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Sample records for cosmetic products collected

  1. Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    Cosmetics are products you apply to your body to clean it, make it more attractive, or change ... include Hair dyes Makeup Perfumes Skin-care creams Cosmetics that treat or prevent diseases are also drugs. ...

  2. 75 FR 12546 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on information collection provisions in FDA's cosmetic labeling regulations. DATES: Submit written or... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Cosmetic Labeling Regulations--21 CFR Part 701...

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  4. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  5. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  6. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers’ perspective toward cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers’ perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products’ quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem. PMID:27413352

  7. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3. PMID:26206496

  8. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3.

  9. Cosmetics and skin care products. A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2000-10-01

    The history of cosmetics and skin care products parallels many important technologic developments in chemistry, materials, and packaging innovations. Much is revealed about ancient civilizations by the cosmetics that are uncovered in archaeologic excavations. Much can also be said about modern-day health and adornment practices based on products in the current marketplace.

  10. Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

    2009-07-01

    There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported

  11. Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

    2009-07-01

    There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported

  12. [Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed.

  13. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  14. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  15. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  16. Better understanding of the EU regulatory frameworks for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Mech, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    This letter to the editor corrects some misunderstandings regarding the EU regulations covering cosmetic products stated in a recent publication by A. Sobek et al. "In the shadow of the cosmetics directive - Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" published in Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013) 706-711.

  17. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Cosmetic Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... ``Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent FDA's current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic...

  18. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations.

  19. Assessment of the phototoxic potential of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hans, Rajendra K; Agrawal, Neeraj; Verma, Kiran; Misra, Rajendra B; Ray, Ratan S; Farooq, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The cosmetics are nontoxic or less toxic in perse but photoactivation may then sensitize and could produce additional phototoxicity. Phototoxicity assessment of ten different lipsticks and eight facial creams was conducted. Results revealed that six lipsticks and five facial creams generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced haemolysis and caused lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (in vitro) under sunlight exposure. Seven creams and one lipstick were alkaline while one cream and two lipsticks were acidic. The test lipsticks and creams showed absorption in UV/visible range. The study demonstrated synergistic action of cosmetic products and sunlight. Therefore, sunlight exposure should be avoided after the use of photosensitive cosmetics. PMID:18282649

  20. Assessment of the phototoxic potential of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hans, Rajendra K; Agrawal, Neeraj; Verma, Kiran; Misra, Rajendra B; Ray, Ratan S; Farooq, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The cosmetics are nontoxic or less toxic in perse but photoactivation may then sensitize and could produce additional phototoxicity. Phototoxicity assessment of ten different lipsticks and eight facial creams was conducted. Results revealed that six lipsticks and five facial creams generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced haemolysis and caused lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (in vitro) under sunlight exposure. Seven creams and one lipstick were alkaline while one cream and two lipsticks were acidic. The test lipsticks and creams showed absorption in UV/visible range. The study demonstrated synergistic action of cosmetic products and sunlight. Therefore, sunlight exposure should be avoided after the use of photosensitive cosmetics.

  1. Monitoring of clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate as undeclared steroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2011-07-15

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis, without any indication on the label of the cosmetic products. Due to their severe side effects, such as permanent skin atopy, these two corticosteroids in cosmetic products need to be monitored from a forensic point of view. Cosmetic product samples (number of samples=47) of manufacturers charged by consumers have been collected in local and online markets of Korea, and they were validated and analyzed by a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD). LC-MS/MS and LC-MS were used to confirm these steroids in cosmetic samples with diagnostic ions (m/z) and isotope ratio. Linearity was studied with 0.5-10μg/mL range in both steroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.999) were found, and their limits of quantifications were 0.59μg/mL and 0.66μg/mL in clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were always higher than 93%, and precisions for intra-day and inter-day analyses were both less than 3.5%. The results show 32-96.4μg/g levels of clobetasol propionate in five different cosmetic products. Also, betamethasone dipropionate in a sample was monitored at the level of 195.1μg/g. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have added these steroids in their cosmetic products to advertise the treatment effect for skin atopy. Thus, these cosmetic products need to be monitored carefully, and ultimately removed from the market. PMID:21474261

  2. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  3. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health. PMID:26753435

  4. Analysis of consumer cosmetic products for phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C; Havery, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection was developed for the quantitation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in cosmetic preparations. Average recoveries of the phthalate esters were better than 90%. In a survey of 48 consumer cosmetic products, including hair care products, deodorants, lotions and creams, nail products, fragrances, and body washes, most products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. DEP was detected most frequently at concentrations up to 38,663 ppm. DBP was found in fewer products, but at levels up to 59,815 ppm. Based on the available exposure and toxicity data, the FDA has concluded that there is insufficient data to conclude that a human health hazard exists from exposure to phthalate esters from cosmetic products.

  5. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  6. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  7. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  8. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  9. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  10. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  11. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  12. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  13. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  14. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  15. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  16. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  17. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  18. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  19. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  20. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  1. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  2. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  3. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  4. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  5. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  6. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  7. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  8. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  9. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  10. Determination of preservatives in cosmetic products. I. Thin-layer chromatographic procedure for the identification of preservatives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    De Kruijf, N; Rijk, M A; Pranoto-Soetardhi, L A; Schouten, A

    1987-12-11

    A thin-layer chromatographic procedure is presented for the separation and identification of preservatives that are listed in the current EEC Council Directive on cosmetic products or have been permitted in the past. The method consists of an extraction of acidified cosmetics with methanol, separation of the extracts by thin-layer chromatography on aluminium oxide and silica gel-coated plates using one developing solvent, and visualization of the preservatives on the plates using short-wavelength UV light and six detection reagents. The retention behaviour and the detectability of 88 preservatives were investigated, of which 74 were characterized by this method. The preservatives in fourteen commercial cosmetic products were tentatively identified by the procedure described. In general this method will permit the routine detection of preservatives in cosmetics in an approximate concentration of 0.1% (w/w).

  11. European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Hall, B; Tozer, S; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Steiling, W; Leneveu-Duchemin, M C; McNamara, C; Gibney, M

    2007-11-01

    Access to reliable exposure data is essential to evaluate the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study was carried out by European cosmetic manufacturers acting within the trade association Colipa, with the aim to construct a probabilistic European population model of exposure. The study updates, in distribution form, the current exposure data on daily quantities of six cosmetic products. Data were collected using a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study. In total 44,100 households and 18,057 individual consumers in five European countries provided data using their own products. All product use occasions were recorded, including those outside of home. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between frequency of product use and quantity used per application for body lotion, facial moisturiser, toothpaste and shampoo. Thus it is not appropriate to calculate daily exposure to these products by multiplying the maximum frequency value by the maximum quantity per event value. The results largely confirm the exposure parameters currently used by the cosmetic industry. Design of this study could serve as a model for future assessments of population exposure to chemicals in products other than cosmetics.

  12. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  13. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  14. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  15. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products.

    PubMed

    Pardeike, Jana; Hommoss, Aiman; Müller, Rainer H

    2009-01-21

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are distinguishable from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) by the composition of the solid particle matrix. Both are an alternative carrier system to liposomes and emulsions. This review paper focuses on lipid nanoparticles for dermal application. Production of lipid nanoparticles and final products containing lipid nanoparticles is feasible by well-established production methods. SLN and NLC exhibit many features for dermal application of cosmetics and pharmaceutics, i.e. controlled release of actives, drug targeting, occlusion and associated with it penetration enhancement and increase of skin hydration. Due to the production of lipid nanoparticles from physiological and/or biodegradable lipids, this carrier system exhibits an excellent tolerability. The lipid nanoparticles are a "nanosafe" carrier. Furthermore, an overview of the cosmetic products currently on the market is given and the improvement of the benefit/risk ratio of the topical therapy is shown. PMID:18992314

  16. Malaysian consumers’ awareness, perception, and attitude toward cosmetic products: Questionnaire development and pilot testing

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hadi, Hazrina; Jaffri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased usage of cosmetic products has caused a growing concern about the safety of these products, and yet little is known about cosmetics from the consumers’ perspective. Hence, this study's aim is to develop a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed in the English language based on information collected from a literature search, in-depth interviews conducted with consumers prior to this study and consultations with experts. Subsequently, the questionnaire was subjected to translation, validation, and test-retest reliability. A final version of the questionnaire was piloted among 66 consumers via convenient sampling. A descriptive analysis was performed, and the internal consistency and the differences between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed. Results: The developed and translated questionnaire produced repeatable data for each of the domains (Spearman's correlation ≥ 0.7, P < 0.001). The internal consistency for awareness, perceptions and attitudes indicates good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha value of more than 0.7 for each domain). Significant differences were found between the perception scores for the race, religion, and monthly expenses for cosmetic products, respectively, and the same pattern was found for the attitude scores, but monthly expenses for cosmetic products was replaced by monthly income. Conclusion: The results achieved via the Bahasa Malaysia questionnaire indicated that the developed and translated questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products in Malaysia in future studies. PMID:27413348

  17. A survey of phthalate esters in consumer cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Certain phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in animal models. For this reason, the FDA has been monitoring the use of phthalate esters in cosmetics. In this study, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a limited survey of 84 adult-use and baby-care cosmetic products for the presence of five phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (Figure 1). The analytes were extracted from a cosmetic product/Celite mixture with hexane, and the extract was then analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on an instrument equipped with an ultraviolet radiation (UV) detector set at 230 nm. The analytes were separated on a Partisil octadecylsilane (ODS)-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 50% water, 34% acetonitrile, 13% 2-propanol, and 3% methanol that was changed linearly (35 minutes) to 15% water, 55% acetonitrile, 25% 2-propanol, and 5% methanol and held for an additional ten minutes. Spiked recoveries in antiperspirant and nail color ranged from 88% to 104%. Thirty-one of the 60 adult-use cosmetic products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. Twenty products contained DEP and 11 nail products contained DBP. Concentrations of DBP ranged from 123 μg/g to 62,607 μg/g. Concentrations of DEP ranged from 80 μg/g to 36,006 μg/g. Five of the 24 baby-care products contained DEP at concentrations ranging from 10 μg/g to 274 μg/g.

  18. Electroanalytical determination of the sunscreen agent octocrylene in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Júnior, J B G; Araujo, T A; Trindade, M A G; Ferreira, V S

    2012-02-01

    An electroanalytical method was developed to detect and quantify the sunscreen agent octocrylene (OCR) in cosmetic products. The method was based on electrochemical reduction, using voltammetric techniques. OCR was reduced at -0.97 V vs. Ag/AgCl on a glassy carbon electrode using a mixture of Britton-Robinson buffer (0.04 mol L(-1)) and ethanol (7 : 3, v/v) as the supporting electrolyte solution. Under optimized conditions and square-wave voltammetry, OCR response was linear from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 8.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) (r = 0.9995), with a limit of detection of 2.8 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The proposed electroanalytical method proved simple, fast and suitable for detection and quantification of OCR in samples of cosmetic products, with satisfactory results in the recovery test and analytical determination in real samples.

  19. 77 FR 26737 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (Fragrance Bottling); Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence...

  20. Evaluation of the efficiency and safety in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Uckaya, Meryem; Uckaya, Fatih; Demir, Nazan; Demir, Yasar

    2016-02-29

    Chemicals used in cosmetics have to interact with enzymes for beneficial or destroy purpose after they enter in our body. Active sections of enzymes that catalyze reactions have three dimensions and they are active optically. When these limitations of catalytic sections are considered, it may be considered that defining geometric specifications of chemical materials and functional groups they contain may contribute on safety evaluations of cosmetic products. In this study, defining similarities and differences of geometric structures of chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and chemical that are allowed to be used by using group theory and analyze of functional groups that are often encountered in these chemicals are aimed. Molecule formulas related to chemical material of, 276 pieces chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and 65 pieces chemicals that are allowed, are used as the material. Two and three-dimension structures of these formulas are drawn and types and quantity of functional groups they contain are defined. And as a method, freeware (Free Trial) version of "Chem-BioOffice Ultra 13.0 Suite" chemical drawing program to draw two and three-dimension of formulas, "Campus-Licensed" version that are provided for use by our university of "Autodesk 3DS Max" for three-dimension drawings are used. In order to analyze geometric specifications of drawn molecules according to Group Theory and define type and quantity of available functional groups, Excel applications developed by Prof. Dr. Yaşar Demir are used. PMID:26773597

  1. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil. PMID:26777540

  2. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil.

  3. Moisturizing effect of topical cosmetic products applied to dry skin.

    PubMed

    Polaskova, Jana; Pavlackova, Jana; Vltavska, Pavlina; Mokrejs, Pavel; Janis, Rahula

    2013-01-01

    One of the complications of "diabetes mellitus" is termed diabetic foot syndrome, the first symptoms of which include changes in the skin's condition and properties. The skin becomes dehydrated, dry, and prone to excessive formation of the horny layer, its barrier function becoming weakened. This function can be restored by applying suitable cosmetic excipients containing active substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of commercially available cosmetic products (CPs) designed for the care of diabetic foot, through a group of selected volunteers using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Statistical surveys (p < 0.05) evaluated these CPs as regards to their hydration effect and barrier properties. Special attention was devoted to CPs with the declared content of 10% urea, and that the influence of this preparation's ability to hydrate and maintain epidermal water in the epidermis was confirmed.

  4. Probabilistic modelling of European consumer exposure to cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Rohan, D; Golden, D; Gibney, M; Hall, B; Tozer, S; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Leneveu-Duchemin, M C; Steiling, W

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we describe the statistical analysis of the usage profile of the European population to seven cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to construct a reliable model of exposure of the European population from use of the selected products: body lotion, shampoo, deodorant spray, deodorant non-spray, facial moisturiser, lipstick and toothpaste. The first step in this process was to gather reliable data on consumer usage patterns of the products. These data were sourced from a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study by the trade association Colipa. The market information study contained a large number of subjects, in total 44,100 households and 18,057 habitual users (males and females) of the studied products, in five European countries. The data sets were then combined to generate a realistic distribution of frequency of use of each product, combined with distribution of the amount of product used at each occasion using the CREMe software. A Monte Carlo method was used to combine the data sets. This resulted in a new model of European exposure to cosmetic products being constructed.

  5. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  6. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  7. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  8. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  9. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  10. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  11. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  12. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  13. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  14. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  15. Contact allergies to cosmetics: testing with 52 cosmetic ingredients and personal products.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Jyoti; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Aggarwal, Kamal; Dayal, Surbhi; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2005-12-01

    Fifty patients of both sexes with clinically suspected cosmetic dermatitis were subjected to patch testing with a cosmetic and fragrance series, approved by the Contact and Occupational Dermatosis Forum of India (CODFI), and with selected allergens from the Indian Standard Series (ISS). Most of these patients were young adults between 10-29 years; the mean age was 27.5 years. The majority of the patients had cosmetic dermatitis of <1 year duration (68%). The occupational profiles of the patients included students (46%), housewives (18%), teachers (10%) and laborers (4%). A miscellaneous group, comprised of tailors, farmers, staff nurses, beauticians, jewellers and engineers, accounted for the remaining 22%. The most commonly involved site was the face, followed by the forehead, neck and scalp. Patch testing of these patients revealed that, out of the 50 subjects tested, thirty-three (66%) reacted to one or more allergens. Fragrance components were the most common offending allergen (51.5%) followed by preservatives (39.3%), paraphenylenediamine (PPD) (21.2%), and cetrimide and tertiary butyl hydroquinone (12.1% each), in descending order of frequency. Hence, patch testing, with the standard series supplemented by personal cosmetics; should be considered for patients with cosmetic dermatitis to determine the offending allergen so as to avoid further contact with that allergen.

  16. Novel analytical method to measure formaldehyde release from heated hair straightening cosmetic products: Impact on risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Galli, Corrado Lodovico; Bettin, Federico; Metra, Pierre; Fidente, Paola; De Dominicis, Emiliano; Marinovich, Marina

    2015-08-01

    Hair straightening cosmetic products may contain formaldehyde (FA). In Europe, FA is permitted for use in personal care products at concentrations ⩽ 0.2g/100g. According to the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel products are safe when formalin (a 37% saturated solution of FA in water) concentration does not exceed 0.2g/100g (0.074 g/100g calculated as FA). The official method of reference does not discriminate between "free" FA and FA released into the air after heating FA donors. The method presented here captures and collects the FA released into the air from heated cosmetic products by derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and final analysis by UPLC/DAD instrument. Reliable data in terms of linearity, recovery, repeatability and sensitivity are obtained. On a total of 72 market cosmetic products analyzed, 42% showed FA concentrations very close to or above the threshold value (0.074 g/100g calculated as FA) suggested by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review committee, whereas 11 products, negative using the official method of reference, were close to or above the threshold value (0.074 g/100g calculated as FA). This may pose a health problem for occasional users and professional hair stylists.

  17. Determination of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for the determination of the hormones estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in topically applied products. The developed method was then used to conduct a postmarket survey of consumer products for these hormones. Each product was first mixed with Celite and then extracted with methanol. Extracts were cleaned on a Waters Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridge, and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC. The analytes were separated using an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (5 μm, 250 mm by 4.6 mm) analytical column and detected by their absorbance at 230 nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved by a 1.0-ml/min linear gradient from 30% acetonitrile and 70% water to 80% acetonitrile and 20% water over 30 min. A final 5 min hold time and a re-equilibration time of 10 min were used to prepare the column for subsequent analysis. Recovery from two different brand lotions spiked with three different levels of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone ranged from 81.8% to 101%. In this study, a total of 70 cosmetic products were surveyed. Twenty two (63%) of the 35 products were labeled as containing an estrogen and/ or progesterone and also provided quantitative label information about the hormone ingredient. The most frequently labeled hormones were progesterone (66%), estriol (46%), estradiol (11%), and estrone (6%). Six products labeled as containing estriol were found to contain estradiol. An estrogen and/or progesterone were found in 34 products at concentrations ranging from 86.0 to 26,800 μg/g. Progesterone was not found in one product labeled as containing this hormone. An additional 35 products, which did not list hormones on their labels, were analyzed and estrogen or progesterone was not detected in these products. PMID:26454975

  18. Exposure method development for risk assessment to cosmetic products using a standard composition.

    PubMed

    Chevillotte, G; Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Roudot, A C

    2014-06-01

    In a risk assessment of cosmetic products, it is necessary to know both qualitative and quantitative compositions. Currently, European Regulation No. 1223/2009 requires the industries to provide ingredient lists for finished cosmetic products but not their concentrations. Ingredient concentrations are available in few bibliographic references but in an incomplete and approximate way. In this study, we propose a method to qualitatively and quantitatively estimate the composition of a cosmetic product. This method has the advantages of being applicable to all cosmetic products and supplying concentration data for all ingredients. The results obtained seem quite fair compared to literature data. Applied to nail polish as an example, this method can be used to assess exposure per ingredient according to the Monte Carlo probabilistic method. It should be promising to assess the consumer risk to cosmetic product compositions. PMID:24636944

  19. Macrocyclic-, polycyclic-, and nitro musks in cosmetics, household commodities and indoor dusts collected from Japan: implications for their human exposure.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko; Hinosaka, Mari; Yanagimoto, Hayato

    2015-01-01

    This paper reported the occurrence and concentrations of macrocyclic-, polycyclic- and nitro musks in cosmetics and household commodities collected from Japan. The high concentrations and detection frequencies of Musk T, habanolide, and exaltolides were found in commercial products, suggesting their large amounts of production and usage in Japan. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, also showed high concentrations in cosmetics and products. The estimated dairy intakes of Musk T and HHCB by the dermal exposure to commercial products were 7.8 and 7.9 μg/kg/day in human, respectively, and perfume and body lotion are dominant exposure sources. We also analyzed synthetic musks in house dusts. Polycyclic musks, HHCB and OTNE, showed high concentrations in samples, but macrocyclic musks were detected only in a few samples, although these types of musks were highly detected in commercial products. This is probably due to easy-degradation of macrocyclic musks in indoor environment. The dairy intakes of HHCB by dust ingestions were 0.22 ng/kg/day in human, which were approximately five orders of magnitudes lower than those of dermal absorption from commercial household commodities.

  20. Odor and color of cosmetic products: correlations between subjective judgement and autonomous nervous system response.

    PubMed

    Barkat, S; Thomas-Danguin, T; Bensafi, M; Rouby, C; Sicard, G

    2003-12-01

    The color and odor of cosmetics have been shown to be crucial for affective states and able to influence autonomic responses. We report an original procedure to measure the effect on subjects of the color and odor of cosmetic products, and to quantify the correlation between objective (psychophysiological recording) and subjective (psychophysics) responses. Several cosmetic products (lipsticks and nail varnishes) of different colors (white, brown, red, orange, and pink) and odors (two per product) were presented. In a first step, autonomous parameters (skin conductance (SC) and heart rate (HR)) were recorded, and in the second step, subjects rated their sensations on subjective scales (overall appreciation, pleasantness, and emotional arousal). Results indicated that certain color and odor additives in cosmetics act on relaxation, excitation, perceived pleasantness, and emotional arousal. It was also found that certain colors, perceived as pleasant, decreased HR, and that the perception of an 'arousing' perfume significantly increased SC.

  1. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-08-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  2. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  3. Production of mannosylerythritol lipids and their application in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-06-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants abundantly produced by different basidiomycetous yeasts such as Pseudozyma, and show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. These features of MELs make their application in new technology areas possible. Recently, the structural and functional variety of MELs was considerably expanded by advanced microbial screening methods. Different types of MELs bearing different hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts have been reported. The genes responsible for MEL biosynthesis were identified, and their genetic study is now in progress, aiming to control the chemical structure. The excellent properties leading to practical cosmetic ingredients, i.e., moisturization of dry skin, repair of damaged hair, activation of fibroblast and papilla cells and antioxidant and protective effects in skin cells, have been demonstrated on the yeast glycolipid biosurfactants. In this review, the current status of research and development on MELs, particularly the commercial application in cosmetics, is described. PMID:23584242

  4. The use and interpretation of in vitro data in regulatory toxicology: cosmetics, toiletries and household products.

    PubMed

    Indans, Ian

    2002-02-28

    There is currently a drive to eliminate animal testing for cosmetics, toiletries and household products; indeed, the European Union Cosmetics Directive aims to prohibit the use of experimental animals for the testing of finished cosmetic products after 2002. At present, national prohibitions are in place in the UK, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for the testing of finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. In the USA animal testing for certain types of finished products is mandatory. Against this background, the currently available regulatory in vitro tests comprise methods for eye irritation, skin corrosivity, genotoxicity, dermal penetration and photoirritation. The draft updates to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines for eye and skin irritation advocate the use of in vitro or ex vivo methods prior to the commencement of animal studies. At present, testing for these endpoints cannot be completed in vitro, but potentially corrosive substances and products can be classified without the need for animal studies. Regulatory genotoxicity testing can be completed using only in vitro methods, provided that a clear negative outcome is obtained for each test. Data from dermal penetration studies may be used to refine risk assessments. Current developments in areas such as skin sensitisation and skin irritation promise that in the reasonably near future such information may be generated without the use of animals.

  5. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population. First part: frequency data.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Wesolek, N; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the percentage of users, the frequency of use and the number of cosmetic products consumed at home by the French population. The evaluation was performed for adult, child and baby consumers. Pregnant women were also taken into account in this work. All in all, 141 products cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory products were studied. The strengths of the study were the separation of data by sex and by age groups, the consideration of a priori at risk subpopulations and the consideration of a large number of cosmetic products. These current consumption data could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at risk subpopulations.

  6. Phthalates in cosmetic and personal care products: concentrations and possible dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Koniecki, Diane; Wang, Rong; Moody, Richard P; Zhu, Jiping

    2011-04-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals that are used in a variety of consumer products including cosmetic and personal care products. This study aims at determining phthalate levels in cosmetic and personal care products obtained from the Canadian market. Overall 252 products including 98 baby care products were collected at retail stores in several provinces across Canada in year 2007. These products included fragrances, hair care products (hair sprays, mousses, and gels), deodorants (including antiperspirants), nail polishes, lotions (body lotions and body creams), skin cleansers, and baby products (oils, lotions, shampoos and diaper creams). Samples were extracted with different organic solvents, depending on the types of the products, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Of the 18 investigated phthalates, diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were detected. The detection frequencies were in the following order: DEP (103 out of 252 products)>DnBP (15/252)>DiBP (9/252)>DEHP (8/252)>DMP (1/252). DEP was detected in almost all types of surveyed products with the highest levels (25,542 μg/g, equal to 2.6%) found in fragrances. DnBP was largely present in nail polish products with the highest concentration of 24,304 μg/g (2.4%). DnBP was also found in other products such as hair sprays, hair mousses, skin cleansers and baby shampoos at much lower concentrations (36 μg/g and less). Levels of other detected phthalates were generally low in the products. Based on these values, daily dermal exposure dosage to five phthalates was estimated for three age groups, female adults (60 kg); toddlers (0.5-4 years) and infants (0-6 months), through the use of cosmetic and personal care products. The exposure estimation, however, was based on existing products use pattern data, instead of probabilistic model based population use distribution

  7. Increasing antibiotic resistance in preservative-tolerant bacterial strains isolated from cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Orús, Pilar; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Leranoz, Sonia; Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    To ensure the microbiological quality, consumer safety and organoleptic properties of cosmetic products, manufacturers need to comply with defined standards using several preservatives and disinfectants. A drawback regarding the use of these preservatives is the possibility of generating cross-insusceptibility to other disinfectants or preservatives, as well as cross resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms of Enterobacter gergoviae, Pseudomonas putida and Burkholderia cepacia that are involved in recurrent contamination in cosmetic products containing preservatives. Diminished susceptibility to formaldehyde-donors was detected in isolates but not to other preservatives commonly used in the cosmetics industry, although increasing resistance to different antibiotics (β-lactams, quinolones, rifampicin, and tetracycline) was demonstrated in these strains when compared with the wild-type strain. The outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanism activities responsible for the resistance trait were evaluated. The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms due to the selective pressure from preservatives included in cosmetic products could be a risk for the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance in the environment. Nevertheless, the large contribution of disinfection and preservation cannot be denied in cosmetic products.

  8. HPLC determination of imidazole antimycotis in antidandruff cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Luigi; De Orsi, Daniela; Chimenti, Paola; Porra', Rita; Tonelli, Domenica

    2003-08-01

    A simple HPLC method for the determination of imidazole antimycotics in cosmetic antidandruff formulations has been developed. HPLC was carried out on a Discovery RP-Amide C16 column and spectrophotometric detection was performed at 220 nm. The initial mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous 10(-3) M NaClO4 (pH 3.0) in the ratio of 15:85 (v/v); then a linear gradient up to 46% acetonitrile in 70 min, and up to 50% in 80 min. The extraction procedure has been validated by analyzing samples of shampoo and lotion spiked with 1% of the active principles. The recoveries were greater than 95% and the reproducibility was within 3%.

  9. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population second part: Amount data.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Chevillotte, G; Wesolek, N; Morisset, T; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Bertho, A; Romanet, A; Leroy, L; Mercat, A C; Creusot, T; Simon, E; Roudot, A C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the amount per use of cosmetic products consumed at home by the adult, child and baby French population. 1078 men and women participated in the study which was performed in four cities of France. This enquiry was performed on 106 cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory, and baby products. Coupled to frequency data previously obtained (Ficheux et al., 2015), these amounts per use data will be used in order to assess the exposure to cosmetics by the French population. These current exposure values could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:26898167

  10. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population second part: Amount data.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Chevillotte, G; Wesolek, N; Morisset, T; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Bertho, A; Romanet, A; Leroy, L; Mercat, A C; Creusot, T; Simon, E; Roudot, A C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the amount per use of cosmetic products consumed at home by the adult, child and baby French population. 1078 men and women participated in the study which was performed in four cities of France. This enquiry was performed on 106 cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory, and baby products. Coupled to frequency data previously obtained (Ficheux et al., 2015), these amounts per use data will be used in order to assess the exposure to cosmetics by the French population. These current exposure values could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies.

  11. [Cosmetic allergy].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2008-07-01

    Cosmetics are substances or mixtures for an external contact with a human body: their skin, hair, lips, nails, external sex organs, teeth and mucous membranes of an oral cavity. The only or main aim of cosmetics is to keep the body clean, take care of it, protect, perfume as well as groom it. Since the products are supposed to be safe and well-tolerated, they tend to cause side effects, for instance irritation or allergy. This is mainly due to scented substances as well as preservatives which are included in cosmetics.

  12. [Cosmetic allergy].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2008-07-01

    Cosmetics are substances or mixtures for an external contact with a human body: their skin, hair, lips, nails, external sex organs, teeth and mucous membranes of an oral cavity. The only or main aim of cosmetics is to keep the body clean, take care of it, protect, perfume as well as groom it. Since the products are supposed to be safe and well-tolerated, they tend to cause side effects, for instance irritation or allergy. This is mainly due to scented substances as well as preservatives which are included in cosmetics. PMID:18839623

  13. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products.

  14. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products. PMID:26003515

  15. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  16. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  17. [Hygienic evaluation of the content of heavy metals (lead and copper) in cosmetic products].

    PubMed

    Tsankov, Iu; Iordanova, I; Lolova, D; Uzunova, S; Dinoeva, S

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals /lead and copper/ content was studied in various cosmetic articles: creams and cleansing milk, shampoos, hair dyes, eye shadows, rouge, lipsticks, powders, fond de teint, tooth pastes. The method flame atom-absorption spectrometry with chelation and extraction was used for their determination. The subacute dermal toxicity on albino rats was studied with working doses: lead--1,10 and 100 mg/kg, and copper--5,50 and 500 mg/kg. The content of lead and copper was established to be low in the majority of the cosmetic articles studied /lead--to 2.08 mg/kg, copper--to 6,28 mg/kg/and only in some of the articles of decorative cosmetic, it is considerably higher /lead--to 41,1 mg/kg, copper--to 138,6 mg/kg. That is due to the inadequate purification of the initial raw materials or to the presence of copper-containing dyes in the composition of the respective cosmetic article. As a result from the toxicological and pathoanatomical studies the small doses /lead 1 mg/kg and copper 5 mg/kg are defined as ineffective, and the high doses--with a light biological effect. The maximum allowable concentration of lead is proposed to be--10 mg/kg, and copper--50 mg/kg as side /technical/ pollutants in the production of cosmetic articles.

  18. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  19. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  1. Advances in the analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Manuela; Marchei, Emilia; Pacifici, Roberta; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Pichini, Simona

    2011-06-25

    The state-of-the art analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances in cosmetic products is here presented and a new methodology developed for this type of analysis is proposed. Cosmetic products released on the market should not cause damage to human health when applied under normal conditions of use. With respect to this condition, the definition of "cosmetic product" is reported according to the international and region specific regulatory requirements for the manufacturing and marketing and that of non-allowed substances with particular reference to pharmacologically active substances, with therapeutic indication. The existing methodologies for the analysis of non-allowed products in cosmetic preparations generally include some sort of sample treatment and/or extraction before the analytical step, which always include a separation by liquid chromatography (LC) at ambient temperature followed by detection with ultraviolet spectrophotometric detection or mass spectrometry. A systematic high throughput analysis of non-allowed pharmacologically active substances is finally proposed together with the results of such an analysis performed in the "Drug abuse and doping" Unit of the National Institute of Health in Rome.

  2. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face ...

  3. 21 CFR 720.4 - Information requested about cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... product's intended use. (1) Baby products. (i) Baby shampoos. (ii) Lotions, oils, powders, and creams. (iii) Other baby products. (2) Bath preparations. (i) Bath oils, tablets, and salts. (ii) Bubble baths. (iii) Bath capsules. (iv) Other bath preparations. (3) Eye makeup preparations. (i) Eyebrow pencil....

