review on oral myiasis or fly-blown disease. A variety of fly species can infest the oral tissues and produce an exotic clinical picture. Oral myiasis is mainly encountered in the tropics and subtropics, but can also be encountered in the western part of the world due to the increase of globalization, immigration, and global warming. Commonly-reported symptoms of oral myiasis include pain, swelling, itchy sensation, and feeling of something moving in the mouth. The surgical debridement of infected tissue with the removal of maggots is the treatment of choice in most cases of oral myiasis.

  15. [Materials for mouth protectors].

    PubMed

    Kloeg, E F; Collys, K

    2003-01-01

    Taking into account the number of teeth which are yearly irreversible traumatised during sport activities, the general use of mouthguards would contribute positively to the prevention of dental injuries. Custom-made mouthguards are more comfortable to wear and offer better retention and protection than stock and mouth-formed mouthguards. Different kinds of materials are available on the market for the construction of mouthguards. A polyethylene-polyvinylacetate copolymer (EVA) is the most suitable material. EVA allows the inclusion of hard or soft layers within the mouthguard. The thickness of a mouthguard is important for the reduction of applied forces to teeth: energy absorption capacity increases with material thickness. Increased thickness however, is associated with a reduction of comfort. Therefore, it is important that dentists take the patients' wishes and demands on both comfort and protection into consideration. A description of the clinical and technical method for the construction of a custom made mouthguard is given. PMID:12894661

  16. Burning Mouth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamala, KA; Sankethguddad, S; Sujith, SG; Tantradi, Praveena

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS. PMID:26962284

  17. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may have include: Mouth sores Thick and stringy saliva Cuts or cracks in your lips, or at ... about: Solutions to replace minerals in your teeth Saliva substitutes Drugs that help your salivary glands make ...

  18. Dry mouth and older people.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring.

  19. Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth Clinicians: Please make as many copies of this ... Philadelphia, for authoring “Simple Solutions for Treating Dry Mouth.” Ask your family doctor to discontinue or provide ...

  20. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... saliva, cavities may occur. back to top Dry Mouth Treatments Your doctor or dentist may recommend oral ...

  1. Mind Your Mouth: Preventing Gum Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Mind Your Mouth Preventing Gum Disease If you have it, you’ ... dental care. The problem begins with bacteria. Our mouths are packed with these tiny microbes. They combine ...

  2. The Influence of Mouthing on Infant Vocalization

    PubMed Central

    Fagan, Mary K.; Iverson, Jana M.

    2008-01-01

    Although vocalization and mouthing are behaviors frequently performed by infants, little is known about the characteristics of vocalizations that occur with objects, hands, or fingers in infants’ mouths. The purpose of this research was to investigate characteristics of vocalizations associated with mouthing in 6- to 9-month-old infants during play with a primary caregiver. Results suggest that mouthing may influence the phonetic characteristics of vocalizations by introducing vocal tract closure and variation in consonant production. PMID:19081776

  3. Exposure of Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) to foot and mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Nyamsuren, D; Joly, Damien O; Enkhtuvshin, S; Odonkhuu, D; Olson, Kirk A; Draisma, Matthys; Karesh, William B

    2006-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious acute viral disease that affects most ruminant and porcine species. During 2001, 33 serum samples were collected from Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa) in the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia. Samples were tested for antibodies to seven subtypes of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV). Antibodies were detected in 67% of the animals, and serologic results indicated exposure to FMDV-O. This virus was present in domestic animal populations in Mongolia from 2000 to 2002, and it is likely that the antibodies to FMDV detected in these gazelles resulted from spillover of virus from domestic animal sources. PMID:16699158

  4. Athletic mouth guards--one town's approach.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D W; Parker, B J

    1993-04-01

    A program to produce inexpensive, custom mouth guards for high school basketball players was implemented by teams of dentists who took impressions, fabricated and then delivered the mouth guards. This community service involved three hours of donated time; the player or school was charged $7.50 for materials per mouth guard. The potential reduction of dental related injuries is immeasurable, and it is hoped that other cities will adopt a similar program.

  5. Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Review Quiz Endocrine System Characteristics of Hormones Endocrine Glands & Their Hormones Pituitary & ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands ... Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the ...

  6. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Main Content Key Points​ ... Your Dentist Before Transplant Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth should ...

  7. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...

  8. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...

  9. The effects of succinylcholine on mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Van der Spek, A F; Fang, W B; Ashton-Miller, J A; Stohler, C S; Carlson, D S; Schork, M A

    1987-10-01

    Mouth opening and the resistance to opening developed by the muscles of mastication were measured in 63 children anesthetized with halothane and relaxed with succinylcholine, pancuronium, or vecuronium. Measurement of mouth opening, induced by a constant test force, was made when each patient was deeply anesthetized, as judged by clinical parameters. Succinylcholine, vecuronium, or pancuronium was then administered. The mouth opening measurement was repeated immediately after the loss of limb muscle twitch response and 45 s following the loss of twitch response. For the 24 patients receiving succinylcholine, there was a significant reduction in mean mouth opening (P less than 0.0001) and a significant increase in jaw stiffness (P less than 0.0001) immediately after limb relaxation. Forty-five seconds after full limb relaxation was attained, the mean mouth opening was still reduced (P less than 0.0001) and the mean jaw stiffness was still increased (P less than 0.0003) in the succinylcholine group. Patients receiving either vecuronium or pancuronium did not show a significant change of mouth opening or jaw stiffness following limb relaxation. Three patients, who received succinylcholine, required several attempts at tracheal intubation due to increased resistance to mouth opening. Anesthesia and surgery proceeded in all patients. None of the patients developed malignant hyperthermia. In view of the fact that a reduction in mouth opening was a constant finding when succinylcholine was administered during halothane anesthesia, the assumption that isolated "masseter spasm" or jaw stiffness heralds malignant hyperthermia should be reconsidered. PMID:2889402

  10. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, P U; Hof, A L; Stegenga, B; de Bont, L G

    1999-02-01

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women and 32 men (mean age 27.2 years, s.d. 7.5 years, range 13-56 years) were recruited from the patients of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of University Hospital, Groningen. Mouth opening, mobility of TMJs and mandibular length were measured. The mobility of TMJs was measured as the angular displacement of the mandible relative to the cranium, the angle of mouth opening (AMO). Mouth opening (MO) correlated significantly with mandibular length (ML) (r = 0.36) and AMO (r = 0.66). The regression equation MO = C1 x ML x AMO + C2, in which C = 0.53 and C2 = 25.2 mm, correlated well (r = 0.79) with mouth opening. It is concluded that mouth opening reflects both mobility of the TMJs and mandibular length. PMID:10080308

  11. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (P<0.05). Chewing cycle variance during mouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (P<0.05). Mouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  12. Hookworm - mouth of the organism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This photograph shows the front section of the hookworm, and the mouth parts which it uses to ... blood for nourishment, are visible. Three species of hookworm cause infection in the United States, including this ...

  13. Hand-foot-mouth disease (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral infection caused by Coxsackievirus that usually begins in the throat. Symptoms include; fever, sore throat, ulcers in the throat, headache, and a rash with blisters on the palms of the ...

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as "an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions." BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: Current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Nasri-Heir, Cibele; Zagury, Julyana Gomes; Thomas, Davis; Ananthan, Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic pain condition. It has been described by the International Headache Society as “an intra-oral burning or dysesthetic sensation, recurring daily for more than 2 h/day for more than 3 months, without clinically evident causative lesions.” BMS is frequently seen in women in the peri-menopausal and menopausal age group in an average female/male ratio of 7:1. The site most commonly affected is the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The patient may also report taste alterations and oral dryness along with the burning. The etiopathogenesis is complex and is not well-comprehended. The more accepted theories point toward a neuropathic etiology, but the gustatory system has also been implicated in this condition. BMS is frequently mismanaged, partly because it is not well-known among healthcare providers. Diagnosis of BMS is made after other local and systemic causes of burning have been ruled out as then; the oral burning is the disease itself. The management of BMS still remains a challenge. Benzodiazepines have been used in clinical practice as the first-line medication in the pharmacological management of BMS. Nonpharmacological management includes cognitive behavioral therapy and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this review is to familiarize healthcare providers with the diagnosis, pathogenesis, and general characteristics of primary BMS while updating them with the current treatment options to better manage this group of patients. PMID:26929531

  16. [Epidermoid cyst of the mouth floor].

    PubMed

    Sanjuán Rodríguez, S; Morán Penco, J M; Ruiz Orpez, A; Santamaria Ossorio, J I; Berchi García, F J

    2003-07-01

    The epidermoid cysts are frequent during childhood, however mouth floor location are very unusual, because of their more difficult diagnosis and therapeutic approach. We present a 5 years old male, symptoms free until a week before, when his parents noticed a well defined mass in the mouth floor. A physical examination leaded to the diagnosis of possible epidermoid cyst. The tumor was excised through an introral approach. A review of different diagnostic means and surgical management are undertaken.

  17. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-01

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo.

  18. The mouth and dis/ability.

    PubMed

    Liddiard, K; Goodley, D

    2016-06-01

    Our aims in this paper are threefold. First, to understand how the mouth reveals the kinds of human beings that are de/valued in specific national locations and in global discourses with special attention on disability. Second, to subject the mouth to analysis from critical disability studies, specifically, an approach we describe as dis/ability studies. Third, to ask how the mouth might work as a site of resistance for disabled people. The paper begins by providing an introduction to critical disability studies, a perspective that foregrounds disability as the primary focus for thinking through the ways in which the body and society are shaped together. We move in this literature review towards a dis/ability studies approach that recognises the simultaneous processes of disablism (the exclusion of people with impairments) and ableism (the system by which standards of human autonomy and capability are made as key indicators of human worth). We then analyse the mouth in relation to pathologisation, human enhancement and resistance. We conclude with some final thoughts on the offerings of a dis/ability studies approach to those of interested with the intersections of the mouth and society. PMID:27352472

  19. Mouth sticks: their past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Toor nee Bachoo, I K; Tabiat-Pour, S; Critchlow, S B

    2015-09-11

    Patients with physical disabilities precluding functional use of their limbs can benefit enormously from the expertise of the dental profession. The dental clinician is able to not only meet the routine oral health needs of these patients, but possesses the unique skills and knowledge to provide specialised oral prosthetic appliances which can facilitate a range of independent activities. Mouth sticks, as they are commonly known, are dental prostheses that are held intra-orally by the patient and manipulated to perform numerous actions such as drawing, writing and painting. They have been well documented within dental and occupational therapy literature and reports of their fabrication date back over 150 years, albeit in a very rudimentary form. The enduring value of mouth sticks to the physically disabled population is that they can provide a degree of self-reliance which would otherwise not be afforded to them. This article discusses the evolution of mouth sticks, principles of mouth stick design, patient selection criteria and treatment planning considerations. We present two recent clinical cases where mouth sticks have been indicated and have been indispensable to the user, detailing the clinical and laboratory stages involved.

  20. The origin of mouth-exhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-09-01

    It is known that the oral cavity is a production site for mouth-exhaled NH3. However, the mechanism of NH3 production in the oral cavity has been unclear. Since bacterial urease in the oral cavity has been found to produce ammonia from oral fluid urea, we hypothesize that oral fluid urea is the origin of mouth-exhaled NH3. Our results show that under certain conditions a strong correlation exists between oral fluid urea and oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) (rs = 0.77, p < 0.001). We also observe a strong correlation between oral fluid NH3 and mouth-exhaled NH3 (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001). We conclude that three main factors affect the mouth-exhaled NH3 concentration: urea concentration, urease activity and oral fluid pH. Bacterial urease catalyses the hydrolysis of oral fluid urea to ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3). Oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) and pH determine the concentration of oral fluid NH3, which evaporates from oral fluid into gas phase and turns to mouth-exhaled NH3.

  1. The benefits of planar circular mouths on suction feeding performance

    PubMed Central

    Skorczewski, Tyler; Cheer, Angela; Wainwright, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Suction feeding is the most common form of prey capture across aquatic feeding vertebrates and many adaptations that enhance efficiency and performance are expected. Many suction feeders have mechanisms that allow the mouth to form a planar and near-circular opening that is believed to have beneficial hydrodynamic effects. We explore the effects of the flattened and circular mouth opening through computational fluid dynamics simulations that allow comparisons with other mouth profiles. Compared to mouths with lateral notches, we find that the planar mouth opening results in higher flow rates into the mouth and a region of highest flow that is positioned at the centre of the mouth aperture. Planar mouths provide not only for better total fluid flow rates through the mouth but also through the centre of the mouth near where suction feeders position their prey. Circular mouths are shown to provide the quickest capture times for spherical and elliptical prey because they expose the prey item to a large region of high flow. Planar and circular mouths result in higher flow velocities with peak flow located at the centre of the mouth opening and they maximize the capacity of the suction feeders to exert hydrodynamic forces on the prey. PMID:22319101

  2. Dry mouth: aging and oral health.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, Mahvash

    2002-10-01

    Dry mouth is a common complaint among older adults, and the aging process is erroneously considered by many to be the primary cause. The subjective complaint of dry mouth (xerostomia) is not always associated with objective evidence of a reduced saliva flow rate (salivary gland hypofunction). Moreover, there are patients who have reduced saliva flow rates and are asymptomatic. Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are associated with sundry oral and systemic complications and affect the quality of an individual's life. This article includes the common causes of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction and addresses the common complications of and routine therapeutic modalities available for these conditions in the elderly.

  3. Infanticide in Eastern Croatia.

    PubMed

    Marcikić, Mladen; Dumencić, Boris; Matuzalem, Elizabeta; Marjanović, Ksenija; Pozgain, Ivan; Ugljarević, Mladen

    2006-06-01

    For the layperson no crime is more difficult to comprehend than the killing of a child by his or her own parents. This is a retrospective study of neonaticide and infanticide in Eastern Croatia from 1980 to 2004. Judicial records of infanticide cases stored in Regional and County Courts were analyzed for the circumstances surrounding the offense. Twenty-four babies were discovered in various places during investigating period of time. The victims were almost equally divided between boys (12) and girls (11). The gender of one baby was unknown. The mean weight of babies was 2.7 SD = 0.66 kg. The perpetrators preferred rubbish-heaps (33.4%), burying in soil (16.7%), various premises in or around the house (16.7%) and garbage cans (12.5%) as places for hiding the dead babies. The most dominant cause of death in sixteen cases of live birth was asphyxia (37%) with equal distribution of smothering, stuffing the mouth with rags and strangulation. Other frequent causes of death were placing the child in a plastic bag and abandonment (25%), brain injury (25%) and wounding using a sharp weapon (12.5%). The cause of death for six babies remained unknown due to advanced decomposition. Two babies were stillborn. The age of accused mothers varied from 16 to 33, mean 24 SD=5.2 years. Most of them were unmarried (60%) and had limited formal education. They usually kept the pregnancy a secret (73%) and gave birth (93%) without public welfare assistance. The mother lived in the terror of shame and with the guilt that accompany conception without marriage. Fear seemed to be a pronounced motivating factor for committing infanticide. The data on court proceedings were available in fifteen cases. The mothers were officially indicted in all cases for infanticide under the Croatian Criminal Code. The perpetrator remained unidentified in nine suspicious crimes. The court convicted ten mothers of the crime of infanticide. Often juries were unwilling to punish the mother, citing the mother

  4. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth KEY POINTS n Have a dental checkup before your transplant procedure. n See your ... problems . SEE YOUR DENTIST Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth BEFORE ...

  5. CANAL EXITING FLUME AND BEGINNING EARTHLINED MAIN SECTION AT MOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CANAL EXITING FLUME AND BEGINNING EARTH-LINED MAIN SECTION AT MOUTH OF PLATTE RIVER CANYON. VIEW TO WEST - High Line Canal, Mouth of South Platte River to confluence with Second Creek, Denver, Denver County, CO

  6. Keep Your Mouth Healthy: Oral Care for Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Keep Your Mouth Healthy Oral Care for Older Adults Oral health ... decay. You can take steps to keep your mouth healthy throughout your lifetime. And if you’re ...

  7. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time line below for healthy mouth information. Email Link Kids' Care Timeline Brush 2min2x - ...

  8. Zoology: A New Mouth for Amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Soukup, Vladimir; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2016-05-01

    Deuterostomes - a key subdivision of animals - are characterized by the mouth developing anteriorly as a rupture between the outer epithelium and the foregut wall. A new study of amphioxus challenges this view and proposes separate evolutionary origins of deuterostome oral openings.

  9. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. PMID:26671147

  10. Alongshore sediment bypassing as a control on river mouth morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Nardin, William; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Giosan, Liviu

    2016-04-01

    River mouths, shoreline locations where fluvial and coastal sediments are partitioned via erosion, trapping, and redistribution, are responsible for the ultimate sedimentary architecture of deltas and, because of their dynamic nature, also pose great management and engineering challenges. To investigate the interaction between fluvial and littoral processes at wave-dominated river mouths, we modeled their morphologic evolution using the coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. Model experiments replicate alongshore migration of river mouths, river mouth spit development, and eventual spit breaching, suggesting that these are emergent phenomena that can develop even under constant fluvial and wave conditions. Furthermore, we find that sediment bypassing of a river mouth develops though feedbacks between waves and river mouth morphology, resulting in either continuous bypassing pathways or episodic bar bypassing pathways. Model results demonstrate that waves refracting into the river mouth bar create a zone of low alongshore sediment transport updrift of the river mouth, which reduces sediment bypassing. Sediment bypassing, in turn, controls the river mouth migration rate and the size of the river mouth spit. As a result, an intermediate amount of river discharge maximizes river mouth migration. The fraction of alongshore sediment bypassing can be predicted from the balance between the jet and the wave momentum flux. Quantitative comparisons show a match between our modeled predictions of river mouth bypassing and migration rates observed in natural settings.

  11. Maximal and submaximal mouth opening with mouth gags in cats: implications for maxillary artery blood flow.

    PubMed

    Martin-Flores, M; Scrivani, P V; Loew, E; Gleed, C A; Ludders, J W

    2014-04-01

    The use of spring-loaded mouth gags in cats can be associated with the development of central neurological deficits, including blindness. In this species, the maxillary arteries are the main source of blood supply to the retinae and brain. Spring-loaded gags generate constant force after placement that could contribute to bulging of the soft tissues between the mandible and the tympanic bulla. Under these circumstances, the maxillary arteries can become compressed as they course between these osseous structures. Smaller gags that might apply less force to the mouth were investigated to determine if they preserved maxillary artery blood flow. Six healthy adult cats were anesthetized. Electroretinography (ERG) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed without the use of a mouth gag and during submaximal (plastic mouth gags of 20, 30 and 42 mm in length between canine teeth) and maximal mouth opening. Maximal mouth opening produced alterations in ERG waveforms consistent with circulatory compromise in 1/6 cats and reductions in signal intensity during MRA in 4/6 cats. Placement of a 42 mm plastic gag produced a reduction in MRA signal in 1/6 cats. No changes were observed with smaller gags. The force applied against the mouth was significantly higher with the spring-loaded gag than with any other gags. The use of a smaller mouth gags was associated with fewer alterations of indicators of maxillary artery blood flow. Nevertheless, a 42 mm plastic gag, equivalent to the size of a needle cap, resulted in an abnormal MRA in one cat.

  12. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on mouth bar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Christopher R.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kolker, Alexander S.

    2013-04-01

    While river deltas are one of the major repositories for sediments and carbon on Earth, there exists a paucity of field data on the formation of distributary mouth bars—one of their key features. Here we present results from an experiment that tested a model of mouth bar development using hydroacoustic, optical, sedimentary, and geochemical tools on a mouth bar in a crevasse splay near the mouth of the Mississippi River. Our results validate an existing model for mouth bar development, which we extend to explain mouth bar stratigraphy. We propose that changes across a hydrological cycle are important for mouth bar development, resulting in a stratigraphy that has alternating fine and coarse grain sediments. Results also indicate that sand is carried up to 6 km from the main stem of the Mississippi River, despite repeated channel bifurcations, which has important implications for our interpretation of the rock record, understanding of coastal sedimentary systems, and the restoration of large deltas.

  13. [Oral medicine 2. Treatment of dry mouth].

    PubMed

    Vissink, A; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2012-11-01

    Treatment of dry mouth starts with determining the salivary gland function by measuring the unstimulated and stimulated flow rate.Treatment depends on these measurements. Iffunctioning salivary gland tissues with saliva producing potential are present, stimulation of the salivary glands by gum chewing or sucking sugar-free sweets is recommended. Salivary gland stimulation may also be achieved using medications, acupuncture and electrostimulation. If stimulation is insufficient, moistening the oral mucosa with a sip ofwater regularly during the day is one of the easiest and most effective methods of easing dry mouth. In addition, the use of saliva replacement therapy might be beneficial, but only with proper instruction. With regard to the caries risk in dentate patients, a fluoride rinse or gel should be prescribed.

  14. Pain Part 8: Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beneng, Kiran; Renton, Tara

    2016-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a rare but impactful condition affecting mainly post-menopausal women resulting in constant pain and significant difficulty with eating, drinking and daily function. The aetiology of BMS remains an enigma. Recent evidence suggests it likely to be neuropathic in origin, the cause of which remains unknown. There is no cure for this condition and the unfortunate patients remain managed on a variety of neuropathic pain medication, salivary substitutes and other non-medical interventions that help the patient 'get through the day'. Some simple strategies can assist both clinician and patient to manage this debilitating condition. CPD/Clinical Relevance: The dental team will recognize patients presenting with burning mouth syndrome. They are difficult patients to manage and are often referred to secondary care and, ultimately, depend on their general medical practitioners for pain management. PMID:27439272

  15. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    PubMed

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation.

  16. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    PubMed

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation. PMID:21287815

  17. 2500 years of changing shoreline accretion rates at the mouths of the Mekong River delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besset, Manon; Tamura, Toru; Anthony, Edward; Brunier, Guillaume; Saito, Yoshiki; Dussouillez, Philippe; Lap Nguyen, Van; Ta, Oahn

    2016-04-01

    The Mekong River delta prograded rapidly in a relatively sheltered bight in the South China Sea under the influence of high fluvial sediment supply 5300 to 3500 years ago, developing from an estuary into a delta. This >200 km seaward growth resulted in increasing exposure of the delta to ocean waves that led to a more wave-influenced mode of progradation characterized by the construction of numerous sets of beach ridges in the eastern sector of the delta, which shows a system of multiple distributary mouths. The growth pattern of this river-mouth sector over the last 2500 years has been determined from OSL dating of these beach-ridge deposits, while the most up-to-date trends (1950-2014) have been highlighted from the analysis of maps and satellite images. The OSL ages show that the area of the delta in the mouths sector remained nearly constant till about 500 yr BP, following which significant accretion occurred, possibly in response to changes in catchment land-use and monsoon rainfall and attendant river water and sediment discharge. A fine-tuned analysis of changes since 1950 shows dominant but fluctuating accretion, with two periods of erosion. The first (1965-1973) occurred in the course of the second Indochina war, and the second more recently from 2003 to 2011, followed by mild recovery between 2011 and 2014. These fluctuations most likely reflect changes in sediment supply caused by the vicissitudes of war and its effect on vegetation cover, as well as variations in monsoon rainfall and discharge, and, for the most recent period, massive sand mining in the river and deltaic channels. Accretion of the mouths sector has gone apace, over the same recent multi-decadal period, with large-scale erosion of the muddy shores of the delta in the western South China Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, thus suggesting that the mouths sector may be increasingly sequestering sediment to the detriment of the rest of the delta shoreline. The accretion in the mouths sector is

  18. Dry Mouth - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Somali) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Boca seca Ukrainian (Українська) Dry Mouth with Cancer Treatment Сухість у роті під час лікування раку - ...

  19. Association between halitosis and mouth breathing in children

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Lara Jansiski; Bachiega, Joanna Carolina; Guedes, Carolina Cardoso; Laranja, Lorena Tristão; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a correlation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children. STUDY DESIGN: Fifty-five children between 3 and 14 years of age were divided into two groups (nasal and mouth breathing) for the assessment of halitosis. A descriptive analysis was conducted on the degree of halitosis in each group. The chi-square test was used for comparison between groups, with a 5% level of significance. RESULTS: There was a significantly greater number of boys with the mouth-breathing pattern than girls. A total of 23.6% of the participants had no mouth odor, 12.7% had mild odor, 12.7% had moderate odor and 50.9% had strong odor. There was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of halitosis was high among the children evaluated, and there was a statistically significant association between halitosis and mouth breathing. PMID:21808855

  20. A flipped spoon and chin prompt to increase mouth clean.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C; Groff, Rebecca A; Kozisek, Jennifer M

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped spoon alone. The greatest increases in mouth clean resulted from the combination of the 2 manipulations. PMID:22219548

  1. Utilizing increased response effort to reduce chronic hand mouthing.

    PubMed Central

    Irvin, D S; Thompson, T J; Turner, W D; Williams, D E

    1998-01-01

    The effects of increased response effort on levels of hand mouthing, leisure engagement, and adaptive elbow flexion were investigated with 2 individuals who had been diagnosed with profound disabilities. Arm restraints designed to alter the amount of physical effort necessary to engage in hand mouthing were used. Results indicated that the treatment strategy reduced levels of hand mouthing but produced only small to moderate reductions in levels of leisure engagement and adaptive elbow flexion. At follow-up, the effects of increased response effort on hand mouthing and leisure engagement were maintained for both participants; however, the restraints were associated with substantial reductions in adaptive elbow flexion for 1 participant. PMID:9757581

  2. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  3. Eastern Europe's Silicon Rush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2007-01-01

    This article presents how the fast expansion of information technology industry in eastern Slovakia is putting a strain on its labor supply. Suddenly, computer-science graduates have become one of the former Eastern Bloc's greatest assets, attracting multinational technology companies hungry for skilled programmers, technicians, and engineers.…

  4. Through Middle Eastern Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Robert P.; Clark, Leon E., Ed.

    This book, intended for use with secondary and college students, presents a Middle Eastern view of the Middle East and the world. Most of the material in the book has been written by Middle Easterners, and it comes from a variety of sources including autobiographies, fiction, poetry, newspaper and magazine articles, letters, diaries,…

  5. Novel sensors for the Artificial Mouth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djeghlaf, Lyes; Mielle, Patrick; Maratray, Jacques; Launay, Jérôme; Temple-Boyer, Pierre; Salles, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Similarly to human chewing, tasty compounds are released in saliva during the food piece mastication in the `Artificial Mouth', and so, are available continuously. Glutamate is present in numerous food, as taste enhancer, has a nice and sought "umami" taste, specific receptors and different inter individual sensitivities, and is a fair marker of the release of tasty compounds. The three sensors (for pH, salt, or glutamate concentration) have the same size, so they are easily interchangeable. Up to now, only one kind of parameter may be analysed at a time by the different sensors. Nevertheless, combined electrodes may be developed in the future.

  6. [Burning mouth syndrome - a joint biopsychosocial approach].

    PubMed

    Arpone, Francesca; Combremont, Florian; Weber, Kerstin; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2016-02-10

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a medical condition that is often refractory to conventional diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Patients suffering from BMS can benefit from a biopsychosocial approach in a joint, medical-psychological consultation model. Such a consultation exists at Geneva University Hospitals, involving the collaboration of the maxillo-facial and oral surgery division and the division of liaison psychiatry and crisis intervention, in order to take into account the multiple factors involved in BMS onset and persistence. This article will describe BMS clinical presentation, and present an integrate approach to treat these patients. PMID:27039444

  7. Osteolipoma of floor of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Vandana; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2015-01-01

    Lipomas are benign soft tissue tumours composed mainly of mature adipose tissue. Histological variants of lipomas have been named according to the type of tissue present and they include fibrolipoma, angiolipoma, osteolipoma, chondrolipoma and others. Osteolipoma, a classic lipoma with osseous metaplasia, is a very rare histological variant. Owing to the rarity of oral osteolipomas, we report an uncommon case of osteolipoma located on the floor of the mouth of a 20-year-old female patient and include a review of the literature.

  8. Future research on foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Kitching, R P

    2002-12-01

    The recent outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Argentina, Europe, Japan, the Republic of Korea, South Africa and Uruguay have brought to world attention the devastating effects of the disease in a naïve population and the social and economic costs of control and eradication. The fact that much still remains unknown about the natural history of FMD virus came as a surprise to some. This paper attempts to identify where research should be directed in order to be better prepared in the future.

  9. Anthropogenic Impacts on Coastal Processes at Guadiaro River Mouth (Cádiz, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, J. Javier

    2014-05-01

    The mouth of Guadiaro river (Cadiz, south of Spain) opens to the Alboran basin of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Spanish and North African coasts, next to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Spanish coastal orientation is NNE-SSW, so that the stretch is mainly affected by eastern ("Levantes") wind and wave action. The river sources are in Grazalema Sierra (Cádiz), western Penibetic ridge, and although the Spanish Mediterranean facade is climatically dry and supports a very irregular rainfall regime, rains in that "Sierra" are among the highest and homogeneous in Spain throughout the year, much more than in the rest of the ridge. Maybe that is why the Guadiaro estuary has remained functional until preset years while all other river mouths estuaries were filled to become deltas along the eighteenth century (Diez, 1996). As most of Spanish rivers, the Guadiaro had suffered a major regulatory process and an upstream transfer has been recently implemented from its basin to the Atlantic through Guadalete river basin, therefore the mouth flow is becoming reduced, especially in its peaks. The closure of its mouth, favoured by the reduced flow of the river in a low tide basin sea, has been studied several times in the last decades (Muñoz et al, 2010), mainly because the spit closing it grows in the NNE direction when alongshore transport occurs mainly, and almost permanently, in the opposite direction. This paper is mainly based on most of those documents, whose researches have used numerical models such as SMC and MIKE 21, obtaining relevant results on the refraction but not diffraction. Two successive main structural actions that can have modified coastal processes were introduced in the environment of the mouth: a couple of jetties (1973), one of which was soon removed (1975), and the marina and harbour of Sotogrande (whose breakwater was built in 1986 and extended 1n 1994)). The influence of these elements is not well reflected in the numerical models. In this

  10. Pathways of clay mineral transport in the coastal zone of the Brazilian continental shelf from Ceará to the mouth of the Amazon River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Morais, J. O.; Tintelnot, M.; Irion, G.; Souza Pinheiro, L.

    2006-03-01

    The transport pathways of fine sediments (fraction <2 μm) along the Brazilian continental shelf from Ceará to the Amazon River mouth were studied by means of clay mineral analyses. On the continental shelf southeast of the Amazon mouth, fluctuations in clay mineral compositions reflect simple mixing between the suspended load of the North Brazil Current and sediment from several smaller rivers. Previously, clay mineral variations west of the Amazon mouth have been explained by variable settling velocities of different grain-size classes within the <2 μm fraction or by selective coagulation of individual clay mineral groups. By contrast, our experiments with river bank samples show that selective coagulation does not occur in Amazon River sediments. A more appropriate explanation for observed variations in clay mineral composition off the Amazon mouth seems to be, similarly to that for the shelf between Ceará and the Amazon mouth, a mixing of Amazon sediments with suspended material of the North Brazil Current. This interpretation is supported by data on clay mineral composition east and south of the Amazon mouth, showing more affinity to sediments of the North Brazil Current than to the suspended load of the Amazon River. Additionally, relatively low sedimentation rates and low concentrations of fine-grained sediments on the shelf suggest that high riverine input by the Amazon River does not overprint the sediments of the North Brazil Current in this region. The strong North Brazil Current shunts the Amazon suspended load in a north-westerly direction along the north-eastern coast of South America. Hence, stronger sedimentation of Amazon sediments would occur only west of the river mouth.

  11. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride. PMID:25952601

  12. Treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome With Amisulpride

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a frequently occurring disease characterized by a burning or painful sensation in the tongue and/or other oral sites without clinical mucosal abnormalities or lesions. Its etiopathology is unknown, although local, systemic, and psychological factors have been associated with BMS. The syndrome is multifactorial, and its management remains unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study was to obtain preliminary data regarding the efficacy and tolerability of amisulpride in BMS treatment. Methods The subjects were treated with amisulpride (50 mg/day) for 24 weeks. Efficacy assessment included a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain intensity, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HASM-A), and the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Efficacy Index (CGI-EI). Results The treatment regimens resulted in a significant improvement in burning mouth symptoms from baseline at week 24, as indicated by the quantitative mean illness duration VAS score, HAM-D, and HAM-A. Amisulpride appears to be effective and patients show a rapid response to treatment. No serious adverse effects were encountered in these patients. Conclusions Amisulpride is effective and well tolerated as a short-term treatment. It is particularly efficacious at the start of treatment and has shorter response latency. Double-blind placebo-controlled trials are needed for further assessment of the efficacy of amisulpride in BMS treatment. PMID:22719802

  13. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride.

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or smell ● ● Dry mouth (little or no saliva) ● ● Pain when you eat hot or cold foods Take these steps: Clean your mouth with care. ● ● Brush your teeth and tongue after each meal and before you go to bed. ...

  15. 4. LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE AT MOUTH OF FEDERAL CHANNEL, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE AT MOUTH OF FEDERAL CHANNEL, AND WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM THE WATER TOWARD THE BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION, ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. Head and Neck Radiation Treatment and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... a saliva substitute to help moisten your mouth. Clean your mouth, tongue, and gums. Brush your teeth, gums, and tongue with an extra-soft toothbrush after every meal and at bedtime. If it hurts, soften the bristles in warm water. Use a fluoride toothpaste. Use the special fluoride gel that your ...

  17. A Flipped Spoon and Chin Prompt to Increase Mouth Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempsey, Jack; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Kozisek, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    We treated the liquid refusal of a 15-month-old girl using 2 antecedent manipulations: flipped spoon and chin prompt. Use of the chin prompt in the absence of the flipped spoon failed to produce increases in mouth clean (a product measure of swallowing). By contrast, modest increases in mouth clean resulted from the implementation of the flipped…

  18. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in Mouth Breathers: Clinical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Andrade da Cunha, Renata; Andrade da Cunha, Daniele; Assis, Roberta Borba; Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo; Justino da Silva, Hilton

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The child who chronically breathes through the mouth may develop a weakness of the respiratory muscles. Researchers and clinical are seeking for methods of instrumental evaluation to gather complementary data to clinical evaluations. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate breathing muscles in the child with Mouth Breathing. Objective To develop a review to investigate studies that used evaluation methods of respiratory muscle strength in mouth breathers. Data Synthesis  The authors were unanimous in relation to manovacuometry method as a way to evaluate respiratory pressures in Mouth Breathing children. Two of them performed with an analog manovacuometer and the other one, digital. The studies were not evaluated with regard to the method efficacy neither the used instruments. Conclusion There are few studies evaluating respiratory muscle strength in Mouth Breathing people through manovacuometry and the low methodological rigor of the analyzed studies hindered a reliable result to support or refuse the use of this technique. PMID:25992108

  19. Development and quality evaluation of aonla mouth freshner.

    PubMed

    Barwal, Vishal Singh; Garg, Vivek; Sharma, Rakesh

    2010-12-01

    Nutritive and palatable mouth freshners were prepared from dehydrated aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) pulp of 'Desi' and 'Banarsi' cultivars by mixing carboxy methyl cellulose, gums, arecanut, cardamom, sugar and milk powder at different proportions as a substitute for pan masala, tobacco and gutka. Mouth fresheners developed were packed in high density polyethylene pouches (HDPE, 100 gauge), stored at ambient conditions (8-20 °C, 60%RH) and analysed for physico-chemical and sensory quality attributes at different storage intervals. During storage for 6 months, ascorbic acid and overall acceptability of mouth freshener decreased (p ≤ 0.05) and moisture content increased. The equivalent relative humidity of mouth freshener was 49% and 53% in 'Desi' and 'Banarsi' cultivars, respectively. Despite the changes observed in various physico- chemical and sensory attributes, the overall sensory quality attributes of mouth freshners remained acceptable. PMID:23572710

  20. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  1. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder. PMID:26709657

  2. Thalidomide for mouth ulcers and wasting.

    PubMed

    Baker, R

    1995-12-01

    Thalidomide (Synovir), noted for causing severe birth defects when taken by pregnant women, can effectively and safely heal serious mouth ulcers (oral aphthous ulcers) in people with HIV infection. Interim results from a study supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) show that ulcers healed in 14 of 23 people taking 200 mg/day oral thalidomide compared to only 1 of 22 people receiving placebo. Celgene Corporation is conducting a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of Synovir for the treatment of wasting syndrome. Participants will receive the drug for free, and will take one of three doses: 10, 50, or 200 mg. Interested parties should call the Healing Alternatives Foundation or the PWA Health group.

  3. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies. PMID:27217177

  4. Genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Freimanis, G L; Di Nardo, A; Bankowska, K; King, D J; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; King, D P

    2016-04-01

    Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. Identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which FMDV can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. As sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribution and transboundary movements of FMDV, and the role that these approaches have played in control and surveillance programmes. The recent application of next-generation sequencing platforms to address important epidemiological and evolutionary challenges is discussed with particular reference to the advent of 'omics' technologies.

  5. Susceptibilities of Candida albicans mouth isolates to antifungal agents, essentials oils and mouth rinses.

    PubMed

    Carvalhinho, Sara; Costa, Ana Margarida; Coelho, Ana Cláudia; Martins, Eugénio; Sampaio, Ana

    2012-07-01

    Forty Candida albicans strains isolated from patient's mouth with fixed orthodontic appliances were analyzed to their susceptibilities to antifungal agents, mouth rinses and essential oils. Susceptibility to fluconazole, econazole, miconazole and ketoconazole, amphotericin B and nystatin was assessed by the disk diffusion (DD) method based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M44-A protocol, and by Etest (fluconazole and amphotericin B). The susceptibilities to mouth rinses and essential oils were also determined by the DD technique. All isolates tested were susceptible (S) to amphotericin B, nystatin and fluconazole. The overall concordance between the DD and the Etest was 100% for amphotericin and fluconazole. One isolate was resistant to econazole (2.5%) and the other to ketoconazole (2.5%). Econazole and ketoconazole had the highest percentages of susceptible dose dependent (SDD), 55 and 95%, respectively. Regarding to the susceptibility isolates profile, seven phenotypes were detected, and the 3 more represented (90% of the isolates) of them were SDD to one, two or three azoles. The study of mouth rinses showed a high variability of efficacy against C. albicans. The results showed that the isolates susceptibility to essential oils differed (P < 0.05). The profile activity was: cinnamon > laurel > mint > eucalyptus > rosemary > lemon > myrrh > tangerine. The main finding was that the susceptibility to cinnamon and laurel varied among the three more representative antifungal phenotypes (P < 0.05). The susceptibility of econazole-SDD isolates to cinnamon and lemon was higher than those of the econazole-S yeasts (P < 0.05). In contrast, econazole-SDD isolates were less affected by laurel than econazole-S counterparts (P < 0.05).

