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Sample records for cosmetics

  1. Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    Cosmetics are products you apply to your body to clean it, make it more attractive, or change ... include Hair dyes Makeup Perfumes Skin-care creams Cosmetics that treat or prevent diseases are also drugs. ...

  2. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face ...

  3. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Cosmetic Dentistry? Article Chapters What Is Cosmetic Dentistry? Cosmetic ... procedure for you. Updated: January 2012 ; ; Related Articles: Cosmetic Dentistry Brides-to-Be and Job Applicants: Here’s ...

  4. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental ...

  5. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... defect or cosmetic flaw that has diminished their self-esteem over time. It's important to remember that cosmetic ... can create both physical changes and changes in self-esteem. But if you are seeking surgery with the ...

  6. Eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  7. Cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The psychotherapeutic nature of cosmetic surgery is emphasised by outlining the range of symptoms from which patients suffer and by explaining the sequence of psychological reactions which cause them. The principles which govern the selection of patients are defined. A brief account of each of the main cosmetic operations is given together with notes on their limitations and risks. PMID:2589786

  8. [Cosmetic allergy].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2008-07-01

    Cosmetics are substances or mixtures for an external contact with a human body: their skin, hair, lips, nails, external sex organs, teeth and mucous membranes of an oral cavity. The only or main aim of cosmetics is to keep the body clean, take care of it, protect, perfume as well as groom it. Since the products are supposed to be safe and well-tolerated, they tend to cause side effects, for instance irritation or allergy. This is mainly due to scented substances as well as preservatives which are included in cosmetics.

  9. [Cosmetic allergy].

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Milena; Gocki, Jacek; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2008-07-01

    Cosmetics are substances or mixtures for an external contact with a human body: their skin, hair, lips, nails, external sex organs, teeth and mucous membranes of an oral cavity. The only or main aim of cosmetics is to keep the body clean, take care of it, protect, perfume as well as groom it. Since the products are supposed to be safe and well-tolerated, they tend to cause side effects, for instance irritation or allergy. This is mainly due to scented substances as well as preservatives which are included in cosmetics. PMID:18839623

  10. Cosmetic blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Niamtu, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    Cosmetic blepharoplasty is the hallmark of facial rejuvenation and is rewarding for the surgeon and patient. No other cosmetic procedure is more common in the 40- to 65-year age group. This procedure carries a steep learning curve, but the training of an oral and maxillofacial surgeon is adequate to begin learning this procedure. Proper diagnosis and adherence to strict preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative protocols are paramount to avoiding complications that may be serious. The author, like many surgeons, enjoys this procedure and believes that its place in the contemporary scope of oral and maxillofacial surgery is well established.

  11. Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    2014 Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Statistics Cosmetic Procedure Trends 2014 Plastic Surgery Statistics Report Please credit the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF PLASTIC SURGEONS when citing statistical data or using ...

  12. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  13. [Sanitary control of cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Bonini, Maira; Pellino, Pasquale; Pilla, Mariateresa

    2005-01-01

    In the Lombardia region (Italy), the function of sanitary control of cosmetic products has been delegated to the local health units (ASL). The Province of Milano 1 Local Health Unit therefore carried out a cosmetics surveillance programme involving 92 cosmetic firms located in its territory. Manufacturing and storage conditions of cosmetics produced by the local firms were evaluated and overall, good sanitary conditions were found.

  14. The allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C; Bruynzeel, D P; Bos, J D; van der Meeren, H L; van Joost, T; Jagtman, B A; Weyland, J W

    1988-10-01

    The ingredients responsible for allergy to cosmetics were determined in 119 patients suffering from cosmetic-related contact dermatitis. Most reactions (56.3%) were caused by skin care products, followed by nail cosmetics (13.4%), perfumes (8.4%), and hair cosmetics (5.9%). Preservatives were most frequently implicated (32.0%), followed by fragrances (26.5%) and emulsifiers (14.3%). By far the most important cosmetic allergen was Kathon CG, (a preservative system containing, as active ingredients, a mixture of methylisothiazolinone and methyl chloroisothiazolinone) reacting in 33 patients (27.7%). Other frequent causes of cosmetic-related contact allergic reactions were toluenesulfonamide/formaldehyde resin in nail hardener and/or nail lacquer (15 patients [12.6%]), and oleamidopropyl dimethylamine, an emulsifier in baby body lotion (13 patients [10.9%]).

  15. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Dogra, A; Minocha, Y C; Kaur, S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  16. Nanotechnology in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Katz, Linda M; Dewan, Kapal; Bronaugh, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterials are being used in cosmetic products for various effects. However, their use also raises potential safety concerns. Some of these concerns can be addressed by determining the type of nanomaterials used, as well as stability, potential for skin absorption, route of exposure, and how they are formulated in cosmetic products. There has been considerable effort internationally to harmonize approaches in order to address definitional issues and safety concerns related to the use of nanomaterials in cosmetic products.

  17. Future of cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Robert Alan

    2014-04-01

    Changes in cosmetic surgery will be driven by several key forces. The patient's self-image, and perceived place in society, will continue to drive patients to the cosmetic surgeon as well as to demand newer and better treatments. Technological advances, especially those based on an enhanced understanding of cellular and tissue physiology, promise enhanced tools other than the scalpel for the surgeon. Conceptual advances in our understanding of beauty and patient psychology will lead to a more integrative approach to cosmetic surgery.

  18. Hair cosmetics: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  19. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  20. [Acute intoxication by cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Nida, F

    1975-01-01

    Intoxications due to cosmetics are of various types, but certain substances may be particularly harmful, especially when the constituants include acetone, boric acid and borates, ethyl alcohol, bromates, formol, methyl alcohol, propylene glycol, thallium, thioglycolate.. Every cosmetic substance may induce accidental intoxications. Most often, fluid cosmetics are absorbed either by children or by feeble-minded subjects. In all intoxication, one must take account of the age and weight of the patient, of the quantity absorbed, of the toxicity and of the constituants of the substance.

  1. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  2. Phototherapy in cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Joshua; Wang, Stephanie; Tsoukas, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    Light therapy has been incorporated into the art of healing and cosmesis for thousands of years and currently has found utility in many areas of medicine. Various modalities of cosmetic phototherapy are detailed, as well as the indications and mechanism of action for each modality. These modalities can be used to treat many common cosmetic conditions, including acne vulgaris, solar lentigo, and melasma. Phototherapy is considered a safe and effective option in the treatment of many of these disorders. PMID:27638442

  3. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe. PMID:15156038

  4. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.

  5. [Contact allergy to cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Goossens, A; Merckx, L

    1997-12-01

    This article gives the results of contact allergic reactions to cosmetics seen between 1985 and 1990 (462 patients investigated) and between 1991 and 1996 (486 patients investigated). Perfume components remain the most frequently occurring allergens in cosmetics. They are followed by preservative agents, a class within which important shifts have occurred over time (e.g. as with the isothiazolinone mixture). Excipients and certainly emulsifiers (e.g. cocamidopropylbetaine) are potentially not only irritants but also allergens. Among the "active" or category-specific ingredients, oxidative hair dyes, based on paraphenylenediamine and derivatives, and nail care products, based on (meth)acrylates are particularly apt to cause professional dermatoses. Finally, the share of sunscreens as cosmetic allergens remains limited, which may well be because a contact or photocontactallergy is often not recognized since the differential diagnosis with a primary sun intolerance is not always obvious.

  6. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  7. Complications of cosmetic tattoos.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, Christa

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic tattoos, which are better known as permanent make-up, have become popular in the last decades. This same procedure can be used to camouflage pathological skin conditions, to mask scars and to complete the aesthetic results of plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The risks and complications of tattooing procedures include infections and allergic reactions. Scarring can occur. Fanning and fading of the colorants and dissatisfaction with colour and shape are not unusual. Different lasers can offer solutions for the removal of unwanted cosmetic tattoos, but complications due to the laser treatment, such as paradoxical darkening and scarring, can arise.

  8. Adverse reactions to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Gendler, E

    1987-06-01

    Adverse reactions to cosmetics can be irritant or allergic and are most often caused by fragrances or preservatives. Preservatives include formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and parabens. Other agents that cause allergy are paraphenylenediamine in hair dyes and toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resin in nail polishes.

  9. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  10. Allergy to selected cosmetic ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Adamczuk, Piotr; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Galińska, Elżbieta M.; Cholewa, Grażyna; Piątek, Jacek; Koźlik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which cosmetics are commonly used, their often prolonged contact with the human body should determine the safety of their use. Often cosmetics are the cause of many side effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. Common groups of cosmetic components responsible for side effects are fragrances, preservatives and dyes. This paper focuses on the most allergenic components. PMID:24353491

  11. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  12. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products. PMID:23259208

  13. [Cosmetic eyelid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ruban, J-M; Barbier, J; Malet, T; Baggio, E

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic eyelid surgery is becoming increasingly popular. It can rejuvenate the patient's appearance with relatively minor side effects. Its risk/benefit ratio is one of the best in facial cosmetic surgery. However, the patient does not always accurately assess the aesthetic appearance of his or her eyelids. This underscores the importance of clinical examination in order to determine the patient's wishes, and then make an accurate diagnosis and potential surgical plan. We currently oppose, in general, surgical techniques involving tissue removal (skin-muscle and/or fat) in favor of those involving tissue repositioning and grafting (autologous fat pearl transposition, obtained by liposuction, and lipostructure). Furthermore, the place of adjuvant therapies to blepharoplasty is steadily increasing. They mainly include surface treatments (peels and lasers), dermal fillers and anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections. They are also increasingly used in isolation in novel ways. In all cases, a perfect knowledge of anatomy and relevant skills and experience remain necessary.

  14. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  15. COSMETIC CAMOUFLAGE IN VITILIGO

    PubMed Central

    Sarveswari, K N

    2010-01-01

    Vitiligo is not a life–threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water–free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient’s skin, thereby concealing vitiligo patches. The article highlights the content and technique of application of these creams. PMID:21063508

  16. Cosmetic tattoo pigment reaction.

    PubMed

    Greywal, Tanya; Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundCutaneous reactions to tattoos are most commonly granulomatous or lichenoid.PurposeWe describe a woman who developed a lymphocytic reaction following a cosmetic tattoo procedure with black dye. The reaction occurred not only at the site of the tattoos (eyebrows and eyelash lines), but also in non-tattooed skin (bilateral malar cheeks).Methods and MaterialsWe reviewed PubMed for the following terms: cosmetic, dye, granuloma, granulomatous, lichenoid, lymphocytic, perivascular, pigment, pseudolymphoma, reaction, and tattoo. We also reviewed papers containing these terms and their references.ResultsHistopathologic examination of the left eyebrow and left cheek punch biopsies showed predominantly a perivascular lymphocytic reaction secondary to exogenous tattoo pigment.ConclusionsPerivascular lymphocytic reaction is an uncommonly described complication of tattooing. Our patient had an atypical presentation since she had no prior tattoos, became symptomatic only a few days after the procedure, reacted to black dye, and involved skin both within and outside the confines of the tattoos. Her symptoms and lesions resolved after treatment with systemic and topical corticosteroids and oral antihistamines. PMID:27617722

  17. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations. PMID:26380505

  18. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  19. The teratology testing of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

  20. [Acne vulgaris. Role of cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Korting, H C; Borelli, C; Schöllmann, C

    2010-02-01

    Appropriate cosmetics for skin cleansing are capable of contributing to a reduction of especially inflammatory lesions in acne-prone patients and to support pharmacological intervention in patients with manifest acne. Cleansing of acne-prone skin should employ acidified synthetic cleansers with a pH of 5.5 rather than soap. Furthermore, the ingredients of certain skin care products, i.e. nicotinamide, lactic acid, triethyl acetate/ethyllineolate, and prebiotic plant extracts, affect different mechanisms of acne pathogenesis and therefore may contribute to a decrease in acne lesions. At least some of these ingredients underscore the concept of evidence-based cosmetics. In contrast, the problem of acne lesions caused by comedogenic ingredients in cosmetics today is negligible. PMID:20107752

  1. Histologic features of nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Anolik, Rachel B; Elenitsas, Rosalie; Minakawa, Satoko; Nguyen, Jennifer; Rubin, Adam I

    2012-06-01

    Nail cosmetics and adornments are widely used in today's society. However, their histologic features are not well characterized. Routine histologic examination and polarization of nail plate specimens in our academic dermatopathology practice at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania revealed 3 distinct histologic patterns of nail cosmetics: a hyperpigmented pattern with diffuse fine granular material, a layered pattern with a single linear band of polarizable material, and a hyperpigmented pattern with larger granules containing flecks of polarizable material. In our experience, submitting clinicians rarely indicate the patient's use of nail polish or other enhancements. Recognition of the histologic features of nail cosmetics is important to prevent confusion with dermatoses affecting the nail unit, and it will help dermatopathologists render more accurate diagnoses. PMID:22452953

  2. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described.