  4. A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation?

    PubMed

    Domicio Da Silva Souza, Ivan; Juliana Pinheiro, Bárbara; Passarini Takahashi, Vania

    2012-01-01

    Patents represent a free and open source of data for studying innovation and forecasting technological trends. Thus, we suggest that new discussions about the role of patent information are needed. To illustrate the relevance of this issue, we performed a survey of patents involving skin care products, which were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 2006 and 2010, to identify opportunities for innovation and technological trends. We quantified the use of technologies in 333 patents. We plotted a life cycle of technologies related to natural ingredients. We also determined the cross impact of the technologies identified. We observed technologies related to processes applied to cosmetics (2.2%), functional packaging and applicators (2.9%), excipients and active compounds (21.5%), and cosmetic preparations (73.5%). Further, 21.6% of the patents were related to the use of natural ingredients. Several opportunities for innovation were discussed throughout this paper, for example, the use of peptides as active compounds or intracellular carriers (only 3.9% of the technologies in cosmetic preparations). We also observed technological cross impacts that suggested a trend toward multifunctional cosmetics, among others. Patent surveys may help researchers with product innovation because they allow us to identify available and unexplored technologies and turn them into whole new concepts.

  5. A Study of the Possible Harmful Effects of Cosmetic Beauty Products on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Kaličanin, Biljana; Velimirović, Dragan

    2016-04-01

    The origins of the usage of different substances in beauty, skin, body, hair, and nails care products can be found in ancient times. To achieve better quality and enhance their effects, some additives such as preservatives, stabilizers, mineral pigments, dye, and shine were added to these products. Some of these substances may also have allergic, irritating, and harmful effects on human health. The aim of this study was the optimization of the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for the purpose of determining the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc), in some commercial cosmetic beauty products (lipsticks, lip glosses, eye shadows, and henna hair dye). In addition, in order to monitor the potential adverse effects of henna dye on hair quality, as well as the total body burden of heavy metals (Pb, Cd), the paper analyzed hair samples before and after henna dye treatment. Beauty products used for cosmetic purposes can have adverse effects to human health due to the fact that they contain lead, a highly toxic metal. The lead content in the tested samples varied depending on the additives used along with the method of production. The cosmetic products that were analyzed in this study contained a certain amount of zinc, which is an essential element, although its content above the prescribed limit may lead to side effects. Highly toxic metal, cadmium, was not detected in the tested samples. The presence of these metals in cosmetic products certainly indicate that it is necessary to monitor and determinate the content of toxic heavy metals in these products, especially because they are in direct contact with skin or mucous membranes and are often used in daily life. PMID:26296330

  6. A Study of the Possible Harmful Effects of Cosmetic Beauty Products on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Kaličanin, Biljana; Velimirović, Dragan

    2016-04-01

    The origins of the usage of different substances in beauty, skin, body, hair, and nails care products can be found in ancient times. To achieve better quality and enhance their effects, some additives such as preservatives, stabilizers, mineral pigments, dye, and shine were added to these products. Some of these substances may also have allergic, irritating, and harmful effects on human health. The aim of this study was the optimization of the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for the purpose of determining the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc), in some commercial cosmetic beauty products (lipsticks, lip glosses, eye shadows, and henna hair dye). In addition, in order to monitor the potential adverse effects of henna dye on hair quality, as well as the total body burden of heavy metals (Pb, Cd), the paper analyzed hair samples before and after henna dye treatment. Beauty products used for cosmetic purposes can have adverse effects to human health due to the fact that they contain lead, a highly toxic metal. The lead content in the tested samples varied depending on the additives used along with the method of production. The cosmetic products that were analyzed in this study contained a certain amount of zinc, which is an essential element, although its content above the prescribed limit may lead to side effects. Highly toxic metal, cadmium, was not detected in the tested samples. The presence of these metals in cosmetic products certainly indicate that it is necessary to monitor and determinate the content of toxic heavy metals in these products, especially because they are in direct contact with skin or mucous membranes and are often used in daily life.

  7. 21 CFR 720.4 - Information requested about cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... product's intended use. (1) Baby products. (i) Baby shampoos. (ii) Lotions, oils, powders, and creams... straighteners. (iv) Permanent waves. (v) Rinses (noncoloring). (vi) Shampoos (noncoloring). (vii) Tonics.... (iii) Hair rinses (coloring). (iv) Hair shampoos (coloring). (v) Hair color sprays (aerosol). (vi)...

  8. 21 CFR 720.4 - Information requested about cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... product's intended use. (1) Baby products. (i) Baby shampoos. (ii) Lotions, oils, powders, and creams...) Eyeliner. (iii) Eye shadow. (iv) Eye lotion. (v) Eye makeup remover. (vi) Mascara. (vii) Other eye makeup...) Manicuring preparations. (i) Basecoats and undercoats. (ii) Cuticle softeners. (iii) Nail creams and...

  9. 21 CFR 720.4 - Information requested about cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... product's intended use. (1) Baby products. (i) Baby shampoos. (ii) Lotions, oils, powders, and creams...) Eyeliner. (iii) Eye shadow. (iv) Eye lotion. (v) Eye makeup remover. (vi) Mascara. (vii) Other eye makeup...) Manicuring preparations. (i) Basecoats and undercoats. (ii) Cuticle softeners. (iii) Nail creams and...

  10. 21 CFR 720.4 - Information requested about cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... product's intended use. (1) Baby products. (i) Baby shampoos. (ii) Lotions, oils, powders, and creams...) Eyeliner. (iii) Eye shadow. (iv) Eye lotion. (v) Eye makeup remover. (vi) Mascara. (vii) Other eye makeup...) Manicuring preparations. (i) Basecoats and undercoats. (ii) Cuticle softeners. (iii) Nail creams and...

  11. Neutral desorption extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for fast screening sunscreen agents in cream cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinglei; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhong; Hu, Bin; Ding, Liying; Jia, Li; Chen, Huanwen

    2011-09-15

    High throughput analysis of sunscreen agents present in cream cosmetic has been demonstrated, typically 2 samples per minute, using neutral desorption extractive electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ND-EESI-MS) without sample pretreatment. For the targeted compounds such as 4-Aminobenzoic acid and oxybenzone, ND-EESI-MS method provided linear signal responses in the range of 1-100 ppb. Limits of detection (LOD) of the method were estimated at sub-ppb levels for the analytes tested. Reasonable relative standard deviation (RSD=8.4-16.0%) was obtained as a result of 10 independent measurements for commercial cosmetics samples spiked with each individual sunscreen agents at 1-10 ppb. Acceptable recoveries were achieved in the range of 87-116% for direct analysis of commercial cream cosmetic samples. The experimental data demonstrate that ND-EESI-MS is a useful tool for high throughput screening of sunscreen agents in highly viscous cream cosmetic products, with the capability to obtain quantitative information of the analytes.

  12. [Analysis of preservatives used in cosmetic products: salicylic acid, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, potassium sorbate, phenoxyethanol, and parabens].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Uchino, Tadashi; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2010-01-01

    Preservatives are used to inhibit the growth of microorganisms in cosmetic products. The Japanese standards for cosmetics set restrictions on the maximum amount of each preservative added to cosmetics as per the purpose of use of cosmetics. For the investigation into the actual conditions of commonly used preservatives in commercial cosmetics, we analyzed parabens, phenoxyethanol, sodium benzoate, sodium dehydroacetate, salicylic acid, and potassium sorbate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty-one samples were obtained from cosmetic product manufacturers located in 14 prefectures in Japan. Among different acid- and salt-based preservatives, sodium benzoate was observed to have been used in many products. These acid- and salt-based preservatives were used with parabens in personal washing products, such as shampoo and soap. The labels of two of the cosmetic product samples displayed inaccurate ingredient information, that is, a preservative other than the one used in the corresponding product was listed on them. The amount of preservatives used did not exceed regulatory limits in any of the analyzed samples.

  13. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products.

  14. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products. PMID:27432239

  15. Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. PMID:23209460

  16. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Cosmetic Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Cosmetic Dentistry? Cosmetic ... procedure for you. Updated: January 2012 ; ; Related Articles: Cosmetic Dentistry Brides-to-Be and Job Applicants: Here’s ...

  17. Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2005-10-15

    This assessment focusses on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and on anionic or nonionic PEG derivatives, which are currently used in cosmetics in Europe. These compounds are used in a great variety of cosmetic applications because of their solubility and viscosity properties, and because of their low toxicity. The PEGs, their ethers, and their fatty acid esters produce little or no ocular or dermal irritation and have extremely low acute and chronic toxicities. They do not readily penetrate intact skin, and in view of the wide use of preparations containing PEG and PEG derivatives, only few case reports on sensitisation reactions have been published, mainly involving patients with exposure to PEGs in medicines or following exposure to injured or chronically inflamed skin. On healthy skin, the sensitising potential of these compounds appears to be negligible. For some representative substances of this class, information was available on reproductive and developmental toxicity, on genotoxicty and carcinogenic properties. Taking into consideration all available information from related compounds, as well as the mode and mechanism of action, no safety concern with regard to these endpoints could be identified. Based on the available data it is therefore concluded that PEGs of a wide molecular weight range (200 to over 10,000), their ethers (laureths. ceteths, ceteareths, steareths, and oleths), and fatty acid esters (laurates, dilaurates, stearates, distearates) are safe for use in cosmetics. Limited data were available for PEG sorbitan/sorbitol fatty acid esters, PEG sorbitan beeswax and PEG soy sterols. Taking into account all the information available for closely related compounds, it can be assumed that these compounds as presently used in cosmetic preparations will not present a risk for human health. PEG castor oils and PEG hydrogenated castor oils have caused anaphylactic reactions when used in intravenous medicinal products. Their topical use in cosmetics is

  18. Safety of botanical ingredients in personal care products/cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Antignac, Eric; Nohynek, Gerhard J; Re, Thomas; Clouzeau, Jacques; Toutain, Hervé

    2011-02-01

    The key issue of the safety assessment of botanical ingredients in personal care products (PCP) is the phytochemical characterisation of the plant source, data on contamination, adulteration and hazardous residues. The comparative approach used in the safety assessment of GM-plants may be applied to novel botanical PCP ingredients. Comparator(s) are the parent plant or varieties of the same species. Chemical grouping includes definition of chemical groups suitable for a read-across approach; it allows the estimation of toxicological endpoints on the basis of data from related substances (congeneric groups) with physical/chemical properties producing similar toxicities. The Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) and Dermal Sensitisation Threshold (DST) are tools for the assessment of trace substances or minor ingredients. The evaluation of skin penetration of substances present in human food is unnecessary, whereas mixtures may be assessed on the basis of physical/chemical properties of individual substances. Adverse dermal effects of botanicals include irritation, sensitisation, phototoxicity and immediate-type allergy. The experience from dietary supplements or herbal medicines showed that being natural is not equivalent to being safe. Pragmatic approaches for quality and safety standards of botanical ingredients are needed; consumer safety should be the first objective of conventional and botanical PCP ingredients.

  19. Exposure data for cosmetic products: lipstick, body lotion, and face cream.

    PubMed

    Loretz, L J; Api, A M; Barraj, L M; Burdick, J; Dressler, W E; Gettings, S D; Han Hsu, H; Pan, Y H L; Re, T A; Renskers, K J; Rothenstein, A; Scrafford, C G; Sewall, C

    2005-02-01

    Accurate exposure information for cosmetic products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of cosmetic product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. The study included three widely used cosmetic product types: lipstick, body lotion, and face cream. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 19-65 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited at ten different geographical locations within the US. The number of recruits was chosen to ensure a minimum of 300 completes per product type. Subjects were provided with prototype test products, and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analysis of the data was conducted to derive summary distribution of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three products was: face cream, 1.22 g and 0.84 g; lipstick, 10 mg and 5 mg; and body lotion, 4.42 g and 3.45 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three products was: face cream, 2.05 g and 1.53 g; lipstick, 24 mg and 13 mg; and body lotion, 8.70 g and 7.63 g. The mean number of applications per day for face cream and lipstick was 1.77 and 2.35, respectively. For body lotion, the mean number of applications per day was dependent on body area, and was 2.12, 1.52, 1.11, 0.95, 0.43, 0.26, and 0.40 for hands, arms, legs, feet, neck and throat, back, and other body areas, respectively. The effect of product preference on use practices was also investigated. This study provides current cosmetic exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.

  20. Screening cosmetic products for N-nitroso compounds by chemiluminescent determination of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Chou, H J; Yates, R L; Wenninger, J A

    1987-01-01

    Cosmetic products were screened for total N-nitroso compounds by chemiluminescent measurement of nitric oxide liberated by the reductive cleavage of the N-nitroso group. The cosmetic was first partitioned between methylene chloride and water to separate polar and nonpolar N-nitroso compounds. Each extract was then examined for the presence of N-nitroso compounds by adding the cleavage reagent and sweeping the nitric oxide formed into a chemiluminescent analyzer. Although the method is not intended to be quantitative, recovery studies were conducted to determine measurable levels. Recovery studies of polar N-nitroso compounds were conducted by adding N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA) to a cream, a shampoo, and a lotion at 3 levels, i.e., 80, 320, and 960 ppb, and then determining NDELA by the method. Recoveries ranged from 48 to 83% (mean 68%; SD = 11.9). For recoveries of nonpolar N-nitroso compounds, 100, 200, and 500 ppb of N-nitrosomethyltetradecylamine were added to the 3 cosmetic products. Recoveries ranged from 58 to 70% (mean 63%; SD = 5.3).

  1. Simultaneous analysis of parabens in cosmetic products by stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Melo, Lidervan P; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2010-06-01

    A sensitive and precise stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) combined with LC (SBSE/LC) analysis is described for simultaneous determination of methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens in commercial cosmetic products in agreement with the European Union Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC. Important factors in the optimization of SBSE efficiency are discussed, such as time and temperature of extraction, pH, and ionic strength of the sample, matrix effects, and liquid desorption conditions by different modes (magnetic stirring, ultrasonic). The LOQs of the SBSE/LC method ranged from 30 to 200 ng/mg, with linear response over a dynamic range, from the LOQ to 2.5 microg/mg, with a coefficient of determination higher than 0.993. The interday precision of the SBSE/LC method presented a coefficient of variation lower than 5%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proven for analysis of commercial cosmetic products such as body creams, antiperspirant creams, and sunscreens. PMID:20491059

  2. [Sanitary control of cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Bonini, Maira; Pellino, Pasquale; Pilla, Mariateresa

    2005-01-01

    In the Lombardia region (Italy), the function of sanitary control of cosmetic products has been delegated to the local health units (ASL). The Province of Milano 1 Local Health Unit therefore carried out a cosmetics surveillance programme involving 92 cosmetic firms located in its territory. Manufacturing and storage conditions of cosmetics produced by the local firms were evaluated and overall, good sanitary conditions were found.

  3. Chemical sexualities: the use of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products by youth in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Idrus, Nurul Ilmi; Hymans, Takeo David

    2013-05-01

    Although young people in their everyday lives consume a bewildering array of pharmaceutical, dietary and cosmetic products to self-manage their bodies, moods and sexuality, these practices are generally overlooked by sexual and reproductive health programmes. Nevertheless, this self-management can involve significant (sexual) health risks. This article draws from the initial findings of the University of Amsterdam's ChemicalYouth project. Based on interviews with 142 youths, focus group discussions and participant observation in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, we found that young people - in the domain of sexual health - turn to pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to: (1) feel clean and attractive; (2) increase (sexual) stamina; (3) feel good and sexually confident; (4) counter sexual risks; and (5) for a group of transgender youths, to feminize their male bodies. How youth achieve these desires varies depending on their income and the demands of their working lives. Interestingly, the use of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics was less gendered than expected. Sexual health programmes need to widen their definitions of risk, cooperate with harm reduction programmes to provide youth with accurate information, and tailor themselves to the diverse sexual health concerns of their target groups.

  4. Chemical sexualities: the use of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products by youth in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Idrus, Nurul Ilmi; Hymans, Takeo David

    2013-05-01

    Although young people in their everyday lives consume a bewildering array of pharmaceutical, dietary and cosmetic products to self-manage their bodies, moods and sexuality, these practices are generally overlooked by sexual and reproductive health programmes. Nevertheless, this self-management can involve significant (sexual) health risks. This article draws from the initial findings of the University of Amsterdam's ChemicalYouth project. Based on interviews with 142 youths, focus group discussions and participant observation in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, we found that young people - in the domain of sexual health - turn to pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to: (1) feel clean and attractive; (2) increase (sexual) stamina; (3) feel good and sexually confident; (4) counter sexual risks; and (5) for a group of transgender youths, to feminize their male bodies. How youth achieve these desires varies depending on their income and the demands of their working lives. Interestingly, the use of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics was less gendered than expected. Sexual health programmes need to widen their definitions of risk, cooperate with harm reduction programmes to provide youth with accurate information, and tailor themselves to the diverse sexual health concerns of their target groups. PMID:23684204

  5. Potential exposure of German consumers to engineered nanoparticles in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Christiane; Von Goetz, Natalie; Scheringer, Martin; Wormuth, Matthias; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-03-01

    The rapid increase in the number of consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) raises concerns about an appropriate risk assessment of these products. Along with toxicological data, exposure estimates are essential for assessing risk. Currently, cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCP) represent the largest ENP-containing consumer product class on the market. We analyzed factors influencing the likelihood that ENP-containing products are available to consumers. We modelled potential external exposure of German consumers, assuming a maximum possible case where only ENP-containing products are used. The distribution of exposure levels within the population due to different behavior patterns was included by using data from an extensive database on consumer behavior. Exposure levels were found to vary significantly between products and between consumers showing different behavior patterns. The assessment scheme developed here represents a basis for refined exposure modelling as soon as more specific information about ENPs in C&PCP becomes available.

  6. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to cosmetic products by French children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Roudot, A C

    2016-08-01

    Very few exposure data are available for children in Europe and worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to cosmetic products used on children aged 0-3 years using recent consumption data generated for the French population. Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for 24 products including cleanser, skin care, fragrance, solar and bottom products. The exposure data obtained in this study for children aged 0-3 years were higher than the values fixed by the SCCS for all common products: liquid shampoo, face moisturizer cream, toothpaste, shower gel and body moisturizer cream. Exposure was assessed for the first time for many products such as sunscreens, Eau de toilette and massage products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:27255804

  7. Simultaneous determination of cosmetics ingredients in nail products by fast gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Wittenberg, James B; Rua, Diego; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2016-05-13

    A rapid and sensitive gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated to quantitatively determine cosmetic ingredients, such as toluene, N-methylpyrrolidone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (benzophenone-1, BP-1), and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in nail products. In this procedure, test portions were extracted with acetone, followed by vortexing, sonication, centrifugation, and filtration. During the extraction procedure, BP-1 was derivatized making it amenable to GC-MS analysis, using N,O-​bis(trimethylsilyl)​trifluoroacetamide. The four ingredients were quantified by GC-MS/MS in an electron ionization mode. Four corresponding stable isotopically labeled analogues were selected as internal standards, which were added at the beginning of the sample preparation to correct for recoveries and matrix effects. The validated method was used to screen 34 commercial nail products for these four cosmetic ingredients. The most common ingredients detected in the nail products were toluene and BP-1. Toluene was detected in 26 products and ranged from 1.36 to 173,000μg/g. BP-1 ranged from 18.3 to 2,370μg/g in 10 products.

  8. Simultaneous determination of cosmetics ingredients in nail products by fast gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Wittenberg, James B; Rua, Diego; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2016-05-13

    A rapid and sensitive gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated to quantitatively determine cosmetic ingredients, such as toluene, N-methylpyrrolidone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (benzophenone-1, BP-1), and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in nail products. In this procedure, test portions were extracted with acetone, followed by vortexing, sonication, centrifugation, and filtration. During the extraction procedure, BP-1 was derivatized making it amenable to GC-MS analysis, using N,O-​bis(trimethylsilyl)​trifluoroacetamide. The four ingredients were quantified by GC-MS/MS in an electron ionization mode. Four corresponding stable isotopically labeled analogues were selected as internal standards, which were added at the beginning of the sample preparation to correct for recoveries and matrix effects. The validated method was used to screen 34 commercial nail products for these four cosmetic ingredients. The most common ingredients detected in the nail products were toluene and BP-1. Toluene was detected in 26 products and ranged from 1.36 to 173,000μg/g. BP-1 ranged from 18.3 to 2,370μg/g in 10 products. PMID:27083261

  9. Micellar liquid chromatographic determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Thogchai, W; Liawruangrath, B

    2013-06-01

    A simple micellar liquid chromatographic (MLC) procedure for simultaneous determination of arbutin and hydroquinone in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products was proposed. This method was developed and validated. The chromatographic conditions were also optimized. All analyses were performed at room temperature in an isocratic mode, using a mixture of 1% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.006 mol L⁻¹ Brij 35 (pH 6.0) as a mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 1.0 mL min⁻¹. The analytical column was a 150 × 3.9 mm Nova-Pak C-18 column. The effluent from the analytical column was monitored by UV detection at 280 nm. Under the optimum conditions, arbutin and hydroquinone could be determined within a concentration range of 2-50 μg mL⁻¹ of arbutin, and hydroquinone was obtained with the regression equations; y = 0.045x + 0.042 (r² = 0.9923) and y = 0.091x + 0.050 (r² = 0.9930) respectively. The limits of detection were found to be 0.51 μg mL⁻¹ and 0.37 μg mL⁻¹ for arbutin and hydroquinone respectively. The proposed MLC method was applied for the determination of arbutin and hydroquinone contents in medicinal plant extracts and commercial cosmetic products. This proposed MLC method is thus suitable for routine analysis of arbutin and hydroquinone in the pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetic products and raw medicinal plant extracts.

  10. Analysis of skin conductance response during evaluation of preferences for cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ohira, Hideki; Hirao, Naoyasu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed skin conductance response (SCR) as a psychophysiological index to evaluate affective aspects of consumer preferences for cosmetic products. To examine the test-retest reliability of association between preferences and SCR, we asked 33 female volunteers to complete two experimental sessions approximately 1 year apart. The participants indicated their preferences in a typical paired comparison task by choosing the better option from a combination of two products among four products. We measured anticipatory SCR prior to expressions of the preferences. We found that the mean amplitude of the SCR elicited by the preferred products was significantly larger than that elicited by the non-preferred products. The participants' preferences and corresponding SCR patterns were well preserved at the second session 1 year later. Our results supported cumulating findings that SCR is a useful index of consumer preferences that has future potential, both in laboratory and marketing settings. PMID:25709593

  11. Exposure data for cosmetic products: facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow.

    PubMed

    Loretz, L J; Api, A M; Babcock, L; Barraj, L M; Burdick, J; Cater, K C; Jarrett, G; Mann, S; Pan, Y H L; Re, T A; Renskers, K J; Scrafford, C G

    2008-05-01

    Reliable exposure information for cosmetic and other personal care products and ingredients is needed in order to conduct safety assessments. Essential information includes both the amount of product applied, and the frequency of use. To obtain current data, a study to assess consumer use practices was undertaken. Three widely used types of cosmetic products - facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow - were included in the study. Three hundred and sixty women, ages 18-69 years, who regularly use the products of interest, were recruited nationwide within the US. Subjects were provided with a new container of the brand of product they normally use and kept diaries and recorded detailed daily usage information over a two week period. Products were weighed at the start and completion of the study in order to determine the total amount of product used. Statistical analyses of the data were conducted to derive summary distributions of use patterns. The mean and median usage per application, respectively, for the three product types were: facial cleanser, 2.57 g and 2.11 g; hair conditioner, 13.13 g and 10.21 g; and eye shadow, 0.03 g and 0.009 g. The mean and median usage per day for the three product types was: facial cleanser, 4.06 g and 3.25 g; hair conditioner, 13.77 g and 10.62 g; and eye shadow, 0.04 g and 0.010 g. The mean number of applications per day for facial cleanser, hair conditioner, and eye shadow was 1.6, 1.1, and 1.2, respectively. This study provides an estimate of current exposure information for commonly used products which will be useful for risk assessment purposes.

  12. Nanotechnology in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Katz, Linda M; Dewan, Kapal; Bronaugh, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterials are being used in cosmetic products for various effects. However, their use also raises potential safety concerns. Some of these concerns can be addressed by determining the type of nanomaterials used, as well as stability, potential for skin absorption, route of exposure, and how they are formulated in cosmetic products. There has been considerable effort internationally to harmonize approaches in order to address definitional issues and safety concerns related to the use of nanomaterials in cosmetic products.

  13. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental ...

  14. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to hair cosmetic products by the French population.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Dornic, N; Roudot, A C

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic exposure data are limited in Europe and especially in France. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to hair cosmetics using recent consumption data (percentage of users, frequency of use and amount per use) generated for the French population (Ficheux et al., 2015, 2016). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for eleven hair products: liquid shampoo, dry shampoo, conditioner, hair mask, hair serum, hair oil, styling lacquer, styling gel, styling foam, styling wax and styling spray. Exposure was assessed by sex and by age classes in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. For liquid shampoo, conditioner and some styling products (gel, lacquer and foam), the levels of exposure were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for styling wax and styling spray were lower than SCCS values. Exposure was assessed for the first time for dry shampoo, hair mask, hair serum and hair oil products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at-risk populations. PMID:27090106

  15. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to hair cosmetic products by the French population.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Bernard, A; Chevillotte, G; Dornic, N; Roudot, A C

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic exposure data are limited in Europe and especially in France. The aim of this study was to assess the exposure to hair cosmetics using recent consumption data (percentage of users, frequency of use and amount per use) generated for the French population (Ficheux et al., 2015, 2016). Exposure was assessed using a probabilistic method for eleven hair products: liquid shampoo, dry shampoo, conditioner, hair mask, hair serum, hair oil, styling lacquer, styling gel, styling foam, styling wax and styling spray. Exposure was assessed by sex and by age classes in adults and children. Pregnant women were also studied. For liquid shampoo, conditioner and some styling products (gel, lacquer and foam), the levels of exposure were higher than the values currently used by the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). Exposure values found for styling wax and styling spray were lower than SCCS values. Exposure was assessed for the first time for dry shampoo, hair mask, hair serum and hair oil products. These new French exposure values will be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies in order to protect the general population and these at-risk populations.

  16. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... inviting public comment (77 FR 26737, 5/7/2012). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the..., Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC...

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial effectiveness of C-8 xylitol monoester as an alternative preservative for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Amaral, L F B; Camilo, N S; Pereda, M D C V; Levy, C E; Moriel, P; Mazzola, P G

    2011-10-01

    Xylitol is a natural sugar derived from plants, fruits and vegetables, whose antimicrobial properties are described in the literature. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of C-8 xylitol monoester, for its use as a preservative in cosmetic formulations. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the broth macrodilution method, and the antimicrobial effectiveness of C-8 xylitol monoester was determined by using challenge test method. The results obtained in the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration are between 1.0% and 1.25% for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans and between 1.0% and 1.5% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aspergillus niger. The amount of 1% of C-8 xylitol monoester was added to the lotion used in the challenge test, observing a rapid decline in the number of CFU g(-1) in stages of evaluation after contamination of the product by all bacteria. The same occurs in relation to C. albicans, which shows a 90% reduction in the number of CFU g(-1). Regarding A. niger, similar reduction is observed when pH value of the lotion is adjusted from 5.5 to 7.0. The results indicate that under the tests conditions, C-8 xylitol monoester has antimicrobial activity and could be considered as an alternative preservative for cosmetic formulations.

  18. Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms contaminating cosmetic products based on DNA sequence homology.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Y; Shibayama, H; Suzuki, Y; Karita, S; Takamatsu, S

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop rapid and accurate procedures to identify microorganisms contaminating cosmetic products, based on the identity of the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA coding DNA (rDNA). Five types of microorganisms were isolated from the inner portion of lotion bottle caps, skin care lotions, and cleansing gels. The rDNA ITS region of microorganisms was amplified through the use of colony-direct PCR or ordinal PCR using DNA extracts as templates. The nucleotide sequences of the amplified DNA were determined and subjected to homology search of a publicly available DNA database. Thereby, we obtained DNA sequences possessing high similarity with the query sequences from the databases of all the five organisms analyzed. The traditional identification procedure requires expert skills, and a time period of approximately 1 month to identify the microorganisms. On the contrary, 3-7 days were sufficient to complete all the procedures employed in the current method, including isolation and cultivation of organisms, DNA sequencing, and the database homology search. Moreover, it was possible to develop the skills necessary to perform the molecular techniques required for the identification procedures within 1 week. Consequently, the current method is useful for rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms, contaminating cosmetics.

  19. Determination of formaldehyde in Romanian cosmetic products using coupled GC/MS system after SPME extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, I.; Schmutzer, G.; Voica, C.; Moldovan, Z.

    2013-11-01

    In this study we have made a quick review of some Romanian cosmetic products (shampoo, conditioner, face wash) in order to determine the formaldehyde content as well as other substances called "formaldehyde releasers". The process was performed based on solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. Prior to SPME extraction we used a derivation step of formaldehyde using pentafluorophenyl hydrazine. The obtained product was adsorbed on SPME devices, then injected and desorbed into the GC/MS injection port. The concentration of formaldehyde (as derived compound) was calculated using calibration curve, having a regression coefficient of 0.9938. The performance parameters of the method were calculated using samples of standard concentration. The method proved to be sensitive, having a quantification limit (LOQ) of 0.15 μg/g.

  20. Evaporation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) from selected cosmetic products: Implications for consumer exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; Garcia Hidalgo, Elena; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Consumer exposure to leave-on cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) ingredients of low or moderate volatility is often assumed to occur primarily via dermal absorption. In reality they may volatilize from skin and represent a significant source for inhalation exposure. Often, evaporation rates of pure substances from inert surfaces are used as a surrogate for evaporation from more complex product matrices. Also the influence of partitioning to skin is neglected and the resulting inaccuracies are not known. In this paper we describe a novel approach for measuring chemical evaporation rates from C&PCPs under realistic consumer exposure conditions. Series of experiments were carried out in a custom-made ventilated chamber fitted with a vapor trap to study the disposition of a volatile cosmetic ingredient, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), after its topical application on either aluminum foil or porcine skin in vitro. Single doses were applied neat and in commercial deodorant and face cream formulations at normal room (23°C) and skin temperature (32°C). The condition-specific evaporation rates were determined as the chemical mass loss per unit surface area at different time intervals over 1-1.25h post-dose. Product weight loss was monitored gravimetrically and the residual D5 concentrations were analyzed with GC/FID. The release of D5 from exposed surfaces of aluminum occurred very fast with mean rates of 0.029 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.060 mg cm(-2)min(-1) at 23°C and 32°C, respectively. Statistical analysis of experimental data confirmed a significant effect of cosmetic formulations on the evaporation of D5 with the largest effect (2-fold decrease of the evaporation rate) observed for the neat face cream pair at 32°C. The developed approach explicitly considers the initial penetration and evaporation of a substance from the Stratum Corneum and has the potential for application in dermal exposure modeling, product emission tests and the formulation of C

  1. Evaporation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) from selected cosmetic products: Implications for consumer exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; Garcia Hidalgo, Elena; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Consumer exposure to leave-on cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) ingredients of low or moderate volatility is often assumed to occur primarily via dermal absorption. In reality they may volatilize from skin and represent a significant source for inhalation exposure. Often, evaporation rates of pure substances from inert surfaces are used as a surrogate for evaporation from more complex product matrices. Also the influence of partitioning to skin is neglected and the resulting inaccuracies are not known. In this paper we describe a novel approach for measuring chemical evaporation rates from C&PCPs under realistic consumer exposure conditions. Series of experiments were carried out in a custom-made ventilated chamber fitted with a vapor trap to study the disposition of a volatile cosmetic ingredient, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), after its topical application on either aluminum foil or porcine skin in vitro. Single doses were applied neat and in commercial deodorant and face cream formulations at normal room (23°C) and skin temperature (32°C). The condition-specific evaporation rates were determined as the chemical mass loss per unit surface area at different time intervals over 1-1.25h post-dose. Product weight loss was monitored gravimetrically and the residual D5 concentrations were analyzed with GC/FID. The release of D5 from exposed surfaces of aluminum occurred very fast with mean rates of 0.029 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.060 mg cm(-2)min(-1) at 23°C and 32°C, respectively. Statistical analysis of experimental data confirmed a significant effect of cosmetic formulations on the evaporation of D5 with the largest effect (2-fold decrease of the evaporation rate) observed for the neat face cream pair at 32°C. The developed approach explicitly considers the initial penetration and evaporation of a substance from the Stratum Corneum and has the potential for application in dermal exposure modeling, product emission tests and the formulation of C&PCPs.

