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Sample records for corydalis speciosa max

  1. Effect of wine and vinegar processing of Rhizoma Corydalis on the tissue distribution of tetrahydropalmatine, protopine and dehydrocorydaline in rats.

    PubMed

    Dou, Zhiying; Li, Kefeng; Wang, Ping; Cao, Liu

    2012-01-18

    Vinegar and wine processing of medicinal plants are two traditional pharmaceutical techniques which have been used for thousands of years in China. Tetrahydropalmatine (THP), dehydrocorydaline (DHC) and protopine are three major bioactive molecules in Rhizoma Corydalis. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed for simultaneous analysis of THP, DHC and protopine in rat tissues after gastric gavage administration of Rhizoma Corydalis. The validated HPLC method was successfully applied to investigate the effect of wine and vinegar processing on the compounds' distribution in rat tissues. Our results showed that processing mainly affect the T(max) and mean residence time (MRT) of the molecules without changing their C(max) and AUC(0-24)( )(h) Vinegar processing significantly increased the T(max) of DHC in heart, kidney, cerebrum, cerebrellum, brain stem and striatum and prolonged the T(max) of protopine in brain. No significant changes were observed on the T(max) of THP in rat tissues after vinegar processing. Wine processing reduced the T(max) of protopine and DHC in liver and spleen and T(max) of protopine in lung, but increased the T(max) of THP in all the rat tissues examined. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the effects of processing on the tissue distribution of the bioactive molecules from Rhizoma Corydalis.

  2. The Impact of Global Climate Change on the Geographic Distribution and Sustainable Harvest of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabout, João Carlos; Magalhães, Mara Rúbia; de Amorim Gomes, Marcos Aurélio; da Cunha, Hélida Ferreira

    2016-04-01

    The global Climate change may affect biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems by changing the appropriate locations for the development and establishment of the species. The Hancornia speciosa, popularly called Mangaba, is a plant species that has potential commercial value and contributes to rural economic activities in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of global climate change on the potential geographic distribution, productivity, and value of production of H. speciosa in Brazil. We used MaxEnt to estimate the potential geographic distribution of the species in current and future (2050) climate scenarios. We obtained the productivity and value of production for 74 municipalities in Brazil. Moreover, to explain the variation the productivity and value of production, we constructed 15 models based on four variables: two ecological (ecological niche model and the presence of Unity of conservation) and two socio-economic (gross domestic product and human developed index). The models were selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Our results suggest that municipalities currently harvesting H. speciosa will have lower harvest rates in the future (mainly in northeastern Brazil). The best model to explain the productivity was ecological niche model; thus, municipalities with higher productivity are inserted in regions with higher environmental suitability (indicated by niche model). Thus, in the future, the municipalities harvesting H. speciosa will produce less because there will be less suitable habitat for H. speciosa, which in turn will affect the H. speciosa harvest and the local economy.

  3. [Comparison of analgesic effect between locally vinegar-processed preparation of fresh rhizoma Corydalis and traditionally vinegar-processed rhizoma Corydalis].

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Li, G; Zhu, F; Wang, L; Wang, Y

    1990-11-01

    Hot plate and writhing methods were used in the comparison of the analgesic effect of vinegar-processed fresh tuber corydalis and the traditionally vinegar-processed Rhizoma Corydalis. The result shows that the effect of the former is stronger than that of the latter.

  4. [Determination of protopine in Corydalis racemose by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiazhi; Ye, Jinxia; Zeng, Jianwei; Zou, Xiuhong; Wu, Jinzhong

    2010-09-01

    To develop a HPLC method for determining the content of protopine in Corydalis racemose. Analysis was performed on a Gemini C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) eluted with acetonitrile-water containing 0.8% triethylamine and 3% acetic acid acetum (20:80) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was 289 nm. The average content of protopine in Herb of Racemose Corydalis was 0.905%. The calibration curve of protopine was linear between 0.124-1.36 microg (r = 0.9999). The average recovery was 98.49% with RSD 1.9%. This method is simple, reproducible and can be used to determine the content of protopine in C. racemose.

  5. Rapid discrimination and quantification of alkaloids in Corydalis Tuber by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai-yan; Wang, Shi-sheng; Cai, Rui; Meng, Yu; Xie, Xin; Zhao, Wei-jie

    2012-02-05

    With the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a convenient and rapid method for determination of alkaloids in Corydalis Tuber extract and classification for samples from different locations have been developed. Five different samples were collected according to their geographical origin, 2-Der with smoothing point of 17 was applied as the spectral pre-treatment, and the 1st to scaling range algorithm was adjusted to be optimal approach, classification model was constructed over the wavelength range of 4582-4270 cm⁻¹, 5562-4976 cm⁻¹ and 7000-7467 cm⁻¹ with a great recognition rate. For prediction model, partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was utilized referring to HPLC-UV reference method, the optimum models were obtained after adjustment. Pre-processing methods of calibration models were COE for protopine and min-max normalization for palmatine and MSC for tetrahydropalmatine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for protopine, palmatine, tetrahydropalmatine were 0.884, 1.83, 3.23 mg/g. The correlation coefficients (R²) were 99.75, 98.41 and 97.34%. T test was applied, in the model of tetrahydropalmatine; there is no significant difference between NIR prediction and HPLC reference method at 95% confidence interval with t=0.746

  6. Antiplasmodial agents from the Bhutanese medicinal plant Corydalis calliantha.

    PubMed

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Bremner, John B; Rattanajak, Roonglawan; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee

    2010-04-01

    The alkaloidal components of the Bhutanese medicinal plant Corydalis calliantha Long, which is used for the treatment of malaria, have been assessed. Four known alkaloids, protopine (1), scoulerine (2), cheilanthifoline (3) and stylopine (4) are reported from this plant for the first time. The protopine alkaloid, protopine, and the tetrahydroprotoberine alkaloid, cheilanthifoline, showed promising in vitro antiplasmodial activities against Plasmodium falciparum, both wild type (TM4) and multidrug resistant (K1) strains with IC(50) values in the range of 2.78-4.29 microM. Such activity had not been demonstrated previously for cheilanthifoline. The results thus support, at a molecular level, the clinical use of this plant in the Bhutanese traditional medicine and identified cheilanthifoline as a potential new antimalarial drug lead. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Study on alkaloids of Corydalis ochotensis and their antitumor bioactivity].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-jia; Cong, Deng-li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chun-fang

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Corydalis ochotensis and their antitumor bioactivity. The compounds were isolated by silica gel column chromatography and recrystallization. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analysis (NMR) and physicochemical properties. Their cytotoxic activity was studied by MTT. Six compounds were elucidated as protopine (1), ochotensimine (2), fumariline (3), sanguinarine (4), tetrahydroberberine (5) and berberine (6). Compound 1 had excellent inhibitory activity on HepG2, SW480 and A549 cells, and compound 4 had excellent inhibitory activity on Hep2, HepG2, SW480 and A549 cells. Compounds 3, 4 and 5 are isolated from this plant for the first time; In the MTT antitumor experiments,compounds 1 and 4 show an antitumor activity.

  8. Protopine from Corydalis ternata has anticholinesterase and antiamnesic activities.

    PubMed

    Kim, S R; Hwang, S Y; Jang, Y P; Park, M J; Markelonis, G J; Oh, T H; Kim, Y C

    1999-04-01

    While screening extracts of natural products in search of anticholinesterase activity, we found that a total methanolic extract of the tuber of Corydalis ternata (Papaveraceae) showed significant inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase. Further fractionation of this extract using acetylcholinesterase inhibition as the parameter screened resulted in the isolation and purification of an alkaloid, protopine. Protopine inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration required for 50% inhibition was 50 microM. The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of protopine was specific reversible and competitive in manner. Furthermore, when mice were pretreated with protopine, the alkaloid significantly alleviated scopolamine-induced memory impairment. In fact, protopine had an efficacy almost identical to that of velnacrine, a tacrine derivative developed by a major drug manufacturer to treat Alzheimer's disease, at an identical therapeutic concentration. We suggest, therefore, that protopine has both anti-acetylcholinesterase and antiamnesic properties that may ultimately hold significant therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairments observed in dementia.

  9. [Determination of four alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Xia, Biqi; Zhou, Yongfang; Liu, Cuiping; Liu, Aili

    2011-08-01

    To establish a quantitative HPLC method for determination of protopine, palmatine hydrochloride, bicuculline and tetrahydropalmatine, in Corydalis decumbens. The separation was performed on a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C18 column (4.6 mm x 150 mm, 5 microm) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1) using mixtures of two solvents [A(20 mmol x L(-1) ammonium acetate)-B(acetonitrile)]: with a gradient elution. The column oven temperature was 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. The 4 alkaloids were well separated by this HPLC method. Linearifies of protopine, palmatine hydrochloride, bicuculline and tetrahydropalmatine were good in the ranges of 1.44-46.0 (r = 0.999 4), 1.2640.2 (r = 0.999 8), 1.37-44.0 (r = 0.999 9), and 1.3643.6 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9), respectively. The average recoveries were 98.2% with RSD 2.7% for protopine, 101.9% with RSD 2.5% for palmatine hydrochloride, 102.8% with RSD 3.5% for tetrahydropalmatine, and 98.8% with RSD 3.1% for tetrahydropalmatine. This method is proved to be convenient, reliable and accurate., and it can be used for quality control of C. decumbens.

  10. [Floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis].

    PubMed

    Xia, Qing; Zhou, Shoubiao; Zhang, Dong; Chao, Tiancai

    2012-05-01

    A field investigation was conducted on the floral syndrome and breeding system of Corydalis edulis located in natural populations in campus of Anhui Normal University by out-crossing index, pollen-ovule ratio, artificial pollination and bagging experiment. The results showed that the plant was in bloom from March to May and flowering span among populations was 72 days. The flowering span for a raceme was 14-24 days. The life span of one single flower was approximately 5-10 days. Spatial positioning of stigma and anthers were spatially desperation on the day of anthesis. The filaments were shorter than the styles through pollen vitality and stigma receptivity experiments. A self-pollination breeding system was reflected by OCI 3, pollinators were required sometimes; A complex cross bred was indicated by P/O = 857.14, combined with the results of the bagging and artificial pollination experiment, the breeding system of C. edulis was mixed with self-pollination and outcrossing. The special floral structure and pests destroying may have a certain impact on seed-set rate.

  11. Modulation of key reactions of the catecholamine metabolism by extracts from Eschscholtzia californica and Corydalis cava.

    PubMed

    Kleber, E; Schneider, W; Schäfer, H L; Elstner, E F

    1995-02-01

    Aqueous-alcoholic extracts from Eschscholtzia californica inhibit the enzymatic degradation of catecholamines as well as the synthesis of adrenaline, whereas aqueous-ethanolic extracts from Corydalis cava enhance the chemical oxidation of adrenaline and the synthesis of melanine from dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Both extracts dramatically shorten the lag phase in the catalysis of phenolase probably due to their o-diphenol content, where the Corydalis extracts are 10 times more active than the Eschscholtzia preparations. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) are especially inhibited by Eschscholtzia extracts. Diamine oxidases are inhibited by both preparations to a similar extent. The results of this study may be interpreted as a cooperative function of the two preparations in establishing and preserving high catecholamine levels thus explaining their sedative, antidepressive and hypnotic activities.

  12. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of four alkaloids in different formulations from Corydalis decumbens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunzhen; Yan, Renjie; Zhang, Rongjin; Bai, Fan; Yang, Yifang; Wu, Zhaoyang; Wu, Anming

    2013-08-26

    Corydalis decumbens, a Traditional Chinese Medicine listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, is clinically used for the treatment of paralytic stroke, headache, rheumatic arthritis and sciatica in China. This study was aimed to compare the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of protopine, tetrahydropalmatine, bicuculline, and egenine in three formulations prepared from the rhizomes of Corydalis decumbens. Alkaloid extract (CDAs-SFE) was prepared from the rhizomes of Corydalis decumbens by supercritical CO2 fluid extraction; CDAs-SFE/HPβCD (hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex), and CDAs-SFE/HCl (hydrochloride freeze-dried powder) were resulted from CDAs-SFE through complexation with HPβCD and hydrochloride, respectively. An UFLC-MS/MS method was developed for quantitative analysis of protopine, tetrahydropalmatine, bicuculline and egenine simultaneously in rat plasma after oral administration. The differences of pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of the four alkaloids in three formulations were determined by pharmacokinetics analyses. The Cmax, AUC and bioavailability of protopine and tetrahydropalamatine (bioactive components) in CDAs-SFE/HCl were significantly higher than in CDAs-SFE and in CDAs-SFE/HPβCD. In contrast, in CDAs-SFE/HPβCD, AUC and bioavailability of tetrahydropalamatine were significantly lower, while those of bicuculline (toxic compound) appeared to be higher than both in CDAs-SFE and in CDAs-SFE/HCl. The results indicated that CDAs-SFE/HCl was the best beneficial formulation among the three formulations for the alkaloid extract prepared from the rhizomes of Corydalis decumbens, in which protopine and tetrahydropalamatine displayed higher bioavailability, but lower for bicuculline. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Regulation of glutamate level in rat brain through activation of glutamate dehydrogenase by Corydalis ternata.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwan Ho; Huh, Jae-Wan; Choi, Myung-Min; Yoon, Seung Yong; Yang, Seung-Ju; Hong, Hea Nam; Cho, Sung-Woo

    2005-08-31

    When treated with protopine and alkalized extracts of the tuber of Corydalis ternata for one year, significant decrease in glutamate level and increase in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity was observed in rat brains. The expression of GDH between the two groups remained unchanged as determined by Western and Northern blot analysis, suggesting a post-translational regulation of GDH activity in alkalized extracts treated rat brains. The stimulatory effects of alkalized extracts and protopine on the GDH activity was further examined in vitro with two types of human GDH isozymes, hGDH1 (house-keeping GDH) and hGDH2 (nerve-specific GDH). Alkalized extracts and protopine activated the human GDH isozymes up to 4.8-fold. hGDH2 (nerve- specific GDH) was more sensitively affected by 1 mM ADP than hGDH1 (house-keeping GDH) on the activation by alkalized extracts. Studies with cassette mutagenesis at ADP-binding site showed that hGDH2 was more sensitively regulated by ADP than hGDH1 on the activation by Corydalis ternata. Our results suggest that prolonged exposure to Corydalis ternata may be one of the ways to regulate glutamate concentration in brain through the activation of GDH.

  14. [Correlation of HPLC Characteristic Spectra of Vinegar Corydalis Rhizoma Decoction Pieces, Water Decoction and Formula Granules].

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei; Du, Lan-zhe; Li, Hui; Zhang, Guang-da; Chen, Xiang-dong

    2015-05-01

    To study the correlation of characteristic spectra of Vinegar Corydalis Rhizoma decoction pieces, water decoction and formula granules by HPLC, and to investigate the transfer of the main chemical constituents between three different forms. The analysis was carried out by a Phenomenex Gemini C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm,5 μm) with acetonitrile-1% acetic acid and ammonium acetate buffer solution (pH 6.0) as the mobile phase in a gradient elution mode. The detection wavelength was 280 nm with a flow rate of 0.8 mL /min. The column temperature was 30 degrees C. The characteristic spectra from 11 batches of Vinegar Corydalis Rhizoma decoction pieces, 11 batches of water decoction and 11 batches of formula granules were established respectively. Ten peaks in the HPLC characteristic spectra from 11 batches of formula granules could be tracked in the water decoction, nine peaks in the HPLC characteristic spectra could be tracked in the decoction pieces. In the ten common peaks, four components such as protopine, palnatine chloride, berberine hydrochloride and tetrahydropalmatine were verified. The main chemical components of Vinegar Corydalis Rhizoma decoction pieces, water decoction and formula granules are basically the same, the common component contents have similar proportion.

  15. The draft genome of Ruellia speciosa (Beautiful Wild Petunia: Acanthaceae).

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yongbin; Tripp, Erin A

    2017-04-01

    The genus Ruellia (Wild Petunias; Acanthaceae) is characterized by an enormous diversity of floral shapes and colours manifested among closely related species. Using Illumina platform, we reconstructed the draft genome of Ruellia speciosa, with a scaffold size of 1,021 Mb (or ∼1.02 Gb) and an N50 size of 17,908 bp, spanning ∼93% of the estimated genome (∼1.1 Gb). The draft assembly predicted 40,124 gene models and phylogenetic analyses of four key enzymes involved in anthocyanin colour production [flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H), flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR)] found that most angiosperms here sampled harboured at least one copy of F3H, F3'H, and DFR. In contrast, fewer than one-half (but including R. speciosa) harboured a copy of F3'5'H, supporting observations that blue flowers and/or fruits, which this enzyme is required for, are less common among flowering plants. Ka/Ks analyses of duplicated copies of F3'H and DFR in R. speciosa suggested purifying selection in the former but detected evidence of positive selection in the latter. The genome sequence and annotation of R. speciosa represents only one of only four families sequenced in the large and important Asterid clade of flowering plants and, as such, will facilitate extensive future research on this diverse group, particularly with respect to floral evolution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  16. The draft genome of Ruellia speciosa (Beautiful Wild Petunia: Acanthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Yongbin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ruellia (Wild Petunias; Acanthaceae) is characterized by an enormous diversity of floral shapes and colours manifested among closely related species. Using Illumina platform, we reconstructed the draft genome of Ruellia speciosa, with a scaffold size of 1,021 Mb (or ∼1.02 Gb) and an N50 size of 17,908 bp, spanning ∼93% of the estimated genome (∼1.1 Gb). The draft assembly predicted 40,124 gene models and phylogenetic analyses of four key enzymes involved in anthocyanin colour production [flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H), flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR)] found that most angiosperms here sampled harboured at least one copy of F3H, F3′H, and DFR. In contrast, fewer than one-half (but including R. speciosa) harboured a copy of F3′5′H, supporting observations that blue flowers and/or fruits, which this enzyme is required for, are less common among flowering plants. Ka/Ks analyses of duplicated copies of F3′H and DFR in R. speciosa suggested purifying selection in the former but detected evidence of positive selection in the latter. The genome sequence and annotation of R. speciosa represents only one of only four families sequenced in the large and important Asterid clade of flowering plants and, as such, will facilitate extensive future research on this diverse group, particularly with respect to floral evolution. PMID:28431014

  17. Distribution and abundance of the polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa Leidy, in western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hiltunen, Jarl K.

    1965-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, in 1961, are described for western Lake Erie. Previous records reveal that the species has either been generally overlooked or presently its numbers have greatly increased in the area considered.

  18. Intraspecific diversity in Sinningia speciosa (Gesneriaceae: Sinningieae), and possible origins of the cultivated florist's gloxinia

    PubMed Central

    Zaitlin, David

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The florist's gloxinia is a familiar houseplant in the Gesneriaceae, the botanical family that includes the African violet (Saintpaulia) and other ornamental species. The gloxinia's wild progenitor is Sinningia speciosa (Lodd.) Hiern, a Brazilian endemic. Although it has been cultivated for almost 200 years, little is known about the genetic diversity in S. speciosa, how the wild populations relate to one another or even where the cultivated forms originated. Using available wild collections, preliminary phenetic and phylogenetic investigations were conducted to elucidate the interspecific relationships within S. speciosa and to infer the origins of the cultivars. Methodology Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was applied to 24 accessions of S. speciosa (17 wild collections, seven cultivars) and one accession each of Sinningia guttata and Sinningia macrophylla. A maximum likelihood (ML) tree was also calculated from an alignment of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence from the same 26 accessions. Principal results Dice/UPGMA and principal coordinates analysis of the AFLP data partitioned S. speciosa into several distinct clusters, one of which included S. macrophylla. All cultivated ‘gloxinias’ grouped together in a major cluster with plants from Rio de Janeiro. The AFLP results were compared with a phylogenetic analysis of the ribosomal spacer region, which was informative in S. speciosa. The ML tree generally supported the AFLP results, although several clades lacked strong statistical support. Conclusions Independent analyses of two different data sets show that S. speciosa is a diverse species comprised of several lineages. Genetic distance estimates calculated from the AFLP data were positively correlated with geographic distances between populations, indicating that reproductive isolation could be driving speciation in this taxon. Molecular markers are under development for population genetic

  19. [Effect of Corydalis yanhusuo and L-THP on Gastrointestinal Dopamine System in Morphine-Dependent Rats].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing-yu; Bai, Wei-feng; Qiu, Cheng-kai; Tu, Ping; Yu, Shou-yang; Luo, Su-yuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the protective mechanism of Corydalis yanhuso and L-THP in morphine-dependent gastrointestinal injury rats. 180 male rats were randomly divided into nine groups, 20 rats for each group: saline group (N), model group (M), NS treatment group and three different dosage of Corydalis yanhusuo and L-THP groups (low dose group,middle dose group and high dose group). The rat CPP (conditioned place preference) model was established by injecting the rats with an increasing dosage of morphine, all groups received CPP training in a black compartments and white ones (drug-paired compartment) for ten days. At 48 h after the final training, the performance of CPP models were assessed to make sure all models were exported correctly. Then the treatment groups were administered with different concentration of Corydalis yanhuso (0.5, 1 and 2 g/kg) and L-THP (0.94, 1.88 and 3.76 mg/kg) for six days. All rats were immediately killed after finish the last CPP test. For each group, ten rats were killed to detect the contents of DA in the stomach and duodenum through the fluorescence spectrophotometer. The expression levels of D2 receptor( D2R) in different tissues (gastric cardia, gastric body, pylorus and duodenum) were checked by Western-blot in the other rats. In the NS treatment group, the time when rats stay in the white ones were significantly decreased compared with the Corydalis yanhusuo treated groups (1 and 2 g/kg) and L-THP treated groups (1.88 and 3.76 mg/kg) (P < 0.01), the high expression of DA contents in the stomach and duodenum were significantly decreased (P < 0.01). However the protein level of D2R were notably lower in gastric cardia, gastric body, pylorus and duodenum (P < 0.01). Injuries of the gastrointestinal tract followed lower DA contents and an abnormal increase of D2R in the stomach and duodenum of rats, which induced by morphine-dependent could be reversed by treatment with Corydalis yanhusuo and L-THP. This is one of mechanism underlying the

  20. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA

    PubMed Central

    James, David G.; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation. PMID:27367733

  1. Beneficial Insect Attraction to Milkweeds (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    James, David G; Seymour, Lorraine; Lauby, Gerry; Buckley, Katie

    2016-06-29

    Native plant and beneficial insect associations are relatively unstudied yet are important in native habitat restoration programs for improving and sustaining conservation biological control of arthropod pests in agricultural crops. Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) are currently the focus of restoration programs in the USA aimed at reversing a decline in populations of the milkweed-dependent monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus); however, little is known of the benefits of these plants to other beneficial insects. Beneficial insects (predators, parasitoids, pollinators) attracted to two milkweed species (Asclepias speciosa, Asclepias fascicularis) in central Washington State, WA, USA were identified and counted on transparent sticky traps attached to blooms over five seasons. Combining all categories of beneficial insects, means of 128 and 126 insects per trap were recorded for A. speciosa and A. fascicularis, respectively. Predatory and parasitic flies dominated trap catches for A. speciosa while parasitic wasps were the most commonly trapped beneficial insects on A. fascicularis. Bees were trapped commonly on both species, especially A. speciosa with native bees trapped in significantly greater numbers than honey bees. Beneficial insect attraction to A. speciosa and A. fascicularis was substantial. Therefore, these plants are ideal candidates for habitat restoration, intended to enhance conservation biological control, and for pollinator conservation. In central Washington, milkweed restoration programs for enhancement of D. plexippus populations should also provide benefits for pest suppression and pollinator conservation.

  2. Design and evaluation of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of Rhizoma corydalis decumbentis extracts.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongda; Zhao, Qingchun; Wang, Yongjun; Guo, Tao; An, Ye; Shi, Guobing

    2012-10-01

    To improve the dissolution and oral absorption of Rhizoma corydalis decumbentis extracts (RCDE), a famous traditional Chinese herbal medicine which contains poorly water-soluble active components, self-emulsifying drug-delivery systems (SEDDS) were designed and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for the first time. Six formulations were prepared, and pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the efficient self-emulsication region through the modified visual test. The optimized formulation consisted of 45% Solutol, 40% ethyl oleate, and 15% Transcutol P. The mean droplet size distribution of the optimized SEDDS was less than 100 nm. The release of the active components (protopine and tetrahydropalmatine) in RCDE from SEDDS hard gelatin capsules showed a faster rate in comparison with the commercial tablets. After oral administration of RCDE SEDDS capsules or the commercial tablets to fasted rats, the relative bioavailability of SEDDS capsules for protopine and tetrahydropalmatine was 209.7% and 133.2% compared with commercial tablets, respectively. Our study indicated that SEDDS has the potential to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines, in which many active components are hydrophobic, such as RCDE.

  3. Hyperaccumulation of zinc by Corydalis davidii in Zn-polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wenjie; Xiao, Tangfu; Wu, Yunying; Ao, Ziqiang; Ning, Zengping

    2012-02-01

    A field survey was conducted to identify potential Zn accumulators from an artisanal Zn smelting area in southwest China's Guizhou Province. Hydroponic and soil culture experiments were performed to investigate the accumulation ability of Zn in Corydalis davidii. Zn concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of C. davidii in the smelting site were 1.1-3.5, 1.2-11.2, and 3.3-14 mg g(-)(1), respectively, whereas Zn concentrations in roots, stems and leaves of C. davidii in the contaminated site impacted by the Zn smelting were 1.0-2.4, 1.9-6.5, and 3.0-1.1 mg g(-1), respectively. Zn concentrations in leaves and stems of C. davidii were observed at above 10 mg g(-1) that refers to the threshold of Zn hyperaccumulator. The concentration distribution of Zn in C. davidii was leaf>stem>root, and the Zn bioaccumulation factors of C. davidii were above 1. It is concluded that C. davidii has high tolerance to concentrate Zn stress, and that C. davidii is a newly discovered Zn-hyperaccumulator with high biomass in the aboveground parts. Based on the cultivation experiments, C. davidii could reduce Zn concentration by 26.6, 21.2, and 10.2 mg kg(-1)yr(-1) by phytoextraction from the smelting slag, Zn-contaminated soil, and background soil, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Functioning of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) Users in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Mansor, Sharif M

    2015-01-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is an indigenous plant known for its traditional medicinal use, and for its addiction potential, in Southeast Asia. In recent years, kratom and its major alkaloid, mitragynine, spread worldwide with largely unknown effects on behavior and mental health. Recent studies show that kratom use can lead to dependence and that mitragynine works as an addictive drug in animal studies. Nevertheless, kratom preparations were also suggested as a less harmful substitute in opiate withdrawal. Potential side-effects of prolonged kratom use, however, are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the social functioning of regular kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three northern states of Peninsular Malaysia investigating 293 regular kratom consumers using the Addiction Severity Index in a snowball sampling technique. Findings showed that regular kratom users do not experience major impairments in their social functioning, despite being dependent on kratom for prolonged periods. Our findings suggest that chronic kratom administration does not significantly impair social functioning of users in a natural context in Malaysia.

  5. Antidiabetes and Anti-obesity Activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Guy; Kim, Jaekyung; Himmeldirk, Klaus; Cao, Yanyan

    2007-01-01

    The leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae), a Southeast Asian tree more commonly known as banaba, have been traditionally consumed in various forms by Philippinos for treatment of diabetes and kidney related diseases. In the 1990s, the popularity of this herbal medicine began to attract the attention of scientists worldwide. Since then, researchers have conducted numerous in vitro and in vivo studies that consistently confirmed the antidiabetic activity of banaba. Scientists have identified different components of banaba to be responsible for its activity. Using tumor cells as a cell model, corosolic acid was isolated from the methanol extract of banaba and shown to be an active compound. More recently, a different cell model and the focus on the water soluble fraction of the extract led to the discovery of other compounds. The ellagitannin Lagerstroemin was identified as an effective component of the banaba extract responsible for the activity. In a different approach, using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a cell model and a glucose uptake assay as the functional screening method, Chen et al. showed that the banaba water extract exhibited an insulin-like glucose transport inducing activity. Coupling HPLC fractionation with a glucose uptake assay, gallotannins were identified in the banaba extract as components responsible for the activity, not corosolic acid. Penta-O-galloyl-glucopyranose (PGG) was identified as the most potent gallotannin. A comparison of published data with results obtained for PGG indicates that PGG has a significantly higher glucose transport stimulatory activity than Lagerstroemin. Chen et al. have also shown that PGG exhibits anti-adipogenic properties in addition to stimulating the glucose uptake in adipocytes. The combination of glucose uptake and anti-adipogenesis activity is not found in the current insulin mimetic drugs and may indicate a great therapeutic potential of PGG. PMID:18227906

  6. [Simultaneous determination of four alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Han, Chao; Liu, Cuiping; Zhou, Yongfang; Xia, Biqi; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Aili

    2011-02-01

    A method for the analysis of 4 alkaloids in Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted in methanol by ultrasonic, filtered and diluted with methanol for further analysis. The analysis was performed on a C18 column (150 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) using a gradient elution program with the mobile phase of 0.2% acetic acid solution and acetonitrile. The analyte was determined by an electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were based on the retention times and characteristic ion pairs consisting of one parent ion and two fragment ions of the analyte. The limits of detection (LODs) for 4 alkaloids were in the range of 0.02 - 0.2 microg/L, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.07 - 0.66 microg/L. The average recoveries were in the range of 93.6% - 103.5% for 4 alkaloids with the relative standard deviations below 3.8%. This method is reliable, sensitive and reproducible, and it can be used for the quality control of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. sample.

  7. AuroraMAX!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E. L.; Chicoine, R.; Pugsley, J.; Langlois, P.

    2011-12-01

    AuroraMAX is a public outreach and education initiative that brings auroral images to the public in real time. AuroraMAX utilizes an observing station located just outside Yellowknife, Canada. The station houses a digital All-Sky Imager (ASI) that collects full-colour images of the night sky every six seconds. These images are then transmitted via satellite internet to our web server, where they are made instantly available to the public. Over the last two years this program has rapidly become one of the most successful outreach programs in the history of Space Science in Canada, with hundreds of thousands of distinct visitors to the CSA AuroraMAX website, thousands of followers on social media, and hundreds of newspaper, magazine, radio, and television spots. Over the next few years, the project will expand to include a high-resolution SLR delivering real-time auroral images (also from Yellowknife), as well as a program where astronauts on the ISS will take pictures of the aurora with a handheld SLR. The objectives of AuroraMAX are public outreach and education. The ASI design, operation, and software were based on infrastructure that was developed for the highly successful ASI component of the NASA THEMIS mission as well as the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Canadian GeoSpace Monitoring (CGSM) program. So from an education and public outreach perspective, AuroraMAX is a single camera operating in the Canadian north. On the other hand, AuroraMAX is one of nearly 40 All-Sky Imagers that are operating across North America. The AuroraMAX camera produces data that is seamlessly integrated with the CGSM ASI data, and made widely available to the Space Science community through open-access web and FTP sites. One of our objectives in the next few years is to incorporate some of the data from the THEMIS and CGSM imagers into the AuroraMAX system, to maximize viewing opportunities and generate more real-time data for public outreach. This is an exemplar of a program that

  8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Chaenomeles speciosa fractions in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Yang, Y-B; Yang, Q; Sun, L-N; Chen, W-S

    2009-10-01

    The prescription of current existing anti-inflammatory drugs is hampered by their adverse effects over time. Botanical extracts are thought to be a potential source of a natural anti-inflammatory property with fewer adverse effects. Chaenomeles speciosa has long been used as an herbal medicine for treatment of various diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, prosopalgia, and hepatitis. Until now there have been no reports on the specific anti-inflammatory fractions of extract of C. speciosa (ECS). In the present study the anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions of ECS were evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The 10% ethanol fraction (C3) was found to have stronger anti-inflammatory effects compared with other fractions at the same dose. We also found that chlorogenic acid was one of the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect using bioassay-guided fractionation by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with controls, fraction C3 demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activity in the xylene-induced ear edema test (P < .01), acetic acid-induced peritoneal capillary permeability test, and the cotton pellet granuloma test in mice or rats (P < .01); it also showed marked analgesic activity in the acetic acid-induced abdominal contraction test and formalin-induced paw licking test in mice and rats (P < .05 or .01). However, fraction C3 showed no significant effect in the hot plate test in mice. These findings justify the use of the C. speciosa for treating pain and inflammation. These results support the proposal of C. speciosa fraction C3 as a potential anti-inflammatory agent.

  9. Cell shape can be uncoupled from formononetin induction in a novel cell line from Callerya speciosa.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Fei; Jiang, Xue-Fei; Cong, Han-Qing; Sun, Hua-Peng; Li, Li; Nick, Peter

    2018-04-01

    It is the first time that formononetin produced by cell culture and its accumulation was shown to be triggered by specific stress signalling linked jasmonate pathway. Callerya speciosa, an endangered traditional Chinese medicine plant, is intensively used in traditional folk medicine. To develop sustainable alternatives for the overexploitation of natural resources, a suspension cell line was created from C. speciosa. Ingredients of C. speciosa, for instance the isoflavone formononetin, are formed during a peculiar swelling response of the root, which is considered as a quality trait for commercial application. A cell strain with elongated cells was obtained by using synthetic cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) and synthetic auxin picloram. Both, picloram and 6-BA, promote cell division, whereas picloram was shown to be crucial for the maintenance of axial cell expansion. We addressed the question, whether the loss of axiality observed in the maturating root is necessary and sufficient for the accumulation of formononetin. While we were able to mimic a loss of axiality for cell expansion, either by specific combinations of 6-BA and picloram, or by treatment with the anti-microtubular compound oryzalin, formononetin was not detectable. However, formononetin could be induced by the stress hormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA), as well as by the bacterial elicitor flagellin peptide (flg22), but not by a necrosis inducing protein. Combined the fact that none of these treatments induced the loss of axiality, we conclude that formononetin accumulates in response to basal defence and unrelated with cell swelling.

  10. Correlation between synergistic action of Radix Angelica dahurica extracts on analgesic effects of Corydalis alkaloid and plasma concentration of dl-THP.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zheng-Gen; Liang, Xin-Li; Zhu, Jing-Yun; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Guang-Fa; Jiang, Qie-Ying; Chen, Xu-Long

    2010-05-04

    Yuanhu Zhitong prescription that consists of Corydalis yanhusuo and Radix Angelicae dahuricae has been used for the treatment of gastralgia, costalgia, headache and dysmenorrhea in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Our previous studies demonstrated that Corydalis alkaloid (CA, derived from the root of Corydalis yanhusu) had potent analgesic properties, and the total coumarins of Angelica dahurica (Cou) and volatile oil (VO) that derived from the root of Radix Angelicae dahuricae all could increase the analgesic effect of CA. The major objective of this paper was to investigate the mechanism that leading the analgesia of CA increased by Cou and (or) VO. The relationship between analgesic effect of CA and the plasma concentration of Dl-tetrahydropalmatine (dl-THP, active component of CA) was assayed in mice writhing test. The CA (34, 68 and 134 mg/kg) reduced the nociception by acetic acid intraperitoneal injection in a dose-dependent manner, and there was a significant linear relationship between the analgesic effect of CA and the plasma concentration of dl-THP. Then the plasma concentration of dl-THP at different time intervals in rats after oral administration of CA, CA-Cou, CA-VO and CA-Cou-VO were examined by using HPLC. The results indicated that Cou and (or) VO raised the plasma concentration of dl-THP prominently. In conclusion, the reason that Radix Angelica dahurica extracts reinforced the analgesic effects of Corydalis alkaloid was related to the improvement of the plasma concentration of dl-THP. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the osteogenic potential of Hancornia speciosa latex in rat calvaria and its phytochemical profile.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Neves, Juliana; Franchin, Marcelo; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Omar, Nadia Fayez; Dos Santos, Mariana Albuquerque; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Novaes, Pedro Duarte

    2016-05-13

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes, commonly known as Mangabeira, is a Brazilian native fruit tree belonging to the Apocynaceae family. In folk medicine, the latex obtained from Mangabeira's trunk has been used as an adjunct therapy for bone fractures. Few pharmacological studies on the Hancornia speciosa latex have been developed and despite its popular use for bone healing there is no data about its biological effect on bone. The present study aimed to investigate the osteogenic potential of Hancornia speciosa latex in rat calvaria, as well as its phytochemical profile. A neutral gel composition containing 5% latex was topical applied to a critical size bone defect and over intact calvaria of rats. Areas of newly formed bone on the borders of the defect and of calvaria periosteum were quantified, as well as the percentage of BrdU-positive cells and total cells in the periosteum at different periods of time after latex application. The cytotoxicity of the latex aqueous phase was evaluated in rat calvarial cells in vitro by MTT assay and its phytochemical profile was investigated by ESI-MS/MS. The area of newly formed bone on the borders of the calvaria defect was larger in rats that received latex at 15 and 30 days of healing. After 3 days of latex application over the intact calvaria, the periosteum area was increased and newly formed bone was observed after 5 and 11 days. There was also an increase in periosteum cell proliferation and population followed latex application on calvaria (p<0.05). The latex aqueous phase limited rat calvarial cell viability in vitro in concentrations larger than 0.6mg/mL. Chlorogenic acid and naringenin-7-O-glucoside were identified in the latex aqueous phase, along with catechin and procyanidin compounds. There was a stimulus for periosteum cell proliferation and bone formation when Hancornia speciosa latex was topically applied on rat calvaria. In addition, chlorogenic acid and naringenin-7-O-glucoside present in Hancornia speciosa latex

  12. Identification and Characterization of TALE Homeobox Genes in the Endangered Fern Vandenboschia speciosa

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Martín-Blázquez, Rubén; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A.

    2017-01-01

    We report and discuss the results of a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the expression patterns of seven three amino acid loop extension (TALE) homeobox genes (four KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) and three BEL1-like homeobox (BELL) genes) identified after next generation sequencing (NGS) and assembly of the sporophyte and gametophyte transcriptomes of the endangered fern species Vandenboschia speciosa. Among the four KNOX genes, two belonged to the KNOX1 class and the other two belonged to the KNOX2 class. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences supported the typical domain structure of both types of TALE proteins, and the homology to TALE proteins of mosses, lycophytes, and seed plant species. The expression analyses demonstrate that these homeodomain proteins appear to have a key role in the establishment and development of the gametophyte and sporophyte phases of V. speciosa lifecycle, as well as in the control of the transition between both phases. Vandenboschia speciosa VsKNAT3 (a KNOX2 class protein) as well as VsBELL4 and VsBELL10 proteins have higher expression levels during the sporophyte program. On the contrary, one V. speciosa KNOX1 protein (VsKNAT6) and one KNOX2 protein (VsKNAT4) seem important during the development of the gametophyte phase. TALE homeobox genes might be among the key regulators in the gametophyte-to-sporophyte developmental transition in regular populations that show alternation of generations, since some of the genes analyzed here (VsKNAT3, VsKNAT6, VsBELL4, and VsBELL6) are upregulated in a non-alternating population in which only independent gametophytes are found (they grow by vegetative reproduction outside of the range of sporophyte distribution). Thus, these four genes might trigger the vegetative propagation of the gametophyte and the repression of the sexual development in populations composed of independent gametophytes. This study represents a comprehensive

  13. Identification and Characterization of TALE Homeobox Genes in the Endangered Fern Vandenboschia speciosa.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Bakkali, Mohammed; Martín-Blázquez, Rubén; Garrido-Ramos, Manuel A

    2017-10-17

    We report and discuss the results of a quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of the expression patterns of seven three amino acid loop extension ( TALE ) homeobox genes (four KNOTTED-like homeobox ( KNOX ) and three BEL1-like homeobox ( BELL ) genes) identified after next generation sequencing (NGS) and assembly of the sporophyte and gametophyte transcriptomes of the endangered fern species Vandenboschia speciosa . Among the four KNOX genes, two belonged to the KNOX1 class and the other two belonged to the KNOX2 class. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences supported the typical domain structure of both types of TALE proteins, and the homology to TALE proteins of mosses, lycophytes, and seed plant species. The expression analyses demonstrate that these homeodomain proteins appear to have a key role in the establishment and development of the gametophyte and sporophyte phases of V. speciosa lifecycle, as well as in the control of the transition between both phases. Vandenboschia speciosa VsKNAT3 (a KNOX2 class protein) as well as VsBELL4 and VsBELL10 proteins have higher expression levels during the sporophyte program. On the contrary, one V. speciosa KNOX1 protein (VsKNAT6) and one KNOX2 protein (VsKNAT4) seem important during the development of the gametophyte phase. TALE homeobox genes might be among the key regulators in the gametophyte-to-sporophyte developmental transition in regular populations that show alternation of generations, since some of the genes analyzed here ( VsKNAT3 , VsKNAT6 , VsBELL4 , and VsBELL6 ) are upregulated in a non-alternating population in which only independent gametophytes are found (they grow by vegetative reproduction outside of the range of sporophyte distribution). Thus, these four genes might trigger the vegetative propagation of the gametophyte and the repression of the sexual development in populations composed of independent gametophytes. This study represents a comprehensive

  14. Unravelling the genetic differentiation among varieties of the Neotropical savanna tree Hancornia speciosa Gomes.

    PubMed

    Collevatti, Rosane G; Rodrigues, Eduardo E; Vitorino, Luciana C; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus S; Chaves, Lázaro J; Telles, Mariana P C

    2018-04-20

    Spatial distribution of species genetic diversity is often driven by geographical distance (isolation by distance) or environmental conditions (isolation by environment), especially under climate change scenarios such as Quaternary glaciations. Here, we used coalescent analyses coupled with ecological niche modelling (ENM), spatially explicit quantile regression analyses and the multiple matrix regression with randomization (MMRR) approach to unravel the patterns of genetic differentiation in the widely distributed Neotropical savanna tree, Hancornia speciosa (Apocynaceae). Due to its high morphological differentiation, the species was originally classified into six botanical varieties by Monachino, and has recently been recognized as only two varieties by Flora do Brasil 2020. Thus, H. speciosa is a good biological model for learning about evolution of phenotypic plasticity under genetic and ecological effects, and predicting their responses to changing environmental conditions. We sampled 28 populations (777 individuals) of Monachino's four varieties of H. speciosa and used seven microsatellite loci to genotype them. Bayesian clustering showed five distinct genetic groups (K = 5) with high admixture among Monachino's varieties, mainly among populations in the central area of the species geographical range. Genetic differentiation among Monachino's varieties was lower than the genetic differentiation among populations within varieties, with higher within-population inbreeding. A high historical connectivity among populations of the central Cerrado shown by coalescent analyses may explain the high admixture among varieties. In addition, areas of higher climatic suitability also presented higher genetic diversity in such a way that the wide historical refugium across central Brazil might have promoted the long-term connectivity among populations. Yet, FST was significantly related to geographic distances, but not to environmental distances, and coalescent analyses

  15. Preparative isolation of alkaloids from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. by high-speed counter-current chromatography using stepwise elution

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lili; Xie, Zhensheng; Cai, Tanxi; Wu, Peng; Xue, Peng; Chen, Xiulan; Wu, Zhiyong; Ito, Yoichiro; Li, Famei; Yang, Fuquan

    2011-01-01

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for the preparative separation and purification of alkaloids from Corydalis bungeana Turcz. (Kudiding in Chinese) for the first time. After the measurement of partition coefficient of seven target alkaloids in the nine two-phase solvent systems composed of CHCl3–MeOH–(0.1 M; 0.2 M; 0.3 M) HCl (4:1.5:2; 4:2:2; 4:3:2, v/v), CHCl3–MeOH–0.2 M HCl (4:2:2, v/v) and CHCl3–MeOH–0.3 M HCl (4:3:2, v/v) were finally selected for the HSCCC separation using the first upper phase as the stationary phase and the stepwise elution of the two lower mobile phases. Consequently, sanguinarine (10 mg), corynoline (25 mg), protopine (20 mg), corynoloxine (18 mg), and 12-hydroxycorynoline (8 mg) were obtained from 200 mg of crude alkaloid extracts with purities of 94–99% as determined by HPLC. Their chemical structures were characterized on the basis of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analyses. PMID:21387560

  16. [Effect of Corydalis Rhizoma and L-tetrahydropalmatine on dopamine system of hippocampus and striatum in morphine-induced conditioned place preference rats].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shou-Yang; Bai, Wei-Feng; Tu, Ping; Qiu, Cheng-Kai; Yang, Pei-Run; Luo, Su-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the effects of Corydalis Rhizoma and L-tetrahydropalma-tine (L-THP) on the levels of dopamine neurotransmitter (DA), dopamine transporter (DAT) and the second dopamine receptor (D2R) in learning and memory-related brain areas, hippocampus and striatum, the DA, DAT and D2R were detected in conditioned place preference (CPP) rats suffered from morphine. And comparation the degree of similarity and consistency of the pharmacological effects was also studied. The rats were trained in black compartments and white ones (drug-paired compartment) with the increasing doses of morphine for 10 days (hypodermically injected from 10 mg•kg⁻¹ to 100 mg•kg⁻¹). Models of CPP were validated in those psychological dependence rats after 48 h training. The dopamine contents were detected as soon as the materials of hippocampus and striatum are harvested from rats of NS control group and model group. The DAT and D2R levels are measured by Western blot. The high, medium and low dose group of Corydalis Rhizoma are given Corydalis Rhizoma 2, 1, 0.5 g•kg⁻¹ water extraction liquid respectively (which contains L-THP were 0.274, 0.137 and 0.137 mg respectively), and the high, medium and low dose group of L-THP were given L-THP 3.76, 1.88, 0.94 mg•kg⁻¹ lavage treatment respectively, NS treatment group were lavaged normal saline for 6 days and they were killed after test of CPP, again tested DA levels and expression of DAT and D2R similar to the front of materials. The reduction effects of CPP were observed in the groups of both Corydalis Rhizoma (2, 1 g•kg⁻¹) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88 mg•kg⁻¹) subjected to medicine for 6 days (P<0.01). Compared with the NS treatment group and the model group, the higher values including in the contents of neurotransmitter dopamine were detected of hippocampus and striatum (P<0.01, P<0.05), the DAT and D2R protein expression of Corydalis Rhizoma (2, 1 g•kg⁻¹) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88 mg•kg⁻¹) increased in

  17. Bacterial community associated with the trunk latex of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) grown in the northeast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Thais Freitas da; Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; Vollú, Renata Estebanez; de Vasconcelos Goulart, Fátima Regina; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2011-03-01

    Prevention or cure of different illnesses through the use of plant latex is a worldwide known concept. The antifungal activity of Hancornia speciosa latex has been observed against Candida albicans. However, H. speciosa latex is not a sterile plant exudate and secondary metabolites produced by bacteria could be involved in fungal inhibition. In the present study, the bacterial communities of the latex from three H. speciosa trees were characterized using traditional plating and molecular methods. Twelve strains isolated from the latex samples were clustered into four groups by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). One representative of each group was sequenced and they were identified as belonging to the genera Bacillus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia. None of the 12 isolates showed antifungal activity against C. albicans. A lack of a microbial origin for the antifungal properties of latex was noted. DGGE profiles generated from each of the three latex samples showed unique patterns. Sequencing of the DGGE bands demonstrated the affiliation with the genera Klebsiella, Pantoea, Enterobacter and Burkholderia. In addition, clone libraries were generated and the phylogenetic distribution of the 50 analyzed clones was similar to that obtained using DGGE. The presence of some potential pathogens should be considered before using H. speciosa latex in folk medicine.

  18. Molecular evidence of undescribed Ceratonova sp. (Cnidaria: Myxosporea) in the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malakauskas, David M.; Snipes, Robert Benjamin; Thompson, Ann M.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    2016-01-01

    We used PCR to screen pooled individuals of Manayunkia speciosa from western Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for myxosporean parasites. Amplicons from positive PCRs were sequenced and showed a Ceratonova species in an estimated 1.1% (95% CI = 0.46%, 1.8%) of M. speciosa individuals. We sequenced 18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and most of the 28S rDNA regions of this Ceratonova sp., and part of the protein-coding EF2 gene. Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal and EF2 sequences showed the Lake Erie Ceratonova sp. is most similar to, but genetically distinct from, Ceratonova shasta. Marked interspecific polymorphism in all genes examined, including the ITS barcoding genes, along with geographic location suggests this is an undescribed Ceratonova species. COI sequences showed M. speciosa individuals in Michigan and California are the same species. These findings represent a third parasite in the genus Ceratonovapotentially hosted by M. speciosa.

  19. First report of downy mildew disease caused by Plasmopara halstedii on the native Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The showy black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.) is an important perennial wildflower native to the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Besides its aesthetic value in the landscape, this native plant attracts pollinators and provides seeds for birds during t...

  20. Polyphenolic profile and bioactivity study of Oenothera speciosa Nutt. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed S; Moharram, Fatma A; El Dib, Rabab A; El-Shenawy, Siham M; Tawfike, Ahmed F

    2009-04-07

    Two new flavonol glycosides, myricetin 4'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and quercetin 3'-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2), together with a novel biflavonol compound, speciin (3), as well as eleven phenolic metabolites, namely myricitrin (4), europetin 3-O-alpha-L-(1)C(4)-rhamnopyranoside (5), quercitrin (6), hyperin (7), rhamnetin 3-O-beta-galacto-pyranoside (8), caffeic acid (9), caffeic acid methyl ester (10), chlorogenic acid (11), chlorogenic acid methyl ester (12), gallic acid (13) and gallic acid methyl ester (14), were identified from the 80 % methanol extract of the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Oenothera speciosa Nutt. (Onagraceae). In addition myricetin (15), quercetin (16) and ellagic acid (17) were identified from the chloroform extract. The structures were established depending on their chemical and physical analyses (UV, HR-ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). It was found that 80 % aqueous methanol extract of O. speciosa is non-toxic to mice up to 5 g kg(-1)b wt. The investigated extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory activities in a dose dependant manner. Also, the 80 % methanol extract, myricitrin(4) and hyperin(7) showed potent antioxidant activity in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay.

  1. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Nchegang, B; Mezui, C; Longo, F; Nkwengoua, Z E; Amang, A P; Tan, P V

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We studied prosexual effects of Eremomastax speciosa aqueous extract in male adult rats. Materials and Methods. 100 and 500 mg/kg of extract were administered orally (days 0, 1, 4, 7, 14, and 28 (posttreatment)). The sexual behavior of rats receiving a single dose (500 mg/kg) was also evaluated after pretreatment with Lω-NAME (10 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg), or atropine (5 mg/kg). Controls received distilled water or testosterone enanthate (20 mg/kg/day/3 days (s.c.) before the test). Results. The extract (days 1-14) had no significant effect on mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequencies but on day 28 (14 days after treatment), it increased frequency of mounts and intromissions at 500 mg/kg. Mount, intromission, and ejaculation latencies reduced and postejaculatory intervals decreased but the effect did not persist 2 weeks after treatment. Extract prosex effects were greatly reduced by atropine and completely abolished by haloperidol, while Lω-NAME increased mount latency and potentiated extract effect on intromission and ejaculation latencies. Conclusion. In summary, E. speciosa extract can have positive effects on male sexual motivation and performance when administered for two weeks at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The effects (dopaminergic and/or cholinergic dependent) tend to appear during the posttreatment period.

  2. Growth, chemical composition and soil properties of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings irrigated with sewage effluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Hayssam M.; Khamis, Mohamed H.; Hassan, Fatma A.

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out at a greenhouse of Sabahia Horticulture Research Station, Alexandria, Egypt, to study the effect of sewage effluent on the growth and chemical composition of Tipuana speciosa (Benth.) Kuntze seedlings as well as on soil properties for three stages. The irrigation treatments were primary-treated wastewater and secondary-treated wastewater, in addition to tap water as control. Therefore, the treated wastewater was taken from oxidation ponds of New Borg El-Arab City. Results of these study revealed that the primary effluent treatment explored the highest significant values for vegetative growth and biomass, compared to the other treatments. In addition, the higher significant concentration and uptake of chemical composition in different plant parts were obtained from the primary effluent treatment during the three stages of irrigation. It was found that the concentration of heavy metals in either plant or soil was below as compared to the world-recommended levels. These findings suggested that the use of sewage effluent in irrigating T. speciosa seedlings grown in calcareous soil was beneficial for the improvement of soil properties and production of timber trees, and also important for the safe manner of disposal of wastewater.

  3. Williams with VO2max

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-08

    ISS032-E-016876 (8 Aug. 2012) --- NASA astronaut Sunita Williams, Expedition 32 flight engineer, performs a VO2max experiment while using the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. VO2max uses the Portable Pulmonary Function System (PPFS), CEVIS, Pulmonary Function System (PFS) gas cylinders and mixing bag system, plus multiple other pieces of hardware to measure oxygen uptake and cardiac output.

  4. Radical Scavenging Activities of Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. Petal Extracts and its hepato-protection in CCl4-intoxicated mice.

    PubMed

    Tiwary, Bipransh Kumar; Dutta, Somit; Dey, Priyankar; Hossain, Mossaraf; Kumar, Anoop; Bihani, Sony; Nanda, Ashis Kumar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Ranadhir

    2017-01-18

    Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. has medicinal importance. Bioactive phytochemicals isolated from different parts of L. speciosa, have revealed hypoglycemic, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and hepato protective properties. Despite one report from Philippines detailing the use of L. speciosa as curative for fever and as well as diuretic, there is no experimental evidence about the hepatoprotective activity of the flower extracts. Several spectroscopic methods, including GC-MS, were used to characterize phytochemicals present in the petal extract of L. speciosa. Ethanol extract of petals was evaluated for anti-oxidant and free radical scavenging properties by using methods related to hydrogen atom transfer, single electron transfer, reducing power, and metal chelation. This study has also revealed the in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hepatoprotective properties of petal extract against carbon tetra chloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Hepatoprotection in CCl 4 -intoxicated mice was studied with the aid of histology and different enzymatic and non-enzymatic markers of liver damage. Cytotoxicity tests were done using murein spleenocytes and cancareous cell lines, MCF7 and HepG2. GCMS of the extract has revealed the presence of several potential antioxidant compounds, of them γ-Sitosterol and 1,2,3-Benzenetriol (Pyrogallol) were the predominant ones. The antioxidants activities of the flower-extract were significantly higher than curcumin (in terms of Nitric oxide scavenging activity; p = 0.0028) or ascorbic acid (in terms of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; p = 0.0022). The damage control by the flower extract can be attributed to the reduction in lipid peroxidation and restoration of catalase activity. In vitro cytotoxicity tests have shown that the flower extract did not affect growth and survivability of the cell lines. It left beyond doubt that a flower of L. speciosa is a reservoir of antioxidant and

  5. Photomorphogenesis in Sinningia speciosa, cv. Queen Victoria I. Characterization of Phytochrome Control.

    PubMed

    Satter, R L; Wetherell, D F

    1968-06-01

    The morphological development of Sinningia speciosa plants that were exposed to supplementary far red light was very different from that of plants receiving dark nights. After several nights of such irradiation, stems and petioles were elongated, petioles were angulated, leaf blade expansion was inhibited, plants were chlorotic and the accumulation of shoot dry weight was retarded.Red reversibility of the morphological changes potentiated by far red light indicated control by the phytochrome system. A high P(FR) level during the last half of the night inhibited stem elongation and promoted leaf blade expansion, but both of these processes were hardly affected by the P(FR) level during the first half of the night. Thus sensitivity to P(FR) was cyclic.The interpretation of our experiments was complicated by quantitative morphological differences resulting from long, as compared to short, far red irradiations.

  6. Responses to simulated nitrogen deposition by the neotropical epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Álvarez, Edison A.; Lindig-Cisneros, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Potential ecophysiological responses to nitrogen deposition, which is considered to be one of the leading causes for global biodiversity loss, were studied for the endangered endemic Mexican epiphytic orchid, Laelia speciosa, via a shadehouse dose-response experiment (doses were 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 kg N ha−1 yr−1) in order to assess the potential risk facing this orchid given impending scenarios of nitrogen deposition. Lower doses of nitrogen of up to 20 kg N ha yr−1, the dose that led to optimal plant performance, acted as fertilizer. For instance, the production of leaves and pseudobulbs were respectively 35% and 36% greater for plants receiving 20 kg N ha yr−1 than under any other dose. Also, the chlorophyll content and quantum yield peaked at 0.66 ± 0.03 g m−2 and 0.85 ± 0.01, respectively, for plants growing under the optimum dose. In contrast, toxic effects were observed at the higher doses of 40 and 80 kg N ha yr−1. The δ13C for leaves averaged −14.7 ± 0.2‰ regardless of the nitrogen dose. In turn, δ15N decreased as the nitrogen dose increased from 0.9 ± 0.1‰ under 2.5 kg N ha−1yr−1 to −3.1 ± 0.2‰ under 80 kg N ha−1yr−1, indicating that orchids preferentially assimilate NH4+ rather than NO3− of the solution under higher doses of nitrogen. Laelia speciosa showed a clear response to inputs of nitrogen, thus, increasing rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition can pose an important threat for this species. PMID:26131375

  7. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.

    PubMed

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Shastry, R A; Manjunatha, H

    2009-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and different fractions of A. speciosa root was studied against bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv sensitive strain by in vitro and in vivo assays. Flavanoid sulphates such as quercetin 3'7 di-O methyl 3- sulphate and kaempferol 7-O methyl 3-sulphate were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 80% methanolic extract of the plant. The structures of the isolated flavanoids were confirmed by spectral studies. Ethyl acetate (EAAS) fraction and flavanoid sulphates inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis Rv sensitive strain at MIC values 50 and 25 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic fraction (EtAS) showed significant inhibition of gram positive organism with a MIC of 31.25 microg/ml. More inhibition was observed with a less MIC (2 microg/ml) for flavanoid sulphates against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram negative organism and it is almost comparable with the standards. Interestingly, chloroform fraction alone exhibited significant antifungal activity with a MIC of 100 microg/ml. A synergistic effect between flavanoids sulphates and commercially available antitubercular drugs was observed with FIC index of 0.443 +/- 0.245, 0.487 +/- 0.247 for isoniazid and 0.468 +/- 0.333, 0.417 +/- 0.345 for rifampicin, whereas EAAS fraction showed partial synergistic effect. A synergistic effect was observed for EAAS fraction and flavanoids sulphates with FIC index < 0.5 with antibiotics. Hemolysis assay on RBCs suggested that EAAS and flavanoids sulphates exhibited least cellular toxicity to erythrocytes as compared to chloramphenicol. In vivo studies in mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated that on day 10 post treatment of different fractions and isolated compounds of A. speciosa, about 60% of the animals treated with EAAS, 70% of animals treated with flavanoids sulphates and 40% of animals treated with EtAS were survived.

  8. Requiem for the max rule?

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei Ji; Shen, Shan; Dziugaite, Gintare; van den Berg, Ronald

    2015-11-01

    In tasks such as visual search and change detection, a key question is how observers integrate noisy measurements from multiple locations to make a decision. Decision rules proposed to model this process have fallen into two categories: Bayes-optimal (ideal observer) rules and ad-hoc rules. Among the latter, the maximum-of-outputs (max) rule has been the most prominent. Reviewing recent work and performing new model comparisons across a range of paradigms, we find that in all cases except for one, the optimal rule describes human data as well as or better than every max rule either previously proposed or newly introduced here. This casts doubt on the utility of the max rule for understanding perceptual decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Requiem for the max rule?

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei Ji; Shen, Shan; Dziugaite, Gintare; van den Berg, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    In tasks such as visual search and change detection, a key question is how observers integrate noisy measurements from multiple locations to make a decision. Decision rules proposed to model this process haven fallen into two categories: Bayes-optimal (ideal observer) rules and ad-hoc rules. Among the latter, the maximum-of-outputs (max) rule has been most prominent. Reviewing recent work and performing new model comparisons across a range of paradigms, we find that in all cases except for one, the optimal rule describes human data as well as or better than every max rule either previously proposed or newly introduced here. This casts doubt on the utility of the max rule for understanding perceptual decision-making. PMID:25584425

  10. Max Weber and Robert Michels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaff, Lawrence A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper investigates the unique intellectual partnership of Max Weber and Robert Michels, with particular emphasis on Weber's influence on Michel's inquiry into the sociology of parties and organization. Concludes with an evaluation of the import of Weber's critique of Michels' work. (DB)

  11. Freshwater polychaetes (Manayunkia speciosa) near the Detroit River, western Lake Erie: Abundance and life‐history characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.; Malakauskas, David M.; Malakauskas, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater polychaetes are relatively rare and little-studied members of the benthos of lakes and rivers. We studied one polychaete species (Manayunkia speciosa) in Lake Erie near the mouth of the Detroit River. Abundances at one site were determined between 1961 and 2013 and life‐history characteristics at two sites were determined seasonally (March–November) in 2009–2010 and 2012–2013. Life‐history characteristics included abundances, length‐frequency distributions, presence/absence of constructed tubes, sexual maturity, and number and maturation of young of year (YOY) in tubes. Long-term abundances decreased in successive time periods between 1961 and 2003 (mean range = 57,570 to 2583/m2) but few changes occurred between 2003 and 2013 (mean = 5007/m2; range/y = 2355–8216/m2). Seasonal abundances varied substantially between sites and years, but overall, abundances were low in March–April, high in May–August, and low in September–November. Although reproduction was continuous throughout warmer months, en masse recruitment, as revealed by length–frequency distributions, occurred in a brief period late‐June to mid-July, and possibly in early-September. All life history characteristics, including tube construction, were dependent on water temperatures (> 5 °C in spring and < 15 °C in fall). These results generally agree with and complement laboratory studies of M. speciosa in the Pacific Northwest where M. speciosa hosts parasites that cause substantial fish mortalities. Although abundance ofM. speciosa near the mouth of the Detroit River was 33-fold lower in 2013 than it was in 1961, this population has persisted for five decades and, therefore, has the potential to harbor parasites that may cause fish mortalities in the Great Lakes.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract and bioactive compounds identified from the fruits of Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae).

    PubMed

    Torres-Rêgo, Manoela; Furtado, Allanny Alves; Bitencourt, Mariana Angélica Oliveira; Lima, Maira Conceição Jerônimo de Souza; Andrade, Rafael Caetano Lisbôa Castro de; Azevedo, Eduardo Pereira de; Soares, Thaciane da Cunha; Tomaz, José Carlos; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; da Silva-Júnior, Arnóbio Antônio; Zucolotto, Silvana Maria; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus de Freitas

    2016-08-05

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae), popularly known as "mangabeira," has been used in folk medicine to treat inflammatory disorders, hypertension, dermatitis, diabetes, liver diseases and gastric disorders. Although the ethnobotany indicates that its fruits can be used for the treatment of ulcers and inflammatory disorders, only few studies have been conducted to prove such biological activities. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of the fruits of H. speciosa Gomes as well as its bioactive compounds using in vivo experimental models. The bioactive compounds were identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS). The anti-inflammatory properties were investigated through in vivo tests, which comprised xylene-induced ear edema, carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch. The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α were determined using ELISA. Rutin and chlorogenic acid were identified in the extract as the main secondary metabolites. In addition, the extract as well as rutin and chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited the xilol-induced ear edema and also reduced the cell migration in both carrageenan-induced peritonitis and zymosan-induced air pouch models. Reduced levels of cytokines were also observed. This is the first study that demonstrated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of H. speciosa fruits against different inflammatory agents in animal models, suggesting that its bioactive molecules, especially rutin and chlorogenic acid are, at least in part, responsible for such activity. These findings support the widespread use of Hancornia speciosa in popular medicine and demonstrate that its aqueous extract has therapeutical potential for the development of herbal drugs with anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Alkaloid profiling of the traditional Chinese medicine Rhizoma corydalis using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Mingqian; Liu, Jianxun; Lin, Chengren; Miao, Lan; Lin, Li

    2014-01-01

    Since alkaloids are the major active constituents of Rhizoma corydalis (RC), a convenient and accurate analytical method is needed for their identification and characterization. Here we report a method to profile the alkaloids in RC based on liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC–Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 16 alkaloids belonging to four different classes were identified by comparison with authentic standards. The fragmentation pathway of each class of alkaloid was clarified and their differences were elucidated. Furthermore, based on an analysis of fragmentation pathways and alkaloid profiling, a rapid and accurate method for the identification of unknown alkaloids in RC is proposed. The method could also be useful for the quality control of RC. PMID:26579385

  14. Urinary metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effects of total alkaloids from Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats using 1H NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Zheng, Hua; Yang, Zheng-Teng; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Jin-Xia; Liu, Xu-Wen; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fang-Ming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Liang, Yong-Hong; Song, Hui; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2017-06-05

    Chronic liver injury has been shown to cause liver fibrosis due to the sustained pathophysiological wound healing response of the liver, and eventually progresses to cirrhosis. The total alkaloids of Corydalis saxicola Bunting (TACS), a collection of important bioactive ingredients derived from the traditional Chinese folk medicine Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), have been reported to have protective effects on the liver. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms need further elucidation. In this study, the urinary metabonomics and the biochemical changes in rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced chronic liver injury due to treatment TACS or administration of the positive control drug-bifendate were studied via proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) analysis. Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) suggested that metabolic perturbation caused by CCl 4 damage was recovered with TACS and bifendate treatment. A total of seven metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, dimethylamine, taurine, phenylacetylglycine, creatinine and hippurate were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury. According to pathway analysis using identified metabolites and correlation network construction, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism were recognized as the most affected metabolic pathways associated with CCl 4 chronic hepatotoxicity. Notably, the changes in 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, taurine and hippurate during the process of CCl 4 -induced chronic liver injury were significantly restored by TACS treatment, which suggested that TACS synergistically mediated the regulation of multiple metabolic pathways including the TCA cycle, gut microbiota metabolism and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. This study could bring valuable insight to evaluating the efficacy of TACS intervention therapy, help deepen the understanding of the

  15. STS_135_MaxQ

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-05-05

    JSC2011-E-059375 (4 May 2011) --- NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson, STS-135 commander, plays the drums with the all-astronaut band known as Max Q as the group performs on Innovation Day at NASA?s Johnson Space Center in Houston May 4, 2011. Vocalist Tracy Caldwell Dyson is at left. Guitarist Drew Feustel is at right. Photo credit: NASA Photo/Houston Chronicle, Smiley N. Pool

  16. Assessment of gonadotropins and testosterone hormone levels in regular Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) users.