  6. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. PMID:26792766

  7. Maximum opening of the mouth by mouth prop during dental procedures increases the risk of upper airway constriction

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroshi; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya; Suzuki, Yosuke

    2010-01-01

    From a retrospective evaluation of data on accidents and deaths during dental procedures, it has been shown that several patients who refused dental treatment died of asphyxia during dental procedures. We speculated that forcible maximum opening of the mouth by using a mouth prop triggers this asphyxia by affecting the upper airway. Therefore, we assessed the morphological changes of the upper airway following maximal opening of the mouth. In 13 healthy adult volunteers, the sagittal diameter of the upper airway on lateral cephalogram was measured between the two conditions; closed mouth and maximally open mouth. The dyspnea in each state was evaluated by a visual analog scale. In one subject, a computed tomograph (CT) was taken to assess the three-dimensional changes in the upper airway. A significant difference was detected in the mean sagittal diameter of the upper airway following use of the prop (closed mouth: 18.5 ± 3.8 mm, maximally open mouth: 10.4 ± 3.0 mm). All subjects indicated upper airway constriction and significant dyspnea when their mouth was maximally open. Although a CT scan indicated upper airway constriction when the mouth was maximally open, muscular compensation was admitted. Our results further indicate that the maximal opening of the mouth narrows the upper airway diameter and leads to dyspnea. The use of a prop for the patient who has communication problems or poor neuromuscular function can lead to asphyxia. When the prop is used for patient refusal in dentistry, the respiratory condition should be monitored strictly, and it should be kept in mind that the “sniffing position” is effective for avoiding upper airway constriction. Practitioners should therefore consider applying not only systematic desensitization, but also general anesthesia to the patient who refuses treatment, because the safety of general anesthesia has advanced, and general anesthesia may be safer than the use of a prop and restraints. PMID:20526442

  8. An analysis of the reinforcing properties of hand mouthing.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, H L; Iwata, B A; Shore, B A; DeLeon, I G; Lerman, D C; Ulrich, S M; Smith, R G

    1995-01-01

    Hand mouthing often has been described as a stereotypic response that is maintained by nonsocial (automatic) reinforcement; however, data supporting this conclusion can be found in relatively few studies. This series of studies presents an experimental analysis of conditions associated with the maintenance of hand mouthing. In Experiment 1, a functional analysis was conducted for 12 individuals who engaged in chronic hand mouthing, to determine whether the behavior is usually maintained independent of social contingencies. Results obtained for 10 subjects were consistent with an automatic reinforcement hypothesis; the remaining 2 subjects' hand mouthing was maintained by social-positive reinforcement. Based on these results, Experiment 2 was designed to identify the specific reinforcing properties of hand mouthing. Each of 4 subjects was provided with a toy that substituted for hand mouthing, and preference for a specific topography of toy manipulation (hand-toy contact or mouth-toy contact) was measured. Results indicated that hand stimulation was the predominant reinforcer for all subjects. Experiment 3 provided an extension of Experiment 2 in that the same responses were measured across a variety of toys presented to each of 5 subjects. Results again indicated that hand stimulation was the predominant reinforcer for all subjects. Implications of these results are discussed with relevance to treatment. PMID:7592144

  9. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate.

  10. Hedgehog activity controls opening of the primary mouth.

    PubMed

    Tabler, Jacqueline M; Bolger, Trióna G; Wallingford, John; Liu, Karen J

    2014-12-01

    To feed or breathe, the oral opening must connect with the gut. The foregut and oral tissues converge at the primary mouth, forming the buccopharyngeal membrane (BPM), a bilayer epithelium. Failure to form the opening between gut and mouth has significant ramifications, and many craniofacial disorders have been associated with defects in this process. Oral perforation is characterized by dissolution of the BPM, but little is known about this process. In humans, failure to form a continuous mouth opening is associated with mutations in Hedgehog (Hh) pathway members; however, the role of Hh in primary mouth development is untested. Here, we show, using Xenopus, that Hh signaling is necessary and sufficient to initiate mouth formation, and that Hh activation is required in a dose-dependent fashion to determine the size of the mouth. This activity lies upstream of the previously demonstrated role for Wnt signal inhibition in oral perforation. We then turn to mouse mutants to establish that SHH and Gli3 are indeed necessary for mammalian mouth development. Our data suggest that Hh-mediated BPM persistence may underlie oral defects in human craniofacial syndromes.

  11. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate. PMID:27089804

  12. Oral trauma in adolescent athletes: a study of mouth protectors.

    PubMed

    McNutt, T; Shannon, S W; Wright, J T; Feinstein, R A

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of mouth protector use, as well as the amount and type of oral trauma associated with and without mouth guard wear in adolescent athletes. Coaches' perceptions and regulations involving the use of mouth protectors also were examined. Interviews were collected from 2470 junior and senior high school football players with all oral trauma being documented, regardless of the sport during which the injury occurred. Nine per cent of all players suffered from some form of oral injury while another 3% reported a loss of consciousness. Seventy-five per cent of the injuries occurred while not wearing mouth guards, and of this total 40% occurred during baseball and basketball. Fifty-six per cent of all concussions were suffered while not wearing mouth guards. Despite the ability of mouth protectors to significantly help reduce oral injuries, trauma related to sports is more prevalent than previously reported. This study supports the recommendation of mandatory mouth guards in baseball and basketball.

  13. Antimuscarinics in Older People: Dry Mouth and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Clare; McDonald, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Many common prescription and over-the-counter medications have antimuscarinic effects. Antimuscarinics are a well recognized cause of dry mouth, with potential to cause other physical and cognitive adverse effects. A comprehensive medication review in a patient presenting with dry mouth can lead to overall health improvements. Scoring systems can be helpful in identifying antimuscarinic drugs and their adverse effects. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Antimuscarinic drug use is prevalent and a common cause of dry mouth. Older people are particularly susceptible to antimuscarinic adverse effects. PMID:27188134

  14. Burning mouth syndrome: a discussion of a complex pathology.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex pathology for which there is very little information about the etiology and pathogenesis. This lack of knowledge leaves patients with suboptimal treatments. This article discusses the existing scientific evidence about this disease. Since topical oral use of clonazepam have been shown to be effective and safe to treat some patients suffering with burning mouth syndrome, formulations including clonazepam are included with this article. Compounding topical preparations of clonazepam offers opportunities for compounding pharmacists to be more involved in improving the quality of life of burning mouth syndrome patients. PMID:23050296

  15. Hand, foot and mouth disease - a short case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Rajesh-Shanker

    2015-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease, that was once considered a disease of cattle, has been emerging as a common human childhood disease in the last few years. It is a viral disease characterized by a brief febrile illness and typical vesicular rashes. In rare cases, patients may also develop neurological complications. This report describes a case of hand, foot and mouth disease, presented with typical clinical features in the South Indian region. Key words:Hand, foot and mouth disease, viral lesions, blisters. PMID:26155357

  16. Doctoring in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Henry

    1983-01-01

    Health care in Eastern Europe has not achieved world standards nor the goals of planners of socialist societies. With luck, perseverance, bribes or good connections, it is possible to obtain good medical and surgical care in Eastern Europe for a major illness. Primary and even secondary care usually are substandard, however, and often completely unacceptable to most Western foreigners. The reasons for this are complex but mainly rooted in different attitudes of health workers towards their patients, poor physical plants, poor salary structures, inadequate advancement opportunities for health care workers, poor social status and professional recognition for nurses and almost complete isolation of the average primary care doctor from hospital medicine. PMID:6659504

  17. Oropharyngeal Control of Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochat, Philippe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Identifies a coordinative structure of action that integrates hand and mouth activities within hours after birth. Found that presenting neonates with a sucrose solution focused gross motor patterns of hand movement on the oral and perioral regions. (SKC)

  18. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER MOUTH OF FISH LADDER AT ROCK OUTCROPPING, SHOWING NATURAL CARVED ROCK POOLS, UPPER PORTION OF FISH LADDER VISIBLE IN DISTANCE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (UPSTREAM) - Van Arsdale Dam, South Fork of Eel River, Ukiah, Mendocino County, CA

  19. MOUTH OF OPEN SEGMENT, INLET CHANNEL FROM KACHESS LAKE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MOUTH OF OPEN SEGMENT, INLET CHANNEL FROM KACHESS LAKE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST (Dam out of sight, approximately 1/4 mile south) - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. Novel mouth-exercising device for oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P

    2012-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in progressive juxtaepithelial fibrosis of the oral soft tissues and can cause increasing difficulty in mastication, swallowing, speaking, and mouth opening. The treatment of severe trismus requires a combination of surgical release and physiotherapy. Often physiotherapy alone can modify tissue remodeling in OSMF to increase oral opening. This article describes the fabrication and use of a new mouth-exercising device that helps the patient to squeeze/stretch the cheek mucosa to increase elasticity. The device can be used as a sole treatment modality or can be used in association with pharmacological and surgical treatment modalities for OSMF. Improvement in mouth opening was observed in four OSMF patients treated with a mouth-exercising device for 6 months as a sole treatment modality.

  1. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Veena, KM; Jagadishchandra, H; Bhat, Sham S; Shetty, Shishir Ram

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease usually affect infants and children. Although seen worldwide, it is not common in India. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics, usually during the summer and autumn months. The incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease has recently been on the rise in India due to the probable mass immunization programs. This report describes a case of hand foot and mouth disease from Mangalore, South India. How to cite this article: Rao PK, Veena KM, Jagadishchandra H, Bhat SS, Shetty SR. Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease: Changing Indian Scenario. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):220-222. PMID:25206173

  2. Tuning the plasmon resonance of a nano-mouth array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Chen, Xia; Dou, Zhijie; Johnson, Nigel P.; Zhou, Zhang-Kai; Wang, Xuehua; Jin, Chongjun

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a method to fabricate a silver nano-mouth array via a cost-effective inverted hemispherical colloidal lithography method. It shows that the nano-mouth supports a strong localized surface plasmon resonance, which results in an extraordinary optical transmission peak. When the nano-mouth array is transferred onto a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, we show that the localized surface plasmon resonance can be tuned via the swelling and recovery of the PDMS in ethyl acetate solvent. The resonant peak can be tuned with a relative bandwidth of over 10%. We also demonstrate the refractive index sensitivity of the nano-mouth array at a wavelength of 1300 nm. This structure might be useful for optical microfluidic devices and sensors.

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease virus L peptidase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) comprise the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae family. Seven genera within this family, Aphthoviruses, Cardioviruses, Erboviruses (ERBV), Kobuviruses, Senecaviruses, Sapeloviruses, and Tescho...

  4. 21. DETAILED FRONTAL VIEW WEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING MOUTHS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAILED FRONTAL VIEW WEST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING MOUTHS WITH ROLLERS FOR MOVING TRAYS IN AND OUT OF THE OVENS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  5. E-Cigs May Damage Cells in Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the portion of the mouth behind the teeth and gums. The researchers believe that similar results ... oral disease. "A small but significant portion of dental patients at UCLA Dental Clinics have used e- ...

  6. Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... in preventing tooth decay by rinsing away food particles, neutralizing harmful acids, digesting food, and ... than 400 prescriptions and over the counter drugs are known to cause dry mouth," says ...

  7. CATASTROPHIZING IN PATIENTS WITH BURNING MOUTH SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Rogulj, Ana Andabak; Richter, Ivica; Krstevski, Igor; Boras, Vanja Vučićević

    2014-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is an idiopathic painful condition which manifests with burning sensations in the oral cavity in patients with clinically normal oral mucosa and without any local and/or systemic causative factor. Catastrophizing is defined as an exaggerated negative orientation toward pain stimuli and pain experience. The aim of this study was to examine the association between catastrophizing and clinical parameters of BMS, and to examine the association between catastrophizing and the quality of life in patients with BMS. Materials and methods Anonymous questionnaire consisting of 3 parts (demographic and clinical data with 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS), Croatian version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) scale and Croatian version of the Pain Catastrophizing scale (PC), was distributed to 30 patients diagnosed with BMS. Results A higher level of catastrophizing was clinically significant in 30% of the patients. Total catastrophizing score and all three subcomponents of catastrophizing significantly correlated with the intensity of symptoms, but did not correlate with the duration of symptoms. Gender and previous treatment did not affect the catastrophizing. Conclusion Obtaining the information about catastrophizing could help a clinician to identify patients with negative behavioural patterns. Additional psychological intervention in these individuals could reduce/eliminate negative cognitive factors and improve coping with chronic painful condition such as BMS.

  8. Foot and mouth disease virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Luis L; Grubman, Marvin J

    2009-11-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and economically devastating disease of livestock. Although vaccines, available since the early 1900s, have been instrumental in eradicating FMD from parts of the world, the disease still affects millions of animals around the globe and remains the main sanitary barrier to the commerce of animals and animal products. Currently available inactivated antigen vaccines applied intramuscularly to individual animals, confer serotype and subtype specific protection in 1-2 weeks but fail to induce long-term protective immunity. Among the limitations of this vaccine are potential virus escape from the production facility, short shelf life of formulated product, short duration of immunity and requirement of dozens of antigens to address viral antigenic diversity. Here we review novel vaccine approaches that address some of these limitations. Basic research and the combination of reliable animal inoculation models, reverse genetics and computational biology tools will allow the rational design of safe and effective FMD vaccines. These vaccines should address not only the needs of FMD-free countries but also allow the progressive global control and eradication of this devastating disease.

  9. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  10. 30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, SCALE 1:14,400. TO THE SOUTH OF THE CHANNEL ARE THE RUNWAYS OF THE FORMER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION; TO THE NORTH ARE THE BERTHS AND BUILDINGS OF THE FORMER NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER, OAKLAND. Date and time of photography '12-9-98 10:51." - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 33. NEARLY VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. NEARLY VERTICAL AERIAL VIEW OF THE MOUTH OF THE FEDERAL CHANNEL, LOOKING TO THE NORTHWEST. NEITHER ALAMEDA NAVAL AIR STATION NOR OAKLAND NAVAL SUPPLY CENTER HAVE BEEN BUILT. No date, probably mid-1930's. U.S. Navy photograph. Original print on file at the National Archives, San Bruno, California. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  12. [Oral medicine 1. Causes and clinical symptoms of dry mouth].

    PubMed

    Vissink, A; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare providers do not always recognize dry mouth and the problems associated with it. The symptoms of dry mouth and the patterns of complaints associated with it are the feeling that the mouth is dry; foamy or very watery saliva; a red appearance of the mucosa under a denture and the excessive presence of remaining food particles on the mucosa or the denture. The most serious detrimental aspect of dry mouth complaints is a reduced secretion of saliva, but afeeling ofa dry mouth can also exist without an objectively assessed hyposalivation. The most important causes of dry mouth are the side effects ofmedications, systemic diseases, radiotherapy in the head and neck region and occasionally a psychiatric disorder. Early recognition of the symptoms and the establishment ofa precise diagnosis are essential for proper treatment and for optimizing the quality of life of the patient. Basic investigation consists of an extensive patient history, inspection of the head and neck region and the oral cavity, evaluation ofthefunctioning of the salivary glands, and, if necessary, additional investigations.

  13. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school].

    PubMed

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  14. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  15. Mouth of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite shows the cause and effect of the large-scale seasonal flooding experienced on rivers throughout Siberia each year. Because many Siberian rivers flow from south to north, they flood regularly in the spring as meltwater from southern latitudes backs up against the still-frozen northern reaches of the rivers.These images show the Ob' River on the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau. The images from June 20, 2002, show the mouth of the Ob' River (large river at left) where it empties into Kara Sea. In the false-color image, Vegetation appears in bright green, water appears dark blue or black, and ice appears bright blue. The ice is still choking the river's outlet to the sea.The effect of this ice block on the more southern stretches of the river can be seen in the images captured on June 17. In the false-color image, water is black, vegetation is in shades of gold and green, and clouds are pale orange. In the northernmost portion of the Ob' visible in this image (the Ob' runs southeast to northwest in the image), what is normally a fine mesh of braided streams and branches of the river channel has become almost a lake in places. The flood waters have engorged the river to 52 kilometers (32 miles) wide in places. Rivers can back up for hundreds of miles, and cause devastating flooding for towns and villages along the banks. Often, explosives are dropped into ice jams in an effort to free the river and give the flood waters a chance to escape. The spring and summer floods of 2002 have proven to be quite severe and perhaps as many as 100,000 people have been affected across the country. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. A randomised crossover comparison of mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation by surf lifeguards in a manikin.

    PubMed

    Adelborg, K; Bjørnshave, K; Mortensen, M B; Espeseth, E; Wolff, A; Løfgren, B

    2014-07-01

    Thirty surf lifeguards (mean (SD) age: 25.1 (4.8) years; 21 male, 9 female) were randomly assigned to perform 2 × 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (AMBU LifeKey) and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (Laerdal Pocket Mask). Interruptions in chest compressions, effective ventilation (visible chest rise) ratio, tidal volume and inspiratory time were recorded. Interruptions in chest compressions per cycle were increased with mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.7) s) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (6.9 (1.2) s, p < 0.0001). The proportion of effective ventilations was less using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (199/242 (82%)) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (239/240 (100%), p = 0.0002). Tidal volume was lower using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 0.36 (0.20) l) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (0.45 (0.20) l, p = 0.006). No differences in inspiratory times were observed between mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. In conclusion, mouth-to-face-shield ventilation increases interruptions in chest compressions, reduces the proportion of effective ventilations and decreases delivered tidal volumes compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation.

  17. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  18. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  19. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children's mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7-35 months in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts/h, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min/h, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors may be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  20. Effect of mouth-rinsing carbohydrate solutions on endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Rollo, Ian; Williams, Clyde

    2011-06-01

    Ingesting carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions during exercise has been reported to benefit self-paced time-trial performance. The mechanism responsible for this ergogenic effect is unclear. For example, during short duration (≤1 hour), intense (>70% maximal oxygen consumption) exercise, euglycaemia is rarely challenged and adequate muscle glycogen remains at the cessation of exercise. The absence of a clear metabolic explanation has led authors to speculate that ingesting carbohydrate solutions during exercise may have a 'non-metabolic' or 'central effect' on endurance performance. This hypothesis has been explored by studies investigating the performance responses of subjects when carbohydrate solutions are mouth rinsed during exercise. The solution is expectorated before ingestion, thus removing the provision of carbohydrate to the peripheral circulation. Studies using this method have reported that simply having carbohydrate in the mouth is associated with improvements in endurance performance. However, the performance response appears to be dependent upon the pre-exercise nutritional status of the subject. Furthermore, the ability to identify a central effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse maybe affected by the protocol used to assess its impact on performance. Studies using functional MRI and transcranial stimulation have provided evidence that carbohydrate in the mouth stimulates reward centres in the brain and increases corticomotor excitability, respectively. However, further research is needed to determine whether the central effects of mouth-rinsing carbohydrates, which have been seen at rest and during fatiguing exercise, are responsible for improved endurance performance.

  1. Modelling long term morphological changes with XBeach: case study of Kizilirmak River mouth, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baykal, Cüneyt; Ergin, Aysen; Güler, Işıkhan; Özyurt Tarakcıoğlu, Gülizar; Söğüt, Erdinç; Gökhan Güler, Hasan; Güney Doğan, Gözde

    2015-04-01

    The Bafra alluvial plain, where the Kızılırmak River discharges into the Black Sea, is one of the most critical examples of severe coastal erosion problems in Turkey. The amount of sediment carried by the Kızılırmak River has decreased from approximately 23 million ton per year to 0.46 million tons/year starting from 1960s as a result of construction of flow regulatory structures in the following years. This drastic decrease in the amount of sediment carried by the river resulted in a severe shoreline retreat up to 1 km in the cross-shore direction since 1988 according to the Regional Directorate of State Hydraulic Works and local residents (Kökpınar et al., 2007). The first remedial measure against this severe coastal erosion problem at the river mouth was constructed in 2000 by State Hydraulic Works (DSİ). It was composed of two Y-type and one I-type groins constructed at the eastern shoreline of the river mouth. After construction of the first remedial system, the shoreline retreat slowed down between the groins and trapping of sediment initiated. Today, the gaps between the groins are almost completely filled with sediment. In this study, the shoreline changes between the groins of the first remedial system for the years 1999, 2003 and 2007 are studied using the open source numerical model called XBeach (Roelvink et al.2010) focusing on the hydrodynamics and tombolo formation around the groins. The numerical model has been developed mainly to model short term morphological changes such as nearshore responses under storm and hurricane conditions. Herein, the preparation of the wave data input to minimize the computational demand of the model and the effect of the sequence of the input wave directions are discussed in detail in this study. Finally, the shoreline changes obtained from numerical model simulations are compared with the field data. Keywords: Numerical modeling of shoreline changes, tombolo formation

  2. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians. Part 11: Cancer Treatment (Radiotherapy).

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2016-06-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of the use of radiotherapy, and its effects on the mouth and other tissues. PMID:27529915

  3. Conspicuous, ultraviolet-rich mouth colours in begging chicks.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Sarah; Kilner, Rebecca M; Langmore, Naomi E; Bennett, Andrew T D

    2003-01-01

    There is as yet no clear consensus on the function of vivid mouth colours in begging chicks. A major obstacle to our understanding has been that no studies have measured gape colours independently of human colour perception. Here, we present the first study, to our knowledge, to use UV-VIS spectrometry to quantify the gape colour, background nest colour and nest light environment of eight European passerines. Both mouths and the surrounding flanges show striking and previously unreported peaks of reflectance in the ultraviolet, coupled with high long-wavelength reflectance responsible for the human-visible appearance of the gape. High ultraviolet reflectance is likely to have an important effect on the conspicuousness of nestling mouths, since contrast with the nest background is maximal in the ultraviolet. Furthermore, the dual-peak nature of the spectra suggests that gapes are avian non-spectral colours analogous to human purple. PMID:12952627

  4. [Electrostimulation for the treatment of a dry mouth feeling].

    PubMed

    Janssen, M J E J; Bots, C P; Brand, H S

    2015-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman suffered from a burning mouth feeling for 1.5 years and was referred by her dentist to a saliva clinic. At the clinic persistent xerostomia was diagnosed, and Sjögren's syndrome was suspected. After 1 year, a new measurement of the saliva secretion was carried out, which revealed a further decline in saliva secretion rate. The patient was consequently treated with an intra-oral electrostimulating device in order to stimulate the saliva secretion rate and reduce the feeling of a dry mouth. After 2 weeks, the patient experienced a considerable improvement of the subjective oral dryness. PMID:26465014

  5. [Electrostimulation for the treatment of a dry mouth feeling].

    PubMed

    Janssen, M J E J; Bots, C P; Brand, H S

    2015-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman suffered from a burning mouth feeling for 1.5 years and was referred by her dentist to a saliva clinic. At the clinic persistent xerostomia was diagnosed, and Sjögren's syndrome was suspected. After 1 year, a new measurement of the saliva secretion was carried out, which revealed a further decline in saliva secretion rate. The patient was consequently treated with an intra-oral electrostimulating device in order to stimulate the saliva secretion rate and reduce the feeling of a dry mouth. After 2 weeks, the patient experienced a considerable improvement of the subjective oral dryness.

  6. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  7. Eastern European risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Honey, J.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Here the authors assess Eastern European risk management practices through the evaluation of the nuclear power plants in the region. This evaluation is limited to the Soviet-designed and -built VVER-440 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) that are currently operating in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia, and the Ukraine and until recently operated at Greifswald in the former East Germany. This evaluation is based on the basic design of the plants, a safety evaluation of the Greifswald facility by representatives from the Federal Republic of Germany and personal visits by the author to Greifswald and Loviisa.

  8. Eastern Airlines LOFT program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, B. E.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with scenario design and development issues, Eastern Airlines committed itself to the full four-hour LOFT training format without the additional time for specific maneuvers. Abnormals and emergency conditions, pacing, and quiet periods are included in the scenarios which are written for the instructor to follow verbatim. Simulator capabilities, performance assessment; training vs. checking; crew composition and scheduling; satisfactory completion; the use of video performance printouts; the number of instructors; instructor training and standardization; and initial, transition, and upgrade training are discussed.

  9. Effects of Meteorological Parameters and PM10 on the Incidence of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Children in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruixue; Bian, Guolin; He, Tianfeng; Chen, Lv; Xu, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a globally-prevalent infectious disease. However, few data are available on prevention measures for HFMD. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impacts of temperature, humidity, and air pollution, particularly levels of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 10 micrometers (PM10), on the incidence of HFMD in a city in Eastern China. Daily morbidity, meteorological, and air pollution data for Ningbo City were collected for the period from January 2012 to December 2014. A total of 86,695 HFMD cases were enrolled in this study. We used a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) with Poisson distribution to analyze the nonlinear lag effects of daily mean temperature, daily humidity, and found significant relationships with the incidence of HFMD; in contrast, PM10 level showed no relationship to the incidence of HFMD. Our findings will facilitate the development of effective preventive measures and early forecasting of HFMD outbreaks. PMID:27171104

  10. An overview of burning mouth syndrome for the dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Lewis, A K; Prime, S S; Cohen, S N

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an idiopathic burning pain affecting the oral mucosa, with no clinically apparent changes. It can present to a variety of health professionals including dermatologists. This article summarizes the important aspects of the condition, including theories of pathogenesis, diagnosis and management. PMID:26871710

  11. Amelogenesis Imperfecta: Full Mouth Rehabilitation in Deciduous Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Satyajith; ND, Shashikiran

    2011-01-01

    This clinical report describes the oral rehabilitation of a very young child diagnosed with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. The specific treatment objectives being adequate patient management, eliminate tooth sensitivity while enhancing esthetics, masticatory function and improved self confidence. The treatment included full mouth rehabilitation with stainless steel crowns on posterior teeth and indirect composite veneers on anterior teeth.

  12. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust. PMID:26655676

  13. Study of Airflow Out of the Mouth During Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catford, J.C.; And Others

    Airflow outside the mouth is diagnostic of articulatory activities in the vocal tract, both total volume-velocity and the distribution of particle velocities over the flow-front being useful for this purpose. A system for recording and displaying both these types of information is described. This consists of a matrix of l6 hot-wire anemometer flow…

  14. Hand to Mouth: Automatic Imitation across Effector Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leighton, Jane; Heyes, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The effector dependence of automatic imitation was investigated using a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) procedure during which participants were required to make an open or closed response with their hand or their mouth. The correct response for each trial was indicated by a pair of letters in Experiments 1 and 2 and by a colored square in…

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease: global status and Indian perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and transboundary viral disease of domesticated and wild cloven-hoofed animals. Wide prevalence of the disease in Asia and Africa associated with huge economic loss to the livestock farming and industry has increased the concern worldwide. The di...

  16. Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Historic view entitled "FORT PULASKI (/) MOUTH OF SAVANNAH RIVER AND TYBEE ISLAND, GA.," of 48th NY infantry on the south wall looking to the southeast corner (note: cockspur beacon in near background and Tybee Island in far background) - Fort Pulaski, Cockspur Island, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland.

    PubMed

    Osterback, Riikka; Vuorinen, Tytti; Linna, Mervi; Susi, Petri; Hyypiä, Timo; Waris, Matti

    2009-09-01

    During fall 2008, an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with onychomadesis (nail shedding) as a common feature occurred in Finland. We identified an unusual enterovirus type, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6), as the causative agent. CVA6 infections may be emerging as a new and major cause of epidemic HFMD.

  18. 4. General view of mouth of headworks and walkway to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. General view of mouth of headworks and walkway to headgate house, looking west. Tramway car, used for repairing dam, is to the right. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  19. Novel approaches to foot-and-mouth disease vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The need for better Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines is not new, a report from the Research Commission on FMD, authored by F. Loeffler and P. Frosch in 1897, highlighted the need for developing a vaccine against FMD and qualified this as a devastating disease causing “severe economic damage to ...

  20. The MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage).

    PubMed

    Orme, R L; Nordlund, J J; Barich, L; Brown, T

    1990-07-01

    We describe a 42-year-old man with features of both Behçet's disease and relapsing polychondritis. The term MAGIC syndrome (mouth and genital ulcers with inflamed cartilage) has previously been used to describe similarly affected patients. We discuss the diagnostic criteria and pathogenetic mechanisms.

  1. Estimation of hand-to-mouth transfer efficiency of lead.

    PubMed

    Sahmel, Jennifer; Hsu, Elleen I; Avens, Heather J; Beckett, Evan M; Devlin, Kathryn D

    2015-03-01

    There are currently no published empirical data that characterize hand-to-mouth transfer efficiencies for metallic lead. The purpose of this study was to quantify the hand-to-mouth transfer efficiency of lead in adult volunteers (n = 6) using human saliva as a surrogate for the mouth and commercially available, 100% lead fishing weights as the source of lead for dermal loading. Study volunteers' saliva was collected and subsequently poured onto a sheet of wax paper placed on a balance scale. The volunteers handled lead fishing weights with both hands for approximately 15 s and then pressed three fingers from the right hand (test hand) into their saliva 10 times, with ~0.45kg of pressure. The left hand (control hand) was used as a comparison for dermal loading of lead and had no contact with saliva. SKC Full Disclosure® wipes were used to collect lead from the saliva and skin surfaces. Samples were analyzed using the NIOSH 7300 method, which was modified for wipes. The mean lead skin-to-saliva transfer efficiency was 24% (range: 12-34%). These data will be useful for more accurately characterizing lead hand-to-mouth transfer efficiencies and are likely to be helpful in exposure assessments or human health risk assessments.

  2. The pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The greatest segment of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies that are specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental invest...

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Preliminarily Diagnosed as Hypochondriasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Michael Jay; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A case in which a dental student with hand, foot, and mouth disease was told he had "medical student disease" (MSD), or hypochondriasis, is related; literature pertaining to the occurrence and treatment of MSD is reviewed, and the importance of care in approaches to both students and patients are discussed. (MSE)

  4. 19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. PIPELINE INTERSECTION AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU VALLEY ON THE BEACH. VALVE AT RIGHT (WITH WRENCH NEARBY) OPENS TO FLUSH VALLEY SYSTEM OUT. VALVE AT LEFT CLOSES TO KEEP WATER FROM ENTERING SYSTEM ALONG THE PALI DURING REPAIRS. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  5. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust.

  6. Dermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth.

    PubMed

    Black, E E; Leathers, R D; Youngblood, D

    1993-05-01

    Sublingual dermoid cysts are uncommon in the head and neck region. They are most often seen in young adults and can become unusually large with few symptoms. A case is presented to demonstrate the slow, expansive growth pattern and relatively painless swelling in the floor of the mouth that occurred over a 9-year period.

  7. Tectonic Subsidence Analysis of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Huang, S. S. X. E. C.; Zhuang, W.; LIU, Z.; Duan, W.; Hu, S.

    2015-12-01

    The Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB hereafter) in the northern margin of the South China Sea has attracted great attention not only because of its special tectonic location but also for its abundant hydrocarbon resources. Tectonic evolution controls the petroleum geological condition of hydrocarbon-bearing basins. Efforts have been made to understand the tectonic evolution of this basin. However, many issues about the tectonic features and the evolution process of this basin, such as the age of the breakup unconformities and the anomalously accelerated subsidence during the post-rifting stage, remain controversial. Here we employ tectonic subsidence analysis of sedimentary basins, a technique of removing isostatic loading and compaction effects by back-stripping, to investigate the tectonic controls on the basin formation of the PRMB. We performed the analysis on 4 drill wells and 43 synthetic wells constructed based on recently acquired seismic profiles. The result shows that tectonic subsidence in the eastern sags of the PRMB began to decrease at ~30Ma while in the western sags the onset was ~23.8Ma. This suggests that the break-up time i.e. the end of rifting in the PRMB is earlier in the eastern sags than in the western sags. Abnormally accelerated tectonic subsidence occurred between 17.5-16.4Ma during the post-rifting stage, at an average subsidence rate as high as 301.9m/Ma. This phenomenon discriminates the PRMB from the category of classical Atlantic passive continental marginal basins, of which the tectonic subsidence during the post-rifting stage decays exponentially. The main objective of this paper is to provide insights into the geological and geodynamic evolution of the PRMB. The result bears significance to hydrocarbon exploration in this region.

  8. The Effects of Hunger on Hand-Mouth Coordination in Newborn Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Adina R.; Butterworth, George

    1995-01-01

    Examined the effects of hunger on the hand-mouth (HM) behavior of a group of newborn infants. Found that significantly more mouth opening before contacts to the mouth than those to the face occurred before but not after feeding, suggesting some link between HM behavior and hunger state. (MDM)

  9. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  10. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  11. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  12. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  13. 33 CFR 207.270 - Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. 207.270 Section 207.270 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Tallahatchie River, Miss., between Batesville and the mouth; logging. (a) The floating of “sack”, rafts, or of... River, Miss., between Batesville, Panola County, Miss., and the mouth....

  14. In vitro effect of chlorhexidine mouth rinses on polyspecies biofilms.

    PubMed

    Guggenheim, Bernhard; Meier, Andräé

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Zurich polyspecies biofilm model to compare the antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine mouth rinses available on the Swiss market. As positive and negative controls, aqueous 0.15% CHX solution and water were used, respectively. In addition, Listerine® without CHX was tested. Biofilms in batch culture were grown in 24- well polystyrene tissue culture plates on hydroxyapatite discs in 70% mixed (1:1 diluted) unstimulated saliva and 30% complex culture medium. During the 64.5-hour culturing period, the biofilms were exposed to the test solutions for 1 minute twice a day on two subsequent days. Thereafter, the biofilms were dip-washed 3 times in physiological NaCl. Following the last exposure, the incubation of biofilms was continued for another 16 h. They were then harvested at 64.5 h. The dispersed biofilms were plated on 2 agar media. After incubation, colonies (CFU) were counted. All solutions containing CHX as well as Listerine ® significantly reduced the number of microorganisms in biofilms. According to their efficacy, the mouth rinses were classified into 2 groups. The two Curasept ADS solutions, Parodentosan, and the Listerine® mouth rinse reduced the number of total CFU by 3 log10 steps. This seems sufficient for a long-lasting prophylactic application. The two PlakOut® mouth rinses and the CHX control fell into the other group, where the number of CFU was reduced by 7 log10 steps. These mouth rinses are predestined for short-term therapeutic use. However, reversible side effects must be taken into account. It has thus far not been possible to formulate CHX products with effective ADS (Anti Discoloration System) additives without reducing antimicrobial activity.

  15. Classification of mouth movements using 7 T fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleichner, M. G.; Jansma, J. M.; Salari, E.; Freudenburg, Z. V.; Raemaekers, M.; Ramsey, N. F.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. A brain-computer interface (BCI) is an interface that uses signals from the brain to control a computer. BCIs will likely become important tools for severely paralyzed patients to restore interaction with the environment. The sensorimotor cortex is a promising target brain region for a BCI due to the detailed topography and minimal functional interference with other important brain processes. Previous studies have shown that attempted movements in paralyzed people generate neural activity that strongly resembles actual movements. Hence decodability for BCI applications can be studied in able-bodied volunteers with actual movements. Approach. In this study we tested whether mouth movements provide adequate signals in the sensorimotor cortex for a BCI. The study was executed using fMRI at 7 T to ensure relevance for BCI with cortical electrodes, as 7 T measurements have been shown to correlate well with electrocortical measurements. Twelve healthy volunteers executed four mouth movements (lip protrusion, tongue movement, teeth clenching, and the production of a larynx activating sound) while in the scanner. Subjects performed a training and a test run. Single trials were classified based on the Pearson correlation values between the activation patterns per trial type in the training run and single trials in the test run in a ‘winner-takes-all’ design. Main results. Single trial mouth movements could be classified with 90% accuracy. The classification was based on an area with a volume of about 0.5 cc, located on the sensorimotor cortex. If voxels were limited to the surface, which is accessible for electrode grids, classification accuracy was still very high (82%). Voxels located on the precentral cortex performed better (87%) than the postcentral cortex (72%). Significance. The high reliability of decoding mouth movements suggests that attempted mouth movements are a promising candidate for BCI in paralyzed people.

  16. Eastern Sources of Invitational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryback, David

    1993-01-01

    Presents historical perspective suggesting that invitational theory shares many beliefs with ancient Eastern philosophies. Submits that teachers and other educators who embrace the invitational perspective may benefit from an understanding of Eastern principles. Briefly describes Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Zen Buddhism, and their relevance to…

  17. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals

    PubMed Central

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  18. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    PubMed

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge.

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicine of the Shervaroy Hills of Eastern Ghats, India as alternative medicine for animals.

    PubMed

    Usha, Swaminathan; Rajasekaran, Chandrasekaran; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    The Eastern Ghats of India is well known for its wealth of natural vegetation and Shervaroy is a major hill range of the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu. Ethnomedicinal studies in the Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu or the Shervaroy Hills have been carried out by various researchers. However, there is not much information available on ethnoveterinary medicine in the Eastern Ghats of India. The aim of this study was to examine the potential use of folk plants as alternative medicine for cattle to cure various diseases in the Shervaroy Hills of the Eastern Ghats. Based on interactions with traditional medicine practitioners, it has been observed that a total of 21 medicinal plants belonging to 16 families are used to cure various diseases such as mastitis, enteritis, arthritis, stomatitis, salivation from the mouth, wounding, and conjunctivitis in animals. It has been observed that the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine is now confined only among the surviving older people and a few practitioners in the tribal communities of the Shervaroy Hills. Unfortunately, no serious attempts have been made to document and preserve this immense treasure of traditional knowledge. PMID:26870689

  20. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  1. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  2. Aerosols over Eastern Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of eastern Asia from October 14, 2001, shows large amounts of aerosol in the air. A few possible point sources of smoke, probably fires, are visible north of the Amur River at the very top of the image. One of the larger of these plumes can be seen down river of the confluence of the Songhua and Amur rivers. At lower left, the Yangtze River plume in the East China Sea is also very prominent. Sediment suspended in the ocean water is quite brown near the shore, but becomes much greener as it diffuses into the water. The increasing greenness of the river plume is probably an indication of enhanced phytoplankton growth driven by the nutrients in the river runoff. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  4. In vivo-in vitro comparison of deposition in three mouth-throat models with Qvar and Turbuhaler inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Gilbertson, Kyle; Finlay, Warren H

    2007-01-01

    In vitro polydisperse aerosol deposition in three mouth-throat models, namely, the USP (United States Pharmacopeia) mouth-throat (induction port), idealized mouth-throat, and highly idealized mouth-throat, was investigated experimentally. Aerosol particles emitted from two commercial inhalers, Qvar (pMDI) and Turbuhaler (DPI), were used. The in vitro deposition results in these three mouth-throat models were compared with in vivo data available from the literature. For the DPI, mouth-throat deposition was 57.3 +/- 4.5% for the USP mouth-throat, 67.8 +/- 2.2% for the idealized mouth-throat, and 69.3 +/- 1.1% for the highly idealized mouth-throat, which are all relatively close to the in vivo value of 65.8 +/- 10.1%. In contrast, for the pMDI, aerosol deposition in the idealized mouth-throat (25.8 +/- 4.2%) and the highly idealized mouth-throat (24.9 +/- 2.8%) agrees with the in vivo data (29.0 +/- 18.0%) reported in the literature better than that for the USP mouth-throat (12.2 +/- 2.7%). In both cases, the USP mouth-throat gives the lowest deposition among the three mouth-throat models studied. In summary, both the idealized mouth-throat and highly idealized mouth-throat improve the accuracy of predicted mean in vivo deposition in the mouth-throat region. This result hints at the potential applicability of either the idealized mouth-throat or highly idealized mouth-throat as a future USP mouth-throat standard to provide mean value prediction of in vivo mouth-throat deposition.

  5. Eastern Han's Cunning Depiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, B. C.

    1998-09-01

    It is still only speculation, but an earlier visit to a Han dynasty (202 BC - 220 AD) tomb has started the idea, and a recently found study of another Han tomb has convinced me it is worth pursuing. What it is is that the ancient Chinese Sky Animal which represents North was not the turtle or tortoise until about the time of Han. My own visit was to an Eastern (later period) Han tomb which had been moved to a museum near the ancient capital of Luoyang. The ceiling of the inner chamber was rounded, made of brick. Drawings of a tiger and a red bird were clear to the west and south. A rounded object was at the north. Outside the tomb was a sign which said it was 'cun,' which means village. Chinese characters often have homonyms, but 'cun' has few. I have also visited the neolithic village of Banpo, near the Yellow River in the north. It has noticeably large and deep trenches to keep out wild animals, and one separates the residential area from the business area. This village is dated earlier than 4000 BC. The trenches definitely remind me of later depictions of the turtle with a snake wound about it. The recent findings of a tomb at Puyang with shapes of tiger and dragon have dated it to 3000 BC. Nothing was placed at the south side. Something was at the north, but one might argue about that. Finally, I found this article in Chinese Studies in Archaeology (1979), translated by S. Cahill of UC, Berkeley, called "Analysis of the Western Han Murals in the Luouyang Tomb of Bo Qianqiu" by Sun Zuoyun. Although Western Han is earlier than Eastern, the pictures in the tomb were well preserved. There were tiger, dragon, vermilion bird, and other animals, but no tortoise. Instead, there was a sun with a bird inside, and the moon with a frog. Several hundred miles north of the Yellow River, there is the Amur River. The natives there had robes decorated with snakes, lizards, and frogs, and other animals, but no turtle. Later reasons for having the turtle or tortoise is a separate

  6. Restricted mouth opening and trismus in oral oncology.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Jacob, Jayan

    2014-06-01

    Restricted mouth opening (RMO) and trismus are terms commonly used in oral oncology in instances where there is difficulty in mouth opening. The term trismus in oral oncology is mainly used to indicate the radiation-induced fibrosis of the muscles of mastication. The treatment given for RMO as reported in the literature is given for muscular dysfunction trismus, whereas RMO in oral oncology can occur owing to various reasons other than muscular dysfunction. RMO occurs in various conditions of the oral cavity; in posterior pharyngeal infection, where it is termed reflectory trismus; in oral submucous fibrosis; in oral mucosal disorders; in the use of certain drugs; and in minor dental procedures of the posterior oral cavity. The usage of the term trismus in all RMO cases would complicate the treatment; thus, the word should not be used in all RMO cases.