  3. Biological effects of cosmetic talc.

    PubMed

    Wehner, A P

    1994-12-01

    A review of the literature reveals two primary issues: (1) a weak, but not causal, association of hygienic use of cosmetic talc and ovarian cancer; (2) lung changes in animals exposed to talc aerosol concentrations that resulted in lung overload. The evidentiary weight of the most significant of the epidemiological and laboratory studies and their biological significance for human risk assessment are briefly discussed. Publications describing granulomatous lesions attributed to talc on surgical gloves, and consequences of accidental inhalation of baby powder by infants are also reviewed. The literature reviewed does not provide any convincing evidence that pure cosmetic talc, when used as intended, presents a health risk to the human consumer.

  4. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. [Allergy to cosmetics. I. Fragrances].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika

    2004-01-01

    The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.

  6. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue.

  7. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  8. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  9. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems. PMID:25809475

  10. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  11. Cosmetic Surgery in Mid Life

    PubMed Central

    Born, Gunter

    1984-01-01

    The aging of the skin and supportive tissues in mid-life causes a deterioration in appearance and/or accentuates preexisting deformities. This can adversely affect the patient's self image and self-respect. Cosmetic or esthetic surgery helps to rejuvenate the aging features to improve the patient's self-image and restore self-confidence. This article discusses the various corrective procedures, their indications, extent, morbidity, complications and cost. PMID:21278992

  12. Testing of cosmetics and toiletries.

    PubMed

    Andersen, K E

    1986-01-01

    Cosmetics and toiletries are indispensable everyday products used by the vast majority of the population. Evaluation of safety is needed to reduce the risk of side effects from intentional and unintentional use. This paper describes factors involved in the choice of test strategy for determining the dermatotoxicological profile of the products. Emphasis is placed on tests for skin irritation, contact allergy, acne and subjective symptoms elicited by the products.

  13. [Cosmetic colorants. Toxicology and regulation].

    PubMed

    Platzek, T; Krätke, R; Klein, G; Schulz, C

    2005-01-01

    Some recent publications raised concern over a possible link between hair dye use and the incidence of bladder tumours in a Californian population. The Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers (SCCNFP) demanded the toxicological testing of all hair dyes used in Europe to exclude any risk. The EU commission initiated corresponding measures. Only safe hair dyes will be included on a positive list while all other hair dyes will be banned. The hair dye lawsone--the dyeing ingredient of henna--was evaluated by the SCCNFP as genotoxic but the BfR came to another conclusion. The regulation of both lawsone and henna remains an open question. Furthermore, some cosmetic colorants were critically discussed. The azo dyes CI 12150, CI 26100, CI 27290 and CI 20170 are allowed for use in cosmetics. On cleavage they form the carcinogenic aromatic amines o-anisidine, 4-aminoazobenzene and 2,4-xylidine, respectively. For three of these dyes the cleavage by human skin bacteria in vitro to the respective arylamine was shown experimentally. Further problems may arise from colorants used for tattoos and permanent makeup. These products up to now are not subject to legislation and there are no regulatory stipulations with respect to health safety and purity for colorants used for these purposes.

  14. Natural surfactants used in cosmetics: glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Lourith, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M

    2009-08-01

    Cosmetic surfactant performs detergency, wetting, emulsifying, solubilizing, dispersing and foaming effects. Adverse reactions of chemical synthesis surfactant have an effect on environment and humans, particularly severe in long term. Biodegradability, low toxicity and ecological acceptability which are the benefits of naturally derived surfactant that promises cosmetic safety are, therefore, highly on demand. Biosurfactant producible from microorganisms exhibiting potential surface properties suitable for cosmetic applications especially incorporate with their biological activities. Sophorolipids, rhamnolipids and mannosylerythritol lipids are the most widely used glycolipids biosurfactant in cosmetics. Literatures and patents relevant to these three glycolipids reviewed were emphasizing on the cosmetic applications including personal care products presenting the cosmetic efficiency, efficacy and economy benefits of glycolipids biosurfactant. PMID:19496839

  15. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue. PMID:15633477

  16. Does cosmetic surgery improve psychosocial wellbeing?

    PubMed Central

    Castle, David J; Honigman, Roberta J; Phillips, Katharine A

    2006-01-01

    Both men and women are becoming increasingly concerned about their physical appearance and are seeking cosmetic enhancement. Most studies report that people are generally happy with the outcome of cosmetic procedures, but little rigorous evaluation has been done. More extensive (“type change”) procedures (eg, rhinoplasty) appear to require greater psychological adjustment by the patient than “restorative” procedures (eg, face-lift). Patients who have unrealistic expectations of outcome are more likely to be dissatisfied with cosmetic procedures. Some people are never satisfied with cosmetic interventions, despite good procedural outcomes. Some of these have a psychiatric disorder called “body dysmorphic disorder”. PMID:12064961

  17. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  18. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  19. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  20. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  1. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  2. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. (a)...

  3. Cosmetics - chemical technology or biotechnology?

    PubMed

    Allen, G

    1984-04-01

    Synopsis Over the past 25 years the cosmetic industry has become increasingly technological. The origins of many of these advances were based upon chemical technology usually related to colloid science, although more recent developments have had clear biological improvements. A number of recent innovations are examined to consider how far developments in the future will stem from biotechnology rather than chemical technology. The working of surface active materials (e.g. CTAB) is discussed as an example of cosmetic effects being generated purely from chemical technology. The role of fluoride toothpaste in decreasing the incidence of dental caries is discussed as an effect based essentially on chemical technology in an area where future alternatives might come from biotechnology. Skin research is highlighted as the area where new understanding, e.g. of the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin and laminin, could lead to a whole new biotechnological approach to the appraisal of skin. As we venture into innovations based on biotechnology we may be introducing new dimensions in product safety which will need an even closer relationship with the medical fraternity. Consequently the introduction of products based on biotechnology may not be as rapid as is sometimes suggested.

  4. Cosmetic use of alpha-hydroxy acids.

    PubMed

    Vidt, D G; Bergfeld, W F

    1997-06-01

    Frequent and daily use of cosmetic and skin-care products that contain alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) moisturizes the skin and produces smoother, less-wrinkled skin surfaces. The cosmetic products developed as astringents and exfoliants diminish skin scales and remove excess skin oil. New studies suggest that photodamaged skin improves with AHA treatment. PMID:9188214

  5. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  6. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze isn't just for faces anymore- ...

  7. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  8. Requirements in cosmetics for black skin.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B A

    1988-07-01

    As large, well-funded cosmetics houses are taking more interest in the needs of black consumers, so should the dermatologist. The dermatologist should be able to discuss intelligently with patients those products that are intended for black skin and hair. Patients also appreciate a referral to a hair stylist or cosmetologist that the doctor is familiar with. As outlined in this article, the most common cosmetics problems encountered by black consumers include the lack of selection of appropriate shades of cosmetics; greasy and irritating "black" make-up; irritant or allergic reactions to fragrance and other cosmetic ingredients; acne from "oil-free" products; and a shortage of effective products to treat "ashiness." It is hoped that this review will help the reader understand what black patients may expect from their skin and hair cosmetics.

  9. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (< or = 0.3% w/w) levulinic acid or (0.1% w/w) p-anisic acid and/or (5% w/w) ethanol afforded products that met criterion A in challenge tests and were also microbiologically safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  10. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U S; Sabitha, M

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

  11. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U. S.; Sabitha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them. PMID:22923959

  12. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U S; Sabitha, M

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them. PMID:22923959

  13. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene. PMID:20487655

  14. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robin S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity–more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness. PMID:27727311

  15. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... coping with the most common cosmetic side effects. Hair Loss Hair thinning or hair loss is often one of the first real ... chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Although some kids take hair loss in stride, others find it very traumatic. ...

  16. Allergy to cosmetics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A

    2013-01-01

    The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.

  17. [Various aspects of cosmetic allergy in Strasbourg].

    PubMed

    Ngangu, Z; Samsoen, M; Foussereau, J

    1983-01-01

    Intending to determine the substances responsible in Strasbourg for allergies to cosmetics, we checked through all our cases from 1973 to 1980. Two main causes of the allergies were determined: Cosmetic cream and skin lotion (31.2% of cases) as well as nail enamel (20.8%). The importance of allergy to these enamels is notable compared with the extremely low figures found in the other countries (USA 1%, Sweden 6%).

  18. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  19. Immediate and delayed reactions to cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Emmons, W W; Marks, J G

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and etiology of cutaneous reactions caused by cosmetics, with an emphasis on perfume sensitivity. 19 control subjects and 31 patch test clinic patients (16 with a history of adverse cosmetic reactions) were examined for sensitivity by history, open and patch testing using the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) fragrance screening series and 11 other common allergens found in cosmetics. Contact urticaria was very frequent to certain chemicals; however, patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity were not found to have a significant increase in positive reactions when compared to controls or patients with eczematous skin. 12 subjects had positive patch test reactions, most of which were not clinically relevant. 3 patients with a history of cosmetic sensitivity had positive reactions, only 1 of which was in the fragrance screening series (cinnamic alcohol). There were 6 reactions in patients with eczematous skin, 4 of which were to preservatives. 3 controls had positive reactions, each to thimerosal. A history of cosmetic sensitivity was not confirmed by open and closed skin testing in our subjects.

  20. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

  1. Safety of ingredients used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Marks, James G; Andersen, F Alan

    2005-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) program was established in 1976 by the Cosmetics, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association, with the support of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). CIR performs independent, expert reviews to determine if ingredients used in cosmetics are safe. CIR staff prepares summaries of available data and the CIR Expert Panel reviews the data in open, public meetings. If more data are needed, requests are made. Unpublished studies may be provided, but become public and available for review once summarized in CIR safety assessments. Tentative conclusions are supported with a rationale and public comment is sought. Taking any input into consideration, a final safety assessment monograph is issued. These monographs are submitted for publication in the peer-reviewed International Journal of Toxicology . To date, 1194 individual cosmetic ingredients have been addressed. Of these, 683 were found to be safe in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration. With qualifications, another 388 have been found safe for use in cosmetics; specific qualifications for each are given. Nine ingredients have been deemed unsafe for use in cosmetics and the safety issue has been described. The available data were found insufficient to support the safety of 114 ingredients; the needed data are listed. Hair dyes represent an important product category reviewed by CIR. In considering hair dyes, the CIR Expert Panel reviews experimental and clinical data specific to the particular chemical structure of each hair dye and reviews epidemiologic studies that address hair dye use that are less specific. Recently the CIR Expert Panel concluded that the available epidemiologic studies are insufficient to conclude there is a causal relationship between hair dye use and cancer and other end points. It is inevitable that new information will become available concerning ingredients for which safety assessments were

  2. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  3. Emerging role of microemulsions in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Adnan; Rizwan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khan, Zeenat I; Khar, Roop K; Aqil, Mohammed; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2008-01-01

    Microemulsions represent a promising carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous advantages over the existing conventional formulations. They are capable of solubilizing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients with relatively higher encapsulation. There is growing recognition of their potential benefits in the field of cosmetic science in addition to the drug delivery. They are now being widely investigated for preparing personal care products with superior features such as having improved product efficiency, stability or appearance. They are well suited for the preparation of various cosmetic products for use as moisturizing and soothing agents, as sunscreens, as antiperspirants and as body cleansing agents. They are also valuable for use in hair care compositions which ensure a good conditioning of the hair as well as good hair feel and hair gloss. They have also found application in after shave formulations which upon application to the skin provide reduced stinging and irritation and a comforting effect without tackiness. These newer formulations elicit very good cosmetic attributes and high hydration properties with rapid cutaneous penetration which may accentuate their role in topical products. These smart systems are also suitable for perfuming purposes where minimum amount of organic solvents is required, such as for perfuming skin or hair. This article highlights the recent innovations in the field of microemulsion technology as claimed by different patents which can bring unique products with great commercial prospects in a very competitive and lucrative global cosmetic market. PMID:19075913

  4. Assessing cosmetic results after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria João; Oliveira, Helder; Cardoso, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    "Taking less treating better" has been one of the major improvements of breast cancer surgery in the last four decades. The application of this principle translates into equivalent survival of breast cancer conserving treatment (BCT) when compared to mastectomy, with a better cosmetic outcome. While it is relatively easy to evaluate the oncological results of BCT, the cosmetic outcome is more difficult to measure due to the lack of an effective and consensual procedure. The assessment of cosmetic outcome has been mainly subjective, undertaken by a panel of expert observers or/and by patient self-assessment. Unfortunately, the reproducibility of these methods is low. Objective methods have higher values of reproducibility but still lack the inclusion of several features considered by specialists in BCT to be fundamental for cosmetic outcome. The recent addition of volume information obtained with 3D images seems promising. Until now, unfortunately, no method is considered to be the standard of care. This paper revises the history of cosmetic evaluation and guides us into the future aiming at a method that can easily be used and accepted by all, caregivers and caretakers, allowing not only the comparison of results but the improvement of performance.