    PubMed

    Singh, Darshan; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Hamid, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul; Kasinather, Vicknasingam; Chan, Michelle Su Ann; Ho, Eric Tatt Wei; Grundmann, Oliver; Chear, Nelson Jeng Yeou; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi

    2018-07-15

    Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.) also known as kratom, is a native medicinal plant of Southeast Asia with opioid-like effects. Kratom tea/juice have been traditionally used as a folk remedy and for controlling opiate withdrawal in Malaysia. Long-term opioid use is associated with depletion in testosterone levels. Since kratom is reported to deform sperm morphology and reduce sperm motility, we aimed to clinically investigate the testosterone levels following long-term kratom tea/juice use in regular kratom users. A total of 19 regular kratom users were recruited for this cross-sectional study. A full-blood test was conducted including determination of testosterone level, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) profile, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters of participants. We found long-term kratom tea/juice consumption with a daily mitragynine dose of 76.23-94.15 mg did not impair testosterone levels, or gonadotrophins, hematological and biochemical parameters in regular kratom users. Regular kratom tea/juice consumption over prolonged periods (>2 years) was not associated with testosterone impairing effects in humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact and hardness optimisation of composite materials inspired by the babassu nut (Orbignya speciosa).

    PubMed

    Staufenberg, Gerrit; Graupner, Nina; Müssig, Jörg

    2015-08-20

    The babassu nut is the fruit of the babassu palm Orbignya speciosa. The combination of hardness and impact strength is difficult to acquire for artificial materials, making the babassu nut a promising source for biomimetic inspiration. Unnotched Charpy impact tests, Shore D hardness tests and scanning electron microscopy were used for mechanical and microscopical analysis of the pericarp. Four major principles were found for a biomimetic approach: a hard core ((1); endocarp) is embedded in a soft outer layer of high impact strength ((2); epicarp) and is reinforced with fibres of variable fineness (3), some of which are oriented radial to the core (4). Biomimetic fibre-reinforced composites were produced using abstracted mechanisms of the babassu nut based on regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell, L) with two different fineness values as reinforcement embedded in a polylactide (PLA) core matrix and polypropylene (PP) based outer layers. The biomimetic fibre composite reaches a significantly higher impact strength that is 1.6 times higher than the reference sample produced from a PLA/PP/L-blend. At the same time the hardness is slightly increased compared to PP/L.

  18. Chemical Composition and Bioactivities of Two Common Chaenomeles Fruits in China: Chaenomeles speciosa and Chaenomeles sinensis.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jing; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Xia; Chen, Xuetao; Mao, Xinhui; Huang, Hanhan; Wang, Tingting; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-08-01

    Contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics, total triterpenes, total condensed tannin and total saponins in peels, flesh and endocarps of Chaenomeles speciosa (CSP) and Chaenomeles sinensis (CSS) were determined by colorimetric method, while 5 phenolics (vanillic, gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids), 2 triterpenes (oleanolic and ursolic acids), and 3 flavonoids (rutin, catechin and epicatechin) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and HPLC, and antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of them also were evaluated as well as their digestive characteristics. In the correlation analysis, total phenolics, vanillic acid, catechin, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid all contribute to DPPH(·) scavenge capacity, gallic acid contributes to total ferric reducing antioxidant power, while total triterpenes, total saponins, chlorogenic acid and ferullic acid contribute to α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. In the principal component analysis, endocarps of CSP and CSS both show better quality than their peels and flesh, respectively. In vitro digestion can increase contents of total flavonoids, total condensed tannin and total saponins, while contents of total phenolics and total triterpenes decreased greatly. Our study would contribute to the full use of discarded parts of the 2 Chaenomeles and be helpful to establish a good foundation for further research of CSP and CSS. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Healing and Antisecretory Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Unhealed Gastric Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Amang, A P; Mezui, C; Siwe, G T; Emakoua, J; Mbah, G; Nkwengoua, E Z; Enow-Orock, G E; Tan, P V

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated the healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on "unhealed gastric ulcers" associated with gastric acid hypersecretion. "Unhealed gastric ulcers" were induced using indomethacin following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously). The effects of the extract on both basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion were determined. Mucus secretion and oxidative stress parameters were measured, and histological assessment of ulcer healing was carried out. The extract significantly promoted the healing process in rats subjected to "unhealed gastric ulcers" (82.4-88.5% healing rates). Treatment with the extract significantly reduced the basal (25.95-49.51% reduction rates) and histamine-stimulated (24.25-47.41%) acid secretions. The healing effect of the extract was associated with a significant ( p < 0.05) increase of mucus secretion and concentrations of antioxidant enzymes compared with the controls. The extract at the highest dose showed normalization of the mucosa, without glandular destruction and with the disappearance of fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration. The abilities of the extract to increase mucus secretion, to reinforce antioxidant status, and to inhibit acid secretion would be some of the mechanisms by which this extract would accelerate the healing process in "unhealed gastric ulcers."

  20. Development of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buanasari; Palupi, P. D.; Serang, Y.; Pramudono, B.; Sumardiono, S.

    2018-04-01

    Research on Petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk.) suggests it has an antihypertension, antidiabetic, analgesic, and antiulcer effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of active compound from petai leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 70, 80, 100 %v), solid-to-liquid ratio (1:5; 1:10; 1:15; 1:20; 1:25; 1:30; 1:35; 1:40; 1:50 g/mL), extraction time (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50 minutes) and extraction temperature (40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70°C) were studied and evaluated base on extract yield and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picry hydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity. The result showed that the highest extract yield was obtained at 40% ethanol concentration, 1:30 (%w/v) of solid-to-liquid ratio, 30 minutes and 65°C of temperature with DPPH scavenging activity 92.53 ± 0.87% and extract yield 21.25 ± 2.38%. The result obtained is helpful for the utilization of Petai leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very recommended method for the extraction of active compounds from plant material.

  1. Max Schottelius: Pioneer in Pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Tischler, Arthur S.; Schmid, Kurt W.; Leijon, Helena; Eng, Charis; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.

    2017-01-01

    First descriptions of diseases attract tremendous interest because they reveal scientific insight even in retrospect. Max Schottelius, the pathologist contributing the first histological description of pheochromocytoma, remains anonymous. We reviewed the description by Schottelius and weighed the report in modern context. Schottelius described the classical diagnostic elements of pheochromocytoma, including the brown appearance after exposure to chromate-containing Mueller’s fixative. This color change, known as chromaffin reaction, results from oxidation of catecholamines and is reflected in the name pheochromocytoma, meaning dusky-colored chromate-positive tumor. Thus Schottelius performed the first known histochemical contribution to diagnosis, which is today standard with immunohistochemistry for chromogranin. PMID:29264546

  2. Ribosomal DNA identification of Nosema/Vairimorpha in freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, from Oregon/California and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malakauskas, David M.; Altman, Emory C.; Malakauskas, Sarah J.; Thiem, Suzanne M.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined Manayunkia speciosa individuals from the Klamath River, Oregon/California and Lake Erie, Michigan, USA for the presence of Microsporidia. We identified microsporidian spores and sequenced their SSU, ITS, and part of the LSU rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of SSU rDNA indicated spores from both populations belonged to the Nosema/Vairimorpha clade. PCR showed an infection prevalence in Lake Erie M. speciosa of 0.6% (95% CI = 0.5%, 0.7%). This represents the first known example of molecularly characterized Nosema/Vairimorpha isolates infecting a non-arthropod host.

  3. MAX: Multiplatform Applications for XAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alain, Michalowicz; Jacques, Moscovici; Diane, Muller-Bouvet; Karine, Provost

    2009-11-01

    MAX is a new EXAFS and XANES analysis package, replacing our old "EXAFS pour le Mac" software suite. The major improvement is the ability to work with strictly the same code, compiled at once for Microsoft Windows, Apple MacOSX and LINUX systems, justifying the title "Multiplatform Applications for XAFS". It is organized as four modules: ABSORBIX (X-ray absorbance and fluorescence self-absorption calculations), CHEROKEE (EXAFS and XANES data treatment), ROUNDMIDNIGHT (EXAFS modeling and fit) and CRYSTALFFREV (from crystal structures and molecular modeling to FEFF EXAFS and XANES theoretical calculations). Most features developed in "EXAFS pour le Mac" are still available, but with much improvements in the user's interface, data treatment algorithms and new functionalities.

  4. Antinociceptive action of isolated mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through activation of opioid receptor system.

    PubMed

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ(1)-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor.

  5. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) dependence, withdrawal symptoms and craving in regular users.

    PubMed

    Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K

    2014-06-01

    Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) preparations have been traditionally used in Southeast Asia for its medicinal properties. Lately, Kratom use has spread to Europe and the US, where abuse potential and health hazards increasingly emerge. This study is the first to measure systematically Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and drug craving in regular Kratom users in Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey of 293 regular Kratom users was conducted in the community across three northern peninsular states of Malaysia. The Leeds Dependence Questionnaire, Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist, and Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Short Form were used to measure Kratom dependence, withdrawal and craving. More than half of the regular users (>6 month of use) developed severe Kratom dependence problems, while 45% showed a moderate Kratom dependence. Physical withdrawal symptoms commonly experienced include muscle spasms and pain, sleeping difficulty, watery eyes/nose, hot flashes, fever, decreased appetite, and diarrhoea. Psychological withdrawal symptoms commonly reported were restlessness, tension, anger, sadness, and nervousness. The average amount of the psychoactive compound, mitragynine, in a single dose of a Kratom drink was 79mg, suggesting an average daily intake of 276.5mg. Regular users who consumed ≥3 glasses Kratom per day, had higher odds of developing severe Kratom dependence, withdrawal symptoms, and inability to control Kratom craving. The findings from this study show that regular Kratom use is associated with drug dependency, development of withdrawal symptoms, and craving. These symptoms become more severe with prolonged use and suggest a stronger control of the drug. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP. PMID:26506375

  7. Flow variation and substrate type affect dislodgement of the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malakauskas, David M.; Wilson, Sarah J.; Wilzbach, Margaret A.; Som, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    We quantified microscale flow forces and their ability to entrain the freshwater polychaete, Manayunkia speciosa, the intermediate host for 2 myxozoan parasites (Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis) that cause substantial mortalities in salmonid fishes in the Pacific Northwest. In a laboratory flume, we measured the shear stress associated with 2 mean flow velocities and 3 substrates and quantified associated dislodgement of polychaetes, evaluated survivorship of dislodged polychaetes, and observed behavioral responses of the polychaetes in response to increased flow. We used a generalized linear mixed model to estimate the probability of polychaete dislodgement for treatment combinations of velocity (mean flow velocity  =  55 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  3 cm/s, mean flow velocity  =  140 cm/s with a shear velocity  =  5 cm/s) and substrate type (depositional sediments and analogs of rock faces and the filamentous alga, Cladophora). Few polychaetes were dislodged at shear velocities <3 cm/s on any substrate. Above this level of shear, probability of dislodgement was strongly affected by both substrate type and velocity. After accounting for substrate, odds of dislodgement were 8× greater at the higher flow. After accounting for velocity, probability of dislodgement was greatest from fine sediments, intermediate from rock faces, and negligible from Cladophora. Survivorship of dislodged polychaetes was high. Polychaetes exhibited a variety of behaviors for avoiding increases in flow, including extrusion of mucus, burrowing into sediments, and movement to lower-flow microhabitats. Our findings suggest that polychaete populations probably exhibit high resilience to flow-mediated disturbances.

  8. Ultrastructure and post-floral secretion of the pericarpial nectaries of Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The occurrence of nectaries in fruits is restricted to a minority of plant families and consistent reports of their occurrence are not found associated with Fabaceae, mainly showing cellular details. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization and ultrastructure of the pericarpial nectaries (PNs) in Erythrina speciosa, a bird-pollinated species, discussing functional aspects of these unusual structures. Methods Samples of floral buds, ovaries of flowers at anthesis and fruits at several developmental stages were fixed and processed by the usual methods for studies using light, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nectar samples collected by filter paper wicks were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. Key Results The PNs are distributed in isolation on the exocarp. Each PN is represented by a single hyaline trichome that consists of a basal cell at epidermal level, stalk cell(s) and a small secretory multicellular head. The apical stalk cell shows inner periclinal and anticlinal walls impregnated by lipids and lignin and has dense cytoplasm with a prevalence of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory cells show voluminous nuclei and dense cytoplasm, which predominantly has dictyosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitochondria and free ribosomes. At the secretory stage the periplasmic space is prominent and contains secretion residues. Tests for sugar indicate the presence of non-reducing sugars in the secretory cells. Nectar samples from PNs contained sucrose, glucose and fructose. Conclusions The secretory stage of these PNs extends until fruit maturation and evidence suggests that the energetic source of nectar production is based on pericarp photosynthesis. Patrolling ants were seen foraging on fruits during all stages of fruit development, which suggests that the PNs mediate a symbiotic relationship between ants and plant, similar to the common role of many

  9. Ultrastructure and post-floral secretion of the pericarpial nectaries of Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Paiva, Elder Antônio Sousa

    2009-10-01

    The occurrence of nectaries in fruits is restricted to a minority of plant families and consistent reports of their occurrence are not found associated with Fabaceae, mainly showing cellular details. The present study aims to describe the anatomical organization and ultrastructure of the pericarpial nectaries (PNs) in Erythrina speciosa, a bird-pollinated species, discussing functional aspects of these unusual structures. Samples of floral buds, ovaries of flowers at anthesis and fruits at several developmental stages were fixed and processed by the usual methods for studies using light, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nectar samples collected by filter paper wicks were subjected to chemical analysis using thin-layer chromatography. The PNs are distributed in isolation on the exocarp. Each PN is represented by a single hyaline trichome that consists of a basal cell at epidermal level, stalk cell(s) and a small secretory multicellular head. The apical stalk cell shows inner periclinal and anticlinal walls impregnated by lipids and lignin and has dense cytoplasm with a prevalence of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The secretory cells show voluminous nuclei and dense cytoplasm, which predominantly has dictyosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, plastids, mitochondria and free ribosomes. At the secretory stage the periplasmic space is prominent and contains secretion residues. Tests for sugar indicate the presence of non-reducing sugars in the secretory cells. Nectar samples from PNs contained sucrose, glucose and fructose. The secretory stage of these PNs extends until fruit maturation and evidence suggests that the energetic source of nectar production is based on pericarp photosynthesis. Patrolling ants were seen foraging on fruits during all stages of fruit development, which suggests that the PNs mediate a symbiotic relationship between ants and plant, similar to the common role of many extrafloral nectaries.

  10. Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides Isolated from Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Ning; Liang, Jia-Li; Chen, Han-Bin; Liang, Ye-Er; Guo, Hui-Zhen; Su, Ze-Ren; Li, Yu-Cui; Zeng, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-10-21

    Millettiae speciosae Champ. Leguminosae (MSC), is a well-known Chinese herb traditionally used as food material and medicine for enhancing physical strength. Our preliminary study found that the aqueous extract of this herb (MSE) had an anti-fatigue effect. In this paper, we further separated MSE into total polysaccharides (MSP) and supernatant (MSS) by alcohol precipitation, and explored which fraction was active for its anti-fatigue effect. Mice were orally administered with MSP or MSS at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg for 20 days and the anti-fatigue effect was assessed by exhaustive swimming exercise (ESE). The biochemical parameters related to fatigue after ESE and the in vitro antioxidant activity of active fraction were determined. Our results showed that MSP, instead of MSS, significantly extended the swimming time to exhaustion (p < 0.05), indicating that MSP is responsible for the anti-fatigue effect of MSE. In addition, MSP treatment increased the levels of glucose (Glu) and muscle glycogen, whereas it decreased the accumulations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactic acid (Lac). Moreover, ESE increased the levels of creatine phosphokinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) but reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) in plasma. In contrast, MSP inhibited all the above changes relating to fatigue. Furthermore, an in vitro antioxidant test revealed that MSP dose-dependently scavenged ·OH and DPPH free radicals. Taken together, these findings strongly suggested that MSP was able to alleviate physical fatigue by increasing energy resources and decreasing accumulation of detrimental metabolites. The antioxidant activity may crucially contribute to the observed anti-fatigue effect of MSP.

  11. Antibacterial activity of kecombrang flower extract (Nicolaia speciosa) microencapsulation with food additive materials formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naufalin, R.; Rukmini, H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Kecombrang flower (Nicolaia speciosa) contains bioactive components of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, steroids, saponins, and essential oils as potential antimicrobials. The use of antibacterials in the form of essential oils has constraints; therefore microencapsulation needs to be done to prevent damage to the bioactive components. Microencapsulation can prevent degradation due to radiation or oxygen, easy-mix with foodstuffs and also slow the occurrence of evaporation. This study aimed to determine the effect of types of kecombrang extract, the concentration of microcapsules in food additives (NaCl and sucrose), and concentration of flower extract in the microcapsules. This study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 18 treatment combinations and two replications. Factors studied were types of kecombrang flower extract of (semi polar and polar extract), Food Additive types (sucrose and NaCl), the concentration of microcapsules in food additive (0%; 15%; 30% w /v). The results showed that polar and non-polar extract microcapsules produced antibacterial activity of 7.178 mm and 7.145 respectively of Bacillus cereus bacteria, while Escherichia coli was 7.272 mm and 7.289 mm respectively. A 30 percent microcapsule concentration provides antibacterial activity with inhibiting zone of 7, 818 mm for B. cereus and 8,045 for E.coli. Food Additive of sucrose concentrations showed that microcapsules produced tend to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of E.coli and B. cereus bacteria than that of NaCl, with each inhibition zone of 7.499 mm and 7.357 mm

  12. Healing and Antisecretory Effects of Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Unhealed Gastric Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Amang, A. P.; Mezui, C.; Siwe, G. T.; Emakoua, J.; Mbah, G.; Nkwengoua, E. Z.; Enow-Orock, G. E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This work investigated the healing and antisecretory effects of the aqueous extract of Eremomastax speciosa on “unhealed gastric ulcers” associated with gastric acid hypersecretion. Materials and Methods “Unhealed gastric ulcers” were induced using indomethacin following the establishment of acetic-acid-induced chronic gastric ulcers. The extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, per os) was administered concomitantly with indomethacin (1 mg/kg, subcutaneously). The effects of the extract on both basal and histamine-stimulated gastric acid secretion were determined. Mucus secretion and oxidative stress parameters were measured, and histological assessment of ulcer healing was carried out. Results The extract significantly promoted the healing process in rats subjected to “unhealed gastric ulcers” (82.4–88.5% healing rates). Treatment with the extract significantly reduced the basal (25.95–49.51% reduction rates) and histamine-stimulated (24.25–47.41%) acid secretions. The healing effect of the extract was associated with a significant (p < 0.05) increase of mucus secretion and concentrations of antioxidant enzymes compared with the controls. The extract at the highest dose showed normalization of the mucosa, without glandular destruction and with the disappearance of fibrosis and lymphocyte infiltration. Conclusion The abilities of the extract to increase mucus secretion, to reinforce antioxidant status, and to inhibit acid secretion would be some of the mechanisms by which this extract would accelerate the healing process in “unhealed gastric ulcers.” PMID:29234676

  13. Crystal Structure of the Minimalist Max-E47 Protein Chimera

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadpour, Faraz; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; De Jong, Antonia T.

    Max-E47 is a protein chimera generated from the fusion of the DNA-binding basic region of Max and the dimerization region of E47, both members of the basic region/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) superfamily of transcription factors. Like native Max, Max-E47 binds with high affinity and specificity to the E-box site, 5'-CACGTG, both in vivo and in vitro. We have determined the crystal structure of Max-E47 at 1.7 Å resolution, and found that it associates to form a well-structured dimer even in the absence of its cognate DNA. Analytical ultracentrifugation confirms that Max-E47 is dimeric even at low micromolar concentrations, indicating that the Max-E47more » dimer is stable in the absence of DNA. Circular dichroism analysis demonstrates that both non-specific DNA and the E-box site induce similar levels of helical secondary structure in Max-E47. These results suggest that Max-E47 may bind to the E-box following the two-step mechanism proposed for other bHLH proteins. In this mechanism, a rapid step where protein binds to DNA without sequence specificity is followed by a slow step where specific protein:DNA interactions are fine-tuned, leading to sequence-specific recognition. Collectively, these results show that the designed Max-E47 protein chimera behaves both structurally and functionally like its native counterparts.« less

  14. German science. Max Planck charts new path.

    PubMed

    Koenig, R

    2000-06-09

    Germany's premier basic research organization, the Max Planck Society, released a long-awaited blueprint for change during its annual meeting this week, recommending that the society's nearly 3000 scientists embrace more interdisciplinary and international projects in a range of new research priorities. The report, called Max Planck 2000-Plus, is the product of an 18-month-long internal review. Its recommendations were formulated by some two dozen Max Planck researchers and administrators, who sought input from every institute.

  15. Comparison of three chromatographic techniques for the detection of mitragynine and other indole and oxindole alkaloids in mitragyna speciosa (Kratom) plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaves of the Southeast Asian plant Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) are used to suppress pain and mitigate opioid withdrawal syndromes. The potential threat of abuse and ready availability of this uncontrolled psychoactive plant material in the U.S. have led to the need for improved analytical technique...

  16. The stability of M(max) and H (max) amplitude over time.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Penelope A; Shiner, Christine T; Thayaparan, Ganesha K; Burke, David

    2012-05-01

    The stability of the maximal muscle response (M(max)) is critical to H reflex methodology. It has previously been reported that the amplitude of M(max) declines over time. If reproducible, this finding would have implications for all experimental studies that normalise the output of the motoneurone pool against the M wave. We investigated the effect of time on changes in M(max) and the maximal H reflex (H(max)) evoked at 4-s intervals over 60 min. To identify an influence of homosynaptic depression, we extended the interstimulus interval to 10 s and the time to 100 min. Two recording montages over soleus were used to ensure that interelectrode distance was not a critical factor. The soleus M(max) and H reflex were evoked by stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa in 7 subjects who sat with the knee flexed to 30° and the ankle plantar flexed by ~30°. We found no change in the pooled data for M(max), H(max), a reflex 50% of maximal, or the current required to produce it. However, one subject had a statistically significant increase in M(max) and a concurrent decrease in H(max) regardless of the interstimulus interval. On average, there was no change in the H(max)/M(max) ratio over time. While both M(max) and H(max) may change in response to many factors, these results suggest that, typically, time is not one of them.

  17. Analysis of lipid profile and atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rat (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) that given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Nurhayati, Awik Puji Dyah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina

    2017-06-01

    Diet of high lipids cause hyperlipidemia, which marked by an increase of total cholesterols, triglycerides, LDL-C, and decreasing of HDL-C. Hyperlipidemia lead the occurrence of atherosclerosis, one of factors that trigger cardiovascular disease, as hypertention; coronary heart and stroke. Parijoto (M. speciosa) is endemic plants in Asia with a distribution center in Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. Parijoto contain phytochemical components such as flavonoids, saponins and kardenolin. Flavonoid potensial as an antioxidants and can improve the hyperlipidemia condition. This study was aimed to determine lipid profiles and atherogenic index of hyperlipidemic Wistar rats (R. norvegicus Berkenhout, 1769) which given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa). The research was done with pre and post test randomized control group design. Rats were given a mixture of duck yolk and reused cooking oil (1:1) orally as much as 1% of body weight (BW) for 30 days. After hyperlipidemia achieved, rats were divided into 5 group: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg BW. Blood samples were collected when rats in hyperlipidemia conditions and after treatment with the methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) for 30 days. The data of total cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol level, and atherogenic index were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey test at 5% significance level. The result showed that giving of methanolic extract of Parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the total cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol levels, and increased of HDL-cholesterol levels significantly (p<0.01), so atherogenic index reduced significantly too (p<0.01). Total cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol levels were positively correlated with the atherogenic index, whereas HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with the atherogenic index.

  18. MaxReport: An Enhanced Proteomic Result Reporting Tool for MaxQuant.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Li, Chuyu; Zhao, Wene; Wang, Xinru; Wang, Fuqiang; Sha, Jiahao

    2016-01-01

    MaxQuant is a proteomic software widely used for large-scale tandem mass spectrometry data. We have designed and developed an enhanced result reporting tool for MaxQuant, named as MaxReport. This tool can optimize the results of MaxQuant and provide additional functions for result interpretation. MaxReport can generate report tables for protein N-terminal modifications. It also supports isobaric labelling based relative quantification at the protein, peptide or site level. To obtain an overview of the results, MaxReport performs general descriptive statistical analyses for both identification and quantification results. The output results of MaxReport are well organized and therefore helpful for proteomic users to better understand and share their data. The script of MaxReport, which is freely available at http://websdoor.net/bioinfo/maxreport/, is developed using Python code and is compatible across multiple systems including Windows and Linux.

  19. Two-dimensional RPLC-RPLC system with different pH in two dimensions for separation of alkaloids from Corydalis yanhusuo W. T. Wang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Yu; Liu, Yanfang; Xiao, Yuansheng; Feng, Jiatao; Xue, Xingya; Zhang, Xiuli; Liang, Xinmiao

    2009-06-01

    An effective method utilizing the same RP chromatographic column with different pH in first and second LC dimensions has been developed for separation of the basic compounds from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). In this work, the alkaloids in Corydalis yanhusuo which is an important TCM were selected as a model to develop the method. The additives and pH values of the mobile phase were optimized in this work. To investigate the feasibility of this method, off-line mode separation was performed in the experiments. According to the UV-absorption intensity, there were eight fractions collected in acidic conditions. All the fractions were analyzed in basic conditions. The results showed that the chromatographic selectivities were significantly different in the separations performed with acidic and alkaline elution systems. Complementary separation was achieved in this work. It is demonstrated that this method would be an effective tool for alkaloids research. Based on the different pH of the mobile phase in this method, it could also be suitable to analyze compounds which were sensible to the pH of the solution.

  20. [Identification and analysis of Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species of the same genus by using ITS2 DNA barcode].

    PubMed

    Dou, Rong-kun; Bi, Zhen-fei; Bai, Rui-xue; Ren, Yao-yao; Tan, Rui; Song, Liang-ke; Li, Di-qiang; Mao, Can-quan

    2015-04-01

    The study is aimed to ensure the quality and safety of medicinal plants by using ITS2 DNA barcode technology to identify Corydalis boweri, Meconopsis horridula and their close related species. The DNA of 13 herb samples including C. boweri and M. horridula from Lhasa of Tibet was extracted, ITS PCR were amplified and sequenced. Both assembled and web downloaded 71 ITS2 sequences were removed of 5. 8S and 28S. Multiple sequence alignment was completed and the intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances were calculated by MEGA 5.0, while the neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed. We also predicted the ITS2 secondary structure of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species. The results showed that ITS2 as DNA barcode was able to identify C. boweri, M. horridula as well as well as their close related species effectively. The established based on ITS2 barcode method provides the regular and safe detection technology for identification of C. boweri, M. horridula and their close related species, adulterants and counterfeits, in order to ensure their quality control, safe medication, reasonable development and utilization.

  1. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME FROM THE LATEX OF THE MILKWEED, ASCLEPIAS SPECIOSA TORR. SOME COMPARISONS WITH OTHER PROTEASES

    PubMed Central

    Winnick, Theodore; Davis, Alva R.; Greenberg, David M.

    1940-01-01

    1. The kinetics of milk clotting by asclepain, the protease of Asclepias speciosa, were investigated. At higher concentrations of enzyme, the clotting time was inversely proportional to the enzyme concentration. 2. The digestion of casein and hemoglobin in 6.6 M urea by asclepain follows the second order reaction rate. The rate was roughly second order for casein in water. 3. Evaluation of the nature of the enzyme-substrate intermediate indicates that one molecule of asclepain combines with one molecule of casein or hemoglobin in urea solution. 4. Inhibition by the reaction products was deduced from the fact that the digestion velocity of hemoglobin in urea solution varied with the asclepain concentration in agreement with the Schütz-Borissov rule. PMID:19873155

  2. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Properties as Well as the Phenolic Content of the Extract from Hancornia speciosa Gomes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Uilson P.; Campos, Jaqueline F.; Torquato, Heron Fernandes V.; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Estevinho, Leticia M.; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2016-01-01

    Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) is a fruit tree, popularly known as mangabeira, and it is widely distributed throughout Brazil. Several parts of the plant are used in folk medicine, and the leaf and bark extracts have anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties. In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of the ethanolic extract of Hancornia speciosa leaves (EEHS) and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities as well as the mechanisms involved in cell death. The chemical compounds were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The antioxidant activity of the EEHS was investigated using the method that involves the scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radicals as well as the inhibition of oxidative hemolysis and lipid peroxidation induced by 2,2’-azobis (2-amidinopropane) in human erythrocytes. The antimicrobial activity was determined by calculating the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, and zone of inhibition. Kasumi-1 leukemic cells were used to assess the cytotoxic activity and mechanisms involved in cell death promoted by the EEHS. The chemical compounds identified were quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, catechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, kaempferol-rutinoside, and catechin-pentoside. The EEHS demonstrated antioxidant activity via the sequestration of free radicals, inhibition of hemolysis, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes incubated with an oxidizing agent. The antimicrobial activity was observed against American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) and hospital strains of bacteria and fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophytes. The cytotoxic activity of the EEHS was induced by apoptosis, reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and activation of cathepsins. Together, these results indicate the presence of phenolic compounds and flavonoids in the EEHS

  3. Synthesis, characterization and application of Lagerstroemia speciosa embedded magnetic nanoparticle for Cr(VI) adsorption from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, Shashi Bhushan; Mondal, Monoj Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Lagerstroemia speciosa bark (LB) embedded magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ salt solution with ammonia and LB for Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution. The native LB, magnetic nanoparticle (MNP), L. speciosa embedded magnetic nanoparticle (MNPLB) and Cr(VI) adsorbed MNPLB particles were characterized by SEM-EDX, TEM, BET-surface area, FT-IR, XRD and TGA methods. TEM analysis confirmed nearly spherical shape of MNP with an average diameter of 8.76nm and the surface modification did not result in the phase change of MNP as established by XRD analysis, while led to the formation of secondary particles of MNPLB with diameter of 18.54nm. Characterization results revealed covalent binding between the hydroxyl group of MNP and carboxyl group of LB particles and further confirmed its physico-chemical nature favorable for Cr(VI) adsorption. The Cr(VI) adsorption on to MNPLB particle as an adsorbent was tested under different contact time, initial Cr(VI) concentration, adsorbent dose, initial pH, temperature and agitation speed. The results of the equilibrium and kinetics of adsorption were well described by Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order model, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters suggest spontaneous and endothermic nature of Cr(VI) adsorption onto MNPLB. The maximum adsorption capacity for MNPLB was calculated to be 434.78mg/g and these particles even after Cr(VI) adsorption were collected effortlessly from the aqueous solution by a magnet. The desorption of Cr(VI)-adsorbed MNPLB was found to be more than 93.72% with spent MNPLB depicting eleven successive adsorption-desorption cycles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Antisecretory Action of the Extract of the Aerial Parts of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) Occurs through Antihistaminic and Anticholinergic Pathways.

    PubMed

    André Perfusion, Amang; Tan, Paul V; Ernestine, Nkwengoua; Barthélemy, Nyasse

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to find out the possible antiulcer mechanism of action of Eremomastax speciosa. Method. Carbachol- and histamine-induced hypersecretion, associated with the pylorus ligation technique, were used in rats. Gastric mucosal ulceration, mucus production, pH, gastric volume, and acidity were measured. Results. Histamine and carbachol raised gastric acidity to 86.50 and 84.80 mEq/L, respectively, in the control rats, and the extracts (200 mg/kg) reduced gastric acidity to 34.60 and 39.00 mEq/L, respectively. Intraduodenal aqueous extract (400 mg/kg) in histamine- and carbachol-treated rats produced significant (P < 0.001) decreases in acid secretion to 28.50 and 28.80 mEq/L, respectively, and 100 percent inhibition of gastric ulceration. Augmented histamine-induced gastric acid secretion (90.20 mEq/L) was significantly reduced to 52.60 and 27.50 mEq/L by the 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract, respectively. The extract significantly reduced (P < 0.001) the volume of gastric secretion and significantly increased mucus production. The ulcer inhibition potential of the extract significantly dropped to 25-44% (oral extract) and to 29-37% (duodenal extract) in carbachol/indomethacin-treated rats. Conclusion. The aqueous extract of E. speciosa has both cytoprotective and antisecretory effects. The antisecretory effect may involve a mechanism common to both cholinergic and histaminergic pathways.

  5. Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl. protects against myocardial injury by attenuating inflammation and fibrosis via NF-κB and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ruifeng; Yin, Xu; Feng, Xiao; Cao, Yuan; Wu, Yan; Zhu, Zhixiang; Li, Chun; Tu, Pengfei; Chai, Xingyun

    2017-07-31

    Corydalis hendersonii Hemsl. (CH) with heat clearing and detoxifying effects are well described in Tibetan folk medicine. It has been used for centuries in China largely for the treatment of high altitude polycythemia, a pathophysiological condition referred to "plethora" in Tibetan medicine, hypertension, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, and other infectious diseases. To investigate the cardioprotective effects of Corydalis hendersonii extract in an ICR mouse model of myocardial ischemic injury. Ethanol [85% (v/v)] extract of CH whole plant was prepared, and their chemical profile was analyzed with use of HPLC-DAD and IT-TOF-ESI-MS. A mouse model of AMI was established by ligation of the left ventricular dysfunction (LAD) coronary artery. Mice were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12 per group): sham group, model group, CH groups treated with three doses of CH (100, 200, and 400mg/kg, intragastric), and a positive control group (captopril, 16.67mg/kg, intragastric). Heart function was evaluated by measurement of ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography. Serum levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), plasma levels of angiotensin II (AngII), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in the cardiac tissue homogenate, protein expressions of signal-transduction proteins, p65, IκBα, JAK2, and STAT3 in heart tissues were measured by ELISA and Western blot analyses. Inflammatory cell infiltration and changes in collagen deposition in the myocardial ischemic heart tissues were observed by histopathological examination. Platelet aggregation in vitro was also assessed. CH treatment showed a dose-dependent cardioprotective effect. It significantly reduced left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDd) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDs), improved EF and FS as compared to those in the model

  6. Serum metabonomics study of the hepatoprotective effect of Corydalis saxicola Bunting on carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats by (1)H NMR analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong-Hong; Tang, Chao-Ling; Lu, Shi-Yin; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Fang; Chen, Zhao-Ni; Song, Fangming; Ruan, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Hong-Ye; Song, Hui; Zheng, Hua; Su, Zhi-Heng

    2016-09-10

    Corydalis saxicola Bunting (CS), a traditional Chinese folk medicine, has been effectively used for treating liver disease in Zhuang nationality in South China. However, the exact hepatoprotective mechanism of CS was still looking forward to further elucidation by far. In present work, metabonomic study of biochemical changes in the serum of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute liver injury rats after CS treatment were performed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) analysis. Metabolic profiling by means of principal components analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the metabolic perturbation caused by CCl4 was reduced by CS treatment. A total of 9 metabolites including isoleucine (1), lactate (2), alanine (3), glutamine (4), acetone (5), succinate (6), phosphocholine (7), d-glucose (8) and glycerol (9) were considered as potential biomarkers involved in the development of CCl4-induced acute liver injury. According to pathway analysis by metabolites identified and correlation network construction by Pearson's correlation coefficency matrix, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism were recognized as the most influenced metabolic pathways associated with CCl4 injury. As a result, notably, deviations of metabolites 1, 3, 4, 7 and 9 in the process of CCl4-induced acute liver injury were improved by CS treatment, which suggested that CS mediated synergistically abnormalities of the metabolic pathways, composed of alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism. In this study, it was the first report to investigate the hepatoprotective effect of the CS based on metabonomics strategy, which may be a potentially powerful tool to interpret the action mechanism of traditional Chinese folk medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Corydalis bungeana Turcz. attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory responses via the suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Xiao-Ting; Chen, Jia-Quan; Jiang, Cui-Hua; Song, Jie; Li, Dong-Yu; Zhang, Hao; Jia, Xiao-Bin; Tan, Wei; Wang, Shu-Xia; Yang, Yi; Zhu, Fen-Xia

    2016-12-24

    Corydalis bungeana Turcz. (C. bungeana) is one of traditionally used medicines in China and possesses various biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity and inhibition of the immune function of the host. we studied the anti-inflammatory effect and molecular mechanism involved of C. bungeana both in vitro and in vivo model system in which the inflammatory response was induced by LPS treatment. Anti-inflammatory activity of C. bungeana was investigated by LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and BALB/c mice. The production and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by Griess reagent, ELISA kits and RT-qPCR, respectively. Phosphorylation status of IκBα and p65 was illustrated by western blot assay. C. bungeana reduced the secretion of NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β through inhibiting the protein expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis suggested that C. bungeana supressed NF-κB activation via regulating the phosphorylation of IκBα and p65. Immunohistochemical assay also demostrated the histological inflammatory change in liver tissue. The results indicate that C. bungeana supresses the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway through inhibiting phosphorylation of IκBα and p65, which results in good anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, C. bungeana attenuates inflammatory reaction by supressing the expression of various inflammatory cytokines both in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolomics Coupled with Multivariate Data and Pathway Analysis on Potential Biomarkers in Gastric Ulcer and Intervention Effects of Corydalis yanhusuo Alkaloid

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Wang; Yongrui, Bao; Shanshan, Guan; Bo, Liu; Lu, Chen; Lei, Wang; Xiaorong, Ran

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics, the systematic analysis of potential metabolites in a biological specimen, has been increasingly applied to discovering biomarkers, identifying perturbed pathways, measuring therapeutic targets, and discovering new drugs. By analyzing and verifying the significant difference in metabolic profiles and changes of metabolite biomarkers, metabolomics enables us to better understand substance metabolic pathways which can clarify the mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM). Corydalis yanhusuo alkaloid (CA) is a major component of Qizhiweitong (QZWT) prescription which has been used for treating gastric ulcer for centuries and its mechanism remains unclear completely. Metabolite profiling was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-TOF-MS) and in conjunction with multivariate data analysis and pathway analysis. The statistic software Mass Profiller Prossional (MPP) and statistic method including ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA) were used for discovering novel potential biomarkers to clarify mechanism of CA in treating acid injected rats with gastric ulcer. The changes in metabolic profiling were restored to their base-line values after CA treatment according to the PCA score plots. Ten different potential biomarkers and seven key metabolic pathways contributing to the treatment of gastric ulcer were discovered and identified. Among the pathways, sphingophospholipid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism related network were acutely perturbed. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis were performed to evaluate the expression of genes related to the two pathways for verifying the above results. The results show that changed biomarkers and pathways may provide evidence to insight into drug action mechanisms and enable us to increase research productivity toward metabolomics drug discovery. PMID:24454691

  9. [Preliminary Investigation of the Amount, the Molecular Weight and the Activity of Polysaccharides from Chaenomeles Speciosa Fruits in Ethanol Fractional Precipitation].

    PubMed

    Tian, Bing-mei; Xie, Xiao-mei; Shen, Pan-pan; Yang, Mo; Zhang, Sheng-long; Tang, Qing-jiu

    2015-05-01

    Chaenomeles speciosa fruits were extracted using water. The extracts were precipitated with 20%~95% (φ) ethanol, respectively. The amount of total polysaccharide was measured with phenol-sulfuric acid method. A method using high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) equipped with multiangle laser-light-scattering photometry (MALLS) and differential refractometry (RI) was presented for determining the molecular weight and molecular weigh distribution. RAW264.7 macrophage were cultured and stimulated with the polysaccharides in vitro and the production of nitric oxide in the cells was determined by the Griess assay. The aim of the study is to determine the amount and the molecular weight of the polysaccharides from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits, and preliminary investigate the immunomodulatory activity, The study provided the basis datas for the further research of Chaenomeles speciosa fruits. , and provided a simple and system method for the research of natural polysaccharide. The ethanol fractional precipitation showed that the order of total polysaccharide content was 95%>80%>40% ≥60%>20%. The results indicated that most polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa fruits might be precipitated when ethanol concentration was up to 95% (T) and the crude polysaccharide purity had risen from 35. 1% to 45. 0% when the concentration of ethanol increased from 20% to 95%. HPSEC-MALLS-RI system showed that all the polysaccharide samples had the similar compositions. They appeared three chromatographic peaks and the retention time were not apparently different. The Mw were 6. 570 X 10(4) g . mol-1 and 1. 393 X 10(4) g . mol-1 respectively, and one less than 10 000 which was failure to obtain accurate values. The molecular weight of the first two polysaccharide distribution index(Mw/Mn)were 1. 336 and 1. 639 respectively. The polysaccharide samples had not exhibited immunomodulatory activity assessed on the basis of nitric oxide production by RAW264. 7 macrophage

  10. Min-Max Spaces and Complexity Reduction in Min-Max Expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubert, Stephane, E-mail: Stephane.Gaubert@inria.fr; McEneaney, William M., E-mail: wmceneaney@ucsd.edu

    2012-06-15

    Idempotent methods have been found to be extremely helpful in the numerical solution of certain classes of nonlinear control problems. In those methods, one uses the fact that the value function lies in the space of semiconvex functions (in the case of maximizing controllers), and approximates this value using a truncated max-plus basis expansion. In some classes, the value function is actually convex, and then one specifically approximates with suprema (i.e., max-plus sums) of affine functions. Note that the space of convex functions is a max-plus linear space, or moduloid. In extending those concepts to game problems, one finds amore » different function space, and different algebra, to be appropriate. Here we consider functions which may be represented using infima (i.e., min-max sums) of max-plus affine functions. It is natural to refer to the class of functions so represented as the min-max linear space (or moduloid) of max-plus hypo-convex functions. We examine this space, the associated notion of duality and min-max basis expansions. In using these methods for solution of control problems, and now games, a critical step is complexity-reduction. In particular, one needs to find reduced-complexity expansions which approximate the function as well as possible. We obtain a solution to this complexity-reduction problem in the case of min-max expansions.« less

  11. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Freedman, Michael H.; Sattath, Or; Stong, Richard; Minton, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts of the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.

  12. Quantum Max-flow/Min-cut

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Shawn X., E-mail: xingshan@math.ucsb.edu; Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052; Freedman, Michael H., E-mail: michaelf@microsoft.com

    2016-06-15

    The classical max-flow min-cut theorem describes transport through certain idealized classical networks. We consider the quantum analog for tensor networks. By associating an integral capacity to each edge and a tensor to each vertex in a flow network, we can also interpret it as a tensor network and, more specifically, as a linear map from the input space to the output space. The quantum max-flow is defined to be the maximal rank of this linear map over all choices of tensors. The quantum min-cut is defined to be the minimum product of the capacities of edges over all cuts ofmore » the tensor network. We show that unlike the classical case, the quantum max-flow=min-cut conjecture is not true in general. Under certain conditions, e.g., when the capacity on each edge is some power of a fixed integer, the quantum max-flow is proved to equal the quantum min-cut. However, concrete examples are also provided where the equality does not hold. We also found connections of quantum max-flow/min-cut with entropy of entanglement and the quantum satisfiability problem. We speculate that the phenomena revealed may be of interest both in spin systems in condensed matter and in quantum gravity.« less

  13. Physical habitat predictors of Manayunkia speciosa distribution in the Klamath River and implications for management of Ceratomyxa shasta, a parasite with a complex life cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M. S.; Alexander, J. D.; Grant, G. E.; Bartholomew, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Management strategies for parasites with complex life cycles may target not the parasite itself, but one of the alternate hosts. One approach is to decrease habitat for the alternate host, and in river systems flow manipulations may be employed. Two-dimensional hydraulic models can be powerful tools for predicting the relationship between flow alterations and changes in physical habit, however they require a rigorous definition of physical habitat for the organism of interest. We present habitat characterization data for the case of the alternate host of a salmonid parasite and introduce how it will be used in conjunction with a 2-dimensional hydraulic model. Ceratomyxa shasta is a myxozoan parasite of salmonids that requires a freshwater polychaete Manayunkia speciosa to complete its life cycle. Manayunkia speciosa is a small (3mm) benthic filter-feeding worm that attaches itself perpendicularly to substrate through construction of a flexible tube. In the Klamath River, CA/OR, C. shasta causes significant juvenile salmon mortality, imposing social and economic losses on commercial, sport and tribal fisheries. An interest in manipulating habitat for the polychaete host to decrease the abundance of C. shasta has therefore developed. Unfortunately, there are limited data on the habitat requirements of M. speciosa or the influence of streamflow regime and hydraulics on population dynamics and infection prevalence. This work aims to address these data needs by identifying physical habitat variables that influence the distribution of M. speciosa and determining the relationship between those variables, M. speciosa population density, and C. shasta infection prevalence. Biological samples were collected from nine sites representing three river features (runs, pools, and eddies) within the Klamath River during the summer and fall of 2010 and 2011. Environmental data including depth, velocity, and substrate, were collected at each polychaete sampling location. We tested

  14. [Study on effects of Corydalis yanhusuo and L-THP on dopamine of reward circuitry in conditioned place preference rats and comparison].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shou-Yang; Yang, Pei-Run; Qian, Gang; Wu, Ming-Song; Bai, Wei-Feng; Tu, Ping; Luo, Su-Yuan

    2013-11-01

    To study and compare the effect of Corydalis yanhusuo and L-THP on dopamine neurotransmitter and D2 receptor of reward circuitry in various cerebral areas of conditioned place preference model rats and the comparison of their effects. The CPP model was established by injecting morphine in rats with increasing doses for 10 days. The initial dose of 10 mg x kg(-1), and the final dose of 100 mg x kg(-1), with 10 mg x kg(-1) increased each day. At 48 h after the final training, CPP was adopted to detect the successful establishment of the model. On the same day (12 d), they were orally administered with 2, 1, 0.5 g x kg(-1) C. yanhusuo (containing 0.153, 0.077 and 0.038 mg L-THP) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88, 0.94 mg x kg(-1)) for six days. On 18 d, CPP test was performed again. Next day, HPLC was adopted to determine the content of dopamine neurotransmitters of reward circuitry in VTA-NAc-PFC; Immunohistochemistry and Western blotting were adopted to detect the expression of D2 receptors. Compared with the physiological saline treatment group, C. yanhusuo (2, 1 g x kg(-1)) and L-THP (3.76, 1.88 mg x kg(-1)) groups showed that rats stayed in a notably shorter period in white boxes (morphine-accompanied boxes) (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), and revealed a remarkably lower dopamine content in VTA, NAc and PFC and the significant increase in the expression of D2 receptor (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). The down-regulation of the increased dopamine content in reward nervous circuitry and the up-regulation of the expression of D2 receptor may be one of mechanisms of C. yanhusuo and L-THP in accelerating the recession of morphine's CPP effect Regarding the inhibition of morphine's CPP effect and the effect on dopamine system, the effect of C. yanhusuo traditional Chinese medicine containing one-fold L-THP monomer is equal to that of the independent application of around 24-fold L-THP monomer.

  15. Teaching Financial Literacy with Max and Ruby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Natalya; Ferguson, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Teaching financial literacy is important at all stages of life, but is often neglected with elementary students. In this article, the authors describe a strategy for teaching financial literacy using the books about Max and Ruby by Rosemary Wells. These books can help introduce the five key concepts of financial literacy: scarcity, exchange,…

  16. The Statue of Liberty Peter Max Style!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The author's school is only 30 minutes from New York City, so every year when second-graders study towns and cities, the students do a project based on New York City landmarks. This year was the Statue of Liberty. The author introduced Peter Max's famous Pop art to her students, and explained that, as the art world kept changing, artists decided…

  17. Max Roach's Adventures in Higher Music Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentoff, Nat

    1980-01-01

    Max Roach and the author discuss Roach's efforts to gain recognition of the complexity and importance of American musical forms, particularly jazz, by American university music departments. In addition, Roach describes his approach to marketing his music, an approach which avoids the economic exploitation often suffered by American jazz musicians.…

  18. Exact simulation of max-stable processes.

    PubMed

    Dombry, Clément; Engelke, Sebastian; Oesting, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Max-stable processes play an important role as models for spatial extreme events. Their complex structure as the pointwise maximum over an infinite number of random functions makes their simulation difficult. Algorithms based on finite approximations are often inexact and computationally inefficient. We present a new algorithm for exact simulation of a max-stable process at a finite number of locations. It relies on the idea of simulating only the extremal functions, that is, those functions in the construction of a max-stable process that effectively contribute to the pointwise maximum. We further generalize the algorithm by Dieker & Mikosch (2015) for Brown-Resnick processes and use it for exact simulation via the spectral measure. We study the complexity of both algorithms, prove that our new approach via extremal functions is always more efficient, and provide closed-form expressions for their implementation that cover most popular models for max-stable processes and multivariate extreme value distributions. For simulation on dense grids, an adaptive design of the extremal function algorithm is proposed.

  19. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  20. Anti-HIV and cytotoxic biphenyls, benzophenones and xanthones from stems, leaves and twigs of Garcinia speciosa.

    PubMed

    Pailee, Phanruethai; Kuhakarn, Chutima; Sangsuwan, Chanyapat; Hongthong, Sakchai; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Jariyawat, Surawat; Akkarawongsapat, Radeekorn; Limthongkul, Jitra; Napaswad, Chanita; Kongsaeree, Palangpon; Prabpai, Samran; Jaipetch, Thaworn; Pohmakotr, Manat; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2018-03-01

    Eleven previously undescribed compounds, including four benzophenones (garciosones A-D), four xanthones (garciosones E-H) and three biphenyls (garciosines A-C), along with eighteen known compounds were isolated from the stems, leaves and twigs of Garcinia speciosa Wall. (Clusiaceae). Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analysis. For garciosines A-C, the structures were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Most of the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and anti-HIV-1 activity using the syncytium inhibition assay and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. The known compounds, 4,6,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-2-methoxybenzophenone and macluraxanthone, displayed significant cytotoxic activity with the ED 50 in the range of 1.85-11.76 μM. 1,5-Dihydroxyxanthone exhibited the most potent anti-HIV activity against syncytium formation with EC 50  < 17.13 μM (SI > 25.28) and 2-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone was the most active compound in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase assay with IC 50 value of 58.24 μM. Structure-activity relationship of some isolated compounds were also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Overexpression of the cucumber LEAFY homolog CFL and hormone treatments alter flower development in gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhe; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Lin; Pang, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Zheng, Ke; Bian, Hong-Wu; Han, Ning; Pan, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    Leafy (LFY) and LFY-like genes control the initiation of floral meristems and regulate MADS-box genes in higher plants. The Cucumber-FLO-LFY (CFL) gene, a LFY homolog in Cucumis sativus L. is expressed in the primordia, floral primordia, and each whirl of floral organs during the early stage of flower development. In this study, functions of CFL in flower development were investigated by overexpressing the CFL gene in gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa). Our results show that constitutive CFL overexpression significantly promote early flowering without gibberellin (GA(3)) supplement, suggesting that CFL can serve functionally as a LFY homolog in gloxinia. Moreover, GA(3) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments could modulate the expression of MADS-box genes in opposite directions. GA(3) resembles the overexpression of CFL in the expression of MADS-box genes and the regeneration of floral buds, but ABA inhibits the expression of MADS-box genes and flower development. These results suggest that CFL and downstream MADS-box genes involved in flower development are regulated by GA(3) and ABA.

  2. Anti–odor activity of milk kefir on organosulphur polysulfide cyclic compounds in petai (parkia speciosa hassk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniati, T.; Windayani, N.; Listiawati, M.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to assess the activity of milk kefir whey in neutralizing odor-causing cyclic polysulfide compounds in petai (Parkia speciosa Hassk.). RAL designs used to determine the optimum fermentation conditions. The data obtained were processed using SPSS 20. Results showed the characteristics of the microbes in the kefir grains include lactic acid bacteria consisting of genus Lactobacillus and yeast of the genus Candida and Saccharomyces. The optimum fermentation conditions using cow’s milk kefir grain starter obtained in the fermentation time of 24 hours at a concentration of 5% kefir grain. Whey kefir which is produced have high levels of fat, protein, carbohydrates, fiber and lactic acid respectively 1.81; 4.35; 5.59; 0.26 and 0.16%, pH 4.4; a density of 1.0628 g/mL and 7.9368 cP viscosity. Kefir milk whey actively reduced the level of petai smell significantly different at the level of α = 0.05.

  3. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of lambs fed babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) as a replacement for elephant grass silage.

    PubMed

    Luz, Janaina Barros; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Ribeiro Dos Santos Neta, Ernestina; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Sampaio Oliveira, Luis Rennan; Silva, Josiane Costa; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of elephant grass silage with babassu cake (Orbignya speciosa) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of feedlot lambs. Forty-five castrated male Santa Ines sheep (19.08 ± 0.41 kg) approximately 4 months old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments 0.0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50 % (%DM) replacement of babassu cake with silage forming isoproteic diets formulated at a ratio of 40 % roughage to 60 % concentrate. All of the studied animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment. The liver weights and yields increased with the inclusion of babassu cake. The weight of the shoulder increased from 2.31 to 2.61 kg, while the loin yield decreased from 7.38 to 6.64 % with the inclusion of babassu cake, both linearly. The body length, thoracic perimeter, rump perimeter and carcass compactness index showed high and positive correlations with the hot and cold carcass weights. The myofibrillar fragmentation index decreased linearly as a function of the inclusion level of babassu cake, but other quality variables were not affected. The replacement of up to 50 % of the elephant grass silage with babassu cake in the diet of lambs does not cause negative effects on carcass characteristics or meat quality.

  4. PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE PROTEOLYTIC ENZYME FROM THE LATEX OF THE MILKWEED, ASCLEPIAS SPECIOSA TORR. SOME COMPARISONS WITH OTHER PROTEASES

    PubMed Central

    Winnick, Theodore; Davis, Alva R.; Greenberg, David M.

    1940-01-01

    1. A study has been made of the properties of a hitherto unreported proteolytic enzyme from the latex of the milkweed, Asclepias speciosa. The new protease has been named asclepain by the authors. 2. The results of chemical, diffusion, and denaturation tests indicate that asclepain is a protein. 3. Like papain, asclepain dots milk and digests most proteins, particularly if they are dissolved in concentrated urea solution. Unlike papain, asclepain did not clot blood. 4. The activation and inhibition phenomena of asclepain resemble those of papain, and seem best explained on the assumption that free sulfhydryl in the enzyme is necessary for proteolytic activity. The sulfhydryl of asclepain appears more labile than that of papain. 5. The measurement of pH-activity curves of asclepain on casein, ovalbumin, hemoglobin, edestin, and ovovitellin showed no definite digestion maxima for most of the undenatured proteins, while in urea solution there were well defined maxima near pH 7.0. Native hemoglobin and ovovitellin were especially undigestible, while native casein was rapidly attacked. 6. Temperature-activity curves were determined for asclepain on hemoglobin, casein, and milk solutions. The optimum temperature was shown to increase with decreasing time of digestion. PMID:19873154

  5. Development and Validation of a HPLC-ESI-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Quantification of Fourteen Alkaloids in Mouse Plasma after Oral Administration of the Extract of Corydalis yanhusuo Tuber: Application to Pharmacokinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Du, Weijuan; Jin, Lisha; Li, Liping; Wang, Wei; Zeng, Su; Jiang, Huidi; Zhou, Hui

    2018-03-21

    The tuber of Corydalis yanhusuo is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and found to have potent pharmacological effects, such as antinociceptive, antitumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depressive activities. Although there are several methods to be developed for the analysis and detection of the bioactive ingredients' alkaloids, so far, only few prominent alkaloids could be quantified, and in vitro and in vivo changes of comprehensive alkaloids after oral administration are still little known. In this study, we first developed a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method to quantify the comprehensive alkaloids of extracts of C. yanhusuo in mouse plasma, using nitidine chloride as an internal standard. As results, at least fourteen alkaloids, including an aporphine (oxoglaucine), a protopine (protopine), five tertiary alkaloids (corydaline, tetrahydroberberine, tetrahydropalmatine, tetrahydrocolumbamine, and tetrahydrocoptisine) and seven quaternary alkaloids (columbamine, palmatine, berberine, epiberberine, coptisine, jatrorrhizine, and dehydrocorydaline) could be well quantified simultaneously in mouse plasma. The lower limits of quantification were greater than, or equal to, 0.67 ng/mL, and the average matrix effects ranged from 96.4% to 114.3%. The mean extraction recoveries of quality control samples were over 71.40%, and the precision and accuracy were within the acceptable limits. All the analytes were shown to be stable under different storage conditions. Then the established method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of these alkaloids after oral administration of the extract of Corydalis yanhusuo in mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first document to report the comprehensive and simultaneous analyses of alkaloids of C. yanhusuo in mouse plasma. It was efficient and useful for comprehensive pharmacokinetic and

  6. Biofilm inhibition formation of clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutans, photocatalytic activity of azo dye and GC-MS analysis of leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa.

    PubMed

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Kamarudheen, Neethu; Bhaskara Rao, K V; Santhakumar, K

    2017-04-01

    The investigation was conducted to analyse the bioactive compounds from the leaf extracts of L. speciosa by GC-MS. The extracts were screened for antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against potential clinical strains. The bioactive compounds from the leaves of L. speciosa were extracted by soxhlet continuous extraction method and their chemical composition was analysed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against clinical strain like Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, P. aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi by well diffusion technique. We also screened for antibacterial property against common food borne pathogens namely Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus at varied concentration 250μml -1 to 1000μml -1 . Thereafter antibiofilm assay was carried out at from 250 to 1000μg/ml against P. aeruginosa (high biofilm forming pathogen) clinical strain by cover slip technique and the morphology of the pathogen was observed using Scanning Electron Microscopy-(SEM). It was observed that diverse class of secondary metabolites were found by GC-MS analysis for all the extracts upon the continuous extraction. It was found that only minimum inhibition was seen in alcoholic extract for antibacterial activity, whereas all other extracts showed negligible activity. P. aeruginosa biofilm inhibited to 93.0±2% and 91±2% at higher concentration (1000μg/ml) for methanolic and ethanolic extract respectively. Absence of extracellular matrix structure and the surface cracking of biofilm were viewed by SEM, which confirmed the antibiofilm activity. Hence this study reveals that L. speciosa showed significant antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa due to the phytoconstituents present in the leaf extracts which was well documented in the alcoholic extracts by GC-MS analysis. The methanolic and ethanolic extract showed good photocatalytic activity of 77.44% and 96.66% against azo dye degradation respectively. Further

  7. Isolation of quercetin from the methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa by HPLC technique, its cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Saravanan, D; Santhakumar, K

    2017-06-01

    The flavonoids present in the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa were extracted, characterized by spectral methods and studied for its cytotoxicity activity against MCF-cell lines and photocatalytic activity against azo dye. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction was performed and its concentrated crude extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography. The yield obtained by the isolated compound (MEI-quercetin) from leaves of L. speciosa was found to be 1.8g from the methanolic extract. The phytochemical analysis and the Rf value of the isolated flavonoid was found to be 3.59. The isolated compound was characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, NMR and Mass. Based on the characterization, the structure was elucidated as quercetin - a flavonoid. The isolated compound showed the significant in vitro cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cell lines at 500μg/ml when compared to the crude extract. Among the various concentrations (25, 50, 100, 250, and 500μg/ml), at higher concentration the cell viability was pronounced and also compared with that of the control. It was first time to report that the isolated flavonoid showed photocatalytic against azo dye-methyl orange. The dye degradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The isolated compound showed dye degradation of 91.66% with the crude extract 82.47% at 160min. Hence in the present findings, the photocatalytic degradation of MO dye under UV irradiation was investigated over isolated compound of L. speciosa. Hence we expect that this can be used to treat the waste water in near future based on the photocatalytic technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective effects of Lagerstroemia speciosa on 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Jia-Le; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Ting

    2013-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced pancreatic β cell death affects insulin secretion and is important in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Lagerstroemia speciosa, a traditional folk medicine, has been used for t he prevention and treatment of diabetes. However, whether Lagerstroemia speciosa has a cytoprotective effect on pancreatic β cells remains to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effects of hot water extracts from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves (LWE) on 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1)-induced oxidative damage in Syrian hamster pancreatic insulinoma HIT-T15 cells. The HIT-T15 cells were first treated with SIN-1 (50 µM) for 24 h and then co-incubated with LWE for 48 h. SIN-1 significantly decreased HIT-T15 cell viability (P<0.05); however, LWE did not exert a significant cytotoxic effect and increased the viability of HIT-T15 cells in a dose‑dependent manner. To further investigate the protective effects of LWE on SIN-1‑induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 cells, the cellular levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), were determined. LWE decreased the intracellular levels of ROS and lipid peroxidation, and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that LWE has a cytoprotective effect against SIN-1‑induced oxidative stress in HIT-T15 cells through the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, a decrease in ROS levels and an increase in antioxidant enzyme activity. In addition, LWE increased insulin secretion in SIN-1-treated HIT-T15 cells. Our results suggested that LWE were effective in the treatment of diabetes. Further studies are required to study the anti-diabetic molecular mechanism in a cell model.