  7. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians Part 5: Risk Factors (Other).

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2015-10-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team, in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. Clinical Relevance: This article offers the dental team an overview of other cancer risk factors agents, such as human papilloma viruses (HPV) and irradiation. PMID:26685475

  8. Mouth Cancer for Clinicians Part 3: Risk Factors (Traditional: Tobacco).

    PubMed

    Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Scully, Crispian

    2015-06-01

    A MEDLINE search early in 2015 revealed more than 250,000 papers on head and neck cancer; over 100,000 on oral cancer; and over 60,000 on mouth cancer. Not all publications contain robust evidence. We endeavour to encapsulate the most important of the latest information and advances now employed in practice, in a form comprehensible to healthcare workers, patients and their carers. This series offers the primary care dental team, in particular, an overview of the aetiopathogenesis, prevention, diagnosis and multidisciplinary care of mouth cancer, the functional and psychosocial implications, and minimization of the impact on the quality of life of patient and family. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This article offers the dental team an overview of the main cancer risk factors, tobacco and alcohol, betel and other chewing habits, and environmental factors. PMID:26964449

  9. Foot and mouth disease: the future of vaccine banks.

    PubMed

    Forman, A J; Garland, A J M

    2002-12-01

    The authors briefly review the history of vaccine banks for foot and mouth disease, their current location and their constituent serotypes and strains, together with the occasions on which they have been activated. Experimental studies on emergency vaccines are summarised and areas identified for further investigation. The future of such banks is considered, including the principal strengths and weaknesses of existing banks, and suggestions are made for potential improvements. The fact that the banks have been activated on relatively few occasions over the 25 years of their existence testifies in part to the relatively rare calls which have been made upon them, but also reflects the difficulty in deciding when and how to utilise emergency vaccination. Nevertheless, in an era of increasing global risks of the spread of foot and mouth disease, banks will most certainly continue to have strategic and tactical importance in the control of this most readily communicable of animal diseases.

  10. Bactericidal effects of mouth rinses on oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kasuga, Y; Ikenoya, H; Okuda, K

    1997-11-01

    The bactericidal efficacy of two types of Listerine; Listerine and Cool Mint Listerine, and povidone iodine on oral microorganisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pyogenes, Helicobacter pylori and Candida albicans were examined. Most of the oral bacteria were killed completely by a 10-sec exposure to Listerine or Cool Mint Listerine. H. pylori, MRSA and C. albicans were also reduced by a 30-sec exposure to the Listerine mouth rinse. Bacteria in dental plaque were decreased by exposure to Listerine, Cool Mint Listerine, and povidone iodine for 30 seconds. Mouthwashing with Listerine for 30 seconds resulted in a decrease to approximately 1/100 of the viable bacterial counts in saliva. These bactericidal effects against bacteria in saliva and dental plaque indicated that Listerine and Cool Mint Listerine antiseptic are useful in oral cavity as antiseptic mouth rinses.

  11. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, E C; Tovaru, S; Coculescu, B I

    2014-09-15

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS.

  12. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, E C; Tovaru, S; Coculescu, B I

    2014-09-15

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS. PMID:25408745

  13. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Coculescu, E C; Radu, A; Coculescu, B I

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  14. Multiple bony overgrowths in the mouth - report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Sathya; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar; Muthu, Kavitha; Sidhu, Preena

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tori and exostoses are benign bony protuberances that arise from bone surfaces in the oral cavity. The etiology of these growths has been implicated as multifactorial, but no consensus has been reached so far. These painless overgrowths seldom present as a complaint in the dental office unless functional or esthetic complications set in, and there is a fear for cancer. Here we discuss two rare cases where bony overgrowths present in the mouth were extensive and multiple. PMID:26811708

  15. A blastogenic test for foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Wardley, R C; Chapman, W G; Garland, A J

    1979-12-01

    A blastogenic test to detect peripheral blood leukocytes specifically sensitized to foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen is described. The test is carried out in microtitre plates and optimum conditions were found by titration. These employed 7.5 x 10(5) cells/well and 20 complement fixing units of antigen. Peak [3H]thymidine incorporation was found to take place at 2-3 days.

  16. Mouths of the Amazon River, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Huge sediment loads from the interior of the country flow through the Mouths of the Amazon River, Brazil (0.5S, 50.0W). The river current carries hundreds of tons of sediment through the multiple outlets of the great river over 100 miles from shore before it is carried northward by oceanic currents. The characteristic 'fair weather cumulus' pattern of low clouds over the land but not over water may be observed in this scene.

  17. Mexican blind cavefish use mouth suction to detect obstacles.

    PubMed

    Holzman, Roi; Perkol-Finkel, Shimrit; Zilman, Gregory

    2014-06-01

    Fish commonly use their lateral line system to detect moving bodies such as prey and predators. A remarkable case is the Mexican blind cavefish Astyanax fasciatus, which evolved the ability to detect non-moving obstacles. The swimming body of A. fasciatus generates fluid disturbances, the alteration of which by an obstacle can be sensed by the fish's lateral line system. It is generally accepted that these alterations can provide information on the distance to the obstacle. We observed that A. fasciatus swimming in an unfamiliar environment open and close their mouths at high frequency (0.7-4.5 Hz) in order to generate suction flows. We hypothesized that repeated mouth suction generates a hydrodynamic velocity field, which is altered by an obstacle, inducing pressure gradients in the neuromasts of the lateral line and corresponding strong lateral line stimuli. We observed that the frequency and rate of mouth-opening events varied with the fish's distance to obstacles, a hallmark of pulse-based navigation mechanisms such as echolocation. We formulated a mathematical model of this hitherto unrecognized mechanism of obstacle detection and parameterized it experimentally. This model suggests that suction flows induce lateral line stimuli that are weakly dependent on the fish's speed, and may be an order of magnitude stronger than the correspondent stimuli induced by the fish's gliding body. We illustrate that A. fasciatus can navigate non-visually using a combination of two deeply ancestral and highly conserved mechanisms of ray-finned fishes: the mechanism of sensing water motion by the lateral line system and the mechanism of generating water motion by mouth suction. PMID:24675558

  18. Epidemiological and etiological aspects of burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, EC; Ţovaru, Ş; Coculescu, BI

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in clinically healthy oral mucosa. Incidence BMS diagnosed in the Department of Oral Medicine - Oral Pathology Dental Faculty of Medicine, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest is 16,23%. The etiology of BMS remains far less known. This article makes an overview of the latest theories about possible etiopathogenic factors involved in the occurrence of BMS. PMID:25408745

  19. Burning mouth syndrome: a review on diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Coculescu, EC; Radu, A; Coculescu, BI

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is defined as a chronic pain condition characterized by a burning sensation in the clinically healthy oral mucosa. It is difficult to diagnose BMS because there is a discrepancy between the severity, extensive objective pain felt by the patient and the absence of any clinical changes of the oral mucosa. This review presents some aspects of BMS, including its clinical diagnosis, classification, differential diagnosis, general treatment, evolution and prognosis. PMID:25713611

  20. Mandibular fracture with a mouth formed mouthguard in kickboxing.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Masuda, Issei; Numa, Takehiro; Horie, Norio

    2009-04-01

    Reports of injuries caused by kickboxing, one of the contact sports that potentially causes a large number of injuries, are relatively rare. Wearing a mouthguard is obligatory in kickboxing, but the association between maxillofacial injuries and the quality of mouthguards has not been described thus far. In this article, we present a case of mandibular fracture in a 25-year-old male, who was injured during kickboxing despite wearing a mouth formed mouthguard.

  1. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-14 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BALL MILL FEED SYSTEM, MOUTH OF CLASSIFIER, AND ORE BIN CHUTE, LOOKING EAST NORTHEAST. CRUSHED ORE FROM THE SECONDARY ORE BIN WAS INTRODUCED INTO THE FEED TROUGH VIA A CHUTE. AS THE BALL MILL TURNED, THE ROUND SCOOP ALSO TURNED IN THE TROUGH TO CHANNEL ORE INTO THE BALL MILL. SEE CA-292-20 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. Seventeenth-century uplift in eastern Hokkaido, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, B.F.; Furakawa, R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Ikeda, Y.; Kashima, K.; Kawase, K.; Kelsey, H.M.; Moore, A.L.; Nanayama, F.; Nishimura, Y.; Odagiri, S.; Ota, Y.; Park, S.-C.; Satake, K.; Sawai, Y.; Shimokawa, K.

    2004-01-01

    Shores of eastern Hokkaido rose by perhaps 1 m a few centuries ago. The uplifted area extended at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It included the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Fu??ren-ko and Onneto??, which open to the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Previous work at Akkeshi-ko and Onneto?? showed that such emergence occurred at least three times in the past 3000 years. Volcanic-ash layers date the youngest emergence to the seventeenth century AD. New evidence from Akkeshi-ko, Hichirippu and Fu??ren-ko clarifies the age and amount of this youngest emergence. Much of it probably dates from the century's middle decades. Some of the newly emerged land remained above high tides into the middle of the eighteenth century or later. The emergence in the last half of the seventeenth century probably exceeded 0.5 m (inferred from stratigraphy and diatom palaeoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing seventeenth- and eighteenth-century descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). The stratigraphy and palaeoecology of the emergence are better explained by tectonic uplift than by bay-mouth blockage, tidal-flat accretion or sea-level fall. Eastern Hokkaido needs occasional uplift, moreover, to help reconcile its raised marine terraces with its chronic twentieth-century subsidence. Because it took place above forearc mantle, eastern Hokkaido's seventeenth-century uplift probably lacks analogy with coseismic uplift that occurs above typical plate-boundary ruptures at subduction zones.

  4. [Glossodynia or burning mouth syndrome: equivalence or difference].

    PubMed

    Redinova, T L; Redinov, I S; Val'kov, V A; Zlobina, O A; Kozhevnikov, S V

    2014-01-01

    The term "Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS)" is being used much more often than "Glossodynia", complicating diagnostic and treatment tactic choice. The aim of the study was to determine the difference between "Glossodynia" and "BMS" considering absence or presence of intraoral metal prosthetic devices and burning sensation in the mouth. To establish the frequency of glossodynia and BMS 2355 patient records were analyzed admitting consultation for oral diseases for the last 10 years. Clinically we examined 408 patients aged 40 to 70. The research results showed that 17% of patients complained of "burning mouth": 10.2% of them had these symptoms due to oral mucosa diseases; 58.0% had glossodynia, 27.4% had discomfort because of intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials and 4.4% had combined pathology. Glossodynia and intolerance to metal prosthodontic materials had much in common in terms of clinical features, but the last one may be specified by changes in saliva composition. BMS thus proved to be the common definition corresponding to various diseases of oral mucosa and intolerance to intraoral metal appliances, while glossoldynia is a distinct neurogenic disease which is difficult to treat and requires comprehensive approach involving neurologist and physician. PMID:25377573

  5. From Human to Artificial Mouth, From Basics to Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mielle, Patrick; Tarrega, Amparo; Salles, Christian; Gorria, Patrick; Liodenot, Jean Jacques; Liaboeuf, Joeel; Andrejewski, Jean-Luc

    2009-05-23

    Sensory perception of the flavor release during the eating of a food piece is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in-vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. The device faithfully reproduces most of the functions of the human mouth. The active cell comprises several mobile parts that can accurately reproduce shear and compression strengths and tongue functions in real-time, according to data previously collected in-vivo. The mechanical functionalities of the system were validated using peanuts, with a fair agreement with the human data. Flavor release can be monitored on-line using either API-MS or chemical sensors, or off-line using HPLC for non-volatile compounds. Couplings with API-MS detectors have shown differences in the kinetics of flavour release, as a function of the cheeses composition. Data were also collected for the analysis of taste compounds released during the human chewing but are not available yet for the Artificial Mouth.

  6. Airborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease - model intercomparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gloster, J; Jones, A; Redington, A; Burgin, L; Sorensen, J H; Turner, R; Dillon, M; Hullinger, P; Simpson, M; Astrup, P; Garner, G; Stewart, P; D'Amours, R; Sellers, R; Paton, D

    2008-09-04

    Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly infectious vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus. It spreads by direct contact between animals, by animal products (milk, meat and semen), by mechanical transfer on people or fomites and by the airborne route - with the relative importance of each mechanism depending on the particular outbreak characteristics. Over the years a number of workers have developed or adapted atmospheric dispersion models to assess the risk of foot-and-mouth disease virus spread through the air. Six of these models were compared at a workshop hosted by the Institute for Animal Health/Met Office during 2008. A number of key issues emerged from the workshop and subsequent modelling work: (1) in general all of the models predicted similar directions for 'at risk' livestock with much of the remaining differences strongly related to differences in the meteorological data used; (2) determination of an accurate sequence of events is highly important, especially if the meteorological conditions vary substantially during the virus emission period; and (3) differences in assumptions made about virus release, environmental fate, and subsequent infection can substantially modify the size and location of the downwind risk area. Close relationships have now been established between participants, which in the event of an outbreak of disease could be readily activated to supply advice or modelling support.

  7. Update on hand-foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Ventarola, Daniel; Bordone, Lindsey; Silverberg, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a viral exanthem caused, primarily by Coxsackie A16 and enterovirus 71 with typical clinical features of fever, painful papules and blisters over the extremities and genitalia and an enanthem involving ulceration of the mouth, palate, and pharynx. Other enteroviruses have recently been noted to cause severe neurologic illness and paralysis (enterovirus 68) with variable cutaneous features. A recent outbreak of Coxsackie A6 infection has been seen worldwide with cases reported in the United States, Japan, Southeast Asia, and Europe. These cases have caused extensive cutaneous disease variants, some of which are not previously recognized in Coxsackie infection, namely vesicobullous and erosive eruptions, extensive cutaneous involvement, periorificial lesions, localization in areas of atopic dermatitis or in children with atopic dermatitis (the so-called eczema coxsackium), Gianotti-Crosti-like lesions, petechial/purpuric eruptions, delayed onychomadesis, and palmoplantar desquamation. Finally, adult cases appear to occur with this form of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, likely due to fecal-oral transmission in a household setting. PMID:25889136

  8. From Human to Artificial Mouth, From Basics to Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielle, Patrick; Tarrega, Amparo; Gorria, Patrick; Liodenot, Jean Jacques; Liaboeuf, Joël; Andrejewski, Jean-Luc; Salles, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Sensory perception of the flavor release during the eating of a food piece is highly dependent upon mouth parameters. Major limitations have been reported during in-vivo flavor release studies, such as marked intra- and inter-individual variability. To overcome these limitations, a chewing simulator has been developed to mimic the human mastication of food samples. The device faithfully reproduces most of the functions of the human mouth. The active cell comprises several mobile parts that can accurately reproduce shear and compression strengths and tongue functions in real-time, according to data previously collected in-vivo. The mechanical functionalities of the system were validated using peanuts, with a fair agreement with the human data. Flavor release can be monitored on-line using either API-MS or chemical sensors, or off-line using HPLC for non-volatile compounds. Couplings with API-MS detectors have shown differences in the kinetics of flavour release, as a function of the cheeses composition. Data were also collected for the analysis of taste compounds released during the human chewing but are not available yet for the Artificial Mouth.

  9. Full Mouth Rehabilitation in a Medically Compromised Patient with Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ramta; Mittal, Sunandan; Kumar, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Severely worn out dentition needs to be given definite attention as it not only affects aesthetics but can also cause psychological distress to the affected individual. It can cause chewing difficulty, temporomandibular joint problems, headaches, pain and facial collapse. Before any attempt to restore severely worn dentition, aetiology of excessive tooth wear should be established. Severe wear can result from chemical cause, mechanical cause or a combination of various causes. Dental fluorosis can also result in severe wear of teeth. Teeth sometimes become extremely porous and friable with a mottled appearance ranging from yellow to brown-black. There occurs loss of tooth substance and anatomic dental deformities resulting in un-aesthetic dentition requiring full mouth rehabilitation. Here a similar case of full mouth rehabilitation of severely worn dentition due to dental fluorosis in a 27-year-old patient is presented. This case report conjointly presents the uncommon association of diabetes insipidus with dental fluorosis. Diabetes insipidus through its characteristic symptom of polydipsia can result in intake of more than permitted dose of fluoride thus causing dental fluorosis. In literature only few cases have been reported of dental fluorosis in association of diabetes insipidus. Full mouth rehabilitation of the patient was successfully accomplished through well-planned systematic approach to simultaneously fulfill aesthetic, occlusal and functional parameters. PMID:25177654

  10. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  11. Dry Mouth and Dietary Quality Among Older Adults in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Sara A.; Savoca, Margaret R.; Leng, Xiaoyan; Chen, Haiying; Bell, Ronny A.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Anderson, Andrea M.; Kohrman, Teresa; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To quantify: (1) prevalence of dry mouth; (2) association of dry mouth with beverage intake and dietary quality; and (3) association of dry mouth with self-reported dietary accommodations to oral health deficits. Design Cross-sectional study; data from self-reports. Participants A multi-stage cluster sampling design was used to recruit 622 participants aged 60+ from rural North Carolina counties with substantial African American and American Indian populations. Measurements Data included the 11-item Xerostomia Inventory (XI); higher scores connote greater impact from dry mouth; a food frequency questionnaire (converted into Health Eating Index-2005 scores); and survey items on foods modified before consumption or avoided due to oral health problems. Results Dry mouth was associated with being female, lower education, and income below the poverty level. Although overall beverage consumption did not vary with dry mouth, consumption of certain sugar-sweetened beverages was positively associated with dry mouth. Overall dietary quality did not differ with dry mouth, but more severe dry mouth was associated with lower intake of whole grains and higher intakes of total fruits. Dry mouth was strongly associated with self-reported modification and avoidance of foods. Those in the highest tertile of dry mouth were more likely to modify several foods compared to the lowest tertile, and were more likely to avoid three or more foods. Conclusion Older adults appear to modify foods or selectively avoid foods in response to perceived dry mouth. Despite these behaviors, dry mouth does not result in reduced dietary quality. PMID:21391935

  12. History of mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Part 3: the 19th to mid-20th centuries and "rediscovery".

    PubMed

    Trubuhovich, Ronald V

    2007-06-01

    The start of the 19th century saw the enthusiasm of the previous one for mouth-to-mouth ventilation (MMV) dissipated. To inflate the lungs of the asphyxiated, the Royal Humane Society in the United Kingdom had recommended bellows since 1782. Principal determinants for change were aesthetic distaste for mouth-to-mouth contact and the perceived danger of using expired air, although MMV survived in the practice of some midwives. Following the 1826-9 investigations of Jean-Jacques Leroy d'Etiolles then François Magendie, all positive pressure ventilation methods were generally abandoned, after 1829 in France, and 1832 in the UK; but not chest compressions. During the next quarter century, rescuers lost understanding of the primary need for "artificial respiration", apart from researchers such as John Snow and John Erichsen, until Marshall Hall's "Ready Method" heralded the second half-century's various methods of negative pressure ventilation. Some of those methods continued in use until the 1940s. Sporadic anecdotal cases of MMV rescues were documented throughout. In the 20th century, inadequate mechanical inhalators were also tried from 1908, while obstetricians devised indirect methods of expired air ventilation (EAV). Anaesthetists in the 1940s, such as Ralph Waters, Robert Dripps, and the pair, Robert Macintosh and William Mushin, described the usefulness of MMV, and James Elam was "re-discovering" it. Following World War II, "Cold War" concerns stimulated research at the Edgewood Medical Laboratories in Maryland in the United States into the possibilities of MMV, and Elam et al confirmed and expanded on brief experiments at Oxford (United Kingdom) on the efficacy of mouth-to-tube EAV. Studies, 1957-9, by Archer Gordon, Elam and especially Peter Safar resulted in the resolution of previous airway problems, established the primacy of MMV, and incorporated it into an integrated system for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ready adoption of MMV in the US was

  13. Asymmetries in mouth opening during word generation in male stuttering and non-stuttering participants.

    PubMed

    Code, Chris; Lincoln, Michelle; Dredge, Rebekah

    2005-09-01

    We examined lateral asymmetries in mouth opening in right-handed male stuttering (N = 11) and non-stuttering (N = 14) participants. Lateral asymmetries in mouth opening were video-recorded and analysed in participants while they generated words beginning with the bilabial phones /b, p, m/. Non-stuttering participants showed an expected preference for right mouth opening during the task, whereas a group of stuttering participants who were matched for sex and age produced a left or bilateral pattern of mouth opening. Analysis of variance revealed the difference between the groups to be significant (p < .001). However, there was more variability in the lateral mouth asymmetries in the stuttering participants. We interpret this finding as adding some support for the hypothesis that aberrant hemispheric control for speech is involved in stuttering. Asymmetric mouth openings appear to have no direct linguistic function, and we discuss the possible implications of the phenomenon for models of speech planning and programming.

  14. Hydrogen cyanide in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-06-01

    Mouth-exhaled hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations have previously been reported to originate from the oral cavity. However, a direct correlation between the HCN concentration in oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath has not been explicitly shown. In this study, we set up a new methodology to simultaneously measure HCN in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath. Our results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between stimulated oral fluid HCN and mouth-exhaled HCN (rs = 0.76, p < 0.001). This confirms that oral fluid is the main contributor to mouth-exhaled HCN. Furthermore, we observe that after the application of an oral disinfectant, both the stimulated oral fluid and mouth-exhaled HCN concentrations decrease. This implies that HCN production in the oral cavity is related to the bacterial and/or enzymatic activity.

  15. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised. PMID:23369878

  16. Environmental protection in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Kabala, S. )

    1990-12-01

    There is a need for the development of institutional structures to make the transfer of technology work to improve the ability of Eastern Europe to find solutions to its environmental problems. Envisioned is technical assistance: U.S. experts who will work on-site with Eastern European experts. The idea is to technically train individuals in pollution-prevention methods. Trained experts could then upgrade processes to save input, energy, and materials. In the exchange of environmental information, discussions have led to four issues: it is expensive to transfer equipment and make qualified personnel available for a long period; information is comparatively inexpensive to convey; in Eastern Europe there are trained and competent personnel; the theoretical knowledge, academic knowledge, and education are at a very high level but little of this knowledge has been put into practice. The technology transfer goal is to develop a response to needs identified by partner institutions and counterpart professionals that will enable Eastern Europe to tap resources that do exist- scientific, managerial, and economic resources and tap information resources in the US in order to address the environmental problems that exist in Eastern Europe.

  17. Arboreal spiders in eastern hemlock.

    PubMed

    Mallis, Rachael E; Rieske, Lynne K

    2011-12-01

    Eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière] is a foundation species in forests of eastern North America that plays a key role in ecosystem function. It is highly susceptible to the exotic invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), which is causing widespread hemlock mortality. We surveyed the spider communities of eastern hemlock and deciduous canopies over 2 yr, collecting over 4,000 spiders from 21 families. We found that eastern hemlock canopies harbored a more abundant, rich, and diverse spider community than did deciduous canopies. Five spider families were present in our hemlock collections that were absent from the deciduous collections, including Mysmenidae, Theridiosomatidae, Mimetidae, Lycosidae, and Agelenidae. In hemlock canopies there were 4× the number of web builders, consisting primarily of the Tetragnathidae and Araneidae, than active hunters, consisting primarily of the Anyphaenidae and the Salticidae. Ours is the first in depth study of the spider community in eastern hemlock. Spider abundance in hemlock canopies suggest that they may play a role regulating herbivore populations, and could possibly affect the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, either through direct consumption of the adelgids themselves or through interactions with classical biological control agents.

  18. Radiological evaluation of facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Izuka, E N; Costa, J R; Pereira, S R A; Weckx, L L M; Pignatari, S N; Uema, S F H

    2008-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a condition often associated with a long face, half-open mouth and increased anterior facial height. We performed conventional lateral and frontal cephalograms of eighty-nine children with nasal and mouth breathing and independently measured Total Facial Height using the analysis technique of Ricketts, and the Morphologic Facial Index employing the technique of Avila. It was concluded that dolicofacial following mesofacial were the most frequent patterns found in mouth-breathing children and this suggests that both analyses can be used independently.

  19. Full mouth disinfection versus quadrant debridement: the clinician's choice.

    PubMed

    Kinane, Denis F; Papageorgakopoulos, Georgios

    2008-01-01

    Traditional periodontal therapy is subgingival debridement with maintenance of good oral hygiene. This approach is either definitive or the initial phase before surgical therapy in severe cases of periodontitis. Mechanical therapy, either hand instrumentation or ultrasonic debridement, is the most common therapy for periodontitis and its success is well documented (Badersten et al. 1984). This non-surgical therapy involves considerable amounts of time, a high level of operator skill and dedication, and some unavoidable discomfort for the patient. It has often been remarked that the time taken for periodontal therapy of severe periodontitis cases exceeds that needed for cardiac arterial bypass surgery. Quirynen et al. (1995) re-introduced the one-stage full-mouth disinfection and compared the clinical and microbiological effects of this treatment strategy (FMRP) with the widespread practice of quadrant scaling and root planing at 2-week intervals (QRP). The rationale behind their treatment strategy was to prevent re-infection of the treated sites from the remaining untreated pockets and intra-oral niches. The results revealed a significant reduction in pocket depth for the FMRP over QRP group for deep pockets. Quirynen et al. (2000) concluded that the elimination of the periodontopathogens in addition to the possible host response benefits after the one-stage full-mouth therapy is the effective aspect of this therapy rather than oral chlorhexidine disinfection. Recently, Kinane's group in Glasgow failed to demonstrate differences in the clinical, microbiological or immunological outcome between QRP and FMRP. FMRP was well tolerated by patients and these authors concluded that the clinician should select the treatment modality based on practical considerations related to patient preference and clinical workload. Koshy et al. (2005) re-analysed the effects of FMRP and QRP using ultrasonics and concluded that either full-mouth or quadrant ultrasonic debridement are

  20. Formulation and evaluation of aceclofenac mouth-dissolving tablet.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Shailendra Singh; Dahima, Rashmi

    2011-04-01

    Aceclofenac has been shown to have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities similar to indomethacin and diclofenac, and due to its preferential Cox-2 blockade, it has a better safety than conventional Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) with respect to adverse effect on gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. Aceclofenac is superior from other NSAIDs as it has selectivity for Cox-2, a beneficial Cox inhibitor is well tolerated, has better Gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability and improved cardiovascular safety when compared with other selective Cox-2 inhibitor. To provide the patient with the most convenient mode of administration, there is need to develop a fast-disintegrating dosage form, particularly one that disintegrates and dissolves/disperses in saliva and can be administered without water, anywhere, any time. Such tablets are also called as "melt in mouth tablet." Direct compression, freeze drying, sublimation, spray drying, tablet molding, disintegrant addition, and use of sugar-based excipients are technologies available for mouth-dissolving tablet. Mouth-dissolving tablets of aceclofenac were prepared with two different techniques, wet granulation and direct compression, in which different formulations were prepared with varying concentration of excipients. These tablets were evaluated for their friability, hardness, wetting time, and disintegration time; the drug release profile was studied in buffer Phosphate buffered Saline (PBS) pH 7.4. Direct compression batch C3 gave far better dissolution than the wet granulation Batch F2, which released only 75.37% drug, and C3, which released 89.69% drug in 90 minutes.

  1. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Acoustic mapping of the Ilulissat Ice Fjord mouth, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, Kai; Völker, David; Weinrebe, Wilhelm R.

    2012-04-01

    A ship-based acoustic mapping campaign was conducted at the exit of Ilulissat Ice Fjord of West Greenland and in the sedimentary basin of Disko Bay west of the fjord mouth. Submarine landscape and sediment distribution patterns represented by five acoustic facies types represent glaciomarine sediment facies types that are related to variations in the past position and relative motion of the glacier front. Asymmetric ridges on the shelf that form a curved entity and a large sill at the fjord mouth represent moraines that depict at least two relatively stable positions of the ice front in the Disko Bay and at the fjord mouth. Comparable ice-end features are not observed seaward of the East Greenland Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier, although both glaciers are comparable in their latitudinal position, present size and present role for the ice discharge from the Inland Ice sheet. Apparently, the retreat of the Greenland Inland Ice after the last maximum expansion was a more discontinuous process on the West Greenland Shelf than on the East Greenland Shelf. The Iceberg Bank, a prominent sill at the fjord exit appears to play an important role for the sedimentation after the retreat of the ice front from the shelf was completed. The retreat of the glacier behind the Iceberg Bank into the inner fjord is marked by a reorganization of sediment delivery in Disko Bay, as most of the till is now deposited within the fjord. Two linear clusters of pockmarks in the center of the sedimentary basin seem to be linked to methane release due to dissociation of gas hydrates, a process driven by fast crustal uplift of the Greenland Shelf. The orientation of these clusters appears to reflect a migration path that is defined by a buried structure which we could not resolve.

  3. Full Mouth Rehabilitation Determined by Anterior Tooth Position.

    PubMed

    Giannuzzi, Nicholas J; Motlagh, Shawn Davaie

    2015-07-01

    When patients seek cosmetic dentistry, their main concern is how their new smile is going to appear. In trying to achieve a patient's desire for a more beautiful smile, a careful and comprehensive analysis must be completed to insure the desired outcome is achievable and will function for many years to come. The clinician's primary goal is to restore the patient's dentition to ideal form and function. Full mouth rehabilitations need to be done in a systematic way to ensure all the parameters of an esthetic and functional outcome are achieved.

  4. Mouths of the Amazon River, Brazil, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this view of the Amazon River Mouth (0.0, 51.0W), a large sediment plume can be seen expanding outward into the Atlantic Ocean. The sediment plume can be seen hugging the coast north of the delta as a result of the northwest flowing coastal Guyana Current. In recent years, the flow of the Amazon has become heavily laden with sediment as soil runoff from the denuded landscape of the interior enters the Amazon River (and other rivers) drainage system.

  5. [Deviation index of eye and mouth on peripheral facial paralysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Liao, Pin-Dong; Luo, Min; Zhu, Bin-Ye

    2011-09-01

    Differences of some points, levels and angles of the healthy and affected sides of patients with peripheral facial paralysis were picked out according to photographs. Through analysis of the index between the healthy and affected side of the patients and the difference between healthy people and patients, it is approved that those special points, levels and angles, which are called as deviation index of eye and mouth, can evaluate peripheral facial paralysis objectively and judge the degree of deviation. Therefore, it provides references for the diagnosis of facial paralysis and its degree judgement.

  6. Full-Mouth Rehabilitation Using All-Ceramic Restorations.

    PubMed

    Luvizuto, Eloá R; Queiroz, Thallita P; Betoni-Júnior, Walter; Sonoda, Celso K; Panzarini, Sônia R; de Castro, José Carlos Monteiro; Boeck, Eloisa M

    2015-09-01

    The scientific and technological advancement of cosmetic dentistry has improved metal-free ceramic systems for fixed prosthodontics as well as porcelain veneers, making them an excellent treatment option for delivering superior cosmetic results. The authors present a clinical case of full-mouth rehabilitation using all-ceramic restorations with porcelain metal-free unit crowns in the maxilla, and porcelain veneers from the left inferior premolar to the right inferior premolar. Using this approach, they were able to achieve an excellent esthetic and functional result for the patient. PMID:26355442

  7. History of the control of foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Blancou, Jean

    2002-10-01

    From the many existing documents on the history of foot and mouth disease, it is possible to describe the practical measures adopted for disease surveillance and control from ancient times until the 20th century. Surveillance was based on diagnosis or post-mortem examination, and also on knowledge of the conditions under which infection occurred: aetiology, pathogenesis, mode of infection, susceptible species, virulent material, etc. The historical facts are assembled and compared, with comments on each of these points. Control was based upon the application of isolation, then slaughter or aphtisation, then vaccination. A study of these various procedures makes it possible to compare their efficacy.

  8. Foot and mouth disease in animals in Sharkia governorate - Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, N H; Abdel-Karim, A-K M; El-Shehawy, L; Abdel-Moein, K A

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current state of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in different animal species in Sharkia governorate in Egypt. In addition, we investigated the spreading of the virus through water and soil in the animal environment as well as by rodents. The isolation rates of FMD virus in tissue culture were 39.6%, 11.4%, 41.2% and 100% for cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat respectively. All animals did not show any clinical signs for FMD. In addition, the virus was isolated from the milk of an animal as well as from a water sample while all soil samples were negative.

  9. Subtropical Shelf Front off eastern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piola, Alberto R.; Campos, Edmo J. D.; MöLler, Osmar O.; Charo, Marcela; Martinez, Carlos

    2000-03-01

    Historical hydrographic data from the continental shelf off eastern South America are used to examine the thermohaline properties of the water masses in the region between 20°S and 40°S. The continental shelf water masses are originated by dilution of open ocean waters of the western boundary currents of the South Atlantic Ocean. On the basis of temperature-salinity relation, two distinct water masses are identified, namely, the Subantarctic Shelf Water and the Subtropical Shelf Water. Subantarctic Shelf Water originates by dilution of Subantarctic Water, primarily in the southeast Pacific, due to excess precipitation and continental runoff and enters the continental shelf near 55°S. The Subtropical Shelf Water is modified South Atlantic Central Water diluted by continental runoff from the coast of Brazil. In addition, substantial dilution of the upper shelf waters takes place at the mouth of Río de la Plata (approximately located at 36°S) and, in a lesser extent, at the Patos-Mirim Lagoon (at 32°S). The Río de la Plata and the Patos outflows form a low-salinity tongue that caps the shelf water leading to a salinity decrease to values <30. The low-salinity tongue extends northward over the shelf penetrating farther north in winter than in summer. The extent of the low-salinity water has a strong impact on the vertical stratification and acts to limit winter convection to the layer above the halocline. There is little or no indication of mixing between Subantarctic Shelf Water and Subtropical Shelf Water. An intense temperature, salinity, and nutrient front separates these water masses. The front is oriented along the north-south direction, located on average near the 50 m isobath at 32°S and extends southward toward the shelf break near 36°S. Between 32° and 34°S the Subtropical Shelf Front follows the 100 to 200 m isobaths and separates Subantarctic Shelf Water from the oceanic South Atlantic Central Water. On the basis of the temperature and salinity

  10. Salt Fluxes in a Complex River Mouth System of Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Nuno; Lencart e Silva, João D.; Dias, João Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of velocity and salinity near the mouth and head of the Espinheiro channel (Ria de Aveiro lagoon, Portugal) are used to study the local variation of physical water properties and to assess the balance, under steady conditions, between the seaward salt transport induced by river discharge and the landward dispersion induced by various mixing mechanisms. This assessment is made using data sampled during complete tidal cycles. Under the assumption that the estuarine tidal channel is laterally homogeneous and during moderate tidal periods (except for one survey), currents and salinity data were decomposed into various spatial and temporal means and their deviations. Near the channel's mouth, the main contributions to the salt transport are the terms due to freshwater discharge and the tidal correlation. Near the channel's head, this last term is less important than the density driven circulation, which is enhanced by the increase in freshwater discharge. The remaining terms, which are dependent on the deviations from the mean depth have a smaller role in the results of salt transport. The computed salt transport per unit width of a section perpendicular to the mean flow is in close agreement to the sum of the advective and dispersive terms (within or very close to 12%). An imbalance of the salt budget across the sections is observed for all the surveys. Considerations are made on how this approach can inform the management of hazardous contamination and how to use these results to best time the release of environmental flows during dry months. PMID:23071793

  11. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease.

  12. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving tablets of the Etoricoxib.

    PubMed

    Chandira, R Margret; Venkataeswarlu, B S; Kumudhavalli, M V; Debjitbhowmik; Jayakar, B

    2010-04-01

    The demand for mouth dissolving tablets has been growing during the last decade especially for elderly and children who have swallowing difficulties. Etoricoxib is a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with selective cox-2 inhibitory activity, selective inhibition of cox-2 provides anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity it is commonly used for osteo-arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, primary dysmenorrhoea, post operative dental pain and acute gout. The main criteria for mouth dissolving tablets are to disintegrate or dissolve rapidly in oral cavity with saliva in 15 sec to 60 sec with need of water. The disintegrants used should fulfill the criteria by disintegrating the tablets in specified time limit.in the present investigation variety of super disintegrants like primogel, kollidone, Ac-Di-sol, L-HPMC, L-HPC, were selected and tablets were prepared by direct compression method in different concentration like 4% and 8%. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution study, etc. formulation f-9 shows the lowest disintegration time (44 sec) and wetting time (52 sec). In vitro dissolution studies revealed that formulation F-9 containing 8% L-HPC showed 97% drug release at the end of 20 min. PMID:20363696

  13. [Foot-and-mouth disease and its differential diagnoses].

    PubMed

    Teifke, J P; Breithaupt, A; Haas, B

    2012-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which leads to the formation of vesicles, erosions und ulcerations in the mouth and hairless parts of the skin, in particular on the feet. Due to its dramatic economic consequences, FMD is considered to be one of the most important diseases of animals. There is a permanent risk of introduction of the virus into Europe due to travel and illegal importation of agricultural products. Cloven-hoofed animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and related game animals) are the typical hosts of the FMD virus. However, some zoo and wild animals belonging to other taxonomical groups, such as giraffes, elephants and camels, are also susceptible. Stomatitis and infections of the feet in livestock occur quite frequently, and often the causes of these conditions remain obscure. Sometimes, a differentiation from FMD is not possible on the basis of clinical signs and gross lesions, necessitating further laboratory investigations. This applies in particular to cases caused by the agents of vesicular stomatitis (VS) and swine vesicular disease (SVD). Additionally, other infectious agents can cause stomatitis, e.g. the viruses of mucosal disease (MD), malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), papular stomatitis, orf, blue tongue (BT) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD). In sheep, a stomatitis of unclear etiology was described as "OMAGOD". Furthermore, bacteria, chemicals and mechanical trauma can cause stomatitis and pododermatitis. PMID:22911230

  14. Giant sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, P.L.; Hanes, D.M.; Rubin, D.M.; Kvitek, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    A field of giant sand waves, among the largest in the world, recently was mapped in high resolution for the first time during a multibeam survey in 2004 and 2005 through the strait of the Golden Gate at the mouth of San Francisco Bay in California (Figure la). This massive bed form field covers an area of approximately four square kilometers in water depths ranging from 30 to 106 meters, featuring more than 40 distinct sand waves with crests aligned approximately perpendicular to the dominant tidally generated cross-shore currents, with wavelengths and heights that measure up to 220 meters and 10 meters, respectively. Sand wave crests can be traced continuously for up to two kilometers across the mouth of this energetic tidal inlet, where depth-averaged tidal currents through the strait below the Golden Gate Bridge exceed 2.5 meters per second during peak ebb flows. Repeated surveys demonstrated that the sand waves are active and dynamic features that move in response to tidally generated currents. The complex temporal and spatial variations in wave and tidal current interactions in this region result in an astoundingly diverse array of bed form morphologies, scales, and orientations. Bed forms of approximately half the scale of those reported in this article previously were mapped inside San Francisco Bay during a multibeam survey in 1997 [Chin et al., 1997].