  5. Emerging role of microemulsions in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Adnan; Rizwan, Mohammad; Ahmad, Farhan J; Khan, Zeenat I; Khar, Roop K; Aqil, Mohammed; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2008-01-01

    Microemulsions represent a promising carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients due to their numerous advantages over the existing conventional formulations. They are capable of solubilizing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients with relatively higher encapsulation. There is growing recognition of their potential benefits in the field of cosmetic science in addition to the drug delivery. They are now being widely investigated for preparing personal care products with superior features such as having improved product efficiency, stability or appearance. They are well suited for the preparation of various cosmetic products for use as moisturizing and soothing agents, as sunscreens, as antiperspirants and as body cleansing agents. They are also valuable for use in hair care compositions which ensure a good conditioning of the hair as well as good hair feel and hair gloss. They have also found application in after shave formulations which upon application to the skin provide reduced stinging and irritation and a comforting effect without tackiness. These newer formulations elicit very good cosmetic attributes and high hydration properties with rapid cutaneous penetration which may accentuate their role in topical products. These smart systems are also suitable for perfuming purposes where minimum amount of organic solvents is required, such as for perfuming skin or hair. This article highlights the recent innovations in the field of microemulsion technology as claimed by different patents which can bring unique products with great commercial prospects in a very competitive and lucrative global cosmetic market.

  6. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered.

  7. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered. PMID:25134311

  8. [Chemistry of cosmetics in antiquity].

    PubMed

    Tsoucaris, G; Martinetto, P; Walter, P; Lévêque, J L

    2001-11-01

    Several texts, statues and paintings denote the importance of make up and eye medicines since the earliest periods of Egyptian history. We have investigated cosmetic powders that were preserved in original alabaster and reed containers. Quantitative crystallographic and chemical analysis of the mineral and organic components revealed surprising facts. In addition to the well known galena PbS and cerussite PbCO3, two unexpected constituents have been identified: laurionite PbOHCl and phosgenite Pb2 (CO3) Cl2, which are rare halide minerals found in lead slag only in certain places where the sea water has weathered lead debris left over from silver mining operations in Antiquity. Alteration of natural lead minerals is also unlikely, given the excellent state of conservation of the reed vessels. This evidence indicates that laurionite and phosgenite were synthesised artificially. Support for this statement comes from recipes of medicinal products to be "used in ophthalmology" reported by Greco-Roman authors such as Dioscorides and Pline (1st Century B.C.): silver foam PbO is crushed and mixed with rock salt and sometimes with natron (Na2CO3). The reaction seems to be straightforward. However, our experiments in the laboratory have shown a major difficulty, arising from the concomitant production of alkali, which raises the pH and leads to different products. It follows that the Egyptians very early mastered this kind of chemical synthesis and technology, a fact of great importance in the History of Sciences. Fire-based technology had been mastered to manufacture Egyptian Blue pigments since the third millennium B.C. The present results now suggest that wet chemistry was already known 4000 years ago. This key finding provides a new insight into the chemical technology of far greater antiquity than has previously been believed. Yet, an important question remains relative to the ultimate motivation for these technological developments. If the Egyptians initially only

  9. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  10. Contact dermatitis to cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Karel J; Yiannias, James A

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics, fragrances, and botanicals are important causes of allergic contact dermatitis. Identifying and avoiding the causative allergens can pose a challenge to both the patient and the dermatologist. The site of involvement can give the investigator clues to the cause of the eruption in many cases. Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens in cosmetics. Botanicals are being added to cosmetics because of consumer demand and are now being recognized as sources of allergy as well. Patch testing allows for the detection of allergens that are potentially relevant in the genesis of the patient's eczema. Common skin-care product allergens, including fragrances and botanicals as well as those found in sunscreen, nail, and hair-care products, are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  11. Immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry.

    PubMed

    Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Thum, Oliver

    2013-08-01

    Commercial products for personal care, generally perceived as cosmetics, have an important impact on everyday life worldwide. Accordingly, the market for both consumer products and specialty chemicals comprising their ingredients is considerable. Lipases have started to play a minor role as active ingredients in so-called 'functional cosmetics' as well as a major role as catalysts for the industrial production of various specialty esters, aroma compounds and active agents. Interestingly, both applications almost always require preparation by appropriate immobilisation techniques. In addition, for catalytic use special reactor concepts often have to be employed due to the mostly limited stability of these preparations. Nevertheless, these processes show distinct advantages based on process simplification, product quality and environmental footprint and are therefore apt to more and more replace traditional chemical processes. Here, for the first time a review on the various aspects of using immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry is given.

  12. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  13. Radiofrequency in Cosmetic Dermatology: An Update.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Scott W; Goldberg, David J

    2015-11-01

    Treatment options for cosmetic improvement of the skin and body continue to grow more numerous with each passing year. The decline in utilization of invasive surgical treatments for aging and body contour correlates with the recent rise in laser and light devices. These light based technologies transmit either a single or broad wavelength of amplified light to the skin, resulting in volumetric tissue heating. Depending on the chromophore targeted and wavelength applied, varied applications exist to treat numerous cosmetic concerns. Radiofrequency (RF) devices have become more popular recently as science has advanced and brought new, safer, and better therapies. PMID:26580871

  14. Safety Assessment of Microbial Polysaccharide Gums as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of 34 microbial polysaccharide gums for use in cosmetics, finding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. The microbial polysaccharide gums named in this report have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, including emulsion stabilizer, film former, binder, viscosity-increasing agent, and skin-conditioning agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383198

  15. Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  16. Cosmetics Advertising: A Look at the Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Nancy

    Social, economic, and popular scientific trends converged in the early twentieth century to support the mass popularity of cosmetics. Twentieth-century magazine ads for personal care and beauty products reflected the contemporary belief that "science" was on the verge of being able to cure almost anything, including physical flaws and aging, and…

  17. Contact allergy to cosmetics: causative ingredients.

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C

    1987-07-01

    Of 1781 patients with contact dermatitis seen during a period of 6 years (1981-1986), 75 (4.2%) had allergy to cosmetic products. The face was most frequently affected. In many cases, the dermatitis was limited to the eyelids (18.7%) or the face (40.0%). Skin care products (moisturizing and cleansing cream/lotion/milk) accounted for more than half (52.3%), followed by nail cosmetics (8.0%), shaving preparations (8.0%) and deodorants (6.8%). The ingredients most often responsible were fragrances (45.1%), followed by the preservative Kathon CG (11.0%) and the emulsifier oleamidopropyl dimethylamine (9.8%). In 14 patients (18.7%), patch tests with the responsible cosmetic product were negative. In them, the diagnosis was made by use tests and/or repeated open application tests. Compulsory declaration of ingredients on cosmetic product labels in the EEC, analagous to the USA situation, would be of great benefit both to patients and to physicians.

  18. Allergic contact dermatitis to preservatives and fragrances in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Tatyana; de Gannes, Gillian C

    2011-04-01

    Cosmetics are an important cause of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Fragrances and preservatives are the two most clinically relevant allergens found in cosmetic products. Patch testing remains the gold standard for identification of causative allergens. Common cosmetic allergens are reviewed. Practical methods of allergen avoidance are also discussed.

  19. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services... follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.0-3 is the same.... Subpart G is added to read as follows: Subpart G--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor...

  20. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led... Indian market. The cosmetics/ beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with...

  1. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led.... The cosmetics/beauty industry is one of the booming retail sectors in India with very strong...

  2. Practice and Educational Gaps in Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Abigail; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2016-07-01

    This article identifies gaps in the practice of cosmetic dermatology and cosmetics education, and how to overcome these limitations. There is a rapid development of new devices and procedures, with limited data, patient-reported outcomes, and comparative effectiveness research from which to develop best cosmetic practice. There is a need for increased research and funding dedicated to these goals, improved and convenient training for staff to adopt new devices/procedures, and continuous evolution of databases to pool outcome data and develop outcome sets. Resident education can be improved by dedicated resident cosmetic clinics, didactic teaching from visiting professors, attendance of cosmetic dermatology courses and meetings, and encouraging postresidency training.

  3. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. PMID:24985788

  4. Cosmetics, skin care, and appearance in teenagers.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, D

    1999-09-01

    Adolescence is a period of tremendous transformation in the appearance of the body and the evolution of the mind that will eventually lead to adulthood. "Yesterday's child" will need to assume and exert control over these changes. Therefore his/her appearance becomes a means of communication, a language to express his/her pursuit of self-identity. The cosmetic industry has identified teenagers as "powerful" consumers, and offers them various toiletry and skin care products that should fulfill their needs, such as cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective agents. Certain decorative cosmetics, especially for hair and nails, are attractive to them also. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is through body art such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing.

  5. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking.

  6. Berloque dermatitis - a continuing cosmetic problem.

    PubMed

    Zaynoun, S T; Aftimos, B A; Tenekjian, K K; Kurban, A K

    1981-03-01

    Despite the decline in the incidence of berloque dermatitis during the past decade, milder cases resulting from the presence of relatively small quantities of bergapten in perfumed cosmetics continue to occur. The resultant hyperpigmentation may have an atypical presentation leading to error in diagnosis. In addition, the condition can sometimes induce or aggravate melasma and may be responsible for other pigmentary disorders of the face and neck of questionable etiology such as poikiloderma of Civatte, Riehl's melanosis and pigmented peribuccal erythema of Brocq.

  7. [Female cosmetic genital surgery: point-counterpoint].

    PubMed

    Colson, M-H

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic genitoplasty interventions, and especially reduction nymphoplasties, now seem to attract more and more patients, mainly among the younger who are more influenced by widely publicized pornographic than by anatomic reality they hardly suspect. However, they must be informed and warned against the trivialization of a still young surgery, insufficiently justified validated and supervised, especially on the psychological level, and with many unresolved ethical issues. PMID:22726674

  8. Do cosmetics enhance female Caucasian facial attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Mulhern, R; Fieldman, G; Hussey, T; Lévêque, J-L; Pineau, P

    2003-08-01

    This study sought to investigate whether cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness, and to determine whether the contribution of different cosmetic products are separable, or whether they function synergistically to enhance female beauty. Ten volunteers were made up by a beautician under five cosmetics conditions: (i) no make-up; (ii) foundation only; (iii) eye make-up only; (iv) lip make-up only; and (v) full facial make-up. Male and female participants were asked to view the 10 sets of five photographs, and rank each set from most attractive to least attractive. As predicted, faces with full make-up were judged more attractive than the same faces with no make-up. Sex differences within the results were also apparent. Women judged eye make-up as contributing most to the attractiveness. Men rated eye make-up and foundation as having a significant impact on the attractiveness of a full facial makeover. Surprisingly, lipstick did not appear to contribute to attractiveness independently.

  9. Cosmetic allergy: incidence, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Orton, David I; Wilkinson, John D

    2004-01-01

    A recent epidemiologic survey in the UK revealed that 23% of women and 13.8% of men experience some sort of adverse reaction to a personal care product over the course of a year. Although most of these reactions may be due to subjective sensory irritation, various studies reveal that up to 10% of dermatologic patients who are patch tested are allergic to cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients. Causative products include deodorants and perfumes, skin care products, hair care products, and nail cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis mainly results from fragrance chemicals and preservatives. Recent work has suggested that additional fragrance chemicals may need to be tested in order to identify those patients 'missed' by the current fragrance mix; in particular, hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPPC Lyral) has been singled out as an important sensitizing agent. The increased usage of natural fragrances and botanic extracts can also cause problems in their own right or through co-reactivity. The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile has also been recognized as an increasingly important sensitizer in Europe, which has led to the recent recommendation that it should be prohibited from 'leave-on' products until information on 'safe' consumer levels becomes available. Other emerging allergens include UV filters, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, and nail acrylates. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy should be confirmed with patch testing, including testing of 'whole' products, when necessary, and repeat open application tests can be used to confirm the relevance of reactions in cases of doubt.