  2. [Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].

    PubMed

    Güven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurdağ, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben

  3. [Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].

    PubMed

    Güven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurdağ, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben

  4. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic raw materials and personal care products by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katušin-Ražem, Branka; Mihaljević, Branka; Ražem, Dušan

    2003-03-01

    Typical levels of sporadically occurring (dynamic) microbial contamination of cosmetic raw materials: pigments, abrasives and liposomes, as well as of final products for personal care: toothpaste, crayons, shampoos, cleansers and creams, were evaluated. In most cases the contamination was dominated by a single population of microorganisms, either Gram-negative bacteria or molds. The feasibility of microbial decontamination by irradiation was studied by determining the resistance to gamma radiation of contaminating microflora in situ. It was expressed as a dose required for the first 90% reduction, D first 90% red . The values in the range 1-2 kGy for molds and 0.1-0.6 kGy for Gram-negative bacteria were obtained. This relatively high susceptibility to irradiation allowed inactivation factors close to 6 to be achieved with doses generally not exceeding 3 kGy, and yielding endpoint contamination less than 10/g.

  5. The allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Bos, J D; van der Meeren, H L; van Joost, T; Jagtman, B A; Weyland, J W

    1988-10-01

    The ingredients responsible for allergy to cosmetics were determined in 119 patients suffering from cosmetic-related contact dermatitis. Most reactions (56.3%) were caused by skin care products, followed by nail cosmetics (13.4%), perfumes (8.4%), and hair cosmetics (5.9%). Preservatives were most frequently implicated (32.0%), followed by fragrances (26.5%) and emulsifiers (14.3%). By far the most important cosmetic allergen was Kathon CG, (a preservative system containing, as active ingredients, a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and methyl chloroisothiazolinone) reacting in 33 patients (27.7%). Other frequent causes of cosmetic-related contact allergic reactions were toluenesulfonamide/formaldehyde resin in nail hardener and/or nail lacquer (15 patients [12.6%]), and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, an emulsifier in baby body lotion (13 patients [10.9%]).

  6. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES §...

  7. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES §...

  8. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RECORDS AND REPORTS OF LISTED CHEMICALS AND CERTAIN MACHINES §...

  9. Determination of methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone in cosmetic products by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, James B; Canas, Benjamin J; Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Rua, Diego; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2015-09-01

    Isothiazolinone biocides are broad-spectrum preservatives that are widely used in cosmetics, household, and industrial products. An increase in the number of cases of allergic contact dermatitis to isothiazolinone preservatives, namely, methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone, have been recently noticed. The Food and Drug Administration relies on analytical methods to quantify levels of use of cosmetic ingredients and support enforcement action against products that are not in compliance with the law. In this study, an efficient ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone in selected cosmetic products. The lower limit of quantitation was determined to be 0.1 μg/g for both preservatives. A survey of 24 cosmetic products was conducted and found concentrations of methylisothiazolinone and methylchloroisothiazolinone ranging from not quantified, or below the lower limit of quantitation, to 89.64 μg/g and not quantified to 10.31 μg/g, respectively.

  10. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... defect or cosmetic flaw that has diminished their self-esteem over time. It's important to remember that cosmetic ... can create both physical changes and changes in self-esteem. But if you are seeking surgery with the ...

  11. Extraction and refining of essential oil from Australian tea tree, Melaleuca alterfornia, and the antimicrobial activity in cosmetic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Q.; Phan, T. D.; Thieu, V. Q. Q.; Tran, S. T.; Do, S. H.

    2012-03-01

    Tea tree oil (TTO) comes from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifornia that belongs to the myrtle family (Myrtaceae). It is one of the most powerful immune system stimulants and sorts out most viral, bacterial and fungal infections in a snap, while it is great to heal wounds and acnes. In Vietnam, Melaleuca trees can grow on acid land that stretches in a large portion of lands in the Mekong Delta region. So, there are some Melaleuca plantations developed under the Vietnamese government plans of increasing plantation forests now. However, TTO contains various amounts of 1,8-cineole that causes skin irritant. So TTO purification is very necessary. In this study, the purification of TTO that meet International Standard ISO 4730 was carried out via two steps. The first step is steam distillation to obtain crude TTO (terpinen-4-ol 35% v/v) and the average productivity is among 2.37% (v/wet-wt) or 1.23% (v/dry-wt). In the second step, the cleaned TTO is collected by vacuum distillation column and extraction yield of the whole process is about 0.3% (w/w). Besides, high concentration essential oil was applied in the cosmetic products to increase its commercial value.

  12. Eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  13. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

  14. Strategy to decrease the risk of adverse effects of fragrance ingredients in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Jansson, T; Lodén, M

    2001-09-01

    In spite of extensive self-regulation of the fragrance industry, fragrance ingredients are still major causes of allergic contact dermatitis. There are indications that the problem is increasing in some countries, and that many nonregulated compounds are involved in the development of allergies. The use of essential oils in fragrance compounds might add both allergenic and carcinogenic compounds to a product and the exact composition of such ingredients is difficult to control. Herein, we propose a simple strategy to decrease the risk of adverse effects of fragrance ingredients in cosmetic products. This strategy consists of four major steps: (1) limit the concentration of fragrance compound in the products, (2) follow legislation and guidelines, (3) limit the concentration of a number of well-known sensitizing fragrance chemicals, and (4) limit the concentration of essential oils and materials with unknown composition. The strategy is discussed as an alternative to animal testing and in relation to other more resource-demanding approaches to the same problem.

  15. 'Guapo' (Myrosma cannifolia) starch: a natural product with potential use in cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Rincón, A M; Pérez, R M N; Reyes, A; Romero, A; Orfila, L; Padilla, F C

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the possible use of Myrosma cannifolia starch L.F. Maranthaceae ('Guapo'), as a raw material in heterogeneous systems or powdered cosmetic and pharmaceutical products formulation. The starch chemical and physical characteristics, physico-chemical properties, and rheological behaviour, previously studied, were considered. Flowing characteristics, particle size distribution, water absorption capacity at 25 degrees C (ambient temperature), and toxicity were assessed. Results showed that Myrosma starch complies with the USP and British pharmacopoeia, and presented a normal particle distribution. More than 25% of the granules had a diameter >23.81 mum and the average size of particles was >16.92 mum. When compared with talc, 'guapo' starch presented higher values for water absorption capacity and flowing characteristics. Starch showed negative local toxicity, and low acute toxicity in vitro on two human dermis cell types. The amylographic study and the difractograms suggest the possible use of this starch in heterogeneous systems. A facial transparent powder was formulated and some of its properties were determined by sensorial analysis. It was concluded that the M. cannifolia starch presents certain characteristics useful in the formulation of new powdered products. PMID:18492160

  16. Transport and interaction of cosmetic product material within the ocular surface: beauty and the beastly symptoms of toxic tears.

    PubMed

    Malik, Adeela; Claoué, Charles

    2012-12-01

    Eye cosmetics such as mascara, eye shadow and eyeliner are used extensively to highlight the eyes, and are normally applied external to the ocular surface. Adverse reactions of cosmetics within the ocular surface include mild discomfort, eyelid dermatitis, pre-corneal tear film instability, and keratitis. These are attributed mainly to the preservative (benzalkonium chloride (BAC)) constituent of cosmetic product material (CPM). Transport of CPM from an external environment to any location on the ocular surface, essentially precedes the adverse interactions occurring at the location, and the control of these transport modes is therefore of clinical relevance. The inter-transport of CPM across the TF occurs due to both diffusion and drift processes. Diffusion of neutral species is driven by concentration gradients, and the drift of cationic BAC is influenced by the inherent electric field; determined by the distribution of the various ions secreted into the aqueous layer, and the negative glycocalyx charge at the mucin layer. In the presence of mucin deficiency, the corneal epithelium is exposed to invasion by both incident BAC and lipophilic species. The transport of cationic BAC across the TF may be controlled by regulating the secretion of various electrolytes at the lacrimal gland. This is of clinical significance in reducing corneal epithelial adverse effects. However, the risks of adverse effects at the corneal surface due to invasion by the lipophilic species remain. Patients with mucin deficiency, and especially those on eye ointment/drops medication, should be discouraged from using cosmetics in a way likely to contaminate the TF.

  17. Safety evaluations under the proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013: animal use and cost estimates.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanca

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing. PMID:24468774

  18. Determination of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol by liquid chromatography for the quality control of cosmetic products based on olive extracts.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pablo; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in different types of olive extract raw materials and cosmetic cream samples has been developed. The determination was performed by liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection. Different chromatographic parameters, such as mobile phase pH and composition, oven temperature and different sample preparation variables were studied. The best chromatographic separation was obtained under the following conditions: C18 column set at 35°C and isocratic elution of a mixture ethanol: 1% acetic acid solution at pH 5 (5:95, v/v) as mobile phase pumped at 1 mL min(-1). The detection wavelength was set at 280 nm and the total run time required for the chromatographic analysis was 10 min, except for cosmetic cream samples where 20 min runtime was required (including a cleaning step). The method was satisfactorily applied to 23 samples including solid, water-soluble and fat-soluble olive extracts and cosmetic cream samples containing hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. Good recoveries (95-107%) and repeatability (1.1-3.6%) were obtained, besides of limits of detection values below the μg mL(-1) level. These good analytical features, as well as its environmentally-friendly characteristics, make the presented method suitable to carry out both the control of the whole manufacture process of raw materials containing the target analytes and the quality control of the finished cosmetic products.

  19. Safety evaluations under the proposed US Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013: animal use and cost estimates.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jean; Rovida, Costanca

    2014-01-01

    The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing.

  20. Parabens determination in cosmetic and personal care products exploiting a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system and chemiluminescent detection.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Melisa; Portugal, Lindomar A; Avivar, Jessica; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2015-10-01

    Parabens are widely used in dairy products, such as in cosmetics and personal care products. Thus, in this work a multi-syringe chromatographic (MSC) system is proposed for the first time for the determination of four parabens: methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP) in cosmetics and personal care products, as a simpler, practical, and low cost alternative to HPLC methods. Separation was achieved using a 5mm-long precolumn of reversed phase C18 and multi-isocratic separation, i.e. using two consecutive mobile phases, 12:88 acetonitrile:water and 28:72 acetonitrile:water. The use of a multi-syringe buret allowed the easy implementation of chemiluminescent (CL) detection after separation. The chemiluminescent detection is based on the reduction of Ce(IV) by p-hydroxybenzoic acid, product of the acid hydrolysis of parabens, to excite rhodamine 6G (Rho 6G) and measure the resulting light emission. Multivariate designs combined with the concepts of multiple response treatments and desirability functions have been employed to simultaneously optimize and evaluate the responses. The optimized method has proved to be sensitive and precise, obtaining limits of detection between 20 and 40 µg L(-1) and RSD <4.9% in all cases. The method was satisfactorily applied to cosmetics and personal care products, obtaining no significant differences at a confidence level of 95% comparing with the HPLC reference method.

  1. Determination of seven preservatives in cosmetic products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun-Qiang; Hu, Cho-Chun; Chiu, Tai-Chia

    2013-08-01

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant, coupled with UV-Vis detection, was developed for the simultaneous determination of seven preservatives, including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl- and butyl-paraben and phenol, phenoxyethanol and resorcinol. The method involved optimizing the pH of the phosphate buffer and concentrations of CTAB, ethanol and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD). The preservatives were well separated using optimum conditions and separated within 10 min at a separation voltage of -12.5 kV with the 1.0 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 90 mM CTAB, 25 mM HP-β-CD and 10% (v/v) ethanol. Satisfactory recoveries (84.1-103.0%), migration time (RSD < 3.1%) and peak area (RSD < 4.5%) repeatabilities were achieved. Detection limits of the preservatives were between 0.31 and 1.52 μg mL(-1) (S/N = 3, n = 5). The optimized method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of these preservatives in 10 commercial cosmetic products.

  2. Opinion of the scientific committee on consumer safety (SCCS)--2nd Revision of the safety of the use of poly(hexamethylene) biguanide hydrochloride or polyaminopropyl biguanide (PHMB) in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion of the opinion: On the basis of the data available, the SCCS concludes that Polyaminopropyl Biguanide (PHMB) is not safe for consumers when used as a preservative in cosmetic spray formulations and in all cosmetic products up to the maximum concentration of 0.3%. The safe use could be based on a lower use concentration and/or restrictions with regard to cosmetic products' categories. Dermal absorption studies on additional representative cosmetic formulations are needed. PHMB is used in a variety of applications other than cosmetics. General exposure data from sources others than cosmetics should be submitted for the assessment of the aggregate exposure of PHMB.

  3. Opinion of the scientific committee on consumer safety (SCCS)--2nd Revision of the safety of the use of poly(hexamethylene) biguanide hydrochloride or polyaminopropyl biguanide (PHMB) in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Ulrike

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion of the opinion: On the basis of the data available, the SCCS concludes that Polyaminopropyl Biguanide (PHMB) is not safe for consumers when used as a preservative in cosmetic spray formulations and in all cosmetic products up to the maximum concentration of 0.3%. The safe use could be based on a lower use concentration and/or restrictions with regard to cosmetic products' categories. Dermal absorption studies on additional representative cosmetic formulations are needed. PHMB is used in a variety of applications other than cosmetics. General exposure data from sources others than cosmetics should be submitted for the assessment of the aggregate exposure of PHMB. PMID:26456666

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products. PMID:23259208

  6. Determination of Very Low Level of Free Formaldehyde in Liquid Detergents and Cosmetic Products Using Photoluminescence Method

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenikia, Atefeh; Masoum, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is commonly used in detergents and cosmetic products as antibacterial agent and preservative. This substance is unfavorable for human health because it is known to be toxic for humans and causes irritation of eyes and skins. The toxicology studies of this compound indicate risk of detergents and cosmetic formulations with a minimum content of 0.05% free formaldehyde. Therefore, determination of formaldehyde as quality control parameter is very important. In this study, a photoluminescence method was achieved by using 2-methyl acetoacetanilide. Also, the Box-Behnken design was applied for optimization of Hantzsch reaction for formaldehyde derivatization. The investigated factors (variables) were temperature, % v/v ethanol, reaction time, ammonium acetate, and 2-methyl acetoacetanilide concentration. The linear range was obtained from 0.33–20 × 10−7 M (1–60 μg·kg−1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.12 μg·kg−1. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of Iranian brands of liquid detergents and cosmetic products. The formaldehyde content of these products was found to be in the range of 0.03–3.88%. Some brands of these products had higher concentration than the maximum allowed concentration of 0.2%. High recoveries (96.15%–104.82%) for the spiked dishwashing liquid and hair shampoo indicate the proposed method is proper for the assessment of formaldehyde in detergents and cosmetic products. The proposed methodology has some advantages compared with the previous methods such as being rapid, without the necessity of applying separation, low cost, and the fact that the derivatization reaction is carried out at room temperature without any heating system. PMID:27635279

  7. Determination of Very Low Level of Free Formaldehyde in Liquid Detergents and Cosmetic Products Using Photoluminescence Method.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Ali; Mohsenikia, Atefeh; Masoum, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is commonly used in detergents and cosmetic products as antibacterial agent and preservative. This substance is unfavorable for human health because it is known to be toxic for humans and causes irritation of eyes and skins. The toxicology studies of this compound indicate risk of detergents and cosmetic formulations with a minimum content of 0.05% free formaldehyde. Therefore, determination of formaldehyde as quality control parameter is very important. In this study, a photoluminescence method was achieved by using 2-methyl acetoacetanilide. Also, the Box-Behnken design was applied for optimization of Hantzsch reaction for formaldehyde derivatization. The investigated factors (variables) were temperature, % v/v ethanol, reaction time, ammonium acetate, and 2-methyl acetoacetanilide concentration. The linear range was obtained from 0.33-20 × 10(-7) M (1-60 μg·kg(-1)) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.12 μg·kg(-1). The proposed method was applied for the analysis of Iranian brands of liquid detergents and cosmetic products. The formaldehyde content of these products was found to be in the range of 0.03-3.88%. Some brands of these products had higher concentration than the maximum allowed concentration of 0.2%. High recoveries (96.15%-104.82%) for the spiked dishwashing liquid and hair shampoo indicate the proposed method is proper for the assessment of formaldehyde in detergents and cosmetic products. The proposed methodology has some advantages compared with the previous methods such as being rapid, without the necessity of applying separation, low cost, and the fact that the derivatization reaction is carried out at room temperature without any heating system. PMID:27635279

  8. Determination of Very Low Level of Free Formaldehyde in Liquid Detergents and Cosmetic Products Using Photoluminescence Method.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Ali; Mohsenikia, Atefeh; Masoum, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is commonly used in detergents and cosmetic products as antibacterial agent and preservative. This substance is unfavorable for human health because it is known to be toxic for humans and causes irritation of eyes and skins. The toxicology studies of this compound indicate risk of detergents and cosmetic formulations with a minimum content of 0.05% free formaldehyde. Therefore, determination of formaldehyde as quality control parameter is very important. In this study, a photoluminescence method was achieved by using 2-methyl acetoacetanilide. Also, the Box-Behnken design was applied for optimization of Hantzsch reaction for formaldehyde derivatization. The investigated factors (variables) were temperature, % v/v ethanol, reaction time, ammonium acetate, and 2-methyl acetoacetanilide concentration. The linear range was obtained from 0.33-20 × 10(-7) M (1-60 μg·kg(-1)) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.12 μg·kg(-1). The proposed method was applied for the analysis of Iranian brands of liquid detergents and cosmetic products. The formaldehyde content of these products was found to be in the range of 0.03-3.88%. Some brands of these products had higher concentration than the maximum allowed concentration of 0.2%. High recoveries (96.15%-104.82%) for the spiked dishwashing liquid and hair shampoo indicate the proposed method is proper for the assessment of formaldehyde in detergents and cosmetic products. The proposed methodology has some advantages compared with the previous methods such as being rapid, without the necessity of applying separation, low cost, and the fact that the derivatization reaction is carried out at room temperature without any heating system.

  9. Determination of Very Low Level of Free Formaldehyde in Liquid Detergents and Cosmetic Products Using Photoluminescence Method

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenikia, Atefeh; Masoum, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is commonly used in detergents and cosmetic products as antibacterial agent and preservative. This substance is unfavorable for human health because it is known to be toxic for humans and causes irritation of eyes and skins. The toxicology studies of this compound indicate risk of detergents and cosmetic formulations with a minimum content of 0.05% free formaldehyde. Therefore, determination of formaldehyde as quality control parameter is very important. In this study, a photoluminescence method was achieved by using 2-methyl acetoacetanilide. Also, the Box-Behnken design was applied for optimization of Hantzsch reaction for formaldehyde derivatization. The investigated factors (variables) were temperature, % v/v ethanol, reaction time, ammonium acetate, and 2-methyl acetoacetanilide concentration. The linear range was obtained from 0.33–20 × 10−7 M (1–60 μg·kg−1) and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.12 μg·kg−1. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of Iranian brands of liquid detergents and cosmetic products. The formaldehyde content of these products was found to be in the range of 0.03–3.88%. Some brands of these products had higher concentration than the maximum allowed concentration of 0.2%. High recoveries (96.15%–104.82%) for the spiked dishwashing liquid and hair shampoo indicate the proposed method is proper for the assessment of formaldehyde in detergents and cosmetic products. The proposed methodology has some advantages compared with the previous methods such as being rapid, without the necessity of applying separation, low cost, and the fact that the derivatization reaction is carried out at room temperature without any heating system.

  10. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  11. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  12. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe. PMID:15156038

  13. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.

  14. Simultaneous analysis of mono-, di-, and tri-ethanolamine in cosmetic products using liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    Alkanolamines such as monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA) are used as wetting agents in shampoos, lotions, creams, and other cosmetics. DEA is widely used to provide lather in shampoos and maintain a favorable consistency in lotions and creams. Although DEA is not harmful, it may react with other ingredients in the cosmetic formula after extended storage periods to form an extremely potent carcinogen called nitrosodiethanolamine (NDEA), which is readily absorbed through the skin and has been linked to the development of stomach, esophagus, liver, and bladder cancers. The purpose of this study was to develop a simultaneous quantification method for measurement of MEA, DEA, and TEA in cosmetic products. Liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column with isocratic elution containing acetonitrile and 5 mM ammonium formate in water (88:12, v/v). Identification and quantification of alkanolamines were performed using MS/MS monitoring to assess the transition from precursor to product ion of MEA (m/z, 61.1 → 44.0), DEA (m/z, 106.1 → 88.0), TEA (m/z, 150.1 → 130.0), and the internal standard triethylamine (m/z, 102.2 → 58.0). Alkanolamines extractions were simplified using a single extraction with acetonitrile in the cosmetic matrix. Performance of the method was evaluated with quality parameters such as specificity, carry-over, linearity and calibration, correlation of determination (R(2)), detection limit, precision, accuracy, and recovery. Calibration curves of MEA (2.9-1000 ppb), DEA (1-1000 ppb), and TEA (1-1000 ppb) were constructed by plotting concentration versus peak-area ratio (analyte/internal standard with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.99). The intra- and inter-assay accuracy ranged from 92.92 to 101.15 % for all analytes. The intra- and inter-assay precision for MEA, DEA, and TEA showed all

  15. Determination of Panthenol, Cholecalciferol and Tocopherol in Cosmetic Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry in SIM Mode.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Lee, M H; Ro, K W; Hur, C W; Kim, J W

    1999-02-01

    A novel simple method to detect vitamins in cosmetic products by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) has been developed. Three vitamins (panthenol, cholecalciferol and tocopherol) were used for this study. Vitamins were prepared by dissolving in tetrahydrofuran (ThF), and silylated with bis-trimethylsilyltri-fluoroacetamide- trichloromethylsilane (BSTFA). Silylated vitamins were separated on a fused-silica capillary column coated with DB-5. The identification of each vitamin was accomplished by retention time and mass spectrum library search with a computer, and the quantitation was made in the selected-ion monitoring (SIM) mode of GC-MS. SIM mode had given sensitivity to determine 50 pg of panthenol, 285 pg of cholecalciferol and 130 pg of tocopherol. Linearity was maintained over the range 0.005-0.20% for each vitamin. Each cosmetic product (i.e. hair tonic and lotion) was found to contain amounts of the vitamins. This method was sensitive and gave 77.5-99.9% recovery of each vitamin from these cosmetic products. From these results, we concluded that silylation with BSTFA followed by GC-MS analysis allows the simple, convenient and exact determination of panthenol, cholecalciferol and tocopherol.

  16. Hormesis-based anti-aging products: a case study of a novel cosmetic.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S; Kryzch, Valérie; Schnebert, Sylvianne; Perrier, Eric; Nizard, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Application of hormesis in aging research and interventions is becoming increasingly attractive and successful. The reason for this is the realization that mild stress-induced activation of one or more stress response (SR) pathways, and its consequent stimulation of repair mechanisms, is effective in reducing the age-related accumulation of molecular damage. For example, repeated heat stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins has been shown to have a variety of anti-aging effects on growth and other cellular and biochemical characteristics of normal human skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial cells undergoing aging in vitro. Therefore, searching for potential hormetins - conditions and compounds eliciting SR-mediated hormesis - is drawing attention of not only the researchers but also the industry involved in developing healthcare products, including nutriceuticals, functional foods and cosmeceuticals. Here we present the example of a skin care cosmetic as one of the first successful product developments incorporating the ideas of hormesis. This was based on the studies to analyse the molecular effects of active ingredients extracted from the roots of the Chinese herb Sanchi (Panax notoginseng) on gene expression at the level of mRNAs and proteins in human skin cells. The results showed that the ginsenosides extracted from Sanchi induced the transcription of stress genes and increased the synthesis of stress proteins, especially the heat shock protein HSP1A1 or Hsp70, in normal human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, this extract also has significant positive effects against facial wrinkles and other symptoms of facial skin aging as tested clinically, which may be due to its hormetic mode of action by stress-induced synthesis of chaperones involved in protein repair and removal of abnormal proteins. Acceptance of such a hormesis-based product by the wider public could be instrumental in the social recognition of the concept of

  17. Application of in vitro cell transformation assays in regulatory toxicology for pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food products and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Vanparys, Philippe; Corvi, Raffaella; Aardema, Marilyn J; Gribaldo, Laura; Hayashi, Makoto; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Schechtman, Leonard

    2012-04-11

    Two year rodent bioassays play a key role in the assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals to humans. The seventh amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will ban in 2013 the marketing of cosmetic and personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal models. Thus 2-year rodent bioassays will not be available for cosmetics/personal care products. Furthermore, for large testing programs like REACH, in vivo carcinogenicity testing is impractical. Alternative ways to carcinogenicity assessment are urgently required. In terms of standardization and validation, the most advanced in vitro tests for carcinogenicity are the cell transformation assays (CTAs). Although CTAs do not mimic the whole carcinogenesis process in vivo, they represent a valuable support in identifying transforming potential of chemicals. CTAs have been shown to detect genotoxic as well as non-genotoxic carcinogens and are helpful in the determination of thresholds for genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. The extensive review on CTAs by the OECD (OECD (2007) Environmental Health and Safety Publications, Series on Testing and Assessment, No. 31) and the proven within- and between-laboratories reproducibility of the SHE CTAs justifies broader use of these methods to assess carcinogenic potential of chemicals. PMID:22342612

  18. Application of in vitro cell transformation assays in regulatory toxicology for pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food products and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Vanparys, Philippe; Corvi, Raffaella; Aardema, Marilyn J; Gribaldo, Laura; Hayashi, Makoto; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Schechtman, Leonard

    2012-04-11

    Two year rodent bioassays play a key role in the assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals to humans. The seventh amendment to the European Cosmetics Directive will ban in 2013 the marketing of cosmetic and personal care products that contain ingredients that have been tested in animal models. Thus 2-year rodent bioassays will not be available for cosmetics/personal care products. Furthermore, for large testing programs like REACH, in vivo carcinogenicity testing is impractical. Alternative ways to carcinogenicity assessment are urgently required. In terms of standardization and validation, the most advanced in vitro tests for carcinogenicity are the cell transformation assays (CTAs). Although CTAs do not mimic the whole carcinogenesis process in vivo, they represent a valuable support in identifying transforming potential of chemicals. CTAs have been shown to detect genotoxic as well as non-genotoxic carcinogens and are helpful in the determination of thresholds for genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens. The extensive review on CTAs by the OECD (OECD (2007) Environmental Health and Safety Publications, Series on Testing and Assessment, No. 31) and the proven within- and between-laboratories reproducibility of the SHE CTAs justifies broader use of these methods to assess carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

  19. Determination of methyldibromoglutaronitrile in cosmetic products by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Rooselaar, J; Weyland, J W

    1993-02-01

    Synopsis A method for the determination of methyldibromoglutaronitrile in cosmetic products is described. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and reductive electrochemical detection is employed to provide for improved selectivity and detectability compared to alternative methods. The method detects 0.002% methyldibromoglutaronitrile in cosmetic products and has a linear range from 0.006 up to 0.06%, which can easily be extended to the legally allowed limit of 0.1% by means of a simple dilution step. At a level of 0.03% the coefficient of variation was estimated to be 1.7%. Recoveries measured were between 98 and 100%. The method has been subjected to a ruggedness test, which indicated that it was stable, but slightly sensitive for a decrease in the detection potential. More than 130 cosmetic products have been analysed using the method. In 19 samples methyldibromoglutaronitrile was detected in concentrations varying between 0.002% and 0.030%. Résumé Une méthode a été mise au point pour la détermination du methyldibromoglutaronitrile, un conservateur cosmétique dont l'utilisation est croissante. La méthode utilise la chromatographie liquide à haute performance avec détection électrochimique pour permettre une amélioration de la détection et de la spécificité. Selon une procédure simple, le methyldibromoglutaronitrile est séparé sur une colonne 100 RP8 (lichosphere MERCK) avec une phase mobile constituee d'eau et d'acétone (60/40 v/v) avec un ajout de sulfate de sodium et du chlorure de sodium pour obtenir des concentrations de 0.02 M et 0.002 M respectivement. Une électrode en or a été utilisée pour la détection avec un potentiel de fonctionnement de -0.6 V réductif. Une détection par pulsation a été nécessaire pour obtenir une réponse stable. Le détecteur a été programmé pourgarder l'électrode pour 10 ms à 1 V, 10 ms à-1 V (réductif) et à-0.6 V pour 100 ms, ce potentiel a été utilisé comme mesure. Des

  20. Cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The psychotherapeutic nature of cosmetic surgery is emphasised by outlining the range of symptoms from which patients suffer and by explaining the sequence of psychological reactions which cause them. The principles which govern the selection of patients are defined. A brief account of each of the main cosmetic operations is given together with notes on their limitations and risks. PMID:2589786

  1. Analytical method for the identification and assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetic products: application of the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques".

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Bousquet, Claudine; Quoirez, Audrey; Civade, Corinne; Bonnet, Pierre-Antoine

    2012-08-31

    Esters of phthalic acid, more commonly named phthalates, may be present in cosmetic products as ingredients or contaminants. Their presence as contaminant can be due to the manufacturing process, to raw materials used or to the migration of phthalates from packaging when plastic (polyvinyl chloride--PVC) is used. 8 phthalates (DBP, DEHP, BBP, DMEP, DnPP, DiPP, DPP, and DiBP), classified H360 or H361, are forbidden in cosmetics according to the European regulation on cosmetics 1223/2009. A GC/MS method was developed for the assay of 12 phthalates in cosmetics, including the 8 phthalates regulated. Analyses are carried out on a GC/MS system with electron impact ionization mode (EI). The separation of phthalates is obtained on a cross-linked 5%-phenyl/95%-dimethylpolysiloxane capillary column 30 m × 0.25 mm (i.d.) × 0.25 mm film thickness using a temperature gradient. Phthalate quantification is performed by external calibration using an internal standard. Validation elements obtained on standard solutions, highlight a satisfactory system conformity (resolution>1.5), a common quantification limit at 0.25 ng injected, an acceptable linearity between 0.5 μg mL⁻¹ and 5.0 μg mL⁻¹ as well as a precision and an accuracy in agreement with in-house specifications. Cosmetic samples ready for analytical injection are analyzed after a dilution in ethanol whereas more complex cosmetic matrices, like milks and creams, are assayed after a liquid/liquid extraction using ter-butyl methyl ether (TBME). Depending on the type of cosmetics analyzed, the common limits of quantification for the 12 phthalates were set at 0.5 or 2.5 μg g⁻¹. All samples were assayed using the analytical approach described in the ISO 12787 international standard "Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques". This analytical protocol is particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices.