  9. Leap of Faith: An Interview with Max Velthuijs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rijke, Victoria; Hollands, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The now late great Max Velthuijs was filmed in April 2004 discussing his work with Victoria de Rijke and Howard Hollands, who began the interview expecting Max to be working under certain artistic and cultural influences, none of which seemed to be the case! Max describes what brought him home to Andersen Press, the freedom of children's…

  10. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of self micro-emulsifying formulation of standardized extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa for antidiabetic activity.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Vipin Kumar; Amresh, Gupta; Chandra, Phool

    Lagerstroemia speciosa (SEL) leaves are a popular folk medicine for diabetes treatment due to presence of corosolic acid. It has low water solubility resulting poor absorption after oral administration. Self micro-emulsified drug delivery system is the way by which we can improve the oral absorption of drug. The objective of this study was to develop the self micro-emulsifying formulation of standardized extract of SEL leaves and evaluate its pharmacodynamic performance for antidiabetic activity. The SME formulation was prepared by using sefsol-218 as oil, cremophor-EL as surfactant and transcutol-P as co-surfactant. The ratio of surfactant and co-surfactant was determined by pseudoternary phase diagram. SME formulations were characterized for dilution at different pH, self emulsification, optical clarity, globule size and thermodynamic stability. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of formulations was assessed in Wistar rats by using parameters viz. blood glucose level and serum lipid profile. SEL loaded SME formulation was successfully developed by using sefsol-218, cremophor-EL and transcutol-P with a droplet size 23.53 nm. Pharmacodynamic results showed a higher reduction in blood glucose by SME formulation than SEL without SMES respectively at 50 mg/kg dose while reduction produced at dose of 100 mg/kg was found significant and better on 15th day of study. The percentage reduction produced by SME formulation on serum lipid profile was also significant and was more prominent than SEL. This study confirms that the formulation elevates the pharmacodynamic performance of SEL approximately two fold. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Solar vector magnetograph for Max 1991 programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rust, D. M.; Obyrne, J. W.; Harris, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    An instrument for measuring solar magnetic fields is under construction. Key requirements for any solar vector magnetograph are high spatial resolution, high optical throughput, fine spectral selectivity, and ultralow instrumental polarization. An available 25 cm Cassegrain telescope will provide 0.5 arcsec spatial resolution. Spectral selection will be accomplished with a 150 mA filter based on electrically tunable solid Fabry-Perot etalon. Filter and polarization analyzer design concepts for the magnetograph are described in detail. The instrument will be tested at JHU/APL, and then moved to the National Solar Observatory in late 1988. It will be available to support the Max 1991 program.

  12. Trait differences in responses to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are stronger and more consistent than fixed differences among populations of Asclepias speciosa.

    PubMed

    Waller, Lauren P; Hahn, Philip G; Maron, John L; Lekberg, Ylva

    2018-02-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can promote plant growth and reproduction, but other plant physiological traits or traits that provide defense against herbivores can also be affected by AM fungi. However, whether responses of different traits to AM fungi are correlated and whether these relationships vary among plants from different populations are unresolved. In a common garden experiment, we grew Asclepias speciosa plants from seed collected from populations found along an environmental gradient with and without AM fungi to assess whether the responses of six growth and defense traits to AM fungi are correlated. Although there was strong genetic differentiation in mean trait values among populations, AM fungi consistently increased expression of most growth and defense traits across all populations. Responses of biomass and root to shoot ratio to AM fungi were positively correlated, suggesting that plants that are more responsive to AM fungi allocated more biomass belowground. Responses of biomass and trichome density to AM fungi were negatively correlated, indicating a trade-off in responsiveness between a growth and defensive trait. Our results suggest that while there is substantial population differentiation in many traits of A. speciosa, populations respond similarly to AM fungi, and both positive and negative correlations among trait responses occur. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  13. MaxEnt alternatives to pearson family distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Barrie J.

    2012-05-01

    In a previous MaxEnt conference [11] a method of obtaining MaxEnt univariate distributions under a variety of constraints was presented. The Mathematica function Interpolation[], normally used with numerical data, can also process "semi-symbolic" data, and Lagrange Multiplier equations were solved for a set of symbolic ordinates describing the required MaxEnt probability density function. We apply a more developed version of this approach to finding MaxEnt distributions having prescribed β1 and β2 values, and compare the entropy of the MaxEnt distribution to that of the Pearson family distribution having the same β1 and β2. These MaxEnt distributions do have, in general, greater entropy than the related Pearson distribution. In accordance with Jaynes' Maximum Entropy Principle, these MaxEnt distributions are thus to be preferred to the corresponding Pearson distributions as priors in Bayes' Theorem.

  14. Did Heisenberg Spit at Max Born?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustig, Harry

    2005-04-01

    In his 1985 book ``The Griffin,'' Arnold Kramish quotes an unnamed ``associate'' of Max Born that when Heisenberg ''was . . . a professor in Göttingen and when the Borns went to visit him, they were met with anti-Jewish sneers and obscenities, and in the end Heisenberg spat on the floor at Max Born's feet!". Kramish, in his own words, states that Heisenberg spat at Born and that the incident took place in 1933. Paul Lawrence Rose places the incident in 1953 and, on the basis of a fuller account from Kramish than the one published, identifies the associate as Born's secretary at Edinburgh University. One may be critical of Heisenberg's character and his behavior under the Nazis, and still be highly skeptical of the Kramish-Rose allegation. The life-long friendship between Born and Heisenberg and the respect which they displayed for each other before, during, and after the Nazi regime, has hardly been challenged by anyone. No known biography of Heisenberg mentions the alleged episode, and none of his obituaries alludes to it. There is no reference to it in Born's autobiography. None of the historians of science, German and American, whom I have consulted credit it. Although it is difficult to prove a negative, it is highly unlikely that Heisenberg spit at Born or on the floor on which they stood.

  15. A δ(15)N assessment of nitrogen deposition for the endangered epiphytic orchid Laelia speciosa from a city and an oak forest in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Álvarez, Edison A; Reyes-García, Casandra; de la Barrera, Erick

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition poses a major threat to global biodiversity. Tropical epiphytic plants are especially at risk given their reliance on atmospheric sources of nutrients. The leaf, pseudobulb, and root carbon and nitrogen content, C:N ratio, as well as the nitrogen isotopic composition were studied for individuals of Laelia speciosa from a city and from an oak forest in Mexico. The nitrogen content of leaves was similar between the city and the oak forest, reaching 1.3 ± 0.2 % (dry mass). The δ(15)N of leaves, pseudobulbs, and roots reached 5.6 ± 0.2 ‰ in the city, values found in sites exposed to industrial and vehicular activities. The δ(15)N for plant from the oak forest amounted to -3.1 ± 0.3 ‰, which is similar to values measured from sites with low industrial activities. Some orchids such as Laelia speciosa produce a single pseudobulb per year, i.e., a water and nutrient storage organ, so the interannual nitrogen deposition was studied by considering the ten most recent pseudobulbs for plants from either site formed between 2003 and 2012. The C:N ratio of the ten most recent pseudobulbs from the oak forest, as well as that of the pseudobulbs formed before 2010 for plants in the city were indistinguishable from each other, averaging 132.4 ± 6.5, while it was lower for the two most recent pseudobulbs in the city. The δ(15)N values of pseudobulbs from the oak forest averaged ‒4.4 ± 0.1 ‰ for the entire series. The δ(15)N ranged from 0.1 ± 1.6 ‰ for the oldest pseudobulb to 4.7 ± 0.2 ‰ for the pseudobulb formed in the city from 2008 onwards. Isotopic analysis and the C:N ratio for L. speciosa revealed that rates of nitrogen deposition were higher in the city than in the forest. The δ(15)N values of series of pseudobulbs showed that it is possible to track nitrogen deposition over multiple years.

  16. Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, now located in the town of Garching north of Munich in Germany, is one of the more than 70 autonomous research institutes of the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. It was founded in 1958 under the direction of Ludwig Biermann as part of the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik und Astrophysik, directed at that time by Werner Heisenberg. In 1979, when the headquarters of t...

  17. Conventional sample enrichment strategies combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis allows analyte identification from a single minuscule Corydalis solida plant tuber.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sonja; Seger, Christoph; Godejohann, Markus; Spraul, Manfred; Stuppner, Hermann

    2007-09-07

    Identification of putative biomarker molecules within the genus Corydalis (Papaveraceae) was pursued by combining conventional off-line sample enrichment with high-performance liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance (HPLC-SPE-NMR) based structure elucidation. Off-line reversed phase solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to enrich the desired analytes from a methanolic extract (93 mg dry weight) of a miniscule single tuber (233 mg dry weight) of C. solida. An aliquot of the SPE fraction (2.1 mg) was subjected to separation in the HPLC-SPE-NMR hyphenation. Chromatographic peaks bearing the metabolites under investigation were trapped in the SPE device in a single experiment and transferred to a 600 MHz NMR spectrometer equipped with a 30 microl cryofit insert fed into a 3 mm cryoprobe. Recorded homo- and heteronuclear 1D and 2D NMR data allowed the identification of the three analytes under investigation as protopine, allocryptopine, and N-methyl-laudanidinium acetate. The latter is a rare alkaloid, which has been isolated only once before.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of MAX Ceramics (MAXCERs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Johnny Carl

    This research has focused on the design and development of novel multifunctional MAX reinforced ceramics (MAXCERs). These MAXCERs were manufactured with 1-50 vol% ratios of ceramics to MAX phases. Chapter II reports on the synthesis and tribological behavior of Ti3SiC2 matrix composites by incorporating (1 and 6 vol%) Al2O3, (1 and 5 vol%) BN, and (1 and 5 vol%) B4C ceramic particulate additives in the matrix. All the composites were fabricated by pressureless sintering by using 1 wt% Ni as a sintering agent at 1550 °C for 2 hours. SEM and XRD studies showed that Al2O3 is relatively inert in the Ti3SiC 2 matrix whereas BN and B4C reacted significantly with the Ti3 SiC2 matrix to form TiB2. Detailed tribological studies showed that Ti3SiC2-1wt%Ni (baseline) samples showed dual type tribological behavior where the friction coefficient (micro) was low ( 0.2) during stage 1, thereafter micro increased sharply and transitioned into stage 2 ( 0.8). The addition of Al2O3 as an additive had little effect on the tribological behavior, but the addition of B4C and BN was able to enhance the tribological behavior by increasing the transition distance (TD). Chapter III reports on the synthesis and tribological behavior of TiB2 matrix composites by incorporating (10, 30, and 50 vol%) Ti3SiC2 ceramic particulate additives in the matrix. The fabrication parameters were similar to the Ti3SiC2 samples from Chapter II. There was minimal reaction between the TiB2 and the Ti3SiC2. Detailed tribological studies showed that TiB2 (baseline) and TiB2-10%Ti 3SiC2 samples showed an average micro of 0.29 and 0.28, respectively. TiB2-30%Ti3SiC2 and TiB 2-50%Ti3SiC2 showed dual-type tribological behavior where micro was low ( 0.25) during stage 1, thereafter micro increased gradually and transitioned into stage 2 ( 0.6). Low wear rates were seen for all samples.

  19. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva medicinal plants collected in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice.

  20. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  1. Intertextuality and Television Discourse: The Max Headroom Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braddlee

    Max Headroom, the computer-generated media personality, presents a good opportunity for an investigation of the degree of intertextuality in television. Max combines narrative genres (science fiction and film noir), television program types (prime-time episodic narrative, made-for-TV movie, talkshows), advertising and programming, and electronic…

  2. Max Weber's Critique of the Bureaucratisation of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Amman

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary, the author discusses the critique by Max Weber and his views on bureaucratisation of education. The modern school, said Max Weber (1864-1920) over a hundred years ago, has as its educational ideal the bureaucrat and no longer the cultivated elite of older times. The shift to modernity and to its characteristic institution, the…

  3. MAX-DOAS measurements of shipping emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert; Burrows, John P.

    2015-04-01

    Air pollution from ships contributes to overall air quality problems and it has direct health effects on the population in particular in coastal regions, and in harbor cities. In order to reduce the emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have tightened the regulations for air pollution. E.g. Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) have been introduced where the sulfur content of marine fuel is limited. Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, up to now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with the new regulations. Furthermore measurements of reactive trace gases in marine environments are in general sparse. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere, www.mesmart.de) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with support of the Helmholtz Research Centre Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Here we present MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 and SO2 carried out from two permanent sites close to the Elbe river (Wedel, Germany) and on the island Neuwerk close to the mouths of Elbe and Weser river since the year 2013. Mixing ratios of both trace gases have been retrieved using different approaches (pure geometric and taking into account the radiative transfer) and compared to in situ observations (see Kattner et al., Monitoring shipping fuel sulfur content regulations with in-situ measurements of shipping emissions). Furthermore, simple approaches have been used to calculate emission factors of NOx and SO2 for single ships.

  4. A Fast Numerical Method for Max-Convolution and the Application to Efficient Max-Product Inference in Bayesian Networks.

    PubMed

    Serang, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Observations depending on sums of random variables are common throughout many fields; however, no efficient solution is currently known for performing max-product inference on these sums of general discrete distributions (max-product inference can be used to obtain maximum a posteriori estimates). The limiting step to max-product inference is the max-convolution problem (sometimes presented in log-transformed form and denoted as "infimal convolution," "min-convolution," or "convolution on the tropical semiring"), for which no O(k log(k)) method is currently known. Presented here is an O(k log(k)) numerical method for estimating the max-convolution of two nonnegative vectors (e.g., two probability mass functions), where k is the length of the larger vector. This numerical max-convolution method is then demonstrated by performing fast max-product inference on a convolution tree, a data structure for performing fast inference given information on the sum of n discrete random variables in O(nk log(nk)log(n)) steps (where each random variable has an arbitrary prior distribution on k contiguous possible states). The numerical max-convolution method can be applied to specialized classes of hidden Markov models to reduce the runtime of computing the Viterbi path from nk(2) to nk log(k), and has potential application to the all-pairs shortest paths problem.

  5. MaxAlign: maximizing usable data in an alignment.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Sackett, Peter W; Pedersen, Anders G

    2007-08-28

    The presence of gaps in an alignment of nucleotide or protein sequences is often an inconvenience for bioinformatical studies. In phylogenetic and other analyses, for instance, gapped columns are often discarded entirely from the alignment. MaxAlign is a program that optimizes the alignment prior to such analyses. Specifically, it maximizes the number of nucleotide (or amino acid) symbols that are present in gap-free columns - the alignment area - by selecting the optimal subset of sequences to exclude from the alignment. MaxAlign can be used prior to phylogenetic and bioinformatical analyses as well as in other situations where this form of alignment improvement is useful. In this work we test MaxAlign's performance in these tasks and compare the accuracy of phylogenetic estimates including and excluding gapped columns from the analysis, with and without processing with MaxAlign. In this paper we also introduce a new simple measure of tree similarity, Normalized Symmetric Similarity (NSS) that we consider useful for comparing tree topologies. We demonstrate how MaxAlign is helpful in detecting misaligned or defective sequences without requiring manual inspection. We also show that it is not advisable to exclude gapped columns from phylogenetic analyses unless MaxAlign is used first. Finally, we find that the sequences removed by MaxAlign from an alignment tend to be those that would otherwise be associated with low phylogenetic accuracy, and that the presence of gaps in any given sequence does not seem to disturb the phylogenetic estimates of other sequences. The MaxAlign web-server is freely available online at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/MaxAlign where supplementary information can also be found. The program is also freely available as a Perl stand-alone package.

  6. Comparison of two extraction methods for the determination of 135 pesticides in Corydalis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Sinensis Radix by liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry. Application to the roots and rhizomes of Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Tong, Ling; Li, Dongxiang; Meng, Wenting; Sun, Wanyang; Zhao, Yunli; Yu, Zhiguo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two simple pretreatment methods were comprehensively evaluated for the determination of 135 pesticide residues in roots and rhizomes of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs). The studied methodologies are (a) solid-phase extraction (SPE) and (b) Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS). For SPE, extraction solvents, SPE cartridges and types and volume of eluent were accessed and optimized. For QuEChERS, different versions, acetic acid concentration and dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) sorbent materials were tested. SPE and QuEChERS were estimated in recovery range, the number of pesticides that were recovered ranging from 90% to 110% and expenses in Corydalis Rhizoma, Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Angelicae Sinensis Radix. QuEChERS method showed better performance than SPE. The method showed good linearity over the range assayed 0.9986-0.9999 (1-80ng/mL for 124 pesticides, 1-50ng/mL for 10 pesticides, 1-20ng/mL for satisfar). The matrix effect was compensated by matrix-based calibration curves with internal standard. The average recoveries of all pesticides were ranging from 70% to 120% at three levels of 10, 50 and 100ng/g with relative standard deviations less than 20%. The limits of quantification of the 135 pesticides in three matrices were 1-5ng/g, which were below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by the European Union. The verified QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of 65 actual samples from eight different types of roots and rhizomes of CHMs. Angelicae Sinensis Radix was the most susceptible to pesticides among these samples, and the most frequently detected pesticide was carbendazim with levels below MRLs. Metalaxyl, phorate, atrazine, diniconazole, coumaphos and paclobutrazol were also detected in some samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. ELA-max: A new topical lidocaine formulation.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ran D

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the role of a new formulation of lidocaine (ELA-max) in local anesthesia in children and compare it with the eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA). Relevant literature was identified by a MEDLINE search (1966-November 2003) using the search terms ELA-max and EMLA. Bibliographies of selected articles were also examined to include all relevant investigations. The product manufacturer was contacted for inclusion of the most recent data available. Topical anesthesia in children is clinically challenging. ELA-max has been shown to be as effective as EMLA for venipuncture in children, but with faster onset. Adverse effects, such as transient blanching with redness and erythema, have been reported. Further investigation is needed to determine the effectiveness of ELA-max on other painful procedures in children, as well as its safety.

  8. 18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER, FOUNDING MEMBER OF THE VEREIN FUER RAUMSCHIFFAHRT (GERMAN SOCIETY FOR SPACE TRAVEL), DRIVES HIS ROCKET CAR IN 1931. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. Troublesome aspects of the Renyi-MaxEnt treatment.

    PubMed

    Plastino, A; Rocca, M C; Pennini, F

    2016-07-01

    We study in great detail the possible existence of a Renyi-associated thermodynamics, with negative results. In particular, we uncover a hidden relation in Renyi's variational problem (MaxEnt). This relation connects the two associated Lagrange multipliers (canonical ensemble) with the mean energy 〈U〉 and the Renyi parameter α. As a consequence of such relation, we obtain anomalous Renyi-MaxEnt thermodynamic results.

  10. Utilities for master source code distribution: MAX and Friends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.

    1988-01-01

    MAX is a program for the manipulation of FORTRAN master source code (MSC). This is a technique by which one maintains one and only one master copy of a FORTRAN program under a program developing system, which for MAX is assumed to be VAX/VMS. The master copy is not intended to be directly compiled. Instead it must be pre-processed by MAX to produce compilable instances. These instances may correspond to different code versions (for example, double precision versus single precision), different machines (for example, IBM, CDC, Cray) or different operating systems (i.e., VAX/VMS versus VAX/UNIX). The advantage os using a master source is more pronounced in complex application programs that are developed and maintained over many years and are to be transported and executed on several computer environments. The version lag problem that plagues many such programs is avoided by this approach. MAX is complemented by several auxiliary programs that perform nonessential functions. The ensemble is collectively known as MAX and Friends. All of these programs, including MAX, are executed as foreign VAX/VMS commands and can easily be hidden in customized VMS command procedures.

  11. The marginal fit of E.max Press and E.max CAD lithium disilicate restorations: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Mounajjed, Radek; M Layton, Danielle; Azar, Basel

    2016-12-01

    This critical review aimed to assess the vertical marginal gap that was present when E.max lithium disilicate-based restoration (Press and CAD) are fabricated in-vitro. Published articles reporting vertical marginal gap measurements of in-vitro restorations that had been fabricated from E.Max lithium disilicate were sought with an electronic search of MEDLINE (PubMed) and hand search of selected dental journals. The outcomes were reviewed qualitatively. The majority of studies that compared the marginal fit of E.max press and E.max CAD restorations, found that the E.max lithium disilicate restorations fabricated with the press technique had significantly smaller marginal gaps than those fabricated with CAD technique. This research indicates that E.max lithium disilicate restorations fabricated with the press technique have measurably smaller marginal gaps when compared with those fabricated with CAD techniques within in-vitro environments. The marginal gaps achieved by the restorations across all groups were within a clinically acceptable range.

  12. Photocatalytic activity against azo dye and cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cell lines of zirconium oxide nanoparticle mediated using leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa.

    PubMed

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Santhakumar, K

    2017-04-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are gaining interest in recent years. The present paper explains about the green synthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO NPs) mediated from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa. The prepared ZrO NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The photocatalytic activity of ZrO NPs was studied for azo dye by exposing to sunlight. The azo dye was degraded up to 94.58%. Also the ZrO NPs were studied for in vitro cytotoxicity activity against breast cancer cell lines-MCF-7 and evaluated by MTT assay. The cell morphological changes were recorded by light microscope. The cells viability was seen at 500μg/mL when compared against control. Hence the research highlights, that the method was simple, eco-friendly towards environment by phytoremediation activity of the azo dye and cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cell lines. Hence the present paper may help to further explore the metal nanoparticle for its potential applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Distribution and abundance of freshwater polychaetes, Manayunkia speciosa (Polychaeta), in the Great Lakes with a 70-year case history for western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Don W.

    2013-01-01

    Manayunkia speciosa has been a taxonomic curiosity for 150 years with little interest until 1977 when it was identified as an intermediate host of a fish parasite (Ceratomyxa shasta) responsible for fish mortalities (e.g., chinook salmon). Manayunkia was first reported in the Great Lakes in 1929. Since its discovery, the taxon has been reported in 50% (20 of 40 studies) of benthos studies published between 1960 and 2007. When found, Manayunkia comprised 2) and Georgian Bay (1790/m2) than in five other areas (mean = 60 to 553/m2) of the lakes. A 70-year history of Manayunkia in western Lake Erie indicates it was not found in 1930, was most abundant in 1961 (mean = 8039, maximum = 67,748/m2), and decreased in successive periods of 1982 (3529, 49,639/m2), 1993 (1876, 25,332/m2), and 2003 (79, 2583/m2). It occurred at 48% of stations in 1961, 58% in 1982, 52% in 1993, and 6% of stations in 2003. In all years, Manayunkia was distributed primarily near the mouth of the Detroit River. Causes for declines in distribution and abundance are unknown, but may be related to pollution-abatement programs that began in the 1970s, and invasion of dreissenid mussels in the late-1980s which contributed to de-eutrophication of western Lake Erie. At present, importance of the long-term decline of Manayunkia in Lake Erie is unknown.

  14. Mitragyna speciosa Leaf Extract Exhibits Antipsychotic-Like Effect with the Potential to Alleviate Positive and Negative Symptoms of Psychosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vijeepallam, Kamini; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Murugan, Dharmani D.; Naidu, Murali

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the antipsychotic-like effect of methanolic extract of Mitragyna speciosa leaf (MMS) using in vivo and ex vivo studies. In vivo studies comprised of apomorphine-induced climbing behavior, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and ketamine-induced social withdrawal tests in mice whereas the ex vivo study was conducted utilizing isolated rat vas deferens preparation. Acute oral administration of MMS (50–500 mg/kg) showed an inverted bell-shaped dose-response in apomorphine-induced cage climbing behavior in mice. The effective inhibitory doses of MMS (75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) obtained from the apomorphine study was further tested on haloperidol (subcataleptic dose; 0.1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced catalepsy in the mouse bar test. MMS (75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly potentiated the haloperidol-induced catalepsy in mice. Interestingly, MMS at the same effective doses (75 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly facilitated the social interaction in ketamine-induced social withdrawal mice. Furthermore, MMS inhibited the dopamine-induced contractile response dose-dependently in the isolated rat vas deferens preparations. In conclusion, this investigation provides first evidence that MMS exhibits antipsychotic-like activity with potential to alleviate positive as well as negative symptoms of psychosis in mice. This study also suggests the antidopaminergic activity of MMS that could be responsible for alleviating positive symptoms of psychosis. PMID:27999544

  15. The Effect of Habitual Smoking on VO2max

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker S.; Randles, Anthony M.; Arenare, Brian; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2008-01-01

    VO2max is associated with many factors, including age, gender, physical activity, and body composition. It is popularly believed that habitual smoking lowers aerobic fitness. PURPOSE: to determine the effect of habitual smoking on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, activity and BMI. METHODS: 2374 men and 375 women employed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER>=1.1), activity by the 11 point (0-10) NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS), BMI and smoking pack-yrs (packs day*y of smoking). Age was recorded in years and gender was coded as M=1, W=0. Pack.y was made a categorical variable consisting of four levels as follows: Never Smoked (0), Light (1-10), Regular (11-20), Heavy (>20). Group differences were verified by ANOVA. A General Linear Models (GLM) was used to develop two models to examine the relationship of smoking behavior on VO2max. GLM #1(without smoking) determined the combined effects of age, gender, PASS and BMI on VO2max. GLM #2 (with smoking) determined the added effects of smoking (pack.y groupings) on VO2max after controlling for age, gender, PASS and BMI. Constant errors (CE) were calculated to compare the accuracy of the two models for estimating the VO2max of the smoking subgroups. RESULTS: ANOVA affirmed the mean VO2max of each pack.y grouping decreased significantly (p<0.01) as the level of smoking exposure increased. GLM #1 showed that age, gender, PASS and BMI were independently related with VO2max (R2 = 0.642, SEE = 4.90, p<0.001). The added pack.y variables in GLM #2 were statistically significant (R2 change = 0.7%, p<0.01). Post hoc analysis showed that compared to Never Smoked, the effects on VO2max from Light and Regular smoking habits were -0.83 and -0.85 ml.kg- 1.min-1 respectively (p<0.05). The effect of Heavy smoking on VO2max was -2.56 ml.kg- 1.min-1 (p<0.001). The CE s of each smoking group in GLM #2 was smaller than the CE s of the smoking group counterparts in GLM #1

  16. Improving CNN Performance Accuracies With Min-Max Objective.

    PubMed

    Shi, Weiwei; Gong, Yihong; Tao, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jinjun; Zheng, Nanning

    2017-06-09

    We propose a novel method for improving performance accuracies of convolutional neural network (CNN) without the need to increase the network complexity. We accomplish the goal by applying the proposed Min-Max objective to a layer below the output layer of a CNN model in the course of training. The Min-Max objective explicitly ensures that the feature maps learned by a CNN model have the minimum within-manifold distance for each object manifold and the maximum between-manifold distances among different object manifolds. The Min-Max objective is general and able to be applied to different CNNs with insignificant increases in computation cost. Moreover, an incremental minibatch training procedure is also proposed in conjunction with the Min-Max objective to enable the handling of large-scale training data. Comprehensive experimental evaluations on several benchmark data sets with both the image classification and face verification tasks reveal that employing the proposed Min-Max objective in the training process can remarkably improve performance accuracies of a CNN model in comparison with the same model trained without using this objective.

  17. Evolution of the Max and Mlx networks in animals.

    PubMed

    McFerrin, Lisa G; Atchley, William R

    2011-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) are essential for the regulation of gene expression and often form emergent complexes to perform vital roles in cellular processes. In this paper, we focus on the parallel Max and Mlx networks of TFs because of their critical involvement in cell cycle regulation, proliferation, growth, metabolism, and apoptosis. A basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZ) domain mediates the competitive protein dimerization and DNA binding among Max and Mlx network members to form a complex system of cell regulation. To understand the importance of these network interactions, we identified the bHLHZ domain of Max and Mlx network proteins across the animal kingdom and carried out several multivariate statistical analyses. The presence and conservation of Max and Mlx network proteins in animal lineages stemming from the divergence of Metazoa indicate that these networks have ancient and essential functions. Phylogenetic analysis of the bHLHZ domain identified clear relationships among protein families with distinct points of radiation and divergence. Multivariate discriminant analysis further isolated specific amino acid changes within the bHLHZ domain that classify proteins, families, and network configurations. These analyses on Max and Mlx network members provide a model for characterizing the evolution of TFs involved in essential networks.

  18. Energy consumption model on WiMAX subscriber station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarakah, N.; Suherman; Al-Hakim, M. Y.; Warman, E.

    2018-02-01

    Mobile communication technologies move toward miniaturization. Mobile device’s energy source relies on its battery endurance. The smaller the mobile device, it is expected the slower the battery drains. Energy consumption reduction in mobile devices has been of interest of researcher. In order to optimize energy consumption, its usage should be predictable. This paper proposes a model of predicted energy amount consumed by the WiMAX subscriber station by using regression analysis of active WiMAX states and their durations. The proposed model was assessed by using NS-2 simulation for more than a hundred thousand of recorded energy consumptions data in every WiMAX states. The assessment show a small average deviation between predicted and measured energy consumptions, about 0.18% for training data and 0.187% and 0.191% for test data.

  19. Toughening Mechanisms in Nanolayered MAX Phase Ceramics—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinhua; Bei, Guoping

    2017-01-01

    Advanced engineering and functional ceramics are sensitive to damage cracks, which delay the wide applications of these materials in various fields. Ceramic composites with enhanced fracture toughness may trigger a paradigm for design and application of the brittle components. This paper reviews the toughening mechanisms for the nanolayered MAX phase ceramics. The main toughening mechanisms for these ternary compounds were controlled by particle toughening, phase-transformation toughening and fiber-reinforced toughening, as well as texture toughening. Based on the various toughening mechanisms in MAX phase, models of SiC particles and fibers toughening Ti3SiC2 are established to predict and explain the toughening mechanisms. The modeling work provides insights and guidance to fabricate MAX phase-related composites with optimized microstructures in order to achieve the desired mechanical properties required for harsh application environments. PMID:28772723

  20. The interactional foundations of MaxEnt: Open questions

    SciTech Connect

    Harré, Michael S., E-mail: michael.harre@sydney.edu.au

    One of the simplest and potentially most useful techniques to be developed in the 20{sup th} century, a century noted for an ever more mathematically sophisticated formulation of the sciences, is that of maximising the entropy of a system in order to generate a descriptive, stochastic model of that system in closed form, often abbreviated to MaxEnt. The extension of MaxEnt to systems beyond the physics from which it originated is hampered by the fact that the microscopic physical interactions that are not justified or justifiable within the MaxEnt framework need to be falsifiably evaluated in each new field ofmore » application. It is not obvious that such justification exists for many systems in which the interactions are not directly based on physics. For example what is the justification for the use of MaxEnt in biology, climate modelling or economics? Is it simply a useful heuristic or is there some deeper connection with the foundations of some systems? Without further critical examination of the microscopic foundations that give rise to the success of the MaxEnt principle it is difficult to motivate the use of such techniques in other fields except through theoretically an practically unsatisfying analogical arguments. This article briefly presents the basis of MaxEnt principles as originally introduced in statistical mechanics in the Jaynes form, the Tsallis form and the Rényi form. Several different applications are introduced including that of ecological diversity where maximising the different diversity measures is equivalent to maximising different entropic functionals.« less

  1. The interactional foundations of MaxEnt: Open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harré, Michael S.

    2014-12-01

    One of the simplest and potentially most useful techniques to be developed in the 20th century, a century noted for an ever more mathematically sophisticated formulation of the sciences, is that of maximising the entropy of a system in order to generate a descriptive, stochastic model of that system in closed form, often abbreviated to MaxEnt. The extension of MaxEnt to systems beyond the physics from which it originated is hampered by the fact that the microscopic physical interactions that are not justified or justifiable within the MaxEnt framework need to be falsifiably evaluated in each new field of application. It is not obvious that such justification exists for many systems in which the interactions are not directly based on physics. For example what is the justification for the use of MaxEnt in biology, climate modelling or economics? Is it simply a useful heuristic or is there some deeper connection with the foundations of some systems? Without further critical examination of the microscopic foundations that give rise to the success of the MaxEnt principle it is difficult to motivate the use of such techniques in other fields except through theoretically an practically unsatisfying analogical arguments. This article briefly presents the basis of MaxEnt principles as originally introduced in statistical mechanics in the Jaynes form, the Tsallis form and the Rényi form. Several different applications are introduced including that of ecological diversity where maximising the different diversity measures is equivalent to maximising different entropic functionals.

  2. 76 FR 20433 - MaxLife Fund Corp.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] MaxLife Fund Corp.; Order of Suspension of... current and accurate information concerning the securities of MaxLife Fund Corp. (``MaxLife'') because of questions that have arisen concerning representations made by MaxLife, the control of its stock, its market...

  3. Beyond NextGen: AutoMax Overview and Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal; Alexandrov, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Main Message: National and Global Needs - Develop scalable airspace operations management system to accommodate increased mobility needs, emerging airspace uses, mix, future demand. Be affordable and economically viable. Sense of Urgency. Saturation (delays), emerging airspace uses, proactive development. Autonomy is Needed for Airspace Operations to Meet Future Needs. Costs, time critical decisions, mobility, scalability, limits of cognitive workload. AutoMax to Accommodate National and Global Needs. Auto: Automation, autonomy, autonomicity for airspace operations. Max: Maximizing performance of the National Airspace System. Interesting Challenges and Path Forward.

  4. Description of immatures and natural history of the weevil Loncophorus pustulatus (Champion, 1903) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae) associated with flowers of Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Bombacoidea: Malvaceae) in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Sergio Antonio; Bená, Daniela de Cassia; Albertoni, Fabiano Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Larva and pupa of Loncophorus pustulatus (Champion, 1903) (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini) are described, illustrated and compared with descriptions of immatures of two other species of Loncophorus. Weevil larvae were found inside aborted flowers on the ground under Ceiba speciosa (A. St.-Hil.) Ravenna (Malvaceae), in the city of Sgo Paulo, State of S5o Paulo, and reared to adults in laboratory. Data obtained in the field and under laboratory conditions are presented. Parasitoidism of weevil larvae by wasps of the genus Catolaccus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is reported.

  5. Genome Sequence of the Paleopolyploid Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report the genome sequence for soybean (Glycine max var. Williams 82), one of the most important crop plants worldwide because of its ability to produce both protein and oil. Soybean is a recently domesticated legume that plays a vital role in crop rotation as it fixes atmospheric nitrogen via s...

  6. Crystallographic evolution of MAX phases in proton irradiating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Joseph; Middleburgh, Simon; Topping, Matthew; Garner, Alistair; Stewart, David; Barsoum, Michel W.; Preuss, Michael; Frankel, Philipp

    2018-04-01

    This work represents the first use of proton irradiation to simulate in-core radiation damage in Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 MAX phases. Irradiation experiments were performed to 0.1 dpa at 350 °C, with a damage rate of 4.57 × 10-6 dpa s-1. The MAX phases displayed significant dimensional instabilities at the crystal level during irradiation leading to large anisotropic changes in lattice parameter, even at low damage levels. The instabilities were accompanied by a decomposition of the Ti-based MAX phases to their binary constituents, TiC. Experimentally observed changes in lattice parameter have been correlated with density functional theory modelling. The most energetically favourable and/or most difficult to recombine defects considered were an M-A antisite ({MA:AM}), and carbon Frenkel ({VC:Ci}). It is proposed that antisite defects, {MA:AM}, are the main contributor to the observed changes in lattice parameter. The proposed mechanism reported in this work potentially enables to design MAX phase compositions, which do not favour antisite defect accumulation. In addition, comparison between the experimental results and theoretical calculations shows that a greater amount of residual damage remains in Ti3AlC2 when compared to Ti3SiC2 after the same irradiation treatment.

  7. Elastic and Mechanical Properties of the MAX Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barsoum, Michel W.; Radovic, Miladin

    2011-08-01

    The more than 60 ternary carbides and nitrides, with the general formula Mn+1AXn—where n = 1, 2, or 3; M is an early transition metal; A is an A-group element (a subset of groups 13-16); and X is C and/or N—represent a new class of layered solids, where Mn+1Xn layers are interleaved with pure A-group element layers. The growing interest in the Mn+1AXn phases lies in their unusual, and sometimes unique, set of properties that can be traced back to their layered nature and the fact that basal dislocations multiply and are mobile at room temperature. Because of their chemical and structural similarities, the MAX phases and their corresponding MX phases share many physical and chemical properties. In this paper we review our current understanding of the elastic and mechanical properties of bulk MAX phases where they differ significantly from their MX counterparts. Elastically the MAX phases are in general quite stiff and elastically isotropic. The MAX phases are relatively soft (2-8 GPa), are most readily machinable, and are damage tolerant. Some of them are also lightweight and resistant to thermal shock, oxidation, fatigue, and creep. In addition, they behave as nonlinear elastic solids, dissipating 25% of the mechanical energy during compressive cycling loading of up to 1 GPa at room temperature. At higher temperatures, they undergo a brittle-to-plastic transition, and their mechanical behavior is a strong function of deformation rate.

  8. 13. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE STEAM TURBINE. 1500 kilowatt (max kw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF WESTINGHOUSE STEAM TURBINE. 1500 kilowatt (max kw 1875). AC Westinghouse generator (1875 KVA, 2400 volts, 450 amps, 3 phase, 60 cycles). - Juniata Shops, Power Plant & Boiler House, East of Fourth Avenue at Second Street, Altoona, Blair County, PA

  9. Min and Max Exponential Extreme Interval Values and Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha; Thomopoulos, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The extreme interval values and statistics (expected value, median, mode, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation) for the smallest (min) and largest (max) values of exponentially distributed variables with parameter ? = 1 are examined for different observation (sample) sizes. An extreme interval value g[subscript a] is defined as a…

  10. ScienceCast 94: Solar Max Double Peaked

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-01

    Something unexpected is happening on the sun. 2013 is supposed to be the year of Solar Max, but solar activity is much lower than expected. At least one leading forecaster expects the sun to rebound with a double-peaked maximum later this year.

  11. Portrait Face-Off: Gilbert Stuart vs. Peter Max

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    When art classes are short and infrequent, it is always a challenge to meet required state and national standards. A unit comparing and contrasting Peter Max's Pop art portraits with the realistic style of Gilbert Stuart's presidential portraits provides an opportunity to address a huge number of these requirements. Focus can change with the age…

  12. Max Weber and the Iron Cage of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maley, Terry

    2004-01-01

    Max Weber is seen by mainstream social scientists as a sociologist, social theorist, and theorist of bureaucracy. In this reassessment of Weber's social science and its methodology, it is suggested that Weber can also be seen as a compelling early 20th-century critic of science and technology. The theme of technology, and Webers ambivalence about…

  13. 19. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER IN AN EARLY STATIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. HISTORIC VIEW OF MAX VALIER IN AN EARLY STATIC TEST. THE ROCKET IS SITTING ON A SCALE. VALIER IS MEASURING THRUST BY ADDING WEIGHT LIKE THE ONE IN HIS RIGHT HAND. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Redstone Rocket (Missile) Test Stand, Dodd Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. Max-E47, a Designed Minimalist Protein that Targets the E-Box DNA Site In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Gang; De Jong, Antonia T.; Shahravan, S. Hesam; Shin, Jumi A.

    2009-01-01

    Max-E47 is a designed hybrid protein comprising the Max DNA-binding basic region and E47 HLH dimerization subdomain. In the yeast one-hybrid system (Y1H), Max-E47 shows strong transcriptional activation from the E-box site, 5'-CACGTG, targeted by the Myc/Max/Mad network of transcription factors; two mutants, Max-E47Y and Max-E47YF, activate more weakly from the E-box in the Y1H. Quantitative fluorescence anisotropy titrations to gain free energies of protein:DNA binding gave low nM Kd values for the native MaxbHLHZ, Max-E47, and the Y and YF mutants binding to the E-box site (14 nM, 15 nM, 9 nM, and 6 nM, respectively), with no detectable binding to a nonspecific control duplex. Because these minimalist, E-box-binding hybrids have no activation domain and no interactions with the c-MycbHLHZ, as shown by the yeast two-hybrid assay, they can potentially serve as dominant-negative inhibitors that suppress activation of E-box-responsive genes targeted by transcription factors including the c-Myc/Max complex. As proof-of-principle, we used our modified Y1H, which allows direct competition between two proteins vying for a DNA target, to show that Max-E47 effectively outcompetes the native MaxbHLHZ for the E-box; weaker competition is observed from the two mutants, consistent with Y1H results. These hybrids provide a minimalist scaffold for further exploration of the relationship between protein structure and DNA-binding function and may have applications as protein therapeutics or biochemical probes capable of targeting the E-box site. PMID:19449889

  15. [Psychiatry as cultural science: considerations following Max Weber].

    PubMed

    Bormuth, M

    2010-11-01

    Psychiatry can be seen as a natural and cultural science. According to this the postulate of freedom is its strong value judgment. Since the times of enlightenment it has been described metaphorically by the myth of the expulsion from Paradise. Following Max Weber and Wilhelm Dilthey, Karl Jaspers has introduced this perspective into psychiatry. His strict dichotomy between explaining and understanding has later been critically revised by Werner Janzarik and Hans Heimann. Their concepts of structure dynamic, of pathography and of anthropology are closer to Max Weber who connected natural and cultural sciences in a much stronger way. Especially the pathographic example of Nietzsche allows to demonstrate the differences between Jaspers and the later psychopathologists of the Heidelberg and Tübingen schools.

  16. Supervisory control of (max,+) automata: extensions towards applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahaye, Sébastien; Komenda, Jan; Boimond, Jean-Louis

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, supervisory control of (max,+) automata is studied. The synthesis of maximally permissive and just-in-time supervisor, as well as the synthesis of minimally permissive and just-after-time supervisor, are proposed. Results are also specialised to non-decreasing solutions, because only such supervisors can be realised in practice. The inherent issue of rationality raised recently is discussed. An illustration of concepts and results is presented through an example of a flexible manufacturing system.

  17. Modelling compensated antiferromagnetic interfaces with MuMax3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Clercq, Jonas; Leliaert, Jonathan; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel

    2017-10-01

    We show how compensated antiferromagnetic interfaces can be implemented in the micromagnetic simulation program MuMax3. We demonstrate that we can model spin flop coupling as a uniaxial anisotropy for small canting angles and how we can take into account the exact energy terms for strong coupling between a ferromagnet and a compensated antiferromagnet. We also investigate athermal training in biaxial antiferromagnets and reproduce the training effect in a polycrystalline IrMn/CoFe bilayer.

  18. Using `min' and `max' functions in calculus teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satianov, Pavel; Dagan, Miriam; Amram, Meirav

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of the min and max functions in teaching calculus to engineering students. Our experience illustrates that such functions have great possibilities in the development of a student's analytical thinking. The types of problems we present here are not common in most instructional texts, which lead us to suggest that the paper will be interesting and useful to calculus lecturers.

  19. Calorimetric Determination of Thermodynamic Stability of MAX and MXene Phases

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, Geetu; Naguib, Michael; Feng, Dawei; ...

    2016-11-19

    MXenes are layered two dimensional materials with exciting properties useful to a wide range of energy applications. They are derived from ceramics (MAX phases) by leaching and their properties reflect their resulting complex compositions which include intercalating cations and anions and water. Their thermodynamic stability is likely linked to these functional groups but has not yet been addressed by quantitative experimental measurements. We report enthalpies of formation from the elements at 25 °C measured using high temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry for a layered Ti-Al-C MAX phase, and the corresponding Ti-C based MXene. The thermodynamic stability of the Ti 3Cmore » 2T x MXene (Tx stands for anionic surface moieties, and intercalated cations) was assessed by calculating the enthalpy of reaction of the MAX phase (ideal composition Ti 3AlC 2) to form MXene, The very exothermic enthalpy of reaction confirms the stability of MXene in an aqueous environment. The surface terminations (O, OH and F) and cations (Li) chemisorbed on the surface and intercalated in the interlayers play a major role in the thermodynamic stabilization of MXene. These findings help to understand and potentially improve properties and performance by characterizing the energetics of species binding to MXene surfaces during synthesis and in energy storage, water desalination and other applications.« less

  20. Mini MAX-DOAS Measurements of Air Pollutants over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staadt, Steffen; Hao, Nan; Trautmann, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study continues the work of Clémer et al., (2010) and is aimed to improve trace gas retrievals with mini MAX-DOAS measurements in Nanjing. Based on that work, aerosol extinction vertical profiles are retrieved using the bePRO inversion algorithm developed by the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA- IASB). Afterwards, the tropospheric trace gas vertical profiles and vertical column densities (VCDs) are retrieved by applying the optimal estimation method to the O4 MAX-DOAS measurements. The Profiles for N O2 , S O2 , glyoxal, formaldehyde and nitrous acid are obtained with different results and different settings for the DOAS measurement. The AODs show small positive correlation against the AERONET values. For NO2, the retrieval shows reasonable concentrations in winter as opposed to summer and has small positive correlations with GOME-2 data. The SO2 VCDs are not correlated with the GOME-2 data, due to high uncertainties from MAX-DOAS and satellite retrievals, while the vertical mixing ratios (VMR) show good agreement with in-situ data (SORPES) at Nanjing. Nitrous acid shows a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer, while glyoxal has its maximum in August and September.

  1. Effects of an alkaloid-rich extract from Mitragyna speciosa leaves and fluoxetine on sleep profiles, EEG spectral frequency and ethanol withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheaha, Dania; Keawpradub, Niwat; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Phukpattaranont, Pimpimol; Kumarnsit, Ekkasit

    2015-10-15

    Many antidepressants are effective in alleviating ethanol withdrawal symptoms. However, most of them suppress rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Thus, development of antidepressants without undesirable side effects would be preferable. Previously, crude alkaloid extract from Mitragyna speciosa (MS) Korth was found to produce antidepressant activities. It was hypothesized that the alkaloid extract from MS may attenuate ethanol withdrawal without REM sleep disturbance. Adult male Wistar rats implanted with electrodes over the frontal and parietal cortices were used for two separated studies. For an acute study, 10 mg/kg fluoxetine or 60 mg/kg alkaloid extract from MS were administered intragastrically. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were recorded for 3 h to examine sleep profiles and EEG fingerprints. Another set of animal was used for an ethanol withdrawal study. They were rendered dependent on ethanol via a modified liquid diet (MLD) containing ethanol ad libitum for 28 days. On day 29, fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or alkaloid extract from MS (60 mg/kg) were administered 15 min before the ethanol-containing MLD was replaced with an isocaloric ethanol-free MLD to induced ethanol withdrawal symptoms. The sleep analysis revealed that alkaloid extract from MS did not change any REM parameters which included average duration of each REM episode, total REM time, number of REM episode and REM latency whereas fluoxetine significantly suppressed all REM parameters and delayed REM latency. However, power spectral analysis revealed similar fingerprints for fluoxetine and alkaloid extract from MS characterized by decreasing powers in the slow frequency range in frontal and parietal cortical EEG. Neither treatment affected spontaneous motor activity. Finally, both alkaloid extract from MS and fluoxetine were found to significantly attenuate ethanol withdrawal-induced hyperexcitability (increases gamma activity) in both cortices and to reduce locomotor activity. The present study

  2. Regulation of drought tolerance by the F-box protein MAX2 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bu, Qingyun; Lv, Tianxiao; Shen, Hui; Luong, Phi; Wang, Jimmy; Wang, Zhenyu; Huang, Zhigang; Xiao, Langtao; Engineer, Cawas; Kim, Tae Houn; Schroeder, Julian I; Huq, Enamul

    2014-01-01

    MAX2 (for MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) has been shown to regulate diverse biological processes, including plant architecture, photomorphogenesis, senescence, and karrikin signaling. Although karrikin is a smoke-derived abiotic signal, a role for MAX2 in abiotic stress response pathways is least investigated. Here, we show that the max2 mutant is strongly hypersensitive to drought stress compared with wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Stomatal closure of max2 was less sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) than that of the wild type. Cuticle thickness of max2 was significantly thinner than that of the wild type. Both of these phenotypes of max2 mutant plants correlate with the increased water loss and drought-sensitive phenotype. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the expression of stress-responsive genes and ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, transport, and signaling genes was impaired in max2 compared with wild-type seedlings in response to drought stress. Double mutant analysis of max2 with the ABA-insensitive mutants abi3 and abi5 indicated that MAX2 may function upstream of these genes. The expression of ABA-regulated genes was enhanced in imbibed max2 seeds. In addition, max2 mutant seedlings were hypersensitive to ABA and osmotic stress, including NaCl, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, ABA, osmotic stress, and drought-sensitive phenotypes were restricted to max2, and the strigolactone biosynthetic pathway mutants max1, max3, and max4 did not display any defects in these responses. Taken together, these results uncover an important role for MAX2 in plant responses to abiotic stress conditions.

  3. 77 FR 20445 - eMax Worldwide, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] eMax Worldwide, Inc.; Order of Suspension of... the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities of eMax Worldwide, Inc.... eMax Worldwide, Inc. has failed to make periodic filings with the Commission and has more than 300...

  4. Augmentative Device Helps Max Speak. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets. PHP-c75

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This Action Information Sheet follows a family's process of selecting and using augmentative and alternative communication to help their young son, Max, speak. Max is affected by global dyspraxia, which makes learning new motor skills--especially speech--quite difficult. For the first years of his life, Max could not say words. Before he and his…

  5. MAX Mutations in Endometrial Cancer: Clinicopathologic Associations and Recurrent MAX p.His28Arg Functional Characterization.

    PubMed

    Walker, Christopher J; Rush, Craig M; Dama, Paola; O'Hern, Matthew J; Cosgrove, Casey M; Gillespie, Jessica L; Zingarelli, Roman A; Smith, Blair; Stein, Maggie E; Mutch, David G; Shakya, Reena; Chang, Chia-Wen; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Song, Jonathan W; Cohn, David E; Goodfellow, Paul J

    2018-05-01

    Genomic studies have revealed that multiple genes are mutated at varying frequency in endometrial cancer (EC); however, the relevance of many of these mutations is poorly understood. An EC-specific recurrent mutation in the MAX transcription factor p.His28Arg was recently discovered. We sought to assess the functional consequences of this hotspot mutation and determine its association with cancer-relevant phenotypes. MAX was sequenced in 509 endometrioid ECs, and associations between mutation status and clinicopathologic features were assessed. EC cell lines stably expressing MAXH28R were established and used for functional experiments. DNA binding was examined using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Transcriptional profiling was performed with microarrays. Murine flank (six to 11 mice per group) and intraperitoneal tumor models were used for in vivo studies. Vascularity of xenografts was assessed by MECA-32 immunohistochemistry. The paracrine pro-angiogenic nature of MAXH28R-expressing EC cells was tested using microfluidic HUVEC sprouting assays and VEGFA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All statistical tests were two-sided. Twenty-two of 509 tumors harbored mutations in MAX, including 12 tumors with the p.His28Arg mutation. Patients with a MAX mutation had statistically significantly reduced recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio = 4.00, 95% confidence interval = 1.15 to 13.91, P = .03). MAXH28R increased affinity for canonical E-box sequences, and MAXH28R-expressing EC cells dramatically altered transcriptional profiles. MAXH28R-derived xenografts statistically significantly increased vascular area compared with MAXWT and empty vector tumors (P = .003 and P = .008, respectively). MAXH28R-expressing EC cells secreted nearly double the levels of VEGFA compared with MAXWT cells (P = .03, .005, and .005 at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively), and conditioned media from MAXH28R cells increased sprouting when applied to

  6. Diffusivity in Alumina Scales Grown on Al-MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, and Cr2AlC are oxidation resistant MAX phase compounds distinguished by the formation of protective Al2O3 scales with well controlled kinetics. A modified Wagner treatment was used to obtain interfacial grain boundary diffusivity, deltaD(sub gb,O,int.), from scale growth rates and corresponding grain size. It is based on the p(O2)(exp -1/6) dependency of the double charged oxygen vacancy and oxygen diffusivity, coupled with the effective diffusion constant for short circuit grain boundary paths. Data from the literature for MAX phases was analyzed accordingly, and deltaD(sub gb,O,int.) was found to nearly coincide with the Arrhenius line developed for Zr-doped FeCrAl, where: deltaD(sub gb,O,int.) = 1.8x10(exp -10) exp(-375 kJ/RT) cubic meters/s. Furthermore, this oxidation relation suggests the more general format applicable to bulk samples under ambient conditions: deltaD(sub gb,O) = 7.567x10(exp -8) exp(-544 kJ/RT) p(O2)(exp -1/6) cubic meters/[s x Pa(exp -1/6)]. Data from many other FeCrAl(X) studies were similarly assessed to show general agreement with the relation for deltaD(sub gb,O,int.). This analysis reinforces the view that protective alumina scales grow by similar mechanisms for these Al-MAX phases and oxidation resistant FeCrAl alloys.

  7. An Analysis of the Max-Min Texture Measure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    PANC 33 D2 Confusion Matrices for Scene A, IR 34 D3 Confusion Matrices for Scene B, PANC 35 D4 Confusion Matrices for Scene B, IR 36 D5 Confusion...Matrices for Scene C, PANC 37 D6 Confusion Matrices for Scene C, IR 38 D7 Confusion Matrices for Scene E, PANC 39 D8 Confusion Matrices for Scene E, IR 40...D9 Confusion Matrices for Scene H, PANC 41 DIO Confusion Matrices for Scene H, JR 42 3 .D 10CnuinMtie o cn ,IR4 AN ANALYSIS OF THE MAX-MIN TEXTURE

  8. Oxidation of Alumina-Forming MAX Phases in Turbine Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James; Garg, Anita; Harder, Bryan; Nesbitt, James; Gabb, Timothy; Gray, SImon

    2017-01-01

    Protective coatings for high temperature turbine components are based on YSZ thermal barriers and oxidation resistant, alumina-forming NiAl or NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC MAX phases are thus of special interest because of good oxidation resistance and CTE that can match Al2O3 and YSZ. Their alumina scales grow according to cubic kinetics due to grain growth in the scale, with initial heating dominated by fast TiO2 growth. Protective cubic kinetics are also found in high pressure burner rig tests of MAXthal 211 Ti2AlC, but with reduced rates due to volatile TiO(OH)2 formation in water vapor. YSZ-coatings on bulk Ti2AlC exhibit remarkable durability up to 1300C in furnace tests and at least a 25x life advantage compared to superalloys. At another extreme, Cr2AlC is resistant to low temperature Na2SO4 hot corrosion and exhibits thermal cycling stability bonded to a superalloy disk material. Accordingly, sputtered Cr2AlC coatings on disk specimens prevented hot corrosion detriments on LCF. Breakaway oxidation (Ti2AlC), scale spallation (Cr2AlC), interdiffusion, and processing as coatings still present serious challenges. However the basic properties of MAX phases provide some unusual opportunities for use in high temperature turbines.

  9. Max dD/Dt: A Novel Parameter to Assess Fetal Cardiac Contractility and a Substitute for Max dP/Dt.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yasuyuki; Kiyokoba, Ryo; Yumoto, Yasuo; Kato, Kiyoko

    2018-07-01

    Aortic pulse waveforms are composed of a forward wave from the heart and a reflection wave from the periphery. We focused on this forward wave and suggested a new parameter, the maximum slope of aortic pulse waveforms (max dD/dt), for fetal cardiac contractility. Max dD/dt was calculated from fetal aortic pulse waveforms recorded with an echo-tracking system. A normal range of max dD/dt was constructed in 105 healthy fetuses using linear regression analysis. Twenty-two fetuses with suspected fetal cardiac dysfunction were divided into normal and decreased max dD/dt groups, and their clinical parameters were compared. Max dD/dt of aortic pulse waveforms increased linearly with advancing gestational age (r = 0.93). The decreased max dD/dt was associated with abnormal cardiotocography findings and short- and long-term prognosis. In conclusion, max dD/dt calculated from the aortic pulse waveforms in fetuses can substitute for max dP/dt, an index of cardiac contractility in adults. Copyright © 2018 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of left ventricular function in anesthetized patients using femoral artery dP/dt(max).

    PubMed

    De Hert, Stefan G; Robert, Dominique; Cromheecke, Stefanie; Michard, Frédéric; Nijs, Jan; Rodrigus, Inez E

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare dP/dt(max) estimated from a femoral artery pressure tracing to left ventricular (LV) dP/dt(max) during various alterations in myocardial loading and contractile function. Seventy patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients were instrumented with a high-fidelity LV catheter, a pulmonary artery catheter, and a femoral arterial catheter. In 40 patients, hemodynamic measurements were performed before and after passive leg raising and before and after calcium administration (5 mg/kg); and in 30 other patients, hemodynamic measurements were performed before and after dobutamine infusion (5 microg/kg/min over 10 minutes). LV and femoral dP/dt(max) were significantly correlated (r = 0.82, p < 0.001), but femoral dP/dt(max) systematically underestimated LV dP/dt(max) (bias = -361 +/- 96 mmHg/s). Passive leg raising induced significant increases in central venous pressure and LV end-diastolic pressure, but femoral dP/dt(max), stroke volume, and LV dP/dt(max) remained unaltered. Calcium administration induced significant and marked increases in LV dP/dt(max) (23% +/- 9%) and femoral dP/dt(max) (37% +/- 14%) associated with a significant increase in stroke volume (9% +/- 2%). Dobutamine infusion also induced significant and marked increases in LV dP/dt(max) (25% +/- 8%) and femoral dP/dt(max) (35% +/- 12%) associated with a significant increase in stroke volume (14% +/- 3%). Overall, a very close linear relationship (r = 0.93) and a good agreement (bias = -5 +/- 17 mmHg/s) were found between changes in LV dP/dt(max) and changes in femoral dP/dt(max). A very close relationship was also observed between changes in LV dP/dt(max) and changes in femoral dP/dt(max) during each intervention (leg raising, calcium administration, and dobutamine infusion). Femoral dP/dt(max) underestimated LV dP/dt(max), but changes in femoral dP/dt(max) accurately reflected changes in LV dP/dt(max) during various interventions.

  11. On the Potential of MAX phases for Nuclear Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallman, Darin Joseph

    Materials within nuclear reactors experience some of the harshest environments currently known to man, including long term operation in extreme temperatures, corrosive media, and fast neutron fluences with up to 100 displacements per atom, dpa. In order to improve the efficiency and safety of current and future reactors, new materials are required to meet these harsh demands. The M n+1AXn phases, a growing family of ternary nano-layered ceramics, possess a desirable combination of metallic and ceramic properties. They are composed of an early transition metal (M), a group 13--16 element (A), and carbon and/or nitrogen (X). The MAX phases are being proposed for use in such extreme environments because of their unique combination of high fracture toughness values and thermal conductivities, machinability, oxidation resistance, and ion irradiation damage tolerance. Previous ion irradiation studies have shown that Ti3SiC2 and Ti3AlC2 resist irradiation damage, maintaining crystallinity up to 50 dpa. The aim of this work was to explore the effect of neutron irradiation, up to 9 dpa and at temperatures of 100 to 1000 °C, on select MAX phases for the first time. The MAX phases Ti3SiC2, Ti 3AlC2, Ti2AlC, and Ti2AlN were synthesized, and irradiated in test reactors that simulate in-pile conditions of nuclear reactors. X-ray diffraction, XRD, pattern refinements of samples revealed a distortion of the crystal lattice after low temperature irradiation, which was not observed after high temperature irradiations. Additionally, the XRD results indicated that Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlN dissociated after relatively low neutron doses. This led us to focus on Ti 3SiC2 and Ti2AlC. For the first time, dislocation loops were observed in Ti3SiC 2 and Ti2AlC as a result of neutron irradiation. At 1 x 1023 loops/m3, the loop density in Ti2 AlC after irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 700°C was 1.5 orders of magnitude greater than that observed in Ti3SiC2, at 3 x 1021 loops/m3. The Ti2AlC composition

  12. NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

  13. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  14. Max Wertheimer, Habilitation candidate at the Frankfurt Psychological Institute.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, Horst

    2014-05-01

    Max Wertheimer told Edwin B. Newman that it was pure chance that on his way to the Rhineland he prematurely got off the train in Frankfurt, and that he did so because he had an inspiration for an experiment that he wanted to perform. Most historians of psychology accept this anecdote, but fail to mention that thereby Wertheimer also mastered the next and decisive step toward his academic career in accomplishing his Habilitation. Exposing the institutional, personal, and intellectual context of Wertheimer's going to Frankfurt and giving a detailed account of the procedure of Habilitation will show that Newman's and similar reports of the episode, even if verbatim to Wertheimer's own telling, are nevertheless too improbable to accept at face value. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. [Max Weber's illness--sociologic aspects of the depressive structure].

    PubMed

    Frommer, J; Frommer, S

    1993-05-01

    Between 1897 and 1902 the economist and sociologist Max Weber from Heidelberg suffered from a severe depressive crisis with multiple recurrences of its symptomatology in the following years. The biographic background of the disease process is examined. Questions regarding the specific diagnosis are discussed. Furthermore, his work shows that Weber was indirectly deeply concerned with the cultural, historical and social background conditions of depressive experience and behavior in the context of his study on Protestantic Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism. Weber's definition of modern society as an iron cage, determined by Occidental Rationalism, shows that this cultural background demands a great amount of role conformity from the individual. Weber's theoretical approach should spark interest in the current psychopathological discussion of the characteristic structural features of a depressed personality.

  16. Elevated carbon dioxide increases salicylic acid in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Clare L; Segal, Lauren M; Niziolek, Olivia K; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2012-12-01

    Concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) are increasing in the atmosphere, affecting soybean (Glycine max L.) phytohormone signaling and herbivore resistance. Whether the impact of elevated CO(2) on phytohormones and induced defenses is a generalized response within this species is an open question. We examined jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) under ambient and elevated CO(2) concentrations with and without Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica Newman) damage and artificial damage across six soybean cultivars (HS93-4118, Pana, IA 3010, Loda, LN97-15076, and Dwight). Elevated CO(2) reduced constitutive levels of JA and related transcripts in some but not all soybean cultivars. In contrast to the variation in JA, constitutive levels of salicylic were increased universally among soybean cultivars grown under elevated CO(2). Variation in hormonal signaling may underpin observed variation in the response of insect herbivores and pathogens to plants grown under elevated CO(2).

  17. Max-margin multiattribute learning with low-rank constraint.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Lin; Li, Baoxin

    2014-07-01

    Attribute learning has attracted a lot of interests in recent years for its advantage of being able to model high-level concepts with a compact set of midlevel attributes. Real-world objects often demand multiple attributes for effective modeling. Most existing methods learn attributes independently without explicitly considering their intrinsic relatedness. In this paper, we propose max margin multiattribute learning with low-rank constraint, which learns a set of attributes simultaneously, using only relative ranking of the attributes for the data. By learning all the attributes simultaneously through low-rank constraint, the proposed method is able to capture their intrinsic correlation for improved learning; by requiring only relative ranking, the method avoids restrictive binary labels of attributes that are often assumed by many existing techniques. The proposed method is evaluated on both synthetic data and real visual data including a challenging video data set. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Alumina-Forming MAX Phases in Turbine Material Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Harder, Bryan J.; Garg, Arnita; Nesbitt, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Coatings for high temperature turbine components are based on low conductivity YSZ thermal barriers and protective NiAl, NiCoCrAlY bond coats. Good oxidation hot corrosion resistance, intermediate CTE, and strain tolerance of Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC MAX phases are thus of special interest. Their alumina scale growth follows a cubic law in accord with FeCrAlY alloys, with oxygen grain boundary diffusivity: Dgb 1.8 x 10-10 exp(-375 kJmole) m3s. Protective cubic kinetics are also found in high pressure burner rig (6 atm., 25 ms) and TGA tests of MAXthal 211Ti2AlC. The initial portion (0.1 hr) is dominated by fast TiO2 growth (with little evidence of scale volatility in high pressure water vapor, as found for SiO2 scales). Bulk Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC substrates show promise as potential bond coats for YSZ TBCs in 1000-1200 C furnace life (500 h) tests. Cr2AlC is proving to be very resistant to 700-900 C Na2SO4 hot corrosion and is of interest for disk alloys. Preliminary diffusion bonded Cr2AlC-superalloy hybrid couples have survived 1000 hr interrupted furnace tests at 800C with no indication of cracking or debonding. Diffusion zones of -NiAl+Cr7C3 were produced in these above 1000 C, but did not grow to any great extent after 1000 hr at 800 C. Processing as coatings presents challenges, however the basic properties of MAX phases provide novel opportunities for high temperature turbine components.

  19. Arpad Gerster and Max Thorek contributions to American surgery.

    PubMed

    Langer, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    The legacy and the influence on American surgery is discussed of two Hungarian born surgeons: Arpad Gerster (1848-1923) and Max Thorek (1880-1960). Both of them were born in Northern Hungary, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, today Slovakia. Gerster got his medical education in Vienna The influence of Theodor Billroth left everlasting impressions in him. In 1874 he arrived in New York and became the first doctor in town who practiced exclusively surgery. He became an attending surgeon in The German Hospital and later at Mount Sinai Hospital. Gerster modernized the hospital's functions and services, introducing the rotation system, and also made the original observation that dissemination of cancer may be caused by surgery. His aseptic methods were revolutionary at the time. Max Thorek arrived in Chicago in 1897. With a fantastic endurance he overwhelmed all barriers and became a doctor. He started his practice in one of Chicago's poor immigrant neighborhoods, but stepwise he could excel and in 1911 he co-founded The American Hospital. His ideas of modernizing surgery became reality. Thorek is one of the first who practiced plastic surgery, and his contribution by writing about surgical errors and safeguards became a great success. He founded the International College of Surgeons, a result of his widespread relations among surgeons all over the world. The parallels in the lives of these great surgeons: solid education, knowledge of languages, talent for music, literature, and arts, creative thinking combined with hard work, good humor, as well as a social conscience led them to make groundbreaking contributions to American and international surgery.