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, pigs, sheep and many wildlife species. It can cause enormous economic losses when incursions occur into countries which are normally disease free. In addition, it has long-term effects within countries where the disease is endemic due to reduced animal productivity and the restrictions on international trade in animal products. The disease is caused by infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a picornavirus. Seven different serotypes (and numerous variants) of FMDV have been identified. Some serotypes have a restricted geographical distribution, e.g. Asia-1, whereas others, notably serotype O, occur in many different regions. There is no cross-protection between serotypes and sometimes protection conferred by vaccines even of the same serotype can be limited. Thus it is important to characterize the viruses that are circulating if vaccination is being used for disease control. This review describes current methods for the detection and characterization of FMDVs. Sequence information is increasingly being used for identifying the source of outbreaks. In addition such information can be used to understand antigenic change within virus strains. The challenges and opportunities for improving the control of the disease within endemic settings, with a focus on Eurasia, are discussed, including the role of the FAO/EuFMD/OIE Progressive Control Pathway. Better control of the disease in endemic areas reduces the risk of incursions into disease-free regions. PMID:24308718

  16. [Helicobacter pylori and the mouth cavity--overview and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Schein, W; Meryn, S

    1994-01-01

    In view of the possibility of reinfection after successful treatment and the pitfalls in eradicating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) from gastric mucosa, it is of great interest to identify natural reservoirs for this organism, other than the stomach. This review discusses the results of investigations as to whether H. pylori can be harboured in the microaerobic environment of dental plaques in saliva. Only few data are available on the prevalence of H. pylori in the mouth. Data from conventional microbiological technique studies are contradictory, with the prevalence varying from 3.4% to 100%. Different diagnostic procedures were used to identify H. pylori, but only a few seem to be reliable enough to detect H. pylori in clinical samples taken from the mouth. Moreover, insufficient information is provided on the role of hygienic conditions in the investigated oral cavity and the existence of gingival or periodontal disease. The mechanisms of oral colonisation with H. pylori are still unknown. Human periodontal disease is associated with a complex microflora in which more than 350 microbial species can be encountered. The periodontal pocket may be important as a natural reservoir for H. pylori, because it can provide microaerobic conditions. Recently reported molecular techniques such as the highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may help to clarify the prevalence of oral carriage of H. pylori in future.

  17. [Business prospects in eastern Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Hatmadji, S H; Kiting, A S; Anwar, E N

    1993-06-01

    "This paper shows the demographic prospect of population in the Eastern part of Indonesia, especially in four provinces: Bali, East Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and South East Sulawesi." The focus is on the sociodemographic characteristics of consumers in the region, and the implications for commerce. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  18. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account.

  19. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-05-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social Survey data. We investigate mean levels of civic mindedness in these countries and perform regression analyses to investigate whether factors traditionally associated with civic and political participation are also correlated with citizenship norms across Eastern Europe. We show that mean levels of civic mindedness differ significantly across the four Eastern European countries. We find some support for theories on civic and political participation when explaining norms of citizenship, but also demonstrate that individual-level characteristics are differently related to citizenship norms across the countries of our study. Hence, our findings show that Eastern Europe is not a monolithic and homogeneous bloc, underscoring the importance of taking the specificities of countries into account. PMID:20390027

  20. Citizenship Norms in Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffe, Hilde; van der Lippe, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Research on Eastern Europe stresses the weakness of its civil society and the lack of political and social involvement, neglecting the question: What do people themselves think it means to be a good citizen? This study looks at citizens' definitions of good citizenship in Poland, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Hungary, using 2002 European Social…

  1. 77 FR 26534 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 19, 2012, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... associated ancillary facilities in Montgomery County, Texas. Specifically, Texas Eastern proposes to...

  2. Evaluation of maxillary arterial blood flow in anesthetized cats with the mouth closed and open.

    PubMed

    Barton-Lamb, A L; Martin-Flores, M; Scrivani, P V; Bezuidenhout, A J; Loew, E; Erb, H N; Ludders, J W

    2013-06-01

    The mouth-gag is a common tool used in veterinary medicine during oral and transoral procedures in cats but its use has recently been associated with the development of blindness. The goal of this study was to investigate whether maximal opening of the mouth affects maxillary artery blood flow in six anesthetized cats. To assess blood flow, the electroretinogram (ERG), brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were evaluated qualitatively with the mouth closed and open. During dynamic computer tomography (CT) examinations, detection of contrast medium in the maxillary artery was quantified by measuring the Hounsfield units (HUs). The peak HU, time to peak and mean HU were determined. Changes ⩾10% of these parameters were considered indicative of altered blood flow. ERG and BAER were normal with the mouth closed in all cats, but was abnormal with the mouth opened maximally in two cats and one cat, respectively. During MRA, blood flow was undetected in either maxillary artery in one cat and reduced in the right maxillary artery in two cats, when the mouth was open. During CT, the peak HU decreased ⩾10% in three cats, the time to peak was ⩾10% longer in two cats, and the mean HU was ⩾10% lower in one cat when the mouth was open. No cat developed apparent blindness or deafness. Maximal opening of the mouth caused alterations in several indicators of blood flow in some individual cats.

  3. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. PMID:27345722

  4. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 7 - pathogenesis and molecular biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the GFRA (Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance) conducted a gap analysis of FMD (Foot-and-Mouth Disease) research. This work has been updated and reported in a series of papers, in this article we report findings in the fields of 1) pathogenesis and 2) molecular biology. The arti...

  5. Foot-and-mouth disease virus modulates cellular vimentin for virus survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. During infection with FMDV, several host cell membrane rearrangements occur to form sites of viral replication. The largest viral protein in the replication complex,...

  6. THE PATTERN OF AIR FLOW OUT OF THE MOUTH DURING SPEECH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, H.; AND OTHERS

    SINCE THE 19TH CENTURY, KYMOGRAPHIC RECORDING OF TOTAL AIR FLOW OUT OF THE MOUTH HAS BEEN USED TO DIAGNOSE THE VARYING DURATIONS AND DEGREES OF CONSTRICTIONS OF THE VOCAL TRACT DURING SPEECH. THE PRESENT PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO INTRODUCE A SECOND DIMENSION TO RECORDINGS OF AIR FLOW OUT OF THE MOUTH--NAMELY, CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF FLOW--ON THE…

  7. 75 FR 65431 - Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 94 Change in Disease Status of Japan Because of Foot-and-Mouth Disease AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule... be free of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and also from the list of FMD-free regions that are...

  8. Word-of-Mouth amongst Students at a New Zealand Tertiary Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warring, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this case study was to investigate the extent of word-of-mouth influence amongst international students at a New Zealand tertiary institution and to review the literature for a valid and reliable conceptualisation and measurement of word-of-mouth. Design/methodology/approach: Literature suggests that opinion-leading and seeking…

  9. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations.

  10. Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... tears can help with dry eye. Sips of water and sugar-free candies can help with dry mouth. Because ... Choices Links Easing Sjögren’s Symptoms Take sips of water for dry mouth. Use sugar-free candies and gums. Use artificial tears for ...

  11. Action Planning for Daily Mouth Care in Long-Term Care: The Brushing Up on Mouth Care Project

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Mary E.; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Wyatt, Christopher C. L.; McNeil, Karen P.; Crowell, Sandra J.; Matthews, Debora C.; Clovis, Joanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Research focusing on the introduction of daily mouth care programs for dependent older adults in long-term care has met with limited success. There is a need for greater awareness about the importance of oral health, more education for those providing oral care, and organizational structures that provide policy and administrative support for daily mouth care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the establishment of an oral care action plan for long-term care using an interdisciplinary collaborative approach. Methods. Elements of a program planning cycle that includes assessment, planning, implementation, and evaluation guided this work and are described in this paper. Findings associated with assessment and planning are detailed. Assessment involved exploration of internal and external factors influencing oral care in long-term care and included document review, focus groups and one-on-one interviews with end-users. The planning phase brought care providers, stakeholders, and researchers together to design a set of actions to integrate oral care into the organizational policy and practice of the research settings. Findings. The establishment of a meaningful and productive collaboration was beneficial for developing realistic goals, understanding context and institutional culture, creating actions suitable and applicable for end-users, and laying a foundation for broader networking with relevant stakeholders and health policy makers. PMID:22550572

  12. Tapping the grapevine: a closer look at word-of-mouth as a recruitment source.

    PubMed

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip

    2009-03-01

    To advance knowledge of word-of-mouth as a company-independent recruitment source, this study draws on conceptualizations of word-of-mouth in the marketing literature. The sample consisted of 612 potential applicants targeted by the Belgian Defense. Consistent with the recipient-source framework, time spent receiving positive word-of-mouth was determined by the traits of the recipient (extraversion and conscientiousness), the characteristics of the source (perceived expertise), and their mutual relationship (tie strength). Only conscientiousness and source expertise were determinants of receiving negative word-of-mouth. In line with the accessibility-diagnosticity model, receiving positive employment information through word-of-mouth early in the recruitment process was positively associated with perceptual (organizational attractiveness) and behavioral outcomes (actual application decisions), beyond potential applicants' exposure to other recruitment sources. PMID:19271794

  13. Skeletal and occlusal characteristics in mouth-breathing pre-school children.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Sara Elisa M; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Valera, Fabiana C P; Matsumoto, Mirian A N

    2004-01-01

    This study verified the influence of chronic mouth breathing on dentofacial growth and developmental in pre-school children. The study evaluated 73 children, both sexes, ranging from 3 to 6 years of age. After the otorhinolaryngological breathing diagnosis, 44 mouth-breathing children and 29 nasal-breathing children were compared according to facial and occlusal characteristics. The skeletal pattern measurements SN.GoGn, BaN.PtGn, PP.PM, Ar-Go, S-Go indicated a tendency to mouth-breathing children presenting a dolicofacial pattern. According to occlusal characteristics, only the intermolar distance showed a significant correlation with a narrow maxillary arch in mouth-breathing subjects. Based on the results of this study, mouth-breathing can influence craniofacial and occlusal development early in childhood.

  14. Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.

  15. Tapping the grapevine: a closer look at word-of-mouth as a recruitment source.

    PubMed

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip

    2009-03-01

    To advance knowledge of word-of-mouth as a company-independent recruitment source, this study draws on conceptualizations of word-of-mouth in the marketing literature. The sample consisted of 612 potential applicants targeted by the Belgian Defense. Consistent with the recipient-source framework, time spent receiving positive word-of-mouth was determined by the traits of the recipient (extraversion and conscientiousness), the characteristics of the source (perceived expertise), and their mutual relationship (tie strength). Only conscientiousness and source expertise were determinants of receiving negative word-of-mouth. In line with the accessibility-diagnosticity model, receiving positive employment information through word-of-mouth early in the recruitment process was positively associated with perceptual (organizational attractiveness) and behavioral outcomes (actual application decisions), beyond potential applicants' exposure to other recruitment sources.

  16. Juvenile salmonid migratory behavior at the mouth of the Columbia River and within the plume

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, Geoffrey A.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Trott, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 8,159 acoustic-tagged salmonid smolts were detected at the mouth of the Columbia River. Of the fish detected at the mouth, 14% of yearling Chinook salmon, 9% of steelhead, and 22% of subyearling Chinook salmon were detected on a sparse array deployed in the Columbia River plume. Chinook salmon smolts decreased travel rate as they left the river and entered the plume, while steelhead increased travel rate. Chinook salmon also spent more time in the transitional area between the river mouth and plume as compared to steelhead. In early spring, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead predominately migrated past the plume array towards the edge of the shelf and to the south. Later in the season, yearling Chinook salmon and steelhead smolts tended to migrate out of the river mouth in a northerly direction. Subyearling Chinook salmon migrated predominately past the portion of the plume array to the north of the river mouth.

  17. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J.; Naranjo, R.; Niswonger, R.; Allander, K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, D.; Smith, D.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, D.

    2016-03-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both "unmodified" (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  18. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Laura H.; Ercumen, Ayse; Pickering, Amy J.; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:27271651

  19. Groundwater exchanges near a channelized versus unmodified stream mouth discharging to a subalpine lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, James; Naranjo, Ramon C.; Niswonger, Richard; Allander, Kip K.; Neilson, B.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Smith, David W.; Rosecrans, C.; Stonestrom, David A.

    2016-01-01

    The terminus of a stream flowing into a larger river, pond, lake, or reservoir is referred to as the stream-mouth reach or simply the stream mouth. The terminus is often characterized by rapidly changing thermal and hydraulic conditions that result in abrupt shifts in surface water/groundwater (sw/gw) exchange patterns, creating the potential for unique biogeochemical processes and ecosystems. Worldwide shoreline development is changing stream-lake interfaces through channelization of stream mouths, i.e., channel straightening and bank stabilization to prevent natural meandering at the shoreline. In the central Sierra Nevada (USA), Lake Tahoe's shoreline has an abundance of both “unmodified” (i.e., not engineered though potentially impacted by broader watershed engineering) and channelized stream mouths. Two representative stream mouths along the lake's north shore, one channelized and one unmodified, were selected to compare and contrast water and heat exchanges. Hydraulic and thermal properties were monitored during separate campaigns in September 2012 and 2013 and sw/gw exchanges were estimated within the stream mouth-shoreline continuum. Heat-flow and water-flow patterns indicated clear differences in the channelized versus the unmodified stream mouth. For the channelized stream mouth, relatively modulated, cool-temperature, low-velocity longitudinal streambed flows discharged offshore beneath warmer buoyant lakeshore water. In contrast, a seasonal barrier bar formed across the unmodified stream mouth, creating higher-velocity subsurface flow paths and higher diurnal temperature variations relative to shoreline water. As a consequence, channelization altered sw/gw exchanges potentially altering biogeochemical processing and ecological systems in and near the stream mouth.

  20. Key stream/sediment exchanges of water and heat near stream mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantz, J. E.; Naranjo, R. C.; Niswonger, R. G.; Neilson, B. T.; Allander, K.; Zamora, C.; Smith, D. W.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    The section of stream discharging to a lake or other surface-water body is referred to as the stream mouth, a stream reach with rapidly changing hydrologic conditions, leading to unique aquatic and benthic ecology, as well as a visibly active fishery habitat. Of environmental significance, bridges, control structures, channelization and foot traffic are common near stream mouths, warranting comparisons of natural and channelized stream mouths. The present work completes the first investigation focusing specifically on the hydrology of surface-water/sediment exchanges at stream-mouth reaches discharging to lakes and compares these exchanges to those measured along the nearby shoreline in both a qualitative and quantitative manner. Heat and water exchanges for two common types of stream mouths (a natural stream with a summer barrier bar and a channelized stream mouth) are compared with comparable exchanges along the nearby shoreline on the north shore of Lake Tahoe located in the Central Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (CA/NV, US). The study site was selected partially due the abundance of streams discharging into the lake of both a natural and channelized nature (~30 small streams with a large number of both types of stream mouths). Heat and water exchanges were both qualitatively and quantitatively distinct for the three types of hydrologic settings, with (1) cool, low velocity, longitudinal (hyporheic) flowpaths observed below the channelized stream mouth, discharging beneath the warmer, more buoyant lakeshore water, (2) the nearby shoreline receiving relatively warm, higher velocity discharge and (3) for the natural stream mouth, there was strong diurnal temperature pattern in groundwater discharging through the seasonal barrier beach to the lake. Impacts of strong 2013 wave action on exchanges were also distinct for the three settings, with (1) channelization allowing waves to extend well upstream, (2) a lesser invasive impact in the shoreline swash zone exchanges

  1. Marine sediment contamination and dynamics at the mouth of a contaminated torrent: The case of the Gromolo Torrent (Sestri Levante, north-western Italy).

    PubMed

    Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Consani, S; Dinelli, E; Vagge, G; Carbone, C

    2016-08-15

    In this study we have examined the currents and hydrological characteristics of the water column off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent (north-western Italy) in relation to the grain-size, mineralogical characteristics and metal distribution in the marine sediment sampled. Our purpose was to quantify and map the contamination that was carried out to sea from the abandoned Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine that has heavily impacted the torrent. Our results show high concentrations of Cu and Zn, and relatively high concentrations of Cd and Ni inside the bay into which the Gromolo Torrent flows. However, high concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb, and V found in the northern and/or eastern parts of the study area originated from other sources. The subdivision of study stations in terms of metal and mineral contents in the bottom sediments highlighted the clear influence of the currents on their dispersion and distribution in the area. PMID:27289290

  2. 3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of the mouth of George Washington's 'Potowmack' Canal at the Great Falls of the Potomac River. The view is taken from a rock in the Potomac River looking up into the Canal. Trees and dense growth now fill the old aperture which once permitted barges to come down the Ohio Valley onto the broad expanse of the Potomac River. This view, taken September 1, 1943, evidences the very low water then existing on the Potomac River, as is clearly shown by the water marks on the rocks on the left hand side of the photograph. That portion where the individual is standing, up to the height of his hat, is normally underwater. Deep in the sand at this spot was found a part of one of the old hand brought lock hinges which formerly swung the first lock gates ... - Potowmack Company: Great Falls Canal, Locks No. 3, 4, 5, Great Falls, Fairfax County, VA

  3. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  4. Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Tablets of Cinnarizine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B. P.; Patel, J. K.; Rajput, G. C.; Thakor, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of cinnarizine by effervescent, superdisintegrant addition and sublimation methods. All the three formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, hardness and friability, among these superdisintegrant addition method showed lowest disintegration time; hence it was selected for further studies. Further nine batches (B1-B9) were prepared by using crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and L-HPC in different concentrations such as 5, 7.5 and 10%. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution. Formulation with 10% L-HPC showed the less disintegration time (25.3 s) and less wetting time (29.1 s). In vitro dissolution studies showed total drug release at the end of 6 min. PMID:21218071

  5. Formulation and evaluation of mouth dissolving tablets of cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Patel, B P; Patel, J K; Rajput, G C; Thakor, R S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of cinnarizine by effervescent, superdisintegrant addition and sublimation methods. All the three formulations were evaluated for disintegration time, hardness and friability, among these superdisintegrant addition method showed lowest disintegration time; hence it was selected for further studies. Further nine batches (B1-B9) were prepared by using crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and L-HPC in different concentrations such as 5, 7.5 and 10%. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro dissolution. Formulation with 10% L-HPC showed the less disintegration time (25.3 s) and less wetting time (29.1 s). In vitro dissolution studies showed total drug release at the end of 6 min. PMID:21218071

  6. A Swelling in the Mouth in a Chronic Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Devresse, Arnaud; Raptis, Alexandros; Claes, Anne-Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Oral manifestations of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism include maxillary and mandibular deformities, brown tumors, dental abnormalities, and metastatic calcification of soft tissues. We report on a chronic hemodialysis (HD) woman with severe, uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism and a painful, nontender mass in the floor of her mouth. The most likely clinical diagnosis was a bone tumoral lesion of the oral cavity, secondary to renal osteodystrophy. Unexpectedly, pathological examination showed characteristic features of ossifying fibroma (OF) of the jaw, a rare, benign fibroosseous lesion characterized by the replacement of normal bone by collagen and fibroblasts containing varying amounts of mineralized substance. The occurrence of an OF in chronic HD patients is exceptional. Differential diagnosis must be made with bone tumoral lesions secondary to renal osteodystrophy. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice. The pathogenesis of OF in the setting of secondary hyperparathyroidism remains unknown. Parathyroidectomy may not be necessary to avoid OF recurrence after surgical removal. PMID:27800197

  7. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines.

  8. Low-dose aripiprazole for refractory burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Umezaki, Yojiro; Takenoshita, Miho; Toyofuku, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of refractory burning mouth syndrome (BMS) ameliorated with low dose of aripiprazole. The patient was a 66-year-old female who had suffered from chronic burning pain in her tongue for 13 months. No abnormality associated with the burning sensation was detected in the laboratory tests and the oral findings. Considering the clinical feature and the history together, we diagnosed the burning sensation as BMS. The BMS pain was decreased by aripiprazole (powder) 1.0 mg/d, though no other antidepressants had satisfying pain relief. It could be supposed that the efficacy of aripiprazole is caused by dopamine stabilization in this case, and BMS might have a subtype that is reactive to aripiprazole. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of aripiprazole for BMS. PMID:27279742

  9. Computed tomography of the tongue and floor of the mouth

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, S.G.; Mancuso, A.; Hanafee, W.

    1982-05-01

    The anatomy of the tongue and floor of the mouth is readily discernible by computed tomography (CT) because of low-density fascial planes that outline the extrinsic musculature, lingual arteries, and hypoglossal nerves. Although the tongue is accessible to the examining finger, few patients can tolerate a detailed palpation. In planning for a partial glossectomy, CT scanning aids the surgeon who must be sure that the tumor is unilateral or that at least one lingual artery and one hypoglossal nerve can be preserved. The CT scans of 30 patients were reviewed for background anatomy. Pathologic changes are summarized for 16 extrinsic lesions and 11 intrinsic tumors. The status of the midline could be confirmed in 28 of the 30 patients. The fascial plane distortions by malignant intrinsic and extrinsic lesions are discussed.

  10. Toward a global foot and mouth disease vaccine bank network.

    PubMed

    Barnett, P V; Bashiruddin, J B; Hammond, J M; Geale, D W; Paton, D J

    2010-12-01

    A network of foot and mouth (FMD) vaccine banks has been initiated with the support of vaccine bank managers and technical advisors that participated in a workshop held at the Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, in the United Kingdom in April 2006. Terms of Reference that provide guidance for coordinated activities are under consultation. Practical and economic benefits can be realised from collaboration, which will be achieved through mutually acceptable mechanisms for the exchange of information and materials relevant to vaccine banks and their management. If administrative and technical hurdles can be overcome, the network has the potential to contribute significantly to the improved control of FMD worldwide. A 'global' and interactive vaccine bank association could be created by agreeing a system of resource sharing that could orchestrate additional emergency cover with vaccine or antigen from the reserves of network members.

  11. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: progress and problems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yimei; Lu, Zengjun; Liu, Zaixin

    2016-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been a major threat to livestock across the world. The predominant method of controlling this disease in endemic regions is through regular vaccination with inactivated vaccine. However, there are many limitations. For instance, cultivation of virulent FMD virus (FMDV) in the manufacturing units poses a risk of escape from production sites. Vaccines may sometimes contain traces of FMD viral non-structural proteins (NSPs), therefore, interfering with the NSP-based serological differentiation infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). Moreover, vaccines are unable to eliminate virus from carrier animals. To address the shortcomings of inactivated vaccines, many efforts are currently devoted to develop novel vaccines including attenuated and/or marker inactivated vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, synthetic peptide vaccines, and empty capsid vaccines. Here, we review the research progress of novel vaccines, problems that remain to be solved, and also raise some suggestions that would help in the development of FMD vaccines. PMID:26760264

  12. The subgingival periodontal microbiota of the aging mouth.

    PubMed

    Feres, Magda; Teles, Flavia; Teles, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis in older adults, including shifts in the periodontal microbiota. However, the actual impact of aging on the composition of subgingival biofilms remains unclear. In the present article, we provide an overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (i) the oral microbiota of an aging mouth; (ii) the effects of age and time on the human oral microbiome; (iii) the potential impact of inflammaging and immunosenescence in the host-oral microbiota interactions; and (iv) the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we present analyses of data compiled from large clinical studies that evaluated the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy subjects and patients with periodontitis from a wide age spectrum (20-83 years of age).

  13. Modelling vaccination strategies against foot-and-mouth disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeling, M. J.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; May, R. M.; Davies, G.; Grenfell, B. T.

    2003-01-01

    Vaccination has proved a powerful defence against a range of infectious diseases of humans and animals. However, its potential to control major epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in livestock is contentious. Using an individual farm-based model, we consider either national prophylactic vaccination campaigns in advance of an outbreak, or combinations of reactive vaccination and culling strategies during an epidemic. Consistent with standard epidemiological theory, mass prophylactic vaccination could reduce greatly the potential for a major epidemic, while the targeting of high-risk farms increases efficiency. Given sufficient resources and preparation, a combination of reactive vaccination and culling might control ongoing epidemics. We also explore a reactive strategy, `predictive' vaccination, which targets key spatial transmission loci and can reduce markedly the long tail that characterizes many FMD epidemics. These analyses have broader implications for the control of human and livestock infectious diseases in heterogeneous spatial landscapes.

  14. Burning mouth syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Gilden, Don

    2016-01-01

    We present two cases of burning mouth syndrome (BMS)-of 8-month duration in a 61-year-old woman and of 2-year duration in a 63-year-old woman-both associated with increased levels of antivaricella zoster virus (VZV) IgM antibodies in serum and with pain that improved with antiviral treatment. Combined with our previous finding of BMS due to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, we recommend evaluation of patients with BMS not only for VZV or HSV-1 DNA in the saliva, but also for serum anti-VZV and anti-HSV-1 IgM antibodies. Both infections are treatable with oral antiviral agents. PMID:27382016

  15. BigMouth: a multi-institutional dental data repository

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad F; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C; White, Joel M; Kookal, Krishna K; Phan, Dat; Tran, Duong; Bernstam, Elmer V; Ramoni, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Few oral health databases are available for research and the advancement of evidence-based dentistry. In this work we developed a centralized data repository derived from electronic health records (EHRs) at four dental schools participating in the Consortium of Oral Health Research and Informatics. A multi-stakeholder committee developed a data governance framework that encouraged data sharing while allowing control of contributed data. We adopted the i2b2 data warehousing platform and mapped data from each institution to a common reference terminology. We realized that dental EHRs urgently need to adopt common terminologies. While all used the same treatment code set, only three of the four sites used a common diagnostic terminology, and there were wide discrepancies in how medical and dental histories were documented. BigMouth was successfully launched in August 2012 with data on 1.1 million patients, and made available to users at the contributing institutions. PMID:24993547

  16. Floor of mouth cancer: patient selection and treatment results

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, J.E.; Lee, F.; Smith, P.G.; Ogura, J.H.

    1983-04-01

    Retrospective review of 126 primarily treated floor of mouth (FOM) cancers was done to study patient selection and to search for more optimum treatment strategies. Small surface lesions were treated by local excision (LE); small lesions invading FOM without lymph nodes were treated by radiation alone (RA), while larger lesions and those with palpable nodes were treated by preoperative irradiation and surgery (R + S). Ultimate control of the FOM cancer and nodes was achieved for 100% of the LE, 71% of the RA, and 75% of the R + S patients. The majority of primary tumor and nodal recurrences developed by 15 months and 35% of the failures were salvaged by additional treatment. Change in treatment strategies are suggested for surface lesions because of a poor rate of initial tumor control (43%), for patients treated by RA because of a high rate of complications (41%), and for patients without palpable lymph nodes who can be successfully treated by elective neck irradiation.

  17. 33 CFR 207.260 - Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. 207.260 Section 207.260... REGULATIONS § 207.260 Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher... canal at any stage from the mouth of the Yazoo Diversion Canal where it enters into the...

  18. Global perspective for foot and mouth disease control.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, M M; Astudillo, V M

    2002-12-01

    The world distribution of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is almost a mirror image of the global economic structure. In general, industrialised countries are free while the disease is endemic in developing countries. In recent years, several incursions of FMD have been recorded in countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), all of which have been financially and socially costly to eliminate. At the same time, this single disease bars many developing countries from participation in formal trade, both regionally and internationally. However, recent studies have predicted an unprecedented high demand for animal protein, which can only be met through enhanced participation of developing countries in trade in livestock products. Accordingly, globalisation trends will exacerbate the exclusion of poor communities and countries from markets unless a long-term strategy is implemented to progressively build market opportunities for these countries, without placing the livestock of industrialised countries at undue risk from FMD and other major transboundary animal diseases. The authors submit that there is sufficient knowledge of FMD to make an international initiative for the progressive control of FMD a viable objective. Consequently, a four-stage pathway is proposed for developing a global FMD programme. The proposed strategy involves a build-up of the epidemiology and global status of FMD, including establishing an international early warning system, a risk-reduction phase to lower the incidence of FMD in the primary endemic areas and a control phase leading to the creation of zones of assured FMD-freedom. The authors also propose that an international FMD programme be co-ordinated, based on the experience of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme, the Hemispheric Plan for the eradication of FMD for the Americas, the South-East Asia Foot and Mouth Disease control and eradication campaign and the European Commission for the

  19. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    SciTech Connect

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  20. Global perspective for foot and mouth disease control.

    PubMed

    Rweyemamu, M M; Astudillo, V M

    2002-12-01

    The world distribution of foot and mouth disease (FMD) is almost a mirror image of the global economic structure. In general, industrialised countries are free while the disease is endemic in developing countries. In recent years, several incursions of FMD have been recorded in countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), all of which have been financially and socially costly to eliminate. At the same time, this single disease bars many developing countries from participation in formal trade, both regionally and internationally. However, recent studies have predicted an unprecedented high demand for animal protein, which can only be met through enhanced participation of developing countries in trade in livestock products. Accordingly, globalisation trends will exacerbate the exclusion of poor communities and countries from markets unless a long-term strategy is implemented to progressively build market opportunities for these countries, without placing the livestock of industrialised countries at undue risk from FMD and other major transboundary animal diseases. The authors submit that there is sufficient knowledge of FMD to make an international initiative for the progressive control of FMD a viable objective. Consequently, a four-stage pathway is proposed for developing a global FMD programme. The proposed strategy involves a build-up of the epidemiology and global status of FMD, including establishing an international early warning system, a risk-reduction phase to lower the incidence of FMD in the primary endemic areas and a control phase leading to the creation of zones of assured FMD-freedom. The authors also propose that an international FMD programme be co-ordinated, based on the experience of the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme, the Hemispheric Plan for the eradication of FMD for the Americas, the South-East Asia Foot and Mouth Disease control and eradication campaign and the European Commission for the

  1. Stratocumulus Clouds, eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This sheet of closed-cell stratocumulus clouds was sighted in the eastern Pacific Ocean (13.5N, 141.0W) southeast of the Hawaiian Islands. This cloud sheet has a distinctive fracture zone that separates an older cloud layer (right side of scene) from a newly formed layer (left). Stratocumulus cloud sheets originate over the cold waters of the California current and migrate westward over the Pacific Ocean.

  2. Genetic basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease serotype A viruses from the Middle East☆

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Sasmita; Ayelet, Gelagay; Paul, Guntram; King, Donald P.; Paton, David J.; Mahapatra, Mana

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDV) from serotype A exhibit high antigenic diversity. Within the Middle East, a strain called A-Iran-05 emerged in 2003, and subsequently replaced the A-Iran-96 and A-Iran-99 strains that were previously circulating in the region. Viruses from this strain did not serologically match with the established A/Iran/96 vaccine, although most early samples matched with the older A22/Iraq vaccine. However, many viruses from this strain collected after 2006 had poor serological match with the A22/Iraq vaccine necessitating the development of a new vaccine strain (A/TUR/2006). More recently, viruses from the region now exhibit lower cross-reactivity with the A/TUR/2006 antisera highlighting the inadequacy of the serotype A vaccines used in the region. In order to understand the genetic basis of these antigenic phenotypes, we have determined the full capsid sequence for 57 Middle Eastern viruses isolated between 1996 and 2011 and analysed these data in context of antigenic relationship (r1) values that were generated using antisera to A22/Iraq and A/TUR/2006. Comparisons of capsid sequences identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites (1, 2 and 4), which either individually or together underpin these observed antigenic phenotypes. PMID:24035435

  3. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  4. Bilingualism modulates infants' selective attention to the mouth of a talking face.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ferran; Bosch, Laura; Lewkowicz, David J

    2015-04-01

    Infants growing up in bilingual environments succeed at learning two languages. What adaptive processes enable them to master the more complex nature of bilingual input? One possibility is that bilingual infants take greater advantage of the redundancy of the audiovisual speech that they usually experience during social interactions. Thus, we investigated whether bilingual infants' need to keep languages apart increases their attention to the mouth as a source of redundant and reliable speech cues. We measured selective attention to talking faces in 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old Catalan and Spanish monolingual and bilingual infants. Monolinguals looked more at the eyes than the mouth at 4 months and more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months in response to both native and nonnative speech, but they looked more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months only in response to nonnative speech. In contrast, bilinguals looked equally at the eyes and mouth at 4 months, more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months, and more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months, and these patterns of responses were found for both native and nonnative speech at all ages. Thus, to support their dual-language acquisition processes, bilingual infants exploit the greater perceptual salience of redundant audiovisual speech cues at an earlier age and for a longer time than monolingual infants.

  5. Speech-language pathology findings in patients with mouth breathing: multidisciplinary diagnosis according to etiology.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Patrícia; Marchesan, Irene Queiroz; de Oliveira, Luciana Regina; Ciccone, Emílio; Haddad, Leonardo; Rizzo, Maria Cândida

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the results of the findings from speech-language pathology evaluations for orofacial function including tongue and lip rest postures, tonus, articulation and speech, voice and language, chewing, and deglutition in children who had a history of mouth breathing. The diagnoses for mouth breathing included: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy; and/or functional mouth breathing. This study was conducted with on 414 subjects of both genders, from 2 to 16-years old. A team consisting of 3 speech-language pathologists, 1 pediatrician, 1 allergist, and 1 otolaryngologist, evaluated the patients. Multidisciplinary clinical examinations were carried out (complete blood counting, X-rays, nasofibroscopy, audiometry). The two most commonly found etiologies were allergic rhinitis, followed by functional mouth breathing. Of the 414 patients in the study, 346 received a speech-language pathology evaluation. The most prevalent finding in this group of 346 subjects was the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders. The most frequently orofacial myofunctional disorder identified in these subjects who also presented mouth breathing included: habitual open lips rest posture, low and forward tongue rest posture and lack of adequate muscle tone. There were also no statistically significant relationships identified between etiology and speech-language diagnosis. Therefore, the specific type of etiology of mouth breathing does not appear to contribute to the presence, type, or number of speech-language findings which may result from mouth breathing behavior.

  6. Evaluation of oxygen saturation by pulse-oximetry in mouth breathing patients.

    PubMed

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Chalipa, Javad; Taghipoor, Elahe

    2010-01-01

    Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman's correlation coefficient tests. 34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%). Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic. A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4%) and gingival hyperplasia (29.2%) were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  7. Bilingualism modulates infants' selective attention to the mouth of a talking face.

    PubMed

    Pons, Ferran; Bosch, Laura; Lewkowicz, David J

    2015-04-01

    Infants growing up in bilingual environments succeed at learning two languages. What adaptive processes enable them to master the more complex nature of bilingual input? One possibility is that bilingual infants take greater advantage of the redundancy of the audiovisual speech that they usually experience during social interactions. Thus, we investigated whether bilingual infants' need to keep languages apart increases their attention to the mouth as a source of redundant and reliable speech cues. We measured selective attention to talking faces in 4-, 8-, and 12-month-old Catalan and Spanish monolingual and bilingual infants. Monolinguals looked more at the eyes than the mouth at 4 months and more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months in response to both native and nonnative speech, but they looked more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months only in response to nonnative speech. In contrast, bilinguals looked equally at the eyes and mouth at 4 months, more at the mouth than the eyes at 8 months, and more at the mouth than the eyes at 12 months, and these patterns of responses were found for both native and nonnative speech at all ages. Thus, to support their dual-language acquisition processes, bilingual infants exploit the greater perceptual salience of redundant audiovisual speech cues at an earlier age and for a longer time than monolingual infants. PMID:25767208

  8. A Proposal of Mouth Extraction Method with Suppressed Noise by Using Luminance Transform and Chromatic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Naoya; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Funahashi, Takuma; Koshimizu, Hiroyasu

    In this paper, we propose a mouth extraction method based on an integrated combination of color difference features, texture information characterized by the CFI (Co-occurrence Frequency Image) feature of the pixels, and the topological features of the extracted mouth region. The negative known that the ill effects caused by the presence of a mustache can be successfully suppressed by using the proposed method. Mouth extraction is performed by using the CIE L*a*b* color space and its behavior was investigated. The system brings L* of CIE L*a*b* to the same value in all the pixels. The presence of a mustache and/or wrinkles around the mouth affects the extraction. Mustache color and skin color are closer to the gray scale than mouth color. If the system brings L* to the same value in all the pixels, mouth extraction would be unaffected by the presence of a shadow or mustache. Moreover, the weight of a* of CIE L*a*b* could provide a strong affect for emphasizing the difference between mouth and the surrounding skin region. In the proposed method, the input image is binarized by referring to the CFI of the converted image. When the boundary between the mouth and the skin is not clear, CFI, the frequency of occurrence of a pixel pair of the image, is referred to detect such a boundary, because the frequency at the boundary is always low. We present the experimental results obtained and show that proposed method can be successfully used for mouth extraction.

  9. Hand, foot and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Beijing, 2013.

    PubMed

    Hongyan, Gu; Chengjie, Ma; Qiaozhi, Yang; Wenhao, Hua; Juan, Li; Lin, Pang; Yanli, Xu; Hongshan, Wei; Xingwang, Li

    2014-12-01

    Specimens and clinical data were collected from 243 hand, foot and mouth disease patients in Beijing in 2013. In total, 130 stool specimens were genotyped for enterovirus. Hand, foot and mouth disease was mainly detected in suburban areas and at the edges of urban areas between May and August. Coxsackievirus (CV) A6 replaced enterovirus (EV) 71 and CVA16, becoming the main causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease. CVA6 infection led to significantly reduced fever duration and glucose levels compared with EV71 infection. PMID:25037037

  10. Prevalence of oral malodor and the relationship with habitual mouth breathing in children.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Takashi; Takehara, Junji; Takahashi, Dairo; Honda, Okahito; Morita, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of oral malodor and association of habitual mouth breathing with oral malodor were investigated in children residing in rural areas. One hundred and nineteen children participated in this study. A sulfide monitor and organoleptic method were used to evaluate oral malodor. About 8% of children had a sulfide level in mouth air above the socially acceptable limit (75 ppb). Habitual mouth breathing was a factor contributing to oral malodor. Oral malodor was not significantly correlated with plaque index, history of caries or frequency of toothbrushing.

  11. Hinged and sectional complete dentures for restricted mouth opening: A case report and review

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aditi; Arora, Pallak; Wazir, Sartaj Singh

    2013-01-01

    Restricted mouth opening is a definite prosthodontic hindrance to carry out treatment successfully. Restricted mouth opening can be due to many reasons such as microstomia, oral submucous fibrosis, some genetic disorder, and as a result of some surgical treatment. In the past, various techniques for prosthetic rehabilitation of limited oral opening have been tried such as surgeries, use of dynamic opening devices, magnetic devices, and modification of denture design. Here we present; a simplified technique and simple design for fabrication of maxillary hinged and mandibular hinged and sectional complete denture for a patient with restricted mouth opening due to oral submucous fibrosis. PMID:23853457

  12. Understanding the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.

    PubMed

    Klein, Joern

    2009-03-01

    The use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling FMDV. In this review I will present basic information about the disease, needed to perform molecular epidemiology. I will give a short introduction to the history and impact of foot-and-mouth disease, clinical picture, infection route, subclinical and persistent infections, general aspects of the transmission of FMDV, serotype-specific epidemiological characteristics, field epidemiology of FMDV, evolution and molecular epidemiology of FMDV. This is followed by two chapters describing the molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in global surveillance and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in outbreak investigation.

  13. Mouth protectors and oral trauma: a study of adolescent football players.

    PubMed

    Garon, M W; Merkle, A; Wright, J T

    1986-05-01

    A total of 754 junior high school and high school football players from the Birmingham, AL, area were studied to determine the extent of sports-related oral trauma among players. More than half the oral injuries and more than a third of the concussions were reported in sports other than football. Basketball and baseball players had a high prevalence of hard tissue oral trauma with virtually none of the players wearing mouth protectors. The results of this study indicate that current mouth protector designs are helpful in preventing hard tissue trauma, yet additional soft tissue protection is indicated in football mouth protector design.

  14. Seroprevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Wildlife in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Elnekave, Ehud; King, Roni; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The seroprevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005–2013 was estimated using anti-non-structural proteins ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus), 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella), 6 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples [7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 4.4–12.1%)] were found to be seropositive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5%) from wild boar were seropositive, compared with only 1 out of 89 samples (1.1%) from all other species combined (Fisher’s exact test: p = 0.003). Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar [13/15 (86.7%)] were collected during 2007, and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The seroprevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95% = 32.8–74.5%; n = 24). A significant infection cluster, comprising nine seropositive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar was affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible seroprevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions, in which wildlife plays a part in the spread of the virus. PMID:27200364

  15. Foot and mouth disease risk assessment in Mongolia--local expertise to support national policy.

    PubMed

    Wieland, B; Batsukh, B; Enktuvshin, S; Odontsetseg, N; Schuppers, M

    2015-06-01

    To address weaknesses in the current foot and mouth disease (FMD) control system and to inform the formulation of a national control strategy, Mongolia conducted two separate risk assessments, one for the Eastern region which in the past has seen re-current introductions of infection, and one for the Western region, where freedom from disease had been demonstrated over several years until FMD was re-introduced in 2013. The risk assessment was conducted in three stages: first local experts developed entry, exposure and consequence pathways during separate workshops in both regions, then data was collected, compiled and analysed, and finally, during a second workshop local experts provided risk estimations for both regions and identified recommendations for risk management. Risk estimates for each pathway were individually recorded, which ensured that views of all experts were equally represented in the risk estimation and which allowed assessing possible impact of different factors related to the background of participating local experts on risk estimates. Entry risk pathways with highest risk estimates were related to livestock movements and in the consequence assessment due to direct contacts. Uncertainty, for which disagreement between participants acted as a proxy, was high in entry pathways and in the assessment of effectiveness of control measures. The risk assessment was conducted with local experts who had no previous risk assessment experience. Through their involvement in the whole process however, they assumed a high level of ownership and despite lively discussions for some risk pathways, a high level of agreement was achieved and credible results were communicated to decision makers. Especially valuable were the derived recommendations. Through the risk assessment the local experts gained a thorough understanding of the FMD risk which resulted in sensible and realistic recommendations, which, if implemented, can lead to a sustainable strengthening of

  16. Seroprevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Wildlife in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; King, Roni; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The seroprevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005-2013 was estimated using anti-non-structural proteins ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus), 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella), 6 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples [7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 4.4-12.1%)] were found to be seropositive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5%) from wild boar were seropositive, compared with only 1 out of 89 samples (1.1%) from all other species combined (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.003). Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar [13/15 (86.7%)] were collected during 2007, and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The seroprevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95% = 32.8-74.5%; n = 24). A significant infection cluster, comprising nine seropositive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar was affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible seroprevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions, in which wildlife plays a part in the spread of the virus.