  2. From the shop to the drain - Volatile methylsiloxanes in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Capela, Daniela; Alves, Arminda; Homem, Vera; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Organosiloxanes are widely used in the formulation of a broad range of cosmetic and personal care products (PCPs), including creams and lotions, bath soaps, shampoo and hair care products to soften, smooth, and moisten. In fact, the intensive and widespread use of organosiloxanes combined with their lipophilic nature, makes them interesting targets for future research, particularly in the toxicology area. This study focused on determining the concentration levels of these compounds in the bestselling brands of PCPs in the Oporto region (Portugal), allowing the estimation of dermal and inhalation exposure to siloxanes and the evaluation of the quantities released to the environment "down-the-drain" and to air. To accomplish this task, a QuEChERS technique ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") was employed to extract the siloxanes from the target PCPs, which has never been tested before. The resulting extract was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection varied between 0.17 (L2) and 3.75ngg(-1) (L5), being much lower than any values reported in the literature for this kind of products. In general, satisfactory precision (<10%) and accuracy values (average recovery of 84%) were obtained. 123 PCPs were analysed (moisturizers, deodorants, body and hair washes, toilet soaps, toothpastes and shaving products) and volatile methylsiloxanes were detected in 96% of the samples, in concentrations between 0.003μgg(-1) and 1203μgg(-1). Shampoo exhibited the highest concentration for cyclic and aftershaves for linear siloxanes. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 25.04μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 0.35μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for baby/children was estimated. The main contributors for adult dermal exposure were body moisturizers, followed by facial creams and aftershaves, while for babies/children were body moisturizers, followed by shower gel and shampoo. Similarly, the

  3. From the shop to the drain - Volatile methylsiloxanes in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Capela, Daniela; Alves, Arminda; Homem, Vera; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Organosiloxanes are widely used in the formulation of a broad range of cosmetic and personal care products (PCPs), including creams and lotions, bath soaps, shampoo and hair care products to soften, smooth, and moisten. In fact, the intensive and widespread use of organosiloxanes combined with their lipophilic nature, makes them interesting targets for future research, particularly in the toxicology area. This study focused on determining the concentration levels of these compounds in the bestselling brands of PCPs in the Oporto region (Portugal), allowing the estimation of dermal and inhalation exposure to siloxanes and the evaluation of the quantities released to the environment "down-the-drain" and to air. To accomplish this task, a QuEChERS technique ("Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe") was employed to extract the siloxanes from the target PCPs, which has never been tested before. The resulting extract was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limits of detection varied between 0.17 (L2) and 3.75ngg(-1) (L5), being much lower than any values reported in the literature for this kind of products. In general, satisfactory precision (<10%) and accuracy values (average recovery of 84%) were obtained. 123 PCPs were analysed (moisturizers, deodorants, body and hair washes, toilet soaps, toothpastes and shaving products) and volatile methylsiloxanes were detected in 96% of the samples, in concentrations between 0.003μgg(-1) and 1203μgg(-1). Shampoo exhibited the highest concentration for cyclic and aftershaves for linear siloxanes. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 25.04μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 0.35μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for baby/children was estimated. The main contributors for adult dermal exposure were body moisturizers, followed by facial creams and aftershaves, while for babies/children were body moisturizers, followed by shower gel and shampoo. Similarly, the

  4. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Nohynek, Gerhard J.; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO{sub 2} and ZnO in sunscreens

  5. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO(2) and ZnO in sunscreens. However

  6. Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Antignac, Eric; Re, Thomas; Toutain, Herve

    2010-03-01

    We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues. PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure. In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations. Oxidative hair dyes contain arylamines, the most chemically reactive ingredients of PCP. Although arylamines have an allergic potential, taking into account the high number of consumers exposed, the incidence and prevalence of hair dye allergy appears to be low and stable. A recent (2001) epidemiology study suggested an association of oxidative hair dye use and increased bladder cancer risk in consumers, although this was not confirmed by subsequent or previous epidemiologic investigations. The results of genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity studies suggest that modern hair dyes and their ingredients pose no genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive risk. Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites. An expert panel of the International Agency on Research of Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is no evidence for a causal association of hair dye exposure with an elevated cancer risk in consumers. Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing. Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO(2) and ZnO in sunscreens. However

  7. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  8. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  9. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  10. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  11. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  12. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. (a)...

  13. Comparing micellar electrokinetic chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography for the analysis of preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsi-Ya; Lai, Yu-Cheng; Chiu, Chen-Wen; Yeh, Jui-Ming

    2003-04-18

    In this study, separation and determination of nine preservatives ranging from hydrophilic to hydrophobic properties, which are commonly used as additives in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, by micellar electrokinetic chromatograpy (MEKC) and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) were compared. The effect of temperature, buffer pH, and concentration of surfactant on separation were examined. In MEKC, the separation resolution of preservatives improved markedly by changing the sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration. Temperature and pH of running buffers were used mainly to shorten the magnitude of separation time. However, in order to detect all preservatives in a single run in a MEEKC system, a microemulsion of higher pH was needed. The separation resolution was improved dramatically by changing temperature, and a higher concentration of SDS was necessary for maintaining a stable microemulsion solution, therefore the separation of the nine preservatives in MEEKC took longer than in MEKC. An optimum MEKC method for separation of the nine preservatives was obtained within 9.0 min with a running buffer of pH 9.0 containing 20 mM SDS at 25 degrees C. A separation with baseline resolution was also obtained within 16 min using a microemulsion of pH 9.5 which composed of SDS, 1-butanol, and octane, and a shorter capillary column at 34 degrees C. Finally, the developed MEKC and MEEKC methods determined successfully preservatives in various cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

  14. The use of impedance for preservative efficacy testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Connolly, P; Bloomfield, S F; Denyer, S P

    1994-01-01

    Impedance was investigated for its applicability to preservative efficacy testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. A good correlation between impedance detection time (Td) and total colony counts (colony-forming units (cfu)) was obtained for untreated suspensions of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). A good correlation between Td and the number of cfu was also obtained for suspensions of test organisms treated for varying contact periods with selected concentrations of chlorhexidine, methyl paraben and phenoxyethanol in PBS, and methyl paraben in cetomacrogol cream, but these correlations were significantly different from those for untreated suspensions. It was found that for any given number of cfu the Td for preservative treated cells was extended. It is concluded that impedance represents a valid method for preservative efficacy testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics which could be used to achieve more comprehensive but economic screening of formulations against a wider range of preservative systems and concentrations than is the current approach where only a limited range of systems are tested because of the workload involved.

  15. Concentrations of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in European cosmetics and personal care products: prerequisite for human and environmental exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Biesterbos, Jacqueline W H; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Low molecular weight cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMSs) are widely employed as emollients and carrier solvents in personal care formulations in order to acquire desired performance benefits owing to their distinctive physicochemical properties. Under current European legislation cosmetic ingredients such as cVMSs are required to be labeled on the product package only qualitatively, while for the assessment of environmental and consumer exposure quantitative information is needed. The aim of this study was therefore to measure concentrations of three cVMSs, namely octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in 51 cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) that are currently available on the European market. The list of selected articles comprised a variety of hair and sun care products, skin creams and lotions, deodorants including antiperspirants, liquid foundations and a toothpaste. The target compounds were extracted from the products with different organic solvents dependent on the product matrix, followed by gas chromatography analysis with flame ionization detection (GC-FID). D5 was the predominant cVMS with the highest mean and median concentrations in all the C&PCP categories. The median concentrations of D5, D6 and D4 were 142, 2.3 and 0.053 mg/g in deodorants/antiperspirants (n = 11); 44.6, 30.0mg/g and below the limit of quantification (cosmetics (n = 5); 8.4, 0.32 mg/g and products, respectively. The calculated median aggregate daily dermal exposure to D4 and D5 from multiple C&PCPs was approximately 100 times lower than the current NOAEL derived from chronic inhalation rat studies.

  16. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  17. Cosmetic blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Niamtu, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    Cosmetic blepharoplasty is the hallmark of facial rejuvenation and is rewarding for the surgeon and patient. No other cosmetic procedure is more common in the 40- to 65-year age group. This procedure carries a steep learning curve, but the training of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon is adequate to begin learning this procedure. Proper diagnosis and adherence to strict preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative protocols are paramount to avoiding complications that may be serious. The author, like many surgeons, enjoys this procedure and believes that its place in the contemporary scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery is well established.

  18. Skin reactions triggered by the use of cosmetic products in nonspecific lipid transfer protein-sensitive patients.

    PubMed

    Giani, M; Pirotta, L; Locanto, M; Cadoni, S; Puddu, P; De Pità, O

    2010-01-01

    Nonspecific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are members of the prolamine superfamily and they are found in pollen and food, as well as in latex. Due to the strong stability both against pepsin digestion and thermal denaturation, sensitisation towards these proteins is often associated with severe systemic reactions (angioedema, urticaria, asthma, anaphylaxis, etc.) following the ingestion of both raw or fresh food and cooked or preserved food. Many studies have shown reactivity towards nsLTPs both via inhalation and orally and in this study we present two cases of nsLTPs-sensitive patients who manifested the immediate onset of skin reactions following the use of cosmetic products containing these proteins. Thus, in order to prevent immediate reactions linked to their use, it is necessary to recommend nsLTPssensitive patients to avoid the topical use of products containing these proteins (and obviously the ingestion of foods containing these proteins).

  19. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA.

  20. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA. PMID:26071898

  1. Determination of alternative preservatives in cosmetic products by chromophoric derivatization followed by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pablo; Vrouvaki, Ilianna; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2016-07-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of phenethyl alcohol, methylpropanediol, phenylpropanol, caprylyl glycol, and ethylhexylglycerin, which are used as alternative preservatives in cosmetic products, has been developed. The method is based on liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection after chromophoric derivatization with benzoyl chloride and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid semimicroextraction. Different chromatographic parameters, derivatization conditions, and sample preparation variables were studied. Under optimized conditions, the limits of detection values for the analytes ranged from 0.02 to 0.06µgmL(-1). The method was validated with good recovery values (84-118%) and precision values (3.9-9.5%). It was successfully applied to 10 commercially available cosmetic samples. The good analytical features of the proposed method besides of its environmentally-friendly characteristics, make it useful to carry out the quality control of cosmetic products containing the target compounds as preservative agents.

  2. [Contact allergy to cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Goossens, A; Merckx, L

    1997-12-01

    This article gives the results of contact allergic reactions to cosmetics seen between 1985 and 1990 (462 patients investigated) and between 1991 and 1996 (486 patients investigated). Perfume components remain the most frequently occurring allergens in cosmetics. They are followed by preservative agents, a class within which important shifts have occurred over time (e.g. as with the isothiazolinone mixture). Excipients and certainly emulsifiers (e.g. cocamidopropylbetaine) are potentially not only irritants but also allergens. Among the "active" or category-specific ingredients, oxidative hair dyes, based on paraphenylenediamine and derivatives, and nail care products, based on (meth)acrylates are particularly apt to cause professional dermatoses. Finally, the share of sunscreens as cosmetic allergens remains limited, which may well be because a contact or photocontactallergy is often not recognized since the differential diagnosis with a primary sun intolerance is not always obvious.

  3. Cosmet'eau-Changes in the personal care product consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; de Gouvello, Bernard; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; Soyer, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the "changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments." In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities-including local authorities, industries, and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption practices and to evaluate the impact of their implementation on aquatic contamination. Our goals are to study the whistle-blowers, the risk perception of consumers linked with their practices, and the contamination in parabens and their substitutes, triclosan, and triclocarban from wastewater to surface water. The project investigates the following potential solutions: modifications of industrial formulation or changes in consumption practices. The final purpose is to provide policy instruments for local authorities aiming at building effective strategies to fight against micropollutants in receiving waters.

  4. Cosmet'eau-Changes in the personal care product consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Bressy, Adèle; Carré, Catherine; Caupos, Émilie; de Gouvello, Bernard; Deroubaix, José-Frédéric; Deutsch, Jean-Claude; Mailler, Romain; Marconi, Anthony; Neveu, Pascale; Paulic, Laurent; Pichon, Sébastien; Rocher, Vincent; Severin, Irina; Soyer, Mathilde; Moilleron, Régis

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmet'eau project (2015-2018) investigates the "changes in the personal care product (PCP) consumption practices: from whistle-blowers to impacts on aquatic environments." In this project, the example of PCPs will be used to understand how public health concerns related to micropollutants can be addressed by public authorities-including local authorities, industries, and consumers. The project aims to characterize the possible changes in PCP consumption practices and to evaluate the impact of their implementation on aquatic contamination. Our goals are to study the whistle-blowers, the risk perception of consumers linked with their practices, and the contamination in parabens and their substitutes, triclosan, and triclocarban from wastewater to surface water. The project investigates the following potential solutions: modifications of industrial formulation or changes in consumption practices. The final purpose is to provide policy instruments for local authorities aiming at building effective strategies to fight against micropollutants in receiving waters. PMID:27179812

  5. Determination of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino) benzoate in commercial sunscreens and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chou, H J; Yates, R L; Havery, D C; Wenninger, J A

    1995-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed for determination of 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino) benzoate (NMPABAO), a nitrosamine contaminant in sunscreen products containing 2-ethylhexyl 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) benzoate (Padimate O). The method involves extraction of NMPABAO by column chromatography followed by liquid chromatographic separation and analysis wit a nitric oxide detector. To confirm the presence of NMPABAO in sunscreen products, the N-nitrosamine was synthesized and its structure was determined by infrared spectrophotometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (MS). For method validation, recovery studies were performed on a commercial suntan lotion, cream, and gel. Recoveries of NMPABAO added to representative test samples averaged 83%. The method has an estimated detection limit of 30 ppb. The method was used to analyze 25 commercial cosmetic and sunscreen products containing Padimate O. Eleven products contained NMPABAO at levels ranging from 160 to 21000 ppb. NMPABAO presence in 4 products was confirmed by MS at levels > or = 4000 ppb. The highest levels of NMPABAO were associated with products that contained the nitrite-releasing preservative 2-bromo-2-nitro-1,3-propanediol.

  6. Analysis and quantification of parabens in cosmetic products by utilizing hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane and high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Msagati, T A M; Barri, T; Larsson, N; Jönsson, J A

    2008-08-01

    A simple and direct method based on hollow fibre-supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) extraction and liquid chromatography equipped with a UV detector was developed for analysis and quantification of parabens in cosmetic products. The parabens analysed included methyl, ethyl, propyl, isobutyl and butyl paraben. The HFSLM extraction was carried out by employing di-n-hexyl ether as organic liquid that was immobilized in the hollow fibre membrane. The HFSLM extraction is simple, cheap, minimizes the use of solvents and uses disposable material. In an investigation of 11 paraben-containing cosmetic products, the levels of parabens (sum of all parabens in a product) ranged from 0.43% to 0.79% (w/w) for skin care products, 0.07-0.44% for hair fixing gels and 0.30-0.52% for soap solutions. The levels of individual parabens in individual cosmetic products ranged between 0.03% and 0.42% w/w for skin care products, 0.07% and 0.26% w/w for hair fixing gels and between 0.11% and 0.34% w/w for soap solutions. Parabens were found in the highest concentrations in skin care products followed by soap solutions and the least amounts were found in hair fixing gels. Of the paraben-containing products tested, all of them contained methyl paraben and about 90% contained propyl paraben in addition to methyl paraben. One product contained all the parabens analysed.

  7. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations. PMID:26380505

  8. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  9. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems. PMID:25809475

  10. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  11. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content. PMID:23182288

  12. Determination of isothiazolinone preservatives in cosmetics and household products by matrix solid-phase dispersion followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Dagnac, Thierry; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria

    2012-12-28

    In this work, the development of a new efficient methodology applying, for the first time, matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) for the determination of sensitizer isothiazolinone biocides in cosmetics and household products - 2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (MI), 5-chloro-2-methyl-3-isothiazolinone (CMI), 1,2-benzisothiazolinone (BzI) and 2-octyl-3-isothiazolinone (OI) - is described. The main factors affecting the MSPD extraction procedure, the dispersive phase and the elution solvent, are assessed and optimized through a multicategorical experimental design, using a real cosmetic sample. The most suitable extraction conditions comprise the use of 2g of florisil as dispersive phase and 5 mL of methanol as elution solvent. Subsequently, the extract is readily analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS without any further clean-up or concentration steps. Method performance was evaluated demonstrating to have a broad linear range (R(2)>0.9980) and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) at the low nanogram per gram level, which are well below the required limits for UE regulation compliance. Satisfactory recoveries above 80%, except for MI (mean values close to 60%), were obtained. In all cases, the method precision (% RSD) was lower than 7%, making this low cost extraction method reliable for routine control. The validated methodology was finally applied to the analysis of a wide variety of cosmetics and household products. Most of the real samples analyzed have been shown to comply with the current European Cosmetic Regulation, although the results obtained for some rinse-off cosmetics (e.g. baby care products) revealed high isothiazolinone content.

  13. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reasonable manner during manufacture, distribution, and retail display. (c) Labeling. Each retail package of... oral hygiene products and vaginal products are not now packaged in tamper-resistant retail packages... retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper-resistant package or that is not properly labeled under...

  14. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reasonable manner during manufacture, distribution, and retail display. (c) Labeling. Each retail package of... oral hygiene products and vaginal products are not now packaged in tamper-resistant retail packages... retail sale that is not packaged in a tamper-resistant package or that is not properly labeled under...

  15. Chances and limits of an improved method to assess water resistance of cosmetic sunscreen products in vitro on polymethylmethacrylate plates.

    PubMed

    Bielfeldt, S; Röck, C; Wilhelm, K-P

    2013-02-01

    While sun protection factor (SPF) and UVA protection are the most important determinants of a cosmetic sunscreen product, water resistance is the third important feature. The Colipa in vivo method is the internationally accepted standard method to assess water resistance. It is time-consuming and expensive. A screening method to quickly predict water resistance properties on low cost therefore is a specific request of product developers. Several in vitro screening methods are published but the predictive power of all these methods is limited. In this paper, we describe an adaptation of the in vitro UVA protection method of Colipa for a water resistance screening. Although the method is quick and most parts are standardized and approved by Colipa, the results were not in advantage of other published screening methods. Taking into account, the scatter of the results, seven of 16 sunscreen products that were developed as water resistant formulations could be unambiguously estimated to be water resistant by the in vivo water resistance screening method on five subjects while nine failed. In 10 of these 16 results, the in vitro SPF-based method was in accordance with in vivo findings, whereas in six cases, the method was not predicting correctly. Based on these results, the authors recommend to use the in vitro screening methods to pre-select from candidates which cannot all be tested in vivo. The pre-selected products can be screened in the Colipa in vivo water resistance method with a reduced number of volunteers (usually 5) to predict water resistance. In case, the water resistance estimated in such an in vivo screening is found at about 65% or higher the study can be deemed successful and completed with further subjects to fulfil the Colipa requirements.

  16. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  17. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... new drug regulations (21 CFR 314.50), including blood level data obtained from use of the drug as... ecology of the product, not merely on gram-positive bacteria. (1) Adequate safety data do not...

  18. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... new drug regulations (21 CFR 314.50), including blood level data obtained from use of the drug as... ecology of the product, not merely on gram-positive bacteria. (1) Adequate safety data do not...

  19. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... new drug regulations (21 CFR 314.50), including blood level data obtained from use of the drug as... ecology of the product, not merely on gram-positive bacteria. (1) Adequate safety data do not...

  20. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... new drug regulations (21 CFR 314.50), including blood level data obtained from use of the drug as... ecology of the product, not merely on gram-positive bacteria. (1) Adequate safety data do not...

  1. 21 CFR 250.250 - Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... new drug regulations (21 CFR 314.50), including blood level data obtained from use of the drug as... ecology of the product, not merely on gram-positive bacteria. (1) Adequate safety data do not...

  2. Simultaneous determination of seven phthalates and four parabens in cosmetic products using HPLC-DAD and GC-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hao-Yu; Jiang, Hai-Liang; Mao, Hong-Lei; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu; Cao, Yun-Feng

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the determination of seven kinds of phthalates, i.e. diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and dioctyl phthalate, and four parabens, i.e. methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben, in 15 kinds of cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc., by HPLC with diode array detection and GC-MS in electron impact ionization mode with selected-ion monitoring have been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative detection of phthalates and parabens. Extraction, clean-up, and analysis procedures have been optimized. HPLC and GC-MS determinations were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol and clean-up with C18 SPE. These techniques permit detection of phthalates at a level of 10.0-100.0 microg/kg and of parabens at a level of 20.0-200.0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 85-108% with RSD values of 4.2-8.8%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The remaining 14 samples were found to contain at least three or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates and parabens detected in the studied samples were methylparaben, propylparaben, diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. The residue level is at 1.22-5289 mg/kg.

  3. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography for the simultaneous determination of six parabens in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongmin; Yang, Jinjuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Shi, Yuhua

    2014-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient method of ultrasonic nebulization extraction assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the simultaneous determination of six parabens in cosmetic products. The analysis was carried out by gas chromatography. Water was used as the dispersive solvent instead of traditional organic disperser. The experimental factors affecting the extraction yield, such as the extraction solvent and volume, extraction time, dispersive solvent and volume, ionic strength, and centrifuging condition were studied and optimized in detail. The limit of detections for the target analytes were in the range of 2.0-9.5 μg/g. Good linear ranges were obtained with the coefficients ranging from 0.9934 to 0.9969. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of six parabens in 16 cosmetic products. The recoveries of the target analytes in real samples ranged from 81.9 to 108.7%, and the relative standard deviations were <5.3%.

  4. Cosmetovigilance survey: are cosmetics considered safe by consumers?

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Carmen; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Loredana; Sautebin, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    .3% of the episodes, respectively. In the 56.5% of the episodes consultation was not requested, whereas in the 26% a specialist was consulted. In conclusions our results, although supply information about ACEs and the consequent measures adopted by consumers of a restricted geographical area suggest that, due to the large use of these products and the relative high incidence of reported ACEs, the problem of cosmetic related injuries and the need of a system able to report, collect and evaluate them, cannot be ignored.

  5. Cosmetic Use of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Men: Considerations Regarding Anatomical Differences and Product Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Jason D; Green, Jeremy B; Bowe, Whitney; von Grote, Erika; Nogueira, Alessandra

    2016-09-01

    The proportion of men seeking facial rejuvenation with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTA) products is increasing. The number of male patients treated in the 5-year period between 2009 and 2014 grew by 25%. There is little clinical data supporting gender-specific efficacy with regard to dosing and injection placement in men. To nurture the confidence associated with treatment of male patients, clinicians are in need of more informational materials to develop their evaluation and treatment strategies. Three BoNTA products are currently available in the United States (US) for treatment of the upper face. The varying potency of the different BoNTA formulations is reflected by disparate dose-response characteristics, meaning they are not interchangeable for injection purposes. Clinicians who are familiar with the characteristics of all the BoNTA options will be equipped with the necessary tools to provide their male patients with a desired outcome.
    Among the product options available in the US, Dysport® (abobotulinumtoxinA) (Galderma Laboratories, L.P., Fort Worth, Texas) is unique in that its recommendations for reconstitution provide the clinician with 2 different final product concentrations. The flexibility provided by a variable dose may be a valuable tool for tailoring treatments to male patient-specific needs, which may include a more conservative outcome, maintaining a certain degree of muscle activity and expressivity. Achieving a conservative outcome may be the key to a positive experience for the male patient.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(9):1056-1062. PMID:27602966

  6. Eye irritation of low-irritant cosmetic formulations: correlation of in vitro results with clinical data and product composition.

    PubMed

    Debbasch, Caroline; Ebenhahn, Catherine; Dami, Nadia; Pericoi, Marc; Van den Berghe, Christine; Cottin, Martine; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2005-01-01

    Alternative methods to the Draize eye irritation test, such as the hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane (HET-CAM) or the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) tests, are currently used to evaluate the irritant potential of cosmetic or consumer products. Although, for strong irritants, the results of these tests correlate well with those of the Draize test, they appear to be less suited to identify mild irritants. In order to improve the sensitivity of alternative eye irritation tests, we developed a novel method that uses a human corneal epithelial cell line (CEPI), and the endpoints of cytotoxicity and IL-8 release. Twelve make-up removers were assessed by the HET-CAM, BCOP and CEPI tests, as well as in a clinical in-use test under ophthalmological control after their application to the external eye lid. In addition, we investigated the impact of osmolality and raw material composition on in vitro and clinical results and compared the in vitro results with those of clinical studies. Overall, although HET-CAM results were unrelated to eye discomfort and adverse clinical signs, they correlated mainly with the presence and concentration of surfactants in the test articles. BCOP scores were unrelated to clinical signs, but related mainly to glycol and sodium lactate content and concentration in the test articles. Cytotoxicity in CEPI mainly correlated with presence and concentrations of surfactants, and IL-8 release to clinical signs and/or glycol and sodium lactate concentrations. Overall, IL-8 release appeared to be the most sensitive and reliable endpoint to predict human eye tolerance to mildly irritant products. Although our results suggest that the IL-8 assay appears to be a promising screen for borderline-irritant formulations, further experiments are required to confirm and validate these preliminary results.

  7. Investigating incidence of bacterial and fungal contamination in shared cosmetic kits available in the women beauty salons

    PubMed Central

    Dadashi, Leila; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rich texture of cosmetics can provide a suitable medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, skin microflora of anyone is unique which might be harmful to another person. Skin and eye pathogenicity could be communicated by sharing cosmetics in beauty saloons. The main objective of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of in-use skin and eye cosmetics which are available as public make-up kits for women in the beauty salons. Methods: Fifty-two in-use skin and eye cosmetics were included in this cross sectional study.The specimens from all the cosmetics were collected following the owner’s informed consent, and then about 1 g of the cosmetics was added to nine ml of liquid Eugon LT100 broth medium,two for each product. Ten beauty salons randomly selected from different regions of Tabriz city between June and August 2016. Cosmetics were sampled and carried to the laboratory in sterile condition and then examined to determine bacterial and fungal species in the samples. Results: All of in-use cosmetic were contaminated with bacteria (95% CI = 93.1%-100.0%) and about 19.2% by fungus and yeast (95% CI = 10.8%-31.9%). Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella,Citrobacter, Rhodotorula and Candida were dominant species which were isolated from the cosmetics. Powders with 38.5% (95% CI = 17.7%-64.5%) and eyeliners with 30.0% (95%CI = 6.7%-65.2%) were the most fungal contaminated products. Conclusion: Shared cosmetics in beauty salons are almost contaminated by bacteria and fungus.Therefore, it is suggested to avoid sharing cosmetics by women and prevent use of public cosmetics in toilet saloons. PMID:27579260

  8. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 μg/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 μg/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 μg/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 μg/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 μg/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 μg/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 μg/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 μg/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health. PMID:22406137

  9. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 μg/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 μg/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 μg/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 μg/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 μg/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 μg/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 μg/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 μg/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health.

  10. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching kits and hair cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Bousquet, Claudine; Lassu, Nelly; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2015-03-25

    This manuscript presents an HPLC/UV method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching products and hair products. The method is based on an oxidation of triphenylphosphine into triphenylphosphine oxide by hydrogen peroxide. Triphenylphosphine oxide formed is quantified by HPLC/UV. Validation data were obtained using the ISO 12787 standard approach, particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. For comparative purpose, hydrogen peroxide was also determined using ceric sulfate titrimetry for both types of products. For hair products, a cross validation of both ceric titrimetric method and HPLC/UV method using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive (official iodometric titration method) was performed. Results obtained for 6 commercialized teeth whitening products and 5 hair products point out similar hydrogen peroxide contain using either the HPLC/UV method or ceric sulfate titrimetric method. For hair products, results were similar to the hydrogen peroxide content using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive method and for the HPLC/UV method, mean recoveries obtained on spiked samples, using the ISO 12787 standard, ranges from 100% to 110% with a RSD<3.0%. To assess the analytical method proposed, the HPLC method was used to control 35 teeth bleaching products during a market survey and highlight for 5 products, hydrogen peroxide contents higher than the regulated limit. PMID:25656490

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching kits and hair cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Pascal; Bousquet, Claudine; Lassu, Nelly; Maggio, Annie-Françoise; Civade, Corinne; Brenier, Charlotte; Lempereur, Laurent

    2015-03-25

    This manuscript presents an HPLC/UV method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide present or released in teeth bleaching products and hair products. The method is based on an oxidation of triphenylphosphine into triphenylphosphine oxide by hydrogen peroxide. Triphenylphosphine oxide formed is quantified by HPLC/UV. Validation data were obtained using the ISO 12787 standard approach, particularly adapted when it is not possible to make reconstituted sample matrices. For comparative purpose, hydrogen peroxide was also determined using ceric sulfate titrimetry for both types of products. For hair products, a cross validation of both ceric titrimetric method and HPLC/UV method using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive (official iodometric titration method) was performed. Results obtained for 6 commercialized teeth whitening products and 5 hair products point out similar hydrogen peroxide contain using either the HPLC/UV method or ceric sulfate titrimetric method. For hair products, results were similar to the hydrogen peroxide content using the cosmetic 82/434/EEC directive method and for the HPLC/UV method, mean recoveries obtained on spiked samples, using the ISO 12787 standard, ranges from 100% to 110% with a RSD<3.0%. To assess the analytical method proposed, the HPLC method was used to control 35 teeth bleaching products during a market survey and highlight for 5 products, hydrogen peroxide contents higher than the regulated limit.

  12. Vortex-assisted emulsification semimicroextraction for the analytical control of restricted ingredients in cosmetic products: determination of bronopol by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Pablo; Bellver, Raquel; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo

    2016-03-01

    Vortex-assisted emulsification semimicroextraction is proposed as a one-step solution-extraction procedure for sample preparation in cosmetic products. The procedure allows rapid preparation based on dispersion of the sample in a mixture of 1 mL of n-hexane and 0.5 mL of ethanol, followed by the addition of 0.5 mL of water and centrifugation to obtain two separated phases. This procedure provides good sample clean-up with minimum dilution and is very useful for the determination of ingredients with restricted concentrations, such as bronopol. The procedure was applied to the determination of bronopol by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The best chromatographic separation was obtained by using a C18 column set at 40 °C and performing a stepwise elution with a mixture of ethanol/aqueous 1 % acetic acid solution as mobile phase pumped at 0.5 mL min(-1). The detection wavelength was set at 250 nm and the total run time required was 12 min. The method was successfully applied to 18 commercial cosmetic samples including creams, shampoos, and bath gels. Good recoveries and repeatability were obtained, with a limit of detection of 0.9 μg mL(-1), which makes the method suitable for the analytical control of cosmetic products. Moreover, it could be considered environmentally friendly, because water, ethanol, and only a low volume of n-hexane are used as solvents.

  13. Cosmetic use of alpha-hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Vidt, D G; Bergfeld, W F

    1997-06-01

    Frequent and daily use of cosmetic and skin-care products that contain alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) moisturizes the skin and produces smoother, less-wrinkled skin surfaces. The cosmetic products developed as astringents and exfoliants diminish skin scales and remove excess skin oil. New studies suggest that photodamaged skin improves with AHA treatment. PMID:9188214

  14. A reliable and environmentally-friendly liquid-chromatographic method for multi-class determination of fat-soluble UV filters in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Chisvert, Alberto; Tarazona, Isuha; Salvador, Amparo

    2013-08-01

    An environmentally-friendly analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 15 fat-soluble ultraviolet (UV) filters currently authorized by the European Union regulation on cosmetic products has been developed. The determination was performed by liquid chromatography with UV spectrophotometric detection. Different parameters, such as type of column, oven temperature, mobile phase composition and flow rate were studied. The best chromatographic separation was obtained under the following conditions: C18 column set at 60°C and gradient ethanol:water (containing 1% formic acid and 20mM of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) as mobile phase pumped at 1mL min(-1). 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was added as mobile phase modifier to achieve the complete resolution of some of the chromatographic peaks. The 15 target compounds were separated in less than 30min. The method was satisfactorily validated by analyzing three laboratory-made cosmetic samples besides of eleven commercially available cosmetic products containing different combination of the target UV filters. Good accordance of the found levels compared with those of the laboratory-made samples and those of the commercial samples (when available) was achieved. Moreover, excellent recoveries (97-104%) and good intra-day and inter-day precision values at different concentration levels, besides limits of detection values below the μg mL(-1) level, were obtained. These good analytical features, as well as their environmentally-friendly characteristics, make the presented method suitable not only for routine analysis in cosmetics industries, but also as candidate reference method for sunscreen analysis.