  20. Loss of MAX results in meiotic entry in mouse embryonic and germline stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ayumu; Hirasaki, Masataka; Hishida, Tomoaki; Wu, Jun; Okamura, Daiji; Ueda, Atsushi; Nishimoto, Masazumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Mizuno, Yosuke; Okazaki, Yasushi; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Belmonte, Juan Carlos Izpisua; Okuda, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis is a unique process that allows the generation of reproductive cells. It remains largely unknown how meiosis is initiated in germ cells and why non-germline cells do not undergo meiosis. We previously demonstrated that knockdown of Max expression, a gene encoding a partner of MYC family proteins, strongly activates expression of germ cell-related genes in ESCs. Here we find that complete ablation of Max expression in ESCs results in profound cytological changes reminiscent of cells undergoing meiotic cell division. Furthermore, our analyses uncovers that Max expression is transiently attenuated in germ cells undergoing meiosis in vivo and its forced reduction induces meiosis-like cytological changes in cultured germline stem cells. Mechanistically, Max depletion alterations are, in part, due to impairment of the function of an atypical PRC1 complex (PRC1.6), in which MAX is one of the components. Our data highlight MAX as a new regulator of meiotic onset. PMID:27025988

  1. Apple F-Box Protein MdMAX2 Regulates Plant Photomorphogenesis and Stress Response.

    PubMed

    An, Jian-Ping; Li, Rui; Qu, Feng-Jia; You, Chun-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    MAX2 (MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) is involved in diverse physiological processes, including photomorphogenesis, the abiotic stress response, as well as karrikin and strigolactone signaling-mediated shoot branching. In this study, MdMAX2, an F-box protein that is a homolog of Arabidopsis MAX2, was identified and characterized. Overexpression of MdMAX2 in apple calli enhanced the accumulation of anthocyanin. Ectopic expression of MdMAX2 in Arabidopsis exhibited photomorphogenesis phenotypes, including increased anthocyanin content and decreased hypocotyl length. Further study indicated that MdMAX2 might promote plant photomorphogenesis by affecting the auxin signaling as well as other plant hormones. Transcripts of MdMAX2 were noticeably up-regulated in response to NaCl and Mannitol treatments. Moreover, compared with the wild-type, the MdMAX2 -overexpressing apple calli and Arabidopsis exhibited increased tolerance to salt and drought stresses. Taken together, these results suggest that MdMAX2 plays a positive regulatory role in plant photomorphogenesis and stress response.

  2. Multiple variables explain the variability in the decrement in VO2max during acute hypobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Robergs, R A; Quintana, R; Parker, D L; Frankel, C C

    1998-06-01

    We used multiple regression analyses to determine the relationships between the decrement in sea level (SL, 760 Torr) VO2max during hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and variables that could alter or be related to the decrement in VO2max. HH conditions consisted of 682 Torr, 632 Torr, and 566 Torr, and the measured independent variables were SL-VO2max, SL lactate threshold (SL-LT), the change in hemoglobin saturation at VO2max between 760 and 566 Torr (delta SaO2max), lean body mass (LBM), and gender. Male (N = 14) and female (N = 14) subjects of varied fitness, training status, and residential altitude (1,640-2,460 m) completed cycle ergometry tests of VO2max at each HH condition under randomized and single-blinded conditions. VO2max decreased significantly from 760 Torr after 682 Torr (approximately 915 m) (3.5 +/- 0.9 to 3.4 +/- 0.8 L.min-1, P = 0.0003). Across all HH conditions, the slope of the relative decrement in VO2max (%VO2max) during HH was -9.2%/100 mm Hg (-8.1%/1000 m) with an initial decrease from 100% estimated to occur below 705 Torr (610 m). Step-wise multiple regression revealed that SL-VO2max, SL-LT, delta SaO2max, LBM, and gender each significantly combined to account for 89.03% of the variance in the decrement in VO2max (760-566 Torr) (P < 0.001). Individuals who have a combination of a large SL-VO2max, a small SL-LT (VO2, L.min-1), greater reductions in delta SaO2max, a large LBM, and are male have the greatest decrement in VO2max during HH. The unique variance explanation afforded by SL-LT, LBM, and gender suggests that issues pertaining to oxygen diffusion within skeletal muscle may add to the explanation of between subjects variability in the decrement in VO2max during HH.

  3. Significance of the velocity at VO2max and time to exhaustion at this velocity.

    PubMed

    Billat, L V; Koralsztein, J P

    1996-08-01

    In 1923, Hill and Lupton pointed out that for Hill himself, 'the rate of oxygen intake due to exercise increases as speed increases, reaching a maximum for the speeds beyond about 256 m/min. At this particular speed, for which no further increases in O2 intake can occur, the heart, lungs, circulation, and the diffusion of oxygen to the active muscle-fibres have attained their maximum activity. At higher speeds the requirement of the body for oxygen is far higher but cannot be satisfied, and the oxygen debt continuously increases'. In 1975, this minimal velocity which elicits maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was called 'critical speed' and was used to measure the maximal aerobic capacity (max Eox), i.e. the total oxygen consumed at VO2max. This should not be confused with the term 'critical power' which is closes to the power output at the 'lactate threshold'. In 1984, the term 'velocity at VO2max' and the abbreviation 'vVO2max' was introduced. It was reported that vVO2max is a useful variable that combines VO2max and economy into a single factor which can identify aerobic differences between various runners or categories of runners. vVO2max explained individual differences in performance that VO2max or running economy alone did not. Following that, the concept of a maximal aerobic running velocity (Vamax in m/sec) was formulated. This was a running velocity at which VO2max occurred and was calculated as the ratio between VO2max (ml/kg/min) minus oxygen consumption at rest, and the energy cost of running (ml/kg/sec). There are many ways to determine the velocity associated with VO2max making it difficult to compare maintenance times. In fact, the time to exhaustion (tlim) at vVO2max is reproducible in an individual, however, there is a great variability among individuals with a low coefficient of variation for vVO2max. For an average value of about 6 minutes, the coefficient of variation is about 25%. It seems that the lactate threshold which is correlated with the

  4. NRAO Astronomer Wins Max-Planck Research Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dr. Christopher Carilli, a National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) astronomer in Socorro, New Mexico, has been chosen to receive the prestigious Max Planck Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and the Max Planck Society in Germany. Christopher Carilli Dr. Christopher Carilli Click on image for more photos CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Carilli, a radio astronomer, and German particle physicist Christof Wetterich are the 2005 recipients of the award, conferred on "one researcher working in Germany and one working abroad who have already gained an international reputation and who are expected to produce outstanding achievements in the framework of international collaboration," according to an announcement from the Humboldt Foundation. "This is a great honor for Chris, and we are proud to see him receive such important international recognition for the excellence of his research," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. Carilli's research has focused on studying very distant galaxies in the early Universe, and a quest to find the first luminous objects, such as stars or galaxies, to emerge. His most recent interests focus on unveiling the mysteries of what cosmologists call the "Epoch of Reionization," when the first stars and galaxies ionized the neutral hydrogen that pervaded the young Universe. Carilli and his research colleagues have used NRAO's Very Large Array and other radio telescopes to discover that the molecular raw material for star formation already was present in a galaxy seen as it was about 800 million years after the Big Bang, less than 1/16 the current age of the Universe. The Max Planck Research Award provides 750,000 Euros (currently about $900,000), to be used over five years, for research. The funding is provided by the German Ministry of Education and Research. Carilli will use the funding to support young researchers and to build scientific instrumentation, with a focus on fostering radio studies of cosmic reionization and the first

  5. A Role for MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1) in Evolutionary Diversity in Strigolactone Signaling Upstream of MAX21[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Challis, Richard J.; Hepworth, Jo; Mouchel, Céline; Waites, Richard; Leyser, Ottoline

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are carotenoid-derived phytohormones with diverse roles. They are secreted from roots as attractants for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and have a wide range of endogenous functions, such as regulation of root and shoot system architecture. To date, six genes associated with SL synthesis and signaling have been molecularly identified using the shoot-branching mutants more axillary growth (max) of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and dwarf (d) of rice (Oryza sativa). Here, we present a phylogenetic analysis of the MAX/D genes to clarify the relationships of each gene with its wider family and to allow the correlation of events in the evolution of the genes with the evolution of SL function. Our analysis suggests that the notion of a distinct SL pathway is inappropriate. Instead, there may be a diversity of SL-like compounds, the response to which requires a D14/D14-like protein. This ancestral system could have been refined toward distinct ligand-specific pathways channeled through MAX2, the most downstream known component of SL signaling. MAX2 is tightly conserved among land plants and is more diverged from its nearest sister clade than any other SL-related gene, suggesting a pivotal role in the evolution of SL signaling. By contrast, the evidence suggests much greater flexibility upstream of MAX2. The MAX1 gene is a particularly strong candidate for contributing to diversification of inputs upstream of MAX2. Our functional analysis of the MAX1 family demonstrates the early origin of its catalytic function and both redundancy and functional diversification associated with its duplication in angiosperm lineages. PMID:23424248

  6. The use and misuse of V(c,max) in Earth System Models.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alistair

    2014-02-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) aim to project global change. Central to this aim is the need to accurately model global carbon fluxes. Photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation by the terrestrial biosphere is the largest of these fluxes, and in many ESMs is represented by the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry (FvCB) model of photosynthesis. The maximum rate of carboxylation by the enzyme Rubisco, commonly termed V c,max, is a key parameter in the FvCB model. This study investigated the derivation of the values of V c,max used to represent different plant functional types (PFTs) in ESMs. Four methods for estimating V c,max were identified; (1) an empirical or (2) mechanistic relationship was used to relate V c,max to leaf N content, (3) V c,max was estimated using an approach based on the optimization of photosynthesis and respiration or (4) calibration of a user-defined V c,max to obtain a target model output. Despite representing the same PFTs, the land model components of ESMs were parameterized with a wide range of values for V c,max (-46 to +77% of the PFT mean). In many cases, parameterization was based on limited data sets and poorly defined coefficients that were used to adjust model parameters and set PFT-specific values for V c,max. Examination of the models that linked leaf N mechanistically to V c,max identified potential changes to fixed parameters that collectively would decrease V c,max by 31% in C3 plants and 11% in C4 plants. Plant trait data bases are now available that offer an excellent opportunity for models to update PFT-specific parameters used to estimate V c,max. However, data for parameterizing some PFTs, particularly those in the Tropics and the Arctic are either highly variable or largely absent.

  7. Max Planck and the birth of the quantum hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Based on the functional dependence of entropy on energy, and on Wien's distribution for black-body radiation, Max Planck obtained a formula for this radiation by an interpolation relation that fitted the experimental measurements of thermal radiation at the Physikalisch Technishe Reichanstalt (PTR) in Berlin in the late 19th century. Surprisingly, his purely phenomenological result turned out to be not just an approximation, as would have been expected, but an exact relation. To obtain a physical interpretation for his formula, Planck then turned to Boltzmann's 1877 paper on the statistical interpretation of entropy, which led him to introduce the fundamental concept of energy discreteness into physics. A novel aspect of our account that has been missed in previous historical studies of Planck's discovery is to show that Planck could have found his phenomenological formula partially derived in Boltzmann's paper in terms of a variational parameter. But the dependence of this parameter on temperature is not contained in this paper, and it was first derived by Planck.

  8. Mars Aeronomy Explorer (MAX): Study Employing Distributed Micro-Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shotwell, Robert F.; Gray, Andrew A.; Illsley, Peter M.; Johnson, M.; Sherwood, Robert L.; Vozoff, M.; Ziemer, John K.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of a Mars Aeronomy Explorer (MAX) mission design study performed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is presented herein. The mission design consists of ten micro-spacecraft orbiters launched on a Delta IV to Mars polar orbit to determine the spatial, diurnal and seasonal variation of the constituents of the Martian upper atmosphere and ionosphere over the course of one Martian year. The spacecraft are designed to allow penetration of the upper atmosphere to at least 90 km. This property coupled with orbit precession will yield knowledge of the nature of the solar wind interaction with Mars, the influence of the Mars crustal magnetic field on ionospheric processes, and the measurement of present thermal and nonthermal escape rates of atmospheric constituents. The mission design incorporates alternative design paradigms that are more appropriate for-and in some cases motivate-distributed micro-spacecraft. These design paradigms are not defined by a simple set of rules, but rather a way of thinking about the function of instruments, mission reliability/risk, and cost in a systemic framework.

  9. Tagging Efficiency for Nuclear Physics Measurements at MAX-lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Nevin; Elofson, David; Lewis, Codie; O'Brien, Erin; Buggelli, Kelsey; O'Connor, Kyle; O'Rielly, Grant; Maxtagg Team

    2014-09-01

    A careful study of the tagging efficiency during measurements of near threshold pion photoproduction and high energy Compton scattering has been performed. These experiments are being done at the MAX-lab tagged photon Facility during the June 2014 run period. The determination of the final results from these experiments depends on knowledge of the incident photon flux. The tagging efficiency is a critical part of the photon flux calculation. In addition to daily measurements of the tagging efficiency, a beam monitor was used during the production data runs to monitor the relative tagging efficiency. Two trigger types were used in the daily measurements; one was a logical OR from the tagger array and the other was from the Pb-glass photon detector. Investigations were made to explore the effect of the different trigger conditions and the differences between single and multi hit TDCs on the tagging efficiency. In addition the time evolution and overall uncertainty in the tagging efficiency for each tagger channel was determined. The results will be discussed.

  10. Max Weber or Jesus Christ: in whose image?

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, A M; Gaylor, C C

    1985-10-01

    The bureaucratic model of organization and the model that emerges from the Gospel and Vatican Council II provide a stark contrast for Catholic health care administrators to ponder. As articulated by sociologist Max Weber, a bureaucracy is based on a hierarchical structure with sharply defined and protected levels of authority, centralized decision making, rules that govern personnel behavior, and an impersonalized view of employees that stresses their roles as functionaries. The Christian, Gospel-based model, on the other hand, places a premium on collegiality, shared authority, the mediation of conscience, the common good, and the work of the individual. Even though only a few will shape management policy in a large hospital, policymaking should be viewed as a service, a ministry that entails stewardship. Catholic health care leaders should reflect the spirit of collegiality by bringing various strata of staff together in a dynamic, united effort. Thus the institution's statement of mission will not be an abstract recitation of pieties but a living reality, a philosophy that is "owned" by the workers.

  11. MAX - An advanced parallel computer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Blair F.; Bunker, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    MAX is a fault-tolerant multicomputer hardware and software architecture designed to meet the needs of NASA spacecraft systems. It consists of conventional computing modules (computers) connected via a dual network topology. One network is used to transfer data among the computers and between computers and I/O devices. This network's topology is arbitrary. The second network operates as a broadcast medium for operating system synchronization messages and supports the operating system's Byzantine resilience. A fully distributed operating system supports multitasking in an asynchronous event and data driven environment. A large grain dataflow paradigm is used to coordinate the multitasking and provide easy control of concurrency. It is the basis of the system's fault tolerance and allows both static and dynamical location of tasks. Redundant execution of tasks with software voting of results may be specified for critical tasks. The dataflow paradigm also supports simplified software design, test and maintenance. A unique feature is a method for reliably patching code in an executing dataflow application.

  12. Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

  13. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  14. Exome sequencing identifies MAX mutations as a cause of hereditary pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Gracia-Aznárez, Francisco J; Schiavi, Francesca; Landa, Iñigo; Leandro-García, Luis J; Letón, Rocío; Honrado, Emiliano; Ramos-Medina, Rocío; Caronia, Daniela; Pita, Guillermo; Gómez-Graña, Alvaro; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Taschin, Elisa; Bobisse, Sara; Pica, Giuseppe; Loli, Paola; Hernández-Lavado, Rafael; Díaz, José A; Gómez-Morales, Mercedes; González-Neira, Anna; Roncador, Giovanna; Rodríguez-Antona, Cristina; Benítez, Javier; Mannelli, Massimo; Opocher, Giuseppe; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2011-06-19

    Hereditary pheochromocytoma (PCC) is often caused by germline mutations in one of nine susceptibility genes described to date, but there are familial cases without mutations in these known genes. We sequenced the exomes of three unrelated individuals with hereditary PCC (cases) and identified mutations in MAX, the MYC associated factor X gene. Absence of MAX protein in the tumors and loss of heterozygosity caused by uniparental disomy supported the involvement of MAX alterations in the disease. A follow-up study of a selected series of 59 cases with PCC identified five additional MAX mutations and suggested an association with malignant outcome and preferential paternal transmission of MAX mutations. The involvement of the MYC-MAX-MXD1 network in the development and progression of neural crest cell tumors is further supported by the lack of functional MAX in rat PCC (PC12) cells and by the amplification of MYCN in neuroblastoma and suggests that loss of MAX function is correlated with metastatic potential.

  15. Pathological and Genetic Characterization of Bilateral Adrenomedullary Hyperplasia in a Patient with Germline MAX Mutation.

    PubMed

    Romanet, Pauline; Guerin, Carole; Pedini, Pascal; Essamet, Wassim; Castinetti, Frédéric; Sebag, Fréderic; Roche, Philippe; Cascon, Alberto; Tischler, Arthur S; Pacak, Karel; Barlier, Anne; Taïeb, David

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, familial pheochromocytoma (PHEO) with germline mutations in the MAX (MYC associated factor X) gene has been reported in a few cases. Here, we investigated a 25-year-old patient with multiple PHEOs associated with a non-sense germline MAX mutation. Preoperative 18 F-FDOPA PET/CT revealed bilateral adrenal involvement with multiple tumors. In addition, both adrenal glands were found to have diffuse or nodular adrenal medullary hyperplasia (AMH), a histopathological feature previously described as a precursor of MEN2- and SDHB-related PHEOs but not MAX. After bilateral adrenalectomy, different paraffin-embedded and frozen samples were analyzed for allelic imbalances of the MAX gene using allelic quantification by pyrosequencing. The expression of the protein MAX was studied by immunohistochemistry. All PHEOs but also nodular AMH exhibited a loss of the normal allele. By contrast, the diffuse AMH did not show loss-of-heterozygosity. Nevertheless, immunohistochemistry demonstrated loss of protein MAX expression in all samples including diffuse hyperplasia, suggesting a causative role of MAX mutation for both PHEOs and AMH. The present case shows that both nodular and diffuse AMH belongs to the spectrum of MAX-related disease. These data support the possible continuum between nodular AMH and PHEO, expanding the qualification of micro-PHEO to nodular AMH.

  16. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Glycine max and Capsicum annuum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Capsicum annuum or Glycine max was suppressed when infective juveniles (J2) were exposed to 0.03 millimolar benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) for 2hr prior to inoculation of the host. Infectivity assessed by gall index was significantly reduced on both G. max (co...

  17. Submaximal Treadmill Exercise Test to Predict VO[subscript 2]max in Fit Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.; Fellingham, Gilbert W.; Plowman, Sharon A.; Dustman-Allen, Kymberli

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a single-stage submaximal treadmill jogging (TMJ) test to predict VO[subscript 2]max in fit adults. Participants (N = 400; men = 250 and women = 150), ages 18 to 40 years, successfully completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) at 1 of 3 laboratories to determine VO[subscript 2]max. The TMJ test was completed…

  18. Effect of Toe Clips During Bicycle Ergometry on VO2 max.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Roger S.; Sparling, Phillip B.

    1985-01-01

    Eight men participated in three randomized maximal oxygen uptake tests to investigate the hypothesis that the use of toe clips on bicycle ergometers produced a higher VO2 max. No significant difference in mean VO2 max or performance time was observed. (Author/MT)

  19. MaxSynBio - Avenues towards creating cells from the bottom up.

    PubMed

    Schwille, Petra; Spatz, Joachim; Landfester, Katharina; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Herminghaus, Stephan; Sourjik, Victor; Erb, Tobias; Bastiaens, Philippe; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Hyman, Anthony; Dabrock, Peter; Baret, Jean-Christophe; Vidakovic-Koch, Tanja; Bieling, Peter; Dimova, Rumiana; Mutschler, Hannes; Robinson, Tom; Tang, Dora; Wegner, Seraphine; Sundmacher, Kai

    2018-05-11

    A large Max Planck-based German research consortium ('MaxSynBio') was formed to investigate living systems from a fundamental perspective. The research program of MaxSynBio relies solely on the bottom-up approach to Synthetic Biology. MaxSynBio focuses on the detailed analysis and understanding of essential processes of life, via their modular reconstitution in minimal synthetic systems. The ultimate goal is to construct a basic living unit entirely from non-living components. The fundamental insights gained from the activities in MaxSynBio can eventually be utilized for establishing a new generation of biotechnological processes, which would be based on synthetic cell constructs that replace natural cells currently used in conventional biotechnology. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Improvements of ModalMax High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.

    2005-01-01

    ModalMax audio speakers have been enhanced by innovative means of tailoring the vibration response of thin piezoelectric plates to produce a high-fidelity audio response. The ModalMax audio speakers are 1 mm in thickness. The device completely supplants the need to have a separate driver and speaker cone. ModalMax speakers can perform the same applications of cone speakers, but unlike cone speakers, ModalMax speakers can function in harsh environments such as high humidity or extreme wetness. New design features allow the speakers to be completely submersed in salt water, making them well suited for maritime applications. The sound produced from the ModalMax audio speakers has sound spatial resolution that is readily discernable for headset users.

  1. The BALDER Beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klementiev, K.; Norén, K.; Carlson, S.; Sigfridsson Clauss, K. G. V.; Persson, I.

    2016-05-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) includes well-established methods to study the local structure around the absorbing element - extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and the effective oxidation number or to quantitatively determine the speciation of an element in a complex matrix - X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The increased brilliance and intensities available at the new generation of synchrotron light sources makes it possible to study, in-situ and in-operando, much more dilute systems with relevance for natural systems, as well as the micro-scale variability and dynamics of chemical reactions on the millisecond time-scale. The design of the BALDER beamline at the MAX IV Laboratory 3 GeV ring has focused on a high flux of photons in a wide energy range, 2.4-40 keV, where the K-edge is covered for the elements S to La, and the L 3-edge for all elements heavier than Sb. The overall design of the beamline will allow large flexibility in energy range, beam size and data collection time. The other focus of the beamline design is the possibility to perform multi-technique analyses on samples. Development of sample environment requires focus on implementation of auxiliary methods in such a way that techniques like Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, UV-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and/or mass spectrometry can be performed simultaneously as the XAS study. It will be a flexible system where different instruments can be plugged in and out depending on the needs for the particular investigation. Many research areas will benefit from the properties of the wiggler based light source and the capabilities to perform in-situ and in-operando measurements, for example environmental and geochemical sciences, nuclear chemistry, catalysis, materials sciences, and cultural heritage.

  2. Unusual Oxidative Limitations for Al-MAX Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2017-01-01

    Alumina-forming MAX phases are well-known for their excellent oxidation resistance, rivaling many metallic NiAl, NiCrAl, and FeCrAl counterparts and with upper temperature capability possible to approximately1400C. However a number of limitations have been emerging that need to be acknowledged to permit robust performance in demanding applications. Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 possess excellent scale adhesion, cyclic oxidation/moisture/volatility resistance, and TBC compatibility. However they are very sensitive to Al content and flux in order to maintain an exclusive Al2O3 scale without runaway oxidation of ubiquitous TiO2 transient scales. Accelerated oxidation has been shown to occur for Al-depleted, damaged, or roughened surfaces at temperatures less than 1200C. Conversely, Cr2AlC is less sensitive to transients, but exhibits volatile losses at 1200C or above if common Cr7C3 impurity phases are present. Poor scale adhesion is exhibited after oxidation at 1150C or above, where spallation occurs at the Cr7C3 (depletion zone) interface. Delayed spallation is significant and suggests a moisture-induced phenomenon similar to non-adherent metallic systems. Re-oxidation of this surface does not reproduce the initial pure Al2O3 behavior, but initiates a less-protective scale. Cr2AlC has also been shown to have good long term bonding with superalloys at 800C, but exhibits significant Beta-NiAl + Cr7C3 diffusion zones at 1100C and above. This may set limits on Cr2AlC as a high temperature TBC bond coat on Ni-based superalloys, while improving corrosion resistance in lower temperature applications.

  3. Influence of acute moderate hypoxia on time to exhaustion at vVO2max in unacclimatized runners.

    PubMed

    Billat, V L; Lepretre, P M; Heubert, R P; Koralsztein, J P; Gazeau, F P

    2003-01-01

    Eight unacclimatized long-distance runners performed, on a level treadmill, an incremental test to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and the minimal velocity eliciting VO2max (vVO2max) in normoxia (N) and acute moderate hypoxia (H) corresponding to an altitude of 2,400 m (PIO 2 of 109 mmHg). Afterwards, on separate days, they performed two all-out constant velocity runs at vO2 max in a random order (one in N and the other in H). The decrease in VO2max between N and H showed a great degree of variability amongst subjects as VO2max decreased by 8.9 +/- 4 ml x min(-1) x kg)(-1) in H vs. N conditions (-15.3 +/- 6.3 % with a range from -7.9 % to -23.8 %). This decrease in VO2max was proportional to the value of VO2max (VO2max vs. delta VO2max N-H, r = 0.75, p = 0.03). The time run at vVO2max was not affected by hypoxia (483 +/- 122 vs. 506 +/- 148 s, in N and H, respectively, p = 0.37). However, the greater the decrease in vVO2max during hypoxia, the greater the runners increased their time to exhaustion at vVO2max (vVO2max N-H vs. tlim @vVO2max N-H, r = -0.75, p = 0.03). In conclusion, this study showed that there was a positive association between the extent of decrease in vVO2max, and the increase in run time at vVO2max in hypoxia.

  4. Following “the Roots” of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon. PMID:26640804

  5. Antibiofilm efficacy of green synthesized graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite using Lagerstroemia speciosa floral extract: A comparative study on inhibition of gram-positive and gram-negative biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Shatavari; Qayyum, Shariq; Khan, Asad U

    2017-02-01

    Biofilm architecture provides bacteria with enhanced antibiotic resistance, thus raising the need to search for alternative therapies that can inhibit the bacterial colonization. In the present study, we synthesized graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite (GO-Ag) by non-toxic and eco-friendly route using a floral extract of Legistromia speciosa (L.) Pers. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of plant extract revealed the presence of compounds which can simultaneously act as reducing and capping agents. The sub-inhibitory concentrations of synthesized GO-Ag reduced the biofilm formation in both gram-negative (E. cloacae) and gram-positive (S. mutans) bacterial models. Growth curve assay, membrane integrity assay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) revealed different mechanisms of biofilm inhibition in E. cloacae and S. mutans. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) results suggested GO-Ag is acting on S. mutans biofilm formation cascade. Biofilm inhibitory concentrations GO-Ag were also found to be non-toxic against HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney cell line). The whole study highlights the therapeutic potential of GO-Ag to restrain the onset of biofilm formation in bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Following "the Roots" of Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): The Evolution of an Enhancer from a Traditional Use to Increase Work and Productivity in Southeast Asia to a Recreational Psychoactive Drug in Western Countries.

    PubMed

    Cinosi, Eduardo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Simonato, Pierluigi; Singh, Darshan; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Roman-Urrestarazu, Andres; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Vicknasingam, Balasingam; Piazzon, Giulia; Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Farkas, Judit; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    The use of substances to enhance human abilities is a constant and cross-cultural feature in the evolution of humanity. Although much has changed over time, the availability on the Internet, often supported by misleading marketing strategies, has made their use even more likely and risky. This paper will explore the case of Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (kratom), a tropical tree used traditionally to combat fatigue and improve work productivity among farm populations in Southeast Asia, which has recently become popular as novel psychoactive substance in Western countries. Specifically, it (i) reviews the state of the art on kratom pharmacology and identification; (ii) provides a comprehensive overview of kratom use cross-culturally; (iii) explores the subjective experiences of users; (iv) identifies potential risks and side-effects related to its consumption. Finally, it concludes that the use of kratom is not negligible, especially for self-medication, and more clinical, pharmacological, and socioanthropological studies as well as a better international collaboration are needed to tackle this marginally explored phenomenon.

  7. MAX mutations status in Swedish patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma tumours.

    PubMed

    Crona, Joakim; Maharjan, Rajani; Delgado Verdugo, Alberto; Stålberg, Peter; Granberg, Dan; Hellman, Per; Björklund, Peyman

    2014-03-01

    Pheochromocytoma (PCC) and Paraganglioma are rare tumours originating from neuroendocrine cells. Up to 60% of cases have either germline or somatic mutation in one of eleven described susceptibility loci, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, SDHAF2, VHL, EPAS1, RET, NF1, TMEM127 and MYC associated factor-X (MAX). Recently, germline mutations in MAX were found to confer susceptibility to PCC and paraganglioma (PGL). A subsequent multicentre study found about 1% of PCCs and PGLs to have germline or somatic mutations in MAX. However, there has been no study investigating the frequency of MAX mutations in a Scandinavian cohort. We analysed tumour specimens from 63 patients with PCC and PGL treated at Uppsala University hospital, Sweden, for re-sequencing of MAX using automated Sanger sequencing. Our results show that 0% (0/63) of tumours had mutations in MAX. Allele frequencies of known single nucleotide polymorphisms rs4902359, rs45440292, rs1957948 and rs1957949 corresponded to those available in the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Database. We conclude that MAX mutations remain unusual events and targeted genetic screening should be considered after more common genetic events have been excluded.

  8. VO2 responses to intermittent swimming sets at velocity associated with VO2max.

    PubMed

    Libicz, Sebastien; Roels, Belle; Millet, Gregoire P

    2005-10-01

    While the physiological adaptations following endurance training are relatively well understood, in swimming there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the metabolic responses to interval training (IT). The hypothesis tested predicted that two different endurance swimming IT sets would induce differences in the total time the subjects swam at a high percentage of maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2)max). Ten trained triathletes underwent an incremental test to exhaustion in swimming so that the swimming velocity associated with VO(2)max (vVO(2)max) could be determined. This was followed by a maximal 400-m test and two intermittent sets at vVO(2)max: (a) 16 x 50 m with 15-s rest (IT(50)); (b) 8 x 100 m with 30-s rest (IT(100)). The times sustained above 95% VO(2)max (68.50 +/- 62.69 vs. 145.01 +/- 165.91 sec) and 95% HRmax (146.67 +/- 131.99 vs. 169.78 +/- 203.45 sec, p = 0.54) did not differ between IT(50) and IT(100)(values are mean +/- SD). In conclusion, swimming IT sets of equal time duration at vVO(2)max but of differing work-interval durations led to slightly different VO(2)and HR responses. The time spent above 95% of VO(2)max was twice as long in IT(100) as in IT (50), and a large variability between mean VO(2)and HR values was also observed.

  9. Inverse relationship between VO2max and economy/efficiency in world-class cyclists.

    PubMed

    Lucía, Alejandro; Hoyos, Jesus; Pérez, Margarita; Santalla, Alfredo; Chicharro, José L

    2002-12-01

    To determine the relationship that exists between VO2max and cycling economy/efficiency during intense, submaximal exercise in world-class road professional cyclists. METHODS Each of 11 male cyclists (26+/-1 yr (mean +/- SEM); VO2max: 72.0 +/- 1.8 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed: 1) a ramp test for O2max determination and 2) a constant-load test of 20-min duration at the power output eliciting 80% of subjects' VO2max during the previous ramp test (mean power output of 385 +/- 7 W). Cycling economy (CE) and gross mechanical efficiency (GE) were calculated during the constant-load tests. CE and GE averaged 85.2 +/- 2.3 W x L(-1) x min(-1) and 24.5 +/- 0.7%, respectively. An inverse, significant correlation was found between 1) VO2max (mL x kg(-0.32) x min(-1)) and both CE (r = -0.71; P = 0.01) and GE (-0.72; P = 0.01), and 2) VO2max (mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and both CE (r = -0.65; P = 0.03) and GE (-0.64; P = 0.03). A high CE/GE seems to compensate for a relatively low VO2max in professional cyclists.

  10. Time to Exhaustion at the VO2max Velocity in Swimming: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Ricardo J.; Vilas-Boas, J. Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a review on the time to exhaustion at the minimum swimming velocity corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption (TLim-vVO2max). This parameter is critical both for the aerobic power and the lactate tolerance bioenergetical training intensity zones, being fundamental to characterize it, and to point out its main determinants. The few number of studies conducted in this topic observed that swimmers were able to maintain an exercise intensity corresponding to maximal aerobic power during 215 to 260 s (elite swimmers), 230 to 260 s (high level swimmers) and 310 to 325 s (low level swimmers), and no differences between genders were reported. TLim-vVO2max main bioenergetic and functional determinants were swimming economy and VO2 slow component (direct relationship), and vVO2max, velocity at anaerobic threshold and blood lactate production (inverse relationship); when more homogeneous groups of swimmers were analysed, the inverse correlation value between TLim-vVO2max and vVO2max was not so evident. In general, TLim-vVO2max was not related to VO2max. TLim-vVO2max seems also to be influenced by stroking parameters, with a direct relationship to stroke length and stroke index, and an inverse correlation with stroke rate. Assessing TLim-vVO2max, together with the anaerobic threshold and the biomechanical general parameters, will allow a larger spectrum of testing protocols application, helping to build more objective and efficient training programs. PMID:23486651

  11. Evidence of cardiac functional reserve upon exhaustion during incremental exercise to determine VO2max.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Adrian D; Skowno, Justin; Prabhu, Mahesh; Noakes, Timothy David; Ansley, Les

    2015-01-01

    There remains considerable debate regarding the limiting factor(s) for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Previous studies have shown that the central circulation may be the primary limiting factor for VO2max and that cardiac work increases beyond VO2max. We sought to evaluate whether the work of the heart limits VO2max during upright incremental cycle exercise to exhaustion. Eight trained men completed two incremental exercise trials, each terminating with exercise at two different rates of work eliciting VO2max (MAX and SUPRAMAX). During each exercise trial we continuously recorded cardiac output using pulse-contour analysis calibrated with a lithium dilution method. Intra-arterial pressure was recorded from the radial artery while pulmonary gas exchange was measured continuously for an assessment of oxygen uptake. The workload during SUPRAMAX (mean±SD: 346.5±43.2 W) was 10% greater than that achieved during MAX (315±39.3 W). There was no significant difference between MAX and SUPRAMAX for Q (28.7 vs 29.4 L/min) or VO2 (4.3 vs 4.3 L/min). Mean arterial pressure was significantly higher during SUPRAMAX, corresponding to a higher cardiac power output (8.1 vs 8.5 W; p<0.06). Despite similar VO2 and Q, the greater cardiac work during SUPRAMAX supports the view that the heart is working submaximally at exhaustion during an incremental exercise test (MAX). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Max Graf's "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud" revisited: new evidence from the Freud archives.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2007-01-01

    Recently derestricted Freud Archive interviews with Max and Herbert Graf and Herbert's wife shed new light on Max Graf's article, "Reminiscences of Professor Sigmund Freud," published in The Psychoanalytic Quarterly in 1942. To explain discrepancies between the interviews and the earlier article, the author postulates that, in the article, Max Graf purposely distorted or omitted certain details in order not to reveal Herbert's identity as "Little Hans" (Freud 1909). The interviews place incidents reported in the article in a new and more complex light, and also underscore the intensely personal nature of the intellectual development of the psychoanalytic movement.

  13. Max '91 Workshop 2: Developments in Observations and Theory for Solar Cycle 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, Robert M. (Editor); Dennis, Brian R. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Papers and observatory reports presented at the second workshop of the Max '91 program are compiled along with discussion group summaries and invited reviews. The four discussion groups addressed the following subjects: high-energy flare physics; coordinated magnetograph observations; flare theory and modeling; and Max '91 communications and coordination. A special session also took place on observations of Active Region 5395 and the associated flares of March 1989. Other topics covered during the workshop include the scientific objectives of solar gamma ray observations, the solar capabilities of each of the four instruments on the Gamma Ray Observatory, and access to Max '91 information.

  14. Max Kreuzer's contributions to the study of Calabi-Yau manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candelas, Philip

    2013-10-01

    Any account of Max's career in physics must be bound up with the history of the study of Calabi-Yau manifolds, to which Max contributed at many levels. There were many currents in this study and work was not done in isolation. Work often advances through a series of challenges, and in reaction to other work. Insofar as I have myself been involved in some of these researches it is inevitable that I will have to recall some of these projects that were, at times, inextricably linked with Max's work. For this deficiency of the account let me make this single apology...

  15. Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V02max) and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During and After Long Duration ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Alan; Evetts, Simon; Feiveson, Alan; Lee, Stuart; McCleary, Frank; Platts, Steven

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program Integrated Research Plan (HRP-47065) serves as a road-map identifying critically needed information for future space flight operations (Lunar, Martian). VO2max (often termed aerobic capacity) reflects the maximum rate at which oxygen can be taken up and utilized by the body during exercise. Lack of in-flight and immediate postflight VO2max measurements was one area identified as a concern. The risk associated with not knowing this information is: Unnecessary Operational Limitations due to Inaccurate Assessment of Cardiovascular Performance (HRP-47065).

  16. Regulation of Drought Tolerance by the F-Box Protein MAX2 in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Qingyun; Lv, Tianxiao; Shen, Hui; Luong, Phi; Wang, Jimmy; Wang, Zhenyu; Huang, Zhigang; Xiao, Langtao; Engineer, Cawas; Kim, Tae Houn; Schroeder, Julian I.; Huq, Enamul

    2014-01-01

    MAX2 (for MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2) has been shown to regulate diverse biological processes, including plant architecture, photomorphogenesis, senescence, and karrikin signaling. Although karrikin is a smoke-derived abiotic signal, a role for MAX2 in abiotic stress response pathways is least investigated. Here, we show that the max2 mutant is strongly hypersensitive to drought stress compared with wild-type Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Stomatal closure of max2 was less sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) than that of the wild type. Cuticle thickness of max2 was significantly thinner than that of the wild type. Both of these phenotypes of max2 mutant plants correlate with the increased water loss and drought-sensitive phenotype. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that the expression of stress-responsive genes and ABA biosynthesis, catabolism, transport, and signaling genes was impaired in max2 compared with wild-type seedlings in response to drought stress. Double mutant analysis of max2 with the ABA-insensitive mutants abi3 and abi5 indicated that MAX2 may function upstream of these genes. The expression of ABA-regulated genes was enhanced in imbibed max2 seeds. In addition, max2 mutant seedlings were hypersensitive to ABA and osmotic stress, including NaCl, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, ABA, osmotic stress, and drought-sensitive phenotypes were restricted to max2, and the strigolactone biosynthetic pathway mutants max1, max3, and max4 did not display any defects in these responses. Taken together, these results uncover an important role for MAX2 in plant responses to abiotic stress conditions. PMID:24198318

  17. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA) enzyme...

  18. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA) enzyme...

  19. Based new WiMax simulation model to investigate Qos with OPNET modeler in sheduling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Sanju; Saini, K. K.

    2012-11-01

    WiMAX stands for World Interoperability for Microwave Access. It is considered a major part of broadband wireless network having the IEEE 802.16 standard. WiMAX provides innovative, fixed as well as mobile platforms for broadband internet access anywhere anytime with different transmission modes. The results show approximately equal load and throughput while the delay values vary among the different Base Stations Introducing the various type of scheduling algorithm, like FIFO,PQ,WFQ, for comparison of four type of scheduling service, with its own QoS needs and also introducing OPNET modeler support for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) network. The simulation results indicate the correctness and the effectiveness of this algorithm. This paper presents a WiMAX simulation model designed with OPNET modeler 14 to measure the delay, load and the throughput performance factors.

  20. Improving Pedestrian Access to Transit: City of Gresham's Ped-to-MAX Program

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-01-01

    Accommodating multi-modal travel on high speed arterials is a challenge, : particularly in Gresham where numerous arterials transect the city, creating : barriers to pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users. The "Ped-to-MAX" : program was created t...

  1. Level-2 Milestone 4797: Early Users on Max, Sequoia Visualization Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Cupps, Kim C.

    This report documents the fact that an early user has run successfully on Max, the Sequoia visualization cluster, ASC L2 milestone 4797: Early Users on Sequoia Visualization System (Max), due December 31, 2013. The Max visualization and data analysis cluster will provide Sequoia users with compute cycles and an interactive option for data exploration and analysis. The system will be integrated in the first quarter of FY14 and the system is expected to be moved to the classified network by the second quarter of FY14. The goal of this milestone is to have early users running their visualization and datamore » analysis work on the Max cluster on the classified network.« less

  2. Max Weber's Types of Rationality: Cornerstones for the Analysis of Rationalization Processes in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalberg, Stephen

    1980-01-01

    Explores rationality in Max Weber's works and identifies four types of rationality which play major roles in his writing--practical, theoretical, substantive, and formal. Implications for society and education are discussed. (DB)

  3. Patterns of Senescence in Human Cardiovascular Fitness: VO2max in Subsistence and Industrialized Populations

    PubMed Central

    Pisor, Anne C.; Gurven, Michael; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Kaplan, Hillard; Yetish, Gandhi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study explores whether cardiovascular fitness levels and senescent decline are similar in the Tsimane of Bolivia and Canadians, as well as other subsistence and industrialized populations. Among Tsimane, we examine whether morbidity predicts lower levels and faster decline of cardiovascular fitness, or whether their lifestyle (e.g., high physical activity) promotes high levels and slow decline. Alternatively, high activity levels and morbidity might counterbalance such that Tsimane fitness levels and decline are similar to those in industrialized populations. Methods Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated using a step test heart rate method for 701 participants. We compared these estimates to the Canadian Health Measures Survey and previous studies in industrialized and subsistence populations. We evaluated whether health indicators and proxies for market integration were associated with VO2max levels and rate of decline for the Tsimane. Results The Tsimane have significantly higher levels of VO2max and slower rates of decline than Canadians; initial evidence suggests differences in VO2max levels between other subsistence and industrialized populations. Low hemoglobin predicts low VO2max for Tsimane women while helminth infection predicts high VO2max for Tsimane men, though results might be specific to the VO2max scaling parameter used. No variables tested interact with age to moderate decline. Conclusions The Tsimane demonstrate higher levels of cardiovascular fitness than industrialized populations, but levels similar to other subsistence populations. The high VO2max of Tsimane is consistent with their high physical activity and few indicators of cardiovascular disease, measured in previous studies. PMID:24022886

  4. Simulated Lidar Images of Human Pose using a 3DS Max Virtual Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    developed in Autodesk 3DS Max, with an animated, biofidelic 3D human mesh biped character ( avatar ) as the subject. The biped animation modifies the digital...character ( avatar ) as the subject. The biped animation modifies the digital human model through a time sequence of motion capture data representing an...AFB. Mr. Isiah Davenport from Infoscitex Corp developed the method for creating the biofidelic avatars from laboratory data and 3DS Max code for

  5. Training the Recurrent neural network by the Fuzzy Min-Max algorithm for fault prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Zemouri, Ryad; Racoceanu, Daniel; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2009-03-05

    In this paper, we present a training technique of a Recurrent Radial Basis Function neural network for fault prediction. We use the Fuzzy Min-Max technique to initialize the k-center of the RRBF neural network. The k-means algorithm is then applied to calculate the centers that minimize the mean square error of the prediction task. The performances of the k-means algorithm are then boosted by the Fuzzy Min-Max technique.

  6. Human mitochondrial haplogroup H: the highest VO2max consumer--is it a paradox?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Marcuello, Ana; Casajús, José A; Ara, Ignacio; Dahmani, Yahya; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial background has been demonstrated to influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max), in mLkg(-1)min(-1)), but this genetic influence can be compensated for by regular exercise. A positive correlation among electron transport chain (ETC) coupling, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been established, and mitochondrial variants have been reported to show differences in their ETC performance. In this study, we examined in detail the VO(2max) differences found among mitochondrial haplogroups. We recruited 81 healthy male Spanish Caucasian individuals and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup. Their VO(2max) was determined using incremental cycling exercise (ICE). VO(2max) was lower in J than in non-J haplogroup individuals (P=0.04). The H haplogroup was responsible for this difference (VO(2max); J vs. H; P=0.008) and this group also had significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage (mtOD) than the J haplogroup (P=0.04). In agreement with these results, VO(2max) and mtOD were positively correlated (P=0.01). Given that ROS production is the major contributor to mtOD and consumes four times more oxygen per electron than the ETC, our results strongly suggest that ROS production is responsible for the higher VO(2max) found in the H variant. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underneath VO(2max), but also help to explain some reported associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and mtOD with longevity, sperm motility, premature aging and susceptibility to different pathologies.

  7. VO(2max) and Microgravity Exposure: Convective versus Diffusive O(2) Transport.

    PubMed

    Ade, Carl J; Broxterman, Ryan M; Barstow, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to a microgravity environment decreases the maximal rate of O2 uptake (VO(2max)) in healthy individuals returning to a gravitational environment. The magnitude of this decrease in VO(2max) is, in part, dependent on the duration of microgravity exposure, such that long exposure may result in up to a 38% decrease in VO(2max). This review identifies the components within the O(2) transport pathway that determine the decrease in postmicrogravity VO(2max) and highlights the potential contributing physiological mechanisms. A retrospective analysis revealed that the decline in VO(2max) is initially mediated by a decrease in convective and diffusive O(2) transport that occurs as the duration of microgravity exposure is extended. Mechanistically, the attenuation of O(2) transport is the combined result of a deconditioning across multiple organ systems including decreases in total blood volume, red blood cell mass, cardiac function and mass, vascular function, skeletal muscle mass, and, potentially, capillary hemodynamics, which become evident during exercise upon re-exposure to the head-to-foot gravitational forces of upright posture on Earth. In summary, VO(2max) is determined by the integration of central and peripheral O(2) transport mechanisms, which, if not maintained during microgravity, will have a substantial long-term detrimental impact on space mission performance and astronaut health.

  8. GreedyMAX-type Algorithms for the Maximum Independent Set Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiecki, Piotr; Göring, Frank

    A maximum independent set problem for a simple graph G = (V,E) is to find the largest subset of pairwise nonadjacent vertices. The problem is known to be NP-hard and it is also hard to approximate. Within this article we introduce a non-negative integer valued function p defined on the vertex set V(G) and called a potential function of a graph G, while P(G) = max v ∈ V(G) p(v) is called a potential of G. For any graph P(G) ≤ Δ(G), where Δ(G) is the maximum degree of G. Moreover, Δ(G) - P(G) may be arbitrarily large. A potential of a vertex lets us get a closer insight into the properties of its neighborhood which leads to the definition of the family of GreedyMAX-type algorithms having the classical GreedyMAX algorithm as their origin. We establish a lower bound 1/(P + 1) for the performance ratio of GreedyMAX-type algorithms which favorably compares with the bound 1/(Δ + 1) known to hold for GreedyMAX. The cardinality of an independent set generated by any GreedyMAX-type algorithm is at least sum_{vin V(G)} (p(v)+1)^{-1}, which strengthens the bounds of Turán and Caro-Wei stated in terms of vertex degrees.

  9. MAX to MYCN intracellular ratio drives the aggressive phenotype and clinical outcome of high risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, Francesca; Ciaccio, Roberto; Monticelli, Sara; Pigini, Paolo; di Giacomo, Simone; Purgato, Stefania; Erriquez, Daniela; Bernardoni, Roberto; Norris, Murray; Haber, Michelle; Milazzo, Giorgio; Perini, Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Childhood neuroblastoma, a disease of the sympathetic nervous system, is the most common solid tumour of infancy, remarkably refractory to therapeutic treatments. One of the most powerful independent prognostic indicators for this disease is the amplification of the MYCN oncogene, which occurs at high levels in approximately 25% of neuroblastomas. Interestingly, amplification and not just expression of MYCN has a strong prognostic value, although this fact appears quite surprising as MYCN is a transcription factor that requires dimerising with its partner MAX, to exert its function. This observation greatly suggests that the role of MYCN in neuroblastoma should be examined in the context of MAX expression. In this report, we show that, in contrast to what is found in normal cells, MAX expression is significantly different among primary NBs, and that its level appears to correlate with the clinical outcome of the disease. Importantly, controlled modulation of MAX expression in neuroblastoma cells with different extents of MYCN amplification, demonstrates that MAX can instruct gene transcription programs that either reinforce or weaken the oncogenic process enacted by MYCN. In general, our work illustrates that it is the MAX to MYCN ratio that can account for tumour progression and clinical outcome in neuroblastoma and proposes that such a ratio should be considered as an important criterion to the design and development of anti-MYCN therapies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Familial aggregation of VO(2max) response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, C; An, P; Rice, T; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Gagnon, J; Pérusse, L; Leon, A S; Rao, D C

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that individual differences in the response of maximal O(2) uptake (VO(2max)) to a standardized training program are characterized by familial aggregation. A total of 481 sedentary adult Caucasians from 98 two-generation families was exercise trained for 20 wk and was tested for VO(2max) on a cycle ergometer twice before and twice after the training program. The mean increase in VO(2max) reached approximately 400 ml/min, but there was considerable heterogeneity in responsiveness, with some individuals experiencing little or no gain, whereas others gained >1.0 l/min. An ANOVA revealed that there was 2.5 times more variance between families than within families in the VO(2max) response variance. With the use of a model-fitting procedure, the most parsimonious models yielded a maximal heritability estimate of 47% for the VO(2max) response, which was adjusted for age and sex with a maternal transmission of 28% in one of the models. We conclude that the trainability of VO(2max) is highly familial and includes a significant genetic component.

  11. AshwaMAX and Withaferin A inhibits gliomas in cellular and murine orthotopic models

    PubMed Central

    Pohling, Christoph; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Witney, Timothy H.; Kaur, Jasdeep; Xu, Lingyun; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; D’Souza, Aloma L; Murty, Surya; Schick, Sophie; Chen, Liyin; Wu, Nicholas; Khaw, Phoo; Mischel, Paul; Abbasi, Taher; Usmani, Shahabuddin; Mallick, Parag

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, malignant cancer Johnson and O’Neill (J Neurooncol 107: 359–364, 2012). An extract from the winter cherry plant (Withania somnifera), AshwaMAX, is concentrated (4.3 %) for Withaferin A; a steroidal lactone that inhibits cancer cells Vanden Berghe et al. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 23: 1985–1996, 2014). We hypothesized that AshwaMAX could treat GBM and that bioluminescence imaging (BLI) could track oral therapy in orthotopic murine models of glioblastoma. Human parietal-cortical glioblastoma cells (GBM2, GBM39) were isolated from primary tumors while U87-MG was obtained commercially. GBM2 was transduced with lentiviral vectors that express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)/firefly luciferase fusion proteins. Mutational, expression and proliferative status of GBMs were studied. Intracranial xenografts of glioblastomas were grown in the right frontal regions of female, nude mice (n = 3–5 per experiment). Tumor growth was followed through BLI. Neurosphere cultures (U87-MG, GBM2 and GBM39) were inhibited by AshwaMAX at IC50 of 1.4, 0.19 and 0.22 μM equivalent respectively and by Withaferin A with IC50 of 0.31, 0.28 and 0.25 μM respectively. Oral gavage, every other day, of AshwaMAX (40 mg/kg per day) significantly reduced bioluminescence signal (n = 3 mice, p < 0.02, four parameter non-linear regression analysis) in preclinical models. After 30 days of treatment, bioluminescent signal increased suggesting onset of resistance. BLI signal for control, vehicle-treated mice increased and then plateaued. Bioluminescent imaging revealed diffuse growth of GBM2 xenografts. With AshwaMAX, GBM neurospheres collapsed at nanomolar concentrations. Oral treatment studies on murine models confirmed that AshwaMAX is effective against orthotopic GBM. AshwaMAX is thus a promising candidate for future clinical translation in patients with GBM. PMID:26650066

  12. AshwaMAX and Withaferin A inhibits gliomas in cellular and murine orthotopic models.

    PubMed

    Chang, Edwin; Pohling, Christoph; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Witney, Timothy H; Kaur, Jasdeep; Xu, Lingyun; Gowrishankar, Gayatri; D'Souza, Aloma L; Murty, Surya; Schick, Sophie; Chen, Liyin; Wu, Nicholas; Khaw, Phoo; Mischel, Paul; Abbasi, Taher; Usmani, Shahabuddin; Mallick, Parag; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive, malignant cancer Johnson and O'Neill (J Neurooncol 107: 359-364, 2012). An extract from the winter cherry plant (Withania somnifera ), AshwaMAX, is concentrated (4.3 %) for Withaferin A; a steroidal lactone that inhibits cancer cells Vanden Berghe et al. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 23: 1985-1996, 2014). We hypothesized that AshwaMAX could treat GBM and that bioluminescence imaging (BLI) could track oral therapy in orthotopic murine models of glioblastoma. Human parietal-cortical glioblastoma cells (GBM2, GBM39) were isolated from primary tumors while U87-MG was obtained commercially. GBM2 was transduced with lentiviral vectors that express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)/firefly luciferase fusion proteins. Mutational, expression and proliferative status of GBMs were studied. Intracranial xenografts of glioblastomas were grown in the right frontal regions of female, nude mice (n = 3-5 per experiment). Tumor growth was followed through BLI. Neurosphere cultures (U87-MG, GBM2 and GBM39) were inhibited by AshwaMAX at IC50 of 1.4, 0.19 and 0.22 µM equivalent respectively and by Withaferin A with IC50 of 0.31, 0.28 and 0.25 µM respectively. Oral gavage, every other day, of AshwaMAX (40 mg/kg per day) significantly reduced bioluminescence signal (n = 3 mice, p < 0.02, four parameter non-linear regression analysis) in preclinical models. After 30 days of treatment, bioluminescent signal increased suggesting onset of resistance. BLI signal for control, vehicle-treated mice increased and then plateaued. Bioluminescent imaging revealed diffuse growth of GBM2 xenografts. With AshwaMAX, GBM neurospheres collapsed at nanomolar concentrations. Oral treatment studies on murine models confirmed that AshwaMAX is effective against orthotopic GBM. AshwaMAX is thus a promising candidate for future clinical translation in patients with GBM.

  13. Time limit and VO2 slow component at intensities corresponding to VO2max in swimmers.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, R J; Cardoso, C S; Soares, S M; Ascensão, A; Colaço, P J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure, in swimming pool conditions and with high level swimmers, the time to exhaustion at the minimum velocity that elicits maximal oxygen consumption (TLim at vVO(2)max), and the corresponding VO(2) slow component (O(2)SC). The vVO(2)max was determined through an intermittent incremental test (n = 15). Forty-eight hours later, TLim was assessed using an all-out swim at vVO(2)max until exhaustion. VO(2) was measured through direct oximetry and the swimming velocity was controlled using a visual light-pacer. Blood lactate concentrations and heart rate values were also measured. Mean VO(2)max for the incremental test was 5.09 +/- 0.53 l/min and the corresponding vVO(2)max was 1.46 +/- 0.06 m/s. Mean TLim value was 260.20 +/- 60.73 s and it was inversely correlated with the velocity of anaerobic threshold (r = -0.54, p < 0.05). This fact, associated with the inverse relationship between TLim and vVO(2)max (r = -0.47, but only for p < 0.10), suggested that swimmers' lower level aerobic metabolic rate might be associated with a larger capacity to sustain that exercise intensity. O(2)SC reached 274.11 +/- 152.83 l/min and was correlated with TLim (r = 0.54), increased ventilation in TLim test (r = 0.52) and energy cost of the respiratory muscles (r = 0.51), for p < 0.05. These data suggest that O(2)SC was also observed in the swimming pool, in high level swimmers performing at vVO(2)max, and that higher TLim seems to correspond to higher expected O(2)SC amplitude. These findings seem to bring new data with application in middle distance swimming.

  14. The effect of Iron Supplying on VO2 MAX and Haematology Parameter on Menstrual Woman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nailuvar Sinaga, Rika; Sari Harahap, Novita; Mediyana Sari, Rima

    2018-03-01

    One of the supporting factors to have good aerobic endurance requires high VO2 max levels supported by good quality and quantity level of Haematology parameter especially such as erythrocytes, hematocrit and hemoglobin. One of the components in hemoglobin is iron which functions as theoxygen transport to parts of all body required in the process of metabolism. The objective of this research was to find out the difference between VO2 Max and Haematology parameter between iron supplying and no iron supplyingonmenstrual woman. The type of this research is quasi experimental research with non-randomized control group Pretest-Postest Design. The subjectsarethe studentsat faculty of Sports Sciences, Medan State University with the criteria of female gender, monthly regular menstrual cycle, having the level of health and the level of training, willing to be a sample by filling out informed consent. The total number of research subjectsis twenty students, divided into two groups namely the treatment group and the control group. The hematology parameter was measuredby Haemotology analyzer and VO2 Max was measured by multi-stage run. The result showed that there was a significant effect of iron supplyingon the increase of erythrocyte level on menstrual women, hemotocrit, haemoglobin and an increase in VO2 Max. Iron supplying on menstrual woman has the effect on the increase of erythrocyte, hematocrit, hemoglobin level and VO2 Max

  15. The MaxQuant computational platform for mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics.

    PubMed

    Tyanova, Stefka; Temu, Tikira; Cox, Juergen

    2016-12-01

    MaxQuant is one of the most frequently used platforms for mass-spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics data analysis. Since its first release in 2008, it has grown substantially in functionality and can be used in conjunction with more MS platforms. Here we present an updated protocol covering the most important basic computational workflows, including those designed for quantitative label-free proteomics, MS1-level labeling and isobaric labeling techniques. This protocol presents a complete description of the parameters used in MaxQuant, as well as of the configuration options of its integrated search engine, Andromeda. This protocol update describes an adaptation of an existing protocol that substantially modifies the technique. Important concepts of shotgun proteomics and their implementation in MaxQuant are briefly reviewed, including different quantification strategies and the control of false-discovery rates (FDRs), as well as the analysis of post-translational modifications (PTMs). The MaxQuant output tables, which contain information about quantification of proteins and PTMs, are explained in detail. Furthermore, we provide a short version of the workflow that is applicable to data sets with simple and standard experimental designs. The MaxQuant algorithms are efficiently parallelized on multiple processors and scale well from desktop computers to servers with many cores. The software is written in C# and is freely available at http://www.maxquant.org.

  16. Adjacent Channel Interference Reduction for M-WiMAX TDD and WCDMA FDD Coexistence by Utilizing Beamforming in M-WiMAX TDD System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yupeng; Chang, Kyunghi

    In this paper, we analyze the coexistence issues of M-WiMAX TDD and WCDMA FDD systems. Smart antenna techniques are applied to mitigate the performance loss induced by adjacent channel interference (ACI) in the scenarios where performance is heavily degraded. In addition, an ACI model is proposed to capture the effect of transmit beamforming at the M-WiMAX base station. Furthermore, a MCS-based throughput analysis is proposed, to jointly consider the effects of ACI, system packet error rate requirement, and the available modulation and coding schemes, which is not possible by using the conventional Shannon equation based analysis. From the results, we find that the proposed MCS-based analysis method is quite suitable to analyze the system theoretical throughput in a practical manner.

  17. Using a MaxEnt Classifier for the Automatic Content Scoring of Free-Text Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukkarieh, Jana Z.

    2011-03-01

    Criticisms against multiple-choice item assessments in the USA have prompted researchers and organizations to move towards constructed-response (free-text) items. Constructed-response (CR) items pose many challenges to the education community—one of which is that they are expensive to score by humans. At the same time, there has been widespread movement towards computer-based assessment and hence, assessment organizations are competing to develop automatic content scoring engines for such items types—which we view as a textual entailment task. This paper describes how MaxEnt Modeling is used to help solve the task. MaxEnt has been used in many natural language tasks but this is the first application of the MaxEnt approach to textual entailment and automatic content scoring.

  18. Using MaxCompiler for the high level synthesis of trigger algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, S.; Rose, A.; Sanders, P.

    2017-02-01

    Firmware for FPGA trigger applications at the CMS experiment is conventionally written using hardware description languages such as Verilog and VHDL. MaxCompiler is an alternative, Java based, tool for developing FPGA applications which uses a higher level of abstraction from the hardware than a hardware description language. An implementation of the jet and energy sum algorithms for the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger has been written using MaxCompiler to benchmark against the VHDL implementation in terms of accuracy, latency, resource usage, and code size. A Kalman Filter track fitting algorithm has been developed using MaxCompiler for a proposed CMS Level-1 track trigger for the High-Luminosity LHC upgrade. The design achieves a low resource usage, and has a latency of 187.5 ns per iteration.

  19. All about MAX: a male adult voxel phantom for Monte Carlo calculations in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Vieira, J. W.; Khoury, H. J.; Lima, F. R. A.; Fuelle, D.

    2003-05-01

    The MAX (Male Adult voXel) phantom has been developed from existing segmented images of a male adult body, in order to achieve a representation as close as possible to the anatomical properties of the reference adult male specified by the ICRP. The study describes the adjustments of the soft-tissue organ masses, a new dosimetric model for the skin, a new model for skeletal dosimetry and a computational exposure model based on coupling the MAX phantom with the EGS4 Monte Carlo code. Conversion coefficients between equivalent dose to the red bone marrow as well as effective MAX dose and air-kerma free in air for external photon irradiation from the front and from the back, respectively, are presented and compared with similar data from other human phantoms.

  20. Examining Student Attitudes in Introductory Physics via the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemingway, Deborah; Eichenlaub, Mark; Losert, Wolfgang; Redish, Edward F.

    2017-01-01

    Student often face difficulties with using math in science, and this exploratory project seeks to address the underlying mechanisms that lead to these difficulties. This mixed-methods project includes the creation of two novel assessment surveys, the Mathematical Epistemic Games Survey (MEGS) and the Math Attitude and Expectations Survey (MAX). The MAX, a 30-question Likert-scale survey, focuses on the attitudes towards using mathematics of the students in a reformed introductory physics course for the life sciences (IPLS) which is part of the National Experiment in Undergraduate Education (NEXUS/Physics) developed at the University of Maryland (UMD). Preliminary results from the MAX are discussed with specific attention given to students' attitudes towards math and physics, opinions about interdisciplinarity, and the usefulness of physics in academic settings as well as in professional biological research and modern medicine settings.

  1. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems based on PS-request protocols.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol.

  2. MAX UnMix: A web application for unmixing magnetic coercivity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxbauer, Daniel P.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Fox, David L.

    2016-10-01

    It is common in the fields of rock and environmental magnetism to unmix magnetic mineral components using statistical methods that decompose various types of magnetization curves (e.g., acquisition, demagnetization, or backfield). A number of programs have been developed over the past decade that are frequently used by the rock magnetic community, however many of these programs are either outdated or have obstacles inhibiting their usability. MAX UnMix is a web application (available online at http://www.irm.umn.edu/maxunmix), built using the shiny package for R studio, that can be used for unmixing coercivity distributions derived from magnetization curves. Here, we describe in detail the statistical model underpinning the MAX UnMix web application and discuss the programs functionality. MAX UnMix is an improvement over previous unmixing programs in that it is designed to be user friendly, runs as an independent website, and is platform independent.

  3. V/V(max) test applied to SMM gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matz, S. M.; Higdon, J. C.; Share, G. H.; Messina, D. C.; Iadicicco, A.

    1992-01-01

    We have applied the V/V(max) test to candidate gamma-ray bursts detected by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard the SMM satellite to examine quantitatively the uniformity of the burst source population. For a sample of 132 candidate bursts identified in the GRS data by an automated search using a single uniform trigger criterion we find average V/V(max) = 0.40 +/- 0.025. This value is significantly different from 0.5, the average for a uniform distribution in space of the parent population of burst sources; however, the shape of the observed distribution of V/V(max) is unusual and our result conflicts with previous measurements. For these reasons we can currently draw no firm conclusion about the distribution of burst sources.