  10. Do cosmetics enhance female Caucasian facial attractiveness?

    PubMed

    Mulhern, R; Fieldman, G; Hussey, T; Lévêque, J-L; Pineau, P

    2003-08-01

    This study sought to investigate whether cosmetics do improve female facial attractiveness, and to determine whether the contribution of different cosmetic products are separable, or whether they function synergistically to enhance female beauty. Ten volunteers were made up by a beautician under five cosmetics conditions: (i) no make-up; (ii) foundation only; (iii) eye make-up only; (iv) lip make-up only; and (v) full facial make-up. Male and female participants were asked to view the 10 sets of five photographs, and rank each set from most attractive to least attractive. As predicted, faces with full make-up were judged more attractive than the same faces with no make-up. Sex differences within the results were also apparent. Women judged eye make-up as contributing most to the attractiveness. Men rated eye make-up and foundation as having a significant impact on the attractiveness of a full facial makeover. Surprisingly, lipstick did not appear to contribute to attractiveness independently. PMID:18494902

  11. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936

  12. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L

    2011-04-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  13. Contact allergies to cosmetics: testing with 52 cosmetic ingredients and personal products.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Jyoti; Jain, Vijay Kumar; Aggarwal, Kamal; Dayal, Surbhi; Gupta, Sanjeev

    2005-12-01

    Fifty patients of both sexes with clinically suspected cosmetic dermatitis were subjected to patch testing with a cosmetic and fragrance series, approved by the Contact and Occupational Dermatosis Forum of India (CODFI), and with selected allergens from the Indian Standard Series (ISS). Most of these patients were young adults between 10-29 years; the mean age was 27.5 years. The majority of the patients had cosmetic dermatitis of <1 year duration (68%). The occupational profiles of the patients included students (46%), housewives (18%), teachers (10%) and laborers (4%). A miscellaneous group, comprised of tailors, farmers, staff nurses, beauticians, jewellers and engineers, accounted for the remaining 22%. The most commonly involved site was the face, followed by the forehead, neck and scalp. Patch testing of these patients revealed that, out of the 50 subjects tested, thirty-three (66%) reacted to one or more allergens. Fragrance components were the most common offending allergen (51.5%) followed by preservatives (39.3%), paraphenylenediamine (PPD) (21.2%), and cetrimide and tertiary butyl hydroquinone (12.1% each), in descending order of frequency. Hence, patch testing, with the standard series supplemented by personal cosmetics; should be considered for patients with cosmetic dermatitis to determine the offending allergen so as to avoid further contact with that allergen.

  14. Patch Testing in Suspected Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1–5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21–40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  15. [Skin sensitizers in cosmetics and skin care products].

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Keiko

    2010-01-01

    Cosmetics are defined as "articles with mild action on the human body, which are intended to be applied to the human body through rubbing, sprinkling or other methods, aiming to clean, beautify and increase the attractiveness, alter the appearance or to keep the skin or hair in good condition (The Pharmaceutical Affairs Law: Article 2)." Consequently, they include personal hygiene products such as shampoos, soaps and toothpaste. In Europe, 1% of the population is estimated to be allergic to fragrances and 2-3% to ingredients of cosmetics; 10% of outpatients patch-tested for cosmetics allergy were found to be positive. Allergenic ingredients of cosmetics can be fragrances, hair dye, preservatives, antioxidants, emollients, surfactants, UV absorbers, pigments or resins used in nail cosmetics. Among standard allergen series, eight substances are related to cosmetics; in Japan in 2003, p-phenylenediamine (hair dyes) induced allergic reactions with the highest rate of 7.9% in outpatients patch-tested (n=805), followed by fragrance mix No. 1 (4.0%, mixture of eight fragrances frequently used), colophony (3.2%, main contents of pine resin), lanolin alcohol (2.7%,emollients), and formaldehyde, parabens, Kathon CG (2.7% ,1.9% and 1.0%, respectively; preservatives). Cosmetic allergy symptoms tend to be mild except those caused by hair dye. However, the population exposed to cosmetics is huge and the number of ingredients used in cosmetics increased up to more than 6000. Here, major cosmetic ingredient allergens, mainly reported in Japan, are reviewed and discussed.

  16. Patch testing in suspected allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod; Paulose, Rekha

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing use of cosmetics has contributed to a rise in the incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics. It is estimated that 1-5.4% of the population is sensitized to a cosmetic ingredient. Patch testing helps to confirm the presence of an allergy and to identify the actual allergens which are chemical mixtures of various ingredients. Objectives. The aims of this study are to perform patch testing in suspected ACD to cosmetics and to identify the most common allergen and cosmetic product causing dermatitis. Methods. Fifty patients with suspected ACD to cosmetics were patch-tested with 38 antigens of the Indian Cosmetic Series and 12 antigens of the Indian Standard Series. Results. The majority (58%) of patients belonged to the 21-40 years age group. The presence of ACD to cosmetics was confirmed in 38 (76%) patients. Face creams (20%), hair dyes (14%), and soaps (12%) were the most commonly implicated. The most common allergens identified were gallate mix (40%), cetrimide (28%), and thiomersal (20%). Out of a total of 2531 patches applied, positive reactions were obtained in 3.75%. Conclusion. Incidence of ACD to cosmetics was greater in females. Face creams and hair dyes were the most common cosmetic products implicated. The principal allergens were gallate mix, cetrimide, and thiomersal. PMID:25295057

  17. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers’ perspective toward cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers’ perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products’ quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem. PMID:27413352

  18. Safety assessment of modified terephthalate polymers as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The safety of 6 modified terephthalate polymers as cosmetic ingredients was assessed. These ingredients mostly function as exfoliants, bulking agents, hair fixatives, and viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used in leave-on products up to 100% and in rinse-off products up to 2%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered that the PET used in cosmetics is chemically equivalent to that used in medical devices. The Panel determined that the Food and Drug Administration's determination of safety of PET in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, can be used as the basis for the determination of safety of PET and related polymers used in cosmetics. Use studies of cosmetic eye products that contain PET demonstrated no ocular irritation or dermal sensitization. The Panel concluded that modified terephthalate polymers were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  19. Quality of life before and after cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bensoussan, Jean-Charles; Bolton, Michael A; Pi, Sarah; Powell-Hicks, Allycin L; Postolova, Anna; Razani, Bahram; Reyes, Kevin; IsHak, Waguih William

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the impact of cosmetic surgery on health-related quality of life (QOL). Studies were identified through PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO searches from January 1960 to December 2011. Twenty-eight studies were included in this review, according to specific selection criteria. The procedures and tools employed in cosmetic surgery research studies were remarkably diverse, thus yielding difficulties with data analysis. However, data indicate that individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery began with lower values on aspects of QOL than control subjects, and experienced significant QOL improvement post-procedurally, an effect that appeared to plateau with time. Despite the complexity of measuring QOL in cosmetic surgery patients, most studies showed an improvement in QOL after cosmetic surgery procedures. However, this finding was clouded by measurement precision as well as heterogeneity of procedures and study populations. Future research needs to focus on refining measurement techniques, including developing cosmetic surgery-specific QOL measures.

  20. Safety Assessment of Synthetic Fluorphlogopite as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) reviewed the safety of synthetic fluorphlogopite as used in cosmetics. Synthetic fluorphlogopite functions as a bulking agent and a viscosity-increasing agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to this ingredient along with a previous safety assessment of other magnesium silicates. The Panel concluded that synthetic fluorphlogopite was safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. PMID:26684795

  1. Safety Assessment of Synthetic Fluorphlogopite as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) reviewed the safety of synthetic fluorphlogopite as used in cosmetics. Synthetic fluorphlogopite functions as a bulking agent and a viscosity-increasing agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to this ingredient along with a previous safety assessment of other magnesium silicates. The Panel concluded that synthetic fluorphlogopite was safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  2. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  3. Safety Assessment of Galactomannans as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 galactomannans as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are legume polysaccharides that function mostly as hair/skin-conditioning agents and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Their substantial molecular sizes suggest that skin penetration of these ingredients would be unlikely. The Panel concluded that these galactomannans are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  4. Safety Assessment of PEGylated oils as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    PEGylated oil is a terminology used to describe cosmetic ingredients that are the etherification and esterification products of glycerides and fatty acids with ethylene oxide. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered the safety of PEGylated oils, which function primarily as surfactants in cosmetic products. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that the 130 chemically related PEGylated oils were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  5. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics. PMID:27062803

  6. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  7. Accenting Fashion: Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrances. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, K. Denise; Ritz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information on the manufacture of cosmetics, toiletries, and fragrances. Includes a design brief, giving context, challenge, objectives, material and equipment needs, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  8. Pseudomonas corneal ulcer. The causative role of contaminated eye cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Reid, F R; Wood, T O

    1979-09-01

    The clinical significance of contaminated ocular cosmetics is illustrated by the case of a 47-year-old woman in whom a Pseudomonas corneal ulcer developed immediately after she sustained minor corneal trauma with a mascara applicator. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the corneal ulcer and the mascara. In addition to the causative role in acute corneal ulcers, contaminated eye cosmetics contribute to chronic external eye infections. Retail eye cosmetics are typically free of contamination when purchased. The inoculation of the cosmetic occurs during normal use. PMID:112953

  9. Nonsurgical facelifts via cosmetic dentistry: fact or fiction.

    PubMed

    Garner, J K

    1997-01-01

    The role that cosmetic dentistry can play in improving one's overall facial esthetics has become increasingly more meaningful to patients, dentists, and physicians as elective cosmetic procedures continue to gain momentum and acceptance in today's Western culture. By incorporating fundamental principals of proper smile design into a total esthetic facial enhancement treatment plan, dramatic improvements may be realized. As cosmetic dentists, maxillofacial surgeons, and orthodontists continue to make successful strides with their physician counterparts, they must continue to emphasize the key role that the smile commands. Although a review of current literature discloses few references to the specific topic of facial enhancements through cosmetic dentistry, it is nonetheless a topic for further discussion.

  10. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  11. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  12. 21 CFR 700.25 - Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic...

  13. Appearance, cosmetics, and body art in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, D

    2000-10-01

    Appearance in adolescents is a means of communication, a language expressing self identity. Teenagers explore fashions to make personal statements. Teenagers are significant consumers of various toiletry and skin care products that fill their cleansing, hydrating, and photoprotective needs. They also are enthusiastic consumers of products aimed at adolescent fads, such as decorative hair and nail cosmetics. For some teenagers, the expression of individualism is achieved through body art, such as tattooing and body piercing. Areas of concern are the lack of motivation for sun protection and the risky behavior associated with body piercing and tattooing.

  14. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    PubMed

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection.

  15. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    PubMed

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection. PMID:26505538

  16. Sensitization to fragrance materials in Indonesian cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Roesyanto-Mahadi, I D; Geursen-Reitsma, A M; van Joost, T; van den Akker, T W

    1990-04-01

    2 different groups of patients were patch tested with 2 test series (A and B) containing extracts of fragrance raw materials, traditionally used in Indonesian cosmetics. Series A consisted of diluted extracts of commercially available Indonesian fragrances. Series B consisted of extracts prepared in our department from corresponding indigenous flowers and fruits. Group 1 consisted of 32 patients positive to fragrance-mix, of whom 8 (25%) had positive tests to 1 or more of the different extracts of fragrance raw materials. Reactions were observed to extracts of: Rosa hybrida Hort (7); Canangium odoratum Baill (5); Citrus aurantifolia Swingle (4); Jasminum sambac Ait (2). 6 of the 8 patients had reactions to 1 or more of the components of fragrance-mix: oakmoss (3); cinnamic alcohol (2), isoeugenol (1); cinnamic aldehyde (1) and geraniol (1). Group 2 consisted of 159 patients patch tested on suspicion of contact dermatitis, who were fragrance-mix negative. Only 2 (1.2%) had a positive patch test to the extracts of fragrance raw materials. Specimens taken (as is) from the flowers and citrus fruits (being the basis sources of the fragrance raw materials) were less antigenic. The use of additional test series in Indonesia to detect allergy to traditional cosmetics and perfumes merits further investigation.

  17. Psychiatric issues in cosmetic plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ericksen, William Leif; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2012-09-01

    The objective of cosmetic surgery is increased patient self-esteem and confidence. Most patients undergoing a procedure report these results post-operatively. The success of any procedure is measured in patient satisfaction. In order to optimize patient satisfaction, literature suggests careful pre-operative patient preparation including a discussion of the risks, benefits, limitations and expected results for each procedure undertaken. As a general rule, the patients that are motivated to surgery by a desire to align their outward appearance to their body-image tend to be the most satisfied. There are some psychiatric conditions that can prevent a patient from being satisfied without regard aesthetic success. The most common examples are minimal defect/Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the patient in crisis, the multiple revision patient, and loss of identity. This paper will familiarize the audience with these conditions, symptoms and related illnesses. Case examples are described and then explored in terms of the conditions presented. A discussion of the patient's motivation for surgery, goals pertaining to specific attributes, as well as an evaluation of the patient's understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of the procedure can help the physician determine if a patient is capable of being satisfied with a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgeons can screen patients suffering from these conditions relatively easily, as psychiatry is an integral part of medical school education. If a psychiatric referral is required, then the psychiatrist needs to be aware of the nuances of each of these conditions.