  15. Analytical Method for the Identification and Assay of Kojic Acid, Methylparaben, and Propylparaben in Cosmetic Products Using UPLC: Application of ISO 12787:2011 Standard.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Ahmed, Mahmood; Shafiq, Muhammad Imtiaz; Ali, Amir; Sadiq, Asma

    2016-09-01

    A straightforward, fast UPLC method is developed for the identification and quantification of kojic acid (KA), methylparaben (MP), and propylparaben (PP) in 15 cosmetic products (skin whitening creams and lotions). Chromatographic separations for KA, MP, and PP were obtained in 3.5 min on an Acquity BEH-C18 column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm particle size) as the stationary phase at 260 nm (diode-array detector), with the mobile phase comprising a mixture of 0.01 M dibasic potassium phosphate and methanol-acetonitrile (50 + 50). Validation studies were performed according to in-house established criteria. There was a linear function of concentrations over the range of 0.4-1.6 μg/mL for KA, MP, and PP. The LOQ for all components was 0.2 μg/mL using the S/N method. Good separation of analytes was observed, with acceptable values of resolution and tailing. The analytical approach defined in the ISO 12787:2011 standard ("Cosmetics-Analytical methods-Validation criteria for analytical results using chromatographic techniques") was used for the assay of cosmetic samples. PMID:27329740

  16. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M

    2009-08-01

    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant. PMID:19496839

  17. [Simultaneous determination of phthalates and parabens in cosmetic products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].

    PubMed

    Shen, Haoyu; Ying, Liyan; Cao, Yunfeng; Pan, Gang; Zhou, Lu

    2007-03-01

    Studies have been carried out on the simultaneous determination of 8 phthalates, i. e. di-ethyl phthalate (DEP) , di-propyl phthalate (DPP) , di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) , dibutyl phthalate (DBP) , benzyl butyl phthalate ( BBP) , di-cyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) , di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and 4 parabens, i. e. methylparaben (MPB), ethylparaben (EPB), propyl paraben (PPB), and butyl paraben (BPB) by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in electron ionisation mode (EI) with selected-ion monitoring (SIM) acquisition method. The phthalates and parabens in 15 cosmetic products, including hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, cream, lotion, etc. were determined. The determination of the samples were performed after sonication-assisted extraction with methanol, cleaned up with an LC-C18 column (3 mL) and analyzed by GC/MS method. The base peak (m/z 149) of the phthalates and the base peak (m/z 121) of the parabens were selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions, m/z 121, 149, 177, 222 for DEP; m/z 149, 191, 209 for DPP; m/z 57, 149, 223 for DIBP; m/z 104, 149 for DBP; m/z 91, 132, 149, 206 for BBP; m/z 55, 149, 167 for DCHP; m/z 113, 149, 167, 279 for DEHP; m/z 149, 279 for DOP; m/z 65, 93, 121, 152 for MPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 166 for EPB; m/z 93, 121, 138, 180 for PPB; and m/z 93, 121, 138, 194 for BPB were chosen for quantitative studies. These techniques are capable to detect phthalates and parabens at the level of 0. 1 -5. 0 microg/kg. Overall recoveries were 80% - 100% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 10%. Only one of the 15 examined samples was free from phthalates and parabens. The rest 14 samples were found to contain at least 3 or more of these phthalates and/or parabens. The predominant phthalates detected in the studied samples were MPB, PPB, DPP, DCHP and DEHP. The residue levels were at 1. 42 -4 278 mg/kg.

  18. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  19. Requirements in cosmetics for black skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B A

    1988-07-01

    As large, well-funded cosmetics houses are taking more interest in the needs of black consumers, so should the dermatologist. The dermatologist should be able to discuss intelligently with patients those products that are intended for black skin and hair. Patients also appreciate a referral to a hair stylist or cosmetologist that the doctor is familiar with. As outlined in this article, the most common cosmetics problems encountered by black consumers include the lack of selection of appropriate shades of cosmetics; greasy and irritating "black" make-up; irritant or allergic reactions to fragrance and other cosmetic ingredients; acne from "oil-free" products; and a shortage of effective products to treat "ashiness." It is hoped that this review will help the reader understand what black patients may expect from their skin and hair cosmetics.

  20. On-line pretreatment and determination of parabens in cosmetic products by combination of flow injection analysis, solid-phase extraction and micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; He, You-Zhao; Yu, Chang-Zhu

    2008-02-15

    A convenient and automated method for on-line pretreatment and determination of three parabens (i.e. methyl, ethyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate) in cosmetic products is proposed by using flow injection analysis (FIA), solid-phase extraction (SPE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). An improved split-flow interface is used to couple SPE on C(8)-bonded silica with MEKC separation, which can avoid running buffer contamination and reduce buffer consumption, especially, containing expensive reagents. The analytes are loaded onto a C(8) column at 0.6 mL/min for 60s and eluted with a mixed eluent of 40% (v/v) 10 mmol/L sodium tetraborate buffer (pH 9.3) and 60% (v/v) ethanol at 0.75 mL/min. The MEKC separation is accomplished with a running buffer of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate (pH 9.3) containing 100 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 15 kV. For butyl p-hydroxybenzoate did not be detected in the cosmetic products, it was used as an internal standard (IS) added into the real samples. This FIA-SPE-MEKC method using IS allows the sample separation within 12 min and the sample throughput of five samples per hour with the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) less than 2.3% (n=5). The limits of detection (LOD) are in the range from 0.07 to 0.1 microg/mL (S/N=3 and n=11). The proposed method has been used to determine three parabens in real cosmetic products satisfactorily.

  1. Identification of unwanted photoproducts of cosmetic preservatives in personal care products under ultraviolet-light using solid-phase microextraction and micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Lores, Marta

    2015-04-17

    The photochemical transformation of widely used cosmetic preservatives including benzoates, parabens, BHA, BHT and triclosan has been investigated in this work applying an innovative double-approach strategy: identification of transformation products in aqueous photodegradation experiments (UV-light, 254nm), followed by targeted screening analysis of such photoproducts in UV-irradiated cosmetic samples. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, using different fiber coatings, in order to widen the range of detectable photoproducts in water, whereas UV-irradiated personal care products (PCPs) containing the target preservatives were extracted by micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (micro-MSPD). Both SPME and micro-MSPD-based methodologies were successfully optimized and validated. Degradation kinetics of parent species, and photoformation of their transformation by-products were monitored by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thirty nine photoproducts were detected in aqueous photodegradation experiments, being tentatively identified based on their mass spectra. Transformation pathways between structurally related by-products, consistent with their kinetic behavior were postulated. The photoformation of unexpected photoproducts such as 2- and 4-hydroxybenzophenones, and 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in PCPs are reported in this work for the first time.

  2. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  3. Rapid determination of cocamidopropyl betaine impurities in cosmetic products by core-shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Perry G; Zhou, Wanlong

    2016-08-26

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a common surfactant widely used in personal care products. Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) and lauramidopropyldimethylamine (LAPDMA) are two chemicals present as impurities in CAPB and have been reported as skin sensitizers. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method, using a core shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column, has been developed to quantify DMAPA and LAPDMA in cosmetic products. Corresponding stable isotopically labeled analogues of the above native compounds were used as internal standards to compensate for matrix effect and for loss of recovery. Each sample was first screened to determine whether the sample needed to be diluted to minimize matrix effects as well as to fit the calibration range. The concept of matrix effect factor (MEF) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate each sample with a unique matrix using the internal standards. Recoveries at three spiking levels of low, medium, and high concentrations ranged from 98.4 to 112% with RSDs less than 5%. This method has been validated and is the first UHPLC-MS/MS method, which uses core shell HILIC column and stable isotopically labeled internal standards to simultaneously determine these two CAPB impurities in cosmetic products. PMID:27473511

  4. [Acne vulgaris. Role of cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Korting, H C; Borelli, C; Schöllmann, C

    2010-02-01

    Appropriate cosmetics for skin cleansing are capable of contributing to a reduction of especially inflammatory lesions in acne-prone patients and to support pharmacological intervention in patients with manifest acne. Cleansing of acne-prone skin should employ acidified synthetic cleansers with a pH of 5.5 rather than soap. Furthermore, the ingredients of certain skin care products, i.e. nicotinamide, lactic acid, triethyl acetate/ethyllineolate, and prebiotic plant extracts, affect different mechanisms of acne pathogenesis and therefore may contribute to a decrease in acne lesions. At least some of these ingredients underscore the concept of evidence-based cosmetics. In contrast, the problem of acne lesions caused by comedogenic ingredients in cosmetics today is negligible. PMID:20107752

  5. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  6. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives and fragrances in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tatyana; de Gannes, Gillian C

    2011-04-01

    Cosmetics are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens found in cosmetic products. Patch testing remains the gold standard for identification of causative allergens. Common cosmetic allergens are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  7. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

  8. Testing of cosmetics and toiletries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K E

    1986-01-01

    Cosmetics and toiletries are indispensable everyday products used by the vast majority of the population. Evaluation of safety is needed to reduce the risk of side effects from intentional and unintentional use. This paper describes factors involved in the choice of test strategy for determining the dermatotoxicological profile of the products. Emphasis is placed on tests for skin irritation, contact allergy, acne and subjective symptoms elicited by the products.

  9. 75 FR 75677 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Exports...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... notice solicits comments on the notification and recordkeeping requirements for persons exporting human drugs, biological products, devices, animal drugs, food, and cosmetics that may not be marketed or...

  10. Determination of dyes in cosmetic products by micro-matrix solid phase dispersion and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eugenia; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid and simultaneous determination of nine regulated water-soluble dyes in personal care and decorative products. The proposed miniaturized extraction procedure was optimized by means of experimental designs in order to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. Under the optimal selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory performance in terms of linearity, sensitivity, and intra-day and inter-day precision. Recoveries were evaluated in different cosmetic matrices and they can be considered quantitative with average values between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, the validated method was applied to 24 samples of cosmetic and personal care products, including decorative makeup, lipsticks, lip gloss, toothpastes, regenerating creams, shampoos, and eye shadows, among others, to cover a broad range of commercial real samples. Seven of the analyzed dyes were detected, being declared all of them in the label list of ingredients. More than 50% of the samples contained at least two dyes. Tartrazine was the most frequently found (50% of the samples) at concentration levels of 0.243-79.9μgg(-1). Other targets were found in 1-9 samples, highlighting the presence of Quinoline at high concentration (>500μgg(-1)) in a toothpaste sample. PMID:26363949

  11. Determination of dyes in cosmetic products by micro-matrix solid phase dispersion and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eugenia; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Llompart, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2015-10-01

    A simple method based on micro-matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the rapid and simultaneous determination of nine regulated water-soluble dyes in personal care and decorative products. The proposed miniaturized extraction procedure was optimized by means of experimental designs in order to obtain the highest extraction efficiency. Under the optimal selected conditions, the method was validated showing satisfactory performance in terms of linearity, sensitivity, and intra-day and inter-day precision. Recoveries were evaluated in different cosmetic matrices and they can be considered quantitative with average values between 70 and 120% with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 15%. Finally, the validated method was applied to 24 samples of cosmetic and personal care products, including decorative makeup, lipsticks, lip gloss, toothpastes, regenerating creams, shampoos, and eye shadows, among others, to cover a broad range of commercial real samples. Seven of the analyzed dyes were detected, being declared all of them in the label list of ingredients. More than 50% of the samples contained at least two dyes. Tartrazine was the most frequently found (50% of the samples) at concentration levels of 0.243-79.9μgg(-1). Other targets were found in 1-9 samples, highlighting the presence of Quinoline at high concentration (>500μgg(-1)) in a toothpaste sample.

  12. Optimizing revenue at a cosmetic surgery centre

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for cosmetic surgery and services has diminished with recent fluctuations in the economy. To stay ahead, surgeons must appreciate and attend to the fiscal challenges of private practice. A key component of practice economics is knowledge of the common methods of payment. OBJECTIVE: To review methods of payment in a five-surgeon group practice in central Texas, USA. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of the financial records of a cosmetic surgery centre in Texas was conducted. Data were collected for the five-year period from 2003 to 2008, and included the method of payment, the item purchased (product, service or surgery) and the dollar amount. RESULTS: More than 11,000 transactions were reviewed. The most common method of payment used for products and services was credit card, followed by check and cash. For procedures, the most common form of payment was personal check, followed by credit card and financing. Of the credit card purchases for both products and procedures, an overwhelming majority of patients (more than 75%) used either Visa (Visa Inc, USA) or MasterCard (MasterCard Worldwide, USA). If the amount of the individual transaction surpassed US$1,000, the most common method of payment transitioned from credit card to personal check. CONCLUSIONS: In an effort to maximize revenue, surgeons should consider limiting the credit cards accepted by the practice and encourage payment through personal check. PMID:22942656

  13. Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters used in over 22,000 cosmetics as preservatives at concentrations up to 0.8% (mixtures of parabens) or up to 0.4% (single paraben). The group includes Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben. Industry estimates of the daily use of cosmetic products that may contain parabens were 17.76 g for adults and 378 mg for infants. Parabens in cosmetic formulations applied to skin penetrate the stratum corneum in inverse relation to the ester chain length. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze parabens in the skin. Parabens do not accumulate in the body. Serum concentrations of parabens, even after intravenous administration, quickly decline and remain low. Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that parabens are not significantly toxic by various routes of administration. Subchronic and chronic oral studies indicate that parabens are practically nontoxic. Numerous genotoxicity studies, including Ames testing, dominant lethal assay, host-mediated assay, and cytogenic assays, indicate that the Parabens are generally nonmutagenic, although Ethylparaben and Methylparaben did increase chromosomal aberrations in a Chinese Hamster ovary cell assay. Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, and Butylparaben in the diet produced cell proliferation in the forestomach of rats, with the activity directly related to chain length of the alkyl chain, but Isobutylparaben and Butylparaben were noncarcinogenic in a mouse chronic feeding study. Methylparaben was noncarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice or rats, or when administered intravaginally in rats, and was not cocarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice. Propylparaben was noncarcinogenic in a study of transplacental carcinogenesis. Methylparaben was nonteratogenic in rabbits, rats, mice, and hamsters, and Ethylparaben was nonteratogenic in rats. Parabens, even at levels that produce maternal

  14. Final amended report on the safety assessment of Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben as used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Parabens is the name given to a group of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) esters used in over 22,000 cosmetics as preservatives at concentrations up to 0.8% (mixtures of parabens) or up to 0.4% (single paraben). The group includes Methylparaben, Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, Isopropylparaben, Butylparaben, Isobutylparaben, and Benzylparaben. Industry estimates of the daily use of cosmetic products that may contain parabens were 17.76 g for adults and 378 mg for infants. Parabens in cosmetic formulations applied to skin penetrate the stratum corneum in inverse relation to the ester chain length. Carboxylesterases hydrolyze parabens in the skin. Parabens do not accumulate in the body. Serum concentrations of parabens, even after intravenous administration, quickly decline and remain low. Acute toxicity studies in animals indicate that parabens are not significantly toxic by various routes of administration. Subchronic and chronic oral studies indicate that parabens are practically nontoxic. Numerous genotoxicity studies, including Ames testing, dominant lethal assay, host-mediated assay, and cytogenic assays, indicate that the Parabens are generally nonmutagenic, although Ethylparaben and Methylparaben did increase chromosomal aberrations in a Chinese Hamster ovary cell assay. Ethylparaben, Propylparaben, and Butylparaben in the diet produced cell proliferation in the forestomach of rats, with the activity directly related to chain length of the alkyl chain, but Isobutylparaben and Butylparaben were noncarcinogenic in a mouse chronic feeding study. Methylparaben was noncarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice or rats, or when administered intravaginally in rats, and was not cocarcinogenic when injected subcutaneously in mice. Propylparaben was noncarcinogenic in a study of transplacental carcinogenesis. Methylparaben was nonteratogenic in rabbits, rats, mice, and hamsters, and Ethylparaben was nonteratogenic in rats. Parabens, even at levels that produce maternal

  15. Analysis of plasticizers and synthetic musks in cosmetic and personal care products by matrix solid-phase dispersion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Llompart, Maria; Celeiro, Maria; Pablo Lamas, J; Sanchez-Prado, Lucia; Lores, Marta; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used for the rapid determination of 18 plasticizers (phthalates and adipates), 7 polycyclic musks and 5 nitromusks, which makes a total of 30 targets, in both rinse-off and leave-on cosmetic formulations. The MSPD method was miniaturized and customized to avoid or minimize risks of phthalate contamination and to reduce residues and costs. The amount of sample and extraction solvent employed were 0.1g and 1mL, respectively. The procedure was optimized by means of an experimental design and under the optima conditions it showed satisfactory linearity, repeatability and intermediate precision. LOQs were, in general, in the low ngg(-1), and recoveries were quantitative for all the 18 plasticizers and the 12 fragrances. Twenty-six cosmetic products such as creams, emulsions, lotions, gels for the skin, bath and shower preparations, deodorants, hair-setting, hair-cleansing and hair-conditioning products, shaving products, and sunbathing products, were analyzed. Twenty-five out of thirty targets were detected in the samples. The most frequently found compounds were galaxolide and tonalide reaching concentrations above 0.1% (1000μgg(-1)), and diethyl phthalate (between 0.7 and 357μgg(-1)). The presence of banned substances (Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009) such as dibutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dimethoxyethyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, diisopentyl phthalate and dipentyl phthalate, musk ambrette and musk tibetene was confirmed in sixteen of the twenty-six personal care products (62%).

  16. Full evaporation dynamic headspace in combination with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of suspected fragrance allergens in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Devos, Christophe; Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2012-09-14

    Suspected fragrance allergens were determined in cosmetic products using a combination of full evaporation-dynamic headspace (FEDHS) with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional GC-MS. The full evaporation dynamic headspace approach allows the non-discriminating extraction and injection of both apolar and polar fragrance compounds, without contamination of the analytical system by high molecular weight non-volatile matrix compounds. The method can be applied to all classes of cosmetic samples, including water containing matrices such as shower gels or body creams. In combination with selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS, consisting of a dedicated heart-cutting GC-MS configuration using capillary flow technology (CFT) and low thermal mass GC (LTM-GC), a highly flexible and easy-to-use analytical solution is offered. Depending on the complexity of the perfume fraction, analyses can be performed in one-dimensional GC-MS mode or in heart-cutting two-dimensional GC-MS mode, without the need of hardware reconfiguration. The two-dimensional mode with independent temperature control of the first and second dimension column is especially useful to confirm the presence of detected allergen compounds when mass spectral deconvolution is not possible.

  17. A new and highly selective turn-on fluorescent sensor with fast response time for the monitoring of cadmium ions in cosmetic, and health product samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Ghiamati, Ebrahim; Boroujerdi, Ramin; Rezaeifard, Abdolreza; Zaryabi, Mohadeseh Hosseinpour

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) which is an extremely toxic could be found in many products like plastics, fossil fuel combustion, cosmetics, water resources, and wastewaters. It is capable of causing serious environmental and health problems such as lung, prostate, renal cancers and the other disorders. So, the development of a sensor to continually monitor cadmium is considerably demanding. Tetrakis(4-nitrophenyl)porphyrin, T(4-NO2-P)P, was synthesized and used as a new and highly selective fluorescent probe for monitoring cadmium ions in the "turn-on" mode. There was a linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and the concentration of Cd(II) in the range of 1.0 × 10- 6 to 1.0 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 with a detection limit of 0.276 μM. To examine the most important parameters involved and their interactions in the sensor optimization procedure, a four-factor central composite design (CCD) combined with response surface modeling (RSM) was implemented. The practical applicability of the developed sensor was investigated using real cosmetic, and personal care samples.

  18. Large volume sample stacking with EOF and sweeping in CE for determination of common preservatives in cosmetic products by chemometric experimental design.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yi-Cian; Wang, Chun-Chi; Chen, Yen-Ling; Wu, Shou-Mei

    2012-05-01

    This study proposes a capillary electrophoresis method incorporating large volume sample stacking, EOF and sweeping for detection of common preservatives used in cosmetic products. The method was developed using chemometric experimental design (fractional factorial design and central composite design) to determine multiple separation variables by efficient steps. The samples were loaded by hydrodynamic injection (10 psi, 90 s), and separated by phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 3) containing 30% methanol and 80 mM SDS at -20 kV. During method validation, calibration curves were found to be linear over a range of 5-100 μg/mL for butyl paraben and isobutyl paraben; 0.05-10 μg/mL for ethyl paraben; 0.2-50 μg/mL for dehydroacetic acid; 0.5-70 μg/mL for methyl paraben; 5-350 μg/mL for sorbic acid; 0.02-450 μg/mL for p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 0.05-10 μg/mL for salicylic acid and benzoic acid. The analytes were analysed simultaneously and their detection limits (S/N = 3) were down to 0.005-2 μg/mL. The analysis method was successfully used for detection of preservatives used in commercial cosmetics.

  19. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  20. Future of cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Robert Alan

    2014-04-01

    Changes in cosmetic surgery will be driven by several key forces. The patient's self-image, and perceived place in society, will continue to drive patients to the cosmetic surgeon as well as to demand newer and better treatments. Technological advances, especially those based on an enhanced understanding of cellular and tissue physiology, promise enhanced tools other than the scalpel for the surgeon. Conceptual advances in our understanding of beauty and patient psychology will lead to a more integrative approach to cosmetic surgery.

  1. 78 FR 25746 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Product Jurisdiction: Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket... of information technology. Product Jurisdiction: Assignment of Agency Component for Review of... primary jurisdiction for the premarket review and regulation of products that are comprised of...

  2. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de guerra y perfumando el

  3. Healing war wounds and perfuming exile: the use of vegetal, animal, and mineral products for perfumes, cosmetics, and skin healing among Sahrawi refugees of Western Sahara

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, there has been growing interest within ethnobiology in the knowledge and practices of migrating people. Within this, scholars have given relatively less attention to displaced people and refugees: to the loss, maintenance, and adaptation of refugees’ ethnobiological knowledge, and to its significance for refugees’ wellbeing. This study focuses on cosmetics and remedies used to heal skin afflictions that are traditionally used by Sahrawi refugees displaced in South Western Algerian refugee camps. Methods The research methods included a structured survey carried out with 37 refugee households, semi-structured interviews with 77 refugees, 24 retrospective interviews with refugees and other knowledgeable informants, and a voucher specimen collection of the plants and products cited. Results We recorded the use of 55 plant species, nine animal species, and six mineral products used within the three main use categories discussed in this paper: 1) Remedies for health issues that are typical of the desert environment where the Sahrawi once lived as nomads and now live as refugees (e.g. eye afflictions); 2) Remedies for wounds that are influenced by the Sahrawi’s recent history of guerrilla warfare; and 3) Cosmetics and products used for body care, decoration and perfuming (e.g. hair care, teeth cleansing, henna use) and for aromatizing the air inside of tents and which are widely used in everyday life and social practices. Conclusions We discuss the changes that have occurred in the patterns of use and procurement of these products with exile and sedentarization in refugee camps, and conclude that refugees are not simply passive recipients of national and international aid, but rather struggle to maintain and recover their traditional ethnobiological practices in exile. Finally, we suggest further research into the ethnobiological practices and knowledge of displaced populations. Resumen Sanando las heridas de guerra y perfumando el

  4. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  5. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  6. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  7. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  8. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  9. 78 FR 76838 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements AGENCY... requirements for tobacco products. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection of... for Tobacco Products (OMB Control Number 0910-0684)--Extension On June 22, 2009, the President...

  10. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U S; Sabitha, M

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

  11. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U. S.; Sabitha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them. PMID:22923959

  12. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U S; Sabitha, M

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them. PMID:22923959

  13. 75 FR 78257 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... solicits comments on the collection of information associated with the Agency's Voluntary Cosmetic... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Voluntary Cosmetic Registration Program--21 CFR...

  14. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    PubMed

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes.

  15. [Acute intoxication by cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Nida, F

    1975-01-01

    Intoxications due to cosmetics are of various types, but certain substances may be particularly harmful, especially when the constituants include acetone, boric acid and borates, ethyl alcohol, bromates, formol, methyl alcohol, propylene glycol, thallium, thioglycolate.. Every cosmetic substance may induce accidental intoxications. Most often, fluid cosmetics are absorbed either by children or by feeble-minded subjects. In all intoxication, one must take account of the age and weight of the patient, of the quantity absorbed, of the toxicity and of the constituants of the substance.

  16. Safety assessment of modified terephthalate polymers as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The safety of 6 modified terephthalate polymers as cosmetic ingredients was assessed. These ingredients mostly function as exfoliants, bulking agents, hair fixatives, and viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used in leave-on products up to 100% and in rinse-off products up to 2%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered that the PET used in cosmetics is chemically equivalent to that used in medical devices. The Panel determined that the Food and Drug Administration's determination of safety of PET in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, can be used as the basis for the determination of safety of PET and related polymers used in cosmetics. Use studies of cosmetic eye products that contain PET demonstrated no ocular irritation or dermal sensitization. The Panel concluded that modified terephthalate polymers were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  17. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  18. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  19. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  20. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  1. Phototherapy in cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Joshua; Wang, Stephanie; Tsoukas, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    Light therapy has been incorporated into the art of healing and cosmesis for thousands of years and currently has found utility in many areas of medicine. Various modalities of cosmetic phototherapy are detailed, as well as the indications and mechanism of action for each modality. These modalities can be used to treat many common cosmetic conditions, including acne vulgaris, solar lentigo, and melasma. Phototherapy is considered a safe and effective option in the treatment of many of these disorders. PMID:27638442

  2. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  3. Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1-5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21-40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  4. Emerging role of microemulsions in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Adnan; Rizwan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khan, Zeenat I; Khar, Roop K; Aqil, Mohammed; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2008-01-01

    Microemulsions represent a promising carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous advantages over the existing conventional formulations. They are capable of solubilizing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients with relatively higher encapsulation. There is growing recognition of their potential benefits in the field of cosmetic science in addition to the drug delivery. They are now being widely investigated for preparing personal care products with superior features such as having improved product efficiency, stability or appearance. They are well suited for the preparation of various cosmetic products for use as moisturizing and soothing agents, as sunscreens, as antiperspirants and as body cleansing agents. They are also valuable for use in hair care compositions which ensure a good conditioning of the hair as well as good hair feel and hair gloss. They have also found application in after shave formulations which upon application to the skin provide reduced stinging and irritation and a comforting effect without tackiness. These newer formulations elicit very good cosmetic attributes and high hydration properties with rapid cutaneous penetration which may accentuate their role in topical products. These smart systems are also suitable for perfuming purposes where minimum amount of organic solvents is required, such as for perfuming skin or hair. This article highlights the recent innovations in the field of microemulsion technology as claimed by different patents which can bring unique products with great commercial prospects in a very competitive and lucrative global cosmetic market. PMID:19075913

  5. Emerging role of microemulsions in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Adnan; Rizwan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khan, Zeenat I; Khar, Roop K; Aqil, Mohammed; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2008-01-01

    Microemulsions represent a promising carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous advantages over the existing conventional formulations. They are capable of solubilizing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients with relatively higher encapsulation. There is growing recognition of their potential benefits in the field of cosmetic science in addition to the drug delivery. They are now being widely investigated for preparing personal care products with superior features such as having improved product efficiency, stability or appearance. They are well suited for the preparation of various cosmetic products for use as moisturizing and soothing agents, as sunscreens, as antiperspirants and as body cleansing agents. They are also valuable for use in hair care compositions which ensure a good conditioning of the hair as well as good hair feel and hair gloss. They have also found application in after shave formulations which upon application to the skin provide reduced stinging and irritation and a comforting effect without tackiness. These newer formulations elicit very good cosmetic attributes and high hydration properties with rapid cutaneous penetration which may accentuate their role in topical products. These smart systems are also suitable for perfuming purposes where minimum amount of organic solvents is required, such as for perfuming skin or hair. This article highlights the recent innovations in the field of microemulsion technology as claimed by different patents which can bring unique products with great commercial prospects in a very competitive and lucrative global cosmetic market.

  6. Safety Assessment of PEGylated oils as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 130 chemically related PEGylated oils were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  7. Immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry.

    PubMed

    Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Thum, Oliver

    2013-08-01

    Commercial products for personal care, generally perceived as cosmetics, have an important impact on everyday life worldwide. Accordingly, the market for both consumer products and specialty chemicals comprising their ingredients is considerable. Lipases have started to play a minor role as active ingredients in so-called 'functional cosmetics' as well as a major role as catalysts for the industrial production of various specialty esters, aroma compounds and active agents. Interestingly, both applications almost always require preparation by appropriate immobilisation techniques. In addition, for catalytic use special reactor concepts often have to be employed due to the mostly limited stability of these preparations. Nevertheless, these processes show distinct advantages based on process simplification, product quality and environmental footprint and are therefore apt to more and more replace traditional chemical processes. Here, for the first time a review on the various aspects of using immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry is given.

  8. [Simultaneous determination of 9 ultraviolet absorbers in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Mai; Uchino, Tadashi; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous determination for 9 ultraviolet absorbers those set a limit to the amount in cosmetics was performed. Ultraviolet absorbers were extracted from cosmetics with tetrahydrofuran (THF) by ultrasonication. After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected, and the sample solution was injected into the HPLC. Separation was archived using an ODS column with the mixture of THF and water as the mobile phase. Detection wavelength was set at 310 nm. The linearity was obtained between the peak areas and the concentrations of each ultraviolet absorber in the range of 5 - 100 microg/ml. In 70 commercial cosmetic products, such as sunscreen, face powder, foundation, massage cream, moisture lotion, lip balm and essence, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EMC), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB), 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMB) and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (ES) were detected.

  9. Safety Assessment of Galactomannans as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 galactomannans as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are legume polysaccharides that function mostly as hair/skin-conditioning agents and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Their substantial molecular sizes suggest that skin penetration of these ingredients would be unlikely. The Panel concluded that these galactomannans are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  10. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    PubMed

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    PubMed

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism. PMID:18656319

  12. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  13. Double dispersant-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with capillary electrophoresis for the determination of benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters in sunscreen cosmetic product.

    PubMed

    Ma, Teng; Li, Zheng; Niu, Qian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Weihong

    2015-10-01

    In this work, double dispersant-assisted ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed to determine four UV filters (benzophenone, 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone). 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was used as the extraction solvent. The main novelty of the present work was that acetonitrile-Triton X-114 was used as double disperser solvent. Parameters affected the extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, enrichment factors were in the range of 25.3-40.5. The limits of detection and quantitation, calculated at a S/N of three and ten, were 3.9-6.7 ng/mL and 13.0-22.3 ng/mL. The linearity of the method was in the range of 0.02-2 μg/mL for 2, 4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 4-hydroxybenzophenone, 0.01-2 μg/mL for benzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, with correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9984-0.9991. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of four benzophenone-type UV filters in six kinds of sunscreen cosmetic products, with yielded relative recoveries ranging from 80.2 to 117.7%.