  4. Coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX Systems Based on PS-Request Protocols†

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jongwoo; Park, Suwon; Rhee, Seung Hyong; Choi, Yong-Hoon; Chung, Young-uk; Hwang, Ho Young

    2011-01-01

    We introduce both the coexistence zone within the WiMAX frame structure and a PS-Request protocol for the coexistence of WiFi and WiMAX systems sharing a frequency band. Because we know that the PS-Request protocol has drawbacks, we propose a revised PS-Request protocol to improve the performance. Two PS-Request protocols are based on the time division operation (TDO) of WiFi system and WiMAX system to avoid the mutual interference, and use the vestigial power management (PwrMgt) bit within the Frame Control field of the frames transmitted by a WiFi AP. The performance of the revised PS-Request protocol is evaluated by computer simulation, and compared to those of the cases without a coexistence protocol and to the original PS-Request protocol. PMID:22163721

  5. Efficiency of the Penumbra 5MAX ACE Reperfusion Catheter in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Aoki, Junya; Sakamoto, Yuki; Kanamaru, Takuya; Abe, Arata; Suda, Satoshi; Okubo, Seiji; Kimura, Kazumi

    2016-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the Penumbra 5MAX ACE is superior to other Penumbra systems. We performed a retrospective, single center analysis of patients with acute ischemic stroke with occlusion of the internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery (M1 segment) who underwent endovascular therapy using a Penumbra system. The reperfusion success rate, puncture-to-revascularization time, and number of passes were assessed. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to evaluate independent factors related to revascularization within 60 minutes. Successful revascularization was defined by a thrombolysis in cerebral infarction score ≥2b. The Penumbra 5MAX ACE was used in 24 of the 40 patients (60%). Although the revascularization success rate was similar between patient groups (P = .229), the number of passes was significantly lower (1.5 ± .8 versus 2.6 ± 1.3, P = .006) and the puncture-to-revascularization time was shorter (50 ± 26 minutes versus 116 ± 69 minutes, P = .002) in patients treated with the Penumbra 5MAX ACE. The Penumbra 5MAX ACE was identified as an independent factor for early revascularization (odds ratio, 5.80; P = .041). Among patients with a premorbid modified Rankin Scale score of 0-1, a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 3 months was observed in 15 of the 19 patients (79%) treated with the Penumbra 5MAX ACE and in 8 of the 16 (50%) who were not (P = .072). Acute revascularization therapy using the Penumbra 5MAX ACE can achieve rapid successful recanalization and tend to improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT imaging of MAX-related pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Taïeb, David; Jha, Abhishek; Guerin, Carole; Pang, Ying; Adams, Karen T; Chen, Clara C; Romanet, Pauline; Roche, Philippe; Essamet, Wassim; Ling, Alexander; Quezado, Martha M; Castinetti, Frédéric; Sebag, Fréderic; Pacak, Karel

    2018-03-08

    MYC associated factor X (MAX) has been recently described as a new susceptibility pheochromocytoma (PHEO) gene with a total of approximately 40 reported cases. At present, no study has specifically described the functional imaging phenotype of MAX-related PHEO. The objective of this study was to present our experience with contrast-enhanced CT and 18F-FDOPA PET/CT imaging in 6 consecutive patients (4 at initial diagnosis and 2 at follow-up evaluation) with rare but clinically important MAX-related PHEOs. In 5 patients, 18F-FDOPA was also compared to other radiopharmaceuticals. Patients had 5 different mutations in the MAX gene that caused disruption of Max/Myc interaction and/or abolished interaction with DNA based on in-silico analyses. All but one patient developed bilateral PHEOs during their lifetime. In all cases, 18F-FDOPA PET/CT accurately visualized PHEOs that were often multiple within the same gland or bilateral and detected more adrenal and extradrenal lesions than CT (per lesion sensitivity 90.5% vs 52.4% for CT/MRI). The 2 missed PHEO on 18F-FDOPA PET/CT were <1cm, corresponding to nodular adrenomedullary hyperplasia. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT detected fewer lesions than 18F-FDOPA PET/CT in 1/3 patients and 18F-FDG PET/CT was only faintly positive in 2/4 patients with underestimation of extraadrenal lesions in 1 patient. MAX-related PHEO exihibit a marked 18F-FDOPA uptake, a finding that illustrates the common well-differentiated chromaffin pattern of PHEO associated with activation of kinase signaling pathways. 18F-FDOPA PET/CT should be considered as the first-line functional imaging modality for diagnostic or follow-up evaluation in these patients.

  7. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. Results M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels < 25%. By contrast, the efficacies of other isolates rapidly decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 caused different infection characteristics on T. molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. Conclusions MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a

  8. Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la, China under desiccation stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zi-Hong; Xu, Ling; Yang, Feng-lian; Ji, Guang-Hai; Yang, Jing; Wang, Jian-Yun

    2014-01-03

    Metarhizium anisopliae, a soil-borne entomopathogen found worldwide, is an interesting fungus for biological control. However, its efficacy in the fields is significantly affected by environmental conditions, particularly moisture. To overcome the weakness of Metarhizium and determine its isolates with antistress capacity, the efficacies of four M. anisopliae isolates, which were collected from arid regions of Yunnan Province in China during the dry season, were determined at different moisture levels, and the efficacy of the isolate MAX-2 from Shangri-la under desiccation stress was evaluated at low moisture level. M. anisopliae isolates MAX-2, MAC-6, MAL-1, and MAQ-28 showed gradient descent efficacies against sterile Tenebrio molitor larvae, and gradient descent capacities against desiccation with the decrease in moisture levels. The efficacy of MAX-2 showed no significant differences at 35% moisture level than those of the other isolates. However, significant differences were found at 8% to 30% moisture levels. The efficacies of all isolates decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 was relatively less affected by desiccation stress. Its efficacy was almost unaffected by the decrease at moisture levels > 25%, but slowly decreased at moisture levels < 25%. By contrast, the efficacies of other isolates rapidly decreased with the decrease in moisture levels. MAX-2 caused different infection characteristics on T. molitor larvae under desiccation stress and in wet microhabitat. Local black patches were found on the cuticles of the insects, and the cadavers dried without fungal growth under desiccation stress. However, dark black internodes and fungal growth were found after death of the insects in the wet microhabitat. MAX-2 showed significantly higher efficacy and superior antistress capacity than the other isolates under desiccation stress. The infection of sterile T. molitor larvae at low moisture level constituted a valid laboratory bioassay system

  9. Validation of the firefighter WFI treadmill protocol for predicting VO2 max.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, B A; Barr, D; Boland, D M; Smith, D L; Cooper, C B

    2015-03-01

    The Wellness-Fitness Initiative submaximal treadmill exercise test (WFI-TM) is recommended by the US National Fire Protection Agency to assess aerobic capacity (VO2 max) in firefighters. However, predicting VO2 max from submaximal tests can result in errors leading to erroneous conclusions about fitness. To investigate the level of agreement between VO2 max predicted from the WFI-TM against its direct measurement using exhaled gas analysis. The WFI-TM was performed to volitional fatigue. Differences between estimated VO2 max (derived from the WFI-TM equation) and direct measurement (exhaled gas analysis) were compared by paired t-test and agreement was determined using Pearson Product-Moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Fifty-nine men performed the WFI-TM. Mean (standard deviation) values for estimated and measured VO2 max were 44.6 (3.4) and 43.6 (7.9) ml/kg/min, respectively (P < 0.01). The mean bias by which WFI-TM overestimated VO2 max was 0.9ml/kg/min with a 95% prediction interval of ±13.1. Prediction errors for 22% of subjects were within ±5%; 36% had errors greater than or equal to ±15% and 7% had greater than ±30% errors. The correlation between predicted and measured VO2 max was r = 0.55 (standard error of the estimate = 2.8ml/kg/min). WFI-TM predicts VO2 max with 11% error. There is a tendency to overestimate aerobic capacity in less fit individuals and to underestimate it in more fit individuals leading to a clustering of values around 42ml/kg/min, a criterion used by some fire departments to assess fitness for duty. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A comparison of buffered lidocaine versus ELA-Max before peripheral intravenous catheter insertions in children.

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Janet; Hurt, Sarah; Shootman, Mario; Kennedy, Robert

    2004-03-01

    Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIV) insertion is a common, painful experience for many children in the pediatric emergency department. Although local anesthetics such as injected buffered lidocaine have been shown to be effective at reducing pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion, they are not routinely used. ELA-Max, a topical local anesthetic, has the advantage of needle-free administration but has not been compared with buffered lidocaine for PIV insertion. To compare the reduction of pain and anxiety during PIV insertion provided by subcutaneous buffered 1% lidocaine or topical ELA-Max in children. A randomized trial in children 4 to 17 years old undergoing PIV insertion with 22-gauge catheters was conducted. Children received either buffered lidocaine or ELA-Max. Buffered lidocaine was administered by using 30-gauge needles to inject 0.1 to 0.2 mL subcutaneously just before PIV insertion. ELA-Max was applied to the skin and occluded with Tegaderm 30 minutes before PIV insertion. Self-reported Visual Analog Scale (VAS) questionnaires (rating on a scale of 1-10; 1 = no pain, anxiety) were completed by patients and their parents before PIV insertion to assess baseline perceptions about pain and anxiety associated with PIV insertion and immediately after PIV insertion to assess pain and anxiety associated with the experience. After PIV insertion, the nurse who inserted the PIV also completed a VAS questionnaire assessing technical difficulty and satisfaction with the local anesthesia. A blinded observer also completed a VAS questionnaire to assess pain and anxiety associated with the PIV insertion. Data were analyzed by using chi2 and t tests. Sixty-nine subjects were enrolled, and questionnaires were competed by all (mean age: 12.1 +/- 4.5 years; 61% female). There were no differences for buffered lidocaine and ELA-Max groups in age, gender, race, prior IV experience, or baseline pain and anxiety. There were no significant differences between buffered

  11. On Max-Plus Algebra and Its Application on Image Steganography.

    PubMed

    Santoso, Kiswara Agung; Fatmawati; Suprajitno, Herry

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new steganography method to hide an image into another image using matrix multiplication operations on max-plus algebra. This is especially interesting because the matrix used in encoding or information disguises generally has an inverse, whereas matrix multiplication operations in max-plus algebra do not have an inverse. The advantages of this method are the size of the image that can be hidden into the cover image, larger than the previous method. The proposed method has been tested on many secret images, and the results are satisfactory which have a high level of strength and a high level of security and can be used in various operating systems.

  12. Yellow fever and Max Theiler: the only Nobel Prize for a virus vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Norrby, Erling

    2007-01-01

    In 1951, Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of an effective vaccine against yellow fever—a discovery first reported in the JEM 70 years ago. This was the first, and so far the only, Nobel Prize given for the development of a virus vaccine. Recently released Nobel archives now reveal how the advances in the yellow fever vaccine field were evaluated more than 50 years ago, and how this led to a prize for Max Theiler. PMID:18039952

  13. The Dangers of Estimating V˙O2max Using Linear, Nonexercise Prediction Models.

    PubMed

    Nevill, Alan M; Cooke, Carlton B

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy and goodness of fit of two competing models (linear vs allometric) when estimating V˙O2max (mL·kg·min) using nonexercise prediction models. The two competing models were fitted to the V˙O2max (mL·kg·min) data taken from two previously published studies. Study 1 (the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey) recruited 1732 randomly selected healthy participants, 16 yr and older, from 30 English parliamentary constituencies. Estimates of V˙O2max were obtained using a progressive incremental test on a motorized treadmill. In study 2, maximal oxygen uptake was measured directly during a fatigue limited treadmill test in older men (n = 152) and women (n = 146) 55 to 86 yr old. In both studies, the quality of fit associated with estimating V˙O2max (mL·kg·min) was superior using allometric rather than linear (additive) models based on all criteria (R, maximum log-likelihood, and Akaike information criteria). Results suggest that linear models will systematically overestimate V˙O2max for participants in their 20s and underestimate V˙O2max for participants in their 60s and older. The residuals saved from the linear models were neither normally distributed nor independent of the predicted values nor age. This will probably explain the absence of a key quadratic age term in the linear models, crucially identified using allometric models. Not only does the curvilinear age decline within an exponential function follow a more realistic age decline (the right-hand side of a bell-shaped curve), but the allometric models identified either a stature-to-body mass ratio (study 1) or a fat-free mass-to-body mass ratio (study 2), both associated with leanness when estimating V˙O2max. Adopting allometric models will provide more accurate predictions of V˙O2max (mL·kg·min) using plausible, biologically sound, and interpretable models.

  14. Endurance Training and V˙O2max: Role of Maximal Cardiac Output and Oxygen Extraction.

    PubMed

    Montero, David; Diaz-Cañestro, Candela; Lundby, Carsten

    2015-10-01

    Although endurance training (ET) commonly augments maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max), it remains unclear whether such increase is associated with that of maximal cardiac output (Qmax) alone or along with arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-V˙O2diff). Herein, we sought to systematically review and determine the effects of ET on V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise, and on their associations, in healthy young subjects. We conducted a systematic search of MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science (from their inception until September 2014) for articles assessing the effects of ET lasting ≥3 wk on V˙O2max and Qmax and/or a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise in healthy young adults (mean age <40 yr). Meta-analyses were performed to determine standardized mean differences (SMD) in V˙O2max, Qmax, and a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise between posttraining and pretraining measurements. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses were used to evaluate associations among SMD and potential moderating factors. Thirteen studies were included after systematic review, comprising a total of 130 untrained or moderately trained healthy young subjects (mean age, 22-28 yr). Duration of ET programs ranged from 5 to 12.9 wk. After data pooling, V˙O2max (SMD = 0.75, P < 0.0001) and Qmax (SMD = 0.64, P < 0.0001), but not a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise (SMD = 0.21, P = 0.23), were increased after ET. No significant heterogeneity was detected. With meta-regression, the SMD in Qmax was positively associated with the SMD in V˙O2max (B = 0.91, P = 0.007). The SMD in a-V˙O2diff at maximal exercise was not associated with the SMD in V˙O2max (B = 0.20, P = 0.40). Based on a relatively small number of studies, improvement in V˙O2max following 5-13 wk of ET is associated with increase in Qmax, but not in a-V˙O2diff, in previously untrained to moderately trained healthy young individuals.

  15. Composition and stability of phytochemicals in five varieties of black soybeans (glycine max)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytochemical compositions of five varieties of black soybeans (Glycine max) and their stabilities at room temperature, 4 deg.C and -80 deg.C over 14 months were determined by HPLC systems with electrochemical (HPLC-ECD) and UV detectors. Polyphenol profiling was carried out by liquid chromatography...

  16. Differentially expressed proteins of soybean (Glycine max) pulvinus in light and dark conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean leaves (Glycine max) both track and avoid the sun through turgor changes of the pulvinus tissue at the base of leaves. Pulvinar response is known to be affected by both diurnally varying environmental factors and circadian patterns. Differential expression of the proteins between light and d...

  17. Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nagahashi, Takaharu; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsue, Hideaki; Uekado, Kunio; Namera, Takakazu; Fukui, Hiroshi; Nanamatsu, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system.

  18. Computer Simulation and Field Experiment for Downlink Multiuser MIMO in Mobile WiMAX System

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Kazuhiro; Nagahashi, Takaharu; Akiyama, Takuya; Matsue, Hideaki; Uekado, Kunio; Namera, Takakazu; Fukui, Hiroshi; Nanamatsu, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The transmission performance for a downlink mobile WiMAX system with multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) systems in a computer simulation and field experiment is described. In computer simulation, a MU-MIMO transmission system can be realized by using the block diagonalization (BD) algorithm, and each user can receive signals without any signal interference from other users. The bit error rate (BER) performance and channel capacity in accordance with modulation schemes and the number of streams were simulated in a spatially correlated multipath fading environment. Furthermore, we propose a method for evaluating the transmission performance for this downlink mobile WiMAX system in this environment by using the computer simulation. In the field experiment, the received power and downlink throughput in the UDP layer were measured on an experimental mobile WiMAX system developed in Azumino City in Japan. In comparison with the simulated and experimented results, the measured maximum throughput performance in the downlink had almost the same performance as the simulated throughput. It was confirmed that the experimental mobile WiMAX system for MU-MIMO transmission successfully increased the total channel capacity of the system. PMID:26421311

  19. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: a guide to the soybean transcriptome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A first analysis of the Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean) transcriptome using next generation sequencing technology and RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) is presented. This analysis will provide an important resource for understanding transcription and gene co-regulatory networks in soybean, the most economic...

  20. The Emergence of a Root Metaphor in Modern Physics: Max Planck's "Quantum" Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Sheehan, Richard D.

    1997-01-01

    Uses metaphorical analysis to determine whether or not Max Planck invented the quantum postulate. Demonstrates how metaphorical analysis can be used to analyze the rhetoric of revolutionary texts in science. Concludes that, in his original 1900 quantum paper, Planck considered the quantum postulate to be important, but not revolutionary. (PA)

  1. Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education: Annual Report 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max-Planck-Institut fuer Bildungsforschung, Berlin (West Germany).

    The Max Planck Institute for Human Development and Education in Germany consists of four research centers dealing with the following topics: sociology and the study of the life course; development and socialization; psychology and human development; and school systems and instruction. This English-language annual report of the Planck Institute,…

  2. Sensor development at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bähr, A.; Lechner, P.; Ninkovic, J.

    2017-12-01

    For more than twenty years the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck Society (MPG-HLL) is developing high-performing, specialised, scientific silicon sensors including the integration of amplifying electronics on the sensor chip. This paper summarises the actual status of these devices like pnCCDs and DePFET Active Pixel Sensors and their applications.

  3. Weird Project: E-Health Service Improvement Using WiMAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimmino, Antonio; Casali, Fulvio; Mambretti, Cinzia

    Today the major obstacle to massive deployment of telemedicine applications are the security issues related to the exchange of real time information between different elements that are not at fixed locations. WiMAX, the new standard for wireless communications, is one of the most promising technologies for broadband access in a fixed and mobile environment and it is expected to overcome the above mentioned obstacle. The FP6-WEIRD [1] (WiMax Extension to Isolated Remote Data networks) project has: analysed how this technology can guarantee secure real time data transmission between mobile elements, built some successful demonstrations and paved the way to future commercial applications. This paper in particular describes: main promising e-health applications that WiMax would enable; the technological highlights and the main challenges that WiMax has to face in e-health applications such as accounting, privacy, security, data integrity; the way in which the WEIRD project 0 has studied the wireless access to medical communities and equipment in remote or impervious areas. 0 0; some envisaged implementations.

  4. A Hybrid Shared-Memory Parallel Max-Tree Algorithm for Extreme Dynamic-Range Images.

    PubMed

    Moschini, Ugo; Meijster, Arnold; Wilkinson, Michael H F

    2018-03-01

    Max-trees, or component trees, are graph structures that represent the connected components of an image in a hierarchical way. Nowadays, many application fields rely on images with high-dynamic range or floating point values. Efficient sequential algorithms exist to build trees and compute attributes for images of any bit depth. However, we show that the current parallel algorithms perform poorly already with integers at bit depths higher than 16 bits per pixel. We propose a parallel method combining the two worlds of flooding and merging max-tree algorithms. First, a pilot max-tree of a quantized version of the image is built in parallel using a flooding method. Later, this structure is used in a parallel leaf-to-root approach to compute efficiently the final max-tree and to drive the merging of the sub-trees computed by the threads. We present an analysis of the performance both on simulated and actual 2D images and 3D volumes. Execution times are about better than the fastest sequential algorithm and speed-up goes up to on 64 threads.

  5. "New People" and "Old Structures": Max Adler and Siegfried Bernfeld on Society, Education and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunker, Heinz

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with central issues in the field of theory of education and history of education. The examples of Max Adler and Siegfried Bernfeld show that contemporary debates on education and society, social reproduction of social inequality, and education and social change have been subjects of strong controversies in the first third of the…

  6. Max Headroom, Ad Man of the Eighties: When Commercial Becomes Cult.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassmuth, Birgit L.; Carr, Douglas J.

    With Coca-Cola's selection of a digital, computer-constructed "spokesthing" named Max Headroom, came a dramatic shift toward a reliance on high technology to deliver the advertising message. Headroom was developed in Britain, and made his debut on the Home Box Office television network in 1985. Coca-Cola then bought the rights to…

  7. Max Weber's Contribution to the Sociology of Education: A Critical Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, S. Srinivasa; Singh, Smriti

    2018-01-01

    Karl Emil Maximilian Weber (1864-1920), more widely known as Max Weber, is credited with numerous contributions to modern sociology and is considered one of the pillars of the discipline along with Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim. Marx (1818-1883) was an established predecessor from Germany whose study of the nineteenth-century European society was…

  8. Roots of the New Right: School Critic Max Rafferty (1917-82).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    In the 1960's Max Rafferty, a conservative California teacher, principal, and superintendent of public instruction, expressed many ideas which the New Right has been able to put into effect in the 1980's. The influence of political and religious conservatives is seen in movements for public school prayer; advancing private over public education…

  9. Simulated swimming: a useful tool for evaluation the VO2 max of swimmers in the laboratory.

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Y; Yeater, R A; Martin, R B

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a simulated swimming exercise (SS) so that peak VO2 would be assessed on swimmers in a laboratory setting. The subjects assumed a prone position on an incline bench and performed arm cranking on a Monark Rehab Trainer while performing a flutter kick against tension supplied by elastic cords. The SS test was compared to four peak VO2 tests: treadmill running (RN), tethered swimming (TW), bicycle ergometry (B), and arm cranking (AC). Eleven male varsity swimmers underwent each of the five VO2 max tests, and maximal cardiorespiratory indicators (HR, VE, VO2, O2 pulse, and RQ) were measured. The percentage of peak VO2 obtained during SS was compared to RN, TW, B, and AC. The SS test achieved 78 percent of RN, 91 percent of TW, 81 percent of B, and 124 percent of AC. There were no significant differences in VO2 in ml/kg.min between SS and TW. As expected, RN and B were significantly higher, while AC was lower. Ten subjects performed the SS test twice on two separate days within one week. The reliability of VO2 max in ml/kg.min was 0.95. the validity of VO2 max in ml/kg.min in the SS test vs. RN was 0.68. The SS test is reliable and can be used as effectively as TW to assess the VO2 max of swimmers in a laboratory setting. PMID:2078808

  10. Analysis of Mass Averaged Tissue Doses in CAM, CAF, MAX, and FAX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Walker, Steven A.; Singleterry, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    To estimate astronaut health risk due to space radiation, one must have the ability to calculate exposure-related quantities averaged over specific organs and tissue types. In this study, we first examine the anatomical properties of the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM), Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF), Male Adult voXel (MAX), and Female Adult voXel (FAX) models by comparing the masses of various tissues to the reference values specified by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Major discrepancies are found between the CAM and CAF tissue masses and the ICRP reference data for almost all of the tissues. We next examine the distribution of target points used with the deterministic transport code HZETRN to compute mass averaged exposure quantities. A numerical algorithm is used to generate multiple point distributions for many of the effective dose tissues identified in CAM, CAF, MAX, and FAX. It is concluded that the previously published CAM and CAF point distributions were under-sampled and that the set of point distributions presented here should be adequate for future studies involving CAM, CAF, MAX, or FAX. It is concluded that MAX and FAX are more accurate than CAM and CAF for space radiation analyses.

  11. MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 column densities in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Stefan; Weihs, Philipp; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Ostendorf, Mareike; Schönhardt, Anja; Burrows, John P.; Schmalwieser, Alois

    2017-04-01

    In the VINDOBONA (VIenna horizontal aNd vertical Distribution OBservations Of Nitrogen dioxide and Aerosols) project, two Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) systems will be set up at two different locations and altitudes in Vienna, Austria. After comparison measurements in Bremen, Germany, and Cabauw, The Netherlands, the first of the two MAX-DOAS instruments was set up at the University of Veterinary Medicine in the northeastern part of Vienna in December 2016. The instrument performs spectral measurements of visible scattered sunlight at defined horizontal and vertical viewing directions. From these measurements, column densities of NO2 and aerosols are derived by applying the DOAS analysis. First preliminary results are presented. The second MAX-DOAS instrument will be set up in April/May 2017 at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in the northwestern part of Vienna. Once these two instruments are measuring simultaneously, small campaigns including car DOAS zenith-sky and tower DOAS off-axis measurements are planned. The main emphasis of this project will be on the installation and operation of two MAX-DOAS instruments, the improvement of tropospheric NO2 and aerosol retrieval, and the characterization of the horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations of tropospheric NO2 and aerosols in Vienna, Austria.

  12. Conversation, Composition, Cultural Investigations: Max Frisch's "Fragebogen" in the L2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In this article, "Fragebogen" (1992) by Max Frisch is shown to contain appropriately challenging linguistic constructions for use in courses as a supplement to traditional anthologies in conversation/composition courses. Frisch's eleven questionnaires on topics ranging from "Heimat," marriage and private property to humor, money and death serve as…

  13. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  14. MAX-DOAS retrieval of aerosol extinction properties in Madrid, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Frieß, Udo; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    We present Multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) measurements performed in the urban environment of Madrid, Spain, from March to September 2015. The O4 absorption in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region was used to retrieve the aerosol extinction profile using an inversion algorithm. The results show a good agreement between the hourly retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the correlative Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) product. Higher AODs are found in the summer season due to the more frequent occurrence of Saharan dust intrusions. The surface aerosol extinction coefficient as retrieved by the MAX-DOAS measurements was also compared to in situ PM2:5 concentrations. The level of agreement between both measurements indicates that the MAX-DOAS retrieval has the ability to characterize the extinction of aerosol particles near the surface. The retrieval algorithm was also used to study a case of severe dust intrusion on 12 May 2015. The capability of the MAX-DOAS retrieval to recognize the dust event including an elevated particle layer is investigated along with air mass back-trajectory analysis.

  15. Distinct transcriptional profiles of ozone stress in soybean (Glycine max) flowers and pods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant and anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Concentrations of tropospheric O3 ([O3] have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution, and are high enough to damage plant productivity. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is the world's most important legume...

  16. Community Music during the New Deal: The Contributions of Willem Van de Wall and Max Kaplan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krikun, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Willem Van de Wall (1887-1953) and Max Kaplan (1911-98) built careers spanning music performance, music education, adult education, sociology, social work, music therapy and community music. Willem Van de Wall was a seminal influence on the development of the fields of music therapy and adult education--researching the role of music in…

  17. A Modified MinMax k-Means Algorithm Based on PSO.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Bai, Yanping

    The MinMax k -means algorithm is widely used to tackle the effect of bad initialization by minimizing the maximum intraclustering errors. Two parameters, including the exponent parameter and memory parameter, are involved in the executive process. Since different parameters have different clustering errors, it is crucial to choose appropriate parameters. In the original algorithm, a practical framework is given. Such framework extends the MinMax k -means to automatically adapt the exponent parameter to the data set. It has been believed that if the maximum exponent parameter has been set, then the programme can reach the lowest intraclustering errors. However, our experiments show that this is not always correct. In this paper, we modified the MinMax k -means algorithm by PSO to determine the proper values of parameters which can subject the algorithm to attain the lowest clustering errors. The proposed clustering method is tested on some favorite data sets in several different initial situations and is compared to the k -means algorithm and the original MinMax k -means algorithm. The experimental results indicate that our proposed algorithm can reach the lowest clustering errors automatically.

  18. A Modified MinMax k-Means Algorithm Based on PSO

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The MinMax k-means algorithm is widely used to tackle the effect of bad initialization by minimizing the maximum intraclustering errors. Two parameters, including the exponent parameter and memory parameter, are involved in the executive process. Since different parameters have different clustering errors, it is crucial to choose appropriate parameters. In the original algorithm, a practical framework is given. Such framework extends the MinMax k-means to automatically adapt the exponent parameter to the data set. It has been believed that if the maximum exponent parameter has been set, then the programme can reach the lowest intraclustering errors. However, our experiments show that this is not always correct. In this paper, we modified the MinMax k-means algorithm by PSO to determine the proper values of parameters which can subject the algorithm to attain the lowest clustering errors. The proposed clustering method is tested on some favorite data sets in several different initial situations and is compared to the k-means algorithm and the original MinMax k-means algorithm. The experimental results indicate that our proposed algorithm can reach the lowest clustering errors automatically. PMID:27656201

  19. Rescuing the MaxEnt treatment for q-generalized entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plastino, A.; Rocca, M. C.

    2018-02-01

    It has been recently argued that the MaxEnt variational problem would not adequately work for Renyi's and Tsallis' entropies. We constructively show here that this is not so if one formulates the associated variational problem in a more orthodox functional fashion.

  20. Coleman performs VO2 Max PFS Software Calibrations and Instrument Check

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    ISS026-E-029180 (24 Feb. 2011) --- NASA astronaut Catherine (Cady) Coleman, Expedition 26 flight engineer, performs VO2max portable Pulmonary Function System (PFS) software calibrations and instrument check while using the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  1. Influence of a physical exercise program on VO2max in adults with cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Meseguer Zafra, Marcos; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Pérez-Soto, Juan José; Tárraga López, Pedro Juan; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; Tarraga López, M Loreto

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of a physical exercise program on VO 2 max in sedentary subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. The sample was composed of 214 patients (80 males, 134 females) with an average age of 52 years, who were referred to a physical exercise program from 2 primary care centres of Spanish southeast. It was implemented a 10 week program (3 training×1h/week) combining strength with cardiorespiratory fitness. TheVO 2 max was analyzed through the Rockport Walk Test (RWT) comparing the pre and post program measurements. The results show significant improvements on VO 2 max for both genders (p<0,05). The most pronounced increase in VO 2 max was among males in the highest age band (56-73 years). Prescribing and referral exercise programs from primary care centers must be considered as a resource for improving cardiorespiratory fitness in the population studied. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  2. VO2 Max in Variable Type Exercise Among Well-Trained Upper Body Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…

  3. On Legal Authority, Crisis of Legitimacy and Schooling in the Writings of Max Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhardt, Gero

    In an attempt to gain a better perspective on the relationship between education and the modern state, this paper reopens the theoretical debate on the key role of formal rationality in Max Weber's interpretation of the capitalist economy and the modern bureaucratic state. Against the background of an extensive review of the development and the…

  4. Mobile Telemedicine Implementation with WiMAX Technology: A Case Study of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tchao, Eric Tutu; Diawuo, Kwasi; Ofosu, Willie K

    2017-01-01

    Telemedicine has become an effective means of delivering quality healthcare in the world. Across the African continent, Telemedicine is increasingly being recognized as a way of improving access to quality healthcare. The use of technology to deliver quality healthcare has been demonstrated as an effective way of overcoming geographic barriers to healthcare in pilot Telemedicine projects in certain parts of Kumasi, Ghana. However because of poor network connectivity experienced in the pilot projects, the success of the pilot networks could not be extended to cover the whole city of Kumasi and other surrounding villages. Fortunately, recent deployment of WiMAX in Ghana has delivered higher data rates at longer distances with improved network connectivity. This paper examines the feasibility of using WiMAX in deploying a city wide Mobile Telemedicine solution. The network architecture and network parameter simulations of the proposed Mobile Telemedicine network using WiMAX are presented. Five WiMAX Base Stations have been suggested to give ubiquitous coverage to the proposed Mobile Telemedicine sites in the network using adaptive 4 × 4 MIMO antenna configurations.

  5. Stages in Educational Reform; The Max Planck Institute Has Produced a Report on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeffer, Gottfried

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the Max Planck Institute's exhaustive report on West German educational trends since World War II. An analysis of the effects of changing social values and demographic factors on educational policy, school organization, enrollment trends, curriculum design, and teaching methods is included. (AM)

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training Increases Cardiac Output and V˙O2max.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael A; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi M

    2017-02-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) frequently occur with high-intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the specific adaptation explaining this result remains elusive. This study examined changes in V˙O2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to periodized HIIT. Thirty-nine active men and women (mean age and V˙O2max = 22.9 ± 5.4 yr and 39.6 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min) performed HIIT and 32 men and women (age and V˙O2max = 25.7 ± 4.5 yr and 40.7 ± 5.2 mL·kg·min) were nonexercising controls (CON). The first 10 sessions of HIIT required eight to ten 60 s bouts of cycling at 90%-110% percent peak power output interspersed with 75 s recovery, followed by randomization to one of three regimes (sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume interval training (HIITHI), or periodized interval training (PER) for the subsequent 10 sessions. Before, midway, and at the end of training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which V˙O2max and maximal CO were estimated. Compared with CON, significant (P < 0.001) increases in V˙O2max in HIIT + SIT (39.8 ± 7.3 mL·kg·min to 43.6 ± 6.1 mL·kg·min), HIIT + HIITHI (41.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min to 44.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg·min), and HIIT + PER (39.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min to 44.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg·min) occurred which were mediated by significant increases in maximal CO (20.0 ± 3.1 L·min to 21.7 ± 3.2 L·min, P = 0.04). Maximal stroke volume was increased with HIIT (P = 0.04), although there was no change in maximal HR (P = 0.88) or arteriovenous O2 difference (P = 0.36). These CO data are accurate and represent the mean changes from pre- to post-HIIT across all three training groups. Increases in V˙O2max exhibited in response to different HIIT regimes are due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  7. Is Recreational Soccer Effective for Improving VO2max A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Čović, Nedim; Sporiš, Goran; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Soccer is the most popular sport worldwide, with a long history and currently more than 500 million active participants, of whom 300 million are registered football club members. On the basis of scientific findings showing positive fitness and health effects of recreational soccer, FIFA (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) introduced the slogan "Playing football for 45 min twice a week-best prevention of non-communicable diseases" in 2010. The objective of this paper was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to determine the effects of recreational soccer on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Six electronic databases (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) were searched for original research articles. A manual search was performed to cover the areas of recreational soccer, recreational physical activity, recreational small-sided games and VO2max using the following key terms, either singly or in combination: recreational small-sided games, recreational football, recreational soccer, street football, street soccer, effect, maximal oxygen uptake, peak oxygen uptake, cardiorespiratory fitness, VO2max. The inclusion criteria were divided into four sections: type of study, type of participants, type of interventions and type of outcome measures. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations for baseline fitness. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Mean differences showed that VO2max increased by 3.51 mL/kg/min (95 % CI 3.07-4.15) over a recreational soccer training programme in comparison with other training models. The meta-analysed effects of recreational soccer on VO2max compared with the controls of no exercise, continuous running and strength

  8. Registration of cytoplasmic male-sterile oilseed sunflower genetic stocks CMS GIG2 and CMS GIG2-RV, and fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, CMS GIG2 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and CMS GIG2-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx), and corresponding fertility restoration lines RF GIG2-MAX 1631 (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxxx) and RF GIG2-MAX 1631-RV (Reg. No. xxx, PI xxx...

  9. A comparison of VO2max and metabolic variables between treadmill running and treadmill skating.

    PubMed

    Koepp, Kriston K; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in VO2max and metabolic variables between treadmill running and treadmill skating. This study also examined VO2max responses during a continuous skating treadmill protocol and a discontinuous skating treadmill protocol. Sixteen male high school hockey players, who had a mean age of 16 +/- 1 years and were of an above-average fitness level, participated in this study. All subjects completed 4 exercise trials: a 1-hour skating treadmill familiarization trial, a treadmill running trial, and 2 randomized skating treadmill trials. Minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption VO2), carbon dioxide production VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were averaged every 15 seconds up to VO2max for each exercise test. The results showed that there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) for VO2max (mL.kg.min) and maximal VCO2 (L.min) between the running treadmill protocol and discontinuous skating treadmill protocol. There was also a significant difference for maximal RER between the discontinuous and continuous skating treadmill protocol and between the discontinuous skating treadmill protocol and running treadmill protocol. In conclusion, the running treadmill elicited a greater VO2max (mL.kg.min) than the skating treadmill did, but when it comes to specificity of ice skating, the skating treadmill may be ideal. Also, there was no significant difference between the discontinuous and continuous skating treadmill protocols. Therefore, a continuous protocol is possible on the skating treadmill without compromising correct skating position and physiologic responses. However, the continuous skating treadmill protocol should undergo validation before other scientists, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals can apply it correctly.

  10. Influence of simulated microgravity on the VO2 max of nontrained and trained rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, C. R.; Monnin, K. A.; Sebastian, L. A.; Tipton, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    Head-down suspension (HDS) of rats has evolved as a useful model for the simulation of a microgravity environment. Previous HDS experiments with rats have shown an impaired capacity to perform aerobic exercise as demonstrated by reductions in maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max), treadmill run time (RT), and mechanical efficiency (ME) of treadmill running at submaximal conditions. To determine whether endurance training (TR) before HDS would modify exercise performance, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to nontrained (NT) or TR groups for 6 wk and exposed to HDS or cage control (CC) conditions for 29 days. The rats were tested for VO2 max, RT, and ME before treatment and on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. In addition, water and electrolyte excretion was measured on days 1 and 21 of the experimental period. Before HDS, the TR rats had significantly higher measures of VO2 max (15%) and RT (22%) than the NT rats. On day 28, HDS was associated with significant reductions in absolute VO2 max (ml/min) in TR (-30%) and NT (-14%) rats. Relative VO2 max (ml.min-1.kg-1) was significantly reduced in TR (-15%) but not NT rats. Similar reductions in RT occurred in TR (-37%) and NT (-35%) rats by day 28. ME was reduced 22% in both TR and NT rats after 28 days of suspension. HDS elicited diuresis, natriuresis, and kaliuresis in TR rats after 21 days but not after 24 h. In contrast, HDS-NT rats exhibited no diuretic, natriuretic, or kaliuretic responses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  11. The effect of cloud screening on MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Clio; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrik, Francois; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Pinardi, Gaia; De Backer, Hugo; De Bock, Veerle; Laffineur, Quentin; Vlemmix, Tim

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, ground-based multi-axis differential absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) has shown to be ideally suited for the retrieval of tropospheric trace gases and deriving information on the aerosol properties. These measurements are invaluable to our understanding of the physics and chemistry of the atmospheric system, and the impact on the Earth's climate. Unfortunately, MAX-DOAS measurements are often performed under strong non-clear-sky conditions, causing strong data quality degradation and uncertainties on the retrievals. Here we present the result of our cloud-screening method, using the colour index (CI), on aerosol retrievals from MAX-DOAS measurements (AOD and vertical profiles). We focus on two large data sets, from the Brussels and Beijing area. Using the CI we define 3 different sky conditions: bad (=full thick cloud cover/extreme aerosols), mediocre (=thin clouds/aerosols) and good (=clear sky). We also flag the presence of broken/scattered clouds. We further compare our cloud-screening method with results from cloud-cover fractions derived from thermic infrared measurements. In general, our method shows good results to qualify the sky and cloud conditions of MAX-DOAS measurements, without the need for other external cloud-detection systems. Removing data under bad-sky and broken-cloud conditions results in a strongly improved agreement, in both correlation and slope, between the MAX-DOAS aerosol retrievals and data from other instruments (e.g. AERONET, Brewer). With the improved AOD retrievals, the seasonal and diurnal variations of the aerosol content and vertical distribution at both sites can be investigated in further detail. By combining with additional information derived by other instruments (Brewer, lidar, ...) operated at the stations, we will further study the observed aerosol characteristics, and their influence on and by meteorological conditions such as clouds and/or the boundary layer height.

  12. 75 FR 12730 - Foreign-Trade Zone 158-Vicksburg/Jackson, MS; Amendment to Application for Subzone; Max Home, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...-purpose subzone status for the upholstered furniture manufacturing facilities of Max Home, LLC (Max Home... additional manufacturing plant and warehouse (100 employees/ 26 acres/160,000 sq. ft.) are located at 1313... finished upholstered furniture (chairs, seats, sofas, sleep sofas, and sectionals). The additional...

  13. Cross-Validation of the YMCA Submaximal Cycle Ergometer Test to Predict V[o.sub.2] Max

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beekley, Matthew D.; Brechue, William F.; deHoyos, Diego V.; Garzarella, Linda; Werber-Zion, Galila; Pollock, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Maximal oxygen uptake (V[O.sub.2]max) is an important indicator of health-risk status, specifically for coronary heart disease (Blair et al., 1989). Direct measurement of V[O.sub.2]max is considered to be the most accurate means of determining cardiovascular fitness level. Typically, this measurement is taken using a progressive exercise test on a…

  14. E2GPR - Edit your geometry, Execute GprMax2D and Plot the Results!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, Daniele; Pajewski, Lara

    2015-04-01

    In order to predict correctly the Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) response from a particular scenario, Maxwell's equations have to be solved, subject to the physical and geometrical properties of the considered problem and to its initial conditions. Several techniques have been developed in computational electromagnetics, for the solution of Maxwell's equations. These methods can be classified into two main categories: differential and integral equation solvers, which can be implemented in the time or spectral domain. All of the different methods present compromises between computational efficiency, stability, and the ability to model complex geometries. The Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) technique has several advantages over alternative approaches: it has inherent simplicity, efficiency and conditional stability; it is suitable to treat impulsive behavior of the electromagnetic field and can provide either ultra-wideband temporal waveforms or the sinusoidal steady-state response at any frequency within the excitation spectrum; it is accurate and highly versatile; and it has become a mature and well-researched technique. Moreover, the FDTD technique is suitable to be executed on parallel-processing CPU-based computers and to exploit the modern computer visualisation capabilities. GprMax [1] is a very well-known and largely validated FDTD software tool, implemented by A. Giannopoulos and available for free public download on www.gprmax.com, together with examples and a detailled user guide. The tool includes two electromagnetic wave simulators, GprMax2D and GprMax3D, for the full-wave simulation of two-dimensional and three-dimensional GPR models. In GprMax, everything can be done with the aid of simple commands that are used to define the model parameters and results to be calculated. These commands need to be entered in a simple ASCII text file. GprMax output files can be stored in ASCII or binary format. The software is provided with MATLAB functions, which

  15. Max Roach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Books Bulletin, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the politics and economics of black music. Asks the question, "Since our culture has become big business, and it (black music) is a commodity, why is it that we do not control it and make the profit so we can use that profit for our own benefit? How can the black community become involved in the situation?" (Author/JM)

  16. Development of a cloud-screening method for MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, Clio; Van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrik, Francois; Fayt, Caroline; Hermans, Christian; Pinardi, Gaia; Vlemmix, Tim

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, ground-based multi-axis differential absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) has shown to be ideally suited for the retrieval of tropospheric trace gases and deriving information on the aerosol properties. These measurements are invaluable to our understanding of the physics and chemistry of the atmospheric system, and the impact on the Earth's climate. Unfortunately, MAX-DOAS measurements are often performed under (partially) cloudy conditions, causing data quality degradation and higher uncertainties on the retrievals. A high aerosol load and/or a strong cloud cover can introduce additional photon absorption or multiple scattering. The first effect strongly impacts the retrieved differential slant columns (DSCDs) of the trace gases, leading to an underestimation of the atmospheric column density. Multiple scattering, on the other hand, becomes important for low clouds with a high optical depth, and cause a strong increase in the retrieved trace gas DSCDs. The presence of thin clouds can furthermore introduce a degeneracy in the retrieved aerosol optical depth, since they will have similar effect on the MAX-DOAS measurements. In this case, only information on the trace gas DSCDs can be successfully retrieved. If the cloud cover consists of broken or scattered clouds, the MAX-DOAS method becomes very unstable, since the different elevation angels will probe regions of the sky with strongly deviating properties. Here we present a method to qualify the sky and cloud conditions, using the colour index and O4 DSCDs, as derived from the MAX-DOAS measurements. The colour index is defined as the ratio of the intensities at the short- and long-wavelength part of the visible spectral range, typically at 400 nm and 670 nm. For increasing optical thickness due to clouds or aerosols, the colour index values decrease and values for different elevation angles converge. In the case of broken clouds, the colour index shows a strong and rapid temporal variation, which

  17. Effects of training on muscle O2 transport at VO2max

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roca, J.; Agusti, A. G.; Alonso, A.; Poole, D. C.; Viegas, C.; Barbera, J. A.; Rodriguez-Roisin, R.; Ferrer, A.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    To quantify the relative contributions of convective and peripheral diffusive components of O2 transport to the increase in leg O2 uptake (VO2leg) at maximum O2 uptake (VO2max) after 9 wk of endurance training, 12 sedentary subjects (age 21.8 +/- 3.4 yr, VO2max 36.9 +/- 5.9 ml.min-1.kg-1) were studied. VO2max, leg blood flow (Qleg), and arterial and femoral venous PO2, and thus VO2leg, were measured while the subjects breathed room air, 15% O2, and 12% O2. The sequence of the three inspirates was balanced. After training, VO2max and VO2leg increased at each inspired O2 concentration [FIO2; mean over the 3 FIO2 values 25.2 +/- 17.8 and 36.5 +/- 33% (SD), respectively]. Before training, VO2leg and mean capillary PO2 were linearly related through the origin during hypoxia but not during room air breathing, suggesting that, at 21% O2, VO2max was not limited by O2 supply. After training, VO2leg and mean capillary PO2 at each FIO2 fell along a straight line with zero intercept, just as in athletes (Roca et al. J. Appl. Physiol. 67: 291-299, 1989). Calculated muscle O2 diffusing capacity (DO2) rose 34% while Qleg increased 19%. The relatively greater rise in DO2 increased the DO2/Qleg, which led to 9.9% greater O2 extraction. By numerical analysis, the increase in Qleg alone (constant DO2) would have raised VO2leg by 35 ml/min (mean), but that of DO2 (constant Qleg) would have increased VO2leg by 85 ml/min, more than twice as much. The sum of these individual effects (120 ml/min) was less (P = 0.013) than the observed rise of 164 ml/min (mean). This synergism (explained by the increase in DO2/Qleg) seems to be an important contribution to increases in VO2max with training.

  18. Sequence-specific DNA binding by MYC/MAX to low-affinity non-E-box motifs.

    PubMed

    Allevato, Michael; Bolotin, Eugene; Grossman, Mark; Mane-Padros, Daniel; Sladek, Frances M; Martinez, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    The MYC oncoprotein regulates transcription of a large fraction of the genome as an obligatory heterodimer with the transcription factor MAX. The MYC:MAX heterodimer and MAX:MAX homodimer (hereafter MYC/MAX) bind Enhancer box (E-box) DNA elements (CANNTG) and have the greatest affinity for the canonical MYC E-box (CME) CACGTG. However, MYC:MAX also recognizes E-box variants and was reported to bind DNA in a "non-specific" fashion in vitro and in vivo. Here, in order to identify potential additional non-canonical binding sites for MYC/MAX, we employed high throughput in vitro protein-binding microarrays, along with electrophoretic mobility-shift assays and bioinformatic analyses of MYC-bound genomic loci in vivo. We identified all hexameric motifs preferentially bound by MYC/MAX in vitro, which include the low-affinity non-E-box sequence AACGTT, and found that the vast majority (87%) of MYC-bound genomic sites in a human B cell line contain at least one of the top 21 motifs bound by MYC:MAX in vitro. We further show that high MYC/MAX concentrations are needed for specific binding to the low-affinity sequence AACGTT in vitro and that elevated MYC levels in vivo more markedly increase the occupancy of AACGTT sites relative to CME sites, especially at distal intergenic and intragenic loci. Hence, MYC binds diverse DNA motifs with a broad range of affinities in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner, suggesting that MYC overexpression has more selective effects on the tumor transcriptome than previously thought.

  19. Two errors in enteric epidemiology: the stories of Austin Flint and Max von Pettenkofer.

    PubMed

    Evans, A S

    1985-01-01

    The misconceptions of two physicians, Austin Flint and Max von Pettenkofer, in interpreting epidemiologic data on the water transmission of enteric disease are reviewed. Austin Flint failed to recognize the transmission of typhoid fever from well water in an epidemic he investigated in North Boston, New York, in 1843. He later discovered and freely admitted his error. Max von Pettenkofer, who had studied cholera in the 1854 outbreak and in many subsequent outbreaks, failed to confirm John Snow's observations in England on the water transmission of cholera. Pettenkofer eventually swallowed live cholera bacilli and did not develop cholera. He remained convinced to the end of his life that cholera is not directly transmitted by drinking water.

  20. Selective inhibition of c-Myc/Max dimerization and DNA binding by small molecules.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Anke; Sperl, Bianca; Hollis, Angela; Eick, Dirk; Berg, Thorsten

    2006-07-01

    bZip and bHLHZip protein family members comprise a large fraction of eukaryotic transcription factors and need to bind DNA in order to exert most of their fundamental biological roles. Their binding to DNA requires homo- or heterodimerization via alpha-helical domains, which generally do not contain obvious binding sites for small molecules. We have identified two small molecules, dubbed Mycro1 and Mycro2, which inhibit the protein-protein interactions between the bHLHZip proteins c-Myc and Max. Mycros are the first inhibitors of c-Myc/Max dimerization, which have been demonstrated to inhibit DNA binding of c-Myc with preference over other dimeric transcription factors in vitro. Mycros inhibit c-Myc-dependent proliferation, gene transcription, and oncogenic transformation in the low micromolar concentration range. Our data support the idea that dimeric transcription factors can be druggable even in the absence of obvious small-molecule binding pockets.

  1. Max Sandreczky: a pediatric surgeon in 19th-century Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Nissan, S; Martin, P

    1998-08-01

    Until the mid-19th century, there had not been a single resident physician in the Holy Land. However, by the first World War in 1914, 19 hospitals had been established in Jerusalem. The reasons for this unusual phenomenon were religious, political, and sectarian. This does not apply to The Marienstift Kinderhospital, which was unique in 19th century Jerusalem. The hospital was founded and operated by Dr Max Sandreczky, a German pediatric surgeon. The standards of medical and surgical practice in the hospital not only compared favorably with those in western Europe, but, in certain aspects, they were more advanced. The Marienstift Kinderhospital was an "implant" of a western institution in a society that was medieval in character. The response of this society was studied as well as the natural history of this unique institution and its medical director, the pediatric surgeon, Dr Max Sandreczky.

  2. On Max-Plus Algebra and Its Application on Image Steganography

    PubMed Central

    Santoso, Kiswara Agung

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new steganography method to hide an image into another image using matrix multiplication operations on max-plus algebra. This is especially interesting because the matrix used in encoding or information disguises generally has an inverse, whereas matrix multiplication operations in max-plus algebra do not have an inverse. The advantages of this method are the size of the image that can be hidden into the cover image, larger than the previous method. The proposed method has been tested on many secret images, and the results are satisfactory which have a high level of strength and a high level of security and can be used in various operating systems. PMID:29887761

  3. [Establishment of database with standard 3D tooth crowns based on 3DS MAX].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaosheng; An, Tao; Liao, Wenhe; Dai, Ning; Yu, Qing; Lu, Peijun

    2009-08-01

    The database with standard 3D tooth crowns has laid the groundwork for dental CAD/CAM system. In this paper, we design the standard tooth crowns in 3DS MAX 9.0 and create a database with these models successfully. Firstly, some key lines are collected from standard tooth pictures. Then we use 3DS MAX 9.0 to design the digital tooth model based on these lines. During the design process, it is important to refer to the standard plaster tooth model. After some tests, the standard tooth models designed with this method are accurate and adaptable; furthermore, it is very easy to perform some operations on the models such as deforming and translating. This method provides a new idea to build the database with standard 3D tooth crowns and a basis for dental CAD/CAM system.

  4. Human connectome module pattern detection using a new multi-graph MinMax cut model.

    PubMed

    De, Wang; Wang, Yang; Nie, Feiping; Yan, Jingwen; Cai, Weidong; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Huang, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Many recent scientific efforts have been devoted to constructing the human connectome using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data for understanding the large-scale brain networks that underlie higher-level cognition in human. However, suitable computational network analysis tools are still lacking in human connectome research. To address this problem, we propose a novel multi-graph min-max cut model to detect the consistent network modules from the brain connectivity networks of all studied subjects. A new multi-graph MinMax cut model is introduced to solve this challenging computational neuroscience problem and the efficient optimization algorithm is derived. In the identified connectome module patterns, each network module shows similar connectivity patterns in all subjects, which potentially associate to specific brain functions shared by all subjects. We validate our method by analyzing the weighted fiber connectivity networks. The promising empirical results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Security Enhancement Using Cache Based Reauthentication in WiMAX Based E-Learning System.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Chithra; Bhuvaneshwaran, Kalaavathi

    2015-01-01

    WiMAX networks are the most suitable for E-Learning through their Broadcast and Multicast Services at rural areas. Authentication of users is carried out by AAA server in WiMAX. In E-Learning systems the users must be forced to perform reauthentication to overcome the session hijacking problem. The reauthentication of users introduces frequent delay in the data access which is crucial in delaying sensitive applications such as E-Learning. In order to perform fast reauthentication caching mechanism known as Key Caching Based Authentication scheme is introduced in this paper. Even though the cache mechanism requires extra storage to keep the user credentials, this type of mechanism reduces the 50% of the delay occurring during reauthentication.

  6. Running Performance, VO2max, and Running Economy: The Widespread Issue of Endogenous Selection Bias.

    PubMed

    Borgen, Nicolai T

    2018-05-01

    Studies in sport and exercise medicine routinely use samples of highly trained individuals in order to understand what characterizes elite endurance performance, such as running economy and maximal oxygen uptake VO 2max . However, it is not well understood in the literature that using such samples most certainly leads to biased findings and accordingly potentially erroneous conclusions because of endogenous selection bias. In this paper, I review the current literature on running economy and VO 2max , and discuss the literature in light of endogenous selection bias. I demonstrate that the results in a large part of the literature may be misleading, and provide some practical suggestions as to how future studies may alleviate endogenous selection bias.

  7. MaxEnt-Based Ecological Theory: A Template for Integrated Catchment Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, J.

    2017-12-01

    The maximum information entropy procedure (MaxEnt) is both a powerful tool for inferring least-biased probability distributions from limited data and a framework for the construction of complex systems theory. The maximum entropy theory of ecology (METE) describes remarkably well widely observed patterns in the distribution, abundance and energetics of individuals and taxa in relatively static ecosystems. An extension to ecosystems undergoing change in response to disturbance or natural succession (DynaMETE) is in progress. I describe the structure of both the static and the dynamic theory and show a range of comparisons with census data. I then propose a generalization of the MaxEnt approach that could provide a framework for a predictive theory of both static and dynamic, fully-coupled, eco-socio-hydrological catchment systems.

  8. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  9. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barsoum, Michel; Bentzel, Grady; Tallman, Darin J.

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosenmore » for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.« less

  10. Motion control system of MAX IV Laboratory soft x-ray beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Sjöblom, Peter, E-mail: peter.sjoblom@maxlab.lu.se; Lindberg, Mirjam, E-mail: mirjam.lindberg@maxlab.lu.se; Forsberg, Johan, E-mail: johan.forsberg@maxlab.lu.se

    2016-07-27

    At the MAX IV Laboratory, five new soft x-ray beamlines are under development. The first is Species and it will be used to develop and set the standard of the control system, which will be common across the facility. All motion axes at MAX IV will be motorized using stepper motors steered by the IcePAP motion controller and a mixture of absolute and incremental encoders following a predefined coordinate system. The control system software is built in Tango and uses the Python-based Sardana framework. The user controls the entire beamline through a synoptic overview and Sardana is used to runmore » the scans.« less

  11. Security Enhancement Using Cache Based Reauthentication in WiMAX Based E-Learning System

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Chithra; Bhuvaneshwaran, Kalaavathi

    2015-01-01

    WiMAX networks are the most suitable for E-Learning through their Broadcast and Multicast Services at rural areas. Authentication of users is carried out by AAA server in WiMAX. In E-Learning systems the users must be forced to perform reauthentication to overcome the session hijacking problem. The reauthentication of users introduces frequent delay in the data access which is crucial in delaying sensitive applications such as E-Learning. In order to perform fast reauthentication caching mechanism known as Key Caching Based Authentication scheme is introduced in this paper. Even though the cache mechanism requires extra storage to keep the user credentials, this type of mechanism reduces the 50% of the delay occurring during reauthentication. PMID:26351658

  12. Increased hemoglobin mass and VO2max with 10 h nightly simulated altitude at 3000 m.

    PubMed

    Neya, Mitsuo; Enoki, Taisuke; Ohiwa, Nao; Kawahara, Takashi; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    To quantify the changes of hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) and maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) after 22 days training at 1300-1800 m combined with nightly exposure to 3000-m simulated altitude. We hypothesized that with simulated 3000-m altitude, an adequate beneficial dose could be as little as 10 h/24 h. Fourteen male collegiate runners were equally divided into 2 groups: altitude (ALT) and control (CON). Both groups spent 22 days at 1300-1800 m. ALT spent 10 h/night for 21 nights in simulated altitude (3000 m), and CON stayed at 1300 m. VO2max and Hbmass were measured twice before and once after the intervention. Blood was collected for assessment of percent reticulocytes (%retics), serum erythropoietin (EPO), ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) concentrations. Compared with CON there was an almost certain increase in absolute VO2max (8.6%, 90% confidence interval 4.8-12.6%) and a likely increase in absolute Hbmass (3.5%; 0.9-6.2%) at postintervention. The %retics were at least very likely higher in ALT than in CON throughout the 21 nights, and sTfR was also very likely higher in the ALT group until day 17. EPO of ALT was likely higher than that of CON on days 1 and 5 at altitude, whereas serum ferritin was likely lower in ALT than CON for most of the intervention. Together the combination of the natural and simulated altitude was a sufficient total dose of hypoxia to increase both Hbmass and VO2max.

  13. The final days of Solar Max - Lessons learned from engineering evaluation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, Michael L.; Croft, John W.; Ward, David K.; Thames, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    End-of-life engineering evaluation tests were performed on Solar Max between October and November 1989. The tests included four-wheel control law operation; reaction wheel rundowns; modular power subsystem standard power regulator unit voltage-temperature level tests; battery rundown/2nd plateau determination; high gain antenna retraction and jettison; and solar array jettison. This paper presents these tests, their results, and the lessons learned from them.

  14. Evaluation of a new automated microscopy urine sediment analyser - sediMAX conTRUST®.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Laura; Peeters, Bart; Billen, Jaak

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the performance of the stand-alone sediMAX conTRUST (77Elektronika, Budapest, Hungary) analyser as an alternative to microscopic analysis of urine. The validation included a precision, carry-over, categorical correlation and diagnostic performance study with manual phase-contrast microscopy as reference method. A total of 260 routine urine samples were assessed. The within-run precision was much better at higher concentrations than at very low concentrations. The precision met our predefined limits for all the elements at the different concentrations, with the exception of the lowest RBC, the WBC, pathological casts and crystals count. There was no sample carry-over. The analyser showed good categorical agreement with manual microscopy for RBC and WBC counts, moderate agreement for yeast cells, crystals and squamous epithelial cells and bad agreement for non-squamous epithelial cells, bacteria and casts. Diagnostic performance was satisfying only for RBC, WBC and yeast cells. The number of false negative results was acceptable (≤4%) for all elements after connecting the sediMAX conTRUST with an automatic strip reader (AutionMAX) and after implementation of review rules. We conclude that the sediMAX conTRUST should be used as a screening tool in combination with an automatic strip reader, for the identification of normal samples. Therefore, adequate review rules should be defined. Manual microscopy is still required in 'flagged' pathological samples. Despite the poor analytical performance on pathological samples, the images on the screen can be used for interpretation without the microscope and can be stored as PDF-documents for archiving the results.

  15. Design and Development of Basic Physical Layer WiMAX Network Simulation Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Wide Web . The third software version was developed during the period of 22 August to 4 November, 2008. The software version developed during the...researched on the Web . The mathematics of some fundamental concepts such as Fourier transforms, convolutional coding techniques were also reviewed...Mathworks Matlab users’ website. A simulation model was found, entitled Estudio y Simulacion de la capa Jisica de la norma 802.16 ( Sistema WiMAX) developed

  16. Max 1991: Flare Research at the Next Solar Maximum. Workshop 1: Scientific Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.; Dennis, Brian R.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the Max 1991 program is to gather coordinated sets of solar flare and active region data and to perform interpretive and theoretical research aimed at understanding flare energy storage and release, particle acceleration, flare energy transport, and the propagation of flare effects to Earth. The workshop was divided into four areas of concern: energy storage, energy release, particle acceleration, and energy transport.

  17. Research on 3D virtual campus scene modeling based on 3ds Max and VRML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Chuanli; Zhou, Yanliu; Liang, Xianyue

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of modem technology, the digital information management and the virtual reality simulation technology has become a research hotspot. Virtual campus 3D model can not only express the real world objects of natural, real and vivid, and can expand the campus of the reality of time and space dimension, the combination of school environment and information. This paper mainly uses 3ds Max technology to create three-dimensional model of building and on campus buildings, special land etc. And then, the dynamic interactive function is realized by programming the object model in 3ds Max by VRML .This research focus on virtual campus scene modeling technology and VRML Scene Design, and the scene design process in a variety of real-time processing technology optimization strategy. This paper guarantees texture map image quality and improve the running speed of image texture mapping. According to the features and architecture of Guilin University of Technology, 3ds Max, AutoCAD and VRML were used to model the different objects of the virtual campus. Finally, the result of virtual campus scene is summarized.

  18. Amortization does not enhance the max-Rains information of a quantum channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, Mario; Wilde, Mark M.

    2018-05-01

    Given an entanglement measure E, the entanglement of a quantum channel is defined as the largest amount of entanglement E that can be generated from the channel, if the sender and receiver are not allowed to share a quantum state before using the channel. The amortized entanglement of a quantum channel is defined as the largest net amount of entanglement E that can be generated from the channel, if the sender and receiver are allowed to share an arbitrary state before using the channel. Our main technical result is that amortization does not enhance the entanglement of an arbitrary quantum channel, when entanglement is quantified by the max-Rains relative entropy. We prove this statement by employing semi-definite programming (SDP) duality and SDP formulations for the max-Rains relative entropy and a channel’s max-Rains information, found recently in Wang et al (arXiv:1709.00200). The main application of our result is a single-letter, strong converse, and efficiently computable upper bound on the capacity of a quantum channel for transmitting qubits when assisted by positive-partial-transpose preserving (PPT-P) channels between every use of the channel. As the class of local operations and classical communication (LOCC) is contained in PPT-P, our result establishes a benchmark for the LOCC-assisted quantum capacity of an arbitrary quantum channel, which is relevant in the context of distributed quantum computation and quantum key distribution.

  19. An Integrated Method Based on PSO and EDA for the Max-Cut Problem.

    PubMed

    Lin, Geng; Guan, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The max-cut problem is NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem with many real world applications. In this paper, we propose an integrated method based on particle swarm optimization and estimation of distribution algorithm (PSO-EDA) for solving the max-cut problem. The integrated algorithm overcomes the shortcomings of particle swarm optimization and estimation of distribution algorithm. To enhance the performance of the PSO-EDA, a fast local search procedure is applied. In addition, a path relinking procedure is developed to intensify the search. To evaluate the performance of PSO-EDA, extensive experiments were carried out on two sets of benchmark instances with 800 to 20,000 vertices from the literature. Computational results and comparisons show that PSO-EDA significantly outperforms the existing PSO-based and EDA-based algorithms for the max-cut problem. Compared with other best performing algorithms, PSO-EDA is able to find very competitive results in terms of solution quality.

  20. [Infinite optical thickness of dentine porcelain of IPS E.max A color series].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Shao, Long-quan; Yi, Yuan-fu; Deng, Bin; Wen, Ning; Zhang, Wei-wei

    2011-02-01

    To determine the infinite optical thickness of dentine porcelain of IPS E.max A color series. Cylindrical dentine porcelain specimens of the IPS E.max A color series were prepared with a diameter of 13 mm and thickness of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 mm. The chromatic value of all the specimens was determined with CM-5 spectrometer against standard black and white background. The chromatic aberration (deltaE) was calculated by regression equation. The infinite optical thickness of dentine porcelain of the IPS E.max A color series ranged from 2.341 to 3.333 mm for a deltaE of 1.0, and from 2.064 to 2.904 mm for a deltaE of 1.5. As the chromaticity or thickness increased, the influence by the background color decreased, and the color of specimens became gradually close to the intrinsic color. The thickness of the background dentine porcelain specimens must exceed its infinite optical thickness to represent the intrinsic color and avoid the influence by the extrinsic color.

  1. Microstructure and Oxidation of a MAX Phase/Superalloy Hybrid Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion resistant, strain tolerant MAX phase coatings are of interest for turbine applications. Thin Cr2AlC MAX phase wafers were vacuum diffusion bonded to an advanced turbine disk alloy, LSHR, at 1100 C. The interface, examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, revealed a primary diffusion zone consisting of 10 micrometers of beta-Ni(Co)Al, decorated with various NiCoCrAl, MC and M3B2 precipitates. On the Cr2AlC side, an additional 40 micrometers Al-depletion zone of Cr7C3 formed in an interconnected network with the beta-Ni(Co)Al. Oxidation of an exposed edge at 800 C for 100 h produced a fine-grained lenticular alumina scale over Cr2AlC and beta-Ni(Co)Al, with coarser chromia granules over the Cr7C3 regions. Subsequent growth of the diffusion layers was only 5 micrometers in total. A residual stress of 500 MPa was estimated for the MAX phase layer, but no interfacial damage was observed. Subsequent tests for 1000 h reveal similar results.