  17. Seroprevalence of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Susceptible Wildlife in Israel.

    PubMed

    Elnekave, Ehud; King, Roni; van Maanen, Kees; Shilo, Hila; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemics recur in Israel almost every year. Wild even-toed ungulates are seldom affected during these epidemics. The seroprevalence of FMD in wild ungulates during 2000 and 2005-2013 was estimated using anti-non-structural proteins ELISA. Overall, 209 samples were tested, comprising sera of 120 wild boar (Sus scrofa lybicus), 64 mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella gazella), 6 water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), and 19 Persian fallow deer (Dama dama mesopotamica). None of the tested animals presented clinical signs of FMD during blood collection. Sixteen samples [7.7% (95% confidence interval (CI95%) = 4.4-12.1%)] were found to be seropositive. Fifteen out of 120 samples (12.5%) from wild boar were seropositive, compared with only 1 out of 89 samples (1.1%) from all other species combined (Fisher's exact test: p = 0.003). Most of the positive samples obtained from wild boar [13/15 (86.7%)] were collected during 2007, and analysis was restricted to that year and species only. The seroprevalence of FMD in this species during 2007 was estimated at 54.2% (CI95% = 32.8-74.5%; n = 24). A significant infection cluster, comprising nine seropositive samples collected in three different locations, was identified in the north-eastern part of Israel. These findings indicate that wild boar was affected during the 2007 FMD epidemic, even though wild boar presenting FMD typical clinical signs were not observed during that year. The actual role of wild boar in the spread of FMD virus in this epidemic, however, could not be determined. The negligible seroprevalence of FMD found for all other surveillance years indicates that ongoing circulation of FMD among wildlife in Israel is unlikely. It is concluded that while the role of wildlife species in the dynamics of FMD in Israel is usually limited, there might be occasions, in which wildlife plays a part in the spread of the virus. PMID:27200364

  18. Condition of South-Eastern Baltic Sea Shores and Methods of Protecting Them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Pruszak, Zbigniew; Babakov, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The paper describes lithodynamic and morphodynamic processes occurring in the main part of the south-eastern Baltic coastal area, namely on the sea shores from the Vistula mouth in the Gulf of Gdansk to the Lithuanian-Latvian border. The study area is subject to intensive natural coastal changes, as well as shore evolution caused by anthropogenic impacts at several locations. Methods of coastal protection against erosion and shore stabilization systems applied in the past and currently are described. The paper deals with the causes of the dynamics of beach/dune shores and cliffs. It presents the authors' field observations of 2010-2013, as well as previously gained knowledge and the results of Polish, Russian and joint Polish-Russian field surveys.

  19. Static reconstruction of malar region in facial paralysis: a new alternative technique for plasty of symmetric mouth appearance.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Shinya; Sato, Nobuhiro; Kuroki, Tomoaki; Rikihisa, Naoaki; Ichinose, Masaharu

    2013-10-01

    Static suspension using fascia lata graft is used as a reconstructive procedure against drooping of the mouth corner for treating longstanding facial paralysis. Although it achieves symmetry at rest, movement of the mouth corner at mouth opening is restricted to some extent because it is fixed with fascia lata to the immovable temporal fascia, the parotid fascia, or bones. This was overcome by suspending the mouth corner to the mandibular coronoid process with fascia lata, which enabled a shift of the mouth corner with mouth opening and closure. The nine patients discussed in this study were operated on since 1994 for longstanding facial paralysis and followed-up for over 1.5 years. As in conventional static suspension, the fascia lata was harvested and split into two bands. Next, one semi-oval fascial loop was inserted around the paralysed part of the mouth and tied with another fascial band at the mouth corner, which was looped to the mandibular coronoid process. The suspended fascia lata graft was relaxed with anteroinferior movement of the coronoid process at mouth opening, enabling the mouth corner to shift inferiorly. The mouth corner returned to its original position at mouth closure, and the nasolabial fold deepened during mastication. No limitation in mouth opening was observed. Suspension of the mouth corner to the mandibular coronoid process provided a dynamic element, thereby restoring a near-normal shift. The procedure is considered as an alternative for reconstructing the malar region of patients with facial paralysis and in whom dynamic reconstruction is not indicated.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern cottontail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is the most widely distributed cottontail in North America (Chapman et al. 1982). The species is considered to be a generalist that occupies a variety of habitats from southern Canada southward into South America (Chapman et al. 1980). The eastern cottontail's range overlaps that of six other species of cottontails (Sylvilagus spp.) and six species of hares (Lepus spp.). Eastern cottontails have been widely transplanted and are believed to be expanding their range northward, particularly in the Northeast (Chapman et al. 1982). The eastern cottontail has been successfully introduced into portions of Oregon and Washington which are outside of the species' natural range (Chapman and Morgan 1973). The eastern cottontail is primarily nocturnal and is a principal game species in the eastern United States.

  1. Subduction Initiation in Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction is often reported to be difficult to initiate, yet in the West Pacific and Eastern Indonesia there are many young subduction zones. Few theoretical or modelling studies consider such settings in which subduction commonly began close to boundaries between ocean crust and thickened crust of arc or continental origin. In Eastern Indonesia there are subduction zones at different stages of development. Some young examples such as the Banda Arc developed by propagation of an existing trench into a new area by tearing, probably along an ocean-continent boundary. This 'solves' the problem since the older subducted slab provides the driving force to drag down unsubducted ocean lithosphere. However, similar explanations cannot account for other subduction zones, such as North Sulawesi, nearby examples in which the subducted slab is not yet at 100 km depth, or troughs where subduction appears to be beginning. These examples show that subduction initiated at a point, such as a corner in an ocean basin, where there were very great differences in elevation between land and adjacent ocean floor. Depression of ocean crust by flow of arc/continent crust is associated with granitic magmatism and detachments within the upper crust. Once the oceanic corner reaches depths of c.100 km, eclogite formation may lead to slab pull that causes the new subduction zone to grow in both directions along strike; arc magmatism may or may not begin. The close relationship between subduction and extension in Eastern Indonesia links dramatic elevation of land, exhumation of deep crust, and spectacular subsidence of basins imaged by oil exploration seismic and multibeam data. Exhumed granites and high-grade metamorphic rocks at elevations up to 3 km, separated by Neogene alluvial sediments from carbonate reefs now at depths of 2 kilometres, imply vertical movements of several kilometres in a few million years. These observations raise the question of whether subduction is driving extension

  2. Forced mouth opening reaction: a primitive reflex released from cortical inhibition.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Riina; Saito, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Takehiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro; Nagaishi, Jun-ichi; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-05-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, who showed 'forced mouth opening reaction' during the course of acute encephalopathy due to adrenal crisis. When an object was moved towards her mouth, or when the corner of her mouth was stroked with a tongue depressor, she would immediately open her mouth fully and hold it open. This reaction appeared transiently during the course of her illness in association with other frontal release signs including the rooting, groping and palmomental reflexes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral widespread lesions involving the gray and white matters in the frontal lobes, and less severe lesions in the temporal and parietal areas. We propose that this unique reaction is a sign of a release phenomenon, and represents the emergence of primitive reflexes in the absence of cortical inhibition in some types of encephalopathies. PMID:16368214

  3. [Optimization of novel self-microemulsifying mouth dissolving films by response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lu; Yi, Tao; Liu, Ying; Huan, Di; He, Ji-kui

    2011-05-01

    This paper report the development of a new dosage form - self-microemulsifying mouth dissolving films, which can improve the oral bioavailability of water insoluble drugs and have good compliance. A three factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing formulation, investigated the effect of amounts of microcrystalline cellulose, low-substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose and hypromellose on the weight, disintegration time, cumulative release of indomethacin after 2 min, microemulsified particle size and stretchability. Optimized self-microemulsifying mouth dissolving films could fast disintegrate in (17.09 +/- 0.72) s; obtain microemulsified particle size at (28.81 +/- 3.26) nm; and release in vitro at 2 min to (66.18 +/- 1.94)%. Self-microemulsifying mouth dissolving films with broad application prospects have good compliance, strong tensile and can be released rapidly in the mouth through fast self-microemulsifying.

  4. Vallis Marineris Mouth as the Best Location for Exploration Zone (EZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    The mouth of Vallis Marineris is a particularly interesting location where the widest rock varieties could be expected. The Vallis crosses chaotic terrains and equatorial zone where water ice could be discovered. Pathfinder and Viking were nearby.

  5. Orofacial trauma and mouth-protector wear among high school varsity basketball players.

    PubMed

    Maestrello-deMoya, M G; Primosch, R E

    1989-01-01

    This investigation surveyed the prevalence and types of orofacial injuries among 1020 Florida high school basketball players during one season; it also examined the prevalence and types of mouth protectors used and their influence on sustained injuries. The results demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of players (31 percent) reporting orofacial trauma suffered during the organized playing of basketball. Most players reporting orofacial trauma indicated they received multiple injuries during the season. Only a small percentage (4.2 percent) of the basketball players surveyed reported use of mouth protectors and this use was exclusively voluntary. Those players not wearing mouth protectors reported an approximately seven-fold increase in orofacial injuries; most involved trauma to the soft tissue. Many objections were cited to the use of mouth protectors by the players, which must be overcome if compliance with future mandatory wear is recommended. Results of this survey suggest that further investigation into orofacial injuries among basketball players should be pursued.

  6. Analysis of Recent Serotype O Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses from Livestock in Kenya: Evidence of Four Independently Evolving Lineages.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, S N; Muwanika, V B; Siegismund, H R; Sangula, A K; Namatovu, A; Dhikusooka, M T; Tjørnehøj, K; Balinda, S N; Wadsworth, J; Knowles, N J; Belsham, G J

    2015-06-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya where four serotypes (O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2) of the virus are currently in circulation. Within 2010 and 2011, the National Laboratory recorded an increase in the number of FMD outbreaks caused by serotype O virus. The characteristics of these viruses were determined to ascertain whether these were independent outbreaks or one single strain spreading throughout the country. The sequences of the complete VP1-coding region were analysed from viruses sampled within different areas of Kenya during 2010 and 2011. The results indicated that the 2010 to 2011 outbreaks in Kenya were caused by four independent strains. By comparison with earlier type O isolates from Eastern Africa, it was apparent that the outbreaks were caused by viruses from three different lineages of topotype EA-2 and a fourth virus strain belonging to topotype EA-4. The topotypes EA-1 and EA-3 were not detected from these outbreaks. Implications of these results for FMD control in Eastern Africa are discussed.

  7. Is a multivalent hand, foot, and mouth disease vaccine feasible?

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Michel; Chong, Pele

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. Although enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) are the predominant causes of HFMD epidemics worldwide, EV-A71 has emerged as a major neurovirulent virus responsible for severe neurological complications and fatal outcomes. HFMD is a serious health threat and economic burden across the Asia-Pacific region. Inactivated EV-A71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV-A71 but not against CV-A16 infections in large efficacy trials. The current development of a bivalent inactivated EV-A71/CV-A16 vaccine is the next step toward that of multivalent HFMD vaccines. These vaccines should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses A (CV-A6 and CV-A10), coxsackieviruses B (B3 and B5) and echovirus 30 that often co-circulate during HFMD epidemics and can cause severe HFMD, aseptic meningitis and acute viral myocarditis. The prospect and challenges for the development of such multivalent vaccines are discussed. PMID:26009802

  8. Therapeutic options in idiopathic burning mouth syndrome: literature review.

    PubMed

    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, α-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  9. Acupuncture and burning mouth syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni; Tarozzi, Marco; Varoni, Elena; Franchini, Roberto; Carrassi, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic condition most common in middle-aged and elderly women, with prevalence rates in the general population ranging from 0.5% to 5%. Defined by the International Headache Society as "an intraoral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found," BMS is considered a form of neuropathic pain. The management of BMS remains unsatisfactory. In this pilot study, we investigated the use of acupuncture in a small group of BMS patients. The study group, after 4 refusals, was composed of 10 BMS patients (9 females and 1 male; mean age, 65.2 years; range, from 48 to 80 years; mean duration of BMS, 2.6 years; SD ± 0.8 years). Oral pain/burning sensation (primary outcome) was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Health-related quality of life (secondary outcome) was measured using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Acupuncture treatment lasted 8 weeks and consisted of 20 sessions. Patients reported a mean reduction in pain of 0.99 points on the VAS (max 2.1-min 0.1), which, although slight, was statistically significant (Wilcoxon test P < 0.009). No significant improvement in the overall score for quality of life was observed, although subjects receiving acupuncture treatment seemed better able cope with their oral symptoms. PMID:23336607

  10. Temporal contrast of salt delivery in mouth increases salt perception.

    PubMed

    Busch, Johanneke L H C; Tournier, Carole; Knoop, Janine E; Kooyman, Gonnie; Smit, Gerrit

    2009-05-01

    The impact of salt delivery in mouth on salt perception was investigated. It was hypothesized that fast concentration changes in the delivery to the receptor can reduce sensory adaptation, leading to an increased taste perception. Saltiness ratings were scored by a panel over time during various stimulation conditions involving relative changes in NaCl concentration of 20% and 38%. Changes in salt delivery profile had similar effect on saltiness perception when delivered either by a sipwise method or by a gustometer. The impact of concentration variations and frequency of concentration changes was further investigated with the gustometer method. Five second boosts and 2 s pulses were delivered during 3 sequential 10-s intervals, whereas the delivered total salt content was the same for all conditions. Two second pulses were found to increase saltiness perception, but only when the pulses were delivered during the first seconds of stimulation. Results suggest that the frequency, timing, and concentration differences of salt stimuli can affect saltiness. Specifically, a short and intense stimulus can increase salt perception, possibly through a reduction of adaptation.

  11. RISK FACTORS FOR SEVERE HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Owatanapanich, Somchai; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Jaksupa, Wipaporn; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2015-05-01

    We studied risk factors associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enteroviruses among patients aged less than 15 years admitted to King Narai Hospital, Lopburi, Thailand during 2011-2013. Cases were divided into either mild or severe. Severe cases were those with encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema or respiratory failure. Risk factors for severe infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. One hundred eighteen patients met the case definition of HFMD. Of these, 95 (80.5%) were classified as mild cases, and 23 (19.5%) as severe cases; there were 5 deaths (4.2%). Of the 23 severe cases, 9 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), 8 with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and 4 with both EV71 and CA16. The most common presentations among the severe caseswere: seizures (74%), pneumonia (39%), encephalitis (39%), and meningitis (13%). The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on univariate analysis were highest body temperature 39.00C, duration of fever 23 days, absence of skin lesions, diarrhea, dyspnea, seizures and hyperglycemia. The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on both univariate and multivariate analyses were age less than 1 year, absence of oral lesions and drowsiness/lethargy. Clinicians should be aware of these factors. Early recognition of severe cases is important to increase the rates of successful outcomes and reduce mortality.

  12. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth.

    PubMed

    Moura, Rodrigo L; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M; Moraes, Fernando C; Brasileiro, Poliana S; Salomon, Paulo S; Mahiques, Michel M; Bastos, Alex C; Almeida, Marcelo G; Silva, Jomar M; Araujo, Beatriz F; Brito, Frederico P; Rangel, Thiago P; Oliveira, Braulio C V; Bahia, Ricardo G; Paranhos, Rodolfo P; Dias, Rodolfo J S; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G; Pereira, Renato C; Leal, Camille V; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E; Gregoracci, Gustavo B; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S; Moreira, Ana P B; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L; Teixeira, João B; Valle, Rogerio A B; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2016-04-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 10(6)-km(2) plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume's eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km(2)) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth-ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  13. Therapeutic Options in Idiopathic Burning Mouth Syndrome: Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Miziara, Ivan; Chagury, Azis; Vargas, Camila; Freitas, Ludmila; Mahmoud, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the tongue, palate, lips, or gums of no well-defined etiology. The diagnosis and treatment for primary BMS are controversial. No specific laboratory tests or diagnostic criteria are well established, and the diagnosis is made by excluding all other possible disorders. Objective To review the literature on the main treatment options in idiopathic BMS and compare the best results of the main studies in 15 years. Data Synthesis We conducted a literature review on PubMed/MEDLINE, SciELO, and Cochrane-BIREME of work in the past 15 years, and only selected studies comparing different therapeutic options in idiopathic BMS, with preference for randomized and double-blind controlled studies. Final Comments Topical clonazepam showed good short-term results for the relief of pain, although this was not presented as a definitive cure. Similarly, α-lipoic acid showed good results, but there are few randomized controlled studies that showed the long-term results and complete remission of symptoms. On the other hand, cognitive therapy is reported as a good and lasting therapeutic option with the advantage of not having side effects, and it can be combined with pharmacologic therapy. PMID:25992157

  14. RISK FACTORS FOR SEVERE HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE.

    PubMed

    Owatanapanich, Somchai; Wutthanarungsan, Rochana; Jaksupa, Wipaporn; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2015-05-01

    We studied risk factors associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enteroviruses among patients aged less than 15 years admitted to King Narai Hospital, Lopburi, Thailand during 2011-2013. Cases were divided into either mild or severe. Severe cases were those with encephalitis, meningitis, myocarditis, pneumonia, pulmonary edema or respiratory failure. Risk factors for severe infection were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. One hundred eighteen patients met the case definition of HFMD. Of these, 95 (80.5%) were classified as mild cases, and 23 (19.5%) as severe cases; there were 5 deaths (4.2%). Of the 23 severe cases, 9 were infected with coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), 8 with enterovirus 71 (EV71) and 4 with both EV71 and CA16. The most common presentations among the severe caseswere: seizures (74%), pneumonia (39%), encephalitis (39%), and meningitis (13%). The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on univariate analysis were highest body temperature 39.00C, duration of fever 23 days, absence of skin lesions, diarrhea, dyspnea, seizures and hyperglycemia. The clinical manifestations significantly related to severe HFMD on both univariate and multivariate analyses were age less than 1 year, absence of oral lesions and drowsiness/lethargy. Clinicians should be aware of these factors. Early recognition of severe cases is important to increase the rates of successful outcomes and reduce mortality. PMID:26521518

  15. Water surface slope spectra in nearshore and river mouth environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxague, N. J. M.; Ortiz-Suslow, D. G.; Haus, B. K.; Williams, N. J.; Graber, H. C.

    2016-05-01

    With the ever-growing interest in satellite remote sensing, direct observations of short wave characteristics are needed along coastal margins. These zones are characterized by a diversity of physical processes that can affect sea surface topography. Here we present connections made between ocean wave spectral shape and wind forcing in coastal waters using polarimetric slope sensing and eddy covariance methods; this is based on data collected in the vicinity of the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR) on the Oregon-Washington border. These results provide insights into the behavior of short waves in coastal environments under variable wind forcing; this characterization of wave spectra is an important step towards improving the use of radar remote sensing to sample these dynamic coastal waters. High wavenumber spectral peaks are found to appear for U 10 > 6 m/s but vanish for τ > 0.1 N/m2, indicating a stark difference between how wind speed and wind stress are related to the short-scale structure of the ocean surface. Near-capillary regime spectral shape is found to be less steep than in past observations and to show no discernable sensitivity to wind forcing.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Knowles, N J; Samuel, A R

    2003-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is the most economically important veterinary pathogen due to its highly infectious nature, ability to cause persistent infections and long term effects on the condition and productivity of the many animal species it affects. Countries which have the disease have many trade restrictions placed upon them. In the last 15 years there have been significant advances in the understanding of FMD epidemiology. These have largely been due to the application of the molecular biological techniques of polymerase chain-reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing. In the World Reference Laboratory for FMD (Pirbright, UK), a large sequence database has been built up. This database has been used to aid in the global tracing of virus movements. It has been possible to genetically group many FMDV's based on their geographic origin and this has led to their being referred to as topotypes. The implications of this are that inter-regional spread of viruses can often be easily recognised and any evolutionary changes which subsequently occur can be monitored. Using these techniques, for the first time, we have been able to unequivocally show the recent pandemic spread of a FMDV type O strain through the whole of Asia and into Africa and Europe. This type of surveillance will become increasingly important as further globalisation of markets occurs. An increased understanding of how FMDV strains move between geographic regions will play a pivotal role in the development of future disease control strategies.

  17. The relevance of netnography to the harness of Romanian health care electronic word-of-mouth.

    PubMed

    Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, I R; Radu, A; Purcarea, V L

    2014-09-15

    Nowadays, consumers use the computer mediated communication to make purchase decisions on a large variety of products and services. Since health care services are archetypal by nature, consumers in this field are one of the most encountered users of electronic word-of-mouth. The objective of this paper is to explain and support the necessity of adopting a different qualitative method when electronic word of mouth is harnessed on health care dedicated forums, that is, netnography. PMID:25408755

  18. Analysis of breath, exhaled via the mouth and nose, and the air in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianshu; Pysanenko, Andriy; Dryahina, Kseniya; Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David

    2008-09-01

    Analyses have been performed, using on-line selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), of the breath of three healthy volunteers, as exhaled via the mouth and the nose and also of the air in the oral cavity during breath hold, each morning over a period of one month. Nine trace compounds have been quantified and concentration distributions have been constructed. Of these compounds, the levels of acetone, methanol and isoprene are the same in the mouth-exhaled and the nose-exhaled breath; hence, we deduce that these compounds are totally systemic. The levels of ammonia, ethanol and hydrogen cyanide are much lower in the nose-exhaled breath than in the mouth-exhaled breath and highest in the oral cavity, indicating that these compounds are largely generated in the mouth with little being released at the alveolar interface. Using the same ideas, both the low levels of propanol and acetaldehyde in mouth-exhaled breath appear to have both oral and systemic components. Formaldehyde is at levels in mouth- and nose-exhaled breath and the oral cavity that are lower than that of the ambient air and so its origin is difficult to ascertain, but it appears to be partially systemic. These results indicate that serious contamination of alveolar breath exhaled via the mouth can occur and if breath analysis is to be used to diagnose metabolic disease then analyses should be carried out of both mouth- and nose-exhaled breath to identify the major sources of particular trace compounds.

  19. Relaxed open mouth as a playful signal in wild ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Norscia, Ivan; Spada, Giulia

    2014-11-01

    Play signals are commonly used by animals to communicate their playful motivation and to limit the risk that rough acts are misunderstood by playmates. The relaxed open mouth is the most common facial expression performed during play in many mammals and represents the ritualized version of the movement anticipating a play bite. The signaling nature of this expression has been proven in many haplorrhine species but never demonstrated in strepsirrhines. Our purpose was assessing whether, also in strepsirrhines, the relaxed open mouth has an actual communicative function. We studied wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), characterized by highly social habits including intense playful interactions. They largely use playful signals, mostly performed with the black and white tail. The signaling function of the tail (tail play) has been widely demonstrated. We analyzed both tail play and the relaxed open mouth to verify how their distribution is affected by different play variables (e.g., play session symmetry, number of play mates, previous use of the same pattern). Indeed, ring-tailed lemurs use the relaxed open mouth as a communicative signal during play. Relaxed open mouth was more frequent during unbalanced interactions showing the highest asymmetry in the patterns performed by the two players (offensive/neutral). Compared to tail play, relaxed open mouth was more frequent during dyadic than polyadic interactions and, as a highly directional signal, it was more frequently replicated by the play mate. Therefore, the relaxed open mouth needs to be performed face-to-face so that signal detection can be optimized. Similar to previous findings in monkeys and apes, the relaxed open mouth in lemurs seems to be a ritualized signal used to engage and, perhaps, sustain playful interaction. PMID:24810169

  20. The relevance of netnography to the harness of Romanian health care electronic word-of-mouth

    PubMed Central

    Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, IR; Radu, A; Purcarea, VL

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, consumers use the computer mediated communication to make purchase decisions on a large variety of products and services. Since health care services are archetypal by nature, consumers in this field are one of the most encountered users of electronic word-of-mouth. The objective of this paper is to explain and support the necessity of adopting a different qualitative method when electronic word of mouth is harnessed on health care dedicated forums, that is, netnography. PMID:25408755

  1. Structure, age and origin of the bay-mouth shoal deposits, Chesapeake Bay, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Berquist, C.R.; Hobbs, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    The mouth of Chesapeake Bay contains a distinctive shoal complex and related deposits that result from the complex interaction of three different processes: (1) progradation of a barrier spit at the southern end of the Delmarva Peninsula, (2) strong, reversing tidal currents that transport and rework sediment brought to the bay mouth from the north, and (3) landward (bayward) net non-tidal circulation and sediment transport. Together, these processes play a major role in changing the configuration of the estuary and filling it with sediment. The deposits at the mouth of the bay hold keys both to the evolution of the bay during the Holocene transgression and to the history of previous generations of the bay. The deposit associated with the shoals at the mouth of the bay, the bay-mouth sand, is a distinct stratigraphic unit composed mostly of uniform, gray, fine sand. The position and internal structure of the unit shows that it is related to near-present sea level, and thus is less than a few thousand years old. The processes affecting the upper surface of the deposit and the patterns of erosion and deposition at this surface are complex, but the geometry and structure of the deposit indicate that it is a coherent unit that is prograding bayward and tending to fill the estuary. The source of the bay-mouth sand is primarily outside the bay in the nearshore zone of the Delmarva Peninsula and on the inner continental shelf. The internal structure of the deposit, its surface morphology, its heavy-mineral composition, bottom-current studies, comparative bathymetry, and sediment budgets all suggest that sand is brought to the bay mouth by southerly longshore drift along the Delmarva Peninsula and then swept into the bay. In addition to building the southward- and bayward-prograding bay-mouth sand, these processes result in sand deposition tens of kilometers into the bay. ?? 1988.

  2. Implicit Processing of the Eyes and Mouth: Evidence from Human Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Leo, Irene; Sarlo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the time course of implicit processing of distinct facial features and the associate event-related potential (ERP) components. To this end, we used a masked priming paradigm to investigate implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in upright and inverted faces, using a prime duration of 33 ms. Two types of prime-target pairs were used: 1. congruent (e.g., open eyes only in both prime and target or open mouth only in both prime and target); 2. incongruent (e.g., open mouth only in prime and open eyes only in target or open eyes only in prime and open mouth only in target). The identity of the faces changed between prime and target. Participants pressed a button when the target face had the eyes open and another button when the target face had the mouth open. The behavioral results showed faster RTs for the eyes in upright faces than the eyes in inverted faces, the mouth in upright and inverted faces. Moreover they also revealed a congruent priming effect for the mouth in upright faces. The ERP findings showed a face orientation effect across all ERP components studied (P1, N1, N170, P2, N2, P3) starting at about 80 ms, and a congruency/priming effect on late components (P2, N2, P3), starting at about 150 ms. Crucially, the results showed that the orientation effect was driven by the eye region (N170, P2) and that the congruency effect started earlier (P2) for the eyes than for the mouth (N2). These findings mark the time course of the processing of internal facial features and provide further evidence that the eyes are automatically processed and that they are very salient facial features that strongly affect the amplitude, latency, and distribution of neural responses to faces. PMID:26790153

  3. The relevance of netnography to the harness of Romanian health care electronic word-of-mouth.

    PubMed

    Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, I R; Radu, A; Purcarea, V L

    2014-09-15

    Nowadays, consumers use the computer mediated communication to make purchase decisions on a large variety of products and services. Since health care services are archetypal by nature, consumers in this field are one of the most encountered users of electronic word-of-mouth. The objective of this paper is to explain and support the necessity of adopting a different qualitative method when electronic word of mouth is harnessed on health care dedicated forums, that is, netnography.

  4. Implicit Processing of the Eyes and Mouth: Evidence from Human Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Leo, Irene; Sarlo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the time course of implicit processing of distinct facial features and the associate event-related potential (ERP) components. To this end, we used a masked priming paradigm to investigate implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in upright and inverted faces, using a prime duration of 33 ms. Two types of prime-target pairs were used: 1. congruent (e.g., open eyes only in both prime and target or open mouth only in both prime and target); 2. incongruent (e.g., open mouth only in prime and open eyes only in target or open eyes only in prime and open mouth only in target). The identity of the faces changed between prime and target. Participants pressed a button when the target face had the eyes open and another button when the target face had the mouth open. The behavioral results showed faster RTs for the eyes in upright faces than the eyes in inverted faces, the mouth in upright and inverted faces. Moreover they also revealed a congruent priming effect for the mouth in upright faces. The ERP findings showed a face orientation effect across all ERP components studied (P1, N1, N170, P2, N2, P3) starting at about 80 ms, and a congruency/priming effect on late components (P2, N2, P3), starting at about 150 ms. Crucially, the results showed that the orientation effect was driven by the eye region (N170, P2) and that the congruency effect started earlier (P2) for the eyes than for the mouth (N2). These findings mark the time course of the processing of internal facial features and provide further evidence that the eyes are automatically processed and that they are very salient facial features that strongly affect the amplitude, latency, and distribution of neural responses to faces.

  5. Relaxed open mouth as a playful signal in wild ring-tailed lemurs.

    PubMed

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Norscia, Ivan; Spada, Giulia

    2014-11-01

    Play signals are commonly used by animals to communicate their playful motivation and to limit the risk that rough acts are misunderstood by playmates. The relaxed open mouth is the most common facial expression performed during play in many mammals and represents the ritualized version of the movement anticipating a play bite. The signaling nature of this expression has been proven in many haplorrhine species but never demonstrated in strepsirrhines. Our purpose was assessing whether, also in strepsirrhines, the relaxed open mouth has an actual communicative function. We studied wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta), characterized by highly social habits including intense playful interactions. They largely use playful signals, mostly performed with the black and white tail. The signaling function of the tail (tail play) has been widely demonstrated. We analyzed both tail play and the relaxed open mouth to verify how their distribution is affected by different play variables (e.g., play session symmetry, number of play mates, previous use of the same pattern). Indeed, ring-tailed lemurs use the relaxed open mouth as a communicative signal during play. Relaxed open mouth was more frequent during unbalanced interactions showing the highest asymmetry in the patterns performed by the two players (offensive/neutral). Compared to tail play, relaxed open mouth was more frequent during dyadic than polyadic interactions and, as a highly directional signal, it was more frequently replicated by the play mate. Therefore, the relaxed open mouth needs to be performed face-to-face so that signal detection can be optimized. Similar to previous findings in monkeys and apes, the relaxed open mouth in lemurs seems to be a ritualized signal used to engage and, perhaps, sustain playful interaction.

  6. "The opening of the mouth"--a new perspective for an ancient Egyptian mummification procedure.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roger; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    "The opening of the mouth ritual" (OMR) is a central and well-documented component of the Ancient Egyptian mortuary ceremony. In the scientific literature, we find various references that indicate that parts of this ritual correspond to physical opening of the deceased's mouth during its mummification. We denote this physical treatment of the dead the "opening of the mouth procedure," to underline the distinction against the "opening of the mouth ritual," which is performed ceremonially later on the mummy or even the statue. The mummifying procedure itself however is known only from rare pictorial representations and the later summary descriptions of Greek authors. Nevertheless, recently some authors tried, on the basis of paleopathological findings, to demonstrate that the mouth of the deceased had to be opened physically before mummifying. Careful examination of the mummies of the Swiss Mummy Project and other cases reported in the literature showed frequent dental pathologies including fractured and totally luxated teeth, which were up to now not sufficiently taken into consideration. The detailed report of the preliminary procedures of mummifying the Apis bull-as appropriate detailed descriptions for humans are missing-gives us insight into the treatment of the oral cavity. Our results, when combined with the available historical literature, indicate that the OMR can be regarded as a ritualized counterpart of a real "opening of mouth procedure" during mummification.

  7. Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Review of the Etiopathologic Factors and Management.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by pain in the mouth with or with no inflammatory signs and no specific lesions. Synonyms found in literature include glossodynia, oral dysesthesia, glossopyrosis, glossalgia, stomatopyrosis, and stomatodynia. Burning mouth syndrome generally presents as a triad: Mouth pain, alteration in taste, and altered salivation, in the absence of visible mucosal lesions in the mouth. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during evening and at night. The etiopathogenesis seems to be complex and in a large number of patients probably involves interactions among local, systemic, and/or psychogenic factors. The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Management is always based on the etiological agents involved. If burning persists after local or systemic conditions are treated, then treatment is aimed at controlling neuropathic symptoms. Treatment of BMS is still unsatisfactory, and there is no definitive cure. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required to bring the condition under better control. The aim of this review was to discuss several aspects of BMS, update current knowledge, and provide guidelines for patient management. PMID:27207008

  8. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

    PubMed

    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P < 0·05). The resting and total duration of chewing were significantly prolonged (P < 0·05) and the active duration significantly shorter (P < 0·05) when breathing through the mouth compared with the nose. Significantly more chewing strokes were counted for mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P < 0·05). Taken together, the results indicate that mouth breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth.

  9. "The opening of the mouth"--a new perspective for an ancient Egyptian mummification procedure.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Roger; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    "The opening of the mouth ritual" (OMR) is a central and well-documented component of the Ancient Egyptian mortuary ceremony. In the scientific literature, we find various references that indicate that parts of this ritual correspond to physical opening of the deceased's mouth during its mummification. We denote this physical treatment of the dead the "opening of the mouth procedure," to underline the distinction against the "opening of the mouth ritual," which is performed ceremonially later on the mummy or even the statue. The mummifying procedure itself however is known only from rare pictorial representations and the later summary descriptions of Greek authors. Nevertheless, recently some authors tried, on the basis of paleopathological findings, to demonstrate that the mouth of the deceased had to be opened physically before mummifying. Careful examination of the mummies of the Swiss Mummy Project and other cases reported in the literature showed frequent dental pathologies including fractured and totally luxated teeth, which were up to now not sufficiently taken into consideration. The detailed report of the preliminary procedures of mummifying the Apis bull-as appropriate detailed descriptions for humans are missing-gives us insight into the treatment of the oral cavity. Our results, when combined with the available historical literature, indicate that the OMR can be regarded as a ritualized counterpart of a real "opening of mouth procedure" during mummification. PMID:25998653

  10. Management and sediment dynamics of the St. Lucia Estuary mouth, Zululand, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, C. I.; Mason, T. R.

    1993-11-01

    St. Lucia Estuary is on the subtropical, predominantly microtidal Zululand coast of South Africa. Lake St. Lucia's surface area fluctuates between 420 and 215 km2 and has a mean depth of less than 1 m. The 21-km-long narrows connects Lake St. Lucia with the Indian Ocean. Tidal effects penetrate 14 km up the narrows. The St. Lucia system has changed substantially since the 1930s due to bad farming techniques within its catchment. Large amounts of sediment were deposited in the estuary mouth, resulting in relocation of the Mfolozi River mouth to the south at Mapelane. The St. Lucia catchment was subjected to two devastating floods in the last ten years: Cyclone Domoina during February 1984 and the September 1987 cutoff low flood. After floods scoured out the estuary, marine sand advanced up the estuary at a rate of 1200 m/y as a series of flood-tidal deltas. Over 600,000 m3 of sediment accumulated in the St. Lucia Estuary mouth from February 1988 to November 1989. Of this amount, 466,000 m3 of sediment was removed by dredging, although this has not stopped the shoaling. During high rainfall years, the estuary mouth is able to maintain an open outlet to the sea, but as lake levels drop, shoaling causes the mouth to constrict and eventually close. Without the dredging program the mouth would ultimately close during low rainfall years, causing management problems.

  11. Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Review of the Etiopathologic Factors and Management.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by pain in the mouth with or with no inflammatory signs and no specific lesions. Synonyms found in literature include glossodynia, oral dysesthesia, glossopyrosis, glossalgia, stomatopyrosis, and stomatodynia. Burning mouth syndrome generally presents as a triad: Mouth pain, alteration in taste, and altered salivation, in the absence of visible mucosal lesions in the mouth. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during evening and at night. The etiopathogenesis seems to be complex and in a large number of patients probably involves interactions among local, systemic, and/or psychogenic factors. The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Management is always based on the etiological agents involved. If burning persists after local or systemic conditions are treated, then treatment is aimed at controlling neuropathic symptoms. Treatment of BMS is still unsatisfactory, and there is no definitive cure. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required to bring the condition under better control. The aim of this review was to discuss several aspects of BMS, update current knowledge, and provide guidelines for patient management.

  12. Malignant mesothelioma in Eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Claudio; Bianchi, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    Relatively low numbers of malignant mesotheliomas have been reported from Eastern Asia. In order to explore the causes of this fact, the available data on mesothelioma incidence/mortality in five countries (Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore) were reviewed. Data on the industrial histories of the above countries were also examined. Mesothelioma incidence was low, despite a history of high shipbuilding and port activities, in which heavy exposure to asbestos generally has occurred. Underestimation of mesothelioma could partly explain the above discrepancy. Moreover, in some areas a sufficient latency period for mesothelioma development may have not yet elapsed, due to recent industrialization. However, other possibilities have to be considered. The cancer epidemiology in Eastern Asia differs deeply from that seen in Western countries, an indication of differences in etiologic factors of cancer as well as in co-factors. In addition, the oncogenic spectrum of asbestos is wide, and not completely defined. In a very different milieu from that of Western countries, asbestos could preferentially hit targets other than serosal membranes.

  13. Outcomes of Children Adopted from Eastern Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laurie; Chan, Wilma; Tirella, Linda; Perrin, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems are frequent among post-institutionalized Eastern European adoptees. However, risk factors related to outcomes have not been fully delineated. We evaluated 50 Eastern European adoptees, age 8-10 years, with their adoptive families for more than five years. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes and parenting stress were evaluated in…

  14. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    The Eastern Iowa Basins Study Unit includes the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins and covers approximately 19,500 square miles in eastern Iowa and southern Minnesota. More than 90 percent of the land in the study unit is used for agricultural purposes. Forested areas account for only 4 percent of the land area.