  14. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Revision of the opinion on o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate (OPP), in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Scientific Committee On Consumer Safety Sccs; Bernauer, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707-65-8 as preservatives are regulated in Annex V/7 of the Cosmetics Regulation (EC) n. 1223/2009 at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). In February 2013, the Commission received a risk assessment submitted by the French Agency ANSM (Agence nationale de sécurité des médicaments et des produits de santé) which rose concerns about the use of o-Phenylphenol as preservatives in cosmetic products. In the context of the ANSM report (Evaluation du risque lié à l'utilisation de l'orthophénylphénol CAS n. 90-43-7 dans les produits cosmétiques) o-Phenylphenol has been identified as likely to be an endocrine disruptor. The report concludes that the maximum authorised concentration (currently of 0.2%) of o-Phenylphenol for use as a preservative should be revised due to low margin of safety. In January 2014, in response to a call for data on o-Phenylphenol by the Commission, Industry submitted a safety dossier in order to defend the current use of o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707- 65-8 as preservatives in cosmetic formulations at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in leave-on cosmetic products is not safe. Also, in view of further exposures including noncosmetic uses (see Anses, 2014), the maximum concentration of o-Phenylphenol in leave-on cosmetic products should be lowered. However, the proposed maximum use concentration of up to 0.15% by the applicant can be considered safe. The use of o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in rinse-off cosmetic products is considered safe. Based on the information provided, no conclusions of safe use can be drawn for Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate. In vitro data indicate an absent or very weak binding affinity of OPP to the oestrogen

  15. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) - Revision of the opinion on o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate (OPP), in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Scientific Committee On Consumer Safety Sccs; Bernauer, Ulrike

    2016-08-01

    o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707-65-8 as preservatives are regulated in Annex V/7 of the Cosmetics Regulation (EC) n. 1223/2009 at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). In February 2013, the Commission received a risk assessment submitted by the French Agency ANSM (Agence nationale de sécurité des médicaments et des produits de santé) which rose concerns about the use of o-Phenylphenol as preservatives in cosmetic products. In the context of the ANSM report (Evaluation du risque lié à l'utilisation de l'orthophénylphénol CAS n. 90-43-7 dans les produits cosmétiques) o-Phenylphenol has been identified as likely to be an endocrine disruptor. The report concludes that the maximum authorised concentration (currently of 0.2%) of o-Phenylphenol for use as a preservative should be revised due to low margin of safety. In January 2014, in response to a call for data on o-Phenylphenol by the Commission, Industry submitted a safety dossier in order to defend the current use of o-Phenylphenol, Sodium o-phenylphenate, Potassium o-phenylphenate, CAS n. 90-43-7, 132-27-4, 13707- 65-8 as preservatives in cosmetic formulations at a maximum concentration of 0.2% (as phenol). o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in leave-on cosmetic products is not safe. Also, in view of further exposures including noncosmetic uses (see Anses, 2014), the maximum concentration of o-Phenylphenol in leave-on cosmetic products should be lowered. However, the proposed maximum use concentration of up to 0.15% by the applicant can be considered safe. The use of o-Phenylphenol as preservative with a maximum concentration of 0.2% in rinse-off cosmetic products is considered safe. Based on the information provided, no conclusions of safe use can be drawn for Sodium o-phenylphenate and Potassium o-phenylphenate. In vitro data indicate an absent or very weak binding affinity of OPP to the oestrogen

  16. Complications of cosmetic tattoos.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic tattoos, which are better known as permanent make-up, have become popular in the last decades. This same procedure can be used to camouflage pathological skin conditions, to mask scars and to complete the aesthetic results of plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The risks and complications of tattooing procedures include infections and allergic reactions. Scarring can occur. Fanning and fading of the colorants and dissatisfaction with colour and shape are not unusual. Different lasers can offer solutions for the removal of unwanted cosmetic tattoos, but complications due to the laser treatment, such as paradoxical darkening and scarring, can arise.

  17. Contact dermatitis to cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Identifying and avoiding the causative allergens can pose a challenge to both the patient and the dermatologist. The site of involvement can give the investigator clues to the cause of the eruption in many cases. Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens in cosmetics. Botanicals are being added to cosmetics because of consumer demand and are now being recognized as sources of allergy as well. Patch testing allows for the detection of allergens that are potentially relevant in the genesis of the patient's eczema. Common skin-care product allergens, including fragrances and botanicals as well as those found in sunscreen, nail, and hair-care products, are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  18. Determination of parabens in cosmetic products by solid-phase microextraction of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate thin film on fibers and ultra high-speed liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ting; Li, Haifang; Ding, Mingyu; Ito, Masahito; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2011-07-01

    The fabrication of a solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber through UV-induced polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) for determination of parabens in cosmetic products is presented in this work. The PEG-DA polymer coating was covalently attached to the fiber by introducing a surface modification with 3-(trichlorosilyl)propyl methacrylate (TPM). The PEG-DA polymer thin film coated on the fiber was homogeneous and wrinkled, which led to an increase of the surface area and high extraction efficiency. The extraction performances of the prepared SPME fibers were assessed by preconcentration of parabens including methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and benzylparaben from cosmetic products. The analysis was performed on an ultra high-speed liquid chromatography with diode array detector. The prepared SPME fibers exhibited good repeatability (for one fiber) and reproducibility (fiber-to-fiber) with RSDs of 5.4 and 6.9%, respectively. The optimized SPME method supported a wide linear range of 0.50-160 μg/mL and the detection limits for parabens were in the range of 0.12-0.15 μg/mL (S/N=3). The developed method was successfully applied for determination of parabens in cosmetic products with different natures.

  19. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  20. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  1. Allergy to selected cosmetic ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Adamczuk, Piotr; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Galińska, Elżbieta M.; Cholewa, Grażyna; Piątek, Jacek; Koźlik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which cosmetics are commonly used, their often prolonged contact with the human body should determine the safety of their use. Often cosmetics are the cause of many side effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. Common groups of cosmetic components responsible for side effects are fragrances, preservatives and dyes. This paper focuses on the most allergenic components. PMID:24353491

  2. Determination of alpha-hydroxy acids in cosmetic products by high-performance liquid chromatography with a narrow-bore column.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, I; Corradini, C; Cogliandro, E; Cavazza, A

    1999-08-01

    This paper reports the results of a study carried out to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive method for the separation, identification and quantitative measurement of alpha-hydroxy acids in commercial cosmetics using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This method is successfully applied to the simultaneous identification and quantitative determination of glycolic, lactic, malic, tartaric and citric acids employing a reversed phase narrow-bore column under isocratic condition and UV detection. The method is validated by determining the precision of replicate analyses and accuracy by analyzing samples with and without adding know amount of the alpha-hydroxy acids. The procedure is suitable for routine analyses of commercial cosmetics.

  3. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters.

  4. Cosmetics - chemical technology or biotechnology?

    PubMed

    Allen, G

    1984-04-01

    Synopsis Over the past 25 years the cosmetic industry has become increasingly technological. The origins of many of these advances were based upon chemical technology usually related to colloid science, although more recent developments have had clear biological improvements. A number of recent innovations are examined to consider how far developments in the future will stem from biotechnology rather than chemical technology. The working of surface active materials (e.g. CTAB) is discussed as an example of cosmetic effects being generated purely from chemical technology. The role of fluoride toothpaste in decreasing the incidence of dental caries is discussed as an effect based essentially on chemical technology in an area where future alternatives might come from biotechnology. Skin research is highlighted as the area where new understanding, e.g. of the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin and laminin, could lead to a whole new biotechnological approach to the appraisal of skin. As we venture into innovations based on biotechnology we may be introducing new dimensions in product safety which will need an even closer relationship with the medical fraternity. Consequently the introduction of products based on biotechnology may not be as rapid as is sometimes suggested.

  5. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  6. Cosmetics Advertising: A Look at the Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Nancy

    Social, economic, and popular scientific trends converged in the early twentieth century to support the mass popularity of cosmetics. Twentieth-century magazine ads for personal care and beauty products reflected the contemporary belief that "science" was on the verge of being able to cure almost anything, including physical flaws and aging, and…

  7. Contact allergy to cosmetics: causative ingredients.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C

    1987-07-01

    Of 1781 patients with contact dermatitis seen during a period of 6 years (1981-1986), 75 (4.2%) had allergy to cosmetic products. The face was most frequently affected. In many cases, the dermatitis was limited to the eyelids (18.7%) or the face (40.0%). Skin care products (moisturizing and cleansing cream/lotion/milk) accounted for more than half (52.3%), followed by nail cosmetics (8.0%), shaving preparations (8.0%) and deodorants (6.8%). The ingredients most often responsible were fragrances (45.1%), followed by the preservative Kathon CG (11.0%) and the emulsifier oleamidopropyl dimethylamine (9.8%). In 14 patients (18.7%), patch tests with the responsible cosmetic product were negative. In them, the diagnosis was made by use tests and/or repeated open application tests. Compulsory declaration of ingredients on cosmetic product labels in the EEC, analagous to the USA situation, would be of great benefit both to patients and to physicians.

  8. Safety of ingredients used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Marks, James G; Andersen, F Alan

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) program was established in 1976 by the Cosmetics, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association, with the support of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). CIR performs independent, expert reviews to determine if ingredients used in cosmetics are safe. CIR staff prepares summaries of available data and the CIR Expert Panel reviews the data in open, public meetings. If more data are needed, requests are made. Unpublished studies may be provided, but become public and available for review once summarized in CIR safety assessments. Tentative conclusions are supported with a rationale and public comment is sought. Taking any input into consideration, a final safety assessment monograph is issued. These monographs are submitted for publication in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Toxicology . To date, 1194 individual cosmetic ingredients have been addressed. Of these, 683 were found to be safe in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration. With qualifications, another 388 have been found safe for use in cosmetics; specific qualifications for each are given. Nine ingredients have been deemed unsafe for use in cosmetics and the safety issue has been described. The available data were found insufficient to support the safety of 114 ingredients; the needed data are listed. Hair dyes represent an important product category reviewed by CIR. In considering hair dyes, the CIR Expert Panel reviews experimental and clinical data specific to the particular chemical structure of each hair dye and reviews epidemiologic studies that address hair dye use that are less specific. Recently the CIR Expert Panel concluded that the available epidemiologic studies are insufficient to conclude there is a causal relationship between hair dye use and cancer and other end points. It is inevitable that new information will become available concerning ingredients for which safety assessments were

  9. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  10. 78 FR 35279 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Electronic Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... information for this information collection: FDA Form 2579 ``Report of Assembly of a Diagnostic X-Ray System... Occurrence (ARO)'' FDA Form 3626 ``A Guide for the Submission of Initial Reports on Diagnostic X-Ray Systems and Their Major Components'' FDA Form 3627 ``Diagnostic X-Ray CT Products Radiation Safety...

  11. [Cosmetic eyelid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ruban, J-M; Barbier, J; Malet, T; Baggio, E

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic eyelid surgery is becoming increasingly popular. It can rejuvenate the patient's appearance with relatively minor side effects. Its risk/benefit ratio is one of the best in facial cosmetic surgery. However, the patient does not always accurately assess the aesthetic appearance of his or her eyelids. This underscores the importance of clinical examination in order to determine the patient's wishes, and then make an accurate diagnosis and potential surgical plan. We currently oppose, in general, surgical techniques involving tissue removal (skin-muscle and/or fat) in favor of those involving tissue repositioning and grafting (autologous fat pearl transposition, obtained by liposuction, and lipostructure). Furthermore, the place of adjuvant therapies to blepharoplasty is steadily increasing. They mainly include surface treatments (peels and lasers), dermal fillers and anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections. They are also increasingly used in isolation in novel ways. In all cases, a perfect knowledge of anatomy and relevant skills and experience remain necessary.

  12. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  13. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted.

  14. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. PMID:26227892

  15. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  16. Cosmetic allergy: incidence, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Orton, David I; Wilkinson, John D

    2004-01-01

    A recent epidemiologic survey in the UK revealed that 23% of women and 13.8% of men experience some sort of adverse reaction to a personal care product over the course of a year. Although most of these reactions may be due to subjective sensory irritation, various studies reveal that up to 10% of dermatologic patients who are patch tested are allergic to cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients. Causative products include deodorants and perfumes, skin care products, hair care products, and nail cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis mainly results from fragrance chemicals and preservatives. Recent work has suggested that additional fragrance chemicals may need to be tested in order to identify those patients 'missed' by the current fragrance mix; in particular, hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPPC Lyral) has been singled out as an important sensitizing agent. The increased usage of natural fragrances and botanic extracts can also cause problems in their own right or through co-reactivity. The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile has also been recognized as an increasingly important sensitizer in Europe, which has led to the recent recommendation that it should be prohibited from 'leave-on' products until information on 'safe' consumer levels becomes available. Other emerging allergens include UV filters, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, and nail acrylates. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy should be confirmed with patch testing, including testing of 'whole' products, when necessary, and repeat open application tests can be used to confirm the relevance of reactions in cases of doubt.

  17. Methods for the assessment of the efficacy of products and slimming treatments for cellulite according to the Italian Interdisciplinary Group for the standardization of efficacy tests on cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, S; Bassoli, S; Flori, M L; Rigano, L; Sparavigna, A; Vesnaver, R; Berardesca, E

    2013-04-01

    Cellulite is a very common skin alteration with a complex pathogenesis; different degrees of severity of cellulite can be observed in most part of people after puberty, and numerous cosmetic or more invasive treatments have been proposed, with variable efficacy. Since reproducible methods of evaluation of the effectiveness of cellulite treatments are lacking, the purpose of our group was to define and set general testing principles for evaluating the efficacy of slimming products and treatments/remodeling methods for cellulite, to achieve a delineation of reliable and reproducible research steps following a well-designed and scientifically valid methodology. After a careful review of literature and textbooks and according to personal experience, we defined assessment protocols based on clinical and instrumental tools. In order to make studies reliable, reproducible and safe, a protocol standardization is needed. The sponsor is responsible for assuring quality and information concerning the product under investigation; moreover, investigators should be experienced on cellulite evaluation and treatment, and, finally, the duration and modalities of application of the product should be specified. A treated VS non treated area comparison can be performed, to evaluate the severity of cellulite and the clinical outcomes of the treatment. Besides clinical evaluation, instrumental methods should always be implemented to provide objective data for treatment outcome.

  18. 75 FR 67981 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Importer's Entry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... this collection of information expands the universe of respondents being regulated under the FD&C Act... origin FDA regulated foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, radiological health, and tobacco products..., landport, and airport) where foreign-origin FDA-regulated products are offered for import, FDA is...

  19. COSMETIC CAMOUFLAGE IN VITILIGO

    PubMed Central

    Sarveswari, K N

    2010-01-01

    Vitiligo is not a life–threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water–free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient’s skin, thereby concealing vitiligo patches. The article highlights the content and technique of application of these creams. PMID:21063508

  20. Quality Assessment of Collection 6 MODIS Atmospheric Science Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, V. S.; Ridgway, B.; Platnick, S. E.; Devadiga, S.; Mauoka, E.

    2015-12-01

    Since the launch of the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively, atmosphere and land data acquired by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor on-board these satellites have been reprocessed five times at the MODAPS (MODIS Adaptive Processing System) located at NASA GSFC. The global land and atmosphere products use science algorithms developed by the NASA MODIS science team investigators. MODAPS completed Collection 6 reprocessing of MODIS Atmosphere science data products in April 2015 and is currently generating the Collection 6 products using the latest version of the science algorithms. This reprocessing has generated one of the longest time series of consistent data records for understanding cloud, aerosol, and other constituents in the earth's atmosphere. It is important to carefully evaluate and assess the quality of this data and remove any artifacts to maintain a useful climate data record. Quality Assessment (QA) is an integral part of the processing chain at MODAPS. This presentation will describe the QA approaches and tools adopted by the MODIS Land/Atmosphere Operational Product Evaluation (LDOPE) team to assess the quality of MODIS operational Atmospheric products produced at MODAPS. Some of the tools include global high resolution images, time series analysis and statistical QA metrics. The new high resolution global browse images with pan and zoom have provided the ability to perform QA of products in real time through synoptic QA on the web. This global browse generation has been useful in identifying production error, data loss, and data quality issues from calibration error, geolocation error and algorithm performance. A time series analysis for various science datasets in the Level-3 monthly product was recently developed for assessing any long term drifts in the data arising from instrument errors or other artifacts. This presentation will describe and discuss some test cases from the

  1. Cosmetic tattoo pigment reaction.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCutaneous reactions to tattoos are most commonly granulomatous or lichenoid.PurposeWe describe a woman who developed a lymphocytic reaction following a cosmetic tattoo procedure with black dye. The reaction occurred not only at the site of the tattoos (eyebrows and eyelash lines), but also in non-tattooed skin (bilateral malar cheeks).Methods and MaterialsWe reviewed PubMed for the following terms: cosmetic, dye, granuloma, granulomatous, lichenoid, lymphocytic, perivascular, pigment, pseudolymphoma, reaction, and tattoo. We also reviewed papers containing these terms and their references.ResultsHistopathologic examination of the left eyebrow and left cheek punch biopsies showed predominantly a perivascular lymphocytic reaction secondary to exogenous tattoo pigment.ConclusionsPerivascular lymphocytic reaction is an uncommonly described complication of tattooing. Our patient had an atypical presentation since she had no prior tattoos, became symptomatic only a few days after the procedure, reacted to black dye, and involved skin both within and outside the confines of the tattoos. Her symptoms and lesions resolved after treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. PMID:27617722

  2. Safety Assessment of Nitrocellulose and Collodion as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) assessed the safety of nitrocellulose and collodion as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. Both ingredients are used almost exclusively in nail product formulations. The maximum concentration of use of nitrocellulose in nail polish and enamels is 22%; for collodion, the maximum reported concentration of use in nail polish and enamel is 14%. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383197

  3. Safety Assessment of Ethanolamides as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) rereviewed the safety of 28 ethanolamides and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration when they are formulated to be nonirritating, and that these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed. Most of the ethanolamides are reported to function in cosmetics as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents, and surfactant-foam boosters. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports.

  4. The influence of cosmetics on the properties of skin autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamošiūnas, M.; Bertulytė, I.; Rečiūnaitė, I.; Jakštys, B.; Šatkauskienė, I.; Čepurnienė, K.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the changes of autofluorescence and sensitized fluorescence under the effect of cosmetics. We used a method of fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo and examined the mouse skin covering the tumour. Analysis of fluorescence spectral changes was made after differentiation of the cosmetics according to its effects: i) inducing temporary changes of skin autofluorescence after absorbtion into skin (lipsticks, face powders, body lotions, mascaras); ii) permanently changing the fluorescence of the skin (collagen containing products). Cosmetics have been shown to be optically active and capable to alter the fluorescence of exogenously accumulated photosensitizers and endogenous tissue fluorophores.

  5. Implementing Provenance Collection in a Legacy Data Product Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Ramachandran, R.; Kulkarni, A.; Beaumont, B.; McEniry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Goodman, H.

    2012-12-01

    NASA has been collecting, storing, archiving and distributing vast amounts of Earth science data derived from satellite observations for several decades now. The raw data collected from the different sensors undergoes many different transformations before it is distributed to the science community as climate-research-quality data products. These data transformations include calibration, geolocation, and conversion of the instrument counts into meaningful geophysical parameters, and may include reprojection and/or spatial and temporal averaging as well. In the case of many Earth science data systems, the science algorithms and any ancillary data files used for these transformations are delivered as a "black box" to be integrated into the data system's processing framework. In contrast to an experimental workflow that may vary with each iteration, such systems use consistent, well-engineered processes to apply the same science algorithm to each well-defined set of inputs in order to create standard data products. Even so, variability is inevitably introduced. There may be changes made to the algorithms, different ancillary datasets may be used, underlying hardware and software may get upgraded, etc. Furthermore, late-arriving input data, operator error, or other processing anomalies may necessitate regeneration and replacement of a particular set of data files and any downstream products. These variations need to be captured, documented and made accessible to the scientific community so they can be properly accounted for in analyses. This presentation describes an approach to provenance capture, storage and dissemination implemented at the NASA Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) for the AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System) instrument. Key considerations in adding provenance capabilities to this legacy data system include: (1) granularity of provenance information captured, (2) additional context information needed

  6. Development and validation of a single RP-HPLC assay method for analysis of bulk raw material batches of four parabens that are widely used as preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Mathkar, S; Romero, C; Rustum, A M

    2011-05-01

    A stability-indicating, robust, fast, and user friendly reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) assay method has been developed and validated for the analysis of commercial raw material batches of methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, and butylparaben. These four parabens are widely used as preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Accurate assay value of each of the parabens in their respective commercial lots is critical to determine the correct weight of the paraben that is needed to obtain the target concentration of the paraben in a specific lot of pharmaceutical or cosmetic products. Currently, there are no single HPLC assay methods (validated as per ICH requirements) available in the literature that can be used to analyze the commercial lots of each of the four parabens. The analytical method reported herein analyzes all four parabens in less than 10 min. The method presented in this report was successfully validated as per ICH guidelines. Therefore, this method can be implemented in QC laboratories to analyze and assay the commercial bulk lots of the four parabens.

  7. Porous-membrane-protected polyaniline-coated SBA-15 nanocomposite micro-solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of parabens in cosmetic products and wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ara, Katayoun Mahdavi; Pandidan, Sara; Aliakbari, Azam; Raofie, Farhad; Amini, Mostafa M

    2015-04-01

    A SBA-15/polyaniline para-toluenesulfonic acid nanocomposite supported micro-solid-phase extraction procedure has been developed for the extraction of parabens (methylparaben, ethylparaben, and propylparaben) from wastewater and cosmetic products. The variables of interest in the extraction process were pH of sample, sample and eluent volumes, sorbent amount, salting-out effect, extraction and desorption time, and stirring rate. A Plackett-Burman design was performed for the screening of variables in order to determine the significant variables affecting the extraction efficiency. Then, the significant factors were optimized by using a central composite design. The optimum experimental conditions found at 50 mL sample solution, extraction and desorption times of 40 and 20 min, respectively, 500 μL of 3% v/v acetic acid in methanol as eluent, 0.01 M salt addition, and 10 mg of the sorbent. Under the optimum conditions, the developed method provided detection limits in the range of 0.08-0.4 ng/mL with good repeatability (RSD% < 7) and linearity (r(2) = 0.997-0.999) for the three parabens. Finally, this fast and efficient method was employed for the determination of target analytes in cosmetic products and wastewater, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  8. Skin-lightening cosmetics: frequent, potentially severe adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Skin-lightening cosmetics are used by many women and men around the world. The products contain a variety of substances, which are often unknown to the users. Most of these products include topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury salts. Many other substances may be added. Several surveys and cohort studies, including several thousand individuals, have shown that regular application of skin-lightening cosmetics to large surface areas can have irreversible cutaneous adverse effects, such as patchy hyper- or hypopigmentation, skin atrophy, stretch marks and delayed wound healing, and can also mask or, on the contrary, promote or reactivate skin infections. Cases of skin cancer have been attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics. A Senegalese cohort study of 147 women showed a statistically significant increase in the risk of hypertension and diabetes linked to the use of skin-lightening agents. Other systemic adverse effects attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics include Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, neurological disorders, and ocular disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have also been attributed to these products. Many skin-lightening cosmetics contain substances that can harm the unborn child. For example, tretinoin is teratogenic while salicylic acid is feto-toxic. In practice, users are often unaware of the risk of severe adverse effects associated with skin-lightening cosmetics. Users should be informed of these adverse effects and encouraged to stop using these products, especially when skin disorders appear.

  9. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  10. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic.

  11. Metal concentrations in cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Otaraku, Jonathan Oye

    2013-01-01

    Trace amounts of potentially toxic metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. In the present study, the levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and mercury have been assessed in 28 body creams and lotions, 10 powders, 3 soaps, 5 eye make-ups, and 4 lipsticks widely available on Nigerian markets. The increases over suggested or mandated levels of lead in these creams and lotions ranged from 6.1 to 45.9 and from 1.2 to 9.2 mg kg⁻¹ when compared with Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel 2007 and German safe maximum permissible limit of lead in cosmetics, respectively. About 61% of the body cosmetics, the lotions, and the creams contained detectable levels of nickel ranging from 1.1 to 6.4-9.2 mg kg⁻¹. Chromium and mercury were undetected in 100% of the cosmetic product. Taken together, lead and cadmium were high in creams and lotions. Most of the imported creams and creamy white coloured cosmetics contained higher levels of metal contaminants than the other colours. Regulatory Agencies in developing nations should take appropriate action for cosmetics that contain lead and cadmium beyond the reference limits.

  12. Metal Concentrations in Cosmetics Commonly Used in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Otaraku, Jonathan Oye

    2013-01-01

    Trace amounts of potentially toxic metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. In the present study, the levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and mercury have been assessed in 28 body creams and lotions, 10 powders, 3 soaps, 5 eye make-ups, and 4 lipsticks widely available on Nigerian markets. The increases over suggested or mandated levels of lead in these creams and lotions ranged from 6.1 to 45.9 and from 1.2 to 9.2 mg kg−1 when compared with Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel 2007 and German safe maximum permissible limit of lead in cosmetics, respectively. About 61% of the body cosmetics, the lotions, and the creams contained detectable levels of nickel ranging from 1.1 to 6.4–9.2 mg kg−1. Chromium and mercury were undetected in 100% of the cosmetic product. Taken together, lead and cadmium were high in creams and lotions. Most of the imported creams and creamy white coloured cosmetics contained higher levels of metal contaminants than the other colours. Regulatory Agencies in developing nations should take appropriate action for cosmetics that contain lead and cadmium beyond the reference limits. PMID:24385889

  13. 76 FR 3604 - Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Engine Driven Pumps

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Qualified Products List for Engine Driven Pumps AGENCY: Forest... on the new information collection, Qualified Products List for Engine Driven Pumps. DATES: Comments.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Qualified Products List for Engine Driven Pumps. OMB Number:...

  14. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

    2009-06-01

    Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts. PMID:19249334

  15. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

    2009-06-01

    Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts.

  16. Quality of life assessment in cosmetics: specificity and interest of the international BeautyQol instrument.

    PubMed

    Beresniak, Ariel; Auray, Jean-Paul; Duru, Gérard; Aractingi, Selim; Krueger, Gerald G; Talarico, Sergio; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Dupont, Danielle; de Linares, Yolaine

    2015-09-01

    The wide use of cosmetics and their perceived benefits upon well-being imply objective descriptions of their effects upon the different dimensions contributing to the quality of life (QoL). Such a goal pleas for using relevant and validated scientific instruments with robust measurement methods. This paper discusses the interest of the new validated questionnaire BeautyQoL specifically designed to assess the effect of cosmetic products on physical appearance and QoL. After conducting a review of skin appearance and QoL, three phases of the international codevelopment have been carried out in the following sequence: semi-directed interviews (Phase 1), acceptability study (Phase 2), and validation study (Phase 3). Data collection and validation process have been carried out in 16 languages. This review confirms that QoL instruments developed in dermatology are not suitable to assess cosmetic products, mainly because of their lack of sensitivity. General acceptability of BeautyQol was very good. Forty-two questions have been structured in five dimensions that explained 76.7% of the total variance: Social Life, Self-confidence, Mood, Vitality, and Attractiveness. Cronbach's alpha coefficients are between 0.932 and 0.978, confirming the good internal consistency of the results. The BeautyQol questionnaire is the first international instrument specific to cosmetic products and physical appearance that has been validated in 16 languages and could be used in a number of clinical trials and descriptive studies to demonstrate the added value of these products on the QoL.

  17. Quality of life assessment in cosmetics: specificity and interest of the international BeautyQol instrument.

    PubMed

    Beresniak, Ariel; Auray, Jean-Paul; Duru, Gérard; Aractingi, Selim; Krueger, Gerald G; Talarico, Sergio; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Dupont, Danielle; de Linares, Yolaine

    2015-09-01

    The wide use of cosmetics and their perceived benefits upon well-being imply objective descriptions of their effects upon the different dimensions contributing to the quality of life (QoL). Such a goal pleas for using relevant and validated scientific instruments with robust measurement methods. This paper discusses the interest of the new validated questionnaire BeautyQoL specifically designed to assess the effect of cosmetic products on physical appearance and QoL. After conducting a review of skin appearance and QoL, three phases of the international codevelopment have been carried out in the following sequence: semi-directed interviews (Phase 1), acceptability study (Phase 2), and validation study (Phase 3). Data collection and validation process have been carried out in 16 languages. This review confirms that QoL instruments developed in dermatology are not suitable to assess cosmetic products, mainly because of their lack of sensitivity. General acceptability of BeautyQol was very good. Forty-two questions have been structured in five dimensions that explained 76.7% of the total variance: Social Life, Self-confidence, Mood, Vitality, and Attractiveness. Cronbach's alpha coefficients are between 0.932 and 0.978, confirming the good internal consistency of the results. The BeautyQol questionnaire is the first international instrument specific to cosmetic products and physical appearance that has been validated in 16 languages and could be used in a number of clinical trials and descriptive studies to demonstrate the added value of these products on the QoL. PMID:26133392

  18. The Collection 6 'dark-target' MODIS Aerosol Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Mattoo, Shana; Munchak, Leigh A.; Kleidman, Richard G.; Patadia, Falguni; Gupta, Pawan; Remer, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrieval algorithms are applied to Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on both Terra and Aqua, creating two streams of decade-plus aerosol information. Products of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size are used for many applications, but the primary concern is that these global products are comprehensive and consistent enough for use in climate studies. One of our major customers is the international modeling comparison study known as AEROCOM, which relies on the MODIS data as a benchmark. In order to keep up with the needs of AEROCOM and other MODIS data users, while utilizing new science and tools, we have improved the algorithms and products. The code, and the associated products, will be known as Collection 6 (C6). While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there are significant impacts to the products and their interpretation. In its entirety, the C6 algorithm is comprised of three sub-algorithms for retrieving aerosol properties over different surfaces: These include the dark-target DT algorithms to retrieve over (1) ocean and (2) vegetated-dark-soiled land, plus the (3) Deep Blue (DB) algorithm, originally developed to retrieve over desert-arid land. Focusing on the two DT algorithms, we have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, while relaxing the solar zenith angle limit (up to 84) to increase pole-ward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such as topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence in the retrieval, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and

  19. Cosmetics, skin care, and appearance in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, D

    1999-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of the body and the evolution of the mind that will eventually lead to adulthood. "Yesterday's child" will need to assume and exert control over these changes. Therefore his/her appearance becomes a means of communication, a language to express his/her pursuit of self-identity. The cosmetic industry has identified teenagers as "powerful" consumers, and offers them various toiletry and skin care products that should fulfill their needs, such as cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective agents. Certain decorative cosmetics, especially for hair and nails, are attractive to them also. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is through body art such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing.

  20. The Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products over land and ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.; Remer, L. A.; Sayer, A. M.; Patadia, F.; Hsu, N. C.

    2013-11-01

    The twin Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been flying on Terra since 2000 and Aqua since 2002, creating an extensive data set of global Earth observations. Here, we introduce the Collection 6 (C6) algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size parameters from MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there are significant impacts to the products and their interpretation. The C6 aerosol data set will be created from three separate retrieval algorithms that operate over different surface types. These are the two "Dark Target" (DT) algorithms for retrieving (1) over ocean (dark in visible and longer wavelengths) and (2) over vegetated/dark-soiled land (dark in the visible), plus the "Deep Blue" (DB) algorithm developed originally for retrieving (3) over desert/arid land (bright in the visible). Here, we focus on DT-ocean and DT-land (#1 and #2). We have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, while relaxing the solar zenith angle limit (up to ≤ 84°) to increase poleward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season/location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence on the surface reflectance, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and additions of important diagnostic information. At the same time, we quantified how "upstream" changes to instrument calibration, land/sea masking and cloud masking will also impact the statistics of global AOD, and affect Terra and Aqua differently. For Aqua, all changes will result in reduced

  1. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Hamayun; Nazir, Jaweria; Firdous, Syeda Sadiqa; Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area. PMID:25068138

  2. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  3. The teratology testing of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

  4. The Collection 6 MODIS aerosol products over land and ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Munchak, L. A.; Remer, L. A.; Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.

    2013-01-01

    The twin Moderate Imaging resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been flying on Terra since 2000 and Aqua since 2002, creating an incredible dataset of global Earth observations. Here, we introduce the Collection 6 (C6) algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol size parameters from MODIS-observed spectral reflectance. While not a major overhaul from the previous Collection 5 (C5) version, there are enough changes that there is significant impact on the products and their interpretation. The C6 algorithm is comprised of three sub-algorithms for retrieving aerosol properties (1) over ocean (dark in visible and near-IR wavelengths), (2) over vegetated/dark-soiled land (dark in the visible) and (3) over desert/arid land (bright in the visible). Here, we focus on the changes to both "dark target" algorithms (#1 and #2; DT-ocean and DT-land). Affecting both DT algorithms, we have updated assumptions for central wavelengths, Rayleigh optical depths and gas (H2O, O3, CO2, etc.) absorption corrections, and relaxed the solar zenith angle limit (up to ≤ 84°) to increase pole-ward coverage. For DT-land, we have updated the cloud mask to allow heavy smoke retrievals, fine-tuned the assignments for aerosol type as function of season/location, corrected bugs in the Quality Assurance (QA) logic, and added diagnostic parameters such topographic altitude. For DT-ocean, improvements include a revised cloud mask for thin-cirrus detection, inclusion of wind speed dependence in the retrieval, updates to logic of QA Confidence flag (QAC) assignment, and additions of important diagnostic information. All together, the changes to the DT algorithms result in reduced global AOD (by 0.02) over ocean and increased AOD (by 0.01) over land, along with some changes in spatial coverage. Preliminary validation shows that compared to surface-based sunphotometer data, the C6 DT-products should compare at least as well as those from C5. However, at the same time as we

  5. Appearance, cosmetics, and body art in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, D

    2000-10-01

    Appearance in adolescents is a means of communication, a language expressing self identity. Teenagers explore fashions to make personal statements. Teenagers are significant consumers of various toiletry and skin care products that fill their cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective needs. They also are enthusiastic consumers of products aimed at adolescent fads, such as decorative hair and nail cosmetics. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is achieved through body art, such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing.