  2. Optimizing Multiple QoS for Workflow Applications using PSO and Min-Max Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar Ambursa, Faruku; Latip, Rohaya; Abdullah, Azizol; Subramaniam, Shamala

    2017-08-01

    Workflow scheduling under multiple QoS constraints is a complicated optimization problem. Metaheuristic techniques are excellent approaches used in dealing with such problem. Many metaheuristic based algorithms have been proposed, that considers various economic and trustworthy QoS dimensions. However, most of these approaches lead to high violation of user-defined QoS requirements in tight situation. Recently, a new Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based QoS-aware workflow scheduling strategy (LAPSO) is proposed to improve performance in such situations. LAPSO algorithm is designed based on synergy between a violation handling method and a hybrid of PSO and min-max heuristic. Simulation results showed a great potential of LAPSO algorithm to handling user requirements even in tight situations. In this paper, the performance of the algorithm is anlysed further. Specifically, the impact of the min-max strategy on the performance of the algorithm is revealed. This is achieved by removing the violation handling from the operation of the algorithm. The results show that LAPSO based on only the min-max method still outperforms the benchmark, even though the LAPSO with the violation handling performs more significantly better.

  3. [Prediction of ETA oligopeptides antagonists from Glycine max based on in silico proteolysis].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Lian-Sheng; Jiang, Lu-di; Luo, Gang-Gang; Lu, Fang; Chen, Yan-Kun; Wang, Ling-Zhi; Li, Gong-Yu; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-02-01

    Oligopeptides are one of the the key pharmaceutical effective constituents of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Systematic study on composition and efficacy of TCM oligopeptides is essential for the analysis of material basis and mechanism of TCM. In this study, the potential anti-hypertensive oligopeptides from Glycine max and their endothelin receptor A (ETA) antagonistic activity were discovered and predicted based on in silico technologies.Main protein sequences of G. max were collected and oligopeptides were obtained using in silico gastrointestinal tract proteolysis. Then, the pharmacophore of ETA antagonistic peptides was constructed and included one hydrophobic feature, one ionizable negative feature, one ring aromatic feature and five excluded volumes. Meanwhile, three-dimensional structure of ETA was developed by homology modeling methods for further docking studies. According to docking analysis and consensus score, the key amino acid of GLN165 was identified for ETA antagonistic activity. And 27 oligopeptides from G. max were predicted as the potential ETA antagonists by pharmacophore and docking studies.In silico proteolysis could be used to analyze the protein sequences from TCM. According to combination of in silico proteolysis and molecular simulation, the biological activities of oligopeptides could be predicted rapidly based on the known TCM protein sequence. It might provide the methodology basis for rapidly and efficiently implementing the mechanism analysis of TCM oligopeptides. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Synthesis of MAX Phases in the Zr-Ti-Al-C System.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Bensu; Lapauw, Thomas; Karakulina, Olesia M; Batuk, Maria; Cabioc'h, Thierry; Hadermann, Joke; Delville, Rémi; Lambrinou, Konstantina; Vleugels, Jozef

    2017-03-20

    This study reports on the synthesis and characterization of MAX phases in the (Zr,Ti) n+1 AlC n system. The MAX phases were synthesized by reactive hot pressing and pressureless sintering in the 1350-1700 °C temperature range. The produced ceramics contained large fractions of 211 and 312 (n = 1, 2) MAX phases, while strong evidence of a 413 (n = 3) stacking was found. Moreover, (Zr,Ti)C, ZrAl 2 , ZrAl 3 , and Zr 2 Al 3 were present as secondary phases. In general, the lattice parameters of the hexagonal 211 and 312 phases followed Vegard's law over the complete Zr-Ti solid solution range, but the 312 phase showed a non-negligible deviation from Vegard's law around the (Zr 0.33 ,Ti 0.67 ) 3 Al 1.2 C 1.6 stoichiometry. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with X-ray diffraction demonstrated ordering of the Zr and Ti atoms in the 312 phase, whereby Zr atoms occupied preferentially the central position in the close-packed M 6 X octahedral layers. The same ordering was also observed in 413 stackings present within the 312 phase. The decomposition of the secondary (Zr,Ti)C phase was attributed to the miscibility gap in the ZrC-TiC system.

  5. Resource Efficient Hardware Architecture for Fast Computation of Running Max/Min Filters

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Huitzil, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Running max/min filters on rectangular kernels are widely used in many digital signal and image processing applications. Filtering with a k × k kernel requires of k 2 − 1 comparisons per sample for a direct implementation; thus, performance scales expensively with the kernel size k. Faster computations can be achieved by kernel decomposition and using constant time one-dimensional algorithms on custom hardware. This paper presents a hardware architecture for real-time computation of running max/min filters based on the van Herk/Gil-Werman (HGW) algorithm. The proposed architecture design uses less computation and memory resources than previously reported architectures when targeted to Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Implementation results show that the architecture is able to compute max/min filters, on 1024 × 1024 images with up to 255 × 255 kernels, in around 8.4 milliseconds, 120 frames per second, at a clock frequency of 250 MHz. The implementation is highly scalable for the kernel size with good performance/area tradeoff suitable for embedded applications. The applicability of the architecture is shown for local adaptive image thresholding. PMID:24288456

  6. Retrieval of CHOCHO from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrick, Francois; Lerot, Christophe; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; De Smedt, Isabelle; Fayt, Caroline; Gielen, Clio; Hermans, Christian; Müller, Jean-Francois; Pinardi, Gaia; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Glyoxal (CHOCHO) is one of the most important carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere. It is produced mainly by the oxidation of biogenic and anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) which participate to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. CHOCHO is also directly released by biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion. Measuring this species is therefore of major importance for air quality monitoring, especially given the scarcity of available CHOCHO observational data sets. In this presentation, CHOCHO vertical profiles and corresponding column densities are retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurements in the Beijing city center and at the suburban site of Xianghe located at 60km East of Beijing. The periods covered by the observations are June 2008-April 2009 in Beijing and March 2010-December 2014 in Xianghe. We first investigate the capability of the MAX-DOAS technique to measure this species in such highly-polluted environment. Then the diurnal and seasonal cycles of CHOCHO near-surface concentrations and vertical column densities as well as the corresponding CHOCHO/HCHO ratios are examined on a long-term basis at both locations. The CHOCHO/HCHO ratios are derived from MAX-DOAS HCHO vertical profiles retrieved in parallel to the CHOCHO profiles. These diurnal and seasonal cycles are further assessed using simulations from the 3D-CTM IMAGES and observations from the OMI and GOME-2 satellite nadir instruments. The impact of these results on our knowledge about the CHOCHO budget is discussed.

  7. A linear programming approach to max-sum problem: a review.

    PubMed

    Werner, Tomás

    2007-07-01

    The max-sum labeling problem, defined as maximizing a sum of binary (i.e., pairwise) functions of discrete variables, is a general NP-hard optimization problem with many applications, such as computing the MAP configuration of a Markov random field. We review a not widely known approach to the problem, developed by Ukrainian researchers Schlesinger et al. in 1976, and show how it contributes to recent results, most importantly, those on the convex combination of trees and tree-reweighted max-product. In particular, we review Schlesinger et al.'s upper bound on the max-sum criterion, its minimization by equivalent transformations, its relation to the constraint satisfaction problem, the fact that this minimization is dual to a linear programming relaxation of the original problem, and the three kinds of consistency necessary for optimality of the upper bound. We revisit problems with Boolean variables and supermodular problems. We describe two algorithms for decreasing the upper bound. We present an example application for structural image analysis.

  8. Engineering cocrystal solubility, stability, and pH(max) by micellar solubilization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Neal; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír

    2011-12-01

    Cocrystals offer great promise in enhancing drug aqueous solubilities, but face the challenge of conversion to a less soluble drug when in contact with solvent. This manuscript shows that differential solubilization of cocrystal components by micelles can impart thermodynamic stability to otherwise unstable cocrystals. The theoretical foundation for controlling cocrystal solubility and stability is presented by considering the contributions of micellar solubilization and ionization of cocrystal components. A surfactant critical stabilization concentration (CSC) and a solution pH (pH(max)) where cocrystal and drug are thermodynamically stable are shown to characterize cocrystal stability in micellar solutions. The solubility, CSC, and pH(max) of carbamazepine cocrystals in micellar solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate predicted by the models are in very good agreement with experimental measurements. The findings from this work demonstrate that cocrystal CSC and pH(max) can be tailored from the selection of coformer and solubilizing additives such as surfactants, thus providing an unprecedented level of control over cocrystal stability and solubility via solution phase chemistry. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Developing an active emergency medical service system based on WiMAX technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Shing-Han; Cheng, Kai-An; Lu, Wen-Hui; Lin, Te-Chang

    2012-10-01

    The population structure has changed with the aging of population. In the present, elders account for 10.63% of the domestic population and the percentage is still gradually climbing. In other words, the demand for emergency services among elders in home environment is expected to grow in the future. In order to improve the efficiency and quality of emergency care, information technology should be effectively utilized to integrate medical systems and facilities, strengthen human-centered operation designs, and maximize the overall performance. The improvement in the quality and survival rate of emergency care is an important basis for better life and health of all people. Through integrated application of medical information systems and information communication technology, this study proposes a WiMAX-based emergency care system addressing the public demands for convenience, speed, safety, and human-centered operation of emergency care. This system consists of a healthcare service center, emergency medical service hospitals, and emergency ambulances. Using the wireless transmission capability of WiMAX, patients' physiological data can be transmitted from medical measurement facilities to the emergency room and emergency room doctors can provide immediate online instructions on emergency treatment via video and audio transmission. WiMAX technology enables the establishment of active emergency medical services.

  10. MAX UnMix: Introducing a new web application for unmixing magnetic coercivity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, J. M.; Maxbauer, D.; Fox, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetic minerals are present in a wide variety of natural systems and are often indicative of the natural or anthropogenic processes that led to their deposition, formation, or transformation. Unmixing the contribution of magnetic components to bulk field-dependent magnetization curves has become increasingly common in environmental and rock magnetic studies and has enhanced our ability to fingerprint the magnetic signatures of magnetic minerals with distinct compositions, grain sizes, and origins. A variety of programs have been developed over the past two decades to allow researchers to deconvolve field-dependent magnetization curves for these purposes, however many of these programs are either outdated or have obstacles that inhibit the programs usability. MAX UnMix is a new web application (available online at http://www.irm.umn.edu/maxunmix) built using the `shiny' package for R-studio that can be used to process coercivity distributions derived from magnetization curves (acquisition, demagnetization, or backfield data) via an online user-interface. Here, we use example datasets from lake sediments and paleosols to present details of the MAX UnMix model and the programs functionality. MAX UnMix is designed to be accessible, user friendly, and should serve as a useful resource for future research.

  11. Investigation of a New Handover Approach in LTE and WiMAX

    PubMed Central

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms. PMID:25379524

  12. Investigation of a new handover approach in LTE and WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Hindia, Mohammad Nour; Reza, Ahmed Wasif; Noordin, Kamarul Ariffin

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important challenges in heterogeneous networks is the connection consistency between the mobile station and the base stations. Furthermore, along the roaming process between the mobile station and the base station, the system performance degrades significantly due to the interferences from neighboring base stations, handovers to inaccurate base station and inappropriate technology selection. In this paper, several algorithms are proposed to improve mobile station performance and seamless mobility across the long-term evolution (LTE) and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) technologies, along with a minimum number of redundant handovers. Firstly, the enhanced global positioning system (GPS) and the novel received signal strength (RSS) prediction approaches are suggested to predict the target base station accurately. Then, the multiple criteria with two thresholds algorithm is proposed to prioritize the selection between LTE and WiMAX as the target technology. In addition, this study also covers the intercell and cochannel interference reduction by adjusting the frequency reuse ratio 3 (FRR3) to work with LTE and WiMAX. The obtained results demonstrate high next base station prediction efficiency and high accuracy for both horizontal and vertical handovers. Moreover, the received signal strength is kept at levels higher than the threshold, while maintaining low connection cost and delay within acceptable levels. In order to highlight the combination of the proposed algorithms' performance, it is compared with the existing RSS and multiple criteria handover decision algorithms.

  13. Proteomics Quality Control: Quality Control Software for MaxQuant Results.

    PubMed

    Bielow, Chris; Mastrobuoni, Guido; Kempa, Stefan

    2016-03-04

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics coupled to liquid chromatography has matured into an automatized, high-throughput technology, producing data on the scale of multiple gigabytes per instrument per day. Consequently, an automated quality control (QC) and quality analysis (QA) capable of detecting measurement bias, verifying consistency, and avoiding propagation of error is paramount for instrument operators and scientists in charge of downstream analysis. We have developed an R-based QC pipeline called Proteomics Quality Control (PTXQC) for bottom-up LC-MS data generated by the MaxQuant software pipeline. PTXQC creates a QC report containing a comprehensive and powerful set of QC metrics, augmented with automated scoring functions. The automated scores are collated to create an overview heatmap at the beginning of the report, giving valuable guidance also to nonspecialists. Our software supports a wide range of experimental designs, including stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), tandem mass tags (TMT), and label-free data. Furthermore, we introduce new metrics to score MaxQuant's Match-between-runs (MBR) functionality by which peptide identifications can be transferred across Raw files based on accurate retention time and m/z. Last but not least, PTXQC is easy to install and use and represents the first QC software capable of processing MaxQuant result tables. PTXQC is freely available at https://github.com/cbielow/PTXQC .

  14. Enhanced cadmium phytoremediation of Glycine max L. through bioaugmentation of cadmium-resistant bacteria assisted by biostimulation.

    PubMed

    Rojjanateeranaj, Pongsarun; Sangthong, Chirawee; Prapagdee, Benjaphorn

    2017-10-01

    This study examined the potential of three strains of cadmium-resistant bacteria, including Micrococcus sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp., to promote root elongation of Glycine max L. seedlings, soil cadmium solubility and cadmium phytoremediation in G. max L. planted in soil highly polluted with cadmium with and without nutrient biostimulation. Micrococcus sp. promoted root length in G. max L. seedlings under toxic cadmium conditions. Soil inoculation with Arthrobacter sp. increased the bioavailable fraction of soil cadmium, particularly in soil amended with a C:N ratio of 20:1. Pot culture experiments observed that the highest plant growth was in Micrococcus sp.-inoculated plants with nutrient biostimulation. Cadmium accumulation in the roots, stems and leaves of G. max L. was significantly enhanced by Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation. A combined use of G. max L. and Arthrobacter sp. with nutrient biostimulation accelerated cadmium phytoremediation. In addition, cadmium was retained in roots more than in stems and leaves and G. max L. had the lowest translocation factor at all growth stages, suggesting that G. max L. is a phytostabilizing plant. We concluded that biostimulation-assisted bioaugmentation is an important strategy for improving cadmium phytoremediation efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Verification testing to confirm VO2max attainment in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Bediamol, Noelle; Cotoia, Sarah; Ines, Kenneth; Koeu, Nicolas; Menard, Natasha; Nyugen, Brianna; Olivo, Cassandra; Phillips, Gabrielle; Tirados, Ardreen; Cruz, Gabriela Velasco

    2018-01-22

    Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) is a widely used measure of cardiorespiratory fitness, aerobic function, and overall health risk. Although VO 2 max has been measured for almost 100 yr, no standardized criteria exist to verify VO 2 max attainment. Studies document that incidence of 'true' VO 2 max obtained from incremental exercise (INC) can be confirmed using a subsequent verification test (VER). In this study, we examined efficacy of VER in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Repeated measures, within-subjects study. University laboratory in San Diego, CA. Ten individuals (age and injury duration = 33.3 ± 10.5 yr and 6.8 ± 6.2 yr) with SCI and 10 able-bodied (AB) individuals (age = 24.1 ± 7.4 yr). Peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 peak) was determined during INC on an arm ergometer followed by VER at 105 percent of peak power output (% PPO). Gas exchange data, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured during exercise. Across all participants, VO 2 peak was highly related between protocols (ICC = 0.98) and the mean difference was equal to 0.08 ± 0.11 L/min. Compared to INC, VO 2 peak from VER was not different in SCI (1.30 ± 0.45 L/min vs. 1.31 ± 0.43 L/min) but higher in AB (1.63 ± 0.40 L/min vs. 1.76 ± 0.40 L/min). Data show similar VO 2 peak between incremental and verification tests in SCI, suggesting that VER confirms VO 2 max attainment. However, in AB participants completing arm ergometry, VER is essential to validate appearance of 'true' VO 2 peak.

  16. Comparison of Three Popular Exercise Modalities on V˙O2max in Overweight and Obese.

    PubMed

    Bækkerud, Fredrik Hjulstad; Solberg, Frederic; Leinan, Ingeborg Megård; Wisløff, Ulrik; Karlsen, Trine; Rognmo, Øivind

    2016-03-01

    In this prospective randomized trial, we examined the effect of three popular exercise training modalities on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in overweight and obese individuals. In addition, we examined possible concomitant adaptations in endurance exercise performance (time to exhaustion (TTE)), citrate synthase (CS) activity, venous and arterial function, blood volume, and calculated stroke volume (SV). Thirty subjects were recruited (age, 41 ± 9 yr; weight, 91 ± 14 kg; height, 173 ± 8 cm; body mass index, 30 ± 4 kg·m(-2)) and randomized to either 6 wk of 4 × 4-min high-intensity interval training (4HIIT) at 85%-95% of HRmax, 10 × 1-min HIIT (1HIIT) at V˙O2max load, or 45-min moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at 70% of HRmax. V˙O2max, TTE, CS activity, venous and arterial function, as well as blood volume were measured before and after the training period. O2 pulse was calculated and used to estimate SV. Analysis was conducted per protocol. Only 4HIIT increased V˙O2max (P < 0.01) and significantly more compared with 1HIIT (P = 0.04) and MICT (P = 0.03) (4HIIT, 10%; 1HIIT, 3.3%; and MICT, 3.1%). All groups increased TTE (4HIIT, 198%; 1HIIT, 116%; MICT, 52%), with a higher increase after 4HIIT compared with that after MICT (P = 0.02). Calculated SV increased only after 4HIIT (14.4%). Plasma volume and hemoglobin mass increased after 1HIIT only (5.6% and 6.5%); however, no group differences were found. All groups increased CS activity (4HIIT, 35%; 1HIIT, 35%; MICT, 56%), with no group differences. Arterial inflow (15.7%) and venous outflow (22.7%) decreased after MICT, but there were no group differences. 4HIIT was superior to 1HIIT and MICT in improving V˙O2max likely because of an increased SV.

  17. ["My Mirra, my world." Mirra Birens-Eitingon as a key to her husband Max Eitingon's persona].

    PubMed

    Ginor, Isabella; Remez, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    New reseach in Russia, Germany and Israel has revealed the complex and multifaceted figure of Mirra Eitingon (1877-1947), the wife for 31 years of Dr. Max Eitingon. Her character and her background in the Russian-Jewish intelligentsia and theatrical milieu provided a lifelong inspiration for Max in his many cultural interests as well as in his psychoanalytic activities, in Berlin and later in Jerusalem. His devotion to Mirra as well as to her two sons from previous marriages (one of them was the leading Soviet nuclear physicist Yuli Khariton) also highlight Max's own generosity and kindness.

  18. Antiplatelet effects of protopine isolated from Corydalis tubers.

    PubMed

    Ko, F N; Wu, T S; Lu, S T; Wu, Y C; Huang, T F; Teng, C M

    1989-10-15

    Protopine inhibited the aggregation and ATP release of rabbit platelets induced by ADP, arachidonic acid, PAF, collagen and ionophore A23187. Although the platelet aggregation caused by thrombin was not inhibited by protopine (100 micrograms/ml), the release reaction was partially suppressed. In rabbit platelet-rich plasma, protopine also inhibited the platelet aggregation caused by ADP, arachidonic acid, PAF and collagen. The thromboxane B2 formation of washed platelets caused by arachidonic acid, collagen, ionophore A23187 and thrombin was suppressed by protopine. Protopine inhibited the intracellular calcium increase caused by arachidonic acid in quin-2/AM loaded rabbit platelets. In the presence of indomethacin, the intracellular calcium increase caused by collagen and PAF was completely suppressed by protopine, and the intracellular calcium increase caused by thrombin was partially inhibited. The phosphoinositides breakdown caused by collagen and PAF was inhibited by protopine, but that by thrombin was not affected significantly. Protopine did not cause the elevation of cyclic AMP level of platelets. It is concluded that the antiplatelet effects of protopine is due to inhibition on thromboxane formation and phosphoinositides breakdown and then lead to the decrease of intracellular calcium concentration.

  19. Mapping of multiple parameter m-health scenarios to mobile WiMAX QoS variables.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Philip, N; Istepanian, R S H

    2011-01-01

    Multiparameter m-health scenarios with bandwidth demanding requirements will be one of key applications in future 4 G mobile communication systems. These applications will potentially require specific spectrum allocations with higher quality of service requirements. Furthermore, one of the key 4 G technologies targeting m-health will be medical applications based on WiMAX systems. Hence, it is timely to evaluate such multiple parametric m-health scenarios over mobile WiMAX networks. In this paper, we address the preliminary performance analysis of mobile WiMAX network for multiparametric telemedical scenarios. In particular, we map the medical QoS to typical WiMAX QoS parameters to optimise the performance of these parameters in typical m-health scenario. Preliminary performance analyses of the proposed multiparametric scenarios are evaluated to provide essential information for future medical QoS requirements and constraints in these telemedical network environments.

  20. An Accurate VO[subscript 2]max Nonexercise Regression Model for 18-65-Year-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Danielle I.; George, James D.; Hyde, Annette; LaMonte, Michael J.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a regression equation to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) based on nonexercise (N-EX) data. All participants (N = 100), ages 18-65 years, successfully completed a maximal graded exercise test (GXT) to assess VO[subscript 2]max (M = 39.96 mL[middle dot]kg[superscript -1][middle…

  1. Molecular docking of Glycine max and Medicago truncatula ureases with urea; bioinformatics approaches.

    PubMed

    Filiz, Ertugrul; Vatansever, Recep; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker

    2016-03-01

    Urease (EC 3.5.1.5) is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide. It is present in many bacteria, fungi, yeasts and plants. Most species, with few exceptions, use nickel metalloenzyme urease to hydrolyze urea, which is one of the commonly used nitrogen fertilizer in plant growth thus its enzymatic hydrolysis possesses vital importance in agricultural practices. Considering the essentiality and importance of urea and urease activity in most plants, this study aimed to comparatively investigate the ureases of two important legume species such as Glycine max (soybean) and Medicago truncatula (barrel medic) from Fabaceae family. With additional plant species, primary and secondary structures of 37 plant ureases were comparatively analyzed using various bioinformatics tools. A structure based phylogeny was constructed using predicted 3D models of G. max and M. truncatula, whose crystallographic structures are not available, along with three additional solved urease structures from Canavalia ensiformis (PDB: 4GY7), Bacillus pasteurii (PDB: 4UBP) and Klebsiella aerogenes (PDB: 1FWJ). In addition, urease structures of these species were docked with urea to analyze the binding affinities, interacting amino acids and atom distances in urease-urea complexes. Furthermore, mutable amino acids which could potentially affect the protein active site, stability and flexibility as well as overall protein stability were analyzed in urease structures of G. max and M. truncatula. Plant ureases demonstrated similar physico-chemical properties with 833-878 amino acid residues and 89.39-90.91 kDa molecular weight with mainly acidic (5.15-6.10 pI) nature. Four protein domain structures such as urease gamma, urease beta, urease alpha and amidohydro 1 characterized the plant ureases. Secondary structure of plant ureases also demonstrated conserved protein architecture, with predominantly α-helix and random coil structures. In

  2. MAX-DOAS NO2 observations over Guangzhou, China; ground-based and satellite comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosoglou, Theano; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Kouremeti, Natalia; Bais, Alkiviadis F.; Zyrichidou, Irene; Balis, Dimitris; van der A, Ronald J.; Xu, Jin; Li, Ang

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) over an urban site in Guangzhou megacity in China is investigated by means of MAX-DOAS measurements during a campaign from late March 2015 to mid-March 2016. A MAX-DOAS system was deployed at the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and operated there for about 1 year, during the spring and summer months. The tropospheric NO2 VCDs retrieved by the MAX-DOAS are presented and compared with space-borne observations from GOME-2/MetOp-A, GOME-2/MetOp-B and OMI/Aura satellite sensors. The comparisons reveal good agreement between satellite and MAX-DOAS observations over Guangzhou, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.795 for GOME-2B and 0.996 for OMI. However, the tropospheric NO2 loadings are underestimated by the satellite sensors on average by 25.1, 10.3 and 5.7 %, respectively, for OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B. Our results indicate that GOME-2B retrievals are closer to those of the MAX-DOAS instrument due to the lower tropospheric NO2 concentrations during the days with valid GOME-2B observations. In addition, the effect of the main coincidence criteria is investigated, namely the cloud fraction (CF), the distance (d) between the satellite pixel center and the ground-based measurement site, as well as the time period within which the MAX-DOAS data are averaged around the satellite overpass time. The effect of CF and time window criteria is more profound on the selection of OMI overpass data, probably due to its smaller pixel size. The available data pairs are reduced to half and about one-third for CF ≤ 0.3 and CF ≤ 0.2, respectively, while, compared to larger CF thresholds, the correlation coefficient is improved to 0.996 from about 0.86, the slope value is very close to unity ( ˜ 0.98) and the mean satellite underestimation is reduced to about half (from ˜ 7 to ˜ 3.5 × 1015 molecules cm-2). On the other hand, the distance criterion affects mostly GOME

  3. Adaptive pattern recognition by mini-max neural networks as a part of an intelligent processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szu, Harold H.

    1990-01-01

    In this decade and progressing into 21st Century, NASA will have missions including Space Station and the Earth related Planet Sciences. To support these missions, a high degree of sophistication in machine automation and an increasing amount of data processing throughput rate are necessary. Meeting these challenges requires intelligent machines, designed to support the necessary automations in a remote space and hazardous environment. There are two approaches to designing these intelligent machines. One of these is the knowledge-based expert system approach, namely AI. The other is a non-rule approach based on parallel and distributed computing for adaptive fault-tolerances, namely Neural or Natural Intelligence (NI). The union of AI and NI is the solution to the problem stated above. The NI segment of this unit extracts features automatically by applying Cauchy simulated annealing to a mini-max cost energy function. The feature discovered by NI can then be passed to the AI system for future processing, and vice versa. This passing increases reliability, for AI can follow the NI formulated algorithm exactly, and can provide the context knowledge base as the constraints of neurocomputing. The mini-max cost function that solves the unknown feature can furthermore give us a top-down architectural design of neural networks by means of Taylor series expansion of the cost function. A typical mini-max cost function consists of the sample variance of each class in the numerator, and separation of the center of each class in the denominator. Thus, when the total cost energy is minimized, the conflicting goals of intraclass clustering and interclass segregation are achieved simultaneously.

  4. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  5. Evaluation of the coagulometer STA R Max® (Stago) for routine coagulation parameters.

    PubMed

    Brulé, Justine; Sinegre, Thomas; Pereira, Bruno; Berger, Marc G; Serre-Sapin, Anne-Françoise; Lebreton, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    The STA R Max ® is a fully automated multiparameter coagulometer using clotting (viscosity-based detection system), chromogenic and immunologic assays. STA R Max ® is equipped with an innovative software (STA Coag Expert ® ) designed to assist laboratory in accreditation. The aim of this study was to evaluate its performances for the certification according to ISO 15189 quality standard in the haemostasis unit of our university hospital. The following tests were evaluated: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), kaolin cephalin clotting time (KCCT), fibrinogen, anti-Xa assay and D-dimers. In normal and pathological range, the intra-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for PT, aPTT, KCCT and fibrinogen were below 4.0%. Intra-assay CV was of 4.0% for the anti-Xa assay and intra-assay CV was of 7.9% for D-dimers. Inter-assay CV were below 5.0% for PT, aPPT, KCCT and fibrinogen, 14.9% for anti-Xa assay and 8.6% for D-dimers. The interlaboratory comparisons were below 8.7% for PT, aPPT and KCCT, 5.0% for fibrinogen and 15.5% for anti-Xa assay. All results were acceptable according to suitable CV established by GFHT and the provider. The concordance between all coagulometers was excellent, with correlation coefficient close to 1 (0.99 for all parameters except for aPPT which was 0.98) calculated thanks to an intra-class correlation study. In conclusion, the STA R Max ® analyser is suitable for haemostasis laboratories and facilitates certification of a laboratory.

  6. Athletes with higher VO2max present reduced oxLDL after a marathon race

    PubMed Central

    Bachi, André L L; Sierra, Ana Paula R; Rios, Francisco J O; Gonçalves, Danieli A; Ghorayeb, Nabil; Abud, Ronaldo L; Victorino, Angélica B; dos Santos, Juliana M B; Kiss, Maria Augusta D P; Pithon-Curi, Tania C; Vaisberg, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background During a session of prolonged and exhaustive exercise, such as a marathon race, large quantities of free radicals are produced and can oxidise (ox) several molecules, such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL). To prevent oxidative damage, athletes present higher antioxidant levels. However, the effect of marathon running on the natural IgM or IgG anti-oxLDL autoantibodies is not understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of a marathon race on oxidative stress and the mechanisms of control of this stress. Methods Blood samples of 20 marathon runners were collected 24 hours before, immediately and 72 hours after a marathon race to evaluate: plasma lipid profile; serum levels of oxLDL and anti-oxLDL autoantibodies (IgM and IgG isotype) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was also determined. Results Immediately after the race, oxLDL and TAC levels decreased in comparison to the basal levels; however, the IgM or IgG anti-oxLDL levels remain unchanged. Whereas no differences were observed in the IgM or IgG anti-oxLDL levels 72h after the marathon, the oxLDL and TAC levels returned to the basal values. Significant positive correlations were observed between oxLDL and LDL-cholesterol before, and 72h after the marathon. Significant negative correlations were observed between oxLDL and VO2max immediately after the marathon and 72 h later, as well as between oxLDL and TAC 72 h after the race. Conclusions Athletes with a higher VO2max and total antioxidant activity presented reduced LDL oxidation. The levels of IgM or IgG anti-oxLDL autoantibodies were not affected by running the marathon. PMID:27900109

  7. Evaluation of the BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile in human stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Putsathit, Papanin; Morgan, Justin; Bradford, Damien; Engelhardt, Nelly; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-02-01

    The Becton Dickinson (BD) PCR-based GeneOhm Cdiff assay has demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity for detecting Clostridium difficile. Recently, the BD Max platform, using the same principles as BD GeneOhm, has become available in Australia. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of BD Max Cdiff assay for the detection of toxigenic C. difficile in an Australian setting. Between December 2013 and January 2014, 406 stool specimens from 349 patients were analysed with the BD Max Cdiff assay. Direct and enrichment toxigenic culture were performed on bioMérieux ChromID C. difficile agar as a reference method. isolates from specimens with discrepant results were further analysed with an in-house PCR to detect the presence of toxin genes. The overall prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile was 7.2%. Concordance between the BD Max assay and enrichment culture was 98.5%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the BD Max Cdiff assay were 95.5%, 99.0%, 87.5% and 99.7%, respectively, when compared to direct culture, and 91.7%, 99.0%, 88.0% and 99.4%, respectively, when compared to enrichment culture. The new BD Max Cdiff assay appeared to be an excellent platform for rapid and accurate detection of toxigenic C. difficile.

  8. Tribute to an Astronomer: The Work of Max Ernst on Wilhelm Tempel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël

    2016-05-01

    In 1964-1974, the German artist Max Ernst created, with the help of two friends, a series of works (books, movie, and paintings) related to the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel. Mixing actual texts by Tempel and artistic features, this series pays homage to the astronomer by recalling his life and discoveries. Moreover, the core of the project, the book Maximiliana or the Illegal Practice of Astronomy, actually depicts the way science works, making this work of art a most original tribute to a scientist.

  9. Real-time segmentation in 4D ultrasound with continuous max-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajchl, M.; Yuan, J.; Peters, T. M.

    2012-02-01

    We present a novel continuous Max-Flow based method to segment the inner left ventricular wall from 3D trans-esophageal echocardiography image sequences, which minimizes an energy functional encoding two Fisher-Tippett distributions and a geometrical constraint in form of a Euclidean distance map in a numerically efficient and accurate way. After initialization the method is fully automatic and is able to perform at up to 10Hz making it available for image-guided interventions. Results are shown on 4D TEE data sets from 18 patients with pathological cardiac conditions and the speed of the algorithm is assessed under a variety of conditions.

  10. A Contingent Affinity: Max Weber, Carl Schmitt, and the Challenge of Modern Politics.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Pedro T

    2016-01-01

    The thesis that the theory of charismatic-plebiscitary democracy developed by Max Weber in the wake of the Weimar Republic was developed to its ultimate consequences by Carl Schmitt in the final crisis of Weimar has been hotly debated since it was first advanced in the 1950s. This paper proposes a fresh look at the controversy. By comparing both authors' concepts of politics in their relation to the problem of modernity, it argues that the Weber-Schmitt affair is neither a baseless legend nor a case of natural continuity. Instead, it should rather be understood in terms of a contingent affinity.

  11. Analysis of high accuracy, quantitative proteomics data in the MaxQB database.

    PubMed

    Schaab, Christoph; Geiger, Tamar; Stoehr, Gabriele; Cox, Juergen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-03-01

    MS-based proteomics generates rapidly increasing amounts of precise and quantitative information. Analysis of individual proteomic experiments has made great strides, but the crucial ability to compare and store information across different proteome measurements still presents many challenges. For example, it has been difficult to avoid contamination of databases with low quality peptide identifications, to control for the inflation in false positive identifications when combining data sets, and to integrate quantitative data. Although, for example, the contamination with low quality identifications has been addressed by joint analysis of deposited raw data in some public repositories, we reasoned that there should be a role for a database specifically designed for high resolution and quantitative data. Here we describe a novel database termed MaxQB that stores and displays collections of large proteomics projects and allows joint analysis and comparison. We demonstrate the analysis tools of MaxQB using proteome data of 11 different human cell lines and 28 mouse tissues. The database-wide false discovery rate is controlled by adjusting the project specific cutoff scores for the combined data sets. The 11 cell line proteomes together identify proteins expressed from more than half of all human genes. For each protein of interest, expression levels estimated by label-free quantification can be visualized across the cell lines. Similarly, the expression rank order and estimated amount of each protein within each proteome are plotted. We used MaxQB to calculate the signal reproducibility of the detected peptides for the same proteins across different proteomes. Spearman rank correlation between peptide intensity and detection probability of identified proteins was greater than 0.8 for 64% of the proteome, whereas a minority of proteins have negative correlation. This information can be used to pinpoint false protein identifications, independently of peptide database

  12. Synthesis of MAX Phases in the Hf-Al-C System.

    PubMed

    Lapauw, Thomas; Tunca, Bensu; Cabioc'h, Thierry; Lu, Jun; Persson, Per O Å; Lambrinou, Konstantina; Vleugels, Jozef

    2016-11-07

    For the first time, MAX phases in the Hf-Al-C system were experimentally synthesized using reactive hot pressing. HfC was observed as the main competing phase. The lattice parameters of Hf 2 AlC and Hf 3 AlC 2 were determined by Rietveld refinement based on the X-ray diffraction data. The atomic stacking sequence was revealed by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. Mixtures of 211 and 312 stacking were observed within the same grain, including 523 layers. This transition in atomic structure is discussed.

  13. Performance analysis of medical video streaming over mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Philip, N; Istepanian, R H

    2010-01-01

    Wireless medical ultrasound streaming is considered one of the emerging application within the broadband mobile healthcare domain. These applications are considered as bandwidth demanding services that required high data rates with acceptable diagnostic quality of the transmitted medical images. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of a medical ultrasound video streaming acquired via special robotic ultrasonography system over emulated WiMAX wireless network. The experimental set-up of this application is described together with the performance of the relevant medical quality of service (m-QoS) metrics.

  14. Comparison of MAX-DOAS profiling algorithms during CINDI-2 - Part 1: aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friess, Udo; Hendrick, Francois; Tirpitz, Jan-Lukas; Apituley, Arnoud; van Roozendael, Michel; Kreher, Karin; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The second Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI-2) took place at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR; Utrecht area, The Netherlands) from 25 August until 7 October 2016. CINDI-2 was aiming at assessing the consistency of MAX-DOAS slant column density measurements of tropospheric species (NO2, HCHO, O3, and O4) relevant for the validation of future ESA atmospheric Sentinel missions, through coordinated operation of a large number of DOAS and MAXDOAS instruments from all over the world. An important objective of the campaign was to study the relationship between remote-sensing column and profile measurements of the above species and collocated reference ancillary observations. For this purpose, the CINDI-2 Profiling Task Team (CPTT) was created, involving 22 groups performing aerosol and trace gas vertical profile inversion using dedicated MAX-DOAS profiling algorithms, as well as the teams responsible for ancillary profile and surface concentration measurements (NO2 analysers, NO2 sondes, NO2 and Raman LIDARs, CAPS, Long-Path DOAS, sun photometer, nephelometer, etc). The main purpose of the CPTT is to assess the consistency of the different profiling tools for retrieving aerosol extinction and trace gas vertical profiles through comparison exercises using commonly defined settings and to validate the retrievals with correlative observations. In this presentation, we give an overview of the MAX-DOAS vertical profile comparison results, focusing on the retrieval of aerosol extinction profiles, with the trace gas retrievals being presented in a companion abstract led by F. Hendrick. The performance of the different algorithms is investigated with respect to the variable visibility and cloud conditions encountered during the campaign. The consistency between optimal-estimation-based and parameterized profiling tools is also evaluated for these different conditions, together with the level of agreement

  15. Comparison of MAX-DOAS profiling algorithms during CINDI-2 - Part 2: trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrick, Francois; Friess, Udo; Tirpitz, Lukas; Apituley, Arnoud; Van Roozendael, Michel; Kreher, Karin; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The second Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI-2) took place at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR; Utrecht area, The Netherlands) from 25 August until 7 October 2016. CINDI-2 was aiming at assessing the consistency of MAX-DOAS slant column density measurements of tropospheric species (NO2, HCHO, O3, and O4) relevant for the validation of future ESA atmospheric Sentinel missions, through coordinated operation of a large number of DOAS and MAXDOAS instruments from all over the world. An important objective of the campaign was to study the relationship between remote-sensing column and profile measurements of the above species and collocated reference ancillary observations. For this purpose, the CINDI-2 Profiling Task Team (CPTT) was created, involving 22 groups performing aerosol and trace gas vertical profile inversion using dedicated MAX-DOAS profiling algorithms, as well as the teams responsible for ancillary profile and surface concentration measurements (NO2 analysers, NO2 sondes, NO2 and Raman LIDARs, CAPS, Long-Path DOAS, sunphotometer, nephelometer, etc). The main purpose of the CPTT is to assess the consistency of the different profiling tools for retrieving aerosol extinction and trace gas vertical profiles through comparison exercises using commonly defined settings and to validate the retrievals with correlative observations. In this presentation, we give an overview of the MAX-DOAS vertical profile comparison results, focusing on NO2 and HCHO, the aerosol retrievals being presented in a companion abstract led by U. Frieß. The performance of the different algorithms is investigated with respect to the various sky and weather conditions and aerosol loadings encountered during the campaign. The consistency between optimal-estimation-based and parameterized profiling tools is also evaluated for these different conditions, together with the level of agreement with available NO2 and

  16. Ulex europaeus I and glycine max bind to the human olfactory bulb.

    PubMed

    Nagao, M; Oka, N; Kamo, H; Akiguchi, I; Kimura, J

    1993-12-24

    The distribution of binding sites for the fucose-selective lectin Ulex europaeus I and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine-selective lectin glycine max in the human olfactory bulb were studied. These lectins bound to primary olfactory axons in the olfactory nerve layer and the glomerular layer. They also bound to fibers located in the deeper layers such as the external plexiform layer and the granular layer. Furthermore they projected to the olfactory stalk but not in the cerebrum. The deeper projections of the lectin binding fibers may affect the function of the olfactory bulb in humans.

  17. Albert Einstein and his mentor Max Talmey. The seventh Charles B. Snyder Lecture.

    PubMed

    Ravin, J G

    1997-01-01

    While he was a student at the Munich medical school, Max Talmey strongly influenced the education of Albert Einstein. Their association occurred during five years of Einstein's second decade. They lost contact for many years after each left Munich. Talmey emigrated to the United States and practiced medicine, mainly ophthalmology, in New York City. He made significant contributions to medicine, to the popularization of Einstein's work, and to the development of international languages. The relationship of Talmey and Einstein was rekindled when Einstein visited and later moved to the United States.

  18. MAX-DOAS measurements of African continental pollution outflow over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, Lisa K.; Hilboll, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Alvarado, Leonardo; Wittrock, Folkard; Burrows, John P.; Vrekoussis, Mihalis

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced levels of atmospheric key pollutants can regularly be identified over the Atlantic Ocean in global trace gas maps retrieved from satellite measurements. The aim of the DFG project COPMAR (Continental outflow of pollutants towards the marine troposphere) was to validate these enhanced values using ship-based measurements and to identify the spatial gradients of the pollutants NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO over the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, a multi-axis differential optical absorption spectrometer (MAX-DOAS) was installed on board the research vessel Maria S. Merian for the cruise MSM58/2. This cruise was conducted in October 2016 and went from Ponta Delgada (Azores) to Cape Town (South Africa), crossing between Cape Verde and the African continent. The instrument was continuously scanning the horizon looking towards the African continent, and the ship sailed at nearly constant speed during the whole cruise. In this study, we present the results from the MAX-DOAS measurements for the three species. We discuss the influence of different fit settings and a-priori assumptions on the results and present the observed spatial gradients along the cruise track. Finally, we compare our results with satellite measurements by the GOME-2 and OMI instruments and discuss possible sources of the discrepancies.

  19. SoyNet: a database of co-functional networks for soybean Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eiru; Hwang, Sohyun; Lee, Insuk

    2017-01-04

    Soybean (Glycine max) is a legume crop with substantial economic value, providing a source of oil and protein for humans and livestock. More than 50% of edible oils consumed globally are derived from this crop. Soybean plants are also important for soil fertility, as they fix atmospheric nitrogen by symbiosis with microorganisms. The latest soybean genome annotation (version 2.0) lists 56 044 coding genes, yet their functional contributions to crop traits remain mostly unknown. Co-functional networks have proven useful for identifying genes that are involved in a particular pathway or phenotype with various network algorithms. Here, we present SoyNet (available at www.inetbio.org/soynet), a database of co-functional networks for G. max and a companion web server for network-based functional predictions. SoyNet maps 1 940 284 co-functional links between 40 812 soybean genes (72.8% of the coding genome), which were inferred from 21 distinct types of genomics data including 734 microarrays and 290 RNA-seq samples from soybean. SoyNet provides a new route to functional investigation of the soybean genome, elucidating genes and pathways of agricultural importance. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Preparing the MAX IV storage rings for timing-based experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stråhlman, C., E-mail: Christian.Strahlman@maxlab.lu.se; Olsson, T., E-mail: Teresia.Olsson@maxlab.lu.se; Leemann, S. C.

    2016-07-27

    Time-resolved experimental techniques are increasingly abundant at storage ring facilities. Recent developments in accelerator technology and beamline instrumentation allow for simultaneous operation of high-intensity and timing-based experiments. The MAX IV facility is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source in Lund, Sweden, that will come into operation in 2016. As many storage ring facilities are pursuing upgrade programs employing strong-focusing multibend achromats and passive harmonic cavities (HCs) in high-current operation, it is of broad interest to study the accelerator and instrumentation developments required to enable timing-based experiments at such machines. In particular, the use of hybrid filling modes combined with pulse pickingmore » by resonant excitation or pseudo single bunch has shown promising results. These methods can be combined with novel beamline instrumentation, such as choppers and instrument gating. In this paper we discuss how these techniques can be implemented and employed at MAX IV.« less

  1. Max Phase Materials And Coatings For High Temperature Heat Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Garcia-Diaz, B.; Olson, L.

    2015-10-19

    Molten salts have been used as heat transfer fluids in a variety of applications within proposed Gen IV nuclear designs and in advanced power system such as Concentrating Solar Power (CSP). However, operating at elevated temperatures can cause corrosion in many materials. This work developed coating technologies for MAX phase materials on Haynes-230 and characterized the corrosion of the coatings in the presence of commercial MgCl 2-KCl molten salt. Cold spraying of Ti 2AlC and physical vapor deposition (PVD) of Ti 2AlC or Zr 2AlC were tested to determine the most effective form of coating MAX phases on structural substrates.more » Corrosion testing at 850°C for 100 hrs showed that 3.9 μm Ti2AlC by PVD was slightly protective while 117 μm Ti 2AlC by cold spray and 3.6 μm Zr 2AlC by PVD were completely protective. None of the tests showed decomposition of the coating (Ti or Zr) into the salt« less

  2. Natural variation of rice strigolactone biosynthesis is associated with the deletion of two MAX1 orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Catarina; Zhang, Yanxia; Jamil, Muhammad; Hepworth, Jo; Charnikhova, Tatsiana; Dimkpa, Stanley O. N.; Meharg, Caroline; Wright, Mark H.; Liu, Junwei; Meng, Xiangbing; Wang, Yonghong; Li, Jiayang; McCouch, Susan R.; Leyser, Ottoline; Price, Adam H.; Bouwmeester, Harro J.; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) cultivar Azucena—belonging to the Japonica subspecies—exudes high strigolactone (SL) levels and induces high germination of the root parasitic plant Striga hermonthica. Consistent with the fact that SLs also inhibit shoot branching, Azucena is a low-tillering variety. In contrast, Bala, an Indica cultivar, is a low-SL producer, stimulates less Striga germination, and is highly tillered. Using a Bala × Azucena F6 population, a major quantitative trait loci—qSLB1.1—for the exudation of SL, tillering, and induction of Striga germination was detected on chromosome 1. Sequence analysis of the corresponding locus revealed a rearrangement of a 51- to 59-kbp stretch between 28.9 and 29 Mbp in the Bala genome, resulting in the deletion of two cytochrome P450 genes—SLB1 and SLB2—with high homology to the Arabidopsis SL biosynthesis gene, MAX1. Both rice genes rescue the Arabidopsis max1-1 highly branched mutant phenotype and increase the production of the SL, ent-2′-epi-5-deoxystrigol, when overexpressed in Bala. Furthermore, analysis of this region in 367 cultivars of the publicly available Rice Diversity Panel population shows that the rearrangement at this locus is a recurrent natural trait associated with the Indica/Japonica divide in rice. PMID:24464483

  3. [Thought Experiments in Historiographic Function: Max Weber on Eduard Meyer and the Question of Counterfactuality].

    PubMed

    Ernst, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Thought Experiments in Historiographic Function: Max Weber on Eduard Meyer and the Question of Counterfactuality. Max Weber's remarks on his colleague Eduard Meyer regarding counterfactual reasoning in history reflects a significant shift during the Methodenstreit around 1900. The question of attributing historical change strictly to either individual causes or abstract general laws has been tackled in a new way: By counterfactual reasoning a historian should be able to detect the most significant (and therefore meaningful) cause, event, or action for a certain historical outcome. Following Fritz Ringer, this paper argues that given the predominating methods of the natural sciences, scholars of the humanities conducted historical research by counterfactual thought experiments. This way, Weber pried open contemporary narratives (e.g. historicism), and by employing a unique historical causal analysis he made way for refined concepts to offer a model of interpretation that gave hope for a more feasible, practice-oriented approach to historical research than the epistemological discussions had hitherto offered. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. THE MASS-RICHNESS RELATION OF MaxBCG CLUSTERS FROM QUASAR LENSING MAGNIFICATION USING VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Anne H.; Baltay, Charles; Ellman, Nancy

    2012-04-10

    Accurate measurement of galaxy cluster masses is an essential component not only in studies of cluster physics but also for probes of cosmology. However, different mass measurement techniques frequently yield discrepant results. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey MaxBCG catalog's mass-richness relation has previously been constrained using weak lensing shear, Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ), and X-ray measurements. The mass normalization of the clusters as measured by weak lensing shear is {approx}>25% higher than that measured using SZ and X-ray methods, a difference much larger than the stated measurement errors in the analyses. We constrain the mass-richness relation of the MaxBCG galaxy cluster catalogmore » by measuring the gravitational lensing magnification of type I quasars in the background of the clusters. The magnification is determined using the quasars' variability and the correlation between quasars' variability amplitude and intrinsic luminosity. The mass-richness relation determined through magnification is in agreement with that measured using shear, confirming that the lensing strength of the clusters implies a high mass normalization and that the discrepancy with other methods is not due to a shear-related systematic measurement error. We study the dependence of the measured mass normalization on the cluster halo orientation. As expected, line-of-sight clusters yield a higher normalization; however, this minority of haloes does not significantly bias the average mass-richness relation of the catalog.« less

  5. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton.

    PubMed

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without success. Using modern psychometric methods, the solution to this problem is a simple matter of reallocating the Hamilton scale items according to the scientific hypothesis under examination. Hamilton's original intention, to measure the global burden of the symptoms experienced by the patients with affective disorders, is in agreement with the DSM-IV and ICD-10 classification systems. Scale reliability and obtainment of valid information from patients and their relatives were the most important clinimetric innovations to be developed by Hamilton. Max Hamilton therefore belongs to the very exclusive family of eminent physicians celebrated by this journal with a tribute. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Habitat selection of Tragulus napu and Tragulus javanicus using MaxEnt analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, Taherah Mohd; Lihan, Tukimat; Mustapha, Muzzneena Ahmad; Nor, Shukor Mohd

    2018-04-01

    Large areas are converted into commercial land use such as agriculture and urban as a result from the increasing economic and population demand. This situation is largely affecting wildlife and its habitat. Malaysia as one of the largest oil palm-producing countries, should take precaution into conserving its forest and wildlife diversity. Although big mammal such as elephant and tiger are significant for wildlife diversity, medium and small mammals also contribute to the biological richness in Malaysia. This study aims to predict suitable habitat of medium mammal, Tragulus napu and Tragulus javanicus in the study area and identify its habitat characteristics. The method applied in this study uses maximum entropy (MaxEnt) modeling which utilized species distribution data and selected environmental variables to alienate potential habitat in the study area. The characteristic of the habitat was identified from the result of MaxEnt analysis. This method of habitat modeling shows different extent of predicted suitable habitat in the study area of both species in which Tragulus napu has a limited distribution compared to Tragulus javanicus. However, some characteristics are similar in both habitats. The knowledge on species habitat characteristics is important to predict wildlife habitat in order to make best decision on land use management and conservation.

  7. Beam dynamics and expected performance of Sweden's new storage-ring light source: MAX IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leemann, S. C.; Andersson, Å.; Eriksson, M.; Lindgren, L.-J.; Wallén, E.; Bengtsson, J.; Streun, A.

    2009-12-01

    MAX IV will be Sweden’s next-generation high-performance synchrotron radiation source. The project has recently been granted funding and construction is scheduled to begin in 2010. User operation for a broad and international user community should commence in 2015. The facility is comprised of two storage rings optimized for different wavelength ranges, a linac-based short-pulse facility and a free-electron laser for the production of coherent radiation. The main radiation source of MAX IV will be a 528 m ultralow emittance storage ring operated at 3 GeV for the generation of high-brightness hard x rays. This storage ring was designed to meet the requirements of state-of-the-art insertion devices which will be installed in nineteen 5 m long dispersion-free straight sections. The storage ring is based on a novel multibend achromat design delivering an unprecedented horizontal bare lattice emittance of 0.33 nm rad and a vertical emittance below the 8 pm rad diffraction limit for 1 Å radiation. In this paper we present the beam dynamics considerations behind this storage-ring design and detail its expected unique performance.

  8. Determinants of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) in fire fighter testing.

    PubMed

    Vandersmissen, G J M; Verhoogen, R A J R; Van Cauwenbergh, A F M; Godderis, L

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate current daily practice of aerobic capacity testing in Belgian fire fighters. The impact of personal and test-related parameters on the outcome has been evaluated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) results of 605 male fire fighters gathered between 1999 and 2010 were analysed. The maximal cardio respiratory exercise tests were performed at 22 different centres using different types of tests (tread mill or bicycle), different exercise protocols and measuring equipment. Mean VO2 max was 43.3 (SD = 9.8) ml/kg.min. Besides waist circumference and age, the type of test, the degree of performance of the test and the test centre were statistically significant determinants of maximal oxygen uptake. Test-related parameters have to be taken into account when interpreting and comparing maximal oxygen uptake tests of fire fighters. It highlights the need for standardization of aerobic capacity testing in the medical evaluation of fire fighters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Nash points, Ky Fan inequality and equilibria of abstract economies in Max-Plus and -convexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briec, Walter; Horvath, Charles

    2008-05-01

    -convexity was introduced in [W. Briec, C. Horvath, -convexity, Optimization 53 (2004) 103-127]. Separation and Hahn-Banach like theorems can be found in [G. Adilov, A.M. Rubinov, -convex sets and functions, Numer. Funct. Anal. Optim. 27 (2006) 237-257] and [W. Briec, C.D. Horvath, A. Rubinov, Separation in -convexity, Pacific J. Optim. 1 (2005) 13-30]. We show here that all the basic results related to fixed point theorems are available in -convexity. Ky Fan inequality, existence of Nash equilibria and existence of equilibria for abstract economies are established in the framework of -convexity. Monotone analysis, or analysis on Maslov semimodules [V.N. Kolokoltsov, V.P. Maslov, Idempotent Analysis and Its Applications, Math. Appl., volE 401, Kluwer Academic, 1997; V.P. Litvinov, V.P. Maslov, G.B. Shpitz, Idempotent functional analysis: An algebraic approach, Math. Notes 69 (2001) 696-729; V.P. Maslov, S.N. Samborski (Eds.), Idempotent Analysis, Advances in Soviet Mathematics, Amer. Math. Soc., Providence, RI, 1992], is the natural framework for these results. From this point of view Max-Plus convexity and -convexity are isomorphic Maslov semimodules structures over isomorphic semirings. Therefore all the results of this paper hold in the context of Max-Plus convexity.

  10. Dual Band Metamaterial Antenna For LTE/Bluetooth/WiMAX System.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mehedi; Faruque, Mohammad Rashed Iqbal; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2018-01-19

    A compact metamaterial inspired antenna operate at LTE, Bluetooth and WiMAX frequency band is introduced in this paper. For the lower band, the design utilizes an outer square metallic strip forcing the patch to radiate as an equivalent magnetic-current loop. For the upper band, another magnetic current loop is created by adding metamaterial structure near the feed line on the patch. The metamaterial inspired antenna dimension of 42 × 32 mm 2 compatible to wireless devices. Finite integration technique based CST Microwave Studio simulator has been used to design and numerical investigation as well as lumped circuit model of the metamaterial antenna is explained with proper mathematical derivation. The achieved measured dual band operation of the conventional antenna are sequentially, 0.561~0.578 GHz, 2.346~2.906 GHz, and 2.91~3.49 GHz, whereas the metamaterial inspired antenna shows dual-band operation from 0.60~0.64 GHz, 2.67~3.40 GHz and 3.61~3.67 GHz, respectively. Therefore, the metamaterial antenna is applicable for LTE and WiMAX applications. Besides, the measured metamaterial antenna gains of 0.15~3.81 dBi and 3.47~3.75 dBi, respectively for the frequency band of 2.67~3.40 GHz and 3.61~3.67 GHz.

  11. Genetic Variation in an Inbred Plant: Variation in Tissue Cultures of Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill

    PubMed Central

    Roth, E. J.; Frazier, B. L.; Apuya, N. R.; Lark, K. G.

    1989-01-01

    Although soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] grows as an inbreeding, generally homozygous, plant, the germplasm of the species contains large amounts of genetic variation. Analysis of soybean DNA has indicated that variation of RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) markers within the species usually entails only two alleles at any one locus and that mixtures of such dimorphic loci account for virtually all of the restriction fragment variation seen in soybean (G. max), and in its ancestors, G. soja and G. gracilis. We report here that tissue cultures prepared from root tissue of individual soybean plants develop RFLP allelic differences at various loci. However, these newly generated alleles are almost always the same as ones previously found and characterized in other varieties of cultivated soybean (cultivars). This repeated generation of particular alleles suggests that much of the genetic variation seen in soybean could be the consequence of specific, relatively frequently employed, recombinational events. Such a mechanism would allow inbred cultivars to generate genetic variation (in the form of alternative alleles) in a controlled manner, perhaps in response to stress. PMID:2567263

  12. Exercise tolerance during VO2max testing is a multifactorial psychobiological phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Midgley, Adrian W; Earle, Keith; McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason C; Clough, Peter; Earle, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Fifty-nine men completed a VO 2max test and a questionnaire to establish reasons for test termination, perceived exercise reserve (difference between actual test duration and the duration the individual perceived could have been achieved if continued until physical limitation), and perception of verbal encouragement. Participants gave between 1 and 11 factors as reasons for test termination, including leg fatigue, various perceptions of physical discomfort, safety concerns, and achievement of spontaneously set goals. The two most common main reasons were leg fatigue and breathing discomfort, which were predicted by pre-to-post test changes in pulmonary function (p = 0.038) and explosive leg strength (p = 0.042; R 2  = 0.40). Median (interquartile range) perceived exercise reserve, was 45 (50) s. Two-thirds of participants viewed verbal encouragement positively, whereas one-third had a neutral or negative perception. This study highlights the complexity of exercise tolerance during VO 2max testing and more research should explore these novel findings.

  13. The MAX Statistic is Less Powerful for Genome Wide Association Studies Under Most Alternative Hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Shifflett, Benjamin; Huang, Rong; Edland, Steven D

    2017-01-01

    Genotypic association studies are prone to inflated type I error rates if multiple hypothesis testing is performed, e.g., sequentially testing for recessive, multiplicative, and dominant risk. Alternatives to multiple hypothesis testing include the model independent genotypic χ 2 test, the efficiency robust MAX statistic, which corrects for multiple comparisons but with some loss of power, or a single Armitage test for multiplicative trend, which has optimal power when the multiplicative model holds but with some loss of power when dominant or recessive models underlie the genetic association. We used Monte Carlo simulations to describe the relative performance of these three approaches under a range of scenarios. All three approaches maintained their nominal type I error rates. The genotypic χ 2 and MAX statistics were more powerful when testing a strictly recessive genetic effect or when testing a dominant effect when the allele frequency was high. The Armitage test for multiplicative trend was most powerful for the broad range of scenarios where heterozygote risk is intermediate between recessive and dominant risk. Moreover, all tests had limited power to detect recessive genetic risk unless the sample size was large, and conversely all tests were relatively well powered to detect dominant risk. Taken together, these results suggest the general utility of the multiplicative trend test when the underlying genetic model is unknown.

  14. MaxBin 2.0: an automated binning algorithm to recover genomes from multiple metagenomic datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Wei; Simmons, Blake A.; Singer, Steven W.

    The recovery of genomes from metagenomic datasets is a critical step to defining the functional roles of the underlying uncultivated populations. We previously developed MaxBin, an automated binning approach for high-throughput recovery of microbial genomes from metagenomes. Here, we present an expanded binning algorithm, MaxBin 2.0, which recovers genomes from co-assembly of a collection of metagenomic datasets. Tests on simulated datasets revealed that MaxBin 2.0 is highly accurate in recovering individual genomes, and the application of MaxBin 2.0 to several metagenomes from environmental samples demonstrated that it could achieve two complementary goals: recovering more bacterial genomes compared to binning amore » single sample as well as comparing the microbial community composition between different sampling environments. Availability and implementation: MaxBin 2.0 is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/maxbin/ under BSD license. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.« less

  15. Carbide derived carbon from MAX-phases and their separation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Elizabeth N.

    Improved sorbents with increased selectivity and permeability are needed to meet growing energy and environmental needs. New forms of carbon based sorbents have been discovered recently, including carbons produced by etching metals from metal carbides, known as carbide derived carbons (CDCs). A common method for the synthesis of CDC is by chlorination at elevated temperatures. The goal of this work is to synthesize CDC from ternary carbides and to explore the links between the initial carbide chemistry and structure with the resulting CDCs properties, including porosity. CDC was produced from MAX-phase carbides, in particular Ti3SiC 2, Ti3AlC2, Ti2AlC, and Ta2AlC. Additionally, CDC was produced from Ta-based binary carbides, TaC and Ta 2C, and one carbo-nitride Ti2AlC0.5N0.5. The CDC structure was characterized using XRD, Raman microspectroscopy, and HRTEM. Porosity characterization was performed using sorption analysis with both Ar and N2 as adsorbates. It was determined the microporosity of CDC is related to the density of the initial carbide. The layered structure of the MAX-phase carbides lent toward the formation of larger mesopores within the resulting CDCs, while the amount of mesopores was dependent on the chemistry of the carbide. Furthermore, CDC produced from carbides with extremely high theoretical porosity resulted in small specific surface areas due to a collapse of the carbon structure. To expand the potential applications for CDC beyond powder and bulk forms, CDC membranes were produced from a thin film of TiC deposited by magnetron sputtering onto porous ceramic substrates. The TiC thin film was subsequently chlorinated to produce a bilayer membrane with CDC as the active layer. Both gases and liquids are capable of passing the membrane. The membrane separates based on selective adsorption, rather than a size separation molecular sieving effect. Two applications for CDC produced from MAX-phases were investigated: protein adsorption and gas

  16. First results of the CINDI-2 semi-blind MAX-DOAS intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreher, Karin; van Roozendael, Michel; Hendrick, Francois; Apituley, Arnoud; Friess, Udo; Lampel, Johannes; Piters, Ankie; Richter, Andreas; Wagner, Thomas; Cindi-2 Participants, All

    2017-04-01

    The second Cabauw Intercomparison campaign for Nitrogen Dioxide measuring Instruments (CINDI-2) took place at the Cabauw Experimental Site for Atmospheric Research (CESAR; Utrecht area, The Netherlands) from 25 August until 7 October 2016. The goals of this inter-comparison campaign are to support the creation of high-quality ground-based data sets (e.g. to provide reliable long-term time series for trend analysis and satellite data validation), to characterise and better understand the differences between a large number of MAX-DOAS and DOAS instruments and analysis methods, and to contribute to a harmonisation of the measurement settings and retrieval methods. During a time period of 17 days, from 12 to 28 September 2016, a formal semi-blind intercomparison was held following a detailed measurement protocol. The development of this protocol was based on the experience gained during the first CINDI campaign held in 2009 as well as more recent projects and campaigns such as the MADCAT campaign in Mainz, Germany, in 2013. Strong emphasis was put on the careful synchronisation of the measurement sequence and on exact alignment of the elevation angles using horizon scans and lamp measurements. In this presentation, we provide an overview and some highlights of the MAX-DOAS semi-blind intercomparison campaign. We will introduce the participating groups, their instruments and the measurement protocol details, and then summarize the campaign outcomes to date. The CINDI-2 data sets have been investigated using a range of diagnostics including comparisons of daily time series and relative differences between the data sets, regression analysis and correlation plots. The data products so far investigated are NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) in the UV and visible wavelength region, O4 (oxygen dimer) in the same two wavelength intervals, O3 (ozone) in the UV and visible wavelength region, HCHO (formaldehyde) and NO2 in an additional (smaller) wavelength range in the visible. The results

  17. [Functional expression of an omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene from Glycine max in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Yang, Jia-Sen; Shan, Lei; Bi, Yu-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid(ALA, C18:3delta9,12,15 ) is an essential fatty acid which has many sanitary functions to human. However, its contents in diets are often not enough. In plants, omega-3 fatty acid desaturases(FAD) catalyze linoleic acid(LA, C18:2delta9,12) into ALA. The seed oil of Glycine max contains high level of ALA. To investigate the functions of Glycine max omega-3FAD, the cDNA of GmFAD3 C was amplified by RT-PCR from immature seeds, then cloned into the shuttle expression vector p416 to generate the recombinant vector p4GFAD3C. The resulting vector was transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae K601 throuth LiAc method. The positive clones were screened on the CM(Ura-) medium and identified by PCR, and then cultured in CM (Ura-) liquid medium with exogenous LA in 20 degrees C for three days. The intracellular fatty acid composition of the engineering strain Kp416 and Kp4GFAD3C was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). A novel peak in strain Kp4GFAD3C was detected,which was not detectable in control, Comparison of the retention times of the newly yielded peak with that of authentic standard indicated that the fatty acid is ALA. The content of ALA reached to 3.1% of the total fatty acid in recombinant strain, the content of LA correspondingly decreased from 22% to 16.2% by contrast. It was suggested that the protein encoded by GmFAD3 C can specifically catalyze 18 carbon PUFA substrate of LA into ALA by taking off hydrogen atoms at delta15 location. In this study, we expressed a Glycine max omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene in S. cerevisiae; An efficient and economical yeast expressing system(K601-p416 system) which is suitable for the expression of FAD was built.