  18. Optimizing revenue at a cosmetic surgery centre

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for cosmetic surgery and services has diminished with recent fluctuations in the economy. To stay ahead, surgeons must appreciate and attend to the fiscal challenges of private practice. A key component of practice economics is knowledge of the common methods of payment. OBJECTIVE: To review methods of payment in a five-surgeon group practice in central Texas, USA. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of the financial records of a cosmetic surgery centre in Texas was conducted. Data were collected for the five-year period from 2003 to 2008, and included the method of payment, the item purchased (product, service or surgery) and the dollar amount. RESULTS: More than 11,000 transactions were reviewed. The most common method of payment used for products and services was credit card, followed by check and cash. For procedures, the most common form of payment was personal check, followed by credit card and financing. Of the credit card purchases for both products and procedures, an overwhelming majority of patients (more than 75%) used either Visa (Visa Inc, USA) or MasterCard (MasterCard Worldwide, USA). If the amount of the individual transaction surpassed US$1,000, the most common method of payment transitioned from credit card to personal check. CONCLUSIONS: In an effort to maximize revenue, surgeons should consider limiting the credit cards accepted by the practice and encourage payment through personal check. PMID:22942656

  19. Foams for pharmaceutical and cosmetic application.

    PubMed

    Arzhavitina, A; Steckel, H

    2010-07-15

    Foaming of cleaning agents in the household is an effect which is not connected with the quality of cleaning process. Foam development of some cosmetic formulations such as hair mousse or shaving foam has its functionality. Foam formation during application of a foam bath or shampoo is only a cosmetic attribute. In the pharmacy, foams represent new vehicles for drug delivery. The European Pharmacopoeia comprises a monograph called "Medicated Foams" and the interest for the development of these alternative vehicles is steadily growing. Depending on the way of pharmaceutical application we can define between rectal, vaginal and topical foams. Foams for dermal drug delivery have some advantages compared to the traditional vehicles for treatment of topical disorders such as ointment, creams, lotions, gels or solutions. Vaginal and rectal foam vehicles also feature some application benefits compared to the standard vehicles such as suppositories, creams and ointments. There are only a few foam formulations commercially available so far. Moreover, only few publications describing these vehicles have appeared in the recent years, predominantly patents. It is the intention of this article to review available literature, to summarize recent development and to highlight the potential of foam vehicles.

  20. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Cosmetic Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... ``Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent FDA's current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic...

  1. 75 FR 12546 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on information collection provisions in FDA's cosmetic labeling regulations. DATES: Submit written or... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Cosmetic Labeling Regulations--21 CFR Part 701...

  2. Cosmetics and skin care products. A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2000-10-01

    The history of cosmetics and skin care products parallels many important technologic developments in chemistry, materials, and packaging innovations. Much is revealed about ancient civilizations by the cosmetics that are uncovered in archaeologic excavations. Much can also be said about modern-day health and adornment practices based on products in the current marketplace.

  3. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  4. Better understanding of the EU regulatory frameworks for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Mech, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    This letter to the editor corrects some misunderstandings regarding the EU regulations covering cosmetic products stated in a recent publication by A. Sobek et al. "In the shadow of the cosmetics directive - Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" published in Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013) 706-711.

  5. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. PMID:26684796

  6. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations.

  7. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted.

  8. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. PMID:26227892

  9. Cosmetic surgery in inpatients with eating disorders: attitudes and experience.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Janelle W; Schreyer, Colleen C; Sarwer, David B; Heinberg, Leslie J; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Body image disturbance is frequent among individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery and core to the pathology of eating disorders (ED); however, there is little research examining cosmetic surgery in ED. This study examined body image related measures, ED behaviors, and depression as predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in 129 women with ED. Patients who had undergone surgery (n=16, 12%) were compared to those who had not. Having a purging diagnosis, linking success to appearance, and making physical appearance comparisons were predictive of more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. All of those who had undergone surgery had purging diagnoses and, on average, were older, had higher BMIs, and were more likely to make physical appearance comparisons and know someone who had undergone surgery. In ED, acceptance and pursuit of cosmetic surgery appears to be related to social group influences more than weight and shape disturbance, media influences, or mood. PMID:22119760

  10. Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

    2009-07-01

    There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported

  11. Assessment of lead in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; Al-Enazi, Sami; Shinwari, Neptune

    2009-07-01

    There have been a number of recent reports in the media and on the internet about the presence of lead in brand-names lipsticks. This has drawn our attention to assess the safety of various cheap brands of cosmetics sold at 2-riyals stores in Saudi market that are imported from countries where safety regulations are poorly enforced as well as they lack perfect conditions for manufacturing. Lead contents were determined in 26 and eight different brands of lipsticks and eye shadows using the Zeeman atomic absorption spectrophotometer coupled to graphite tube atomizer after an acid digestion procedure. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead content in 72 lipsticks samples was 0.73 (0.49-1.793) PPM wet wt. in the range of 0.27-3760 PPM wet wt. There were four brands of lipsticks with lead content above the FDA lead limit as impurities in color additives (20 PPM). The FDA does not set a limit for lead in lipstick. Three of them were extremely high points and considered outliers. The median (25th-75th percentile) lead contents in pressed powder eye shadow was 1.38 (0.944-1.854) PPM wet wt. (n=22) in the range of 0.42-58.7 PPM wet wt. One brand was above 20 PPM the US FDA's lead limit as impurities. The overall results indicate that lead in lipsticks and eye shadows are below the FDA lead limit as impurities and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, few brands had lead content above 20 PPM that might put consumers at the risk of lead poisoning. Lead is a cumulative, and applying lead-containing cosmetics several times a day or every day, can potentially add up to significant exposure levels. Pregnant and nursing mothers are vulnerable population because lead passes through placenta and human milk and affect fetus or infant's developments. Our findings call for an immediate mandatory regular testing program to check lead and other toxic metals in lipsticks and other cosmetic products imported

  12. Cosmetic Surgery Makeover Programs and Intentions to Undergo Cosmetic Enhancements: A Consideration of Three Models of Media Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    The recent proliferation of reality-based television programs highlighting cosmetic surgery has raised concerns that such programming promotes unrealistic expectations of plastic surgery and increases the desire of viewers to undergo such procedures. In Study 1, a survey of 170 young adults indicated little relationship between cosmetic surgery…

  13. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images III: Cosmetic Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Levay, Z. G.

    2003-12-01

    We present cosmetic cleaning techniques for use with mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop) to produce presentation-quality images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope when producing photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to discuss the treatment of various detector-attributed artifacts such as cosmic rays, chip seams, gaps, optical ghosts, diffraction spikes and the like. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to final presentation images. Other pixel-to-pixel applications such as filter smoothing and global noise reduction will be discussed.

  14. Intragastric balloon: ethics, medical need and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Kotzampassi, Katerina; Shrewsbury, Anne D

    2008-01-01

    The development of the intragastic balloon as a safe, noninvasive, alternative method to weight reduction raises all the ethical questions routinely faced by practitioners of other forms of cosmetic surgery. In the case of the morbidly, severely or merely obese, the surgeon is faced with a medical decision in a situation defined by medical parameters. The case of the overweight or normal may, however, create an ethical dilemma in which the doctor is forced to make decisions of a nonmedical nature, for which his training has not prepared him, and relating essentially to his personal attitudes and moral beliefs, culture and the recognition that 'if I don't, somebody else--possibly less competent--will'.

  15. [Wrinkle fillers in cosmetic facial procedures].

    PubMed

    Jaspers, G W C; Schepers, R H; Pijpe, J; Jansma, J

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade cosmeticfacial procedures have become part of the professional work of both dentists and maxillofacial surgeons. A shift has taken place from invasive surgical treatment towards minimally invasive treatments. Besides the use ofbotulinum toxin type A, non-permanent wrinkle fillers can be an alternative to invasive surgical treatment. Since botulism was first described in the 18th century, the neurotoxin has continued to develop, as a result of which Botox, now available in synthetically produced form, can safely be employed in healthcare. The frequency with which patients visit dentists and maxillofacial surgeons offers the professional group the possibility to inform patients about cosmetic facial treatments and to carry them out according to diagnosis.

  16. Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

    2008-11-01

    Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words. PMID:18820963

  17. Aesthetic/Cosmetic surgery and ethical challenges.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Rubeiz, Michel T; Hayek, Shady N

    2008-11-01

    Is aesthetic surgery a business guided by market structures aimed primarily at material gain and profit or a surgical intervention intended to benefit patients and an integral part of the health-care system? Is it a frivolous subspecialty or does it provide a real and much needed service to a wide range of patients? At present, cosmetic surgery is passing through an identity crisis as well as an acute ethical dilemma. A closer look from an ethical viewpoint makes clear that the doctor who offers aesthetic interventions faces many serious ethical problems which have to do with the identity of the surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic surgery that works only according to market categories runs the risk of losing the view for the real need of patients and will be nothing else than a part of a beauty industry which has the only aim to sell something, not to help people. Such an aesthetic surgery is losing sight of real values and makes profit from the ideology of a society that serves only vanity, youthfulness, and personal success. Unfortunately, some colleagues brag that they chose the plastic surgery specialty just to become rich aesthetic surgeons, using marketing tactics to promote their practice. This is, at present, the image we project. As rightly proposed, going back a little to Hippocrates, to the basics of being a physician, is urgently warranted! Being a physician is all that a "cosmetic" surgeon should be. In the long run, how one skillfully and ethically practices the art of plastic surgery will always speak louder than any words.

  18. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic.

  19. Metal concentrations in cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Otaraku, Jonathan Oye

    2013-01-01

    Trace amounts of potentially toxic metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. In the present study, the levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and mercury have been assessed in 28 body creams and lotions, 10 powders, 3 soaps, 5 eye make-ups, and 4 lipsticks widely available on Nigerian markets. The increases over suggested or mandated levels of lead in these creams and lotions ranged from 6.1 to 45.9 and from 1.2 to 9.2 mg kg⁻¹ when compared with Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel 2007 and German safe maximum permissible limit of lead in cosmetics, respectively. About 61% of the body cosmetics, the lotions, and the creams contained detectable levels of nickel ranging from 1.1 to 6.4-9.2 mg kg⁻¹. Chromium and mercury were undetected in 100% of the cosmetic product. Taken together, lead and cadmium were high in creams and lotions. Most of the imported creams and creamy white coloured cosmetics contained higher levels of metal contaminants than the other colours. Regulatory Agencies in developing nations should take appropriate action for cosmetics that contain lead and cadmium beyond the reference limits.

  20. Metal Concentrations in Cosmetics Commonly Used in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Otaraku, Jonathan Oye

    2013-01-01

    Trace amounts of potentially toxic metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. In the present study, the levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and mercury have been assessed in 28 body creams and lotions, 10 powders, 3 soaps, 5 eye make-ups, and 4 lipsticks widely available on Nigerian markets. The increases over suggested or mandated levels of lead in these creams and lotions ranged from 6.1 to 45.9 and from 1.2 to 9.2 mg kg−1 when compared with Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel 2007 and German safe maximum permissible limit of lead in cosmetics, respectively. About 61% of the body cosmetics, the lotions, and the creams contained detectable levels of nickel ranging from 1.1 to 6.4–9.2 mg kg−1. Chromium and mercury were undetected in 100% of the cosmetic product. Taken together, lead and cadmium were high in creams and lotions. Most of the imported creams and creamy white coloured cosmetics contained higher levels of metal contaminants than the other colours. Regulatory Agencies in developing nations should take appropriate action for cosmetics that contain lead and cadmium beyond the reference limits. PMID:24385889

  1. A Review of Psychosocial Outcomes for Patients Seeking Cosmetic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Roberta J.; Phillips, Katharine A.; Castle, David J.