  6. Do cosmetics enhance female Caucasian facial attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Mulhern, R; Fieldman, G; Hussey, T; Lévêque, J-L; Pineau, P

    2003-08-01

    This study sought to investigate whether cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness, and to determine whether the contribution of different cosmetic products are separable, or whether they function synergistically to enhance female beauty. Ten volunteers were made up by a beautician under five cosmetics conditions: (i) no make-up; (ii) foundation only; (iii) eye make-up only; (iv) lip make-up only; and (v) full facial make-up. Male and female participants were asked to view the 10 sets of five photographs, and rank each set from most attractive to least attractive. As predicted, faces with full make-up were judged more attractive than the same faces with no make-up. Sex differences within the results were also apparent. Women judged eye make-up as contributing most to the attractiveness. Men rated eye make-up and foundation as having a significant impact on the attractiveness of a full facial makeover. Surprisingly, lipstick did not appear to contribute to attractiveness independently.

  7. Do cosmetics enhance female Caucasian facial attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Mulhern, R; Fieldman, G; Hussey, T; Lévêque, J-L; Pineau, P

    2003-08-01

    This study sought to investigate whether cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness, and to determine whether the contribution of different cosmetic products are separable, or whether they function synergistically to enhance female beauty. Ten volunteers were made up by a beautician under five cosmetics conditions: (i) no make-up; (ii) foundation only; (iii) eye make-up only; (iv) lip make-up only; and (v) full facial make-up. Male and female participants were asked to view the 10 sets of five photographs, and rank each set from most attractive to least attractive. As predicted, faces with full make-up were judged more attractive than the same faces with no make-up. Sex differences within the results were also apparent. Women judged eye make-up as contributing most to the attractiveness. Men rated eye make-up and foundation as having a significant impact on the attractiveness of a full facial makeover. Surprisingly, lipstick did not appear to contribute to attractiveness independently. PMID:18494902

  8. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936

  9. 78 FR 68027 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Revlon Consumer Products Corporation, Subzone 93G...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Corporation, Subzone 93G, (Cosmetics and Personal Care Products), Oxford, North Carolina Revlon Consumer... currently has authority to produce certain cosmetics and personal care products under FTZ procedures using... sulfate, cosmetic wax, oligopeptide, cetearyl alcohol polysorbate, calcium aluminum...

  10. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics: a review on legislation, usage, infections, and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-02-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved. As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy. Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of preservatives in cosmetics, but the results indicate that efficient preservation is obtainable with concentrations well below the maximum allowed.

  11. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  12. Cosmetic textiles with biological benefits: gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Kan, Chi Wai; Cheuk, Kevin Ka Leung; Chui, Chung Hin; Lam, Kim Hung

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, textile materials with special applications in the cosmetic field have been developed. A new sector of cosmetic textiles is opened up and several cosmetic textile products are currently available in the market. Microencapsulation technology is an effective technique to control the release properties of active ingredients that prolong the functionality of cosmetic textiles. This study discusses the development of cosmetic textiles and addresses microencapsulation technology with respect to its historical background, significant advantages, microencapsulation methods and recent applications in the textile industry. Gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C were prepared using emulsion hardening technique. Both the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the newly developed microcapsules were in the form of core-shell spheres with relatively smooth surface. The particle size of microcapsules ranged from 5.0 to 44.1 microm with the average particle size being 24.6 microm. The gelatin microcapsules were proved to be non-cytotoxic based on the research findings of the toxicity studies conducted on human liver and breast cell lines as well as primary bone marrow culture obtained from patient with non-malignant haematological disorder. The gelatin microcapsules were successfully grafted into textile materials for the development of cosmetic textiles.

  13. In vivo studies of substances used in the cosmetic industry

    PubMed Central

    Gościańska, Joanna; Witkowska, Beata; Nowak, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic producers are obliged to guarantee the safety and stability of their products. The current legal regulations are based on the European Union Directive (1223/2009) of 30 November 2009. The main aim of the directive is to formulate criteria of safety of a cosmetic product and requirements that it must meet to be placed on the market. A new cosmetic product is subjected to thorough investigation prior to its introduction on the market. It should be studied not only with respect to its safety, but also with respect to its effectiveness declared by the producer. The studies are performed in vivo, by the contact or epidermal patch tests on the human skin. PMID:27512349

  14. In vivo studies of substances used in the cosmetic industry.

    PubMed

    Igielska-Kalwat, Joanna; Gościańska, Joanna; Witkowska, Beata; Nowak, Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic producers are obliged to guarantee the safety and stability of their products. The current legal regulations are based on the European Union Directive (1223/2009) of 30 November 2009. The main aim of the directive is to formulate criteria of safety of a cosmetic product and requirements that it must meet to be placed on the market. A new cosmetic product is subjected to thorough investigation prior to its introduction on the market. It should be studied not only with respect to its safety, but also with respect to its effectiveness declared by the producer. The studies are performed in vivo, by the contact or epidermal patch tests on the human skin. PMID:27512349

  15. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable. PMID:27192730

  16. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.

  17. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  18. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet) with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz) on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20) (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum), onion (n=20) (Allium cepa) and tomato (n=18) (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum), were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid diges­tion). Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respec­tively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentra­tions were observed in kurrat (leek). Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05) and Zn (P<0.001) among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed be­tween Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001) Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05) and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05).   Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possi­ble health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is re­quired to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure. PMID:24688968

  19. Histologic features of nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Anolik, Rachel B; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Minakawa, Satoko; Nguyen, Jennifer; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-06-01

    Nail cosmetics and adornments are widely used in today's society. However, their histologic features are not well characterized. Routine histologic examination and polarization of nail plate specimens in our academic dermatopathology practice at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania revealed 3 distinct histologic patterns of nail cosmetics: a hyperpigmented pattern with diffuse fine granular material, a layered pattern with a single linear band of polarizable material, and a hyperpigmented pattern with larger granules containing flecks of polarizable material. In our experience, submitting clinicians rarely indicate the patient's use of nail polish or other enhancements. Recognition of the histologic features of nail cosmetics is important to prevent confusion with dermatoses affecting the nail unit, and it will help dermatopathologists render more accurate diagnoses. PMID:22452953

  20. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    PubMed

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection.

  1. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    PubMed

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection. PMID:26505538

  2. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  3. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women’s changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  4. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy.

  5. Myth 6: Cosmetic Use of Multiple Selection Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman-Nimz, Reva

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, armed with the courage of her convictions and a respectable collection of empirical evidence, the author articulated what she considered to be a compelling argument against the cosmetic use of multiple selection criteria as a guiding principle for identifying children and youth with high potential. To assess the current…

  6. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described.

  7. Biological effects of cosmetic talc.

    PubMed

    Wehner, A P

    1994-12-01

    A review of the literature reveals two primary issues: (1) a weak, but not causal, association of hygienic use of cosmetic talc and ovarian cancer; (2) lung changes in animals exposed to talc aerosol concentrations that resulted in lung overload. The evidentiary weight of the most significant of the epidemiological and laboratory studies and their biological significance for human risk assessment are briefly discussed. Publications describing granulomatous lesions attributed to talc on surgical gloves, and consequences of accidental inhalation of baby powder by infants are also reviewed. The literature reviewed does not provide any convincing evidence that pure cosmetic talc, when used as intended, presents a health risk to the human consumer.

  8. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment.

  9. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment. PMID:26234612

  10. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (Euxyl K 400): an important "new" allergen in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    De Groot, A C; van Ginkel, C J; Weijland, J W

    1996-11-01

    Euxyl K 400 is a preservative system for cosmetics and toiletries that contains phenoxyethanol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile in a 4:1 ratio. In The Netherlands, Italy, and Germany, the prevalence of allergy to Euxyl K 400 has risen in the past 4 years and is currently 2% to 4% in patients suspected of having contact dermatitis. The allergenic ingredient is nearly always methyldibromoglutaronitrile. Causative products include both stay-on and rinse-off cosmetics and moistened toilet tissue. Because the causative products usually give false-negative reactions, the allergen, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, should be tested in all patients suspected of having cosmetic dermatitis and in those with perianal dermatitis. We suggest a test concentration of 0.3% to 0.5% in petrolatum.

  11. Euxyl K 400: a new sensitizer in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Guerra, L; Bardazzi, F; Gasparri, F

    1991-08-01

    Euxyl K 400 is a preservative for cosmetics and toiletries containing 2 active ingredients, 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutan and 2-phenoxyethanol. 2057 consecutive patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested with Euxyl K 400 2.5% pet. and ethanol. A positive patch test occurred in 24 patients (1.2%). The source of sensitization was traced in 8 patients to their cosmetics. Both leave-on and rinse-off products were responsible. Further patch tests with Euxyl K 400 0.5% pet. and phenoxyethanol 5% pet. were performed in 11 patients. A positive patch test to phenoxyethanol was detected in 1 of them. Only 3 patients showed a mild reaction to Euxyl K 400 0.5%. A provocative use test with a lotion preserved with Euxyl K 400 0.1% was positive in 5 of these 11 patients. Patients with Euxyl K 400 sensitivity showed a high prevalence of positive patch tests to other common ingredients of cosmetics. Since the use of Euxyl K 400 in cosmetic products is rapidly increasing, it should be included in the patch test series for patients with suspected cosmetic allergy.

  12. Collecting National and International Data on the Production of Audio, Visual, and Microform Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frase, Robert W.

    This paper reviews UNESCO activities for the collection of national production data of audiovisual materials and microforms and presents possible approaches to the task. UNESCO has for some years collected data on the production of printed materials, but while recognizing the need for collecting similar statistics on nonprint media, it has not yet…

  13. 76 FR 21378 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... Human Food and Cosmetics Manufactured From, Processed With, or Otherwise Containing, Material From... Applicable to Human Food and Cosmetics Manufactured From, Processed With, or Otherwise Containing, Material... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities;...

  14. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  16. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: a legally imposed challenge to science.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, M; Rogiers, V

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  17. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized.

  18. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized. PMID:26953335

  19. Is It a Cosmetic, a Drug, or Both? (or Is It Soap?)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of product. Firms sometimes violate the law by marketing a cosmetic with a drug claim or by marketing a drug as if it were a cosmetic, ... that FDA approve a pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the United States. FDA only approves an ...

  20. Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

  1. [Chemistry of cosmetics in antiquity].

    PubMed

    Tsoucaris, G; Martinetto, P; Walter, P; Lévêque, J L

    2001-11-01

    Several texts, statues and paintings denote the importance of make up and eye medicines since the earliest periods of Egyptian history. We have investigated cosmetic powders that were preserved in original alabaster and reed containers. Quantitative crystallographic and chemical analysis of the mineral and organic components revealed surprising facts. In addition to the well known galena PbS and cerussite PbCO3, two unexpected constituents have been identified: laurionite PbOHCl and phosgenite Pb2 (CO3) Cl2, which are rare halide minerals found in lead slag only in certain places where the sea water has weathered lead debris left over from silver mining operations in Antiquity. Alteration of natural lead minerals is also unlikely, given the excellent state of conservation of the reed vessels. This evidence indicates that laurionite and phosgenite were synthesised artificially. Support for this statement comes from recipes of medicinal products to be "used in ophthalmology" reported by Greco-Roman authors such as Dioscorides and Pline (1st Century B.C.): silver foam PbO is crushed and mixed with rock salt and sometimes with natron (Na2CO3). The reaction seems to be straightforward. However, our experiments in the laboratory have shown a major difficulty, arising from the concomitant production of alkali, which raises the pH and leads to different products. It follows that the Egyptians very early mastered this kind of chemical synthesis and technology, a fact of great importance in the History of Sciences. Fire-based technology had been mastered to manufacture Egyptian Blue pigments since the third millennium B.C. The present results now suggest that wet chemistry was already known 4000 years ago. This key finding provides a new insight into the chemical technology of far greater antiquity than has previously been believed. Yet, an important question remains relative to the ultimate motivation for these technological developments. If the Egyptians initially only

  2. Collection and Screening of Microalgae for Lipid Production

    SciTech Connect

    Cooksey, K. E.

    1987-05-01

    Themotolerant microalgae were selected from an existing culture collection and isolated from hot spring areas of Yellowstone National Park. Several of them grew at 35 degrees celsius, although only one grew at much better than 1 doubling per day.

  3. 78 FR 19181 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products Industry Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Notice of Request for a New Information Collection: Egg Products... information collection for a survey of the egg products industry. DATES: Comments on this notice must be.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Egg Products Industry Survey. Type of Request: New information...

  4. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wiechers, Johann W; Musee, Ndeke

    2010-10-01

    The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings

  5. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue.

  6. 76 FR 50715 - Information Collection; Forest Products Removal Permits and Contracts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Forest Products Removal Permits and Contracts AGENCY: Forest... Act of 1995, the Forest Service is seeking comments from all interested individuals and organizations on the extension with no revision of a currently approved information collection, Forest...

  7. 76 FR 17127 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Environmentally Sound Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Environmentally Sound Products AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning environmentally sound...., Washington, DC 20405, telephone (202) 501-4755. Please cite OMB control No. 9000-0134, Environmentally...

  8. Hazards of urocanic acid as a cosmetic ingredient.

    PubMed

    Reeve, V E; Mitchell, L E

    1991-08-01

    Certain commercially available cosmetic products have been found to contain the ingredient urocanic acid. We have shown that the solar irradiation in vitro of one such lotion resulted in the formation of cis urocanic acid. The irradiated lotion, when applied topically to the skin of hairless mice, systemically suppressed the normal contact hypersensitivity reaction to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene by 68%. In addition, mice exposed to a minimally erythemal dose of ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation, normally sub-immunosuppressive, showed a 56% suppression of the contact hypersensitivity reaction if they were irradiated through the topically applied cosmetic lotion.

  9. From Germplasm Collection to Kaimana Lychee Production Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center (PBARC), Tropical Plant Genetic Resource Management Unit (TPGRMU), consisting of a scientific team to manage 14 designated tropical fruit and nut crops, is governed by a mission to collect, maintain, evaluate and distribute available germplasm for rese...

  10. Volunteer Programs in Courts: Collected Papers on Productive Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Development (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This publication is designed to provide court systems with a manual that presents collected papers detailing major program areas in utilizing volunteers. This manual is in a line of development which tries to establish a how-to-do-it body of special knowledge for courts. This body of knowledge has been built up by 8 years of experience in…

  11. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  12. 77 FR 59209 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Requirements; Proposed Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ...: Evaluate requests to burn liquid hydrocarbons and vent and flare gas to ensure that these requests are... reservoirs are being depleted in a manner that will lead to the greatest ultimate recovery of hydrocarbons. This information is collected to determine the capability of hydrocarbon wells and to evaluate...

  13. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  14. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  15. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  16. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  17. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  18. 76 FR 9023 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... revision to this collection of information expands the universe of respondents being regulated under the FD... origin FDA regulated foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, radiological health, and tobacco products..., landport, and airport) where foreign-origin FDA-regulated products are offered for import, FDA is...

  19. 77 FR 22602 - Information Collection Activities: Well Control and Production Safety Training, Submitted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... paperwork requirements in the regulations under Subpart O, ``Well Control and Production Safety Training... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) Information Collection Activities: Well Control and Production Safety Training, Submitted for Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Review; Comment...

  20. [The dark face of cosmetics. A justified or excessive diatribe?].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Lesuisse, M; Hermanns, J-F; Hermanns-Lê, T

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the population and producers of consumer products became aware of deleterious effects of some substances on human health and environment. Cosmetic products are part of such concern. What are the risks currently involved? The so-called "natural", "bio" or "green" products, do they represent an ideal panacea? This topic has a complex issue because documents available for the general public are of unequal quality, and objective scientifc publications remain rare and prone to controversies.

  1. [The dark face of cosmetics. A justified or excessive diatribe?].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Lesuisse, M; Hermanns, J-F; Hermanns-Lê, T

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the population and producers of consumer products became aware of deleterious effects of some substances on human health and environment. Cosmetic products are part of such concern. What are the risks currently involved? The so-called "natural", "bio" or "green" products, do they represent an ideal panacea? This topic has a complex issue because documents available for the general public are of unequal quality, and objective scientifc publications remain rare and prone to controversies. PMID:26727839

  2. Absorbent product to absorb fluids. [for collection of human wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, F. S.; Correale, J. V. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A multi-layer absorbent product for use in contact with the skin to absorb fluids is discussed. The product utilizes a water pervious facing layer for contacting the skin, overlayed by a first fibrous wicking layer, the wicking layer preferably being of the one-way variety in which fluid or liquid is moved away from the facing layer. The product further includes a first container section defined by inner and outer layer of a water pervious wicking material between which is disposed a first absorbent mass. A second container section defined by inner and outer layers between which is disposed a second absorbent mass and a liquid impermeable/gas permeable layer. Spacesuit applications are discussed.

  3. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    PubMed

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  4. Cosmetic Surgery in Mid Life

    PubMed Central

    Born, Gunter

    1984-01-01

    The aging of the skin and supportive tissues in mid-life causes a deterioration in appearance and/or accentuates preexisting deformities. This can adversely affect the patient's self image and self-respect. Cosmetic or esthetic surgery helps to rejuvenate the aging features to improve the patient's self-image and restore self-confidence. This article discusses the various corrective procedures, their indications, extent, morbidity, complications and cost. PMID:21278992

  5. 76 FR 52333 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... smartphone application for use with iPhones, Android, etc. to allow consumers to report potential violations to FDA via their smartphone. Others may simply choose to send a letter to FDA with their information... smartphone application, and sending a letter to FDA's Center for Tobacco Products. FDA estimates the...

  6. Determination of N-nitrosodiethanolamine, NDELA in cosmetic ingredients and products by mixed mode solid phase extraction and UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry with porous graphitic carbon column through systemic sample pre-cleanup procedure.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kyung-Mi; Shin, Mi-Sook; Jung, Ji-hee; Kim, Boo-Min; Lee, John-Whan; Jeong, Hye-Jin; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-05-01

    A rapid, sensitive, accurate and specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the detection of N-nitrosodiethanolamine (NDELA), a highly toxic contaminant in cosmetic raw materials and products was developed and validated. Systematized sample preparation steps were developed according to product types. Various SPE cartridges and columns were examined to establish the condition of SPE and chromatographic separation for NDELA. Sample cleanup steps consisting of solvent and liquid-liquid extraction tailored to the various sample matrix types were established prior to mixed mode SPE (Bond Elut AccuCAT). Chromatographic separation was achieved within 7 min on a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column using a gradient elution with the mobile phase of 1mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid and methanol. NDELA was monitored using an electrospray positive ionization mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode (m/z 134.9>103.7(quantifier) and 73.7(qualifier ion)) with d8-NDELA (m/z 143.1>111.0) as internal standard. The standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 1-100 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.99. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 and 20 μg/kg, respectively (0.5 and 1 ng/mL in standard solution). The intra- and inter-day precisions were estimated to be below 11.1% and accuracies were within the range of 90.8-115.8%. The validated method was successfully applied to the analysis of real samples including raw materials, skin care, make-up, shampoos and hair products. PMID:25770613

  7. A Collection of Occasional Papers on Economic Development and Productivity. Productivity Primer. Book 5. Special Publication Series No. 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    One of a series of productivity primers examining the interrelationship among vocational education, productivity, and economic development, this volume consists of seven occasional papers on economic development and productivity. Included in the collection are the following papers: "The Real Supply-Side Economics," by Anthony P. Carnevale;…

  8. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue. PMID:24389794

  9. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue.

  10. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846

  11. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  12. Database search for safety information on cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    Ethical considerations with respect to experimental animal use and regulatory testing are worldwide under heavy discussion and are, in certain cases, taken up in legislative measures. The most explicit example is the European cosmetic legislation, establishing a testing ban on finished cosmetic products since 11 September 2004 and enforcing that the safety of a cosmetic product is assessed by taking into consideration "the general toxicological profile of the ingredients, their chemical structure and their level of exposure" (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003). Therefore the availability of referenced and reliable information on cosmetic ingredients becomes a dire necessity. Given the high-speed progress of the World Wide Web services and the concurrent drastic increase in free access to information, identification of relevant data sources and evaluation of the scientific value and quality of the retrieved data, are crucial. Based upon own practical experience, a survey is put together of freely and commercially available data sources with their individual description, field of application, benefits and drawbacks. It should be mentioned that the search strategies described are equally useful as a starting point for any quest for safety data on chemicals or chemical-related substances in general.

  13. Evaluation of Suspected Cosmetic Induced Facial Dermatoses with the Use of Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic Series Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Gupta, Astha; Soodan, Puneet Singh; Gahalaut, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Awareness about skin beauty or cosmetic elegance has received worldwide attention in the present day youth oriented society. Along with careful detailed history and thorough examination patch test is considered cornerstone in diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients suspected clinical diagnosis of contact facial dermatitis due to attended the Department of Dermatology, were included in a hospital based study. The patch test was applied on the upper back of using 32 allergens present in Indian cosmetic series and 20 known allergens in Indian standard battery series procured from Systopic Pharmaceutical Ltd, after applying the patch test, the patient was asked to come after 48h and 72h for reading the results of the patch test. Results: Out of 50 patients there were 32 (64%) females (housewives 36%) patients and 18 (36%) male (farmers 12%). Itching was the most common presenting symptom in 39 patients (78%) least was hypopigmentation and pain in 2%. Forehead was the most common site of involvement in 25 patients (50%) least were cheeks in 15 patients (30%). Erythema was the commonest morphological presentation seen in 36 patients (72%). Hair dye was suspected in maximum number of patients that is 13 (26%). Most common antigen showing patch test positivity was paraphenylenediamine in nine patients (18%). There are significantly more chances of developing positive test reaction with Indian standard series compared to cosmetic series. (p=.0053 using Fischer Exact test). Conclusion: In India there is no legislation regarding labeling ingredients on cosmetics as in the western countries, so labelling of the contents of cosmetic products should be the main challenge in cosmetic dermatitis is to identify. PMID:25954688

  14. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue. PMID:15633477

  15. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images III: Cosmetic Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Levay, Z. G.

    2003-12-01

    We present cosmetic cleaning techniques for use with mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop) to produce presentation-quality images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope when producing photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to discuss the treatment of various detector-attributed artifacts such as cosmic rays, chip seams, gaps, optical ghosts, diffraction spikes and the like. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to final presentation images. Other pixel-to-pixel applications such as filter smoothing and global noise reduction will be discussed.

  16. Does cosmetic surgery improve psychosocial wellbeing?

    PubMed Central

    Castle, David J; Honigman, Roberta J; Phillips, Katharine A

    2006-01-01

    Both men and women are becoming increasingly concerned about their physical appearance and are seeking cosmetic enhancement. Most studies report that people are generally happy with the outcome of cosmetic procedures, but little rigorous evaluation has been done. More extensive (“type change”) procedures (eg, rhinoplasty) appear to require greater psychological adjustment by the patient than “restorative” procedures (eg, face-lift). Patients who have unrealistic expectations of outcome are more likely to be dissatisfied with cosmetic procedures. Some people are never satisfied with cosmetic interventions, despite good procedural outcomes. Some of these have a psychiatric disorder called “body dysmorphic disorder”. PMID:12064961

  17. Simultaneous analysis of antioxidants and preservatives in cosmetics by supercritical fluid extraction combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lee, Maw-Rong; Lin, Chueh-Yu; Li, Zu-Guang; Tsai, Tzu-Feng

    2006-07-01

    This study evaluated supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to determine trace preservatives and antioxidants including methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), alpha-tocopherol (alpha-t) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-ta) in cosmetic products. A supercritical fluid extraction procedure was used to isolate four paraben preservatives and four antioxidants from the cosmetic matrix before quantitative analysis. The optimum extraction condition was performed with static extraction for 5 min, then dynamic extraction for 20 min by using carbon dioxide supercritical fluid at 14,000 kPa and 65 degrees C. Methanol was used as collection solvent and the sea sand was chosen as a filling material. The analytes were separated on a C18 reversed-phase column using methanol-water as mobile phase and quantified by measuring its mass spectrometry. The linearity range is from 10 to 20,000 ng/g with RSD values below 18%. Detection limits are achieved at the level of 4.7-142 ng/g. It was successfully applied to the determination of paraben preservatives and antioxidants in cosmetics without tedious pretreatment.

  18. [Replacement of Kathon CG by Euxyl K 400 in cosmetics; from the frying pan into the fire?].

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, R F; van der Kley, A M; Weyland, J W; de Groot, A C

    1992-03-21

    The recent negative publicity on the cosmetics preservative Kathon CG has made many cosmetic manufacturers look for safer alternatives. The most popular substitute appears to be Euxyl K 400, containing phenoxyethanol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile. Unfortunately, this preservative also induces allergic reactions to cosmetics and (at least in the Netherlands) to 'moist toilet paper'. Therefore, in cases of apparent reactions to cosmetics and of eczema ani, allergy to methyldibromoglutaronitrile should be suspected. Testing the finished products often results in false-negative reactions, and consequently the allergen (suggested concentration 0.05% in petrolatum) should preferably be tested separately.

  19. 76 FR 13658 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Technical Suitability of Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Technical Suitability of Products Program AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice....

  20. Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed Short-lived Fission Product Gamma Data

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.

    2011-09-29

    A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at short times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.

  1. Comparison of different MODIS data product collections over an agricultural area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard data products from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were available at launch (Collection 3) and have undergone two revisions (Collections 4 and 5) during the continuing Terra and Aqua missions. In 2000, a research project was conducted in large fields of corn an...

  2. Safety assessment of 1,2-glycols as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Caprylyl glycol and related 1,2-glycols are used mostly as skin and hair conditioning agents and viscosity agents in cosmetic products, and caprylyl glycol and pentylene glycol also function as cosmetic preservatives. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel noted that, while these ingredients are dermally absorbed, modeling data predicted decreased skin penetration of longer chain 1,2-glycols. Because the negative oral toxicity data on shorter chain 1,2-glycols and genotoxicity data support the safety of the 1,2-glycols reviewed in this safety assessment, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  3. The physical nature of interplanetary dust as inferred by particles collected at 35 km. [morphology of micrometeorites and ablation products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brownlee, D. E.; Hodge, P. W.; Bucher, W.

    1973-01-01

    Particles were collected at an altitude of 35 km by two flights of a volume sampling micrometeorite collector. The collection scheme is very sensitive and is capable of collecting a significant number of particles. Many of the particles collected have chemical compositions similar to solar or to iron meteorites. Morphology of collected particles indicates that both true micrometeorites and ablation products were collected.

  4. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  5. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  6. 76 FR 60055 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Applications for Premarket Review of New Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Review of New Tobacco Products; Availability; Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... ``Applications for Premarket Review of New Tobacco Products.'' The draft guidance is intended to assist persons submitting applications for new tobacco products under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C...

  7. Final report of the safety assessment of Kojic acid as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2010-01-01

    Kojic acid functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products. Kojic acid was not a toxicant in acute, chronic, reproductive, and genotoxicity studies. While some animal data suggested tumor promotion and weak carcinogenicity, kojic acid is slowly absorbed into the circulation from human skin and likely would not reach the threshold at which these effects were seen. The available human sensitization data supported the safety of kojic acid at a use concentration of 2% in leave-on cosmetics. Kojic acid depigmented black guinea pig skin at a concentration of 4%, but this effect was not seen at 1%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the 2 end points of concern, dermal sensitization and skin lightening, would not be seen at use concentrations below 1%; therefore, this ingredient is safe for use in cosmetic products up to that level.

  8. Toxicological profile of diethyl phthalate: a vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M

    2001-02-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP; CAS No. 84-66-2) has many industrial uses, as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients and subsequent skin contact. This review focuses on its safety in use as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients. Available data are reviewed for acute toxicity, eye irritation, dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergenicity, percutaneous absorption, kinetics, metabolism, subchronic toxicity, teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, estrogenic potential, genetic toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, in vitro toxicity, ecotoxicity, environmental fate and potential human exposure. No toxicological endpoints of concern have been identified. Comparison of estimated exposure (0.73 mg/kg/day) from dermal applications of fragrances and cosmetic products with other accepted industrial (5 mg/m(3) in air) and consumer exposures (350 mg/l in water; 0.75 mg/kg/day oral exposure) indicates no significant toxic liability for the use of DEP in fragrances and cosmetic products.

  9. 77 FR 68144 - Information Collection Activities: Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security; Proposed Collection; Comment Request ACTION: 60... requirements in the regulations under Subpart L, Oil and Gas Production Measurement, Surface Commingling, and... Measurement, Surface Commingling, and Security. OMB Control Number: 1014-0002. Abstract: The Outer...

  10. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the sale of forest botanical products shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  11. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the sale of forest botanical products shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  12. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the sale of forest botanical products shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  13. Asbestos in commercial cosmetic talcum powder as a cause of mesothelioma in women

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ronald E; Fitzgerald, Sean; Millette, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic talcum powder products have been used for decades. The inhalation of talc may cause lung fibrosis in the form of granulomatose nodules called talcosis. Exposure to talc has also been suggested as a causative factor in the development of ovarian carcinomas, gynecological tumors, and mesothelioma. Purpose: To investigate one historic brand of cosmetic talcum powder associated with mesothelioma in women. Methods: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) formvar-coated grids were prepared with concentrations of one brand of talcum powder directly, on filters, from air collections on filters in glovebox and simulated bathroom exposures and human fiber burden analyses. The grids were analyzed on an analytic TEM using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine asbestos fiber number and type. Results: This brand of talcum powder contained asbestos and the application of talcum powder released inhalable asbestos fibers. Lung and lymph node tissues removed at autopsy revealed pleural mesothelioma. Digestions of the tissues were found to contain anthophyllite and tremolite asbestos. Discussion: Through many applications of this particular brand of talcum powder, the deceased inhaled asbestos fibers, which then accumulated in her lungs and likely caused or contributed to her mesothelioma as well as other women with the same scenario. PMID:25185462

  14. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer.

  15. Nanoemulsion: process selection and application in cosmetics--a review.

    PubMed

    Yukuyama, M N; Ghisleni, D D M; Pinto, T J A; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, considerable and continuous growth in consumer demand in the cosmetics field has spurred the development of sophisticated formulations, aiming at high performance, attractive appearance, sensorial benefit and safety. Yet despite increasing demand from consumers, the formulator faces certain restrictions regarding the optimum equilibrium between the active compound concentration and the formulation base taking into account the nature of the skin structure, mainly concerning to the ideal penetration of the active compound, due to the natural skin barrier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible phases, and the interest in nanoscale emulsion has been growing considerably in recent decades due to its specific attributes such as high stability, attractive appearance and drug delivery properties; therefore, performance is expected to improve using a lipid-based nanocarrier. Nanoemulsions are generated by different approaches: the so-called high-energy and low-energy methods. The global overview of these mechanisms and different alternatives for each method are presented in this paper, along with their benefits and drawbacks. As a cosmetics formulation is reflected in product delivery to consumers, nanoemulsion development with prospects for large-scale production is one of the key attributes in the method selection process. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the main high- and low-energy methods applicable in cosmetics and dermatological product development, their specificities, recent research on these methods in the cosmetics and consideration for the process selection optimization. The specific process with regard to inorganic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles and nanocapsule formulation is not considered in this paper.