  18. Spanish genetic admixture is associated with larger V(O2) max decrement from sea level to 4338 m in Peruvian Quechua.

    PubMed

    Brutsaert, Tom D; Parra, Esteban J; Shriver, Mark D; Gamboa, Alfredo; Palacios, Jose-Antonio; Rivera, Maria; Rodriguez, Ivette; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-08-01

    Quechua in the Andes may be genetically adapted to altitude and able to resist decrements in maximal O2 consumption in hypoxia (DeltaVo2 max). This hypothesis was tested via repeated measures of Vo2 max (sea level vs. 4338 m) in 30 men of mixed Spanish and Quechua origins. Individual genetic admixture level (%Spanish ancestry) was estimated by using ancestry-informative DNA markers. Genetic admixture explained a significant proportion of the variability in DeltaVo2 max after control for covariate effects, including sea level Vo2 max and the decrement in arterial O2 saturation measured at Vo2 max (DeltaSpO2 max) (R2 for admixture and covariate effects approximately 0.80). The genetic effect reflected a main effect of admixture on DeltaVo2 max (P = 0.041) and an interaction between admixture and DeltaSpO2 max (P = 0.018). Admixture predicted DeltaVo2 max only in subjects with a large DeltaSpO2 max (P = 0.031). In such subjects, DeltaVo2 max was 12-18% larger in a subgroup of subjects with high vs. low Spanish ancestry, with least squares mean values (+/-SE) of 739 +/- 71 vs. 606 +/- 68 ml/min, respectively. A trend for interaction (P = 0.095) was also noted between admixture and the decrease in ventilatory threshold at 4338 m. As previously, admixture predicted DeltaVo2 max only in subjects with a large decrease in ventilatory threshold. These findings suggest that the genetic effect on DeltaVo2 max depends on a subject's aerobic fitness. Genetic effects may be more important (or easier to detect) in athletic subjects who are more likely to show gas-exchange impairment during exercise. The results of this study are consistent with the evolutionary hypothesis and point to a better gas-exchange system in Quechua.

  19. Role of maximal heart rate and arterial O2 saturation on the decrement of VO2max in moderate acute hypoxia in trained and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Mollard, P; Woorons, X; Letournel, M; Cornolo, J; Lamberto, C; Beaudry, M; Richalet, J-P

    2007-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate 1) the altitude where maximal heart rate (HR (max)) decreases significantly in both trained and untrained subjects in moderate acute hypoxia, and 2) if the HR (max) decrease could partly explain the drop of V.O (2max). Seventeen healthy males, nine trained endurance athletes (TS) and eight untrained individuals (US) were studied. Subjects performed incremental exercise tests at sea level and at 5 simulated altitudes (1000, 1500, 2500, 3500, 4500 meters). Power output (PO), heart rate (HR), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO (2)), oxygen uptake (V.O (2)), arterialized blood pH and lactate were measured. Both groups showed a progressive reduction in V.O (2max). The decrement in HR (max) (DeltaHR (max)) was significant from 1000 m for TS and 2500 m for US and more important in TS than US (at 1500 m and 3500 m). At maximal exercise, TS had a greater reduction in SaO (2) (DeltaSaO (2)) at each altitude. DeltaHR (max) observed in TS was correlated with DeltaSaO (2). When the two groups were pooled, simple regressions showed that DeltaV.O (2max) was correlated with both DeltaSaO (2) and DeltaHR (max). However, a multiple regression analysis demonstrated that DeltaSaO (2) alone may account for DeltaV.O (2max). Furthermore, in spite of a greater reduction in SaO (2) and HR (max) in TS, no difference was evidenced in relative DeltaV.O (2max) between groups. Thus, in moderate acute hypoxia, the reduction in SaO (2) is the primary factor to explain the drop of V.O (2max) in trained and untrained subjects.

  20. The beginnings of psychoanalytic supervision: the crucial role of Max Eitingon.

    PubMed

    Watkins, C Edward

    2013-09-01

    Psychoanalytic supervision is moving well into its 2nd century of theory, practice, and (to a limited extent) research. In this paper, I take a look at the pioneering first efforts to define psychoanalytic supervision and its importance to the psychoanalytic education process. Max Eitingon, the "almost forgotten man" of psychoanalysis, looms large in any such consideration. His writings or organizational reports were seemingly the first psychoanalytic published material to address the following supervision issues: rationale, screening, notes, responsibility, supervisee learning/personality issues, and the extent and length of supervision itself. Although Eitingon never wrote formally on supervision, his pioneering work in the area has continued to echo across the decades and can still be seen reflected in contemporary supervision practice. I also recognize the role of Karen Horney-one of the founders of the Berlin Institute and Poliklinik, friend of Eitingon, and active, vital participant in Eitingon's efforts-in contributing to and shaping the beginnings of psychoanalytic education.

  1. Max Weber in the American Journal of Sociology: A case of circulating knowledge.

    PubMed

    Rijks, Marlise

    2012-01-01

    By the middle of the 1970s, a Max Weber revival commenced in American sociology. Almost 75 percent of the articles on Weber in the American Journal of Sociology published in the past six decades appeared in the 1970s and 1980s. The Weber revival in American sociology is a phenomenon observed in leading literature. New translations and publications are frequently indicated reasons for the renewed interest in Weber. Without dismissing this factor, it is not an entirely satisfactory explanation. This article accounts for the Weber revival in a new way. Taking the American Journal of Sociology as a case study, I argue that the Weber revival was a case of circulating knowledge. Certain historically set issues led to a reorientation of Weber, which meant that knowledge about Weber was moved, extended, and transformed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Mobile MAX-DOAS and in situ measurements of NO2 and SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittrock, Folkard; Peters, Enno; Seyler, André; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Kattner, Lisa; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) to estimate the influence of shipping emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. As part of the project in 2015 a mobile lab has been set up, which includes among other instrumentation for air pollution and meteorological parameters a scientific-grade MAX-DOAS system as well as in situ instruments for nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide (trace level). Focusing on NO2 and SO2 we present intercomparison results between the different instruments onboard the mobile lab as well as comparisons to standard instrumentation used at different sites in Northern Germany within the project.

  3. Visualization of LC-MS/MS proteomics data in MaxQuant.

    PubMed

    Tyanova, Stefka; Temu, Tikira; Carlson, Arthur; Sinitcyn, Pavel; Mann, Matthias; Cox, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Modern software platforms enable the analysis of shotgun proteomics data in an automated fashion resulting in high quality identification and quantification results. Additional understanding of the underlying data can be gained with the help of advanced visualization tools that allow for easy navigation through large LC-MS/MS datasets potentially consisting of terabytes of raw data. The updated MaxQuant version has a map navigation component that steers the users through mass and retention time-dependent mass spectrometric signals. It can be used to monitor a peptide feature used in label-free quantification over many LC-MS runs and visualize it with advanced 3D graphic models. An expert annotation system aids the interpretation of the MS/MS spectra used for the identification of these peptide features. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Elastic, thermodynamic and optical behavior of V2AC (A = Al, Ga) MAX phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, M. R.; Ali, M. A.; Parvin, F.; Islam, A. K. M. A.

    This article reports the first-principles calculations of yet unexplored Mulliken bond population, Vickers hardness, thermodynamic and optical properties of MAX phases V2AC (A = Al, Ga). We have also revisited the structural and elastic properties of these phases in order to assess the reliability of our calculations. The temperature and pressure dependence of bulk modulus, Debye temperature, specific heats, and thermal expansion coefficient have been successfully estimated through the quasi-harmonic Debye model in the temperature range from 0 to 1000 K and the pressure range from 0 to 50 GPa. The optical properties such as the dielectric function, refractive index, photoconductivity, absorption coefficients, reflectivity and loss function are also evaluated for the first time. The reflectivity is found to be high which indicates that V2AC (A = Al, Ga) having the same characteristics could be good candidate materials to reduce solar heating up to ∼15 eV.

  5. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) Drop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shreves, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    The Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) was conceived as a low-cost, rapidly-developed means of providing soft landing for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module (CM). Its experimental main parachute cluster deployment technique and off-the-shelf hardware necessitated a full-scale drop test prior to the MLAS mission in order to reduce overall mission risk. This test was successfully conducted at Wallops Flight Facility on March 6, 2009, with all vehicle and parachute systems functioning as planned. The results of the drop test successfully qualified the LPD system for the MLAS flight test. This document captures the design, concept of operations and results of the drop test.

  6. Calcium ion involvement in growth inhibition of mechanically stressed soybean (Glycine max) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-50% reduction in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Century 84] hypocotyl elongation occurred 24 h after application of mechanical stress. Exogenous Ca2+ at 10 mM inhibited growth by 28% if applied with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the zone of maximum hypocotyl elongation. La3+ was even more inhibitory than Ca2+, especially above 5 mM. Treatment with ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta-aminoethylether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) alone had no effect on growth of non-stressed seedlings at the concentrations used but negated stress-induced growth reduction by 36% at 4 mM when compared to non-treated, stressed controls. Treatment with EDTA was ineffective in negating stress-induced growth inhibition. Calmodulin antagonists calmidazolium, chlorpromazine, and 48/80 also negated stress-induced growth reduction by 23, 50, and 35%, respectively.

  7. Development of 2-D-MAX-DOAS and retrievals of trace gases and aerosols optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan

    Air pollution is a major problem worldwide that adversely a_ects human health, impacts ecosystems and climate. In the atmosphere, there are hundreds of important compounds participating in complex atmospheric reactions linked to air quality and climate. Aerosols are relevant because they modify the radiation balance, a_ect clouds, and thus Earth albedo. The amount of aerosol is often characterized by the vertical integral through the entire height of the atmosphere of the logarithm fraction of incident light that is extinguished called Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). The AOD at 550 nm (AOD550) over land is 0.19 (multi annual global mean), and that over oceans is 0.13. About 43 % of the Earth surface shows AOD550 smaller than 0.1. There is a need for measurement techniques that are optimized to measure aerosol optical properties under low AOD conditions, sample spatial scales that resemble satellite ground-pixels and atmospheric models, and help integrate remote sensing and in-situ observations to obtain optical closure on the effects of aerosols and trace gases in our changing environment. In this work, I present the recent development of the University of Colorado two dimensional (2-D) Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (2-D-MAX-DOAS) instrument to measure the azimuth and altitude distribution of trace gases and aerosol optical properties simultaneously with a single instrument. The instrument measures solar scattered light from any direction in the sky, including direct sun light in the hyperspectral domain. In Chapter 2, I describe the capabilities of 2-D measurements in the context of retrievals of azimuth distributions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde (HCHO), and glyoxal (CHOCHO), which are precursors for tropospheric O3 and aerosols. The measurements were carried out during the Multi-Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) campaign in Mainz, Germany and show the ability to bridge spatial scales to

  8. Modelling and temporal performances evaluation of networked control systems using (max, +) algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammour, R.; Amari, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of temporal performances evaluation of producer/consumer networked control systems. The aim is to develop a formal method for evaluating the response time of this type of control systems. Our approach consists on modelling, using Petri nets classes, the behaviour of the whole architecture including the switches that support multicast communications used by this protocol. (max, +) algebra formalism is then exploited to obtain analytical formulas of the response time and the maximal and minimal bounds. The main novelty is that our approach takes into account all delays experienced at the different stages of networked automation systems. Finally, we show how to apply the obtained results through an example of networked control system.

  9. Gestalt theory reconfigured: Max Wertheimer's anticipation of recent developments in visual neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, G

    1999-01-01

    In the 1920s Max Wertheimer enunciated a credo of Gestalt theory: the properties of any of the parts are governed by the structural laws of the whole. Intense efforts at the time to discover these laws had only very limited success. Psychology was in the grips of the Fechnerian tradition to seek exact relationships between the material and the mental and, because the Gestalt movement could not deliver these, it never attained a major standing among students of perception. However, as neurophysiological research into cortical processing of visual stimuli progresses the need for organizing principles is increasingly making itself felt. Concepts like contour salience and figure segregation, once the province of Gestalt psychology, are now taking on renewed significance as investigators combine neural modeling and psychophysical approaches with electrophysiological ones to characterize neural mechanisms of cognition. But it would be perilous not to take heed of some of the lessons that the history of the Gestalt movement teaches.

  10. Examination of returned solar-max surfaces for impacting orbital debris and meteoroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, D. J.; Zook, H. A.; Potter, A. E.; McKay, D. S.; Clanton, U. S.; Warren, J. L.; Watts, L. A.; Schultz, R. A.; Schramm, L. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1985-11-01

    Previous theoretical studies predicted that in certain regions of earth orbit, the man-made earth orbiting debris environment will soon exceed the interplanetary meteoroid environment for sizes smaller than 1 cm. The surfaces returned from the repaired Solar Max Mission (SMM) by STS 41-C on April 12, 1984, offered an excellent opportunity to examine both the debris and meteoroid environments. To date, approximately 0.7 sq. met. of the thermal insulation and 0.05 sq. met of the aluminum louvers have been mapped by optical microscope for crater diameters larger than 40 microns. Craters larger in diameter than about 100 microns found on the initial 75 micron thick Kapton first sheet on the MEB (Main Electronics Box) blanket are actually holes and constitute perforations through that blanket. The following populations have been found to date in impact sites on these blankets: (1) meteoritic material; (2) thermal paint particles; (3) aluminum droplets; and (4) waste particles.

  11. NO2 and HCHO variability in Mexico City from MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, M.; Friedrich, M. M.; Rivera, C. I.; Arellano, E. J.; Stremme, W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric studies in large cities are of great relevance since pollution affects air quality and human health. A network of Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometers (MAX-DOAS) has been established in strategic sites within the Mexico City metropolitan area. Four instruments are now in operation with the aim to study the variability and spatial distribution of key pollutants, providing results of O4, NO2 and HCHO slant column densities (SCD). A numerical code has been written to retrieve gas profiles of NO2 and HCHO using radiative transfer simulations. We present the first results of the variability of these trace gases which will bring new insight in the current knowledge of transport patterns, emissions as well as frequency and origin of extraordinary events. Results of the vertical column densities (VCD) valiability of NO2 and HCHO in Mexico City are presented. These studies are useful to validate current and future satellite observatopns such as OMI, TROPOMI and TEMPO.

  12. Analysis of DRIRU bearings and lubricant from solar max repair mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission (SMRM) by the shuttle astronauts in April 1984, returned to Earth the Delta Redundant Inertial Reference Unit 2 (DRIRU 2) from the Solar Maximum satellite. The DRIRU 2 included three gyroscopes. The gyroscope, S/N 094, in position 2 was disassembled by Teledyne Systems personnel of Northridge, California, and the bearings were returned to Goddard Space Flight Center for examination. The Solar Max Satellite was in orbit for 4 years with the bearings running continuously at 6000 rpm. The ball bearings, had sufficient remaining lubrication and had runs successfully for over the last 4 years. As a result of these findings, the bearings should have lasted their predicted life of 5 years with no problems.

  13. Research on animation design of growing plant based on 3D MAX technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yineng; Fang, Kui; Bu, Weiqiong; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lei, Menglong

    In view of virtual plant has practical demands on quality, image and degree of realism animation in growing process of plant, this thesis design the animation based on mechanism and regularity of plant growth, and propose the design method based on 3D MAX technology. After repeated analysis and testing, it is concluded that there are modeling, rendering, animation fabrication and other key technologies in the animation design process. Based on this, designers can subdivid the animation into seed germination animation, plant growth prophase animation, catagen animation, later animation and blossom animation. This paper compounds the animation of these five stages by VP window to realize the completed 3D animation. Experimental result shows that the animation can realized rapid, visual and realistic simulatation the plant growth process.

  14. The use of MelMax in the healing of chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Lloyd Jones, Menna

    Chronic wounds can have detrimental consequences for the quality of life of patients as well as presenting a huge financial burden to the NHS. An imbalance in the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in chronic wounds impedes the healing process. In addition, high levels of bacteria in the wound bed are a common feature of chronic wounds and also cited as a major cause of delayed healing. The aim of this article is to look in more detail at the role of MMPs in wound healing as well as the antimicrobial properties of honey when combined with a dressing to combat wound infection. The article also introduces a new dressing, MelMax (distributed by CliniMed), which utilizes protease regulation and the antimicrobial properties of honey when addressing chronic wound infection. Short-term case studies are used to demonstrate how the dressing was successfully incorporated into the author's practice.

  15. Examination of returned solar-max surfaces for impacting orbital debris and meteoroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J.; Zook, H. A.; Potter, A. E.; Mckay, D. S.; Clanton, U. S.; Warren, J. L.; Watts, L. A.; Schultz, R. A.; Schramm, L. S.; Wentworth, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies predicted that in certain regions of earth orbit, the man-made earth orbiting debris environment will soon exceed the interplanetary meteoroid environment for sizes smaller than 1 cm. The surfaces returned from the repaired Solar Max Mission (SMM) by STS 41-C on April 12, 1984, offered an excellent opportunity to examine both the debris and meteoroid environments. To date, approximately 0.7 sq. met. of the thermal insulation and 0.05 sq. met of the aluminum louvers have been mapped by optical microscope for crater diameters larger than 40 microns. Craters larger in diameter than about 100 microns found on the initial 75 micron thick Kapton first sheet on the MEB (Main Electronics Box) blanket are actually holes and constitute perforations through that blanket. The following populations have been found to date in impact sites on these blankets: (1) meteoritic material; (2) thermal paint particles; (3) aluminum droplets; and (4) waste particles.

  16. [Max Weber's disease. Research on the disease and therapeutic management at the turn of the century].

    PubMed

    Frommer, J; Frommer, S

    1998-05-01

    This article on the German economist and sociologist Max Weber (1864-1920) continues our pathographic and psychohistoric studies on the interrelations between his life, his illness, and his work on "Protestantic Ethics and the Spirit of Capitalism". In a former paper (Frommer u. Frommer, 1993) we focussed on Weber's definition of modern society as an "iron cage" determined by Western rationalism. His theory, which shows that this cultural background demands a great amount of role conformity from the individual, converges with current psychopathological approaches on the personality of depressed patients. In the second article we report on results of our research on further personal documents, and some medical certificates by Weber's physicians. These documents demonstrate the diagnosis of a severe depression in a narcisstic and hypernomic personality.

  17. [From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947)].

    PubMed

    Hermanns, Ludger M; Schröter, Michael; Stroeken, Harry

    2014-01-01

    From psychotherapy to psychoanalysis: Max Levy-Suhl (1876-1947). Levy-Suhl can be considered one of the great practising psychotherapists in early 20th century Berlin. He was active in various fields, including ophthalmology, forensic adolescent psychiatry and hypnosis. Prominent among his publications were two handbooks of psychotherapeutic methods. His attitude towards psychoanalysis shifted from initial criticism to acceptance. Ca. 1930 he experienced some kind of conversion, resulting in his training at the Berlin Institute and becoming a member of the German Psychoanalytic Society. As a Jew being forced to emigrate in 1933, Levy-Suhl turned to the Netherlands where he had a psychoanalytic children's home in Amersfoort, followed by an analyst's practice in Amsterdam. He survived the German occupation, but apparently as a broken man. After the war he committed suicide.--The paper is complemented by an appendix, containing documents and an extensive bibliography.

  18. Design of modified pentagonal patch antenna on defective ground for Wi-Max/WLAN application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Sanyog; Sharma, K. K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the design and performance of a modified pentagonal patch antenna with defective ground plane. A pentagonal slot is inserted in the pentagonal patch and slot loaded ground through optimized dimensions is used in the antenna to resonate it at dual frequency. The geometry operates at two resonant frequencies (2.5 GHz and 5.58 GHz) and offers impedance bandwidth of 864 MHz and 554 MHz in the two bands of interest. The proposed antenna covers the lower band (2.45 to 2.484/2.495 to 2.695 GHz) and upper band (5.15 to 5.825 GHz/5.25 to 5.85 GHz) allocated for Wi-Max and WLAN communication systems.

  19. Wideband dual frequency modified ellipse shaped patch antenna for WLAN/Wi-MAX/UWB application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, P. K.; Jangid, K. G.; R. Sharma, B.; Saxena, V. K.; Bhatnagar, D.

    2018-05-01

    This paper communicates the design and performance of microstrip line fed modified ellipses shaped radiating patch with defected ground structure. Wide impedance bandwidth performance is achieved by applying a pentagonal slot and T slot structure in ground plane. By inserting two semi ellipses shaped ring in ground, we obtained axial ratio bandwidth approx 600 MHz. The proposed antenna is simulated by utilizing CST Microwave Studio simulator 2014. This antenna furnishes wide impedance bandwidth approx. 4.23 GHz, which has spread into two bands 2.45 GHz - 5.73 GHz and 7.22 GHz - 8.17 GHz with nearly flat gain in operating frequency range. This antenna may be proved as a practicable structure for modern wireless communication systems including Wi-MAX, WLAN and lower band of UWB.

  20. Observational goals for Max '91 to identify the causative agent for impulsive bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Recent studies of impulsive hard x ray and microwave bursts suggest that a propagating causative agent with a characteristic velocity of the order of 1000 km/s is responsible for these bursts. The results of these studies are summarized and observable distinguishing characteristics of the various possible agents are highlighted, with emphasis on key observational goals for the Max '91 campaigns. The most likely causative agents suggested by the evidence are shocks, thermal conduction fronts, and propagating modes of magnetic reconnection in flare plasmas. With new instrumentation planned for Max '91, high spatial resolution observations of hard x ray sources have the potential to identify the agent by revealing detailed features of source spatial evolution. Observations with the Very Large Array and other radio imaging instruments are of great importance, as well as detailed modeling of coronal loop structures to place limits on their density and temperature profiles. With the combined hard x ray and microwave imaging observations, aided by loop model results, the simplest causative agent to rule out would be the propagating modes of magnetic reconnection. To fit the observational evidence, reconnection modes would need to travel at approximately the same velocity (the Alfven velocity) in different coronal structures that vary in length by a factor of 10(exp 3). Over such a vast range in loop lengths, it is difficult to believe that the Alfven velocity is constant. Thermal conduction fronts would be suggested by sources that expand along the direction of B and exhibit relatively little particle precipitation. Particle acceleration due to shocks could produce more diverse radially expanding source geometries with precipitation at loop footprints.

  1. Quantum approximate optimization algorithm for MaxCut: A fermionic view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihui; Hadfield, Stuart; Jiang, Zhang; Rieffel, Eleanor G.

    2018-02-01

    Farhi et al. recently proposed a class of quantum algorithms, the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA), for approximately solving combinatorial optimization problems (E. Farhi et al., arXiv:1411.4028; arXiv:1412.6062; arXiv:1602.07674). A level-p QAOA circuit consists of p steps; in each step a classical Hamiltonian, derived from the cost function, is applied followed by a mixing Hamiltonian. The 2 p times for which these two Hamiltonians are applied are the parameters of the algorithm, which are to be optimized classically for the best performance. As p increases, parameter optimization becomes inefficient due to the curse of dimensionality. The success of the QAOA approach will depend, in part, on finding effective parameter-setting strategies. Here we analytically and numerically study parameter setting for the QAOA applied to MaxCut. For the level-1 QAOA, we derive an analytical expression for a general graph. In principle, expressions for higher p could be derived, but the number of terms quickly becomes prohibitive. For a special case of MaxCut, the "ring of disagrees," or the one-dimensional antiferromagnetic ring, we provide an analysis for an arbitrarily high level. Using a fermionic representation, the evolution of the system under the QAOA translates into quantum control of an ensemble of independent spins. This treatment enables us to obtain analytical expressions for the performance of the QAOA for any p . It also greatly simplifies the numerical search for the optimal values of the parameters. By exploring symmetries, we identify a lower-dimensional submanifold of interest; the search effort can be accordingly reduced. This analysis also explains an observed symmetry in the optimal parameter values. Further, we numerically investigate the parameter landscape and show that it is a simple one in the sense of having no local optima.

  2. Analyzing mobile WiMAX base station deployment under different frequency planning strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, M. K.; Ahmad, R. B.; Ali, Ziad G.; Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Fayadh, Rashid A.

    2015-05-01

    The frequency spectrum is a precious resource and scarce in the communication markets. Therefore, different techniques are adopted to utilize the available spectrum in deploying WiMAX base stations (BS) in cellular networks. In this paper several types of frequency planning techniques are illustrated, and a comprehensive comparative study between conventional frequency reuse of 1 (FR of 1) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR) is presented. These techniques are widely used in network deployment, because they employ universal frequency (using all the available bandwidth) in their base station installation/configuration within network system. This paper presents a network model of 19 base stations in order to be employed in the comparison of the aforesaid frequency planning techniques. Users are randomly distributed within base stations, users' resource mapping and their burst profile selection are based on the measured signal to interference plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results reveal that the FFR has advantages over the conventional FR of 1 in various metrics. 98 % of downlink resources (slots) are exploited when FFR is applied, whilst it is 81 % at FR of 1. Data rate of FFR has been increased to 10.6 Mbps, while it is 7.98 Mbps at FR of 1. The spectral efficiency is better enhanced (1.072 bps/Hz) at FR of 1 than FFR (0.808 bps/Hz), since FR of 1 exploits all the Bandwidth. The subcarrier efficiency shows how many data bits that can be carried by subcarriers under different frequency planning techniques, the system can carry more data bits under FFR (2.40 bit/subcarrier) than FR of 1 (1.998 bit/subcarrier). This study confirms that FFR can perform better than conventional frequency planning (FR of 1) which made it a strong candidate for WiMAX BS deployment in cellular networks.

  3. MAX '91: An advanced payload for the exploration of high energy processes on the active sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The results of a NASA science working group established to study a follow-on to the Solar Maximum Mission are given. A complement of instruments is suggested, with the primary objective of studying the physics of energetic processes in cosmic plasmas by observing high-energy phenomena in solar flares. High-quality flare observations will be possible with these instruments during the next peak in solar activity expected to last from 1990 through at least 1995. The primary objective of MAX '91 is to study energetic processes in cosmic plasmas by observing high-energy phenomena in solar flares. These processes, which are of general astrophysical importance, include energy release, particle acceleration, and energy transport. Results from comprehensive observing programs conducted during the last solar cycle have demonstrated the great scientific potential of high-energy emissions for addressing these central physical processes. Consequently, a payload optimized for observations of high-energy solar flare phenomena is suggested for MAX '91. It consists of the following four specific instruments: (1) a Fourier-transform X-ray and gamma-ray imager covering the energy range from a few keV to 1 MeV with arcsecond spatial resolution; (2) a cooled germanium X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometer with keV spectral resolution covering the energy range from 10 keV to 50 MeV; (3) Bragg spectrometers with high spectral resolution at wavelengths between 1 and 9 angstrons; and (4) a soft X-ray, EUV, or UV imaging instrument with arcsecond spatial resolution.

  4. [Efficacy of E-max porcelain laminate veneer on esthetic restoration for anterior teeth over 2 years].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Tao, Lin-shuai; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of E-max porcelain laminate veneer on esthetic restoration for anterior teeth over 2 years. E-max porcelain laminate veneer was used in 45 patients with 120 defective anterior teeth. Improved Ryge veneer reexamination standards including the integrity of ceramic veneer, marginal adaptation, gingival health and color match were adopted to evaluate the of clinical effect during 2 years of follow-up. The average satisfaction rate instantly after treatment, 1 year after treatment and 2 years after treatment was 93%, 95% and 94%, respectively. E-max porcelain laminate veneer has fewer side effects, better aesthetics and biological characteristics. The treatment is cost-efficient, safe and long-lasting.

  5. [A failed experiment - Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker, Jürgen Habermas and the Max-Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Leendertz, Ariane

    2014-01-01

    From 1970 to 1980 Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker headed the Max-Planck-lnstitut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPI for the study of the living conditions of the world of science and technology) in Starnberg, jointly with Jürgen Habermas since 1971. From the start, the Max Planck Society regarded the new institute as an experiment that might perhaps be aborted a few years later. This is exactly what happened. With the retirement of Weizsäcker, his section was closed and the whole institute was renamed. In 1981. Habermas resigned, and then the institute was closed. This paper focusses on some of the problem constellations within the institute that partly explain its development and eventual closure: its birth out of the idea of scientific policy advice, the debates within the Max Planck Society and the complex relationship between Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas.

  6. Max-plus and min-plus projection autoassociative morphological memories and their compositions for pattern classification.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Alex Santana; Valle, Marcos Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    Autoassociative morphological memories (AMMs) are robust and computationally efficient memory models with unlimited storage capacity. In this paper, we present the max-plus and min-plus projection autoassociative morphological memories (PAMMs) as well as their compositions. Briefly, the max-plus PAMM yields the largest max-plus combination of the stored vectors which is less than or equal to the input. Dually, the vector recalled by the min-plus PAMM corresponds to the smallest min-plus combination which is larger than or equal to the input. Apart from unlimited absolute storage capacity and one step retrieval, PAMMs and their compositions exhibit an excellent noise tolerance. Furthermore, the new memories yielded quite promising results in classification problems with a large number of features and classes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Initial Weekly HRV Response is Related to the Prospective Change in VO2max in Female Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Esco, M R; Flatt, A A; Nakamura, F Y

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the early response in weekly measures of HRV, when derived from a smartphone application, were related to the eventual change in VO2max following an off-season training program in female soccer athletes. 9 female collegiate soccer players participated in an 11-week off-season conditioning program. In the week immediately before and after the training program, each participant performed a test on a treadmill to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Daily measures of the log-transformed root mean square of successive R-R intervals (lnRMSSD) were performed by the participants throughout week 1 and week 3 of the conditioning program. The mean and coefficient of variation (CV) lnRMSSD values of week 1 showed small (r=- 0.13, p=0.74) and moderate (r=0.57, p=0.11), respectively, non-significant correlations to the change in VO2max at the end of the conditioning program (∆VO2max). Significant and near-perfect correlation was found between the change in the weekly mean lnRMSSD values from weeks 1 and 3 (∆lnRMSSDM) and ∆VO2max (r=0.90, p=0.002). The current results have identified that the initial change in weekly mean lnRMSSD from weeks 1 to 3 of a conditioning protocol was strongly associated with the eventual adaptation of VO2max. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. SMAX1-LIKE/D53 Family Members Enable Distinct MAX2-Dependent Responses to Strigolactones and Karrikins in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormones strigolactones and smoke-derived karrikins are butenolide signals that control distinct aspects of plant development. Perception of both molecules in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2). Recent studies suggest that the homologous SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) in Arabidopsis and DWARF53 (D53) in rice (Oryza sativa) are downstream targets of MAX2. Through an extensive analysis of loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis SMAX1-LIKE genes SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8 are co-orthologs of rice D53 that promote shoot branching. SMXL7 is degraded rapidly after treatment with the synthetic strigolactone mixture rac-GR24. Like D53, SMXL7 degradation is MAX2- and D14-dependent and can be prevented by deletion of a putative P-loop. Loss of SMXL6,7,8 suppresses several other strigolactone-related phenotypes in max2, including increased auxin transport and PIN1 accumulation, and increased lateral root density. Although only SMAX1 regulates germination and hypocotyl elongation, SMAX1 and SMXL6,7,8 have complementary roles in the control of leaf morphology. Our data indicate that SMAX1 and SMXL6,7,8 repress karrikin and strigolactone signaling, respectively, and suggest that all MAX2-dependent growth effects are mediated by degradation of SMAX1/SMXL proteins. We propose that functional diversification within the SMXL family enabled responses to different butenolide signals through a shared regulatory mechanism. PMID:26546447

  9. SMAX1-LIKE/D53 Family Members Enable Distinct MAX2-Dependent Responses to Strigolactones and Karrikins in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Soundappan, Ishwarya; Bennett, Tom; Morffy, Nicholas; Liang, Yueyang; Stanga, John P; Abbas, Amena; Leyser, Ottoline; Nelson, David C

    2015-11-01

    The plant hormones strigolactones and smoke-derived karrikins are butenolide signals that control distinct aspects of plant development. Perception of both molecules in Arabidopsis thaliana requires the F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2). Recent studies suggest that the homologous SUPPRESSOR OF MAX2 1 (SMAX1) in Arabidopsis and DWARF53 (D53) in rice (Oryza sativa) are downstream targets of MAX2. Through an extensive analysis of loss-of-function mutants, we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis SMAX1-LIKE genes SMXL6, SMXL7, and SMXL8 are co-orthologs of rice D53 that promote shoot branching. SMXL7 is degraded rapidly after treatment with the synthetic strigolactone mixture rac-GR24. Like D53, SMXL7 degradation is MAX2- and D14-dependent and can be prevented by deletion of a putative P-loop. Loss of SMXL6,7,8 suppresses several other strigolactone-related phenotypes in max2, including increased auxin transport and PIN1 accumulation, and increased lateral root density. Although only SMAX1 regulates germination and hypocotyl elongation, SMAX1 and SMXL6,7,8 have complementary roles in the control of leaf morphology. Our data indicate that SMAX1 and SMXL6,7,8 repress karrikin and strigolactone signaling, respectively, and suggest that all MAX2-dependent growth effects are mediated by degradation of SMAX1/SMXL proteins. We propose that functional diversification within the SMXL family enabled responses to different butenolide signals through a shared regulatory mechanism. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS < 6 = 0 and =/> 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: < 1 ml/kg/min for subsamples of age, gender, PASS and for VO2(sub max) between 30 and 50 ml/kg/min (70% of the sample) but > 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) <30 and >50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of

  11. VO2max and ventilatory threshold of trained cyclists are not affected by 28-day L-arginine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Kyle L; Greer, Felicia; Morales, Jacobo

    2011-03-01

    The ergogenic effect of L-arginine on an endurance-trained population is not well studied. The few studies that have investigated L-arginine on this population have not been conducted in a laboratory setting or measured aerobic variables. The purpose of the current study is to determine if 28 days of L-arginine supplementation in trained male cyclists affects VO2max and ventilatory threshold (VT). Eighteen (18) endurance-trained male cyclists (mean ± SD, age: 36.3 ± 7.9 years; height: 182.4 ± 4.6 cm; and body mass: 79.5 ± 4.7 kg) performed a graded exercise test (GXT; 50 W + 25 W·min) before and after 28 days of supplementation with L-arginine (ARG; 2 × 6 g·d) or placebo (PLA; cornstarch). The GXT was conducted on the subject's own bicycle using the RacerMate CompuTrainer (Seattle, WA, USA). VO2 was continuously recorded using the ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 metabolic cart (Salt Lake City, UT, USA) and VT was established by plotting the ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE/VO2) and the ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE/VCO2) and identifying the point at which VE/VO2 increases with no substantial changes in VE/VCO2. L-arginine supplementation had no effect from initial VO2max (PL, 58.7 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min; ARG, 63.5 ± 7.3 ml·kg·min) to postsupplement VO2max (PL, 58.9 ± 6.0 ml·kg·min; ARG, 63.2 ± 7.2 ml·kg·min). Also, no effect was seen from initial VT (PL, 75.7 ± 4.6% VO2max; ARG, 76.0 ± 5.3% VO2max) to postsupplement VT (PL, 74.3 ± 8.1% VO2max; ARG, 74.2 ± 6.4% VO2max). These results indicate that L-arginine does not impact VO2max or VT in trained male cyclists.

  12. The optimized V-V interval determined by interventricular conduction times versus invasive measurement by LVdP/dtMAX.

    PubMed

    van Gelder, Berry M; Meijer, Albert; Bracke, Frank A

    2008-09-01

    We compared the calculated optimal V-V interval derived from intracardiac electrograms (IEGM) with the optimized V-V interval determined by invasive measurement of LVdP/dt(MAX). Thirty-two patients with heart failure (six females, ages 68 +/- 7.8 years) had a CRT device implanted. After implantation of the atrial, right and a left ventricular lead, the optimal V-V interval was calculated using the QuickOpt formula (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA) applied to the respective IEGM recordings (V-V(IEGM)), and also determined by invasive measurement of LVdP/dt(MAX) (V-V(dP/dt)). The optimal V-V(IEGM) and V-V(dP/dt) intervals were 52.7 +/- 18 ms and 24.0 +/- 33 ms, respectively (P = 0.017), without correlation between the two. The baseline LVdP/dt(MAX) was 748 +/- 191 mmHg/s. The mean value of LVdP/dt(MAX) at invasive optimization was 947 +/- 198 mmHg/s, and at the calculated optimal V-V(IEGM) interval 920 +/- 191 mmHg/s (P < 0.0001). In spite of this significant difference, there was a good correlation between both methods (R = 0.991, P < 0.0001). However, a similarly good correlation existed between the maximum value of LVdP/dt(MAX) and LVdP/dt(MAX) at a fixed V-V interval of 0 ms (R = 0.993, P < 0.0001), or LVdP/dt(MAX) at a randomly selected V-V interval between 0 and +80 ms (R = 0.991, P < 0.0001). Optimizing the V-V interval with the IEGM method does not yield better hemodynamic results than simultaneous BiV pacing. Although a good correlation between LVdP/dt(MAX) determined with V-V(IEGM) and V-V(dP/dt) can be constructed, there is no correlation with the optimal settings of V-V interval in the individual patient.

  13. Effect of a prior intermittent run at vVO2max on oxygen kinetics during an all-out severe run in humans.

    PubMed

    Billat, V L; Bocquet, V; Slawinski, J; Laffite, L; Demarle, A; Chassaing, P; Koralsztein, J P

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of prior intermittent running at VO2max on oxygen kinetics during a continuous severe intensity run and the time spent at VO2max. Eight long-distance runners performed three maximal tests on a synthetic track (400 m) whilst breathing through the COSMED K4 portable telemetric metabolic analyser: i) an incremental test which determined velocity at the lactate threshold (vLT), VO2max and velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max), ii) a continuous severe intensity run at vLT+50% (vdelta50) of the difference between vLT and vVO2max (91.3+/-1.6% VO2max)preceded by a light continuous 20 minute run at 50% of vVO2max (light warm-up), iii) the same continuous severe intensity run at vdelta50 with a prior interval training exercise (hard warm-up) of repeated hard running bouts performed at 100% of vVO2max and light running at 50% of vVO2max (of 30 seconds each) performed until exhaustion (on average 19+/-5 min with 19+/-5 interval repetitions). This hard warm-up speeded the VO2 kinetics: the time constant was reduced by 45% (28+/-7 sec vs 51+/-37 sec) and the slow component of VO2 (deltaVO2 6-3 min) was deleted (-143+/-271 ml x min(-1) vs 291+/-153 ml x min(-1)). In conclusion, despite a significantly lower total run time at vdelta50 (6 min 19+/-0) min 17 vs 8 min 20+/-1 min 45, p=0.02) after the intermittent warm-up at VO2max, the time spent specifically at VO2max in the severe continuous run at vdelta50 was not significantly different.

  14. Interval training at 95% and 100% of the velocity at VO2 max: effects on aerobic physiological indexes and running performance.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Benedito S; Ortiz, Marcelo J; Greco, Camila C; de Mello, Marco T

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two different high-intensity interval training (HIT) programs on selected aerobic physiological indices and 1500 and 5000 m running performance in well-trained runners. The following tests were completed (n=17): (i) incremental treadmill test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max), running velocity associated with VO2 max (vVO2 max), and the velocity corresponding to 3.5 mmol/L of blood lactate concentration (vOBLA); (ii) submaximal constant-intensity test to determine running economy (RE); and (iii) 1500 and 5000 m time trials on a 400 m track. Runners were then randomized into 95% vVO2 max or 100% vVO2 max groups, and undertook a 4 week training program consisting of 2 HIT sessions (performed at 95% or 100% vVO2 max, respectively) and 4 submaximal run sessions per week. Runners were retested on all parameters at the completion of the training program. The VO2 max values were not different after training for both groups. There was a significant increase in post-training vVO2 max, RE, and 1500 m running performance in the 100% vVO2 max group. The vOBLA and 5000 m running performance were significantly higher after the training period for both groups. We conclude that vOBLA and 5000 m running performance can be significantly improved in well-trained runners using a 4 week training program consisting of 2 HIT sessions (performed at 95% or 100% vVO2 max) and 4 submaximal run sessions per week. However, the improvement in vVO2 max, RE, and 1500 m running performance seems to be dependent on the HIT program at 100% vVO2 max.

  15. Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions (VO2max) will document changes in maximum oxygen uptake for crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) on long-duration missions, greater than 90 days. This investigation will establish the characteristics of VO2max during flight and assess the validity of the current methods of tracking aerobic capacity change during and following the ISS missions.

  16. Flooding tolerance of soybean (Glycine max) germplasm from southeast Asia under field and screen-house environment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars from the U.S. are generally intolerant to flooding stress. Soybean germplasm and cultivars originating from other countries and grown in rotations with paddy rice potentially could have better flooding tolerance. Screen-house and field tests were conducted to...

  17. Soyasaponin Bh, a Triterpene Saponin Containing a Unique Hemiacetal-Functional Five-Membered Ring from Glycine max (Soybeans)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybeans (Glycine max L. Merill) and soy-based food products are major dietary sources of saponins. An oleanane triterpenoid saponin, soyasaponin Bh (1) containing a unique five-membered ring with a hemiacetal functionality together with seven known saponins were isolated from soybeans. Their struct...

  18. Report from the Third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology.

    PubMed

    Brunschweiger, Andreas

    2014-08-15

    The third Annual Symposium of the RIKEN-Max Planck Joint Research Center for Systems Chemical Biology was held at Ringberg castle, May 21-24, 2014. At this meeting 45 scientists from Japan and Germany presented the latest results from their research spanning a broad range of topics in chemical biology and glycobiology.

  19. Predicting VO[subscript 2max] in College-Aged Participants Using Cycle Ergometry and Perceived Functional Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, David E.; George, James D.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ron L.; Webb, Carrie V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict treadmill VO[subscript 2max] scores using both exercise and non-exercise data. One hundred five college-aged participants (53 male, 52 female) successfully completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test and a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill.…

  20. Fuel to burn : economics of converting forest thinnings to energy using BioMax in southern Oregon

    Treesearch

    E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Kenneth E. Skog; Jeremy Fried; Glenn Christensen

    2005-01-01

    Small-scale gasification plants that generate electrical energy from forest health thinnings may have the potential to deliver substantial amounts of electricity to the national grid. We evaluated the economic feasibility of two sizes of BioMax, a generator manufactured by the Community Power Corporation of Littleton, Colorado. At current avoided- cost electricity...

  1. Fuel to burn: economics of converting forest thinnings to energy using BioMax in southern Oregon.

    Treesearch

    E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Kenneth E. Skog; Jeremy Fried; Glenn Christensen

    2005-01-01

    Small-scale gasification plants that generate electrical energy from forest health thinnings may have the potential to deliver substantial amounts of electricity to the national grid. We evaluated the economic feasibility of two sizes of BioMax, a generator manufactured by the Community Power Corporation of Littleton, Colorado. At current avoided-cost electricity...

  2. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, a perennial wild relative of soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistan...

  3. F-box protein MAX2 has dual roles in karrikin and strigolactone signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David C.; Scaffidi, Adrian; Dun, Elizabeth A.; Waters, Mark T.; Flematti, Gavin R.; Dixon, Kingsley W.; Beveridge, Christine A.; Ghisalberti, Emilio L.; Smith, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Smoke is an important abiotic cue for plant regeneration in postfire landscapes. Karrikins are a class of compounds discovered in smoke that promote seed germination and influence early development of many plants by an unknown mechanism. A genetic screen for karrikin-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that karrikin signaling requires the F-box protein MAX2, which also mediates responses to the structurally-related strigolactone family of phytohormones. Karrikins and the synthetic strigolactone GR24 trigger similar effects on seed germination, seedling photomorphogenesis, and expression of a small set of genes during these developmental stages. Karrikins also repress MAX4 and IAA1 transcripts, which show negative feedback regulation by strigolactone. We demonstrate that all of these common responses are abolished in max2 mutants. Unlike strigolactones, however, karrikins do not inhibit shoot branching in Arabidopsis or pea, indicating that plants can distinguish between these signals. These results suggest that a MAX2-dependent signal transduction mechanism was adapted to mediate responses to two chemical cues with distinct roles in plant ecology and development. PMID:21555559

  4. F-box protein MAX2 has dual roles in karrikin and strigolactone signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David C; Scaffidi, Adrian; Dun, Elizabeth A; Waters, Mark T; Flematti, Gavin R; Dixon, Kingsley W; Beveridge, Christine A; Ghisalberti, Emilio L; Smith, Steven M

    2011-05-24

    Smoke is an important abiotic cue for plant regeneration in postfire landscapes. Karrikins are a class of compounds discovered in smoke that promote seed germination and influence early development of many plants by an unknown mechanism. A genetic screen for karrikin-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that karrikin signaling requires the F-box protein MAX2, which also mediates responses to the structurally-related strigolactone family of phytohormones. Karrikins and the synthetic strigolactone GR24 trigger similar effects on seed germination, seedling photomorphogenesis, and expression of a small set of genes during these developmental stages. Karrikins also repress MAX4 and IAA1 transcripts, which show negative feedback regulation by strigolactone. We demonstrate that all of these common responses are abolished in max2 mutants. Unlike strigolactones, however, karrikins do not inhibit shoot branching in Arabidopsis or pea, indicating that plants can distinguish between these signals. These results suggest that a MAX2-dependent signal transduction mechanism was adapted to mediate responses to two chemical cues with distinct roles in plant ecology and development.

  5. Shape complexes: the intersection of label orderings and star convexity constraints in continuous max-flow medical image segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, John S. H.; Inoue, Jiro; Drangova, Maria; Peters, Terry M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Optimization-based segmentation approaches deriving from discrete graph-cuts and continuous max-flow have become increasingly nuanced, allowing for topological and geometric constraints on the resulting segmentation while retaining global optimality. However, these two considerations, topological and geometric, have yet to be combined in a unified manner. The concept of “shape complexes,” which combine geodesic star convexity with extendable continuous max-flow solvers, is presented. These shape complexes allow more complicated shapes to be created through the use of multiple labels and super-labels, with geodesic star convexity governed by a topological ordering. These problems can be optimized using extendable continuous max-flow solvers. Previous approaches required computationally expensive coordinate system warping, which are ill-defined and ambiguous in the general case. These shape complexes are demonstrated in a set of synthetic images as well as vessel segmentation in ultrasound, valve segmentation in ultrasound, and atrial wall segmentation from contrast-enhanced CT. Shape complexes represent an extendable tool alongside other continuous max-flow methods that may be suitable for a wide range of medical image segmentation problems. PMID:28018937

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on s...

  7. Rapid Calculation of Max-Min Fair Rates for Multi-Commodity Flows in Fat-Tree Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Mollah, Md Atiqul; Yuan, Xin; Pakin, Scott

    Max-min fairness is often used in the performance modeling of interconnection networks. Existing methods to compute max-min fair rates for multi-commodity flows have high complexity and are computationally infeasible for large networks. In this paper, we show that by considering topological features, this problem can be solved efficiently for the fat-tree topology that is widely used in data centers and high performance compute clusters. Several efficient new algorithms are developed for this problem, including a parallel algorithm that can take advantage of multi-core and shared-memory architectures. Using these algorithms, we demonstrate that it is possible to find the max-min fairmore » rate allocation for multi-commodity flows in fat-tree networks that support tens of thousands of nodes. We evaluate the run-time performance of the proposed algorithms and show improvement in orders of magnitude over the previously best known method. Finally, we further demonstrate a new application of max-min fair rate allocation that is only computationally feasible using our new algorithms.« less

  8. Validity of VO(2 max) in predicting blood volume: implications for the effect of fitness on aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.

    2000-01-01

    A multiple regression model was constructed to investigate the premise that blood volume (BV) could be predicted using several anthropometric variables, age, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)). To test this hypothesis, age, calculated body surface area (height/weight composite), percent body fat (hydrostatic weight), and VO(2 max) were regressed on to BV using data obtained from 66 normal healthy men. Results from the evaluation of the full model indicated that the most parsimonious result was obtained when age and VO(2 max) were regressed on BV expressed per kilogram body weight. The full model accounted for 52% of the total variance in BV per kilogram body weight. Both age and VO(2 max) were related to BV in the positive direction. Percent body fat contributed <1% to the explained variance in BV when expressed in absolute BV (ml) or as BV per kilogram body weight. When the model was cross validated on 41 new subjects and BV per kilogram body weight was reexpressed as raw BV, the results indicated that the statistical model would be stable under cross validation (e.g., predictive applications) with an accuracy of +/- 1,200 ml at 95% confidence. Our results support the hypothesis that BV is an increasing function of aerobic fitness and to a lesser extent the age of the subject. The results may have implication as to a mechanism by which aerobic fitness and activity may be protective against reduced BV associated with aging.

  9. 78 FR 54934 - China Lithium Technologies, Inc. and China Wi-Max Communications, Inc.; Order of Suspension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] China Lithium Technologies, Inc. and China Wi-Max Communications, Inc.; Order of Suspension of Trading September 4, 2013. It appears to the... securities of China Lithium Technologies, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period...

  10. Rapid Calculation of Max-Min Fair Rates for Multi-Commodity Flows in Fat-Tree Networks

    DOE PAGES

    Mollah, Md Atiqul; Yuan, Xin; Pakin, Scott; ...

    2017-08-29

    Max-min fairness is often used in the performance modeling of interconnection networks. Existing methods to compute max-min fair rates for multi-commodity flows have high complexity and are computationally infeasible for large networks. In this paper, we show that by considering topological features, this problem can be solved efficiently for the fat-tree topology that is widely used in data centers and high performance compute clusters. Several efficient new algorithms are developed for this problem, including a parallel algorithm that can take advantage of multi-core and shared-memory architectures. Using these algorithms, we demonstrate that it is possible to find the max-min fairmore » rate allocation for multi-commodity flows in fat-tree networks that support tens of thousands of nodes. We evaluate the run-time performance of the proposed algorithms and show improvement in orders of magnitude over the previously best known method. Finally, we further demonstrate a new application of max-min fair rate allocation that is only computationally feasible using our new algorithms.« less

  11. Multi-population selective genotyping to identify soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed protein and oil QTLs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant breeders continually generate ever-higher yielding cultivars, but also want to improve seed constituent value, which in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is seed protein and oil. Identification of genetic loci governing those two traits would facilitate that effort, and though genome-wide asso...

  12. A Course between Bureaucracy and Charisma: A Pedagogical Reading of Max Weber's Social Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers of education tend to mention Max Weber's social theory in passing, assuming its importance and presuming its comprehension, but few have paused to consider how Weber's social theory might consciously inform educational theory and research, and none have done so comprehensively. The aim of this article is to begin this…

  13. A Maximal Graded Exercise Test to Accurately Predict VO2max in 18-65-Year-Old Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, James D.; Bradshaw, Danielle I.; Hyde, Annette; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ronald L.; Yanowitz, Frank G.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an age-generalized regression model to predict maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max) based on a maximal treadmill graded exercise test (GXT; George, 1996). Participants (N = 100), ages 18-65 years, reached a maximal level of exertion (mean plus or minus standard deviation [SD]; maximal heart rate [HR sub…

  14. Utilization of MAX and FAX human phantoms for space radiation exposure calculations using HZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qualls, Garry; Slaba, Tony; Clowdsley, Martha; Blattnig, Steve; Walker, Steven; Simonsen, Lisa

    To estimate astronaut health risk due to space radiation, one must have the ability to calculate, for known radiation environments external to the body, particle spectra, LET spectra, dose, dose equivalent, or gray equivalent that are averaged over specific organs or tissue types. This may be accomplished using radiation transport software and computational human body tissue models. Historically, NASA scientists have used the HZETRN software to calculate radiation transport through both vehicle shielding materials and body tissue. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) and the Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF) body models, combined with the CAMERA software, have been used for body tissue self-shielding calculations. The CAM and CAF, which were developed in 1973 and 1992, respectively, model the 50th percentile U.S. Air Force male and female and are constructed using individual quadric surfaces that combine to form thousands of solid regions that represent specific tissues and structures within the body. In order to transport an external radiation environment to a point within one of the body models using HZETRN, a directional distribution of the tissues surrounding that point is needed. The CAMERA software is used to "ray trace" the CAM and CAF models, providing the thickness of each tissue type traversed along each of a large number of rays originating at a dose point. More recently, R. Kramer of the Departmento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco in Brazil and his co-workers developed the Male Adult voXel (MAX) model and the Female Adult voXel (FAX). These voxel-based body models were developed using segmented Computed Tomography (CT) scans of adult cadavers, and the quantities and distributions of various body tissues have been adjusted to match those specified in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference adult male and female. A new set of tools has been developed to facilitate space radiation exposure

  15. Automated secured cost effective key refreshing technique to enhance WiMAX privacy key management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridevi, B.; Sivaranjani, S.; Rajaram, S.

    2013-01-01

    In all walks of life the way of communication is transformed by the rapid growth of wireless communication and its pervasive use. A wireless network which is fixed and richer in bandwidth is specified as IEEE 802.16, promoted and launched by an industrial forum is termed as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX). This technology enables seamless delivery of wireless broadband service for fixed and/or mobile users. The obscurity is the long delay which occurs during the handoff management in every network. Mobile WiMAX employs an authenticated key management protocol as a part of handoff management in which the Base Station (BS) controls the distribution of keying material to the Mobile Station (MS). The protocol employed is Privacy Key Management Version 2- Extensible Authentication Protocol (PKMV2-EAP) which is responsible for the normal and periodical authorization of MSs, reauthorization as well as key refreshing. Authorization key (AK) and Traffic Encryption key (TEK) plays a vital role in key exchange. When the lifetime of key expires, MS has to request for a new key to BS which in turn leads to repetition of authorization, authentication as well as key exchange. To avoid service interruption during reauthorization , two active keys are transmitted at the same time by BS to MS. The consequences of existing work are hefty amount of bandwidth utilization, time consumption and large storage. It is also endured by Man in the Middle attack and Impersonation due to lack of security in key exchange. This paper designs an automatic mutual refreshing of keys to minimize bandwidth utilization, key storage and time consumption by proposing Previous key and Iteration based Key Refreshing Function (PKIBKRF). By integrating PKIBKRF in key generation, the simulation results indicate that 21.8% of the bandwidth and storage of keys are reduced and PKMV2 mutual authentication time is reduced by 66.67%. The proposed work is simulated with Qualnet model and

  16. Monitoring shipping emissions in the German Bight using MAX-DOAS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Shipping is generally the most energy efficient transportation mode, but, at the same time, it accounts for four fifths of the worldwide total merchandise trade volume. As a result, shipping contributes a significant part to the emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of shipping emissions occurs within 400 km of land, impacting on air pollution in coastal areas and harbor towns. The North Sea has one of the highest ship densities in the world and the vast majority of ships heading for the port of Hamburg sail through the German Bight and into the river Elbe. A three-year time series of ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and SO2 on the island Neuwerk in the German Bight has been analyzed for contributions from shipping emissions. Measurements of individual ship plumes as well as of background pollution are possible from this location, which is 6-7 kilometers away from the main shipping lane towards the harbor of Hamburg. More than 2000 individual ship plumes have been identified in the data and analyzed for the emission ratio of SO2 to NO2, yielding an average ratio of 0.3 for the years 2013/2014. Contributions of ships and land-based sources to air pollution levels in the German Bight have been estimated, showing that despite the vicinity to the shipping lane, the contribution of shipping sources to air pollution is only about 40%. Since January 2015, much lower fuel sulfur content limits of 0.1% (before: 1.0%) apply in the North and Baltic Sea Emission Control Area (ECA). Comparing MAX-DOAS measurements from 2015/2016 (new regulation) to 2013/2014 (old regulation), a large reduction in SO2/NO2 ratios in shipping emissions and a significant reduction (by a factor of eight) in ambient coastal SO2 levels have been observed. In addition to that, selected shipping emission measurements from other measurement sites and campaigns are presented. This study is part of the project MeSMarT (Measurements of Shipping emissions in the Marine Troposphere

  17. Multi-year MAX-DOAS observations of formaldehyde and glyoxal in Phimai, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, H. M. S.; Irie, H.; Shimizu, A.; Damiani, A.

    2017-12-01

    The first long-term Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations were performed in Phimai, Thailand (15.18 °N, 102.56 °E), a site in Southeast Asia, where ground-based remote sensing observations of trace gases and aerosols are very limited. Vertical profile information of eight components was retrieved independently using the Japanese MAX-DOAS profile retrieval algorithm, version 2 (JM2). Here we focus on the two organic compounds, formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO), and study their volume mixing ratio data in the lowest layer (0-1 km) of our retrieved vertical profiles. In addition to the systematic climatological analysis of HCHO and CHOCHO, we also report the ratio of CHOCHO to HCHO, RGF, which is suggested to be an important tracer of changes of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources. Higher concentration of HCHO and CHOCHO was observed during the dry season (January-April), whereas the concentration level was close to the background level during the wet season (June-September). Such enhancements correspond well the influence of the pronounced seasonal variation of biomass burning activity. The RGF for the Phimai site was estimated to be 0.030±0.010. Our estimated RGF during the dry season ( 0.025±0.008) was lower than that in the wet season ( 0.033±0.012). This change in the RGF is consistent with the satellite retrievals, suggesting a higher RGF for strong biogenic emission sources. While the site can be characterized as environment with a low nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration level ( 1 ppbv), the impact of biomass burning on the lower RGF during the dry season was confirmed by occasional enhancement of the NO2 level as an anthropogenic tracer. The results are further supported by additional error analyses for the cloud influence. Our findings are expected to be used to reduce model uncertainties related to VOC chemistry and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation

  18. Validation of masks for determination of V̇O2 max in horses exercising at high intensity.

    PubMed

    Sides, R H; Kirkpatrick, R; Renner, E; Gough, K; Katz, L M; Evans, D L; Bayly, W M

    2018-01-01

    The need for a horse to be ridden while wearing a measurement device that allows unrestricted ventilation and gas exchange has hampered accurate measurement of its maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O 2 max) under field conditions. Design and validate a facemask with the potential to measure V̇O 2 max accurately in the field. Experiment with 6 × 6 Latin square design. Two variations of a mask and associated electronic control module (ECM) were designed to enable breath-by-breath measurement of airflows through two 7.8 cm diameter pneumotachometers located 7.5 cm in front of each narus. The ECM was comprised of an analogue-to-digital converter and a lithium-ion battery that provided power and signal filtering to the pneumotachometers and an oxygen sensing cell, and powered a pump connected to gas sampling ports between the nares and pneumotachometers. Airflow and oxygen content of inspired and expired gases were recorded through the ECM and electronically transferred to a notebook. V̇O 2 was determined from these recordings using a customised software program. Mask B encased the lower jaw. Mask R left the jaw free so the horse could wear a bit if ridden. V̇O 2 max and arterial blood gases were measured in 6 horses during multiple treadmill tests. Each mask was worn twice and results compared to those from an established open flow-through system (O) by ANOVA-RM (P<0.05). System utility was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient of 4 independent raters. Blood gases and V̇O 2 max (151.9±7.0 [mean±s.d.; O], 151.5±9.6 [B], 149.5±7.5 [R] ml/[kg.min]) were not different between masks. V̇O 2 max measures were reproducible for each mask. Intraclass correlation coefficient between raters = 0.99. Some rebreathing of expired air from mask dead space. Masks capable of measuring V̇O 2 max during treadmill exercise were developed, tested and found to be accurate. Mask R has potential application to measurement of V̇O 2 max under field conditions. © 2017

  19. Premarket evaluations of the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay and the BD Max Cdiff Assay.

    PubMed

    Stellrecht, K A; Espino, A A; Maceira, V P; Nattanmai, S M; Butt, S A; Wroblewski, D; Hannett, G E; Musser, K A

    2014-05-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a well-recognized complication of antibiotic use. Historically, diagnosing C. difficile has been difficult, as antigen assays are insensitive and culture-based methods require several days to yield results. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are quickly becoming the standard of care. We compared the performance of two automated investigational/research use only (IUO/RUO) NAATs for the detection of C. difficile toxin genes, the IMDx C. difficile for Abbott m2000 Assay (IMDx) and the BD Max Cdiff Assay (Max). A prospective analysis of 111 stool specimens received in the laboratory for C. difficile testing by the laboratory's test of record (TOR), the BD GeneOhm Cdiff Assay, and a retrospective analysis of 88 specimens previously determined to be positive for C. difficile were included in the study. One prospective specimen was excluded due to loss to follow-up discrepancy analysis. Of the remaining 198 specimens, 90 were positive by all three methods, 9 were positive by TOR and Max, and 3 were positive by TOR only. One negative specimen was initially inhibitory by Max. The remaining 95 specimens were negative by all methods. Toxigenic C. difficile culture was performed on the 12 discrepant samples. True C. difficile-positive status was defined as either positive by all three amplification assays or positive by toxigenic culture. Based on this definition, the sensitivity and specificity were 96.9% and 95% for Max and 92.8% and 100% for IMDx. In summary, both highly automated systems demonstrated excellent performance, and each has individual benefits, which will ensure that they will both have a niche in clinical laboratories.

  20. Effects of chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition on V'O2max and exercise capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Wojewoda, M; Przyborowski, K; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Mateuszuk, L; Zoladz, J A; Chlopicki, S

    2017-03-01

    Acute inhibition of NOS by L-NAME (N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) is known to decrease maximal oxygen consumption (V'O 2max ) and impair maximal exercise capacity, whereas the effects of chronic L-NAME treatment on V'O 2max and exercise performance have not been studied so far. In this study, we analysed the effect of L-NAME treatment, (LN2 and LN12, respectively) on V'O 2max and exercise capacity (in maximal incremental running and prolonged sub-maximal incremental running tests), systemic NO bioavailability (plasma nitrite (NO 2 - ) and nitrate (NO 3 - )) and prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) production in C57BL6/J mice. Mice treated with L-NAME for 2 weeks (LN2) displayed higher V'O 2max and better running capacity than age-matched control mice. In LN2 mice, NO bioavailability was preserved, as evidenced by maintained NO 2 - plasma concentration. PGI 2 production was activated (increased 6-keto-PGF 1α plasma concentration) and the number of circulating erythrocytes (RBC) and haemoglobin concentration were increased. In mice treated with L-NAME for 12 weeks (LN12), NO bioavailability was decreased (lower NO 2 - plasma concentration), and 6-keto-PGF 1α plasma concentration and RBC number were not elevated compared to age-matched control mice. However, LN12 mice still performed better during the maximal incremental running test despite having lower V'O 2max . Interestingly, the LN12 mice showed poorer running capacity during the prolonged sub-maximal incremental running test. To conclude, short-term (2 weeks) but not long-term (12 weeks) treatment with L-NAME activated robust compensatory mechanisms involving preservation of NO2- plasma concentration, overproduction of PGI 2 and increased number of RBCs, which might explain the fully preserved exercise capacity despite the inhibition of NOS.

  1. [The meaning of "apology": the survivors of Nazi medical crimes and the Max Planck Society].

    PubMed

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-09-01

    Around the turn of the twenty-first century a new practice in international politics became established: representatives of political, economic and religious organisations apologised for the historical and political crimes of their own collectives, addressing the victims or the victims' descendants. At a public event in June 2001, a formal apology of this kind was made by the president of the Max Planck Society (MPS), who had previously launched an extensive programme of research into the National Socialist history of what was then the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The majority of the eight invited survivors of human experimentation in Nazi concentration camps refused forgiveness. Instead, they called for the MPS not to content itself with historical research and analysis, but to ensure the continued remembrance of the victims and their suffering. Starting from this 2001 ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism, and asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.