  15. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Shaun M.; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg-1 BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg-1, p < 0.05). Magnitude inference analysis reported a likely benefit (81% likelihood) of the CHO mouth rinse on PPO. In the CHO trial, mean power output (MPO) showed a trend for being greater in the first 5 seconds of the sprint and lower for the remainder of the sprint compared with the PLA trial (p > 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key points The paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint. The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors. The significant increase in peak power

  16. The Influence of Serial Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing on Power Output during a Cycle Sprint.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M; Findlay, Scott; Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Grant, Marie Clare

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of serial administration of a carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on performance, metabolic and perceptual responses during a cycle sprint. Twelve physically active males (mean (± SD) age: 23.1 (3.0) years, height: 1.83 (0.07) m, body mass (BM): 86.3 (13.5) kg) completed the following mouth rinse trials in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind fashion; 1. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml CHO (6% w/v maltodextrin) solution, 2. 8 x 5 second rinses with a 25 ml placebo (PLA) solution. Following mouth rinse administration, participants completed a 30 second sprint on a cycle ergometer against a 0.075 g·kg(-1) BM resistance. Eight participants achieved a greater peak power output (PPO) in the CHO trial, resulting in a significantly greater PPO compared with PLA (13.51 ± 2.19 vs. 13.20 ± 2.14 W·kg(-1), p < 0.05). Magnitude inference analysis reported a likely benefit (81% likelihood) of the CHO mouth rinse on PPO. In the CHO trial, mean power output (MPO) showed a trend for being greater in the first 5 seconds of the sprint and lower for the remainder of the sprint compared with the PLA trial (p > 0.05). No significant between-trials difference was reported for fatigue index, perceived exertion, arousal and nausea levels, or blood lactate and glucose concentrations. Serial administration of a CHO mouth rinse may significantly improve PPO during a cycle sprint. This improvement appears confined to the first 5 seconds of the sprint, and may come at a greater relative cost for the remainder of the sprint. Key pointsThe paper demonstrates that repeated administration of a carbohydrate mouth rinse can significantly improve peak power output during a single 30 second cycle sprint.The ergogenic effect of the carbohydrate mouth rinse may relate to the duration of exposure of the oral cavity to the mouth rinse, and associated greater stimulation of oral carbohydrate receptors.The significant increase in peak power

  17. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  18. The history of research in foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Fred

    2003-01-01

    The history of research in foot-and-mouth disease falls into several distinct areas. In this short chapter I have highlighted what I consider to be the significant advances in our knowledge of the disease and its causal agent. 1. Loeffler and Frosch's landmark description in 1898 that the disease is caused by a filterable agent, the first observation that an animal disease could be caused by a virus. 2. The search for experimental laboratory animals, culminating in the demonstration by Waldmann and Pape of the susceptibility of the guinea pig in 1920 and the suckling mouse by Skinner in 1951. 3. The discovery of three distinct serotypes O, A and C in the 1920s by Vallée and Carré in France and by Waldmann in Germany, and the subsequent recognition in the 1940s and 1950s by the Pirbright group of the three Southern African Territory Types SAT 1-3, and Asia 1. 4. The development of in vitro techniques for the growth of the virus which have been crucial for the large-scale production of vaccines and for the accurate assay of virus infectivity. Early work by Hecke and the Maitlands in the early 1930s, followed by the crucial demonstration by Frenkel in 1947 that large amounts of the virus could be produced in surviving tongue epithelium, formed the basis for the vaccination programmes initiated in Europe in the 1950s. The subsequent development of cell lines has brought a remarkable degree of sophistication to the study of virus growth. 5. The impact of molecular studies on the structure of the virus and its mode of replication which have led to practical applications such as an in vitro test for vaccine potency, rapid diagnosis methods, and international epidemiological surveys. In addition, they have provided the means to design molecular vaccines. PMID:12527434

  19. Foot and mouth disease: the experience of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B J A; Kloeck, P E L G; Connoway, L; Ekron, M D; Weaver, D B; Dickason, C J; Schreuder, F J; Marais, T; Mogajane, M E

    2002-12-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and surrounding game parks in South Africa. The last outbreak of the disease in domestic stock outside the FMD control zone occurred in 1957. Due to the success in containing the disease, the country was accorded zone freedom from FMD without vaccination by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE: World organisation for animal health) in 1995. This status was lost in September 2000 when the first-ever recorded case of serotype O in South Africa was diagnosed in a piggery in KwaZulu-Natal after the illegal feeding of untreated swill. In November 2000, an outbreak of FMD caused by serotype South African Territories (SAT) 1 was diagnosed in a feedlot within the free zone of Mpumalanga Province. The SAT 1 outbreak was traced to cattle in the FMD control zone south of the KNP after the game-proof fence surrounding the KNP was severely damaged by floods. This enabled buffalo to come into direct contact with cattle outside the KNP. A further outbreak caused by SAT 2 was diagnosed within the FMD control zone in February 2001, also as a result of buffalo having escaped from the KNP. All these outbreaks were successfully contained, with the re-instatement of zone freedom from FMD without vaccination by the OIE in May 2002. These outbreaks made it necessary to re-examine the methods of control and containment of FMD that have been practised for many years and which are in line with accepted international practices. The authors describe the rationale for the different control strategies that were followed, the need for a multidisciplinary approach to disease control, the interface between control and technological and diagnostic support and the lessons learned. Some suggestions for future control strategies are also offered.

  20. Abnormalities of the blink reflex in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, S K; Forssell, H; Tenovuo, O

    1997-12-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report on pain-related abnormalities of the eye blink reflex (BR) in a clinical pain patient population. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible neuropathic mechanisms underlying the burning mouth syndrome (BMS), by means of objective electrophysiological examination of the trigemino-facial system. We studied the BR with stimulation of the supraorbital nerve (SON) with particular emphasis on the occurrence of the pain-related ultralate R3 components, and the habituation response of the R2 components. The subjects consisted of eleven BMS patients and 10 healthy control subjects. All patients underwent thorough clinical oral and neurological examinations. The motor function of the trigeminal nerve was assessed with a jaw reflex recording, and a needle-EMG examination of the facial and masticatory muscles was performed in the patients with abnormalities in the BR recordings. The jaw reflexes, the latencies of the BR components, and the needle-EMG examinations were normal in all patients. As a group, the BMS patients had statistically significantly higher stimulus thresholds for the tactile R 1 components of the BR compared with the control subjects. With non-noxious stimulation, the BMS patients showed more frequently pain-related R3 components (11/22 SONs) compared with the controls (3/20 SONs). In addition, four BMS patients had abnormal habituation of the R2 components. In two of these patients, the findings were segmental (i.e., unilateral), coinciding with the side of the subjective BM symptoms. The abnormalities of the BR tests appeared to be related to longer disease duration. Our results suggest a possible pathologic involvement of the nervous system in chronic BMS.

  1. The history of research in foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Brown, Fred

    2003-01-01

    The history of research in foot-and-mouth disease falls into several distinct areas. In this short chapter I have highlighted what I consider to be the significant advances in our knowledge of the disease and its causal agent. 1. Loeffler and Frosch's landmark description in 1898 that the disease is caused by a filterable agent, the first observation that an animal disease could be caused by a virus. 2. The search for experimental laboratory animals, culminating in the demonstration by Waldmann and Pape of the susceptibility of the guinea pig in 1920 and the suckling mouse by Skinner in 1951. 3. The discovery of three distinct serotypes O, A and C in the 1920s by Vallée and Carré in France and by Waldmann in Germany, and the subsequent recognition in the 1940s and 1950s by the Pirbright group of the three Southern African Territory Types SAT 1-3, and Asia 1. 4. The development of in vitro techniques for the growth of the virus which have been crucial for the large-scale production of vaccines and for the accurate assay of virus infectivity. Early work by Hecke and the Maitlands in the early 1930s, followed by the crucial demonstration by Frenkel in 1947 that large amounts of the virus could be produced in surviving tongue epithelium, formed the basis for the vaccination programmes initiated in Europe in the 1950s. The subsequent development of cell lines has brought a remarkable degree of sophistication to the study of virus growth. 5. The impact of molecular studies on the structure of the virus and its mode of replication which have led to practical applications such as an in vitro test for vaccine potency, rapid diagnosis methods, and international epidemiological surveys. In addition, they have provided the means to design molecular vaccines.

  2. Introduction and history of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Mahy, B W J

    2005-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been recognized as a significant epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century, and in the late nineteenth century it was shown by Loeffler and Frosch to be caused by a submicroscopic, filterable transmissible agent, smaller than any known bacteria. The agent causing FMD was thus the first virus of vertebrates to be discovered, soon after the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus of plants. It was not until 1920 that a convenient animal model for the study of FMD virus was established by Waldmann and Pape, using guinea-pigs, and with the later development of in vitro cell culture systems for the virus, the chemical and physical properties of FMD virus were elucidated during the remainder of the twentieth century, culminating in 1989 with a complete description of the three-dimensional structure of the virion. FMD virus is classified as a species in the Aphthovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. The virus is acid labile, and the genome RNA contains a characteristic tract of polyC located about 360 nucleotides from the 5' terminus. Seven main serotypes exist throughout the world, as well as numerous subtypes. The World Reference Laboratory for FMD is located at Pirbright, Surrey, UK and undertakes surveillance of FMD epidemics by serotyping as well as by genotyping isolates of the virus. A major epidemic of FMD occurred in the UK in 2001 and was caused by a virulent strain of FMD virus with origins in Asia. The advantages and some disadvantages of controlling FMD outbreaks by vaccination are discussed.

  3. An extensive reef system at the Amazon River mouth

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo L.; Amado-Filho, Gilberto M.; Moraes, Fernando C.; Brasileiro, Poliana S.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Bastos, Alex C.; Almeida, Marcelo G.; Silva, Jomar M.; Araujo, Beatriz F.; Brito, Frederico P.; Rangel, Thiago P.; Oliveira, Braulio C. V.; Bahia, Ricardo G.; Paranhos, Rodolfo P.; Dias, Rodolfo J. S.; Siegle, Eduardo; Figueiredo, Alberto G.; Pereira, Renato C.; Leal, Camille V.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Asp, Nils E.; Gregoracci, Gustavo B.; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid; Yager, Patricia L.; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Fróes, Adriana; Campeão, Mariana; Silva, Bruno S.; Moreira, Ana P. B.; Oliveira, Louisi; Soares, Ana C.; Araujo, Lais; Oliveira, Nara L.; Teixeira, João B.; Valle, Rogerio A. B.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2016-01-01

    Large rivers create major gaps in reef distribution along tropical shelves. The Amazon River represents 20% of the global riverine discharge to the ocean, generating up to a 1.3 × 106–km2 plume, and extensive muddy bottoms in the equatorial margin of South America. As a result, a wide area of the tropical North Atlantic is heavily affected in terms of salinity, pH, light penetration, and sedimentation. Such unfavorable conditions were thought to imprint a major gap in Western Atlantic reefs. We present an extensive carbonate system off the Amazon mouth, underneath the river plume. Significant carbonate sedimentation occurred during lowstand sea level, and still occurs in the outer shelf, resulting in complex hard-bottom topography. A permanent near-bottom wedge of ocean water, together with the seasonal nature of the plume’s eastward retroflection, conditions the existence of this extensive (~9500 km2) hard-bottom mosaic. The Amazon reefs transition from accretive to erosional structures and encompass extensive rhodolith beds. Carbonate structures function as a connectivity corridor for wide depth–ranging reef-associated species, being heavily colonized by large sponges and other structure-forming filter feeders that dwell under low light and high levels of particulates. The oxycline between the plume and subplume is associated with chemoautotrophic and anaerobic microbial metabolisms. The system described here provides several insights about the responses of tropical reefs to suboptimal and marginal reef-building conditions, which are accelerating worldwide due to global changes. PMID:27152336

  4. [Migration patterns in eastern Indonesia].

    PubMed

    Bandiyono, S

    1991-06-01

    The date of Indonesia's 1985 intercensal survey showed interprovincial migration towards the eastern part of the country due to transmigration programs as well as to a higher rate of migration among better educated people. The population of the southeastern and western islands was 2,720,000 in 1980 vs. 2,990,000 in 1985, population density per square km was 148, and the rate of growth from 1971-80 was 2.36% vs. 1.91% from 1980-85. The inhabitants of the southeastern and eastern islands numbered 2,740,000 in 1980 vs. 3,060,000 in 1985, density was 64, and the rate of growth from 1971-80 was 1.95% vs. 2.26% from 1980-85. East Timor's population numbered 630,000 in 1985 with a density of 42 and a growth rate of 2.58% in the period of 1980-85. The population of North Celebes was 2,120,000 in 1980 and 2,310,000 in 1985 with a density of 122 and a growth rate of 2.31% from 1971-80 and 1.8% from 1980-85. Middle Celebes numbered 1,280,000 in 1989 and 1,510,000 in 1985 with a density of 22 and a growth rate of 3.86% from 1971-80 and 3.22% from 1980-85. South Celebes had 6,060,000 people in 1980 and 6.610,000 in 1985 with a density of 91 and a growth rate of 1.74% from 1971-80 and 1.74% from 1980-85. Southeast Celebes had a population of 940,000 in 1980 vs. 1,120,000 in 1985 with a density of 40 and a growth rate of 3.09% from 1971-80 and 3.51% from 1980-85. THe Mollucas totalled 1,410,000 in 1980 and 1.610,000 in 1985 with a density of 22 and growth rate of 2.88% from 1971-80 and 2.66% from 1980-85. Iran and Jaya numbered 1,170,000 in 1980 and 1,370,000 in 1985 with a density of 3 and growth rate of 2.67% from 1971-80 and 3.15% from 1980-85. The whole of eastern Indonesia had a population of 18,440,000 in 1980 and 21,210,000 in 1985 with a density of 62 and growth rate of 2.89% from 1971-80 and 2.83 from 1980-85. The movement of people from the southern part of Celebes was the most massive interprovincial migration in eastern Indonesia.

  5. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, S.; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.; Skjoth Bruun, A.; Reid, I.; Chemia, Z.; Greschke, B.

    2011-12-01

    The conjugate Atlantic passive margins of western Norway and eastern Greenland are characterized by the presence of coast-parallel mountain ranges with peak elevations of more than 3.5 km close to Scoresby Sund in Eastern Greenland. Knowledge about crustal thickness and composition below these mountain belts is needed for assessing the isostatic balance of the crust and to gain insight into possible links between crustal composition, rifting history and present-day topography of the North Atlantic Region. However, the acquisition of geophysical data onshore Greenland is logistically complicated by the presence of an up to 4 km thick ice sheet, permanently covering the largest part of the land mass. Hence previous seismic surveys have only been carried out offshore and near the coast of Greenland, where little information about the continental part of the crust could be gained. To get insight into crustal thickness and composition below the Greenland ice sheet, the TopoGreenland project collects the first ever seismic data onshore Greenland. Wide-angle data was acquired along an EW-trending profile, extending 350 km inland from the approximate edge of the stable ice cap near Scoresby Sund. Data is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice sheet and provide a link between the composition of the crust and the present-day topography of Greenland.

  6. Morphology and morphometry of the human sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements of edentulous patients

    PubMed Central

    de SÁ, Josiane Costa Rodrigues; TOLENTINO, Elen de Souza; AZEVEDO-ALANIS, Luciana Reis; IWAKI FILHO, Liogi; LARA, Vanessa Soares; DAMANTE, José Humberto

    2013-01-01

    Asymptomatic mouth floor enlargements may be observed in edentulous patients. These masses, which protrude from the mouth floor, may complicate the fitting of dentures and require surgery. Whether this "entity" may be considered an anatomical variation of the mouth floor or represent specific alterations in the sublingual gland is not known. Objective The aim of this work is to investigate the morphological and morphometric aspects of the sublingual glands of edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements and compare the glands of these patients with the sublingual glands of human cadavers. Material and Methods Microscopic evaluation was performed on human sublingual glands from edentulous patients with mouth floor enlargements (n=20) and edentulous cadavers (n=20). The patients and cadavers were of similar ages. The data were compared using Mann-Whitney U, Fisher's exact and Student's t tests (p<0.05). Results Acinar atrophy, duct-like structures, mononuclear infiltrates, replacement of parenchyma with fibrous/adipose tissue, mucous extravasation and oncocytosis were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Only the variables "autolysis" and "congested blood vessels" presented statistical difference between groups (p=0.014; p=0.043). The morphometric study revealed that the volume densities of acini, ducts, stroma and adipose tissue were similar between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion The microscopic characteristics of the sublingual glands in mouth floor enlargements in edentulous patients correspond to characteristics associated with the normal aging process. The glands are not pathological and represent an age-related alteration that occurs with or without the presence of the mouth floor enlargements. PMID:24473720

  7. Changes in Saliva Rheological Properties and Mucin Glycosylation in Dry Mouth.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, N M A; Shirlaw, P; Pramanik, R; Carpenter, G H; Proctor, G B

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is vital for the maintenance of normal oral physiology and mucosal health. The loss of salivary function can have far-reaching consequences, as observed with dry mouth, which is associated with increased orodental disease, speech impairment, dysphagia, and a significant negative effect on quality of life. The timely diagnosis of oral dryness is vital for the management of orodental disease and any associated often-undiagnosed systemic disease (e.g., Sjögren syndrome). Our aim was to investigate differences in mucin glycoproteins and saliva rheological properties between sufferers and nonsufferers of dry mouth in order to understand the relationship between saliva composition, rheological properties, and dryness perception and provide additional potential diagnostic markers. All patients exhibited objective and subjective oral dryness, irrespective of etiology. Over half of the patients (n = 20, 58.8%) had a saliva secretion rate above the gland dysfunction cutoff of 0.1 mL/min. Mucin (MUC5B and MUC7) concentrations were generally similar or higher in patients. Despite the abundance of these moisture-retaining proteins, patients exhibited reduced mucosal hydration (wetness) and significantly lower saliva spinnbarkeit (stringiness), suggesting a loss of the lubricating and retention/adhesion properties of saliva, which, at least partially, are associated with mucin glycoproteins. Over 90% of patients with dry mouth (DMPs) consistently had unstimulated whole mouth saliva (UWMS) spinnbarkeit below the proposed normal cutoff (10 mm). Further analysis of mucins revealed the reduced glycosylation of mucins in DMPs compared to healthy controls. Our data indicate that UWMS mucin concentrations are not reduced in dry mouth but that the mucin structure (glycosylation) is altered. UWMS from DMPs had reduced spinnbarkeit, the assessment of which, in conjunction with sialometry, could improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of dry mouth. Additionally, it may be useful to

  8. Effects of caffeine and carbohydrate mouth rinses on repeated sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Beaven, C Martyn; Maulder, Peter; Pooley, Adrian; Kilduff, Liam; Cook, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose was to examine the effectiveness of carbohydrate and caffeine mouth rinses in enhancing repeated sprint ability. Previously, studies have shown that a carbohydrate mouth rinse (without ingestion) has beneficial effects on endurance performance that are related to changes in brain activity. Caffeine ingestion has also demonstrated positive effects on sprint performance. However, the effects of carbohydrate or caffeine mouth rinses on intermittent sprints have not been examined previously. Twelve males performed 5 × 6-s sprints interspersed with 24 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer. Twenty-five milliliters of either a noncaloric placebo, a 6% glucose, or a 1.2% caffeine solution was rinsed in the mouth for 5 s prior to each sprint in a double-blinded and balanced cross-over design. Postexercise maximal heart rate and perceived exertion were recorded, along with power measures. A second experiment compared a combined caffeine-carbohydrate rinse with carbohydrate only. Compared with the placebo mouth rinse, carbohydrate substantially increased peak power in sprint 1 (22.1 ± 19.5 W; Cohen's effect size (ES), 0.81), and both caffeine (26.9 ± 26.9 W; ES, 0.71) and carbohydrate (39.1 ± 25.8 W; ES, 1.08) improved mean power in sprint 1. Experiment 2 demonstrated that a combination of caffeine and carbohydrate improved sprint 1 power production compared with carbohydrate alone (36.0 ± 37.3 W; ES, 0.81). We conclude that carbohydrate and (or) caffeine mouth rinses may rapidly enhance power production, which could have benefits for specific short sprint exercise performance. The ability of a mouth-rinse intervention to rapidly improve maximal exercise performance in the absence of fatigue suggests a central mechanism.

  9. Development of Fetal Yawn Compared with Non-Yawn Mouth Openings from 24–36 Weeks Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Reissland, Nadja; Francis, Brian; Mason, James

    2012-01-01

    Background Although some research suggests that fetuses yawn, others disagree arguing that is it simple mouth opening. Furthermore there is no developmental account of fetal yawning compared with simple mouth opening. The aim of the present study was to establish in a repeated measures design the development of fetal yawning compared with simple mouth opening. Methodology/Findings Video recordings were made of the fetal face and upper torso visualized by means of 4D full frontal or facial profile ultrasound recordings. Fifteen healthy fetuses were scanned four times at 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks gestation. Yawning was distinguished from non-yawning in terms of the length of time it took to reach the apex of the mouth stretch, with yawns being defined as more than 50% of the total time observed. To assess changes in frequency, a Poisson mixed effects model was fitted to the count of number of yawn and simple mouth opening events with age and gender as fixed effects, and person as a random effect. For both yawns and simple mouth openings a smooth varying age effect was significant. The number of yawns observed declined with age from 28 weeks gestation, whereas simple mouth openings were less frequent and the decline was observed from 24 weeks. Gender was not significant either for yawn and simple mouth openings. Conclusions/Significance Yawning can be reliably distinguished from other forms of mouth opening with the potential of using yawning as an index of fetal healthy development. PMID:23185638

  10. Spring-loaded custom tray: an alternative technique for recording impressions in a patient with a restricted mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Manawar; Dhanasekar, B; Aparna, I N; Naim, Hina

    2014-01-01

    For patients with extensive head and neck injuries due to trauma and/or extensive surgical procedures, their ability to open the mouth is severely limited. Prosthodontic treatment of these patients often leads to compromised impressions and prostheses. When making an impression, a wide mouth opening is necessary to ensure both proper tray insertion and the correct alignment during border molding procedures. For patients with a restricted mouth opening, it may be necessary to modify the standard impression procedure to fabricate a prosthesis successfully. This article describes an alternative method for fabricating a custom impression tray for a complete denture in patients with limited mouth opening abilities.

  11. Movements of the horse's mouth in relation to horse-rider kinematic variables.

    PubMed

    Eisersiö, M; Roepstorff, L; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of horses to rein contact and the movement of the riders' hands through analysis of data from horses ridden at two different head and neck positions. It was hypothesised that the riders' hand movements and rein tension would generate behavioural responses from horses and that these responses would be more marked when horses were ridden 'on the bit' than when unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horse/rider combinations at sitting trot on a high speed treadmill. Kinematics were recorded using a 12-camera, infrared-based opto-electronic system. Three horses wore a rein tension meter. Behavioural registrations were made from video. Behavioural responses included lip movement, mouth movement, open mouth, change in ear position, head tilt and tail movement. Mouth movements were associated with the suspension phase of the trot. Head and neck position was non-significant in the final models, while rein tension and the distance between the rider's hand and the horse's mouth were related to mouth movements. Interactions between horses and riders are complex and highly variable.

  12. The Mouthwash War - Chlorhexidine vs. Herbal Mouth Rinses: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Sajjid; Wadgave, Umesh; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Ravi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are often prescribed in dentistry for prevention and treatment of several oral conditions. In the recent times the use of naturally occurring products what is otherwise known as grandmothers remedy are used on a large scale. This has now called for a newer age of mouth washes but is the new age mouth washes at par with the gold standard or even better than them this study investigates. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of two broad categories of mouth washes namely chlorhexidine and herbal mouth washes. Materials and Methods Eleven randomized control studies were pooled in for the meta-analysis. The search was done from the Pub Med Central listed studies with the use keywords with Boolean operators (chlorhexidine, herbal, mouth wash, randomized control trials). The fixed effects model was used for analysis. Results This meta-analysis brings to light, the fact that a wide range of newer herbal products are now available. As with a plethora of herbal mouthwashes available it is the need of the hour to validate their potential use and recommendation. This study found that only two studies favor the use of herbal products and four studies favor the use of chlorhexidine, of the 11 studies that were analyzed. Conclusion More studies are required under well controlled circumstances to prove that herbal products can equate or replace the ‘gold standard’ chlorhexidine. Herbal products are heterogeneous in nature, their use should be advised only with more scientific proof. PMID:27437366

  13. Effects of basin bottom slope on jet hydrodynamics and river mouth bar formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Robles, A. M.; Ortega-Sánchez, M.; Losada, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    River mouth bars are strategic morphological units primarily responsible for the development of entire deltaic systems. This paper addresses the role of receiving basin slope in the hydrodynamics of an exiting sediment-laden turbulent jet and in resulting mouth bar morphodynamics. We use Delft3D, a coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic numerical model, along with a theoretical formulation to reproduce the physics of the problem, characterized by a fluvially dominated inlet free of waves and tides. We propose an updated theoretical model with a slope-dependent entrainment coefficient, showing that the rate at which ambient fluid is incorporated into a jet increases with higher basin slopes. Transient results reveal that the magnitude of a basin slope can alter the stability of a jet, favoring the formation of an unstable meandering jet. While a stable jet gives rise to "middle-ground" bars accompanied by diverging channels, a "lunate" mouth bar results from unstable jets. Additional morphodynamic simulations demonstrate that the time required for mouth bar stagnation in its final position increases linearly with the basin slope. In contrast, the distance at which the mouth bar eventually forms decreases until reaching an asymptotic value for slopes higher than 2%. Moreover, the basin slope highly influences sedimentary processes responsible for bar formation: for milder slopes, progradation processes prevail, while in steeper basins aggradation is more relevant. Finally, the minimum relative water depth over a bar crest that forces the flow to bifurcate around a fully developed bar decreases with the basin slope.

  14. Effect of granule properties on rough mouth feel and palatability of orally disintegrating tablets.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Uchida, Shinya; Kanada, Ken; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2015-04-30

    In this study, we evaluated the palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) containing core granules with different particle sizes, coating, and types of materials using visual analog scales (VAS). Tableting the core granules into ODTs reduced rough mouth feel and improved overall palatability compared to the ingestion of core granules alone. Moreover, the evaluation performed immediately after spitting out ODTs demonstrated differences in rough mouth feel between ODTs containing placebo and core granules. Rough mouth feel was found to be significantly more intense with core granules with particle sizes ≥ 200 μm. Since ODTs may contain taste-masked particles, palatability of ODTs containing coated core granules was also evaluated. Although coating with polymers impairs palatability, it was improved by coating the outer layer with d-mannitol. The effects on palatability of materials constituting core granules were also evaluated, with reduced rough mouth feel observed with core granules composed of water-soluble additives. Based on these data, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to determine the threshold VAS scores at which the subjects felt roughness and discomfort. In addition, the threshold particle size of the core granule contained within the ODT required for feeling roughness was determined to be 244 μm. This study elucidated the effect of the properties of masking particles on the rough mouth feel and palatability of ODTs.

  15. Translation and rotation movements of the mandible during mouth opening and closing.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, Andrea; Galante, Domenico; Lovecchio, Nicola; Sforza, Chiarella; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2009-04-01

    To assess the relative contribution of rotation and translation of the temporomandibular condyle-disc assembly during opening and closing movements, free movements of maximum mouth opening and closing were recorded in healthy subjects (12 men, 14 women) using an optoelectronic three-dimensional motion analyzer. For each subject, the displacement of the lower interincisal point, the path of the condylar reference point, the degree of rotation around the three orthogonal rotational axes, and the relative contribution of translation and rotation were calculated during all movement of mouth opening and closing. The distance covered by the interincisor point and the rotational angle about the transverse axis at maximum mouth opening were larger in men than in women, but the difference cancelled after correcting for mandibular radius in the sagittal plane; mandibular rotation was always larger than translation, but never approaching 100%; opening and closing translations were similar within sex, but their paths were longer in men than in women (P < 0.05); rotational angles around vertical and sagittal axes were negligible; the linear correlation between maximum mandibular opening and condylar translation was minor and not significant. In normal subjects, mouth opening and closing as modeled at the interincisor point was determined more by mandibular rotation than by translation, but in no occasion a pure rotation was found. The percentage rotation was not identical during mouth opening and closing; female and male paths were not totally coincident; no correlation between maximum mandibular opening and condylar translation was found.

  16. Spatiotemporal Cluster Patterns of Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease at the County Level in Mainland China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Xu, Qin; Huang, Fangfang; Cao, Kai; Tao, Lixin; Guo, Jin; Gao, Qi; Wang, Wei; Fang, Liqun; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is known to be a highly contagious childhood illness. In recent years, the number of reported cases of HFMD has significantly increased in mainland China. This study aims at the epidemiological features, spatiotemporal patterns of HMFD at the county/district level in mainland China. Methods Data on reported HFMD cases for each county from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 were obtained from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Cluster analysis, spatial autocorrelation, and retrospective scan methods were used to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of the disease. Results The annual incidences varied greatly among the counties, ranging from 0 to 74.31‰ with the median of 5.42‰ (interquartile range: 1.54‰–13.55‰) during 2008–2012 in mainland China. Counties close to provincial capital cities generally had higher incidences than rural counties. A seasonal distribution was observed between the northern and southern China, of which dual epidemic were shown in southern China and usually only one in northern China. Based on the global and local spatial autocorrelation analysis, we found that the spatial distribution of HFMD was presented a significant clustering pattern for each year (P<0.001), and hotspots of the disease were mostly distributed in coastal provinces of China. The retrospective scan statistic further identified the dynamics of spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease, which were mainly distributed in the counties of eastern and southern China, as well as provincial capitals and their surrounding counties. Conclusions The spatiotemporal clustering areas of the disease identified in this way were relatively stable, and imminent public health planning and resource allocation should be focused within those areas. PMID:26809151

  17. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de Los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  18. The Pathogenesis of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stenfeldt, Carolina; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; de los Santos, Teresa; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. However, accumulated evidence from FMD outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of FMD pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vaccination in pigs. Furthermore, it has been shown that failure to account for these differences may have substantial consequences when FMD outbreaks occur in areas with dense pig populations. Recent experimental studies have confirmed some aspects of conventional wisdom by demonstrating that pigs are more susceptible to FMD virus (FMDV) infection via exposure of the upper gastrointestinal tract (oropharynx) than through inhalation of virus. The infection spreads rapidly within groups of pigs that are housed together, although efficiency of transmission may vary depending on virus strain and exposure intensity. Multiple investigations have demonstrated that physical separation of pigs is sufficient to prevent virus transmission under experimental conditions. Detailed pathogenesis studies have recently demonstrated that specialized epithelium within porcine oropharyngeal tonsils constitute the primary infection sites following simulated natural virus exposure. Furthermore, epithelium of the tonsil of the soft palate supports substantial virus replication during the clinical phase of infection, thus providing large amounts of virus that can be shed into the environment. Due to massive amplification and shedding of virus, acutely infected pigs constitute a considerable source of contagion. FMDV infection results in modulation of several components of the host immune response. The infection is ultimately cleared in association with a strong humoral response and, in contrast to

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern brown pelican

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hingtgen, Terrence M.; Mulholland, Rosemarie; Zale, Alexander V.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a habitat model for the eastern brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat) for coastal areas within the eastern brown pelican's breeding range. Habitat suitability indices are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for application of the eastern brown pelican habitat model and techniques for measuring model variables are described.

  20. Eastern Floor of Holden Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 15 April 2002) The Science Today's THEMIS image covers territory on the eastern floor of Holden Crater, which is located in region of the southern hemisphere called Noachis Terra. Holden Crater is 154 km in diameter and named after American Astronomer Edward Holden (1846-1914). This image shows a mottled surface with channels, hills, ridges and impact craters. The largest crater seen in this image is 5 km in diameter. This crater has gullies and what appears to be horizontal layers in its walls. The Story With its beautiful symmetry and gullies radially streaming down to the floor, the dominant crater in this image is an impressive focal point. Yet, it is really just a small crater within a much larger one named Holden Crater. Take a look at the context image to the right to see just how much bigger Holden Crater is. Then come back to the image strip that shows the mottled surface of Holden Crater's eastern floor in greater detail, and count how many hills, ridges, channels, and small impact craters can be seen. No perfectly smooth terrain abounds there, that's for sure. The textured terrain of Holden Crater has been particularly intriguing ever since the Mars Orbital Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft found evidence of sedimentary rock layers there that might have formed in lakes or shallow seas in Mars' ancient past. This finding suggests that Mars may have been more like Earth long ago, with water on its surface. Holden Crater might even have held a lake long ago. No one knows for sure, but it's an exciting possibility. Why? If water was once on the surface of Mars long enough to form sedimentary materials, maybe it was there long enough for microbial life to have developed too. (Life as we know it just isn't possible without the long-term presence of liquid water.) The question of life on the red planet is certainly tantalizing, but scientists will need to engage in a huge amount of further investigation to begin to know the answer. That

  1. Modeling of ice phenomena in the mouth of the Vistula River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolerski, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    The mouth of the Vistula River, which is a river outlet located in tideless area, is analyzed. The Vistula River mouth is a man-made, artificial channel which was built in the 19th century in order to prevent the formation of ice jams in the natural river delta. Since the artificial river outlet was constructed, no severe ice-related flood risk situations have ever occurred. However, periodic ice-related phenomena still have an impact on the river operation. In the paper, ice processes in the natural river delta are presented first to refer to the historical jams observed in the Vistula delta. Next, the calibrated mathematical model was applied to perform a series of simulations in the Vistula River mouth for winter storm condition to determine the effects of ice on the water level in the Vistula River and ice jam potential of the river outlet.

  2. Effect of acyclovir on radiation- and chemotherapy-induced mouth lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Bubley, G.J.; Chapman, B.; Chapman, S.K.; Crumpacker, C.S.; Schnipper, L.E. )

    1989-06-01

    Several chemotherapeutic regimens and radiation therapy, if delivered to the oral mucosa, are associated with a high frequency of mouth lesions. The cause of this side effect is not known for certain, but in past studies it has sometimes been associated with the ability to culture herpes simplex virus type 1 from the mouth. In a double-blind prospective trial, patients with head and neck tumors treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy were treated with either acyclovir or placebo. Although the frequency of culture-positive herpes simplex virus was low in the untreated group, it was significantly lower, zero, in the acyclovir-treated group. However, there were no differences in the frequency or type of mouth lesions experienced by patients receiving either radiation or chemotherapy who were taking acyclovir or placebo. These results suggest that herpes simplex virus is not a frequent cause or complication of oral lesions afflicting this patient population.

  3. Investigation of disinfectants for foot-and-mouth disease in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Mi; Shim, Il-Seob; Baek, Yong-Wook; Han, Hye-Jin; Kim, Pil-Je; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-10-01

    Disinfectants for foot-and-mouth disease were sprayed on livestock barns and roads from early February to May 2011. Although 90% of the disinfectant was concentrated on the roads, 10% was sprayed on cattle sheds and other sites where foot-and-mouth disease occurred. Since the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in November 2010, there has been a steady increase in disinfectant use. Consequently, its adverse environmental effects have prompted government officials to take preventive measures. The major chemical components of the disinfectants are citric acid, potassium sulfate base complex, quaternary ammonium compound, malic acid, and glutaraldehyde, ranging in amounts from tons to hundreds of tons. The exact amount of each component of the disinfectants could not be identified because the types of components used in the different commercial formulations overlapped. In this review, we obtained information on disinfectants that are widely used nationwide, including the types of major chemical components and their respective toxicities (both human and ecological).

  4. EV71 vaccines: a first step towards multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michel H

    2015-03-01

    Enterovirus A infections are the primary cause of hand, foot and mouth disease in infants and young children. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 have emerged as neurotropic viruses responsible for severe neurological complications and a serious public health threat across the Asia-Pacific region. Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines have elicited protection against EV71 but not against coxsackievirus A16 infections. The development of a bivalent formalin-inactivated EV71/FI coxsackievirus A16 vaccine should be the next step towards that of multivalent hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines which should ultimately include other prevalent pathogenic coxsackieviruses and echovirus 30. This editorial summarizes the major challenges faced by the development of hand, foot and mouth disease vaccines.

  5. Cloned Viral Protein Vaccine for Foot-and-Mouth Disease: Responses in Cattle and Swine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleid, Dennis G.; Yansura, Daniel; Small, Barbara; Dowbenko, Donald; Moore, Douglas M.; Grubman, Marvin J.; McKercher, Peter D.; Morgan, Donald O.; Robertson, Betty H.; Bachrach, Howard L.

    1981-12-01

    A DNA sequence coding for the immunogenic capsid protein VP3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus A12, prepared from the virion RNA, was ligated to a plasmid designed to express a chimeric protein from the Escherichia coli tryptophan promoter-operator system. When Escherichia coli transformed with this plasmid was grown in tryptophan-depleted media, approximately 17 percent of the total cellular protein was found to be an insoluble and stable chimeric protein. The purified chimeric protein competed equally on a molar basis with VP3 for specific antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus. When inoculated into six cattle and two swine, this protein elicited high levels of neutralizing antibody and protection against challenge with foot-and-mouth disease virus.

  6. Hand, foot and mouth disease in an immunocompromised adult treated with aciclovir.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Catherine F; Godbolt, Amanda M; DeAmbrosis, Brian; Triscott, Joe

    2003-08-01

    A 27-year-old man, immunosuppressed from recent chemotherapy for metastatic Ewing's sarcoma, presented with a 1-week history of a painful, pruritic, papulovesicular eruption on the hands and feet. A diagnosis of hand, foot and mouth disease was made based on histology, detection of Enterovirus ribonucleic acid by polymerase chain reaction on a swab from a vesicle, and a four-fold increase in Enterovirus antibody levels. At no stage however, were there lesions in the mouth. Another unusual feature in this case was a prolonged course, presumably as a result of immunosuppression. After 3 1/2 weeks he was commenced on oral aciclovir 200 mg five times daily, with subsequent resolution of all lesions within 5 days. There may be a role for systemic aciclovir in some patients with hand, foot and mouth disease.

  7. [Foot and mouth disease--then, now and in the future].

    PubMed

    van Bekkum, J G

    1987-06-15

    Foot-and-mouth disease was a problem as early as 1862; however, insights into the aetiology and particularly the concept of infectious disease had not yet been elaborated. Our knowledge and the possibilities of dealing with the disease have shown a spectacular increase since then. Foot-and-mouth disease is now under control in large parts of Europe; this is the result of strict measures and mass vaccination of cattle. However, the situation is unstable, as is testified to by the situation in Italy, and there are questions regarding the origin of sporadic cases of the disease. The main question is: how do we reach the ultimate objective: a Western Europe free from foot-and-mouth disease, and where annual vaccination of cattle no longer is applied? The problems are analysed. An international approach appears to be essential.

  8. The Potential Economic Impact of an Outbreak of Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Krystynak, Ronald H.E.; Charlebois, Pierre A.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease is of concern to Canada's livestock industry due to the resulting economic consequences. The primary economic impact of a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak would arise from the trade embargo placed on Canadian exports of animals and animal products to countries free of the disease. Agriculture Canada's Food and Agriculture Regional Model was used to estimate the economic impact of such a trade embargo. Two scenarios, a small and large outbreak, were simulated over a five year period (1986-90). The results indicate that even a small outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease would have serious economic consequences for the livestock sector with farm cash receipts declining by $2 billion. The largest impact would be on the pork sector followed by the beef sector. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17422845

  9. Peroxyacetyl nitrate in eastern Scotland.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, G G; Cape, J N

    2005-01-20

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) concentrations in air were sampled hourly from 1994 to 1998 at a rural site 15 km south-west of Edinburgh, in eastern Scotland. Annual average concentrations were between 0.1 and 0.15 nl l(-1), with episodes up to 3 nl l(-1) in long-range transported polluted air. PAN concentrations were approximately log-normally distributed. The concentrations measured are the result of a balance between photochemical production rates and removal by thermal decomposition and dry deposition. In general, there was a poor correlation between PAN and ozone concentrations at this rural site except during episodes of photochemical pollution, when the PAN/O(3) volume ratio exceeded 0.01. The PAN/NO(x) volume ratio had a median value of 0.015 but ranged up to 0.25. There was a pronounced seasonal maximum in PAN concentrations in late spring, and a strong diurnal cycle only in April-June, with a maximum at 1700 h. Individual episodes, with concentrations up to 3 nl l(-1), could be traced over distances of ca. 1000 km, with rapid changes in concentration as the prevailing winds advected polluted air masses across the site.

  10. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  11. LIMITATIONS TO EASTERN REDCEDAR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive woody plant species are degrading the structure and function of rangeland ecosystems throughout the world. A species of particular concern in Great Plains grasslands is eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), which has rapidly spread due to fire suppression and intenti...

  12. The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kerri

    2014-06-01

    The Eastern Region Public Health Observatory (ERPHO) became part of Public Health England on April 1 2013. Its website provides population health data, analysis and interpretation to support healthcare professionals in commissioning, prioritising and improving health outcomes.