    2006-01-01

    The authors reviewed the literature on psychological and psychosocial outcomes for individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery, to address whether elective cosmetic procedures improve psychological well-being and psychosocial functioning and whether there are identifiable predictors of an unsatisfactory psychological outcome. They conducted a search of appropriate computerized databases for studies that evaluated psychological and psychosocial status both before and after elective cosmetic surgery. They identified 37 relevant studies of varying cosmetic procedures that utilized disparate methodologies. Overall, patients appeared generally satisfied with the outcome of their procedures, although some exhibited transient and some exhibited longer-lasting psychological disturbance. Factors associated with poor psychosocial outcome included being young, being male, having unrealistic expectations of the procedure, previous unsatisfactory cosmetic surgery, minimal deformity, motivation based on relationship issues, and a history of depression, anxiety, or personality disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder was also recognized by some studies as a predictor of poor outcome, a finding reinforced by reference to the psychiatric literature. The authors conclude that although most people appear satisfied with the outcome of cosmetic surgical procedures, some are not, and attempts should be made to screen for such individuals in cosmetic surgery settings. PMID:15083026

  2. Study on radiation transfer in human skin for cosmetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Jun; Kawamura, Ayumu; Miura, Yoshimasa; Takata, Sadaki; Ogawa, Katsuki

    2005-06-01

    In order to design cosmetics producing the optical properties that are required for a beautiful skin, the radiation transfer in the skin has been numerically investigated by the Monte Carlo method and the effects of skin texture and cosmetics on the radiation transfer have been empirically investigated using an artificial skin. The numerical analysis showed that the total internal reflection suppresses large portion of radiation going out through the skin surface Additionally, the experimental study revealed that skin texture and cosmetics not only diffusely reflect the incoming radiation, but also lead the internally reflected radiation to the outside of the skin.

  3. Assessment of the phototoxic potential of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hans, Rajendra K; Agrawal, Neeraj; Verma, Kiran; Misra, Rajendra B; Ray, Ratan S; Farooq, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The cosmetics are nontoxic or less toxic in perse but photoactivation may then sensitize and could produce additional phototoxicity. Phototoxicity assessment of ten different lipsticks and eight facial creams was conducted. Results revealed that six lipsticks and five facial creams generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced haemolysis and caused lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (in vitro) under sunlight exposure. Seven creams and one lipstick were alkaline while one cream and two lipsticks were acidic. The test lipsticks and creams showed absorption in UV/visible range. The study demonstrated synergistic action of cosmetic products and sunlight. Therefore, sunlight exposure should be avoided after the use of photosensitive cosmetics. PMID:18282649

  4. Therapies to improve the cosmetic symptoms of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Rosacea is a commonly encountered chronic inflammatory skin disease with a predilection for highly visible areas of the skin such as the face. The cosmetic symptoms of rosacea can be substantial and may greatly reduce a patient's quality of life. Although there is no definitive cure for rosacea, effective treatment of symptoms can mitigate the deleterious effects of this condition and improve quality of life. In this article, we review both existing and emerging cosmetic treatments for rosacea, including topical medications, systemic pharmacologic therapies, light-based modalities, and procedural interventions, and assess their ability to improve the cosmetic symptoms of rosacea.

  5. Safety Assessment of Nitrocellulose and Collodion as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) assessed the safety of nitrocellulose and collodion as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations. Both ingredients are used almost exclusively in nail product formulations. The maximum concentration of use of nitrocellulose in nail polish and enamels is 22%; for collodion, the maximum reported concentration of use in nail polish and enamel is 14%. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety. PMID:27383197

  6. Safety Assessment of Ethanolamides as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) rereviewed the safety of 28 ethanolamides and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration when they are formulated to be nonirritating, and that these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed. Most of the ethanolamides are reported to function in cosmetics as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents, and surfactant-foam boosters. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports.

  7. The influence of cosmetics on the properties of skin autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamošiūnas, M.; Bertulytė, I.; Rečiūnaitė, I.; Jakštys, B.; Šatkauskienė, I.; Čepurnienė, K.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the changes of autofluorescence and sensitized fluorescence under the effect of cosmetics. We used a method of fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo and examined the mouse skin covering the tumour. Analysis of fluorescence spectral changes was made after differentiation of the cosmetics according to its effects: i) inducing temporary changes of skin autofluorescence after absorbtion into skin (lipsticks, face powders, body lotions, mascaras); ii) permanently changing the fluorescence of the skin (collagen containing products). Cosmetics have been shown to be optically active and capable to alter the fluorescence of exogenously accumulated photosensitizers and endogenous tissue fluorophores.

  8. Assessment of the phototoxic potential of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hans, Rajendra K; Agrawal, Neeraj; Verma, Kiran; Misra, Rajendra B; Ray, Ratan S; Farooq, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The cosmetics are nontoxic or less toxic in perse but photoactivation may then sensitize and could produce additional phototoxicity. Phototoxicity assessment of ten different lipsticks and eight facial creams was conducted. Results revealed that six lipsticks and five facial creams generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), produced haemolysis and caused lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (in vitro) under sunlight exposure. Seven creams and one lipstick were alkaline while one cream and two lipsticks were acidic. The test lipsticks and creams showed absorption in UV/visible range. The study demonstrated synergistic action of cosmetic products and sunlight. Therefore, sunlight exposure should be avoided after the use of photosensitive cosmetics.

  9. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  10. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  11. Materialism, Sociocultural Appearance Messages, and Paternal Attitudes Predict College Women's Attitudes about Cosmetic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson-King, Donna; Brooks, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of cosmetic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, but only recently have studies of cosmetic surgery attitudes among the general population begun to appear in the literature. The vast majority of those who undergo cosmetic surgery are women. We examined cosmetic surgery attitudes among 218…

  12. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  13. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  14. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  15. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  16. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  17. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  18. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  19. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  20. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the...

  1. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the...

  2. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the...

  3. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the...

  4. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  5. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  6. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  7. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  8. 21 CFR 701.30 - Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ingredient names established for cosmetic... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Labeling of Specific Ingredients § 701.30 Ingredient names established for cosmetic ingredient labeling. The Commissioner establishes the...

  9. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  10. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  11. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  12. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  13. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  14. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been...

  15. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  16. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  17. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.81 - Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and... § 1500.81 Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels. (a) Food, drugs, and cosmetics. Substances subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are exempted by section 2(f)(2) of the act; but...

  19. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  20. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  1. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  2. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  3. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  4. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  5. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) are set forth in 40 CFR part 82. ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in...

  6. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.16 Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an...

  7. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  8. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  9. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  10. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  11. 16 CFR 1500.81 - Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and... § 1500.81 Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels. (a) Food, drugs, and cosmetics. Substances subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are exempted by section 2(f)(2) of the act; but...

  12. 16 CFR 1500.81 - Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and... § 1500.81 Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels. (a) Food, drugs, and cosmetics. Substances subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are exempted by section 2(f)(2) of the act; but...

  13. 16 CFR 1500.81 - Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and... § 1500.81 Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels. (a) Food, drugs, and cosmetics. Substances subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are exempted by section 2(f)(2) of the act; but...

  14. 16 CFR 1500.81 - Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and... § 1500.81 Exemptions for food, drugs, cosmetics, and fuels. (a) Food, drugs, and cosmetics. Substances subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act are exempted by section 2(f)(2) of the act; but...

  15. Experiences and influences of women with cosmetic tattooing.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jana C; Armstrong, Myrna L

    2005-02-01

    Cosmetic tattooing (permanent makeup of eyebrows, eyeliner, or lipliner) procedures are flourishing among women worldwide. Recurrent themes provide knowledge and understanding so dermatology nurses can aid in their procedural decision making.

  16. Case Reports: Low Back Pain in the Cosmetic Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carol E.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies indicate that the cosmetic athlete, who exercises primarily to attain or maintain an attractive physical appearance, may overwork unconditioned muscles and stress the spine and other structures. (Author/CB)

  17. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 237 alkyl esters for use in cosmetics. The alkyl esters included in this assessment have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, with skin-conditioning agent being the most common function. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety on these ingredients, and where there were data gaps, similarity in structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  18. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Ethylhexanoates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 16 alkyl ethylhexanoates for use in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentrations when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl ethylhexanoates primarily function as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetics. The highest concentration of use reported for any of the alkyl ethylhexanoates is 77.3% cetyl ethylhexanoate in rinse-off formulations used near the eye, and the highest leave-on use reported is 52% cetyl ethylhexanoate in lipstick formulations. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data related to these ingredients, and the similarities in structure, properties, functions, and uses of ingredients from previous CIR assessments on constituent alcohols that allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group.

  19. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Ethylhexanoates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 16 alkyl ethylhexanoates for use in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentrations when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl ethylhexanoates primarily function as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetics. The highest concentration of use reported for any of the alkyl ethylhexanoates is 77.3% cetyl ethylhexanoate in rinse-off formulations used near the eye, and the highest leave-on use reported is 52% cetyl ethylhexanoate in lipstick formulations. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data related to these ingredients, and the similarities in structure, properties, functions, and uses of ingredients from previous CIR assessments on constituent alcohols that allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. PMID:26684798

  20. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations.

  1. Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Moruś, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology.

  2. Genus vaccinium: medicine, cosmetics, and coatings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brandy J; Lin, Baochuan; Bongard, Jason E

    2010-06-01

    Vaccinium is a genus of shrubs several of which, including cranberry, lingonberry, and blueberry, produce edible fruit. Consumption of the fruit of these plants and juices pressed from it has long been known to have healthful effects. A number of functional compounds have been extracted from the fruits and seeds of these plants. Anthocyanidins and related compounds have been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Extracts of the fruits have been applied to the inhibition of non-enzymatic glycosylation in anti-aging preparations. The oil of the cranberry seed is high in antioxidants and is a source of omega-3, -6, and -9 fatty acids making it an attractive cosmetics component. The inhibition of tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis by extracts of these fruits has been described. Extracts of the plants have also been applied to the development of antimicrobial paints and coatings. Here, we provide an overview of the wide range of applications described for various compounds from and preparations of these plants and survey the recent patents related to those applications.

  3. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters.

  4. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  5. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples - one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers' ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; r s = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; r s = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (r s = 0.34 for natural BO and r s = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors' body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor.

  6. Cosmetic features and applications of lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC).

    PubMed

    Souto, E B; Müller, R H

    2008-06-01

    A detailed review of the literature is presented in attempts to emphasize several advantages of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) for cosmetic applications. Examples of several actives are given and the main features of the solid core of SLN and NLC for topical delivery of cosmetics are discussed. Lipid nanoparticles have been more and more explored in pharmaceutical technology, showing superior advantages for topical purposes over conventional colloidal carriers. PMID:18452432

  7. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = 0.34 for natural BO and rs = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor. PMID:27148138

  8. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples - one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers' ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; r s = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; r s = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (r s = 0.34 for natural BO and r s = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors' body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor. PMID:27148138

  9. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  10. Comparison of preoperative anxiety in reconstructive and cosmetic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Ahmet; Bişkin, Nurdan; Bayramiçli, Mehmet; Numanoğlu, Ayhan

    2005-02-01

    Surgery is a serious stressor and a cause of anxiety for the patients. Reconstructive surgery patients are mostly operated on because of certain functional impairment or disability; on the contrary, cosmetic surgery patients do not have any physical impairment and they are operated on because of mostly psychologic reasons. The aim of this study was to compare the anxiety levels in the reconstructive surgery patients and cosmetic surgery patients preoperatively. Thirty-two patients in the reconstructive surgery group and 30 patients in the cosmetic surgery group were included in the study. State Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to measure the anxiety levels in these 2 groups preoperatively. The 2 groups were similar in characteristics such as age, gender distribution, number of previous operations, and trait anxiety scores. Mean state anxiety scores obtained for the reconstructive surgery group was 38.0 +/- 8.7, while it was 44.2 +/- 10.79 for the cosmetic surgery group (t test, degrees of freedom = 60, P = 0.015). This study reveals that preoperative anxiety levels in the cosmetic surgery patients are higher than those of the reconstructive surgery patients. Therefore, adequate preoperative preparation for cosmetic surgery should include attempts to cope with anxiety. Anxiolytics may be used more liberally and professional psychologic assistance may be required.

  11. Skin-lightening cosmetics: frequent, potentially severe adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Skin-lightening cosmetics are used by many women and men around the world. The products contain a variety of substances, which are often unknown to the users. Most of these products include topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury salts. Many other substances may be added. Several surveys and cohort studies, including several thousand individuals, have shown that regular application of skin-lightening cosmetics to large surface areas can have irreversible cutaneous adverse effects, such as patchy hyper- or hypopigmentation, skin atrophy, stretch marks and delayed wound healing, and can also mask or, on the contrary, promote or reactivate skin infections. Cases of skin cancer have been attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics. A Senegalese cohort study of 147 women showed a statistically significant increase in the risk of hypertension and diabetes linked to the use of skin-lightening agents. Other systemic adverse effects attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics include Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, neurological disorders, and ocular disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have also been attributed to these products. Many skin-lightening cosmetics contain substances that can harm the unborn child. For example, tretinoin is teratogenic while salicylic acid is feto-toxic. In practice, users are often unaware of the risk of severe adverse effects associated with skin-lightening cosmetics. Users should be informed of these adverse effects and encouraged to stop using these products, especially when skin disorders appear.