  2. The ontology of the questionnaire: Max Weber on measurement and mass investigation.

    PubMed

    Brain, R M

    2001-12-01

    Although contemporary sociologists of science have sometimes claimed Max Weber as a methodological precursor, they have not examined Weber's own writings about science. Between 1908 and 1912 Weber published a series of critical studies of the extension of scientific authority into public life. The most notable of these concerned attempts to implement the experimental psychology or psycho-physics laboratory in factories and other real-world settings. Weber's critique centered on the problem of social measurement. He emphasized the discontinuities between the space of the laboratory and that of the factory, showing how several qualitative and historically conditioned differences between the two settings rendered the transfer of instruments and methods between them highly problematic. Weber's critical arguments prepared the ground for his greatest foray into empirical sociology, a survey he directed for the Verein für Sozialpolitik investigating the conditions and attitudes affecting the lives and performance of industrial workers. Using a different measuring instrument - the questionnaire - Weber tried to implement a concept of social measurement which implied a different ontology, drawn not from natural sciences but from the historical sciences. Copyright 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  3. Flexible Macroblock Ordering for Context-Aware Ultrasound Video Transmission over Mobile WiMAX

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Maria G.; Hewage, Chaminda T. E. R.

    2010-01-01

    The most recent network technologies are enabling a variety of new applications, thanks to the provision of increased bandwidth and better management of Quality of Service. Nevertheless, telemedical services involving multimedia data are still lagging behind, due to the concern of the end users, that is, clinicians and also patients, about the low quality provided. Indeed, emerging network technologies should be appropriately exploited by designing the transmission strategy focusing on quality provision for end users. Stemming from this principle, we propose here a context-aware transmission strategy for medical video transmission over WiMAX systems. Context, in terms of regions of interest (ROI) in a specific session, is taken into account for the identification of multiple regions of interest, and compression/transmission strategies are tailored to such context information. We present a methodology based on H.264 medical video compression and Flexible Macroblock Ordering (FMO) for ROI identification. Two different unequal error protection methodologies, providing higher protection to the most diagnostically relevant data, are presented. PMID:20827292

  4. Absorptive capacity of Libya: a constrained expenditure approach. [Policy of max-minimize oil exports

    SciTech Connect

    El-Jehaimi, T.

    This paper is concerned with estimating the absorptive capacity of Libya as it relates to the country's development objectives. Specifically, the paper will attempt, on the bases of analytical assumptions and a model of econometric relationships, to estimate the levels of oil exports which will be required in order to finance the economic development of Libya over the next ten years. By emphasizing the requirements of domestic development, the question of surplus will not arise and, unlike in some other works, the absorption problem will not be met. This approach, explained in detail, should give more realistic results since itmore » has been the policy of Libya to max-minimize oil exports since 1970, i.e., to export high enough to pay for imports and other foreign obligations such as foreign aid but low enough to not generate excess revenues. Excess revenues are revenues in excess of what is required to maintain the reserves/imports ratio at an optimum level. The conservation policy adopted by Libya has resulted in lowering production levels from a peak of 3.2 million barrels per day (mb/d) in 1970 to a little over 1 mb/d in 1975. This policy is expected to continue. (From Introduction)« less

  5. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun; Olsen, Jesper V; Shi, Rong; de Souza, Gustavo; Pasini, Erica; Foster, Leonard J; Macek, Boris; Zougman, Alexandre; Kumar, Chanchal; Wisniewski, Jacek R; Jun, Wang; Mann, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and stringent validation criteria, false positive identification rates in MAPU are lower than 1:1000. Thus MAPU datasets can serve as reference proteomes in biomarker discovery. MAPU contains the peptides identifying each protein, measured masses, scores and intensities and is freely available at http://www.mapuproteome.com using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic annotation information and links to other public databases are provided in MAPU and we plan to add further analysis tools.

  6. MAPU: Max-Planck Unified database of organellar, cellular, tissue and body fluid proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Yong; Adachi, Jun; Olsen, Jesper V.; Shi, Rong; de Souza, Gustavo; Pasini, Erica; Foster, Leonard J.; Macek, Boris; Zougman, Alexandre; Kumar, Chanchal; Wiśniewski, Jacek R.; Jun, Wang; Mann, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become a powerful technology to map the protein composition of organelles, cell types and tissues. In our department, a large-scale effort to map these proteomes is complemented by the Max-Planck Unified (MAPU) proteome database. MAPU contains several body fluid proteomes; including plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. Cell lines have been mapped to a depth of several thousand proteins and the red blood cell proteome has also been analyzed in depth. The liver proteome is represented with 3200 proteins. By employing high resolution MS and stringent validation criteria, false positive identification rates in MAPU are lower than 1:1000. Thus MAPU datasets can serve as reference proteomes in biomarker discovery. MAPU contains the peptides identifying each protein, measured masses, scores and intensities and is freely available at using a clickable interface of cell or body parts. Proteome data can be queried across proteomes by protein name, accession number, sequence similarity, peptide sequence and annotation information. More than 4500 mouse and 2500 human proteins have already been identified in at least one proteome. Basic annotation information and links to other public databases are provided in MAPU and we plan to add further analysis tools. PMID:17090601

  7. A Proposed Ascent Abort Flight Test for the Max Launch Abort System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Starr, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center initiated the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Project to investigate alternate crew escape system concepts that eliminate the conventional launch escape tower by integrating the escape system into an aerodynamic fairing that fully encapsulates the crew capsule and smoothly integrates with the launch vehicle. This paper proposes an ascent abort flight test for an all-propulsive towerless escape system concept that is actively controlled and sized to accommodate the Orion Crew Module. The goal of the flight test is to demonstrate a high dynamic pressure escape and to characterize jet interaction effects during operation of the attitude control thrusters at transonic and supersonic conditions. The flight-test vehicle is delivered to the required test conditions by a booster configuration selected to meet cost, manufacturability, and operability objectives. Data return is augmented through judicious design of the boost trajectory, which is optimized to obtain data at a range of relevant points, rather than just a single flight condition. Secondary flight objectives are included after the escape to obtain aerodynamic damping data for the crew module and to perform a high-altitude contingency deployment of the drogue parachutes. Both 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation results are presented that establish concept feasibility, and a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment is performed to provide confidence that test objectives can be met.

  8. Numerical evaluation of human exposure to WiMax patch antenna in tablet or laptop.

    PubMed

    Siervo, Beatrice; Morelli, Maria Sole; Landini, Luigi; Hartwig, Valentina

    2018-04-30

    The use of wireless communication devices, such as tablets or laptops, is increasing among children. Only a few studies assess specific energy absorption rate (SAR) due to exposure from wireless-enabled tablets and laptops, in particular with Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMax) technology. This paper reports the estimation of the interaction between an E-shaped patch antenna (3.5 GHz) and human models, by means of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Specifically, four different human models (young adult male, young adult female, pre-teenager female, male child) in different exposure conditions (antenna at different distances from the human model, in different positions, and orientations) were considered and whole-body, 10 and 1 g local SAR and magnetic field value (Bmax) were evaluated. From our results, in some worst-case scenarios involving male and female children's exposure, the maximum radiofrequency energy absorption (hot spots) is located in more sensitive organs such as eye, genitals, and breast. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Determination of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in Herba Ephedrae and Maxing Shigan Tang by capillary zone electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Jing, Haoran; Guo, Huaizhong; Wang, Zijun; Wang, Min; Zhang, Bin

    2009-04-01

    To establish a method for the determination of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in Herba Ephedrae and Maxing Shigan Tang by capillary zone electrophoresis. The conditions of the experiment were optimized with a fused-silica capillary of 60 cm x 50 microm (50 cm effective length) in a running buffer of 50 mmol x L(-1) borax-20 mmol x L(-1) threonine (pH 9.27) and an applied voltage of 15 kV (room temperature). Samples were introduced by hydrodynamic injections (10 cm x 20 s)and determined with on-column UV monitoring at 210 nm. Phenobarbital was chosen as the internal standard. Ephedrine and pseudoephedrine are separated successfully within 8 min. The linear responses covered the ranges from 21.3 to 213 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.9996) for ephedrine and from 8.4 to 84 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.9995) for pseudoephedrine. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were shown to be 1.45 and 1.48 microg x mL(-1), respectively, The quantitation limits (S/N = 10) of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were shown to be 4.81 and 4.93 mg x L(-1), respectively. The average recoveries for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine were 97.5% and 98.6% with RSD less than 5.0%. The method is simple, rapid, cost-effective and precise with satisfactory results.

  10. Meaning, lived experience, empathy and boredom: Max van Manen on phenomenology and Heidegger.

    PubMed

    Paley, John

    2018-07-01

    Phenomenology as Qualitative Research: A Critical Analysis of Meaning Attribution has attracted the attention of Max van Manen, who has published a highly critical review article. Anyone reading this article, but unfamiliar with the book, will get a distorted view of what it is about, whom it is addressed to, what it tries to achieve, and how it goes about presenting its arguments. Not mildly distorted, in need of the odd correction here and there, but systematically misrepresented. One problem is that van Manen appears to have an idée fixe which prevents him from recognizing that the book is not about a certain philosophical tradition (known as "phenomenology"), but about a particular type of qualitative research (also known, unfortunately and confusingly, as "phenomenology"). A second idée fixe disposes him to misread an earlier article of mine and (much more seriously) three works by Heidegger. My aim in this article is to describe these two idées fixes, and exhibit their consequences. In doing so, I will examine what van Manen has to say on four crucial topics: meaning, lived experience, empathy, and Heidegger's analysis of boredom in The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Undergraduate Student Involvement in International Research - The IRES Program at MAX-lab, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, William; O'Rielly, Grant; Fissum, Kevin

    2014-03-01

    Undergraduate students associated with The George Washington University and UMass Dartmouth have had the opportunity to participate in nuclear physics research as a part of the PIONS@MAXLAB Collaboration performing experiments at MAX-lab at Lund University in Sweden. This project has supported thirteen undergraduate students during 2009 - 2011. The student researchers are involved with all aspects of the experiments performed at the laboratory, from set-up to analysis and presentation at national conferences. These experiments investigate the dynamics responsible for the internal structure of the nucleon through the study of pion photoproduction off the nucleon and high-energy Compton scattering. Along with the US and Swedish project leaders, members of the collaboration (from four different countries) have contributed to the training and mentoring of these students. This program provides students with international research experiences that prepare them to operate successfully in a global environment and encourages them to stay in areas of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) that are crucial for our modern, technology-dependent society. We will present the history, goals and outcomes in both physics results and student success that have come from this program. This work supported by NSF OISE/IRES award 0553467.

  12. Characterization of the recombinant copper chaperone (CCS) from the plant Glycine (G.) max.

    PubMed

    Sagasti, Sara; Yruela, Inmaculada; Bernal, Maria; Lujan, Maria A; Frago, Susana; Medina, Milagros; Picorel, Rafael

    2011-02-01

    The goal of the present work was to characterize the recombinant copper chaperone (CCS) from soybean. Very little is known about plant copper chaperones, which makes this study of current interest, and allows for a comparison with the better known homologues from yeast and humans. To obtain sizeable amounts of pure protein suitable for spectroscopic characterization, we cloned and overexpressed the G. max CCS chaperone in E. coli in the presence of 0.5 mM CuSO(4) and 0.5 mM ZnSO(4) in the broth. A pure protein preparation was obtained by using two IMAC steps and pH gradient chromatography. Most of the proteins were obtained as apo-form, devoid of copper atoms. The chaperone showed a high content (i.e., over 40%) of loops, turns and random coil as determined both by circular dichroism and homology modelling. The homology 3-D structural model suggests the protein might fold in three structural protein domains. The 3-D model along with the primary structure and spectroscopic data may suggest that copper atoms occupy the two metal binding sites, MKCEGC and CTC, within the N-terminal domain I and C-terminal domain III, respectively. But only one Zn-binding site was obtained spectroscopically.

  13. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2014-07-14

    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 ± 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication.

  14. Effect of tillage system on yield and weed populations of soybean ( Glycin Max L.).

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Seyed Z; Firouzi, Saeed; Aminpanah, Hashem; Sadeghnejhad, Hamid R

    2016-03-01

    Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Golestan Province, Iran, to determine the effects of tillage system and weed management regime on yield and weed populations in soybean ( Glycin max L.). The experimental design was a split plot where the whole plot portion was a randomized complete block with three replicates. Main plots were tillage system: 1- No-till row crop seeding, 2- No-till seed drilling, 3- Tillage with disc harrow and drill planting, 4- Tillage with chisel packer and drill planting. The subplots were weed management regimes: 1-Weed control with herbicide application, 2- Hand weeding, 3- Herbicide application plus hand weeding, and 4- Non-weeding. Results indicated that the main effects of tillage system and weed management regime were significant for seed yield, pod number per plant, seed number per pod, weed density and biomass, while their interaction were significant only for weed density, weed biomass, and seed number per pod. The highest grain yields (3838 kg ha-1) were recorded for No-till row crop seeding. The highest seed yield (3877 kg ha-1) also was recorded for weed control with herbicide and hand weeding treatment, followed by hand weeding (3379 kg ha-1).

  15. Purification and characterization of an iron-induced ferritin from soybean (Glycine max) cell suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Lescure, A M; Massenet, O; Briat, J F

    1990-01-01

    Ferric citrate induces ferritin synthesis and accumulation in soybean (Glycine max) cell suspension cultures [Proudhon, Briat & Lescure (1989) Plant Physiol. 90, 586-590]. This iron-induced ferritin has been purified from cells grown for 72 h in the presence of either 100 microM- or 500 microM-ferric citrate. It has a molecular mass of about 600 kDa and is built up from a 28 kDa subunit which is recognized by antibodies raised against pea (Pisum sativum) seed ferritin and it has the same N-terminal sequence as this latter, except for residue number 3, which is alanine in pea seed ferritin instead of valine in iron-induced soybean cell ferritin. It contains an average of 1800 atoms of iron per molecule whatever the ferric citrate concentration used to induce its synthesis. It is shown that the presence of 100 microM- or 500 microM-ferric citrate in the culture medium leads respectively to an 11- and 28-fold increase in the total intracellular iron concentration and to a 30- and 60-fold increase in the ferritin concentration. However, the percentage of iron stored in the mineral core of ferritin remains constant whatever the ferric citrate concentration used and represents only 5-6% of cellular iron. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:2264818

  16. Purification and characterization of an iron-induced ferritin from soybean (Glycine max) cell suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lescure, A M; Massenet, O; Briat, J F

    1990-11-15

    Ferric citrate induces ferritin synthesis and accumulation in soybean (Glycine max) cell suspension cultures [Proudhon, Briat & Lescure (1989) Plant Physiol. 90, 586-590]. This iron-induced ferritin has been purified from cells grown for 72 h in the presence of either 100 microM- or 500 microM-ferric citrate. It has a molecular mass of about 600 kDa and is built up from a 28 kDa subunit which is recognized by antibodies raised against pea (Pisum sativum) seed ferritin and it has the same N-terminal sequence as this latter, except for residue number 3, which is alanine in pea seed ferritin instead of valine in iron-induced soybean cell ferritin. It contains an average of 1800 atoms of iron per molecule whatever the ferric citrate concentration used to induce its synthesis. It is shown that the presence of 100 microM- or 500 microM-ferric citrate in the culture medium leads respectively to an 11- and 28-fold increase in the total intracellular iron concentration and to a 30- and 60-fold increase in the ferritin concentration. However, the percentage of iron stored in the mineral core of ferritin remains constant whatever the ferric citrate concentration used and represents only 5-6% of cellular iron.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of Adaptive Modulation and Coding in MIMO WiMAX with Limited Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlführer, Christian; Caban, Sebastian; Rupp, Markus

    2007-12-01

    We evaluate the throughput performance of an OFDM WiMAX (IEEE 802.16-2004, Section 8.3) transmission system with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) by outdoor measurements. The standard compliant AMC utilizes a 3-bit feedback for SISO and Alamouti coded MIMO transmissions. By applying a 6-bit feedback and spatial multiplexing with individual AMC on the two transmit antennas, the data throughput can be increased significantly for large SNR values. Our measurements show that at small SNR values, a single antenna transmission often outperforms an Alamouti transmission. We found that this effect is caused by the asymmetric behavior of the wireless channel and by poor channel knowledge in the two-transmit-antenna case. Our performance evaluation is based on a measurement campaign employing the Vienna MIMO testbed. The measurement scenarios include typical outdoor-to-indoor NLOS, outdoor-to-outdoor NLOS, as well as outdoor-to-indoor LOS connections. We found that in all these scenarios, the measured throughput is far from its achievable maximum; the loss is mainly caused by a too simple convolutional coding.

  18. The Max Rover submersible is tested at the Trident pier, Port Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Thomas Lippitt of NASA's Advanced Systems Development (ASD) laboratory observes robotic operations as Chris Nicholson, owner of Deep Sea Systems, and Bill Jones of NASA's ASD laboratory operate the unmanned robotic submersible recovery system, known as Max Rover, during a test of the system at the Trident Pier at Port Canaveral. The submersible is seen in the water with the Diver Operated Plug (DOP). Kennedy Space Center's solid rocket booster (SRB) retrieval team and ASD laboratory staff hope that the new robotic technology will make the process of inserting the plug safer and less strenuous. Currently, scuba divers manually insert the DOP into the aft nozzle of a jettisoned SRB 60 to 70 feet below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean. After the plug is installed, water is pumped out of the booster allowing it to float horizontally. It is then towed back to Hangar AF at Cape Canaveral Air Station for refurbishment. Deep Sea Systems of Falmouth, Mass., built the submersible for NASA.

  19. A Physicist's Quest in Biology: Max Delbrück and "Complementarity".

    PubMed

    Strauss, Bernard S

    2017-06-01

    Max Delbrück was trained as a physicist but made his major contribution in biology and ultimately shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was the acknowledged leader of the founders of molecular biology, yet he failed to achieve his key scientific goals. His ultimate scientific aim was to find evidence for physical laws unique to biology: so-called "complementarity." He never did. The specific problem he initially wanted to solve was the nature of biological replication but the discovery of the mechanism of replication was made by others, in large part because of his disdain for the details of biochemistry. His later career was spent investigating the effect of light on the fungus Phycomyces , a topic that turned out to be of limited general interest. He was known both for his informality but also for his legendary displays of devastating criticism. His life and that of some of his closest colleagues was acted out against a background of a world in conflict. This essay describes the man and his career and searches for an explanation of his profound influence. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Training the max-margin sequence model with the relaxed slack variables.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lingfeng; Wu, Jianmin; Shi, Yong

    2012-09-01

    Sequence models are widely used in many applications such as natural language processing, information extraction and optical character recognition, etc. We propose a new approach to train the max-margin based sequence model by relaxing the slack variables in this paper. With the canonical feature mapping definition, the relaxed problem is solved by training a multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM). Compared with the state-of-the-art solutions for the sequence learning, the new method has the following advantages: firstly, the sequence training problem is transformed into a multiclassification problem, which is more widely studied and already has quite a few off-the-shelf training packages; secondly, this new approach reduces the complexity of training significantly and achieves comparable prediction performance compared with the existing sequence models; thirdly, when the size of training data is limited, by assigning different slack variables to different microlabel pairs, the new method can use the discriminative information more frugally and produces more reliable model; last but not least, by employing kernels in the intermediate multiclass SVM, nonlinear feature space can be easily explored. Experimental results on the task of named entity recognition, information extraction and handwritten letter recognition with the public datasets illustrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal variation of carbon dioxide fluxes over irrigated soybean ( Glycine max L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şaylan, Levent; Kimura, Reiji; Munkhtsetseg, Erdenebayar; Kamichika, Makio

    2011-08-01

    In this study, variations in carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes resulting from gross primary production (GPP), net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and respiration ( R e) of soybean ( Glycine max L.) were investigated by the Eddy Covariance method during the growing period from June to November 2005 on an irrigated sand field at the Arid Land Research Center, Tottori University in Tottori, Japan. Although climatic conditions were humid and temperate, the soybeans required frequent irrigation because of the low water holding capacity of the sandy soil at the field site. Finally, it has been found that the accumulated NEE, GPP, and R e fluxes of soybean over 126 days amount to -93, 319, and 226 gC m-2, respectively. Furthermore, the average ratio of GPP to R e was 1.4 and the average ratio of NEE to GPP was about -0.29 for the growth period of soybean. Daily maximum NEE of -3.8 gC m-2 occurred when LAI was 1.1.

  2. Body composition and Vo2max of exceptional weight-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Fahey, T D; Akka, L; Rolph, R

    1975-10-01

    The maximal oxygen uptake and body composition of 30 exceptional athletes who have trained extensively with weights was measured. The sample included 3 world record holders, 8 other world class athletes, and 19 national class competitors. The sports represented were shot-putting, discus throwing, body building, power lifting, wrestling, and olympic lifting. Vo2max as determined on a bicycle ergometer by the open-circuit method was 4.6 +/- 0.7 1-min-1 (mean +/- SD) (48.8 +/- 7 ml-kg-1., 56.4 +/- 8.6 ml-(kg LBW)-1). The mean maximal heart rate was 185.3 +/- 11.6 beats-min-1. The subjects attained a work rate of 1,728.2 +/- 223 kpm-min-1 on a continuous progressive bicycle ergometer test and had mean maximal ventilations of 152.5 +/- 27.7 1-min-1 BTPS. Body composition was determined by densitometry. Body weight averaged 96.0 +/- 14.9 kg, with mean percent fat of 13.8 +/- 4.5. The results of this study indicate that exceptional weight-trained athletes are within the normal college-age population range in body fat and of somewhat higher physical working capacity.

  3. GN and C Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Ryamond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system (LAS) already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system (OS) design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. The goal was to obtain sufficient flight test data to assess performance, validate models/tools, and to reduce the design and development risks for a MLAS OS. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. Overall, the as-flown flight performance was as predicted prior to launch. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control (GN&C) technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity. This paper describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle (FTV). Lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  4. A Physicist’s Quest in Biology: Max Delbrück and “Complementarity”

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Bernard S.

    2017-01-01

    Max Delbrück was trained as a physicist but made his major contribution in biology and ultimately shared a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. He was the acknowledged leader of the founders of molecular biology, yet he failed to achieve his key scientific goals. His ultimate scientific aim was to find evidence for physical laws unique to biology: so-called “complementarity.” He never did. The specific problem he initially wanted to solve was the nature of biological replication but the discovery of the mechanism of replication was made by others, in large part because of his disdain for the details of biochemistry. His later career was spent investigating the effect of light on the fungus Phycomyces, a topic that turned out to be of limited general interest. He was known both for his informality but also for his legendary displays of devastating criticism. His life and that of some of his closest colleagues was acted out against a background of a world in conflict. This essay describes the man and his career and searches for an explanation of his profound influence. PMID:28592501

  5. Effect of Hypergravity and Phytohormones on Isoflavonoid Accumulation in Soybean ( Glycine max. L.) Callus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Peter J.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Musgrave, Mary E.; McKeon-Bennett, Michelle; Moane, Siobhán

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the potential interaction between gravity and growth hormones on isoflavonoid accumulation. Soybean callus ( Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. `Acme') was grown in the dark for 16 days at 22 °C in a growth medium supplemented with four different combinations of phytohormones and subjected to 4- g and 8- g forces simulated in a centrifuge and 1- g in an adjacent stationary control. Isoflavonoid aglycones and their glycoside concentrations (daidzein, genistein, daidzin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl daidzein, genistin, 6″-O-malonyl-7-O-glucosyl genistein) were determined in the resulting tissues. Although gravity had no significant impact on callus growth, increasing gravity reduced isoflavonoid accumulation in three out of the four phytohormone-supplemented culture media. The ratio of the auxin naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) to the cytokinin benzylaminopurine (BAP) was found to have profound effect on both callus growth and isoflavonoid accumulation. The cytokinin BAP promoted callus tissue growth, but reduced callus isoflavonoid suggesting the isoflavonoid accumulation was not keeping pace with the cell growth in the elevated concentration of BAP. On the other hand, NAA had little or no effect on callus growth, but greatly enhanced isoflavonoid accumulation. Interactive effects of gravity and hormone on isoflavonoid accumulation were evident and its implication to the mechanism by which gravity exerts the effect on plant secondary metabolites is discussed.

  6. Rapid wall relaxation in elongating tissues. [Glycine max (L. ); Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    Matyssek, R.; Maruyama, S.; Boyer, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Reported differences in the relaxation of cell walls in enlarging stem tissues of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and pea (Pisum sativum L.) cause measurements of the yield threshold turgor, an important growth parameter, to be in doubt. Using the pressure probe and guillotine psychrometer, the authors investigated wall relaxation in these species by excising the elongating tissue in air to remove the water supply. The authors found that the rapid kinetics usually exhibited by soybean could be delayed and made similar to the slow kinetics previously reported for pea if slowly growing or mature tissue was left attached tomore » the rapidly growing tissue when relaxation was initiated. The greater the amount of attached tissue, the slower the relaxation, suggesting that slowly growing tissue acted as a water source. Consistent with this concept was a lower water potential in the rapidly elongating tissue than in the slowly growing tissue. If this tissue was removed from pea, relaxation became as rapid as usually exhibited by soybean. It is concluded that the true relaxation of cell walls to the yield threshold requires only a few minutes and that the yield threshold in the intact plant before excision. Under these conditions, the yield threshold was close to the turgor in the intact plant regardless of the species.« less

  7. Are non-linearity effects of absorption important for MAX-DOAS observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukite, Janis; Wang, Yang; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    For scattered light observations the absorption optical depth depends non-linearly on the trace gas concentrations if their absorption is strong. This is the case because the Beer-Lambert law is generally not applicable for scattered light measurements due to many (i.e. more than one) light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases a linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorption non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries with spatially extended and diffuse light paths, especially in satellite limb geometry but also for nadir measurements as well. Fortunately the effects of non-linear effects can be quantified by means of expanding the radiative transfer equation in a Taylor series with respect to the trace gas absorption coefficients. Herewith if necessary (1) the higher order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the DOAS fit and (2) the algorithm constraints of retrievals of VCDs and profiles can be improved by considering higher order sensitivity parameters. In this study we investigate the contribution of the higher order absorption structures for MAX-DOAS observation geometry for different atmospheric and ground properties (cloud and aerosol effects, trace gas amount, albedo) and geometry (different Sun and viewing angles).

  8. Segmentation of bone structures in 3D CT images based on continuous max-flow optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Carrasco, J. A.; Acha-Piñero, B.; Serrano, C.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper an algorithm to carry out the automatic segmentation of bone structures in 3D CT images has been implemented. Automatic segmentation of bone structures is of special interest for radiologists and surgeons to analyze bone diseases or to plan some surgical interventions. This task is very complicated as bones usually present intensities overlapping with those of surrounding tissues. This overlapping is mainly due to the composition of bones and to the presence of some diseases such as Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis, etc. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures is a very time-consuming task due to the 3D essence of the bones. Usually, this segmentation is implemented manually or with algorithms using simple techniques such as thresholding and thus providing bad results. In this paper gray information and 3D statistical information have been combined to be used as input to a continuous max-flow algorithm. Twenty CT images have been tested and different coefficients have been computed to assess the performance of our implementation. Dice and Sensitivity values above 0.91 and 0.97 respectively were obtained. A comparison with Level Sets and thresholding techniques has been carried out and our results outperformed them in terms of accuracy.

  9. Operationalizing Max Weber's probability concept of class situation: the concept of social class.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ken

    2007-03-01

    In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.

  10. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  11. Andromeda: a peptide search engine integrated into the MaxQuant environment.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jürgen; Neuhauser, Nadin; Michalski, Annette; Scheltema, Richard A; Olsen, Jesper V; Mann, Matthias

    2011-04-01

    A key step in mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is the identification of peptides in sequence databases by their fragmentation spectra. Here we describe Andromeda, a novel peptide search engine using a probabilistic scoring model. On proteome data, Andromeda performs as well as Mascot, a widely used commercial search engine, as judged by sensitivity and specificity analysis based on target decoy searches. Furthermore, it can handle data with arbitrarily high fragment mass accuracy, is able to assign and score complex patterns of post-translational modifications, such as highly phosphorylated peptides, and accommodates extremely large databases. The algorithms of Andromeda are provided. Andromeda can function independently or as an integrated search engine of the widely used MaxQuant computational proteomics platform and both are freely available at www.maxquant.org. The combination enables analysis of large data sets in a simple analysis workflow on a desktop computer. For searching individual spectra Andromeda is also accessible via a web server. We demonstrate the flexibility of the system by implementing the capability to identify cofragmented peptides, significantly improving the total number of identified peptides.

  12. Synthetic apatite nanoparticles as a phosphorus fertilizer for soybean (Glycine max)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruiqiang; Lal, Rattan

    2014-01-01

    Some soluble phosphate salts, heavily used in agriculture as highly effective phosphorus (P) fertilizers, cause surface water eutrophication, while solid phosphates are less effective in supplying the nutrient P. In contrast, synthetic apatite nanoparticles could hypothetically supply sufficient P nutrients to crops but with less mobility in the environment and with less bioavailable P to algae in comparison to the soluble counterparts. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the fertilizing effect of synthetic apatite nanoparticles on soybean (Glycine max). The particles, prepared using one-step wet chemical method, were spherical in shape with diameters of 15.8 ± 7.4 nm and the chemical composition was pure hydroxyapatite. The data show that application of the nanoparticles increased the growth rate and seed yield by 32.6% and 20.4%, respectively, compared to those of soybeans treated with a regular P fertilizer (Ca(H2PO4)2). Biomass productions were enhanced by 18.2% (above-ground) and 41.2% (below-ground). Using apatite nanoparticles as a new class of P fertilizer can potentially enhance agronomical yield and reduce risks of water eutrophication. PMID:25023201

  13. Min-By-Min Respiratory Exchange and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics During Steady-State Exercise in Subjects of High and Low Max VO2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltman, Arthur; Katch, Victor

    1976-01-01

    No statistically meaningful differences in steady-state vo2 uptake for high and low max vo2 groups was indicated in this study, but a clear tendency was observed for the high max vo2 group to reach the steady-state at a faster rate. (MB)

  14. The influence of exercise duration at VO2 max on the off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase during high intensity running activity.

    PubMed

    Billat, V L; Hamard, L; Koralsztein, J P

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of time run at maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) on the off-transient pulmonary oxygen uptake phase after supra-lactate threshold runs. We hypothesised: 1) that among the velocities eliciting VO2 max there is a velocity threshold from which there is a slow component in the VO2-off transient, and 2) that at this velocity the longer the duration of this time at VO2 max (associated with an accumulated oxygen kinetics since VO2 can not overlap VO2 max), the longer is the off-transient phase of oxygen uptake kinetics. Nine long-distance runners performed five maximal tests on a synthetic track (400 m) while breathing through the COSMED K4b2 portable, telemetric metabolic analyser: i) an incremental test which determined VO2 max, the minimal velocity associated with VO2 max (vVO2 max) and the velocity at the lactate threshold (vLT), ii) and in a random order, four supra-lactate threshold runs performed until exhaustion at vLT + 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the difference between vLT and vVO2 max (vdelta25, vdelta50, vdelta75, vdelta100). At vdelta25, vdelta50 (= 91.0 +/- 0.9% vVO2 max) and vdelta75, an asymmetry was found between the VO2 on (double exponential) and off-transient (mono exponential) phases. Only at vdelta75 there was at positive relationship between the time run at VO2 max (%tlimtot) and the VO2 recovery time constant (Z = 1.8, P = 0.05). In conclusion, this study showed that among the velocities eliciting VO2 max, vdelta75 is the velocity at which the longer the duration of the time at VO2 max, the longer is the off-transient phase of oxygen uptake kinetics. It may be possible that at vdelta50 there is not an accumulated oxygen deficit during the plateau of VO2 at VO2 max and that the duration of the time at VO2 max during the exhaustive runs at vdelta100, could be too short to induce an accumulating oxygen deficit affecting the oxygen recovery.

  15. MAX-DOAS observations and their application to the validation of satellite and model data in Wuxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Wagner, T.; Xie, P.; Theys, N.; De Smedt, I.; Koukouli, M.; Stavrakou, T.; Beirle, S.; Li, A.

    2015-12-01

    Thomas Wagner1, Pinhua Xie2, Nicolas Theys3, Isabelle De Smedt3, MariLiza Koukouli4, Trissevgeni Stavrakou3, Steffen Beirle1, Ang Li2,1) Satellite group, Max Planck institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany2) Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China 3) BIRA-IASB, Brussels, Belgium 4) Laboratory of Atmospheric Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece From 2011 to 2014 a MAX-DOAS instrument developed by the Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics institute is operated in Wuxi, China, which is locatd about 100 km west of Shanghai. We determine the tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs), near surface concentrations and vertical profiles of aerosols, NO2, SO2, HCHO from the MAX-DOAS observations using the optimal estimation profile retrieval algorithm (refered to as "PriAM"). We verified the results by comparing them with results from independent techniques, such as sun photometer (AERONET), a visibility meter and a long-path DOAS instrument. We acquire the cloud and aerosol conditions using a cloud classification scheme based on the MAX-DOAS observations (Wang et al., AMTD, 2015). Based on the obtained results, we characterize the effect of the clouds on the trace gas and aerosol profiles retrieved from MAX-DOAS. Then we characterize the diurnal, annual and weekly variations of the trace gases and aerosols and validate the tropospheric trace gas VCDs derived from the Ozone Monitoring instrument (OMI) on the Aura satellite platform as well as the model results from the IMAGES, CHIMERE and Lotos-Euros models and analyse the agreement depending on the cloud and aerosol conditions. Besides the direct comparison with the satellite data, we also use the trace gas and aerosol profiles derived from MAX-DOAS to recalculate the air mass factor (AMF) for the satellite observations and to evaluate the corresponding improvement of the satellite VCDs. In some periods with strong aerosol pollution, we evaluate the

  16. Oxidation of Al2O3 Scale-Forming MAX Phases in Turbine Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smialek, James L.

    2018-03-01

    High temperature oxidation of alumina-forming MAX phases, Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC, were examined under turbine engine environments and coating configurations. Thermogravimetric furnace tests of Ti2AlC showed a rapid initial transient due to non-protective TiO2 growth. Subsequent well-behaved cubic kinetics for alumina scale growth were shown from 1273 K to 1673 K (1000 °C to 1400 °C). These possessed an activation energy of 335 kJ/mol, consistent with estimates of grain boundary diffusivity of oxygen ( 375 kJ/mol). The durability of Ti2AlC under combustion conditions was demonstrated by high pressure burner rig testing at 1373 K to 1573 K (1100 °C to 1300 °C). Here good stability and cubic kinetics also applied, but produced lower weight gains due to volatile TiO(OH)2 formation in water vapor combustion gas. Excellent thermal stability was also shown for yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings deposited on Ti2AlC substrates in 2500-hour furnace tests at 1373 K to 1573 K (1100 °C to 1300 °C). These sustained a record 35 µm of scale as compared to 7 μm observed at failure for typical superalloy systems. In contrast, scale and TBC spallation became prevalent on Cr2AlC substrates above 1423 K (1150 °C). Cr2AlC diffusion couples with superalloys exhibited good long-term mechanical/oxidative stability at 1073 K (800 °C), as would be needed for corrosion-resistant coatings. However, diffusion zones containing a NiAl-Cr7C3 matrix with MC and M3B2 particulates were commonly formed and became extensive at 1423 K (1150 °C).

  17. MaxEnt analysis of a water distribution network in Canberra, ACT, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldrip, Steven H.; Niven, Robert K.; Abel, Markus; Schlegel, Michael; Noack, Bernd R.

    2015-01-01

    A maximum entropy (MaxEnt) method is developed to infer the state of a pipe flow network, for situations in which there is insufficient information to form a closed equation set. This approach substantially extends existing deterministic methods for the analysis of engineered flow networks (e.g. Newton's method or the Hardy Cross scheme). The network is represented as an undirected graph structure, in which the uncertainty is represented by a continuous relative entropy on the space of internal and external flow rates. The head losses (potential differences) on the network are treated as dependent variables, using specified pipe-flow resistance functions. The entropy is maximised subject to "observable" constraints on the mean values of certain flow rates and/or potential differences, and also "physical" constraints arising from the frictional properties of each pipe and from Kirchhoff's nodal and loop laws. A numerical method is developed in Matlab for solution of the integral equation system, based on multidimensional quadrature. Several nonlinear resistance functions (e.g. power-law and Colebrook) are investigated, necessitating numerical solution of the implicit Lagrangian by a double iteration scheme. The method is applied to a 1123-node, 1140-pipe water distribution network for the suburb of Torrens in the Australian Capital Territory, Australia, using network data supplied by water authority ACTEW Corporation Limited. A number of different assumptions are explored, including various network geometric representations, prior probabilities and constraint settings, yielding useful predictions of network demand and performance. We also propose this methodology be used in conjunction with in-flow monitoring systems, to obtain better inferences of user consumption without large investments in monitoring equipment and maintenance.

  18. Self-sacrificial behavior and its explanation in terms of Max Scheler's concept of spirit.

    PubMed

    Alyushin, Alexey

    2014-12-01

    One of the key concepts of the German philosopher Max Scheler (1874-1928) is his concept of spirit. He understands spirit as one of several naturally functioning human mental agencies, such as consciousness, will, memory, etc. That is, he treats the mental agency of spirit in a scientific way and avoids any esoteric or religious connotations that this peculiar term may involve. The nature of human spirit, according to Scheler, is the ability to withstand and deliberately redirect biological imperatives and instinctive drives, up to the point of purposefully throwing away one's own life. The presence of spirit constitutes the essence of the human being that differentiates him qualitatively from all animals. In this article, I argue that it is human spirit that plays the determinative role in causing heroic and self-sacrificial behavior. I also argue that the individual human spirit experiences its inherent development, thus having several rather dissimilar stages and manifestations. I discuss the meaning that the term 'spirit' has in the English and the American philosophical and psychological traditions and the meaning of the corresponding term 'der Geist' in the German traditions. The specific English-language understanding of the term 'spirit', compared to its German counterpart 'der Geist', namely, less scientific and more religious and esoteric and metaphorical for the former, makes it alien and almost unusable in the English and American traditions. The linguistic difference leads to the misunderstanding of some very important ideas brought by the concept of spirit as introduced by Scheler. My purpose is to overcome this discrepancy and omission and to introduce the notion and the concept of spirit, in their scientific understanding, into the arsenal of modern English-language cognitive science, psychology, and philosophy in order to provide for the full explanatory force of the hitherto neglected concept of spirit.

  19. Min and max are the only continuous ampersand-, V-operations for finite logics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1992-01-01

    Experts usually express their degrees of belief in their statements by the words of a natural language (like 'maybe', 'perhaps', etc.). If an expert system contains the degrees of beliefs t(A) and t(B) that correspond to the statements A and B, and a user asks this expert system whether 'A&B' is true, then it is necessary to come up with a reasonable estimate for the degree of belief of A&B. The operation that processes t(A) and t(B) into such an estimate t(A&B) is called an &-operation. Many different &-operations have been proposed. Which of them to choose? This can be (in principle) done by interviewing experts and eliciting a &-operation from them, but such a process is very time-consuming and therefore, not always possible. So, usually, to choose a &-operation, the finite set of actually possible degrees of belief is extended to an infinite set (e.g., to an interval (0,1)), define an operation there, and then restrict this operation to the finite set. Only this original finite set is considered. It is shown that a reasonable assumption that an &-operation is continuous (i.e., that gradual change in t(A) and t(B) must lead to a gradual change in t(A&B)), uniquely determines min as an &-operation. Likewise, max is the only continuous V-operation. These results are in good accordance with the experimental analysis of 'and' and 'or' in human beliefs.

  20. Hydroperoxide Lyase and Other Hydroperoxide-Metabolizing Activity in Tissues of Soybean, Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Harold W.; Weisleder, David; Plattner, Ronald D.

    1991-01-01

    Hydroperoxide lyase (HPLS) activity in soybean (Glycine max) seed/seedlings, leaves, and chloroplasts of leaves required detergent solubilization for maximum in vitro activity. On a per milligram of protein basis, more HPLS activity was found in leaves, especially chloroplasts, than in seeds or seedlings. The total yield of hexanal from 13(S)-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid (13S-HPOD) from leaf or chloroplast preparations was 58 and 66 to 85%, respectively. Because of significant competing hydroperoxide-metabolizing activities from other enzymes in seed/seedling preparations, the hexanal yields from this source were lower (36-56%). Some of the products identified from the seed or seedling preparations indicated that the competing activity was mainly due to both a hydroperoxide peroxygenase and reactions catalyzed by lipoxygenase. Different HPLS isozyme compositions in the seed/seedling versus the leaf/chloroplast preparations were indicated by differences in the activity as a function of pH, the Km values, relative Vmax with 13S-HPOD and 13(S)-hydroperoxy-cis-9,trans-11,cis-15-octadecatrienoic acid (13S-HPOT), and the specificity with different substrates. With regard to the latter, both seed/seedling and chloroplast HPLS utilized the 13S-HPOD and 13S-HPOT substrates, but only seeds/seedlings were capable of metabolizing 9(S)-hydroperoxy-trans-10,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid into 9-oxononanoic acid, isomeric nonenals, and 4-hydroxynonenal. From 13S-HPOD and 13S-HPOT, the products were identified as 12-oxo-cis-9-dodecenoic acid, as well as hexanal from 13S-HPOD and cis-3-hexenal from 13S-HPOT. In seed preparations, there was partial isomerization of the cis-3 or cis-9 into trans-2 or trans-10 double bonds, respectively. PMID:16668490

  1. Supraoptimal carbon dioxide effects on growth of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Mackowiak, C. L.; Siegriest, L. M.; Sager, J. C.; Knott, W. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    In tightly closed environments used for human life support in space, carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressures can reach 500 to 1000 Pa, which may be supraoptimal or toxic to plants used for life support. To study this, soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cvs. McCall and Pixie] were grown for 90 days at 50, 100, 200, and 500 Pa partial pressure CO2 (500, 1000, 2000, and 5000 ppm). Plants were grown using recirculating nutrient film technique with a 12-h photoperiod, a 26 degrees C/20 degrees C thermoperiod, and approximately 300 micromoles m-2 s-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF). Seed yield and total biomass were greatest at 100 Pa for cv. McCall, suggesting that higher CO2 levels were supraoptimal. Seed yield and total biomass for cv. Pixie showed little difference between CO2 treatments. Average stomatal conductance of upper canopy leaves at 50 Pa CO2 approximately 500 Pa > 200 Pa > 100 Pa. Total water use over 90 d for both cultivars (combined on one recirculating system) equalled 822 kg water for 100 Pa CO2, 845 kg for 50 Pa, 879 kg for 200 Pa, and 1194 kg for 500 Pa. Water use efficiences for both cultivars combined equalled 3.03 (g biomass kg-1 water) for 100 Pa CO2, 2.54 g kg-1 for 200 Pa, 2.42 g kg-1 for 50 Pa, and 1.91 g kg-1 for 500 Pa. The increased stomatal conductance and stand water use at the highest CO2 level (500 Pa) were unexpected and pose interesting considerations for managing plants in a tightly closed system where CO2 concentrations may reach high levels.

  2. [Influence of road on breeding habitat of Nipponia nippon based on MaxEnt model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Gao, Ji Xi; Ma, Meng Xiao; Shao, Fang Ze; Wang, Qiao; Li, Guang Yu; Qiu, Jie; Zhou, Ke Xin

    2017-04-18

    Quantitative study on effects of roads on suitable breeding habitats of wildlife is one of topics that need in-depth research in road ecology. Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), a first class nationally protected bird species, is the species of interest in this research. Using the Maximum Entropy Models (MaxEnt) in the Species Distribution Model (SDM) toolbox of ArcGIS, autocorrelation of environmental variables were analyzed and environmental variables with r>0.8 were removed. Ten environmental variables were chosen as impact factors for the breeding habitat of crested ibis, including mean temperature of coldest quarter, landscape type, normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI), slope, aspect, distance to waters, distance to paddy field, distance to high-grade roads (expressway, national way, provincial way), and distance to low-grade roads (country road). By analyzing the contribution rate of each environmental variable, the results showed that the mean temperature of coldest quarter, landscape type, distance to paddy field, and distance to high-grade roads were the main factors determining breeding habitat of crested ibis. The suitable distribution of crested ibis' nesting area was under the following scenarios: variable road present (scenario1), high-grade road absent (scenario2), and low-grade road absent (scenario 3). The results showed that the presence of roads affected suitable nesting areas of crested ibis with high-grade roads showing a larger influence than low-grade roads. The presence of high-grade roads and low-grade roads decreased the suitable nesting areas of crested ibis by 66.23 and 35.69 km 2 , respectively. The crested ibis preferred to nest in areas distant from high-grade roads, with an average road avoidance distance of 1500 m. This study was of great significance for formulating management measures to protect crested ibis and provide a reference for quantitative assessment on impacts of engineering and construction projects on wildlife.

  3. VO2max Testing in Trail Runners: Is There a Specific Exercise Test Protocol?

    PubMed

    Scheer, Volker; Ramme, Katharina; Reinsberger, Claus; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-06-01

    Trail running places specific physiological demands on the human body due to its uphill and downhill running sections. We developed and investigated a more sport-specific trail exercise test protocol (inclination and speed incremental protocol), and compared it to two standard exercise test protocols (horizontal step and ramp protocol) in thirteen highly trained trail runners (age 31±6 years, height 179±6.4 cm, weight 69.2±7.9 kg, BMI 21.6±2.1 kg/m 2 ). The maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) measured during the trail test (62.5±5.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 , [95% CI: 59.0-66.1]) was significantly higher compared to both the step test (60.1±5.3 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 , [95% CI: 56.8-63.3], p=0.024) and the ramp test (59.7±5.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 , [95% CI: 56.4-63.0], p=0.028). Time to task failure was significantly shorter in the trail test (557±73 s, [95% CI: 512-601]) compared to both the step test (1378±152 s, [95% CI: 1286-1470], p<0.001) and the ramp test (605±95, [95% CI: 547-662], p<0.001). Other physiological measurements obtained were similar. The trail test was the preferred choice in our group of trail runners. This study supports the implementation of the trail test in practice, and recommends that its validity be evaluated further. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Monitoring shipping emissions with MAX-DOAS measurements of reactive trace gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittrock, Folkard; Peters, Enno; Seyler, André; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Burrows, John P.; Chirkov, Maksym; Meier, Andreas C.; Richter, Andreas; Schönhardt, Anja; Schmolke, Stefan; Theobald, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution from ships contributes to overall air quality problems and it has direct health effects on the population in particular in coastal regions, and in harbor cities. In order to reduce the emissions the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) have tightened the regulations for air pollution. E.g. Sulfur Emission Control Areas (SECA) have been introduced where the sulfur content of marine fuel is limited. However, up to now there is no regular monitoring system available to verify that ships are complying with the new regulations. Furthermore measurements of reactive trace gases in marine environments are in general sparse. The project MeSMarT (Measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere, www.mesmart.de) has been established as a cooperation between the University of Bremen and the German Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie (Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency) with support of the Helmholtz Research Centre Geesthacht to estimate the influence of ship emissions on the chemistry of the atmospheric boundary layer and to establish a monitoring system for main shipping routes. Here we present MAX-DOAS observations of NO2 and SO2 carried out during ship campaigns in the North and Baltic Sea and from two permanent sites close to the Elbe river (Wedel, Germany) and on the island Neuwerk close to the mouths of Elbe and Weser river. Mixing ratios of both trace gases have been retrieved using different approaches (pure geometric and taking into account the radiative transfer) and compared to in situ and air borne observations (see Kattner et al., Monitoring shipping emissions with in-situ measurements of trace gases, and Meier et al., Airborne measurements of NO2 shipping emissions using imaging DOAS) observations. Furthermore simple approaches have been used to calculate emission factors of NOx and SO2 for single ships.

  5. Effects of glyphosate on the mineral content of glyphosate-resistant soybeans (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O; Reddy, Krishna N; Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V

    2012-07-11

    There are conflicting claims as to whether treatment with glyphosate adversely affects mineral nutrition of glyphosate-resistant (GR) crops. Those who have made claims of adverse effects have argued links between reduced Mn and diseases in these crops. This article describes experiments designed to determine the effects of a recommended rate (0.86 kg ha(-1)) of glyphosate applied once or twice on the mineral content of young and mature leaves, as well as in seeds produced by GR soybeans (Glycine max) in both the greenhouse and field using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In the greenhouse, there were no effects of either one application (at 3 weeks after planting, WAP) or two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves sampled at 6, 9, and 12 WAP and in harvested seed. Se concentrations were too low for accurate detection in leaves, but there was also no effect of glyphosate applications on Se in the seeds. In the field study, there were no effects of two applications (at 3 and 6 WAP) of glyphosate on Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, Sr, Ba, Al, Cd, Cr, Co, or Ni content of young or old leaves at either 9 or 12 WAP. There was also no effect on Se in the seeds. There was no difference in yield between control and glyphosate-treated GR soybeans in the field. The results indicate that glyphosate does not influence mineral nutrition of GR soybean at recommended rates for weed management in the field. Furthermore, the field studies confirm the results of greenhouse studies.

  6. The New MAX-DOAS Network in Mexico City for Trace Gas Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, E. J.; Krüger, A.; Rivera, C. I.; Stremme, W.; Friedrich, M. M.; Grutter, M.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric studies in large cities are of great relevance since pollution affects air quality and human health. We have designed and built instruments based on the Multi Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) technique and established a network in strategic sites within the Mexico City metropolitan area. Four instruments are now in operation with the aim to study the variability and spatial distribution of key pollutants, which will bring new insight in the current knowledge of transport patterns, emissions as well as frequency and origin of extraordinary events. The instruments measure UV/visible spectra of the sky at different elevation angles in the 280 nm to 510 nm wavelength region along one axis. Currently, 36 measurements constitute a full scan performed from west until East direction (-90 to +90°). The scanning unit, which is installed outdoors, holds a small telescope and the motor control unit. Light is transmitted via an optical fiber to the main box, which holds a compact USB spectrometer and the main control electronics. The spectrometer is accurately temperature controlled and all the spectra of each scan, together with elevation angle and other parameters, are recorded on a compact PC. Post processing of these data with the QDOAS software results in slant column densities (SCD) of the atmospheric gases. This information is then converted to vertical profiles through a process described in a companion presentation. Preliminary results will be presented for formaldehyde, fitted in the region 324-360 nm. The data obtained is useful for the comparison with satellite data for example OMI.

  7. Characterization of dolichol and dolichyl phosphate phosphatase from soya beans (Glycine max).

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, K; Rip, J W; Carroll, K K

    1983-01-01

    A series of polyprenols, ranging in length from 15 to 22 isoprene units, has been isolated from soya beans (Glycine max) and purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. N.m.r., i.r. and mass spectra of the compounds indicated that they are alpha-saturated polyprenols of the dolichol type. The amount present in dry seeds was about 9 mg/100 g, whereas dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) was present only in trace amounts. Dol-P phosphatase activity was detected in the microsomal fraction of 5-day-old germinating soya-bean cotyledons. The Dol-P phosphatase activity was linear with respect to time and protein concentration and exhibited a broad pH optimum (pH 7-9). Triton X-100 was necessary for significant enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was slightly enhanced by EDTA, whereas dithiothreitol was without effect. An apparent Km of 5 microM was determined for Dol-P. Bivalent metal ions were not required for enzyme activity. A number of phosphorylated compounds tested as enzyme substrates (including a number of nucleoside phosphates, glucose 6-phosphate, sodium beta-glycerophosphate and Na4P2O7) did not compete with [1-3H]Dol-P as substrate. A number of phospholipids were also tested for their ability to act as Dol-P phosphatase substrates. At 1 mM concentration, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid each inhibited enzymic activity. However, at 0.1 mM concentration, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were slightly stimulatory, whereas phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid were still inhibitory. Phosphatidic acid showed competitive inhibition. PMID:6311165

  8. Replicon-Dependent Differentiation of Symbiosis-Related Genes in Sinorhizobium Strains Nodulating Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui Juan; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Xing Xing; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yan Ming; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the genetic differentiation of Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max and related microevolutionary mechanisms, three housekeeping genes (SMc00019, truA, and thrA) and 16 symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome (7 genes), pSymA (6 genes), and pSymB (3 genes) were analyzed. Five distinct species were identified among the test strains by calculating the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of SMc00019-truA-thrA: Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium sojae, Sinorhizobium sp. I, Sinorhizobium sp. II, and Sinorhizobium sp. III. These species assignments were also supported by population genetics and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB. Different levels of genetic differentiation were observed among these species or different replicons. S. sojae was the most divergent from the other test species and was characterized by its low intraspecies diversity and limited geographic distribution. Intergenic recombination dominated the evolution of 19 genes from different replicons. Intraspecies recombination happened frequently in housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB, whereas pSymA genes showed a clear pattern of lateral-transfer events between different species. Moreover, pSymA genes were characterized by a lower level of polymorphism and recombination than those on the chromosome and pSymB. Taken together, genes from different replicons of rhizobia might be involved in the establishment of symbiosis with legumes, but these symbiosis-related genes might have evolved differently according to their corresponding replicons. PMID:24317084

  9. Replicon-dependent differentiation of symbiosis-related genes in Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui Juan; Wang, En Tao; Zhang, Xing Xing; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yan Ming; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-02-01

    In order to investigate the genetic differentiation of Sinorhizobium strains nodulating Glycine max and related microevolutionary mechanisms, three housekeeping genes (SMc00019, truA, and thrA) and 16 symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome (7 genes), pSymA (6 genes), and pSymB (3 genes) were analyzed. Five distinct species were identified among the test strains by calculating the average nucleotide identity (ANI) of SMc00019-truA-thrA: Sinorhizobium fredii, Sinorhizobium sojae, Sinorhizobium sp. I, Sinorhizobium sp. II, and Sinorhizobium sp. III. These species assignments were also supported by population genetics and phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB. Different levels of genetic differentiation were observed among these species or different replicons. S. sojae was the most divergent from the other test species and was characterized by its low intraspecies diversity and limited geographic distribution. Intergenic recombination dominated the evolution of 19 genes from different replicons. Intraspecies recombination happened frequently in housekeeping genes and symbiosis-related genes on the chromosome and pSymB, whereas pSymA genes showed a clear pattern of lateral-transfer events between different species. Moreover, pSymA genes were characterized by a lower level of polymorphism and recombination than those on the chromosome and pSymB. Taken together, genes from different replicons of rhizobia might be involved in the establishment of symbiosis with legumes, but these symbiosis-related genes might have evolved differently according to their corresponding replicons.

  10. A fast color image enhancement algorithm based on Max Intensity Channel

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Han, Long; Guo, Baolong; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we extend image enhancement techniques based on the retinex theory imitating human visual perception of scenes containing high illumination variations. This extension achieves simultaneous dynamic range modification, color consistency, and lightness rendition without multi-scale Gaussian filtering which has a certain halo effect. The reflection component is analyzed based on the illumination and reflection imaging model. A new prior named Max Intensity Channel (MIC) is implemented assuming that the reflections of some points in the scene are very high in at least one color channel. Using this prior, the illumination of the scene is obtained directly by performing a gray-scale closing operation and a fast cross-bilateral filtering on the MIC of the input color image. Consequently, the reflection component of each RGB color channel can be determined from the illumination and reflection imaging model. The proposed algorithm estimates the illumination component which is relatively smooth and maintains the edge details in different regions. A satisfactory color rendition is achieved for a class of images that do not satisfy the gray-world assumption implicit to the theoretical foundation of the retinex. Experiments are carried out to compare the new method with several spatial and transform domain methods. Our results indicate that the new method is superior in enhancement applications, improves computation speed, and performs well for images with high illumination variations than other methods. Further comparisons of images from National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a wearable camera eButton have shown a high performance of the new method with better color restoration and preservation of image details. PMID:25110395

  11. A fast color image enhancement algorithm based on Max Intensity Channel.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Han, Long; Guo, Baolong; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui

    2014-03-30

    In this paper, we extend image enhancement techniques based on the retinex theory imitating human visual perception of scenes containing high illumination variations. This extension achieves simultaneous dynamic range modification, color consistency, and lightness rendition without multi-scale Gaussian filtering which has a certain halo effect. The reflection component is analyzed based on the illumination and reflection imaging model. A new prior named Max Intensity Channel (MIC) is implemented assuming that the reflections of some points in the scene are very high in at least one color channel. Using this prior, the illumination of the scene is obtained directly by performing a gray-scale closing operation and a fast cross-bilateral filtering on the MIC of the input color image. Consequently, the reflection component of each RGB color channel can be determined from the illumination and reflection imaging model. The proposed algorithm estimates the illumination component which is relatively smooth and maintains the edge details in different regions. A satisfactory color rendition is achieved for a class of images that do not satisfy the gray-world assumption implicit to the theoretical foundation of the retinex. Experiments are carried out to compare the new method with several spatial and transform domain methods. Our results indicate that the new method is superior in enhancement applications, improves computation speed, and performs well for images with high illumination variations than other methods. Further comparisons of images from National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a wearable camera eButton have shown a high performance of the new method with better color restoration and preservation of image details.

  12. A fast color image enhancement algorithm based on Max Intensity Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Han, Long; Guo, Baolong; Jia, Wenyan; Sun, Mingui

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we extend image enhancement techniques based on the retinex theory imitating human visual perception of scenes containing high illumination variations. This extension achieves simultaneous dynamic range modification, color consistency, and lightness rendition without multi-scale Gaussian filtering which has a certain halo effect. The reflection component is analyzed based on the illumination and reflection imaging model. A new prior named Max Intensity Channel (MIC) is implemented assuming that the reflections of some points in the scene are very high in at least one color channel. Using this prior, the illumination of the scene is obtained directly by performing a gray-scale closing operation and a fast cross-bilateral filtering on the MIC of the input color image. Consequently, the reflection component of each RGB color channel can be determined from the illumination and reflection imaging model. The proposed algorithm estimates the illumination component which is relatively smooth and maintains the edge details in different regions. A satisfactory color rendition is achieved for a class of images that do not satisfy the gray-world assumption implicit to the theoretical foundation of the retinex. Experiments are carried out to compare the new method with several spatial and transform domain methods. Our results indicate that the new method is superior in enhancement applications, improves computation speed, and performs well for images with high illumination variations than other methods. Further comparisons of images from National Aeronautics and Space Administration and a wearable camera eButton have shown a high performance of the new method with better color restoration and preservation of image details.

  13. Protective effect of Acer mono Max. sap on water immersion restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Son, Hyung-U; Son, Minsik; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-09-01

    Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called 'Gol-Li-Su' or 'Go-Lo-Soe' in Korean, which means 'water beneficial to the bones'. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression.

  14. Protective effect of Acer mono Max. sap on water immersion restraint stress-induced gastric ulceration

    PubMed Central

    PARK, CHUL-HONG; SON, HYUNG-U; SON, MINSIK; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2011-01-01

    Acer mono Max. sap (AmMs) is called ‘Gol-Li-Su’ or ‘Go-Lo-Soe’ in Korean, which means ‘water beneficial to the bones’. It is reported that the sap contains several types of minerals and sugars. In particular, the calcium concentration of the sap is 36.5 times higher than that of commercial mineral water. Apart from its anti-osteoporosis effect, no reports have addressed the biological activities of AmMs against degenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether AmMs alleviates gastric ulcer-related symptoms in a stress-induced mouse model. To assess the effect of AmMs on gastric ulcer-like symptoms, we carried out a water immersion restraint (WIRE) test and found that AmMs has potential in alleviating gastric ulcers in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the nutritional factors of the sap mitigate the gastric ulcer-related symptoms caused by stress-induced gastric lesions in mice. AmMs-treated mice exhibited a significant decrease in the ulcer index as compared to those treated with omeprazole or L-arginine. To examine one potential mechanism underlying this effect, we performed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to ascertain whether molecular markers were associated with the mitigation of the gastric lesions. Epithelial and/or tissue nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was assessed to determine whether or not the genes were down-regulated dose-dependently by the sap. The levels of these enzymes were found to be lower in the tissue samples treated with AmMs compared with the levels in the control samples. These findings collectively suggest that AmMs significantly protects the gastric mucosa against WIRE stress-induced gastric lesions, at least in part, by alleviating inducible NOS and/or neuronal NOS expression. PMID:22977586

  15. High-Impact Aerobic and Zumba Fitness on Increasing VO2MAX, Heart Rate Recovery and Skinfold Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminar, T. J.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wiriawan, O.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to determine the significant effect of high-impact aerobics exercise, and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, decreasing of heart rate recovery, and decreasing of skinfold thickness. A sample of this study is 30 members aerobics of student activity unit. Type of this study was quantitative by using a quasi-experimental design method. The design of this study used Matching-Only Design. Data were Analyzed by using the t test (paired t-test). The samples divided into three groups consisted of experimental group I, experimental group II, and control group. They were given a treatment for 8 weeks or 24 meeting. For the data, retrieval is done by MFT test, heart rate recovery test, and skinfold thickness test. Furthermore, the result was analyzed by using SPSS 21 series. In conclusion, significant effect of high-impact aerobics and Zumba fitness on increasing VO2Max, heart rate recovery, skinfold thickness.

  16. Repeated crack healing in MAX-phase ceramics revealed by 4D in situ synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sloof, Willem G; Pei, Ruizhi; McDonald, Samuel A; Fife, Julie L; Shen, Lu; Boatemaa, Linda; Farle, Ann-Sophie; Yan, Kun; Zhang, Xun; van der Zwaag, Sybrand; Lee, Peter D; Withers, Philip J

    2016-03-14

    MAX phase materials are emerging as attractive engineering materials in applications where the material is exposed to severe thermal and mechanical conditions in an oxidative environment. The Ti2AlC MAX phase possesses attractive thermomechanical properties even beyond a temperature of 1000 K. An attractive feature of this material is its capacity for the autonomous healing of cracks when operating at high temperatures. Coupling a specialized thermomechanical setup to a synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy endstation at the TOMCAT beamline, we captured the temporal evolution of local crack opening and healing during multiple cracking and autonomous repair cycles at a temperature of 1500 K. For the first time, the rate and position dependence of crack repair in pristine Ti2AlC material and in previously healed cracks has been quantified. Our results demonstrate that healed cracks can have sufficient mechanical integrity to make subsequent cracks form elsewhere upon reloading after healing.

  17. BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan; Issever, Cigdem; Rizvi, Eram; Tseng, Jeff

    2008-04-01

    We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can be interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/~issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.

  18. BlackMax: A black-hole event generator with rotation, recoil, split branes, and brane tension

    SciTech Connect

    Dai Dechang; Starkman, Glenn; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2008-04-01

    We present a comprehensive black-hole event generator, BlackMax, which simulates the experimental signatures of microscopic and Planckian black-hole production and evolution at the LHC in the context of brane world models with low-scale quantum gravity. The generator is based on phenomenologically realistic models free of serious problems that plague low-scale gravity, thus offering more realistic predictions for hadron-hadron colliders. The generator includes all of the black-hole gray-body factors known to date and incorporates the effects of black-hole rotation, splitting between the fermions, nonzero brane tension, and black-hole recoil due to Hawking radiation (although not all simultaneously). The generator can bemore » interfaced with Herwig and Pythia. The main code can be downloaded from http://www-pnp.physics.ox.ac.uk/{approx}issever/BlackMax/blackmax.html.« less

  19. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max)

    PubMed Central

    Yakubu, Okhumode H.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg−1d−1) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants (Glycine max) based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs) before discharge into the environment. PMID:29051442

  20. Apology, responsibility, memory. Coming to terms with Nazi medical crimes: the example of the Max Planck Society.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Carola

    2011-11-01

    In June 2001, the then president of the Max Planck Society addressed a formal apology to survivors of Nazi medical crimes. Starting from this ritual of repentance, the paper examines the participants' diverse views of how to deal with the medical crimes of National Socialism. In comparison with the DGPPN, it asks about possibilities of going beyond historical retrospection to fulfil the imperative of remembrance.