  16. Land Surface Phenology from MODIS: Characterization of the Collection 5 Global Land Cover Dynamics Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganguly, Sangram; Friedl, Mark A.; Tan, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Verma, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Information related to land surface phenology is important for a variety of applications. For example, phenology is widely used as a diagnostic of ecosystem response to global change. In addition, phenology influences seasonal scale fluxes of water, energy, and carbon between the land surface and atmosphere. Increasingly, the importance of phenology for studies of habitat and biodiversity is also being recognized. While many data sets related to plant phenology have been collected at specific sites or in networks focused on individual plants or plant species, remote sensing provides the only way to observe and monitor phenology over large scales and at regular intervals. The MODIS Global Land Cover Dynamics Product was developed to support investigations that require regional to global scale information related to spatiotemporal dynamics in land surface phenology. Here we describe the Collection 5 version of this product, which represents a substantial refinement relative to the Collection 4 product. This new version provides information related to land surface phenology at higher spatial resolution than Collection 4 (500-m vs. 1-km), and is based on 8-day instead of 16-day input data. The paper presents a brief overview of the algorithm, followed by an assessment of the product. To this end, we present (1) a comparison of results from Collection 5 versus Collection 4 for selected MODIS tiles that span a range of climate and ecological conditions, (2) a characterization of interannual variation in Collections 4 and 5 data for North America from 2001 to 2006, and (3) a comparison of Collection 5 results against ground observations for two forest sites in the northeastern United States. Results show that the Collection 5 product is qualitatively similar to Collection 4. However, Collection 5 has fewer missing values outside of regions with persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Interannual variability in Collection 5 is consistent with expected ranges of

  17. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants. PMID:27613289

  18. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.

  19. Possibility for the development of cosmetics with PLGA nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fuminori; Takahashi, Tadahito; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2013-05-01

    The optimized preparation of Poly-(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanospheres containing ubiquinone (UQ) for cosmetic products was pursued. By investigating various conditions for the preparation of UQ/PLGA nanospheres such as the molecular weight of PLGA, PLGA concentration, and UQ concentration, UQ/PLGA nanospheres with increased stability and slower drug release at a higher drug loading efficiency were prepared. Permeation tests on the prepared nanospheres using iontophoresis via electric dermal administration on membrane filters (200 nm pore size) and hairless mouse skin samples were also carried out. After iontophoresis, the nanospheres choked the membrane filter and remained on the horny layer of the hairless mouse skin, even after washing. Therefore, the prepared UQ/PLGA nanospheres and the established iontophoresis technique with the PLGA nanospheres in the present study can be applied to the future development of cosmetics. PMID:22725249

  20. Microwave sanitization of color additives used in cosmetics: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jasnow, S B; Smith, J L

    1975-08-01

    Microwave exposure has been explored as a method of microbiologically sanitizing color additives used in cosmetic products. Selected microbiologically unacceptable cosmetic color additives, D&C red no. 7 Ca lake (certified synthetic organic color), carmine (natural organic color not subject to certification), and chromium hydroxide green (inorganic color not subject to certification), were submitted to microwave exposure. Gram-negative bacteria were eliminated, as verified by enrichment procedures, and levels of gram-positive bacteria were reduced. Generally, analytical and dermal safety studies indicated no significant alterations in physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the colors. Sanitization was also successfully performed on other colors (D&C red no. 9 Ba lake, D&C red no. 12 Ba lake, D&C green no. 5, and FD&C red no. 4); initial physical and chemical tests were satisfactory. Results indicated that this method of sanitization is feasible and warrants further investigation.

  1. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility". PMID:26825071

  2. Cosmetics use and age at menopause: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Chow, Erika T; Mahalingaiah, Shruthi

    2016-09-15

    Cosmetics contain a vast number of chemicals, most of which are not under the regulatory purview of the Food and Drug Administration. Only a few of these chemicals have been evaluated for potential deleterious health impact: parabens, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and siloxanes. A review of the ingredients in the best-selling and top-rated products of the top beauty brands in the world, as well as a review of highlighted chemicals by nonprofit environmental organizations, reveals 11 chemicals and chemical families of concern: butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene, coal tar dyes, diethanolamine, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, phthalates, 1,4-dioxane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, siloxanes, talc/asbestos, and triclosan. Age at menopause can be affected by a variety of mechanisms, including endocrine disruption, failure of DNA repair, oxidative stress, shortened telomere length, and ovarian toxicity. There is a lack of available studies to make a conclusion regarding cosmetics use and age at menopause. What little data there are suggest that future studies are warranted. Women with chronic and consistent use of cosmetics across their lifespan may be a population of concern. More research is required to better elucidate the relationship and time windows of vulnerability and the effects of mixtures and combinations of products on ovarian health.

  3. Cosmetics use and age at menopause: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Chow, Erika T; Mahalingaiah, Shruthi

    2016-09-15

    Cosmetics contain a vast number of chemicals, most of which are not under the regulatory purview of the Food and Drug Administration. Only a few of these chemicals have been evaluated for potential deleterious health impact: parabens, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and siloxanes. A review of the ingredients in the best-selling and top-rated products of the top beauty brands in the world, as well as a review of highlighted chemicals by nonprofit environmental organizations, reveals 11 chemicals and chemical families of concern: butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene, coal tar dyes, diethanolamine, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, phthalates, 1,4-dioxane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, siloxanes, talc/asbestos, and triclosan. Age at menopause can be affected by a variety of mechanisms, including endocrine disruption, failure of DNA repair, oxidative stress, shortened telomere length, and ovarian toxicity. There is a lack of available studies to make a conclusion regarding cosmetics use and age at menopause. What little data there are suggest that future studies are warranted. Women with chronic and consistent use of cosmetics across their lifespan may be a population of concern. More research is required to better elucidate the relationship and time windows of vulnerability and the effects of mixtures and combinations of products on ovarian health. PMID:27545020

  4. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robin S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity–more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness. PMID:27727311

  5. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... coping with the most common cosmetic side effects. Hair Loss Hair thinning or hair loss is often one of the first real ... chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Although some kids take hair loss in stride, others find it very traumatic. ...

  6. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges. PMID:26080054

  7. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges.

  8. [Various aspects of cosmetic allergy in Strasbourg].

    PubMed

    Ngangu, Z; Samsoen, M; Foussereau, J

    1983-01-01

    Intending to determine the substances responsible in Strasbourg for allergies to cosmetics, we checked through all our cases from 1973 to 1980. Two main causes of the allergies were determined: Cosmetic cream and skin lotion (31.2% of cases) as well as nail enamel (20.8%). The importance of allergy to these enamels is notable compared with the extremely low figures found in the other countries (USA 1%, Sweden 6%).

  9. Immediate and delayed reactions to cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Emmons, W W; Marks, J G

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and etiology of cutaneous reactions caused by cosmetics, with an emphasis on perfume sensitivity. 19 control subjects and 31 patch test clinic patients (16 with a history of adverse cosmetic reactions) were examined for sensitivity by history, open and patch testing using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) fragrance screening series and 11 other common allergens found in cosmetics. Contact urticaria was very frequent to certain chemicals; however, patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity were not found to have a significant increase in positive reactions when compared to controls or patients with eczematous skin. 12 subjects had positive patch test reactions, most of which were not clinically relevant. 3 patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity had positive reactions, only 1 of which was in the fragrance screening series (cinnamic alcohol). There were 6 reactions in patients with eczematous skin, 4 of which were to preservatives. 3 controls had positive reactions, each to thimerosal. A history of cosmetic sensitivity was not confirmed by open and closed skin testing in our subjects.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity study of cosmetics colorants.

    PubMed

    Tomankova, K; Kejlova, K; Binder, S; Daskova, A; Zapletalova, J; Bendova, H; Kolarova, H; Jirova, D

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the work was early identification of preventable risk factors connected with the consumers usage of products of everyday use, such as cosmetics, toys and children products, and other materials intended for contact with human skin. The risk factor is represented by substances with irritation potential and subsequent possible sensitisation, resulting in negative impact on human physical and psychical health with social and societal consequences. The legislation for cosmetics, chemical substances and other products requires for hazard identification the application of alternative toxicological methods in vitro without the use of animals. For this reason we used a battery of alternative assays in vitro, based on cell cultures. Progressive methods of molecular biology, based on fluorimetry and fluorescence, were employed for identification of early morphological and functional changes on cellular level. Four colorants frequently used in cosmetics (P-WS Caramel, Chlorophyllin, Unicert Red K 7054-J and Unicert Red K 7008-J) were tested on cell line NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast cell) and 3T3 Balb/c with/without UV irradiation (dose 5 J cm(-2)). Fluorescence methods for the study of cell damage using fluorescence probes offer results for the evaluation of cytotoxicity and cell viability of adherent cells. We detected intracellular production of ROS investigated by molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA, which is primarily sensitive to the increased production of hydrogen peroxide or its downstream products. Toxic effects on the cellular level were identified by viability tests using Neutral Red uptake and MTT assay, where the live cells reduce yellow soluble 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to insoluble formazan crystals. The reaction was investigated on mitochondrial membrane of living cells and the type of cell death was determined using Apoptosis detection kit. Cytotoxicity tests revealed health risks of using Chlorophyllin and Unicert Red

  11. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

  12. Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Moruś, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology.

  13. 78 FR 64237 - Information Collection: General and Oil and Gas Production Requirements in the Outer Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: General and Oil and Gas Production Requirements.... MMAA104000 SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), the Bureau of Ocean Energy... Clearance Officer, Arlene Bajusz, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, 381 Elden Street, HM-3127,...

  14. 36 CFR 223.278 - Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be governed under 36 CFR part 223 Subpart G. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of forest botanical products and collection of fees. 223.278 Section 223.278 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST...

  15. 75 FR 27574 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate, Quarterly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Comments On October 9, 2009, we published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 52254) announcing that we would..., Minerals Information Team, U.S. Geological Survey. FR Doc. 2010-11617 Filed 5-14-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production...

  16. 75 FR 19953 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field Energy Consumption... support characterization of energy consumption for current and future DOE energy conservation standard rulemakings. The use of tested energy consumption data is not sufficient due to the potentially wide range...

  17. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  18. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Premarathna, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of 'Kalahe' in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee's honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee's honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee's honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses. PMID:23559786

  19. A five-year study of cosmetic reactions.

    PubMed

    Adams, R M; Maibach, H I

    1985-12-01

    During 64 months (1977 to 1983), twelve dermatologists from various sections of the United States studied a total of 713 patients with cosmetic dermatitis out of an estimated total of 13,216 patients with contact dermatitis. The number of patients seen for all causes during this period was 281,100. An important finding was that half of the patients or physicians were unaware that a cosmetic was responsible for their dermatitis. Skin care products, hair preparations (including colors), and facial makeup were responsible for the majority of the reactions. The most important objective was identification of causative ingredients. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects had patch tests. Fragrance, preservatives (Quaternium-15, formaldehyde, imidazolidinyl urea, and parabens), p-phenylenediamine, and glyceryl monothioglycolate were the most frequently identified allergic sensitizers, in that order. In addition to the clinical data, the study permitted assessment of the frequency of cosmetic reactions, although the data may not be entirely representative of the country at large because of the special interests of the dermatologists involved.

  20. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure. PMID:24447976

  1. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure.

  2. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  3. Collective properties of the final state in processes involving the production of hadron jets

    SciTech Connect

    Okorokov, V. A. Ponosov, A. K.

    2013-10-15

    Experimental results obtained by studying soft hadron jets in pion-proton and pion-nucleus reactions at intermediate energies with the aid of traditional collective variables are presented. Analytic approximations that describe, at a qualitative level, the dependences of collective parameters on the energy and multiplicity are proposed. Estimates obtained for strong coupling constant by studying collective variables are in reasonable agreement with its world-average value and with the results extracted by using different methods. The behavior of traditional collective variables as functions of the multiplicity in various interactions makes it possible to obtain a universal estimate for the lower boundary of the region of experimental manifestations of jets in multiparticle-production processes.

  4. Positive EtG findings in hair as a result of a cosmetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sporkert, Frank; Kharbouche, Hicham; Augsburger, Marc P; Klemm, Clementine; Baumgartner, Markus R

    2012-05-10

    In a case of a driving ability assessment, hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was requested by the authorities. The person concerned denied alcohol consumption and did not present any clinical sign of alcoholism. However, EtG was found in concentrations of up to 910pg/mg in hair from different sampling dates suggesting an excessive drinking behavior. The person declared to use a hair lotion on a regularly base. To evaluate a possible effect of the hair lotion, prospective blood and urine controls as well as hair sampling of scalp and pubic hair were performed. The traditional clinical biomarkers of ethanol consumption, CDT and GGT, were inconspicuous in three blood samples taken. EtG was not detected in all collected urine samples. The hair lotion was transmitted to our laboratory. The ethanol concentration in this lotion was determined with 35g/L. The EtG immunoassay gave a positive result indicating EtG, which could be confirmed by GC-MS/MS-NCI. In a follow-up experiment the lotion was applied to the hair of a volunteer over a period of six weeks. After this treatment, EtG could be measured in the hair at a concentration of 72pg/mg suggesting chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. Overnight incubation of EtG free hair in the lotion yielded an EtG concentration of 140pg/mg. In the present case, the positive EtG hair findings could be interpreted as the result of an EtG containing hair care product. To our knowledge, the existence of such a product has not yet been reported, and it is exceptionally unusual to find EtG in cosmetics. Therefore, external sources for hair contamination should always be taken into account when unusual cosmetic treatment is mentioned. In those cases, it is recommended to analyze the hair product for a possible contamination with EtG. The analysis of body hair can help to reveal problems occurring from cosmetic treatment of head hair. As a consequence, the assessment of drinking behavior should be based on more than one

  5. Safety assessment of Tin(IV) oxide as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely. Studies of dermal application of tin(IV) oxide were considered to determine toxicity at the site of application. The Panel concluded that tin(IV) oxide is safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  6. Simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Airin; Doi, Takahiro; Tagami, Takaomi; Kajimura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There exist numerous restrictions regarding the maximum allowable levels of preservatives in cosmetics. We analyzed 11 regulated preservatives in commercial cosmetics and manufacturers need to analyze their products for quality control purposes. However, methods used in previous studies to date have been inadequate for use by public institutions and manufacturers. Therefore, an effective, scalable method for the analysis of preservatives in cosmetics is required. We developed a novel method for the simultaneous determination of 11 regulated preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We applied the samples to a C18 column in a simple mobile phase (5 mmol/L ammonium formate solution and acetonitrile) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at a single wavelength (230 nm). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.997. The percent recoveries were 92.8-111.9% and the relative standard deviations were <4.3% (n = 6). The peak resolution for all preservatives was >1.9. Because of the simple conditions for isolation and complete separation, the HPLC method can be effectively applied to the analysis of preservatives in commercially retailed cosmetics.

  7. Normal use levels of respirable cosmetic talc: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aylott, R I; Byrne, G A; Middleton, J D; Roberts, M E

    1979-06-01

    Synopsis This preliminary study was undertaken to provide data from which a more comprehensive investigation to establish the safety in-use of cosmetic talcs could be designed. Methods for collecting and analysing respirable talc generated during the use of loose face powder and adult and baby dusting powders were established. Respirable particles in the air were separated from larger size particles by means of a cyclone and were collected on membrane filters. The collected dust was dissolved in acid and the solution was analysed for magnesium by atomic absorption spectroscopy. From the results the concentrations of talc in the air samples were calculated. The method was used to monitor the in-use levels of a range of cosmetic talcs. Mean concentrations in air sampled for 5 min from the start of use of Chinese grades and Italian 00000 grades of talc formulated for use as loose face powder, adult dusting powder and baby dusting powder were 0.48, 1.13 and 0.21 mg m(-3), respectively. Higher levels were found with micronised adult dusting powder (mean concentration 1.9 mg m(-3)). There was no evidence that the presence of perfume in the talc or the ambient relative humidity in the range 54-74% during use affected the levels of respirable talc, but high relative humidity <90% reduced the amount of respirable talc.

  8. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches.

  9. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. PMID:26995636

  10. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-06-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other cosmetic products (shampoos, creams, tonics, etc) were found to contain 0.0003-0.0820% of 1 to 3 of the target fragrances. Relatively high concentrations of hydroxycitronellal, coumarin, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde were found in some of the investigated products. The detection of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients.

  11. An economic evaluation of plasma production via erythroplasmapheresis and whole blood collection.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Luke B; Pink, Anne

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of plasma collection via two alternative methods: whole blood collection (WBC) and erythroplasmapheresis collection (EPC). The objective of the study is to provide an answer to the question 'What is the least-cost method of plasma production'. This question is answered, both from the viewpoint of the blood collection agency (using financial CEA) and from that of 'society' as a whole (using economic CEA). We employ detailed financial data and economic survey data for collections made by a blood collection agency and to WBC and EPC donors in Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that, despite the superior yield provided by EPC, WBC is actually more cost-effective. This result is robust to thorough sensitivity analysis and arises regardless of whether an economic or financial perspective is taken. We conclude that, ceteris paribus, the cost of recruiting new plasma donors would need to be quite substantial for marginal investments in EPC to be considered cost-effective. PMID:12350045

  12. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  13. Assessing cosmetic results after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria João; Oliveira, Helder; Cardoso, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    "Taking less treating better" has been one of the major improvements of breast cancer surgery in the last four decades. The application of this principle translates into equivalent survival of breast cancer conserving treatment (BCT) when compared to mastectomy, with a better cosmetic outcome. While it is relatively easy to evaluate the oncological results of BCT, the cosmetic outcome is more difficult to measure due to the lack of an effective and consensual procedure. The assessment of cosmetic outcome has been mainly subjective, undertaken by a panel of expert observers or/and by patient self-assessment. Unfortunately, the reproducibility of these methods is low. Objective methods have higher values of reproducibility but still lack the inclusion of several features considered by specialists in BCT to be fundamental for cosmetic outcome. The recent addition of volume information obtained with 3D images seems promising. Until now, unfortunately, no method is considered to be the standard of care. This paper revises the history of cosmetic evaluation and guides us into the future aiming at a method that can easily be used and accepted by all, caregivers and caretakers, allowing not only the comparison of results but the improvement of performance.

  14. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered.

  15. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered. PMID:25134311

  16. Derivatization procedure and HPLC determination of 2-ethoxyethanol in cosmetic samples.

    PubMed

    Mariani, E; Villa, C; Neuhoff, C; Dorato, S

    1999-06-01

    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether or 2-ethoxyethanol finds a wide industrial application as a solvent for lacquers, inks, dyes, household products and as a surfactant. It is also found in cosmetics such as nail products, face cleansers, liquid soaps, oral care products, hair colours and fixatives. The potential hazard to human health of 2-ethoxyethanol following inhalation and dermal exposure has been recently reviewed and the European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) has issued recommendations suggesting its non-use as a cosmetic ingredient. Therefore a simple and fast monitoring method is necessary for routine control to identify and quantify 2-ethoxyethanol in raw materials and finished cosmetics. We have developed a sensitive and selective method to determine 2-ethoxyethanol in complex matrices by precolumn derivatization with 1-naphthyl isocyanate and RP-HPLC analysis. Four laboratory-made cosmetic formulations (a nail lacquer remover, a baby oil, a skin lotion and an emollient O/W emulsion) containing three known amounts of 2-ethoxyethanol (0.1%, 2.0%, 5.0%) have been studied. The obtained results show that this chromatographic procedure provides a good estimate of the true concentration of 2-ethoxyethanol in complex matrices and it is reliable for routine analyses in quality control.

  17. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetics. In Europe, low frequencies of sensitization have been observed to all releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol 0.4-1.2%, diazolidinyl urea 0.5-1.4%, imidazolidinyl urea 0.3-1.4%, quaternium-15 0.6-1.9% (for DMDM hydantoin no recent data are available). All releasers score (far) higher prevalences in the USA; the possible explanations for this are discussed. The relevance of positive patch test reactions has been insufficiently investigated. In the USA, approximately 20% of cosmetics and personal care products (stay-on products: 17%, rinse-off products 27%) contain a formaldehyde-releaser. The use of quaternium-15 is decreasing. For Europe, there are no comparable recent data available. In the second part of the article, the patch test relationship of the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy will be reviewed and it will be assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals who have contact allergy to formaldehyde. PMID:20136875

  18. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by

  19. Testing strategies in mutagenicity and genetic toxicology: an appraisal of the guidelines of the European Scientific Committee for Cosmetics and Non-Food Products for the evaluation of hair dyes.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, D J; Henderson, L; Marzin, D; Müller, L; Parry, J M; Speit, G; Tweats, D J; Williams, G M

    2005-12-30

    The European Scientific Committee on Cosmetics and Non-Food Products (SCCNFP) guideline for testing of hair dyes for genotoxic/mutagenic/carcinogenic potential has been reviewed. The battery of six in vitro tests recommended therein differs substantially from the batteries of two or three in vitro tests recommended in other guidelines. Our evaluation of the chemical types used in hair dyes and comparison with other guidelines for testing a wide range of chemical substances, lead to the conclusion that potential genotoxic activity may effectively be determined by the application of a limited number of well-validated test systems that are capable of detecting induced gene mutations and structural and numerical chromosomal changes. We conclude that highly effective screening for genotoxicity of hair dyes can be achieved by the use of three assays, namely the bacterial gene mutation assay, the mammalian cell gene mutation assay (mouse lymphoma tk assay preferred) and the in vitro micronucleus assay. These need to be combined with metabolic activation systems optimised for the individual chemical types. Recent published evidence [D. Kirkland, M. Aardema, L. Henderson, L. Müller, Evaluation of the ability of a battery of three in vitro genotoxicity tests to discriminate rodent carcinogens and non-carcinogens. I. Sensitivity, specificity and relative predictivity, Mutat. Res. 584 (2005) 1-256] suggests that our recommended three tests will detect all known genotoxic carcinogens, and that increasing the number of in vitro assays further would merely reduce specificity (increase false positives). Of course there may be occasions when standard tests need to be modified to take account of special situations such as a specific pathway of biotransformation, but this should be considered as part of routine testing. It is clear that individual dyes and any other novel ingredients should be tested in this three-test battery. However, new products are formed on the scalp by

  20. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  1. Evaluation of Human Exposure to metals from some popular brands of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn and Al) were determined in thirty brands of popular of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the levels of metals and the risk of exposure to metals by humans through long time usage of these products. The concentrations of metals in these samples of underarm cosmetics were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentrations of metals in these types of underarm cosmetics studied ranged from <0.15 to 1.2 μg g(-1)Cd, <0.02 to 11.2 μg g(-1)Pb, <0.03 to 4.9 μg g(-1)Ni, <0.1 to 25.0 μg g(-1), <0.02 to 2.8 μg g(-1)Co, 2.0 to 6.4 μg g(-1)Cu, 4.7 to 91.2 μg g(-1)Fe, <0.05 to 14.1 μg g(-1)Mn, 77.9 to 132 μg g(-1) and 69.2 to 83,500 μg g(-1)Al. The results of this study indicate that Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co were presents in these types of underarm cosmetics at concentrations below the regulatory control limits for metal impurities in color additives for cosmetics and suggested limits following good manufacturing practice. The estimated margin of safety (MoS) indicated that the concentrations of the examined metals in these underarm cosmetic products present no potential risk to the users. The continuous use of these brands of underarm cosmetics represents a potential source of human exposure to metals such as aluminum in the local area of the breast, particularly to the upper outer quadrant. PMID:26009314

  2. Evaluation of Human Exposure to metals from some popular brands of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn and Al) were determined in thirty brands of popular of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the levels of metals and the risk of exposure to metals by humans through long time usage of these products. The concentrations of metals in these samples of underarm cosmetics were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentrations of metals in these types of underarm cosmetics studied ranged from <0.15 to 1.2 μg g(-1)Cd, <0.02 to 11.2 μg g(-1)Pb, <0.03 to 4.9 μg g(-1)Ni, <0.1 to 25.0 μg g(-1), <0.02 to 2.8 μg g(-1)Co, 2.0 to 6.4 μg g(-1)Cu, 4.7 to 91.2 μg g(-1)Fe, <0.05 to 14.1 μg g(-1)Mn, 77.9 to 132 μg g(-1) and 69.2 to 83,500 μg g(-1)Al. The results of this study indicate that Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co were presents in these types of underarm cosmetics at concentrations below the regulatory control limits for metal impurities in color additives for cosmetics and suggested limits following good manufacturing practice. The estimated margin of safety (MoS) indicated that the concentrations of the examined metals in these underarm cosmetic products present no potential risk to the users. The continuous use of these brands of underarm cosmetics represents a potential source of human exposure to metals such as aluminum in the local area of the breast, particularly to the upper outer quadrant.

  3. Biosynthesis of the food and cosmetic plant pigment bixin (annatto).

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Florence; Dogbo, Odette; Camara, Bilal

    2003-06-27

    Bixin, also known as annatto, is a seed-specific pigment widely used in foods and cosmetics since pre-Columbian times. We show that three genes from Bixa orellana, native to tropical America, govern bixin biosynthesis. These genes code for lycopene cleavage dioxygenase, bixin aldehyde dehydrogenase, and norbixin carboxyl methyltransferase, which catalyze the sequential conversion of lycopene into bixin. Introduction of these three genes in Escherichia coli engineered to produce lycopene induced bixin synthesis, thus expanding the supply of this economically important plant product. PMID:12829782

  4. Radiofrequency in Cosmetic Dermatology: An Update.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Scott W; Goldberg, David J

    2015-11-01

    Treatment options for cosmetic improvement of the skin and body continue to grow more numerous with each passing year. The decline in utilization of invasive surgical treatments for aging and body contour correlates with the recent rise in laser and light devices. These light based technologies transmit either a single or broad wavelength of amplified light to the skin, resulting in volumetric tissue heating. Depending on the chromophore targeted and wavelength applied, varied applications exist to treat numerous cosmetic concerns. Radiofrequency (RF) devices have become more popular recently as science has advanced and brought new, safer, and better therapies. PMID:26580871

  5. Safety Assessment of Ethanolamine and Ethanolamine Salts as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of ethanolamine and 12 salts of ethanolamine as used in cosmetics. Ethanolamine functions as a pH adjuster. The majority of the salts are reported to function as surfactants, and the others are reported to function as pH adjusters, hair fixatives, or preservatives. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous relevant CIR reports. Because data were not available for each individual ingredient and because the salts dissociate freely in water, the Panel extrapolated from those previous reports to support safety. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentrations (rinse-off products only) when formulated to be nonirritating, and these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed.

  6. Stability studies of ascorbic acid 2-glucoside in cosmetic lotion using surface response methodology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Ying; Lee, Pei-Chi; Huang, Ling-Kuei; Lu, Li-Ping; Liao, Wayne C

    2013-03-15

    Ascorbic acid 2-glucoside (AA-2G) has been widely used in cream and lotion types of cosmetic products. Thus, the degradation of AA-2G caused by the temperature change and pH variation was very critical for determining the bio-functionality of cosmetics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was introduced to study the influence of temperature and pH on the stability of AA-2G. The optimal condition of retaining AA-2G with the highest stability was determined to be 55.3°C and pH 6.4. The antioxidative activities of AA-2G including DPPH and ABTS free radical scavenging activities, metal chelating activity, and reducing ability were also determined. AA-2G was a good ascorbic acid derivative which could be used in cosmetic products as an active ingredient.

  7. Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Klosterhaus, Susan; Keller, Alex; Ferguson, P Lee; van Bergen, Saskia; Cooper, Ellen; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene

    2011-06-15

    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  8. Identification of flame retardants in polyurethane foam collected from baby products.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Klosterhaus, Susan; Keller, Alex; Ferguson, P Lee; van Bergen, Saskia; Cooper, Ellen; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene

    2011-06-15

    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  9. Identification of Flame Retardants in Polyurethane Foam Collected from Baby Products

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    With the phase-out of PentaBDE in 2004, alternative flame retardants are being used in polyurethane foam to meet flammability standards. However, insufficient information is available on the identity of the flame retardants currently in use. Baby products containing polyurethane foam must meet California state furniture flammability standards, which likely affects the use of flame retardants in baby products throughout the U.S. However, it is unclear which products contain flame retardants and at what concentrations. In this study we surveyed baby products containing polyurethane foam to investigate how often flame retardants were used in these products. Information on when the products were purchased and whether they contained a label indicating that the product meets requirements for a California flammability standard were recorded. When possible, we identified the flame retardants being used and their concentrations in the foam. Foam samples collected from 101 commonly used baby products were analyzed. Eighty samples contained an identifiable flame retardant additive, and all but one of these was either chlorinated or brominated. The most common flame retardant detected was tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; detection frequency 36%), followed by components typically found in the Firemaster550 commercial mixture (detection frequency 17%). Five samples contained PBDE congeners commonly associated with PentaBDE, suggesting products with PentaBDE are still in-use. Two chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) not previously documented in the environment were also identified, one of which is commercially sold as V6 (detection frequency 15%) and contains tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) as an impurity. As an addition to this study, we used a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to estimate the bromine and chlorine content of the foam and investigate whether XRF is a useful method for predicting the presence of halogenated flame

  10. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    PubMed

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market.

  11. Osmolar regulation of endothelin-1 production by rat inner medullary collecting duct.

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, D E; Padilla, E

    1993-01-01

    Recent evidence has implicated endothelin-1 (ET-1) as an autocrine inhibitor of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) sodium and water transport. The regulators of IMCD ET-1 production are, however, largely unknown. Because of the unique hypertonic environment of the IMCD, the effect of varying extracellular tonicity on IMCD ET-1 production was evaluated. Increasing media osmolality from 300 to 450 mosmol with NaCl or mannitol but not urea caused a marked dose- and time-dependent reduction in ET-1 release by and ET-1 mRNA in cultured rat IMCD cells. In contrast, increasing osmolality had no effect on ET-1 production by rat endothelial or mesangial cells. To see if ET-1 varies in a similar manner in vivo, ET-1 production was assessed in volume expanded (lower medullary tonicity) or volume depleted (high medullary tonicity) rats. Urinary ET-1 excretion and inner medulla ET-1 mRNA were significantly reduced in volume depleted as compared to volume expanded animals. These results indicate that extracellular sodium concentration inhibits ET-1 production specifically in IMCD cells. We speculate that extracellular sodium concentration, via regulation of ET-1 production, provides a link between volume status and IMCD sodium and water reabsorption. PMID:8450052

  12. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  13. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  14. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  15. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes imported or brought into...

  16. 27 CFR 41.62 - Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into the... PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Customs' Collection of Taxes § 41.62 Customs' collection of internal revenue taxes on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, imported or brought into...

  17. 78 FR 23940 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products and Tobacco Smoke Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' has been approved by the Office..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' to OMB for review and clearance under 44 U.S.C. 3507. An Agency may...

  18. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383198

  19. Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  20. [Assessment of the sensitizing potency of cosmetic ingredients and commodities. How will the ingredients of cosmetics and commodities be tested in Europe today and tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Peiser, M; Platzek, T; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetics and certain commodities are applied or used by consumers directly on the skin. Creams may remain on the skin for longer periods, hair is dyed multiple times per year, nickel ions can be released from studs and piercings in areas of skin damage or migrate from toy materials into the skin of children. Accordingly, using or handling such products always entails a risk for developing a contact allergy. Moreover, daily usage and repeated contacts to certain cosmetics and commodities might lead to repeated elicitation of contact eczema in people already sensitized against allergenic ingredients. Unfortunately, contact allergy is not curable. For the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals, only testing based on animal experiments was available in the past. In 2003, the 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EWG laid down a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and from 2013 a general marketing ban of such products as well. Therefore, the development and validation of non-animal methods for assessing the toxicological endpoint sensitization/allergenic potency of chemicals is a major task for the years ahead and remains equally a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies. PMID:22373851