  12. Cosmetic textiles with biological benefits: gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Kan, Chi Wai; Cheuk, Kevin Ka Leung; Chui, Chung Hin; Lam, Kim Hung

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, textile materials with special applications in the cosmetic field have been developed. A new sector of cosmetic textiles is opened up and several cosmetic textile products are currently available in the market. Microencapsulation technology is an effective technique to control the release properties of active ingredients that prolong the functionality of cosmetic textiles. This study discusses the development of cosmetic textiles and addresses microencapsulation technology with respect to its historical background, significant advantages, microencapsulation methods and recent applications in the textile industry. Gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C were prepared using emulsion hardening technique. Both the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the newly developed microcapsules were in the form of core-shell spheres with relatively smooth surface. The particle size of microcapsules ranged from 5.0 to 44.1 microm with the average particle size being 24.6 microm. The gelatin microcapsules were proved to be non-cytotoxic based on the research findings of the toxicity studies conducted on human liver and breast cell lines as well as primary bone marrow culture obtained from patient with non-malignant haematological disorder. The gelatin microcapsules were successfully grafted into textile materials for the development of cosmetic textiles.

  13. Cosmetic ethnobotany practiced by tribal women of Kashmir Himalayas

    PubMed Central

    Shaheen, Hamayun; Nazir, Jaweria; Firdous, Syeda Sadiqa; Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area. PMID:25068138

  14. Determination of preservatives in cosmetic products. I. Thin-layer chromatographic procedure for the identification of preservatives in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    De Kruijf, N; Rijk, M A; Pranoto-Soetardhi, L A; Schouten, A

    1987-12-11

    A thin-layer chromatographic procedure is presented for the separation and identification of preservatives that are listed in the current EEC Council Directive on cosmetic products or have been permitted in the past. The method consists of an extraction of acidified cosmetics with methanol, separation of the extracts by thin-layer chromatography on aluminium oxide and silica gel-coated plates using one developing solvent, and visualization of the preservatives on the plates using short-wavelength UV light and six detection reagents. The retention behaviour and the detectability of 88 preservatives were investigated, of which 74 were characterized by this method. The preservatives in fourteen commercial cosmetic products were tentatively identified by the procedure described. In general this method will permit the routine detection of preservatives in cosmetics in an approximate concentration of 0.1% (w/w).

  15. Cosmetovigilance survey: are cosmetics considered safe by consumers?

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Carmen; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Loredana; Sautebin, Lidia

    2006-01-01

    Cosmetics are largely diffused substances topically applied to wash, to perfume or to improve the look, nevertheless the number of reported adverse reactions is very low, probably because of underreporting. This could be due to self-diagnosis and self-medication that is common in the presence of not severe reactions. In fact adverse reactions to cosmetics are generally not serious and frequently related to skin alterations. The aim of our study was to assess, through a questionnaire supplied by community pharmacists to the customers, the prevalence and characteristic of adverse cosmetic events (ACEs) reported by interviewed and the consequent measures adopted. To this aim ten Naples' community pharmacies were involved and pharmacists agreed to submit a specific questionnaire to all the customers of the pharmacy for two weeks between 9:00 a.m.-01:00 p.m. and 04:00 p.m.-08:00 p.m. from 1 to 15 June. The subjects interviewed were 4373, of them 845 refused to fill the questionnaire. Females responding to the questionnaire were 2716 and males 812. The 98.5% of the respondents reported to use cosmetics. Cosmetic users who experienced at least one ACE were 848 and 18.2% of them reported more than one event. Total adverse cosmetic events reported were 1507. A significant higher prevalence of adverse cosmetic events in women was observed, since the 26.5% of female cosmetic users experienced an adverse cosmetic event, whereas the percent was 17.4 for males. Concerning the type of adverse event, the 95.9% was a cutaneous event, whereas systemic events accounted for 4.1%. Among cutaneous reactions burning and itching were the most prominent and accounted for 36.3 and 32.9%, respectively. The most frequently reported systemic event was headache (40.3%) followed by nausea (24.2%). Product change (45.7%) and product suspension (39.6%), were the main specific measures adopted in the presence of ACEs. The general practitioner or the pharmacist were consulted only in the 6.8 and 6

  16. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  17. The impact of cosmetic interventions on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S

    2008-08-15

    In the last decade, the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has rapidly increased. While physicians historically have focused on minimizing side effects and optimizing the physical outcome, a broad spectrum of patient needs also factors in treatment success. Unfortunately, few data are available regarding the effects of cosmetic procedures on patient's self-esteem, confidence, relationships, and acceptance by others. Quality of life represents a relevant and important long-term measurement of outcomes in these patients. Studies have shown that cosmetic surgery can have a positive impact on patient quality of life. In contrast, fewer data are available regarding the effects of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures on quality of life. Much of the quality-of-life data regarding nonsurgical cosmetic procedures focuses on patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated facial lipoatrophy, a condition associated with depression, problems with self-esteem and interpersonal relationships, in addition to nonadherence to the treatment. Recent data indicate that cosmetic treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy with injectable facial rejuvenators can improve quality of life in these patients. However, there is a dearth of quality-of-life data on patients who undergo facial rejuvenation procedures using the newer injectable devices, such as hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L-lactic acid. Future studies should focus on developing standardized tests to assess quality of life in patients undergoing facial rejuvenation interventions. More data obtained from validated assessment tools are needed to systematically evaluate the effects specific treatments have on satisfying the needs of the cosmetic patient.

  18. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health. PMID:26753435

  19. Euxyl K 400: a new sensitizer in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Tosti, A; Guerra, L; Bardazzi, F; Gasparri, F

    1991-08-01

    Euxyl K 400 is a preservative for cosmetics and toiletries containing 2 active ingredients, 1,2-dibromo-2,4-dicyanobutan and 2-phenoxyethanol. 2057 consecutive patients with contact dermatitis were patch tested with Euxyl K 400 2.5% pet. and ethanol. A positive patch test occurred in 24 patients (1.2%). The source of sensitization was traced in 8 patients to their cosmetics. Both leave-on and rinse-off products were responsible. Further patch tests with Euxyl K 400 0.5% pet. and phenoxyethanol 5% pet. were performed in 11 patients. A positive patch test to phenoxyethanol was detected in 1 of them. Only 3 patients showed a mild reaction to Euxyl K 400 0.5%. A provocative use test with a lotion preserved with Euxyl K 400 0.1% was positive in 5 of these 11 patients. Patients with Euxyl K 400 sensitivity showed a high prevalence of positive patch tests to other common ingredients of cosmetics. Since the use of Euxyl K 400 in cosmetic products is rapidly increasing, it should be included in the patch test series for patients with suspected cosmetic allergy.

  20. Differential trends in racial preferences for cosmetic surgery procedures.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Tahira I; Ong'uti, Sharon K; Ortega, Gezzer; Khoury, Amal L; Onwuka, Ekene; Bolorunduro, Oluwaseyi B; Cornwell, Edward E; Paul, Henry

    2011-08-01

    There appears to be an increasing acceptance of cosmetic surgery procedures among minority populations in America. Our objective was to determine trends in elective cosmetic procedure utilization as they apply to racial/ethnic differences. A retrospective analysis was performed using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Adult patients undergoing elective cosmetic procedures defined by the appropriate International Classification of Disease 9 Clinical Modification procedure codes were included. Demographic characteristics and hospital course particulars were evaluated. There were 71,775 patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Median age was 48 years. The majority were female (90%), and white (65%). The median household income for the patient's zip code was most commonly in the highest economic quartile (4th quartile, 40%). The most common cosmetic procedure was liposuction (67%). The overall mean percentage change in the frequency of these procedures showed a 1.8 per cent decline among white patients, whereas Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American patients had an increase of 7.5 per cent, 4.7 per cent, 14.5 per cent, and 105.5 per cent, respectively. We conclude that there is an identified increasing trend in the proportion of racial/ethnic minorities represented among the recipients of cosmetic surgery procedures.

  1. Safety assessment of alkyl PEG ethers as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of Alkyl PEG Ethers as used in cosmetics. These ingredients primarily function in cosmetics as surfactants, and some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, and emulsion stabilizers. The Panel reviewed available relevant animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports; when data were not available for individual ingredients, the Panel extrapolated from the existing data to support safety. The Panel concluded that the Alkyl PEG ethers are safe as used when formulated to be nonirritating, and the same applies to future alkyl PEG ether cosmetic ingredients that vary from those ingredients recited herein only by the number of ethylene glycol repeat units.

  2. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context. PMID:24294026

  3. [Human vulnerability under cosmetic surgery. A bioethic analysis].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Rocha de Viesca, Mariablanca

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is one of the best examples of the current health empowerment. Aesthetic surgical interventions have been criticized because they expose the healthy individual to an unnecessary risk. In modern society the body has turned into a beauty depository with a commercial value. In published bioethics papers, analyses of the cosmetic problem pointed their attention on the freedom, autonomy and distributive justice. Mexico occupies fifth place in the world of cosmetic surgeries. Vulnerability is an inherent condition of man's existence and marks the limit of human dignity. UNESCO agrees that some populations are more inclined to vulnerability. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that those who wish to make a physical change had given up to social coercion and psychological problems.

  4. Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Hydroquinone is an aromatic compound that functions in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance, reducing agent, or polymerization inhibitor. Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent. Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Hydroquinone is associated with altered immune function in vitro and in vivo in animals and an increased incidence of renal tubule cell tumors and leukemia in F344 rats, but the relevance to humans is uncertain. Quantitatively, however, the use of hydroquinone in cosmetics is unlikely to result in renal neoplasia through this mode of action. Thus, hydroquinone is safe at concentrations of ≤1% in hair dyes and is safe for use in nail adhesives. Hydroquinone should not be used in other leave-on cosmetics. PMID:21164074

  5. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context. PMID:24294026

  6. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  7. In vivo studies of substances used in the cosmetic industry

    PubMed Central

    Gościańska, Joanna; Witkowska, Beata; Nowak, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic producers are obliged to guarantee the safety and stability of their products. The current legal regulations are based on the European Union Directive (1223/2009) of 30 November 2009. The main aim of the directive is to formulate criteria of safety of a cosmetic product and requirements that it must meet to be placed on the market. A new cosmetic product is subjected to thorough investigation prior to its introduction on the market. It should be studied not only with respect to its safety, but also with respect to its effectiveness declared by the producer. The studies are performed in vivo, by the contact or epidermal patch tests on the human skin. PMID:27512349

  8. Analysis of consumer cosmetic products for phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C; Havery, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection was developed for the quantitation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in cosmetic preparations. Average recoveries of the phthalate esters were better than 90%. In a survey of 48 consumer cosmetic products, including hair care products, deodorants, lotions and creams, nail products, fragrances, and body washes, most products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. DEP was detected most frequently at concentrations up to 38,663 ppm. DBP was found in fewer products, but at levels up to 59,815 ppm. Based on the available exposure and toxicity data, the FDA has concluded that there is insufficient data to conclude that a human health hazard exists from exposure to phthalate esters from cosmetic products.

  9. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  10. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment.

  11. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment. PMID:26234612

  12. In vivo studies of substances used in the cosmetic industry.

    PubMed

    Igielska-Kalwat, Joanna; Gościańska, Joanna; Witkowska, Beata; Nowak, Izabela

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic producers are obliged to guarantee the safety and stability of their products. The current legal regulations are based on the European Union Directive (1223/2009) of 30 November 2009. The main aim of the directive is to formulate criteria of safety of a cosmetic product and requirements that it must meet to be placed on the market. A new cosmetic product is subjected to thorough investigation prior to its introduction on the market. It should be studied not only with respect to its safety, but also with respect to its effectiveness declared by the producer. The studies are performed in vivo, by the contact or epidermal patch tests on the human skin. PMID:27512349

  13. Methyldibromoglutaronitrile (Euxyl K 400): an important "new" allergen in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    De Groot, A C; van Ginkel, C J; Weijland, J W

    1996-11-01

    Euxyl K 400 is a preservative system for cosmetics and toiletries that contains phenoxyethanol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile in a 4:1 ratio. In The Netherlands, Italy, and Germany, the prevalence of allergy to Euxyl K 400 has risen in the past 4 years and is currently 2% to 4% in patients suspected of having contact dermatitis. The allergenic ingredient is nearly always methyldibromoglutaronitrile. Causative products include both stay-on and rinse-off cosmetics and moistened toilet tissue. Because the causative products usually give false-negative reactions, the allergen, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, should be tested in all patients suspected of having cosmetic dermatitis and in those with perianal dermatitis. We suggest a test concentration of 0.3% to 0.5% in petrolatum.

  14. The Real Cost of "Cosmetic Tourism" Cost Analysis Study of "Cosmetic Tourism" Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    "Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.