  13. Direct comparisons of hand and mouth kinematics during grasping, feeding and fork-feeding actions

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, D. J.; Culham, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    While a plethora of studies have examined the kinematics of human reach-to-grasp actions, few have investigated feeding, another ethologically important real-world action. Two seminal studies concluded that the kinematics of the mouth during feeding are comparable to those of the hand during grasping (Castiello, 1997; Churchill et al., 1999); however, feeding was done with a fork or spoon, not with the hand itself. Here, we directly compared grasping and feeding kinematics under equivalent conditions. Participants were presented with differently sized cubes of cheese (10-, 20- or 30-mm on each side) and asked to use the hand to grasp them or to use a fork to spear them and then bring them to the mouth to bite. We measured the apertures of the hand during grasping and the teeth during feeding, as well as reaching kinematics of the arm in both tasks. As in many past studies, we found that the hand oversized considerably larger (~11–27 mm) than the food item during grasping; moreover, the amount of oversizing scaled with food size. Surprisingly, regardless of whether the hand or fork was used to transport the food, the mouth oversized only slightly larger (~4–11 mm) than the food item during biting and the oversizing did not increase with food size. Total movement times were longer when using the fork compared to the hand, particularly when using the fork to bring food to the mouth. While reach velocity always peaked approximately halfway through the movement, relative to the reach the mouth opened more slowly than the hand, perhaps because less time was required for the smaller oversizing. Taken together, our results show that while many aspects of kinematics share some similarity between grasping and feeding, oversizing may reflect strategies unique to the hand vs. mouth (such as the need to have the digits approach the target surface perpendicularly for grip stability during lifting) and differences in the neural substrates of grasping and feeding. PMID

  14. The effect of a caffeinated mouth-rinse on endurance cycling time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Doering, Thomas M; Fell, James W; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Shing, Cecilia M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute caffeine exposure via mouth-rinse improved endurance cycling time-trial performance in well-trained cyclists. It was hypothesized that caffeine exposure at the mouth would enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance. Ten well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: 32.9 ± 7.5 years, 74.7 ± 5.3 kg, 176.8 ± 5.1cm, VO₂peak = 59.8 ± 3.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two experimental time-trials following 24 hr of dietary and exercise standardization. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed whereby cyclists completed a time-trial in the fastest time possible, which was equivalent work to cycling at 75% of peak aerobic power output for 60 min. Cyclists were administered 25 ml mouth-rinses for 10 s containing either placebo or 35 mg of anhydrous caffeine eight times throughout the time-trial. Perceptual and physiological variables were recorded throughout. No significant improvement in time-trial performance was observed with caffeine (3918 ± 243 s) compared with placebo mouth-rinse (3940 ± 227 s). No elevation in plasma caffeine was detected due to the mouth-rinse conditions. Caffeine mouth-rinse had no significant effect on rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, rate of oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. Eight exposures of a 35 mg dose of caffeine at the buccal cavity for 10s does not significantly enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance, nor does it elevate plasma caffeine concentration. PMID:23980239

  15. Intraoral pH and temperature during sleep with and without mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Choi, J E; Waddell, J N; Lyons, K M; Kieser, J A

    2016-05-01

    To measure and compare the intraoral pH and temperature of individuals during sleep with and without mouth breathing. Ten healthy participants [mean age = 25·8 (± 4·3)] wore a custom-made appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 48 h. Continuous pH and temperature measurements were taken from the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. To simulate mouth breathing during sleep, participants wore a nose clip for two nights of the four, with the first group (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the first night and the rest (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the second night of sleep to balance any potential bias from the wearing sequence. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The mean intraoral pH during daytime was 7·3 (± 0·4) and during sleep was 7·0 (± 0·5). The mean intraoral pH during sleep with mouth breathing was 6·6 (± 0·5), which was statistically significant compared with the normal sleep condition (P < 0·01). The intraoral pH decreased slowly over the hours of sleep in all participants. When sleeping with forced mouth breathing, intraoral pH showed a greater fall over a longer period of time. The mean intraoral temperature was 33·1 °C (± 5·2) during daytime and 33·3 °C (± 6·1) during sleep, with no statistical significance between sleep with and without mouth breathing (P > 0·05). The results suggest that mouth breathing during sleep is related to a decrease in intraoral pH compared with normal breathing during sleep, and this has been proposed as a causal factor for dental erosion and caries.

  16. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-05-09

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males.

  17. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V˙O2max: 47 ± 5 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males. PMID:27171108

  18. Mouth Rinsing with Maltodextrin Solutions Fails to Improve Time Trial Endurance Cycling Performance in Recreational Athletes.

    PubMed

    Kulaksız, Tuğba Nilay; Koşar, Şükran Nazan; Bulut, Suleyman; Güzel, Yasemin; Willems, Marcus Elisabeth Theodorus; Hazir, Tahir; Turnagöl, Hüseyin Hüsrev

    2016-01-01

    The carbohydrate (CHO) concentration of a mouth rinsing solution might influence the CHO sensing receptors in the mouth, with consequent activation of brain regions involved in reward, motivation and regulation of motor activity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of maltodextrin mouth rinsing with different concentrations (3%, 6% and 12%) after an overnight fast on a 20 km cycling time trial performance. Nine recreationally active, healthy males (age: 24 ± 2 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 47 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) participated in this study. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study was conducted. Participants mouth-rinsed every 2.5 km for 5 s. Maltodextrin mouth rinse with concentrations of 3%, 6% or 12% did not change time to complete the time trial and power output compared to placebo (p > 0.05). Time trial completion times were 40.2 ± 4.0, 40.1 ± 3.9, 40.1 ± 4.4, and 39.3 ± 4.2 min and power output 205 ± 22, 206 ± 25, 210 ± 24, and 205 ± 23 W for placebo, 3%, 6%, and 12% maltodextrin conditions, respectively. Heart rate, lactate, glucose, and rating of perceived exertion did not differ between trials (p > 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with different maltodextrin concentrations after an overnight fast did not affect the physiological responses and performance during a 20 km cycling time trial in recreationally active males. PMID:27171108

  19. The effect of a caffeinated mouth-rinse on endurance cycling time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Doering, Thomas M; Fell, James W; Leveritt, Michael D; Desbrow, Ben; Shing, Cecilia M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if acute caffeine exposure via mouth-rinse improved endurance cycling time-trial performance in well-trained cyclists. It was hypothesized that caffeine exposure at the mouth would enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance. Ten well-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD: 32.9 ± 7.5 years, 74.7 ± 5.3 kg, 176.8 ± 5.1cm, VO₂peak = 59.8 ± 3.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) completed two experimental time-trials following 24 hr of dietary and exercise standardization. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design was employed whereby cyclists completed a time-trial in the fastest time possible, which was equivalent work to cycling at 75% of peak aerobic power output for 60 min. Cyclists were administered 25 ml mouth-rinses for 10 s containing either placebo or 35 mg of anhydrous caffeine eight times throughout the time-trial. Perceptual and physiological variables were recorded throughout. No significant improvement in time-trial performance was observed with caffeine (3918 ± 243 s) compared with placebo mouth-rinse (3940 ± 227 s). No elevation in plasma caffeine was detected due to the mouth-rinse conditions. Caffeine mouth-rinse had no significant effect on rating of perceived exertion, heart rate, rate of oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. Eight exposures of a 35 mg dose of caffeine at the buccal cavity for 10s does not significantly enhance endurance cycling time-trial performance, nor does it elevate plasma caffeine concentration.

  20. 76 FR 49760 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... Uniontown Compressor Station located in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. Texas Eastern states that there...

  1. 78 FR 43874 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On July 2, 2013, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission... more fully in the Application, Texas Eastern states that it lacks the documentation to confirm...

  2. 75 FR 45611 - Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission LP; Notice of Application July 27, 2010. Take notice that on July 15, 2010, Texas Eastern Transmission (Texas Eastern), P.O. Box 1642, Houston, Texas... enable Texas Eastern to provide up to 112,000 dekatherms per day (Dth/d) of firm lateral...

  3. 76 FR 7833 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 25, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas... Gas Act (NGA) for its proposed TEAM 2012 Project. Specifically, Texas Eastern requests:...

  4. 76 FR 38381 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Amendment Take notice that on June 13, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056... proposed TEAM 2012 Project. Specifically, Texas Eastern's original application is amended to reduce...

  5. 76 FR 18210 - Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Texas Eastern Transmission, LP; Notice of Application On March 15, 2011, Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation (Texas Eastern), 5400 Westheimer Court, Houston, Texas 77056-5310... & Certificates, Texas Eastern Transmission, LP, P.O. Box 1642, Houston, TX 77251-1642, at (713) 627-4488...

  6. Midwifery education in Central-Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mivšek, Polona; Baškova, Martina; Wilhelmova, Radka

    2016-02-01

    Problems in midwifery in many Central-Eastern European countries are very similar; it is possible to speak about the evolving Central-Eastern model of midwifery care. The educational models of this region have a relatively strong theoretical part; however, there is an insufficient practical dimension. Theoretical part of midwifery education in the universities is relatively autonomous and is slowly changing the professional identity of graduates. PMID:26632483

  7. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern meadowlark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.; Sousa, Patrick J.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. Habitat use information is presented in a synthesis of the literature on the species-habitat requirements of the eastern meadowlark, followed by the development of the HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word, and mathematical, and is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  8. The influence of concurrent load on mouthed and vocalized modality effects.

    PubMed

    Cantor, J; Engle, R W

    1989-11-01

    A visual search task was coupled with the serial recall of words to assess the extent to which modality effects mediated by vocalizing and silent mouthing reflect an automatically activated preattentive process. Overall, serial position functions systematically changed as concurrent task demands increased, but the magnitude of the modality effect associated with both mouthing and vocalizing was not altered, regardless of whether or not subjects simultaneously searched for digits. These results support the notion that modality effects index a preattentive process that can be activated automatically by either spoken input or gestural cues associated with speech.

  9. [Giant fibrolipoma of the floor of the mouth. Presentation of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Oliveros-Chaparro, C; Bogarin-Rodríguez, J; Sánchez-Méndez, M

    2001-06-01

    The fibrolipoma is a benign tumor variant of the lipoma, characterized by the presence of adipose and fibrous tissues. The authors report a case of a big oral fibrolipoma in a 72 year old woman. After surgery, a mass of 13 x 8 x 6 cm was obtained. The tumor had an implantation pedicle of 1 cm, on the floor of the mouth. The microscopic evaluation showed the presence of polygonal cells grouped into nests and separated by fibrous connective tissue septa. We have not found any report in the literature related to a fibrolipoma located on the floor of the mouth with the characteristics presented in this work.

  10. Are word-of-mouth communications contributing to a shortage of nephrology nurses?

    PubMed

    Wolfe, William A

    2014-01-01

    Nephrology nurse shortages have historically been viewed as a subset of the overall nursing supply in the United States. Not-here-to-fore considered as a contributing factor are the effects of word-of-mouth and Internet-based word-of-mouth communications from nurses who have had disappointing work experiences in hemodialysis clinics. This article discusses the potential effects of word-of-mouse communications and posits that negative word-of-mouse communications may discourage new and experienced nurses from considering the specialty of nephrology nursing, thus contributing to a nephrology nursing shortage.

  11. Sediment Bypassing of River Mouths: Mechanisms and Effects on Delta Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, J.; Ashton, A. D.; Giosan, L.; Nardin, W.; Fagherazzi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-influenced deltas are shaped by wave-driven transport of river-borne sediments. Near the river mouth, combined jet and wave dynamics, along with morphodynamic feedbacks, control the fraction of sediment transported alongshore by littoral currents that can bypass the river channel. Here we study how different bypassing rates influence large-scale delta evolution and examine the effect of waves and the river mouth jet on alongshore sediment bypassing. First, we use a modified version of the Coastline Evolution Model (CEM) to look at the effects of wave climate, fluvial sediment supply, and alongshore sediment bypassing rates on channel orientation. This modified version of CEM progrades the channel in a direction perpendicular to the local shoreline orientation at the river mouth, allowing feedbacks between alongshore sediment transport and fluvial sediment delivery to steer the river channel. Additionally, we allow a prescribed fraction of littoral sediment to bypass the river mouth. We find that deltas that have a large fluvial sediment flux can orient themselves into the direction of dominant wave approach. Lower fluvial inputs result in channels that are deflected downdrift, with increasing deflection as bypassing is reduced. In contrast, channels do not deflect downdrift (but can reorient themselves updrift for large fluvial fluxes) when full bypassing is allowed. These results demonstrate the importance of river mouth sediment bypassing on delta growth patterns, but, as we explore arbitrary bypassing laws, the simulations cannot help us constrain natural bypassing fluxes. To further investigate the natural extent and mechanisms of bypassing, we use the coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model Delft3D-SWAN. With a simplified shoreface and river channel, the model is able to construct river mouth morphology from the combined action of alongshore transport and a river mouth jet. Exploring river mouth morphology and sediment bypassing under various wave

  12. Full-mouth rehabilitation of a patient with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juanli; Reside, Glenn; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2011-10-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic condition caused by stomach acid regurgitating into the esophagus or oral cavity, often causing heartburn. Tooth erosion and wear are common oral manifestations of GERD. This clinical report describes the full-mouth rehabilitation of a patient with over 30 years of GERD, causing wear of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth, along with complications associated with past restorations. Full-mouth rehabilitation of natural teeth in conjunction with dental implants was selected as the treatment option. Ideal occlusal design and optimal esthetics, along with reinforcement of oral hygiene, ensure a favorable prognosis.

  13. Necrotizing sialometaplasia in the mouth floor secondary to reconstructive surgery for tongue carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, T; Kuwabara, N; Shiotsu, H; Fukuda, Y; Yanai, A; Ichikawa, G

    1991-09-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a benign inflammatory process, which histologically can mimic squamous cell carcinoma. A 63-year-old man underwent left hemiglossectomy involving transplantation of a myocutaneous flap for squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. One month after the operation, necrotizing sialometaplasia occurred in the minor salivary gland tissue of the mouth floor, compressed by the necrotic flap. This case is very unusual because of the occurrence of necrotizing sialometaplasia in the floor of the mouth. The etiology of the lesion was considered to be ischemia secondary to compression by the necrotic myocutaneous flap.

  14. Global compilation of coastline change at river mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aadland, Tore; Helland-Hansen, William

    2016-04-01

    We are using Google Earth Engine to analyze Landsat images to create a global compilation of coastline change at river mouths in order to develop scaling relationships between catchment properties and shoreline behaviour. Our main motivation for doing this is to better understand the rates at which shallowing upward successions of deltaic successions are formed. We are also interested in getting an insight into the impact of climate change and human activity on modern shorelines. Google Earth Engine is a platform that offers simple selection of relevant data from an extensive catalog of geospatial data and the tools to analyse it efficiently. We have used Google Earth Engine to select and analyze temporally and geographically bounded sets of Landsat images covering modern deltas included in the Milliman and Farnsworth 2010 database. The part of the shoreline sampled for each delta has been manually defined. The areas depicted in these image sets have been classified as land or water by thresholding a calibrated Modified Normalized Water Index. By representing land and water as 1.0 and 0 respectively and averaging image sets of sufficient size we have generated rasters quantifying the probability of an area being classified as land. The calculated probabilities reflect variation in the shoreline position; in particular, it minimizes the impact of short term-variations produced by tides. The net change in the land area of deltas can be estimated by comparing how the probability changes between image sets spanning different time periods. We have estimated the land area change that occurred from 2000 to 2014 at more than 130 deltas with catchment areas ranging from 470 to 6300000 sqkm. Log-log plots of the land area change of these deltas against their respective catchment properties in the Milliman and Farnsworth 2010 database indicate that the rate of land area change correlates with catchment size and discharge. Useful interpretation of the data requires that we

  15. Effect of carbohydrate mouth rinsing on multiple sprint performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research suggests that carbohydrate mouth rinsing (CMR) improves endurance performance; yet, little is known regarding the effect of CMR on multiple sprint efforts. As many sports involve multiple sprinting efforts, followed by periods of recovery, the aim of our current study was to investigate the influence of CMR on multiple sprint performance. Methods We recruited eight active males (Age; 22 ± 1 y; 75.0 ± 8.8 kg; estimated VO2max 52.0 ± 3.0 ml/kg/min) to participate in a randomly assigned, double-blind, counterbalanced study administering a CMR (6.4% Maltodextrin) or similarly flavoured placebo solution. Primary outcomes for our study included: (a) time for three repeated sprint ability tests (RSA) and (b) the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST). Time was expressed in seconds (sec). Secondary outcomes included ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood glucose concentration. Tertiary outcomes included two psychological assessments designed to determine perceived activation (i.e., arousal) and pleasure-displeasure after each section of the LIST. We analysed our data using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures, a Bonferroni adjusted post hoc t-test to determine significant differences in treatment, and a liberal 90% confidence interval between treatment conditions. Effect sizes were calculated between trials and interpreted as ≤ 0.2 trivial, > 0.2 small, > 0.6 moderate, > 1.2 large, > 2 very large and > 4 extremely large. Data are means ± SD. Overall statistical significance was set as P < 0.05; yet, modified accordingly when Bonferroni adjustments were made. Results Overall, we observed no significant difference in average (3.46 ± 0.2 vs. 3.44 ± 0.17; P = 0.11) or fastest time (3.38 ± 0.2 vs. 3.37 ± 0.2; P = 0.39) in the RSA test for the placebo vs. CMR conditions, respectively. Similar findings were also noted for the placebo vs. CMR, respectively, during

  16. 75 FR 39523 - Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY Notice of Intent: Designation of an Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site (ODMDS) Off the Mouth of... policy to prepare a voluntary National Environmental Policy document for all ODMDS designations (63 FR... size, offshore the mouth of the St. Johns River for the disposal of dredged material from...

  17. Sensorimotor and Motivational Determinants of Hand-Mouth Coordination in One-Three-Day-Old Human Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Studied hand-mouth coordination in 40 infants of 1-3 days. Sucrose solution was delivered intraorally every 2 minutes. Results provide evidence for sucrose as a calming agent and for a coordinative behavorial system that integrates hand-mouth activity in supine human infants. (RJC)

  18. Acupuncture in Treating Dry Mouth Caused By Radiation Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupuncture may help relieve dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying to see how well one set of acupuncture points work in comparison to a different set of acupuncture points or standard therapy in treating dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. |

  19. Upgraded Technology for Contingent Stimulation of Mouth Wiping by Two Persons with Drooling and Profound Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Pichierri, Sabrina; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    Many persons with developmental and physical disabilities experience drooling (i.e., loss of saliva from the mouth). Technology was recently developed to help two of these persons reduce the negative effects of drooling by increasing mouth-wiping responses. This study upgraded our initial approach and tested it with the two persons who we…

  20. Toward an Understanding of Online Word-of-Mouth Message Content and the Booking Intentions of Lodging Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Loon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the message structure of an online word-of-mouth referral influences the booking intentions of lodging consumers. The objectives were (1) determine what elements of the message structure of an online word-of-mouth referral influenced the booking intention of lodging consumers and (2)…

  1. 75 FR 54589 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-08

    ... Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine, Live Adenovirus Vector AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed foot-and-mouth disease vaccine, live... field testing of this vaccine, examines the potential effects that field testing this veterinary...

  2. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.1 Section 94.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE,...

  3. 9 CFR 94.1 - Regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at...-mouth disease exists; importations prohibited. 94.1 Section 94.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE,...

  4. Foot and mouth disease virus non structural protein 2C interacts with Beclin1 modulating virus replication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), is an Apthovirus within the Picornaviridae family. Replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. The largest viral protein in th...

  5. 33 CFR 162.85 - Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., or wave action. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR..., Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. 162.85 Section 162.85... mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. (a) Speed. Excessive speeding is prohibited....

  6. 33 CFR 207.200 - Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use, administration, and navigation. 207.200 Section... DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.200 Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South...

  7. 33 CFR 162.85 - Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., or wave action. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR..., Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. 162.85 Section 162.85... mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. (a) Speed. Excessive speeding is prohibited....

  8. 33 CFR 162.85 - Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., or wave action. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR..., Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. 162.85 Section 162.85... mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. (a) Speed. Excessive speeding is prohibited....

  9. 33 CFR 207.200 - Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South and Southwest Passes; use, administration, and navigation. 207.200 Section... DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.200 Mississippi River below mouth of Ohio River, including South...

  10. 33 CFR 162.85 - Yazoo Diversion Canal, Vicksburg, Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., or wave action. Note: The Corps of Engineers also has regulations dealing with this section in 33 CFR..., Miss., from its mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. 162.85 Section 162.85... mouth at Kleinston Landing to Fisher Street; navigation. (a) Speed. Excessive speeding is prohibited....

  11. A META-ANALYSIS OF CHILDREN'S HAND-TO-MOUTH FREQUENCY DATA FOR ESTIMATING NON-DIETARY INGESTION EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of their mouthing behaviors, children have a higher potential for exposure to available chemicals through the non-dietary ingestion route; thus, frequency of hand-to-mouth activity is an important variable for exposure assessments. Such data are limited and difficult to ...

  12. 75 FR 68397 - DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-DeQueen and Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Surface Transportation Board DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company DeQueen and Eastern Railroad, LLC (DQE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from DeQueen and Eastern Railroad Company...

  13. Distribution and Geochemistry of Rare-Earth Elements in Rivers of Southern and Eastern Primorye (Far East of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudaev, O. V.; Bragin, I. V.; A, Kharitonova N.; Chelnokov, G. A.

    2016-03-01

    The distribution and geochemistry of rare earth elements (REE) in anthropogenic, technogenic and natural surface waters of southern and eastern Primorye, Far East of Russia, are presented in this study. The obtained results indicated that most of REE (up to 70%) were transported as suspended matter, ratio between dissolved and suspended forms varing from the source to the mouth of rivers. It is shown that all REE (except Ce) in the source of the rivers are predominantly presented in dissolved form, however, the content of light and heavy REE is different. Short-term enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) caused by REE-rich runoff from waste dumps and mining is neutralized by the increase in river flow rate. Rivers in urban areas are characterized by high content of LREE in dissolved form and very low in suspended one.

  14. Selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract on mouth epidermoid carcinoma through p53 activation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoe-Jin; Jang, Young-Joo

    2012-06-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death plays an essential role in chemotherapy-induced tumor cell killing, and inducers of apoptosis are commonly used in cancer therapy. Treatment with Zelkova serrata extracts was performed in human gingival fibroblast (HGF), mouth epidermoid carcinoma cell (KB), lower gingival squamous cancer cell (YD38) and tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells (YD15). We observed that extract prepared from Zelkova serrata twig selectively inhibited proliferation of various oral cancer cells, but not normal gingival fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase-8-mediated apoptosis was induced by treatment with the extract only in mouth epidermoid carcinoma and not in other types of cancer cells, including lower gingival squamous cell carcinoma. The selective apoptotic effect of Zelkova serrata twig extract in mouth epidermoid carcinoma was dependent on normal p53 status. Apoptosis was not remarkably induced by treatment with the extract in either lower gingival squamous or tongue mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells, both of which contain abnormalities of p53. Upon treatment with Zelkova serrata twig extract, mouth epidermoid carcinoma cells accumulated in S phase by activation of p21. These data indicate that Zelkova serrata twig extract exerted a cancer type-specific, p53-dependent apoptotic effect and disturbed the cell cycle, which suggests that herbal medicine could be a treatment for specific types of cancers. PMID:22498930

  15. Effect of a carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal sprint performance in competitive male cyclists.

    PubMed

    Chong, E; Guelfi, K J; Fournier, P A

    2011-03-01

    There is evidence that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution can improve endurance performance. The goal of this study was to investigate whether a CHO mouth rinse can improve the performance of a maximal sprint effort. Fourteen competitive male cyclists (64.0±5.6 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (mean±SD)) each completed the following 5-s mouth rinse trials in a randomised counter-balanced order; (a) 6.4% maltodextrin solution [Mal], (b) 7.1% glucose solution [Glu], (c) water [Wa] and (d) a control trial with no rinse [Con]. Each participant then performed a 30-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Glu, Mal and Wa trials were not significantly different from Con across all indicators of sprint performance (maximal power output, mean power output over 0-30, 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30s), nausea or fatigue level (p>0.05). These findings suggest that the use of a 5-s mouth rinse with an isoenergetic amount of either maltodextrin or glucose is not beneficial for maximal sprint performance. PMID:20932798

  16. Type III interferon protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years we have developed novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) including the use of biotherapeutics such as interferons (IFN) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Swine can be sterilely protected after vaccination with an Ad5 that encodes po...

  17. [Haematoma of the floor of the mouth associated to acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Pelaz, Alejandro; Bayón, Jeremías; Gallego, Lorena; Junquera, Luis

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of an 80-year-old man who developed a haematoma in the floor of the mouth after receiving alteplase in the treatment of an acute myocardial infarction. Both the treatment received and appropriate preventive measures to avoid such haematomas are described.

  18. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 4 - diagnostics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-And-Mouth Disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. Published as a series of seven papers, in this paper, we report updated findings in the field of diagnostics. The paper consists of the following four sections: 1. Research priorities identi...

  19. Global foot-and-mouth disease reearch update and gap analysis: 2 - epidemiology, wildlife and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research ings in the fields of (i) epidemiology, (ii) wildlife and (iii) Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of foot-and- economics. Although the three sections, epidemiology, wildlife and economics are presented as separate entities, the fields are ...

  20. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. In this paper, we report updated findings in the field of FMD vaccine research. This paper consists of the following four sections: 1) Research priorities identified in the 2010 GFRA gap ana...

  1. Early adaptive immune responses in the respiratory tract of foot and mouth disease-infected cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease which affects both domestic and wildlife biungulate species. This acute disease, caused by the FMD virus (FMDV), usually includes an active replication phase in the respiratory tract up to 72 h post-infection followed by hematogenous ...

  2. Facial expression recognition in peripheral versus central vision: role of the eyes and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated facial expression recognition in peripheral relative to central vision, and the factors accounting for the recognition advantage of some expressions in the visual periphery. Whole faces or only the eyes or the mouth regions were presented for 150 ms, either at fixation or extrafoveally (2.5° or 6°), followed by a backward mask and a probe word. Results indicated that (a) all the basic expressions were recognized above chance level, although performance in peripheral vision was less impaired for happy than for non-happy expressions, (b) the happy face advantage remained when only the mouth region was presented, and (c) the smiling mouth was the most visually salient and most distinctive facial feature of all expressions. This suggests that the saliency and the diagnostic value of the smile account for the advantage in happy face recognition in peripheral vision. Because of saliency, the smiling mouth accrues sensory gain and becomes resistant to visual degradation due to stimulus eccentricity, thus remaining accessible extrafoveally. Because of diagnostic value, the smile provides a distinctive single cue of facial happiness, thus bypassing integration of face parts and reducing susceptibility to breakdown of configural processing in peripheral vision.

  3. Complete mouth implant rehabilitation with a zirconia ceramic system: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Mamta; Vahidi, Farhad

    2014-07-01

    Currently available ceramic systems offer a wide array of prosthetic advantages, including superior esthetics and enhanced physical and mechanical properties. The dental ceramic with the highest reported mechanical properties is zirconia. This clinical report describes a complete mouth implant rehabilitation with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and monolithic zirconia.

  4. Examination of soluble integrin resistant mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) initiates infection in vitro via recognition of at least four cell-surface integrin molecules avb1, avb3, avb6 or avb8 through the interaction of a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) amino acid sequence motif located in the GH loop of VP1. In this work, soluble i...

  5. Protective equipment as treatment for stereotypic hand mouthing: sensory extinction or punishment effects?

    PubMed

    Mazaleski, J L; Iwata, B A; Rodgers, T A; Vollmer, T R; Zarcone, J R

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing exhibited by 2 individuals with profound mental retardation. Results of a functional analysis assessment revealed that neither subject's self-injury was maintained by social reinforcement: One subject's self-injury was cyclical in nature; the other's occurred during all assessment conditions but most frequently when left alone. In the noncontingent-equipment condition, oven mitts were placed on the individual's hands at the beginning of a session and remained on throughout. In the contingent-equipment condition, the mitts were briefly placed on the individual's hands following occurrences of hand mouthing. For 1 subject, noncontingent mitts produced a large decrease in the rate of hand mouthing and contingent mitts produced similar results following a return to baseline. Hand mouthing was also reduced in the 2nd subject, but this individual was exposed only to the contingent-equipment condition (i.e., there was no prior history with the noncontingent-equipment condition). These results suggest either a punishment or a time-out interpretation rather than an extinction interpretation to account for the behavior-reducing effects of contingent protective equipment on self-injury. PMID:8063633

  6. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 6 - immunology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance (GFRA) conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. This has been updated with findings reported in a series of papers. Here we present findings for FMD immunology research. The paper consists of the following four sections: 1. Research prior...

  7. Global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 5 - biotherapeutics and disinfectants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2014, the Global Foot-and-mouth disease Research Alliance(GFRA)conducted a gap analysis of FMD research. This work has been updated and reported in a series of papers with the focus of this article being (i) biotherapeutics and (ii) disinfectants, including environmental contamination. The paper ...

  8. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  10. Impact of the 2001 Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in Britain: Implications for Rural Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Alister; Christie, Michael; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in terms of its implications for the discipline of rural studies. In particular, it focuses on the position of agriculture in rural economy and society, the standing of the government after its management of the outbreak, and the performance of the new devolved regional…

  11. Review of the global distribution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from 2007 to 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has seven different serotypes. Within each serotype there is a diversity of genetic lineages, subtypes and strains. Some of these strains behave differently and sometimes spread beyond the endemic areas where they normally circulate. Lineages emergence and die...

  12. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…

  13. Word of Mouth Antecedents in an Educational Context: A Singaporean Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Raymond; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role service quality, satisfaction and commitment play in word of mouth (WOM) formation among adult learners in Singapore. Design/methodology/approach: The study used a quantitative survey of 165 adult students who were enrolled in part-time undergraduate programmes at the Singapore Institute of…

  14. Pathologic studies of fatal cases in outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease, Taiwan.

    PubMed Central

    Shieh, W. J.; Jung, S. M.; Hsueh, C.; Kuo, T. T.; Mounts, A.; Parashar, U.; Yang, C. F.; Guarner, J.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Dawson, J.; Goldsmith, C.; Chang, G. J.; Oberste, S. M.; Pallansch, M. A.; Anderson, L. J.; Zaki, S. R.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease occurred in Taiwan. Pathologic studies of two fatal cases with similar clinical features revealed two different causative agents, emphasizing the need for postmortem examinations and modern pathologic techniques in an outbreak investigation. PMID:11266307

  15. Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Laina G.; Mitchel, Aaron D.

    2016-01-01

    Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye-gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation. PMID:26869959

  16. Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Laina G; Mitchel, Aaron D

    2016-01-01

    Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye-gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

  17. Automating "Word of Mouth" to Recommend Classes to Students: An Application of Social Information Filtering Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Queen Esther

    2009-01-01

    An approach used to tackle the problem of helping online students find the classes they want and need is a filtering technique called "social information filtering," a general approach to personalized information filtering. Social information filtering essentially automates the process of "word-of-mouth" recommendations: items are recommended to a…

  18. Site-specific mouth rinsing can improve oral odor by altering bacterial counts

    PubMed Central

    Alqumber, Mohammed A.; Arafa, Khaled A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether site-specific mouth rinsing with oral disinfectants can improve oral odor beyond the traditional panoral mouth disinfection with mouth rinses by targeting specifically oral malodor implicated anaerobic bacteria Methods: Twenty healthy fasting subjects volunteered for a blinded prospective, descriptive correlational crossover cross-section clinical trial conducted during the month of Ramadan between July and August 2013 in Albaha province in Saudi Arabia involving the application of Listerine® Cool Mint® mouth rinse by either the traditional panoral rinsing method, or a site-specific disinfection method targeting the subgingival and supragingival plaque and the posterior third of the tongue dorsum, while avoiding the remaining locations within the oral cavity. The viable anaerobic and aerobic bacterial counts, volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) levels, organoleptic assessment of oral odor, and the tongue-coating index were compared at baseline, one, 5, and 9 hours after the treatment. Results: The site-specific disinfection method reduced the VSCs and anaerobic bacterial loads while keeping the aerobic bacterial numbers higher than the traditional panoral rinsing method. Conclusion: Site-specific disinfection can more effectively maintain a healthy oral cavity by predominantly disinfecting the niches of anaerobic bacteria within the oral cavity. PMID:25399224

  19. The foot-and-mouth disease carrier state divergence in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pathogenesis of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection was investigated following simulated-natural virus exposure of 43 cattle that were either naïve or vaccinated using a recombinant, adenovirus-vectored vaccine. Although vaccinated cattle were protected against clinical dise...

  20. Phylogeographic analysis of the 2000-2002 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly transmissible disease of livestock. FMD has been eradicated from many countries and the consequences of FMD epidemics are, in some cases, devastating. That was the case of Argentina in 2000-2002, where within few months, FMD virus spread throughout most of t...

  1. The Governor has a sweet tooth - mouth sensing of nutrients to enhance sports performance.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Maughan, Ronald J

    2015-01-01

    The oral-pharyngeal cavity and the gastrointestinal tract are richly endowed with receptors that respond to taste, temperature and to a wide range of specific nutrient and non-nutritive food components. Ingestion of carbohydrate-containing drinks has been shown to enhance endurance exercise performance, and these responses have been attributed to post-absorptive effects. It is increasingly recognised, though, that the response to ingested carbohydrate begins in the mouth via specific carbohydrate receptors and continues in the gut via the release of a range of hormones that influence substrate metabolism. Cold drinks can also enhance performance, especially in conditions of thermal stress, and part of the mechanism underlying this effect may be the response to cold fluids in the mouth. There is also some, albeit not entirely consistent, evidence for effects of caffeine, quinine, menthol and acetic acid on performance or other relevant effects. This review summarises current knowledge of responses to mouth sensing of temperature, carbohydrate and other food components, with the goal of assisting athletes to implement practical strategies that make best use of its effects. It also examines the evidence that oral intake of other nutrients or characteristics associated with food/fluid intake during exercise can enhance performance via communication between the mouth/gut and the brain.

  2. Detection of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Infected Cattle Using Infrared Thermography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious viral disease of livestock that has significant economic, social and environmental impacts. One problem hampering the diagnosis, control and eradication efforts is the need for veterinarians to inspect hundreds of animals from suspected case premis...

  3. Understanding the mechanism of interferon-induced protection against foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infects cloven-hoofed animals and causes a highly contagious disease that rapidly spreads among many susceptible species. Vaccination with an inactivated whole virus antigen in formulation with adjuvant, or with a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) ab...

  4. A method for fabricating an occlusal splint for a patient with limited mouth opening.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tsugawa, Tsuyoshi; Furusawa, Miyo; Matsuda, Shinsuke

    2005-10-01

    This article describes the fabrication of an occlusal splint for a patient with limited mouth opening due to temporomandibular disorder. A face-bow fork is used as a tray to obtain an accurate dual-arch impression and occlusal registration.

  5. The Effects of Age and Preoral Sensorimotor Cues on Anticipatory Mouth Movement during Swallowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shune, Samantha E.; Moon, Jerald B.; Goodman, Shawn S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preoral sensorimotor cues on anticipatory swallowing/eating-related mouth movements in older and younger adults. It was hypothesized that these cues are essential to timing anticipatory oral motor patterns, and these movements are delayed in older as compared with younger adults.…

  6. Development of vaccines toward the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most economically and socially devastating diseases affecting animal agriculture throughout the world. Although mortality is low, millions of animals have been killed in efforts to rapidly control and eradicate FMD. The causing virus (FMDV) is a highly vari...

  7. Protective equipment as treatment for stereotypic hand mouthing: sensory extinction or punishment effects?

    PubMed

    Mazaleski, J L; Iwata, B A; Rodgers, T A; Vollmer, T R; Zarcone, J R

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing exhibited by 2 individuals with profound mental retardation. Results of a functional analysis assessment revealed that neither subject's self-injury was maintained by social reinforcement: One subject's self-injury was cyclical in nature; the other's occurred during all assessment conditions but most frequently when left alone. In the noncontingent-equipment condition, oven mitts were placed on the individual's hands at the beginning of a session and remained on throughout. In the contingent-equipment condition, the mitts were briefly placed on the individual's hands following occurrences of hand mouthing. For 1 subject, noncontingent mitts produced a large decrease in the rate of hand mouthing and contingent mitts produced similar results following a return to baseline. Hand mouthing was also reduced in the 2nd subject, but this individual was exposed only to the contingent-equipment condition (i.e., there was no prior history with the noncontingent-equipment condition). These results suggest either a punishment or a time-out interpretation rather than an extinction interpretation to account for the behavior-reducing effects of contingent protective equipment on self-injury.

  8. Protective Equipment as Treatment for Stereotypic Hand Mouthing: Sensory Extinction or Punishment Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazaleski, Jodi L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated effects of noncontingent and contingent protective equipment as treatment for self-injurious hand mouthing by two women with profound mental retardation. Behavior change appeared to be effected in both conditions. Results suggest either a punishment or a timeout interpretation, rather than an extinction interpretation, for the…

  9. Interferon inducers and foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: influence of two synthetic polynucleotides on antibody response and immunity in guinea pigs and swine.

    PubMed

    Cunliffe, H R; Richmond, J Y; Campbell, C H

    1977-01-01

    Polyriboadenylic-polybouridylic acid enhanced the immunological response of guinea pigs to aqueous foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine. Polyriboninosinic-polyribocytidylic acid enhanced the early antibody production of swine to oil emulsified foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine. Polyriboninosinic-polyribocytidylic acid alone did not stimulate resistance to foot-and-mouth disease in swine. PMID:188530

  10. The effects of three different mouth rinses in a 4-day supragingival plaque regrowth study

    PubMed Central

    Ulkur, Feyza; Arun, Tulin; Ozdemir, Fulya

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study compares the effects of three different mouth rinses with respect to reducing Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) colony counts on the teeth and tongue surfaces. Materials and Methods: In this study, comparison tests using the alcohol-free 0.1% chlorhexidine mouth rinse, alcohol-containing essential oil mouth rinse, and alcohol-free essential oil-containing mouth rinse were conducted. Patients were instructed to avoid mechanical cleaning with either a toothbrush or toothpick for 4 days. The first samples were collected from teeth surfaces and the dorsum of the tongue after a professional cleaning, and the second samples were collected after a 4-day plaque re-growth period. The supragingival plaque from the buccal surfaces of teeth #11, 14, 31, 34 as well as samples from the dorsum of the tongue, were assessed using the Dentocult® strips. Results: The Listerine® and Ondrohexidine® groups did not show any statistically significant differences between the values of the two samples (P = 0.734, P = 0.307). The MC® group and the control group showed significantly higher results than the first sample values. The effectiveness of the mouth rinses on S. mutans colony counts from the teeth surfaces were higher in the Listerine®, Ondrohexidine®, and Mouthwash Concentrate® groups. The difference between the first and second samples of the S. mutans colony counts from the tongue surface was found to be statistically significant, and S. mutans colony counts were higher than the first sample (P = 0.015). Conclusion: Alcohol and essential oil-containing Listerine® mouth rinse, alcohol-free Ondrohexidine®, alcohol-free essential oil-containing MC® mouth rinse had the same effect on S. mutans counts, higher than the 1% alcohol solution on teeth surface. They had the ability to maintain the S. mutans counts at the same level for 4 days in patients who did not perform any mechanical oral hygiene regimen. PMID:24926216

  11. Air leaking through the mouth during nocturnal nasal ventilation: effect on sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T J; Pressman, M R; Benditt, J; McCool, F D; Millman, R P; Natarajan, R; Hill, N S

    1997-07-01

    Air leaking through the mouth has been reported in kyphoscoliotic patients receiving nasal ventilation via volume-limited ventilators. This study accessed the frequency of occurrence and effect on sleep quality of air leaking through the mouth during nocturnal nasal ventilation in patients with chest wall and neuromuscular disease using pressure-limited ventilation. Overnight and daytime polysomnography was performed in six stable experienced users of nocturnal nasal noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) who had chronic respiratory failure due to neuromuscular disease or chest wall deformity. All patients used the BiPAP S/T-D ventilatory support system (Respironics, Inc., Murrysville, PA). Measures included sleep scoring, leak quantitation, diaphragm and submental electromyograms (EMGs), and tidal and leak volumes. All patients had air leaking through the mouth for the majority of sleep. Sleep quality was diminished because of poor sleep efficiency and reduced percentages of slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Air leaking through the mouth was associated with frequent arousals during stages 1 and 2 and REM sleep that contributed to sleep fragmentation, but arousals were infrequent during slow-wave sleep. Despite prevalent leaking, oxygenation was well maintained in all but one patient. Patients used a-combination of passive and active mechanisms to control air leaking. Although nasal ventilation improves nocturnal hypoventilation and symptoms in patients with restrictive thoracic disorders, air leaking through the mouth is very common during use. The leaking is associated with frequent arousals during lighter stages of sleep that interfere with progression to deeper stages, compromising sleep quality. Portable pressure-limited ventilators compensate for leaks, maintaining ventilation and oxygenation, but further studies are needed to determine which interfaces and ventilator techniques best control air leaking and optimize sleep quality.

  12. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P < 0.05) between all pair-wise comparisons such that CAFF + CMR (65 ± 26 min) was superior to CMR (52 ± 23 min) and PLACEBO (36 ± 22 min). We conclude that carbohydrate mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle. PMID:26035740

  13. Mouth rinsing improves cycling endurance performance during Ramadan fasting in a hot humid environment.

    PubMed

    Che Muhamed, Ahmad Munir; Mohamed, Nazirah Gulam; Ismail, Norjana; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth rinsing during endurance cycling in a hot humid environment (32 °C and 75% relative humidity) on athletes in the Ramadan fasted state. Nine trained adolescent male cyclists completed 3 trials that consisted of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR), a placebo mouth-rinse (PMR), and a no-rinse (NOR) trial during the last 2 weeks of Ramadan. Each trial consisted of a preloading cycle at 65% peak rate of oxygen consumption for 30 min followed by a 10-km time trial (TT10 km) under hot humid condition. During the CMR and PMR trials, each cyclist rinsed his mouth with 25 mL of the solution for 5 s before expectorating the solution pre-exercise, after 5, 15, and 25 min of the preloading cycle, and 15 s prior to the start of TT10 km. Time to complete the TT10 km was significantly faster in the CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial (12.9 ± 1.7 and 12.6 ± 1.7 vs. 16.8 ± 1.6 min, respectively; p < 0.017). Ratings of perceived exertion taken at the end of the TT10 km was lower in both CMR and PMR trials compared with the NOR trial, although the difference was significant only between CMR and NOR (p < 0.05). In conclusion, mouth rinsing with either carbohydrate or placebo solution provided ergogenic benefits compared with a no-rinse condition on TT10 km performance in acute Ramadan fasted subjects during endurance cycling in a heat stress environment.

  14. Carbohydrate Mouth Rinsing Enhances High Intensity Time Trial Performance Following Prolonged Cycling

    PubMed Central

    Luden, Nicholas D.; Saunders, Michael J.; D’Lugos, Andrew C.; Pataky, Mark W.; Baur, Daniel A.; Vining, Caitlin B.; Schroer, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    There is good evidence that mouth rinsing with carbohydrate (CHO) solutions can enhance endurance performance (≥30 min). The impact of a CHO mouth rinse on sprint performance has been less consistent, suggesting that CHO may confer benefits in conditions of ‘metabolic strain’. To test this hypothesis, the current study examined the impact of late-exercise mouth rinsing on sprint performance. Secondly, we investigated the effects of a protein mouth rinse (PRO) on performance. Eight trained male cyclists participated in three trials consisting of 120 min of constant-load cycling (55% Wmax) followed by a 30 km computer-simulated time trial, during which only water was provided. Following 15 min of muscle function assessment, 10 min of constant-load cycling (3 min at 35% Wmax, 7 min at 55% Wmax) was performed. This was immediately followed by a 2 km time trial. Subjects rinsed with 25 mL of CHO, PRO, or placebo (PLA) at min 5:00 and 14:30 of the 15 min muscle function phase, and min 8:00 of the 10-min constant-load cycling. Magnitude-based inferential statistics were used to analyze the effects of the mouth rinse on 2-km time trial performance and the following physiological parameters: Maximum Voluntary Contract (MVC), Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), Heart Rate (HR), and blood glucose levels. The primary finding was that CHO ‘likely’ enhanced performance vs. PLA (3.8%), whereas differences between PRO and PLA were unclear (0.4%). These data demonstrate that late-race performance is enhanced by a CHO rinse, but not PRO, under challenging metabolic conditions. More data should be acquired before this strategy is recommended for the later stages of cycling competition under more practical conditions, such as when carbohydrates are supplemented throughout the preceding minutes/hours of exercise. PMID:27657117

  15. Carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine improves high-intensity interval running capacity when carbohydrate restricted.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Andreas M; Cocking, Scott; Cockayne, Molly; Barnard, Marcus; Tench, Jake; Parker, Liam; McAndrew, John; Langan-Evans, Carl; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that carbohydrate mouth rinsing, alone or in combination with caffeine, augments high-intensity interval (HIT) running capacity undertaken in a carbohydrate-restricted state. Carbohydrate restriction was achieved by performing high-intensity running to volitional exhaustion in the evening prior to the main experimental trials and further refraining from carbohydrate intake in the post-exercise and overnight period. On the subsequent morning, eight males performed 45-min steady-state (SS) exercise (65% [Formula: see text]) followed by HIT running to exhaustion (1-min at 80% [Formula: see text]interspersed with 1-min walking at 6 km/h). Subjects completed 3 trials consisting of placebo capsules (administered immediately prior to SS and immediately before HIT) and placebo mouth rinse at 4-min intervals during HIT (PLACEBO), placebo capsules but 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) at corresponding time-points or finally, caffeine capsules (200 mg per dose) plus 10% carbohydrate mouth rinse (CAFF + CMR) at corresponding time-points. Heart rate, capillary glucose, lactate, glycerol and NEFA were not different at exhaustion during HIT (P > 0.05). However, HIT capacity was different (P < 0.05) between all pair-wise comparisons such that CAFF + CMR (65 ± 26 min) was superior to CMR (52 ± 23 min) and PLACEBO (36 ± 22 min). We conclude that carbohydrate mouth rinsing and caffeine ingestion improves exercise capacity undertaken in carbohydrate-restricted states. Such nutritional strategies may be advantageous for those athletes who deliberately incorporate elements of training in carbohydrate-restricted states (i.e. the train-low paradigm) into their overall training programme in an attempt to strategically enhance mitochondrial adaptations of skeletal muscle.

  16. Neural representations of ethologically relevant hand/mouth synergies in the human precentral gyrus.

    PubMed

    Desmurget, Michel; Richard, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Baraduc, Pierre; Szathmari, Alexandru; Mottolese, Carmine; Sirigu, Angela

    2014-04-15

    Complex motor responses are often thought to result from the combination of elemental movements represented at different neural sites. However, in monkeys, evidence indicates that some behaviors with critical ethological value, such as self-feeding, are represented as motor primitives in the precentral gyrus (PrG). In humans, such primitives have not yet been described. This could reflect well-known interspecies differences in the organization of sensorimotor regions (including PrG) or the difficulty of identifying complex neural representations in peroperative settings. To settle this alternative, we focused on the neural bases of hand/mouth synergies, a prominent example of human behavior with high ethological value. By recording motor- and somatosensory-evoked potentials in the PrG of patients undergoing brain surgery (2-60 y), we show that two complex nested neural representations can mediate hand/mouth actions within this structure: (i) a motor representation, resembling self-feeding, where electrical stimulation causes the closing hand to approach the opening mouth, and (ii) a motor-sensory representation, likely associated with perioral exploration, where cross-signal integration is accomplished at a cortical site that generates hand/arm actions while receiving mouth sensory inputs. The first finding extends to humans' previous observations in monkeys. The second provides evidence that complex neural representations also exist for perioral exploration, a finely tuned skill requiring the combination of motor and sensory signals within a common control loop. These representations likely underlie the ability of human children and newborns to accurately produce coordinated hand/mouth movements, in an otherwise general context of motor immaturity.

  17. The effect of a carbohydrate mouth-rinse on neuromuscular fatigue following cycling exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Robert; Shave, Robert; Ross, Emma; Stevenson, Emma J; Goodall, Stuart

    2015-06-01

    Carbohydrate (CHO) mouth-rinsing, rather than ingestion, is known to improve performance of high-intensity (>75% maximal oxygen uptake) short-duration (≤1 h) cycling exercise. Mechanisms responsible for this improvement, however, are unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of a CHO mouth-rinse on cycling time-trial (TT) performance and mechanisms of fatigue. On 2 separate occasions, 9 male cyclists (mean ± SD; maximal oxygen uptake, 61 ± 5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed 45 min at 70% maximum power output (preload) followed by a 15-min TT. At 7.5-min intervals during the preload and TT, participants were given either a tasteless 6.4% maltodextrin mouth-rinse (CHO) or water (placebo (PLA)) in a double-blind, counterbalanced fashion. Isometric knee-extension force and electromyographic responses to percutaneous electrical stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation were measured before, after the preload, and after the TT. There were greater decreases in maximal voluntary contraction after the TT in PLA (20% ± 10%) compared with the CHO (12% ± 8%; P = 0.019). Voluntary activation was reduced following exercise in both trials, but did not differ between conditions (PLA -10% ± 8% vs. CHO -5% ± 4%; P = 0.150). The attenuation in the manifestation of global fatigue did not translate into a TT improvement (248 ± 23 vs. 248 ± 39 W for CHO and PLA, respectively). Furthermore, no differences in heart rate or ratings of perceived exertion were found between the 2 conditions. These data suggest that CHO mouth-rinsing attenuates neuromuscular fatigue following endurance cycling. Although these changes did not translate into a performance improvement, further investigation is required into the role of CHO mouth-rinse in alleviating neuromuscular fatigue.

  18. Influence of mouth rinses on the surface hardness of dental resin nano-composite

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Aftab Ahmed; Siddiqui, Adel Zia; Mohsin, Syed Fareed; Al-Kheraif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this research was to assess the effect of mouth rinses with and without alcohol on the hardness of dental nano-filled composite. Methods: The micro-hardness of fifty circular disk shaped specimens of 7 mm x 2 mm were measured after 14 days. Specimens were immersed into alcohol containing (Listerine and Colgate Perioguard) and alcohol-free (Prodent and Sensodyne Oral antiseptic) mouth rinse solutions. Artificial saliva served as the control. Vickers Micro-hardness was measured with a 30gram load for 30 seconds dwell time by using a diamond indenter. Significant differences were represented by p<0.05, whereas highly significant difference represented by p<0.01. The level of significance (p) was calculated with the help of repeated measure ANOVA. For multiple comparisons, Tukey’s multiple comparison test was used. Results: Statistical analysis revealed highly significant difference between specimens immersed in artificial saliva (control) and Listerine (p<0.01). Whereas significant difference were observed between control and Colgate Periogard (p<0.05). However, no significant difference was observed on comparing Prodent and Sensodyne Oral antiseptic mouth rinses with control group(p>0.05). Control specimens depicted highest value of micro-hardness(60.5746 ± 3.2703) compared to the lowest value seen in specimens immersed in Listerine solvent(54.4687 ± 1.0937). Conclusion: Alcohol containing mouth rinsing solutions have more deleterious effect on hardness of nano composites as compared to alcohol-free mouth rinses. PMID:26870121

  19. A qualitative risk assessment of factors contributing to foot and mouth disease outbreaks in cattle along the western boundary of the Kruger National Park.

    PubMed

    Jori, F; Vosloo, W; Du Plessis, B; Bengis, R; Brahmbhatt, D; Gummow, B; Thomson, G R

    2009-12-01

    Between November 2000 and the end of 2007, five outbreaks of foot and mouth disease (FMD) occurred in cattle in the area adjacentto the Kruger National Park (KNP) in the north-eastern corner of South Africa. To help understand the factors behind these outbreaks a qualitative risk assessment based on the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) assessment framework was adopted, using available data from published sources and various unpublished South African sources. Risk was assessed on the basis of the following factors: data on South African Territories (SAT) type infections of buffalo and impala in the KNP, permeability of the fence along the western boundary of the KNP, the potential for contact between livestock and wildlife susceptible to FMD in areas adjacent to the KNP, and the level of herd immunity in cattle generated by prophylactic vaccination. Scenario pathways for FMD occurrence outside the KNP are presented as a conceptual framework to qualitatively assess the risk of FMD outbreaks. Factors that are likely to have most influence on the risk were identified: fence permeability, vaccination coverage, or the efficiency of animal movement control measures. The method and results are provided as an approach that may be used as a basis to evaluate the risk of FMD outbreaks occurring in other wildlife/livestock interface areas of southern Africa.

  20. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL<115 mm) sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  1. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes’ left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22≤SL<115mm) sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen’s stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45mm) feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45mm≤SL), attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating. PMID:26808293

  2. The impacts of open-mouth breathing on upper airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Joong; Choi, Ji Ho; Kim, Kang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Heung Man; Shin, Chol; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2011-04-01

    Open-mouth breathing during sleep is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is associated with increased disease severity and upper airway collapsibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of open-mouth breathing on the upper airway space in patients with OSA using three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3-D MDCT). The study design included a case-control study with planned data collection. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center. 3-D MDCT analysis was conducted on 52 patients with OSA under two experimental conditions: mouth closed and mouth open. Under these conditions, we measured the minimal cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions (mXSA-RP, mXSA-RG), as well as the upper airway length (UAL), defined as the vertical dimension from hard palate to hyoid. We also computed the volume of the upper airway space by 3-D reconstruction of both conditions. When the mouth was open, mXSA-RP and mXSA-RG significantly decreased and the UAL significantly increased, irrespective of the severity of OSA. However, between the closed- and open-mouth states, there was no significant change in upper airway volume at any severity of OSA. Results suggest that the more elongated and narrow upper airway during open-mouth breathing may aggravate the collapsibility of the upper airway and, thus, negatively affect OSA severity.

  3. Comparison of two commercially available mouth rinses on gingival inflammation, pain and acceptability after third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Chew, Bertrand; Cheng, Wu Loo; Tay, Sylvia; Fei, Yeo Jin

    2007-12-01

    A randomized clinical trial was carried out to compare the difference in the effects of using two different mouth rinses on healing after surgical removal of wisdom teeth. One mouth rinse contained chlorhexidine with alcohol whereas the other was chlorhexidine without alcohol. Twenty-one patients without any medical conditions underwent surgical removal of their 3rd molars by the same operator on both the sides. Data were analysed by the non-parametric function test. Significant differences were shown in the pain score and the number of inflammation sites (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference in the acceptability of the two mouth rinses. In this study, nonalcohol chlorhexidine mouth rinse seemed better than an alcohol-containing chlorhexidine mouth rinse in diminishing patients' post-operative pain and wound inflammation. Non-alcohol chlorhexidine mouth rinse had similar properties without the adverse effects of alcohol, such as dryness of the mouth and addiction. Likewise, they were less likely to result in alcohol-induced pain. PMID:18472528

  4. Patterns of glacial-interglacial vegetation and climate variability in eastern South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, Lydie; Caley, Thibaut; Malaizé, Bruno; Giraudeau, Jacques

    2010-05-01

    Vegetation is an integrated part of the earth system and our understanding needs records of its glacial-interglacial variability. Although the data coverage for South Africa is slightly better than for some other parts of Africa, there are only very few records that allow us a glimpse of the vegetation history and development through one or more late Quaternary climate cycles. The existing evidence is fragmentary and in some cases contradictory. Marine sediments can offer here continuous sequences that cover large periods of time and provide a record of a signal that integrates rather large continental regions. Core MD96-2048 has been cored off the Limpopo River mouth at 26°10'S 34°01'E in 660 m water depth. This area is under the double influence of continental discharge and Agulhas current water advection. The sedimentation is slow and continuous. The upper 5 meter (down till 250 ka) have been analysed for pollen and spores at millennial resolution. The terrestrial pollen assemblages indicate that during interglacials the vegetation of eastern South Africa and southern Mozambique largely consisted of evergreen and deciduous forests with an increase of dry deciduous forest and open woodland during interglacial optima. During glacials open mountainous shrubland extended. The pattern strongly suggests a shifting of altitudinal vegetation belts in the mountains primarily depending on temperature, although the decline of forested areas during glacial times might also be the effect of low atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. This pattern in eastern South Africa differs from that suggested for western South Africa, where extension of the winter rain climate seems likely, and corroborates findings of increased C4 vegetation during the Glacial of eastern South Africa. The spread of dry deciduous forest and open woodland suggests a hot and dry climate during interglacial optima. The vegetation and climate of eastern South Africa seems to follow a mid to high

  5. The First Radiocarbon-Constrained Full-Vector Holocene Paleomagnetic Secular Variation Reconstruction for Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, F.; St-Onge, G.; Stoner, J.; Lajeunesse, P.

    2009-05-01

    Here we present the first high-resolution Holocene paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) master curve and relative paleointensity stack constrained by radiocarbon dates for Eastern Canada. This reconstruction is based on seven sedimentary sequences collected from the St. Lawrence Estuary and Gulf from the head to the mouth of the Laurentian Channel. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM), the anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) were measured on u-channel samples at the Paleomagnetism Laboratory of ISMER using a 2G Enterprises cryogenic magnetometer. Magnetic mineralogy was additionally assessed using a recently installed alternative gradient force magnetometer (AGM). The magnetic mineralogy of the Holocene postglacial sediments is mainly carried by low-coercivity ferrimagnetic minerals (most likely magnetite) in the pseudo-single domain size range. The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM), assessed by principal component analysis, reveals the presence of a stable and well-defined magnetization characterized by maximum angular deviation (MAD) values generally lower than 5°. Furthermore, ChRM inclinations fluctuate around the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic inclination for the latitude of the coring sites (from 63° to 66°). The similarity of these records on their own independent timescales implies that all of the individual sedimentary sequences record a reliable Holocene PSV record for Eastern Canada. Relative paleointensity (RPI) was estimated by normalizing the NRM by the ARM which provided the best coercivity match. Lastly, the paleomagnetic directional and RPI records were stacked on a common time scale spanning the last ~10 000 cal BP. The smoothed PSV stack reveal centennial- to millennial-scale geomagnetic features concordant with the CALS7K.2 time-varying spherical harmonic model, as well as with the US eastern stack (King and Peck, 2001). Comparisons further a field with the

  6. Church Orientations in Central and Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laužikas, Rimvydas

    The objective of this case study is to discuss church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its geographical situation, this region is a specific part of European cultural space: it is remote from the main cultural centers, it was the last to adopt Christianity, and it experienced intensive interactions with Byzantine culture. Therefore, we can assess church orientation in Central and Eastern Europe as a tradition affected by multicultural interactions and in which there is an interlacement of Catholicism from Western Europe, Byzantinism, local pagan faiths and, in part, the ideas of conception of geographical space of the Jews, Karaites, and Muslims.

  7. Enthalpy relations for Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.W.

    1987-11-01

    Relations were developed that allow easy and accurate calculation of enthalpy changes during the heating, retorting, or cooling of raw, spent, or burned Eastern oil shales. The heat capacities of the mineral matter, bound water, kerogen, and char, and the heat of mineral dehydration are given by linear or quadratic functions of temperature. Values are recommended for the heats of kerogen pyrolysis and pyrite decomposition. A relation was developed for estimating the extent of mineral dehydration as a function of temperature. Predictions made using these relations agree with all available Eastern shale data. 36 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Tectonic Uplift and Eastern Africa Aridification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Ramstein, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Schuster, Mathieu; Tiercelin, Jean-Jacques; Brunet, Michel

    2006-09-01

    The history of Eastern African hominids has been linked to a progressive increase of open grassland during the past 8 million years. This trend was explained by global climatic processes, which do not account for the massive uplift of eastern African topography that occurred during this period. Atmosphere and biosphere simulations quantify the role played by these tectonic events. The reduced topographic barrier before 8 million years ago permitted a zonal circulation with associated moisture transport and strong precipitation. Our results suggest that the uplift itself led to a drastic reorganization of atmospheric circulation, engendering the strong aridification and paleoenvironmental changes suggested by the data.

  9. Acid rain reduced in eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowersox, V.C.; Lynch, J.A.; Grimm, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    Sulfate and free hydrogen ion concentrations in precipitation decreased 10 to 25 percent over large areas of the eastern United States in 1995. The largest decreases in both ions occurred in and downwind of the Ohio River Valley, the same area where Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments set limitations, effective January 1, 1995, on sulfur dioxide emissions from affected coal-fired sources. Based on our analysis of precipitation chemistry and emissions data, we conclude that substantial declines in acid rain occurred in the eastern United States in 1995 because of large reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions in the same region.

  10. Acid clouds and precipitation in eastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamoto, C. T.; Parungo, F.; Reinking, R.; Pueschel, R.; Gerish, T.

    Rain and snow samples were collected at the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains and analyzed for chemical composition. Many precipitation samples had pH values considerably more acidic than the 5.6 value of pure water containing only an equilibrium amount of atmospheric CO 2. Clear and considerable dependencies of the acidity on seasonal synoptic scale weather patterns are demonstrated. Cloud water samples, collected by aircraft over eastern Colorado, also showed low pH values. The acidity of clouds was greatest near the city of Denver.

  11. Mycoplasma gallopavonis in eastern wild turkeys.

    PubMed

    Luttrell, M P; Eleazer, T H; Kleven, S H

    1992-04-01

    Serum samples and tracheal cultures were collected from eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo sylvestris) trapped for relocation in South Carolina (USA) during 1985 to 1990. Sera were tested for Mycoplasma gallisepticum and M. synoviae by the rapid plate agglutination and hemagglutination inhibition tests and were found to be negative. Tracheal cultures were negative for all pathogenic Mycoplasma spp., including M. gallisepticum, M. synoviae, M. meleagridis, and M. iowae. However, M. gallopavonis was isolated from every group of wild turkeys tested in 1986 to 1990. These data suggest that M. gallopavonis, which is generally considered nonpathogenic, may be a common microorganism in eastern wild turkeys.

  12. Food habits of bobcats in eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Story, J.D.; Galbraith, W.J.; Kitchings, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Food habits of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in eastern Tennessee were determined from analyzing 176 cat samples collected on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park. Remains of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) were the most frequently occurring food item. White-tail deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and pine vole (Microtus pinetorum) remains also were found frequently in samples. Data obtained from this study indicated that food preferences for bobcats in eastern Tennessee are similar to those in other southeastern states where the habitat is similar to the Oak Ridge area and somewhat different from those with significantly different habitat.

  13. The effect of carbohydrate mouth rinse on maximal strength and strength endurance.

    PubMed

    Painelli, Vitor S; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Del-Favero, Serena; Benatti, Fabiana B; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Tricoli, Valmor; Lancha, Antonio H

    2011-09-01

    It has been previously reported that carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse can improve exercise performance. The proposed mechanism involves increased activation of brain regions believed to be responsible for reward/motivation and motor control. Since strength-related performance is affected by central drive to the muscles, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that the positive CNS response to oral CHO sensing may counteract the inhibitory input from the muscle afferent pathways minimizing the drop in the central drive. The purpose of the current study was to test if CHO mouth rinse affects maximum strength and strength endurance performance. Twelve recreationally strength-trained healthy males (age 24.08 ± 2.99 years; height 178.09 ± 6.70 cm; weight 78.67 ± 8.17 kg) took part in the study. All of the tests were performed in the morning, after an 8 h overnight fasting. Subjects were submitted to a maximum strength test (1-RM) and a strength endurance test (six sets until failure at 70% of 1-RM), in separate days under three different experimental conditions (CHO mouth rinse, placebo-PLA mouth rinse and control-CON) in a randomized crossover design. The CHO mouth rinse (25 ml) occurred before every attempt in the 1-RM test, and before every set in the endurance strength test. Blood glucose and lactate were measured immediately before and 5 min post-tests. There were no significant differences in 1-RM between experimental conditions (CHO 101 ± 7.2 kg; PLA 101 ± 7.4 kg; CON 101 ± 7.2 kg; p = 0.98). Furthermore, there were no significance between trial differences in the number of repetitions performed in each set (p = 0.99) or the total exercise volume (number of repetitions × load lifted [kg]) (p = 0.98). A main effect for time (p < 0.0001) in blood lactate concentration was observed in both tests (1-RM and strength endurance). Blood glucose concentration did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, CHO mouth rinse does not affect maximum strength or strength

  14. In vitro monodisperse aerosol deposition in a mouth and throat with six different inhalation devices.

    PubMed

    DeHaan, W H; Finlay, W H

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effect of different pharmaceutical aerosol inhalation devices on the deposition of monodisperse aerosols in an idealized mouth and throat geometry. The devices included two dry powder inhalers (Diskus and Turbuhaler), two nebulizers (Pari LC STAR and Hudson T-Updraft), and a metered dose inhaler with attached holding chamber (Aerochamber), in addition to a straight tube (1.7 cm inner diameter). Aerosol particles (DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate) of diameters of 2.5, 5, and 7 microm generated by a vibrating orifice generator were inhaled at steady air flow rates of Q = 5-90 L/min through the devices and into the mouth-throat. Deposition in the mouth-throat and after-filter were determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometric assay. The amount of deposition in the mouth and throat region was found to depend on the type of device that the aerosol entered through. Deposition in the extrathoracic region with the two types of jet nebulizers did not differ significantly (p > 0.1) from that of a straight tube or each other over their entire tested range of 590 > or = pd2Q > or = 11,375, where p is particle density (in g/cm3), d is particle diameter (in microm), and Q is flow rate (in cm3/s). The metered dose inhaler with attached holding chamber was found to differ from the straight tube only at two intermediate values of pd2Q = 5,145 and 16,033. The deposition occurring for the dry powder inhalers was found to be significantly greater than for the straight tube for all values of pd2Q > or = 10,954 for the Diskus and pd2Q > or = 9,435 for the Turbuhaler. Deposition with the dry powder inhalers was found to be up to 14 times greater than that with the straight tube. Thus, the inhaler geometry that the aerosol passes through prior to entering the mouth and throat region can greatly affect the deposition in the mouth-throat.

  15. Can Carbohydrate Mouth Rinse Improve Performance during Exercise? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Thays de Ataide e; de Souza, Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves; de Amorim, Jamile Ferro; Stathis, Christos G.; Leandro, Carol Góis; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify studies that have investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on exercise performance, and to quantify the overall mean difference of this type of manipulation across the studies. The main mechanisms involving the potential benefit of CHO mouth rinse on performance was also explored. A systematic review was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), without limit of searches. Eleven studies were classified as appropriate and their results were summarized and compared. In nine of them, CHO mouth rinse increased the performance (range from 1.50% to 11.59%) during moderate- to high-intensity exercise (~75% Wmax or 65% VO2max, ~1 h duration). A statistical analysis to quantify the individual and overall mean differences was performed in seven of the 11 eligible studies that reported power output (watts, W) as the main performance outcome. The overall mean difference was calculated using a random-effect model that accounts for true variation in effects occurring in each study, as well as random error within a single study. The overall effect of CHO mouth rinse on performance was significant (mean difference = 5.05 W, 95% CI 0.90 to 9.2 W, z = 2.39, p = 0.02) but there was a large heterogeneity between the studies (I2 = 52%). An activation of the oral receptors and consequently brain areas involved with reward (insula/operculum frontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum) is suggested as a possible physiological mechanism responsible for the improved performance with CHO mouth rinse. However, this positive effect seems to be accentuated when muscle and liver glycogen stores are reduced, possibly due to a greater sensitivity of the oral receptors, and require further investigation. Differences in duration of fasting before the trial, duration of mouth rinse, type of activity, exercise protocols

  16. Can carbohydrate mouth rinse improve performance during exercise? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Ataide e Silva, Thays; Di Cavalcanti Alves de Souza, Maria Eduarda; de Amorim, Jamile Ferro; Stathis, Christos G; Leandro, Carol Góis; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to identify studies that have investigated the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) mouth rinse on exercise performance, and to quantify the overall mean difference of this type of manipulation across the studies. The main mechanisms involving the potential benefit of CHO mouth rinse on performance was also explored. A systematic review was conducted in the following electronic databases: PubMed, SciELO, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials), without limit of searches. Eleven studies were classified as appropriate and their results were summarized and compared. In nine of them, CHO mouth rinse increased the performance (range from 1.50% to 11.59%) during moderate- to high-intensity exercise (~75% Wmax or 65% VO2max, ~1 h duration). A statistical analysis to quantify the individual and overall mean differences was performed in seven of the 11 eligible studies that reported power output (watts, W) as the main performance outcome. The overall mean difference was calculated using a random-effect model that accounts for true variation in effects occurring in each study, as well as random error within a single study. The overall effect of CHO mouth rinse on performance was significant (mean difference=5.05 W, 95% CI 0.90 to 9.2 W, z=2.39, p=0.02) but there was a large heterogeneity between the studies (I2=52%). An activation of the oral receptors and consequently brain areas involved with reward (insula/operculum frontal, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum) is suggested as a possible physiological mechanism responsible for the improved performance with CHO mouth rinse. However, this positive effect seems to be accentuated when muscle and liver glycogen stores are reduced, possibly due to a greater sensitivity of the oral receptors, and require further investigation. Differences in duration of fasting before the trial, duration of mouth rinse, type of activity, exercise protocols, and

  17. Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study: Initial Results (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, A.; Townsend, A.; Hummon, M.; Weekley, A.; Clark, K.; King, J.

    2013-10-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, which aims to answer critical questions about the future of the Eastern Interconnection under high levels of solar and wind generation penetration.

  18. Reforming Higher Education in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia G. M.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in eastern Europe begins with a description of the major European programs promoting international mobility for students and scholars and then examines reform efforts in the former Soviet Union, Poland, and former East Germany. Critical factors in the success of reforms are outlined. (MSE)

  19. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility.

  20. Faulting in eastern New Mexico: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, P.J.

    1987-08-01

    This area in eastern New Mexico is being studied because of its proximity to a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Regional and local tectonics must be thoroughly understood in order to be able to predict future tectonic activities in the site region. Hydrogeologic studies indicate that ground-water recharge, for regional deep and shallow aquifer systems, occurs primarily within the study area. Regional, easterly ground-water flow may be significantly affected by the spacing, orientation, and character of faults identified in this report. The tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is developed from information from 660 exploratory wells. A history of recurrent tectonic movements is evident, beginning possibly in the late Precambrian and extending into the late Cenozoic. The nature of the evidence includes the lateral and vertical distribution and the lithology of these deposits. The results are presented mainly as isopach and structure contour maps and as structural cross sections. The Paleozoic tectonic history of eastern New Mexico is similar and related to the history of the Texas Panhandle. Differences occur primarily in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic histories; tectonic uplift persisted for longer periods and faults show evidence of repeated movements in eastern New Mexico. This is probably a result of the proximity of the area to the Laramide and Basin and Range deformational events. 442 refs., 35 figs.

  1. Eastern Europe: Pronatalist Policies and Private Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Henry P.

    1982-01-01

    This bulletin reviews recent fertility-related trends in the nine Eastern European socialist countries where official policy is explicitly pronatalist to varying degrees in all but Yugoslavia. That fertility was generally higher here than in Western Europe in the mid-1970s is credited to pronatalist measures undertaken when fertility fell below…

  2. Eastern Boundary Effects on General Circulation Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewar, William K.

    1997-01-01

    My NASA proposal included plans to examine the dynamics of the eastern oceanic boundary, with a view towards those processes important to the interior. Several relevant tasks have been completed and either have appeared or will appear soon in the refereed literature.

  3. Reforms in Higher Education Disappoint Eastern Europeans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollag, Burton

    1999-01-01

    Reviews changes in higher education in Eastern Europe since the fall of communism and finds less than expected change, although enrollment has increased and there is minimal government interference. Obstacles to change include lack of quality controls, falling financial support, and emigration of scholars to other countries or business fields. (DB)

  4. Eastern Devonian shales: Organic geochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, I.A.; Hatchner, P.G.; Miknis, F.P.; Romankiw, L.A.

    1983-02-01

    The Eastern Devonian shales are represented by a sequence of sediments extending from New York state, south to the northern regions of Georgia and Alabama, and west into Ohio and to the Michigan and Illinois Basins. Correlatives are known in Texas. The shale is regionally known by a number of names: Chattanooga, Dunkirk, Rhinestreet, Huron, Antrim, Ohio, Woodford, etc. These shales, other than those in Texas, have elicited much interest because they have been a source of unassociated natural gas. It is of particular interest, however, that most of these shales have no associated crude oil, in spite of the fact that they have some of the characteristics normally attributed to source beds. This paper addresses some of the organic geochemical aspects of the kerogen in these shales, in relation to their oil generating potential. Past organic geochemical studies on Eastern Devonian shales are reviewed. Recent solid state /sup 13/C NMR studies on the nature of the organic matter in Eastern Devonian shales show that Eastern Devonian shales contain a larger fraction of aromatic carbon in their chemical composition. Thus, despite their high organic matter contents, their potential as a petroleum source rock is low, because the kerogen in these shales is of a ''coaly'' nature and hence more prone to producing natural gas.

  5. Educational Film Guide for Middle Eastern Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Joseph; Joachim, Ann

    This annotated guide lists 16mm. films on the Middle East for use in grades K-12 and with adults. The Middle East refers to a vast area extending from eastern Afghanistan and the northern Caucasus to the western coast of Morocco and the southern periphery of the Sahara. The guide does not list films according to their merits. Rather, it includes…

  6. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy. PMID:17953094

  7. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  8. Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2014

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetkova, E.; Sud, S.; Aucoin, N.; Biagi, J.; Burkes, R.; Samson, B.; Brule, S.; Cripps, C.; Colwell, B.; Falkson, C.; Dorreen, M.; Goel, R.; Halwani, F.; Maroun, J.; Michaud, N.; Tehfe, M.; Thirlwell, M.; Vickers, M.; Asmis, T.

    2015-01-01

    The annual Eastern Canadian Colorectal Cancer Consensus Conference was held in Montreal, Quebec, 23–25 October 2014. Expert radiation, medical, and surgical oncologists and pathologists involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussions resulting in consensus statements on such hot topics as management of neuroendocrine tumours, advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:26300681

  9. INORGANIC ELEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION OF EASTERN OYSTERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fisher, William S. In press. Inorganic Elements and Distribution of Eastern Oysters (Abstract). To be presented at the 96th Annual Meeting (Aquaculture 2004) of the National Shellfisheries Association, 1-5 March 2004, Honolulu, HI. 1 p. (ERL,GB R962).

    For over a century w...

  10. Astroparticle physics at the Eastern Colombia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, Hernán; Núñez, Luis A.

    2015-12-01

    We present the emerging panorama of Astroparticle Physics at the Eastern Colombia region, and describe several ongoing projects, most of them related to the Latin American Giant Observatory (LAGO) Project. This research work is carried out at the Grupo de Investigaciones en Relatividad y Gravitacin of Universidad Industrial de Santander.

  11. Temperature Relationships in Eastern Skunk Cabbage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Barbara J.; Halkin, Sylvia L.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory exercise is presented in which students determine where metabolic heat is primarily generated in blooming eastern skunk cabbage ("Symplocarpus foetidus") plants. Students consider how color, shape, and orientation of spathes, and stage of flower maturation, may affect metabolic heat production and retention of both metabolic and solar…

  12. Culture and Language Learning: Middle Eastern Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas

    Middle Eastern students face cultural conflicts in adapting to the western value system. While feeling obligated to maintain their native culture they also need to feel comfortable with the culture of their target language. In attempting to identify with a new group, ESL students may sense a loss of membership in their native group. Culture stress…

  13. AIR QUALITY OVER THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric concentrations of ozone and fine particulate matter continue to exceed their standards in many parts of the eastern United States. However, the peak concentration levels and number of ozone exceedances have decreased substantially in recent years due, in part, to the...

  14. Laptop Circulation at Eastern Washington University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Doris; Malia, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    In 2001, Eastern Washington University's Libraries began a laptop circulation program with seventeen laptops. Today, there are 150 laptops in the circulation pool, as well as seventeen digital cameras, eleven digital handycams, and thirteen digital projectors. This article explains how the program has grown to its present size, the growing pains…

  15. History of sexology in eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Raboch, J

    1991-01-01

    Out of the eastern european countries the greatest development of medical sexology occurred and a new independent branch of medicine came about in the following three: Czechoslovakia, Poland and Soviet Union. The focus of the article will be dedicated to the state of sexology in the mentioned three countries.

  16. The Lamaholot Language of Eastern Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaya, Naonori

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the grammar of the Lewotobi dialect of Lamaholot, an Austronesian language spoken in the eastern part of Flores Island and neighboring islands of Indonesia. Lamaholot belongs to the Central Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of Austronesian, within which it is in a subgroup with the languages of Timor and Roti. The number of speakers…

  17. Serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs (Bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Chandranaik, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik; Hegde, Raveendra; Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Giridhar, Papanna; Muniyellappa, Handenahally Kaverappa; Kalge, Rajeshwar; Sumathi, Benamanahalli Raju; Nithinprabhu, Kumble; Chandrashekara, Narasimhaiah; Manjunatha, Venkataramanappa; Jaisingh, Nirupama; Mayanna, Asha; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli; Kanaka, Sermaraja; Venkatesha, Mudalagiri Dasappagupta

    2015-06-01

    We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for 'O' type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates. PMID:25894817

  18. Serotyping of foot and mouth disease virus and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs (Bos gaurus), concurrently infected with foot and mouth disease and haemorrhagic septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Chandranaik, Basavegowdanadoddi Marinaik; Hegde, Raveendra; Shivashankar, Beechagondahalli Papanna; Giridhar, Papanna; Muniyellappa, Handenahally Kaverappa; Kalge, Rajeshwar; Sumathi, Benamanahalli Raju; Nithinprabhu, Kumble; Chandrashekara, Narasimhaiah; Manjunatha, Venkataramanappa; Jaisingh, Nirupama; Mayanna, Asha; Chandrakala, Gowda Kallenahalli; Kanaka, Sermaraja; Venkatesha, Mudalagiri Dasappagupta

    2015-06-01

    We report the serotyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and Pasteurella multocida from Indian gaurs which were concurrently infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia. Bannerghatta biological park (BBP), a national park located in the outskirts of Bengaluru city, Karnataka, India, is bordered by several villages. These villages witnessed massive outbreaks of FMD which spread rapidly to the herbivores at BBP. Post-mortem was conducted on carcasses of two Indian gaurs that died with symptoms of FMD. The salient gross findings included extensive vesicular lesions on the tongue, gums, cheeks, upper palate and hooves. Haemorrhagic tracheitis and ecchymotic haemorrhages on the heart were characteristic. The vesicular lesions of oral cavity were positive for 'O' type of FMD virus by sandwich enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA). The heart blood and spleen samples yielded growth of pure cultures of P. multocida. The isolates were typed as P. multocida type B using KTSP61 and KTT72 primers yielding specific amplicons of 620 bp. The phylogenetic analysis of the isolates was carried by sequencing of 1.4-Kbp nucleotides on the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of the isolates.

  19. Effective synthetic peptide vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease in swine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chang Yi; Chang, Tseng Yuan; Walfield, Alan M; Ye, John; Shen, Ming; Chen, Shih Ping; Li, Ming Chang; Lin, Yeou Liang; Jong, Ming Hwa; Yang, Ping Cheng; Chyr, Nancy; Kramer, Ed; Brown, Fred

    2002-06-01

    We have designed a peptide-based vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) effective in swine. The peptide immunogen has a G-H loop domain from the VP1 capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and a novel promiscuous T helper (Th) site for broad immunogenicity in multiple species. The G-H loop VP1 site was optimised for cross-reactivity to FMDV by the inclusion into the peptide of cyclic constraint and adjoining sequences. The incorporation of consensus residues into the hypervariable positions of the VP1 site provided for broad immunogenicity. The vaccine protected 20 out of 21 immunised pigs from infectious challenge by FMDV O1 Taiwan using peptide doses as low as 12.5 microg, and a mild adjuvant that caused no lesions. A safe chemically-defined product would have considerable advantages for vaccination against FMD. PMID:12057619

  20. A toothbrush impalement injury of the floor of mouth in autism child.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryo; Uchiyama, Hiroto; Okamoto, Toshihiro; Fukada, Kenji; Ogiuchi, Hideki; Ando, Tomohiro

    2013-12-01

    Penetrating injuries in the oral cavity are common in children. However, penetrating injuries with retained foreign bodies are rare. We report a case of a toothbrush impalement injury of the floor of the mouth in a child with autism. A 5-year-old boy with autism presented with an accidentally impaled toothbrush in the oral cavity. He was taken to the operation room and examined under general anesthesia. The handle of the toothbrush was cut off using rib scissors for mask ventilation, and intra-oral intubation was performed. The toothbrush was located approximately 2.5 cm into the floor of the mouth. The toothbrush was removed uneventfully. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was instituted during hospitalization, and discharge from the hospital occurred 4 days after the operation.