  15. Safety assessment of nylon as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of nylon polymers, which function in cosmetics primarily as bulking and opacifying agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these large polymers and determined that they are not likely to penetrate the skin. Whatever residual monomers may be present were not present at a sufficient level to cause any reactions in test subjects at the maximum ingredient use concentration. Accordingly, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  16. Hazards of urocanic acid as a cosmetic ingredient.

    PubMed

    Reeve, V E; Mitchell, L E

    1991-08-01

    Certain commercially available cosmetic products have been found to contain the ingredient urocanic acid. We have shown that the solar irradiation in vitro of one such lotion resulted in the formation of cis urocanic acid. The irradiated lotion, when applied topically to the skin of hairless mice, systemically suppressed the normal contact hypersensitivity reaction to 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene by 68%. In addition, mice exposed to a minimally erythemal dose of ultraviolet B (280-320 nm) radiation, normally sub-immunosuppressive, showed a 56% suppression of the contact hypersensitivity reaction if they were irradiated through the topically applied cosmetic lotion.

  17. Safety Assessment of Pentaerythrityl Tetraesters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds as used in cosmetics. These ingredients mostly function as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and binders, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous, and skin-conditioning agents-emollient. The Panel reviewed the available animal and human data related to these ingredients and previous safety assessments of the fatty acid moieties. The Panel concluded that pentaerythrityl tetraisostearate and the other pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds were safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  18. Safety Assessment of Dialkyl Malates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6 dialkyl malate compounds used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-emollients. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the ingredients along with a previous safety assessment of malic acid. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these dialkyl maleate compounds are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  19. Discount cosmetic surgery: industry trends and strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-08-01

    Discount cosmetic surgery is a topic of interest to plastic surgeons. To understand this trend and its effects on plastic surgeons, it is necessary to review the economics of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery's practice environment, and the broader business principles of service industries. Recent work looked at the economics of the plastic surgery market. This analysis demonstrated that increased local density of plastic surgeons was associated with lower adjusted fees for cosmetic procedures. A survey of plastic surgeons about their practice environment revealed that 93 percent categorized the majority of their patients as very or moderately price-sensitive. Fully 98 percent described their business climate as very or moderately competitive and most plastic surgeons thought they lost a sizable number of cosmetic patients within the last year for reasons of price.A standard industry analysis, when applied to cosmetic surgery, reveals the following: an increased number of surgeons leads to lower fees (reducing their bargaining power as suppliers), patients are price-sensitive (increasing their bargaining power as buyers), and there are few barriers to entry among providers (allowing potential new entrants into the market). Such a situation is conducive to discounting taking hold-and even becoming the industry norm. In this environment, business strategy dictates there are three protocols for success: discounting, differentiation, and focus. Discounting joins the trend toward cutting fees. Success comes from increasing volume and efficiency and thus preserving profits. Differentiation creates an industrywide perception of uniqueness; this requires broadly positioning plastic surgeons as holders of a distinct brand identity separate from other "cosmetic surgeons." The final strategy is to focus on a particular buyer group to develop a market niche, such as establishing a "Park Avenue" practice catering to patients who demand a prestigious surgeon, although this is

  20. Discount cosmetic surgery: industry trends and strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-08-01

    Discount cosmetic surgery is a topic of interest to plastic surgeons. To understand this trend and its effects on plastic surgeons, it is necessary to review the economics of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery's practice environment, and the broader business principles of service industries. Recent work looked at the economics of the plastic surgery market. This analysis demonstrated that increased local density of plastic surgeons was associated with lower adjusted fees for cosmetic procedures. A survey of plastic surgeons about their practice environment revealed that 93 percent categorized the majority of their patients as very or moderately price-sensitive. Fully 98 percent described their business climate as very or moderately competitive and most plastic surgeons thought they lost a sizable number of cosmetic patients within the last year for reasons of price.A standard industry analysis, when applied to cosmetic surgery, reveals the following: an increased number of surgeons leads to lower fees (reducing their bargaining power as suppliers), patients are price-sensitive (increasing their bargaining power as buyers), and there are few barriers to entry among providers (allowing potential new entrants into the market). Such a situation is conducive to discounting taking hold-and even becoming the industry norm. In this environment, business strategy dictates there are three protocols for success: discounting, differentiation, and focus. Discounting joins the trend toward cutting fees. Success comes from increasing volume and efficiency and thus preserving profits. Differentiation creates an industrywide perception of uniqueness; this requires broadly positioning plastic surgeons as holders of a distinct brand identity separate from other "cosmetic surgeons." The final strategy is to focus on a particular buyer group to develop a market niche, such as establishing a "Park Avenue" practice catering to patients who demand a prestigious surgeon, although this is

  1. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment. PMID:21164072

  2. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  3. Evaluation of Suspected Cosmetic Induced Facial Dermatoses with the Use of Indian Standard Series and Cosmetic Series Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Gupta, Astha; Soodan, Puneet Singh; Gahalaut, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Awareness about skin beauty or cosmetic elegance has received worldwide attention in the present day youth oriented society. Along with careful detailed history and thorough examination patch test is considered cornerstone in diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients suspected clinical diagnosis of contact facial dermatitis due to attended the Department of Dermatology, were included in a hospital based study. The patch test was applied on the upper back of using 32 allergens present in Indian cosmetic series and 20 known allergens in Indian standard battery series procured from Systopic Pharmaceutical Ltd, after applying the patch test, the patient was asked to come after 48h and 72h for reading the results of the patch test. Results: Out of 50 patients there were 32 (64%) females (housewives 36%) patients and 18 (36%) male (farmers 12%). Itching was the most common presenting symptom in 39 patients (78%) least was hypopigmentation and pain in 2%. Forehead was the most common site of involvement in 25 patients (50%) least were cheeks in 15 patients (30%). Erythema was the commonest morphological presentation seen in 36 patients (72%). Hair dye was suspected in maximum number of patients that is 13 (26%). Most common antigen showing patch test positivity was paraphenylenediamine in nine patients (18%). There are significantly more chances of developing positive test reaction with Indian standard series compared to cosmetic series. (p=.0053 using Fischer Exact test). Conclusion: In India there is no legislation regarding labeling ingredients on cosmetics as in the western countries, so labelling of the contents of cosmetic products should be the main challenge in cosmetic dermatitis is to identify. PMID:25954688

  4. 77 FR 26737 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ: Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC (Fragrance Bottling); Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence...

  5. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... inviting public comment (77 FR 26737, 5/7/2012). The FTZ Board has determined that no further review of the..., Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC...

  6. Facial cosmetics have little effect on attractiveness judgments compared with identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, S S

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of women in modern societies use facial cosmetics, which modify facial cues to attractiveness. However, the size of this increase remains unclear--how much more attractive are individuals after an application of cosmetics? Here, we utilised a 'new statistics' approach, calculating the effect size of cosmetics on attractiveness using a within-subjects design, and compared this with the effect size due to identity--that is, the inherent differences in attractiveness between people. Women were photographed with and without cosmetics, and these images were rated for attractiveness by a second group of participants. The proportion of variance in attractiveness explained by identity was much greater than the variance within models due to cosmetics. This result was unchanged after statistically controlling for the perceived amount of cosmetics that each model used. Although cosmetics increase attractiveness, the effect is small, and the benefits of cosmetics may be inflated in everyday thinking.

  7. Facial cosmetics have little effect on attractiveness judgments compared with identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, S S

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of women in modern societies use facial cosmetics, which modify facial cues to attractiveness. However, the size of this increase remains unclear--how much more attractive are individuals after an application of cosmetics? Here, we utilised a 'new statistics' approach, calculating the effect size of cosmetics on attractiveness using a within-subjects design, and compared this with the effect size due to identity--that is, the inherent differences in attractiveness between people. Women were photographed with and without cosmetics, and these images were rated for attractiveness by a second group of participants. The proportion of variance in attractiveness explained by identity was much greater than the variance within models due to cosmetics. This result was unchanged after statistically controlling for the perceived amount of cosmetics that each model used. Although cosmetics increase attractiveness, the effect is small, and the benefits of cosmetics may be inflated in everyday thinking. PMID:26489218

  8. 75 FR 4344 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California Application for Subzone Allegro Mfg. Inc. (Cosmetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Mfg. Inc. (Cosmetic, Organizer and Electronic Bags and Accessories) Commerce, CA An application has..., Commerce, California. The facility is used for the storage and distribution of cosmetic, organizer...

  9. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  10. Safety assessment of 6-hydroxyindole as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6-hydroxyindole, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel considered relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that 6-hydroxyindole is safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations. PMID:25297906

  11. Safety assessment of 6-hydroxyindole as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6-hydroxyindole, which functions as an oxidative hair dye ingredient. The Panel considered relevant animal and human data provided in this safety assessment and concluded that 6-hydroxyindole is safe for use in oxidative hair dye formulations.

  12. Makeup and Menstrual Cycle: Near Ovulation, Women Use More Cosmetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that women near ovulation change their appearance in order to look more attractive. I hypothesized that, near ovulation, women would use more cosmetics. In a first study, female participants received an LH test in a laboratory setting to determine their fertility risk. Participants estimated the time they had spent…

  13. Database search for safety information on cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    Ethical considerations with respect to experimental animal use and regulatory testing are worldwide under heavy discussion and are, in certain cases, taken up in legislative measures. The most explicit example is the European cosmetic legislation, establishing a testing ban on finished cosmetic products since 11 September 2004 and enforcing that the safety of a cosmetic product is assessed by taking into consideration "the general toxicological profile of the ingredients, their chemical structure and their level of exposure" (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003). Therefore the availability of referenced and reliable information on cosmetic ingredients becomes a dire necessity. Given the high-speed progress of the World Wide Web services and the concurrent drastic increase in free access to information, identification of relevant data sources and evaluation of the scientific value and quality of the retrieved data, are crucial. Based upon own practical experience, a survey is put together of freely and commercially available data sources with their individual description, field of application, benefits and drawbacks. It should be mentioned that the search strategies described are equally useful as a starting point for any quest for safety data on chemicals or chemical-related substances in general.

  14. [Cosmetic camouflage for a better quality of life].

    PubMed

    Deshayes, Ph

    2009-10-01

    Cosmetic camouflage improves the quality of life of our patients without interfering with the treatment. This fact has been confirmed by many publications. However do we, dermatologists, talk enough about quality of life with our patients? The use of camouflage must be included in our medical prescription for patients with disfiguring skin diseases.

  15. Myth 6: Cosmetic Use of Multiple Selection Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman-Nimz, Reva

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, armed with the courage of her convictions and a respectable collection of empirical evidence, the author articulated what she considered to be a compelling argument against the cosmetic use of multiple selection criteria as a guiding principle for identifying children and youth with high potential. To assess the current…

  16. Cosmetic Surgery and the Cultural Construction of Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Lorrie; Shalmon, Maya

    2005-01-01

    Throughout history, certain members of nearly all cultures have deliberately altered their body's natural appearance. Today, people live in a time when medicine can cure the body and also reshape it. Hence, many people use biomedical means, such as steroids and hormones to alter their bodies. Additionally, cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly…

  17. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  18. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  19. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  20. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  1. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... sunscreen ingredients. (a) A product that includes the term “sunscreen” in its labeling or in any other way.... Sunscreen active ingredients affect the structure or function of the body by absorbing, reflecting,...

  2. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies. PMID:25043487

  3. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  4. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... to vulnerable consumers, such as those with compromised immune systems. FDA believes that guidance on... microbiological testing of cosmetics; types of preservative systems and how to test their efficacy; the identity... microorganisms. Preservative systems are intended to protect consumers from microorganisms introduced...

  5. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    PubMed

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  6. 76 FR 18767 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics... Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR-5 Meeting in Paris, France'' to provide information and receive comments on the International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR) as well...

  7. 26 CFR 49.0-3T - Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). 49... Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). On and after July 1, 2010, this part 49 also applies to taxes imposed by chapter 49 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to cosmetic services. See part 40 of...

  8. 26 CFR 49.0-3T - Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). 49... Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). On and after July 1, 2010, this part 49 also applies to taxes imposed by chapter 49 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to cosmetic services. See part 40 of...

  9. 75 FR 32798 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting... Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR-4 Meetings in Toronto, Canada'' to provide... consumer protection. ICCR is a voluntary international group of cosmetics regulatory authorities from...

  10. 26 CFR 49.0-3T - Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). 49... Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). On and after July 1, 2010, this part 49 also applies to taxes imposed by chapter 49 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to cosmetic services. See part 40 of...

  11. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  12. Estimated exposure to phthalates in cosmetics and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Byung Mu

    2004-12-01

    Some phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and their metabolites are suspected of producing teratogenic or endocrine-disrupting effects. To predict possible human exposure to phthalates in cosmetics, the levels of DEHP, diethyl phthalate (DEP), DBP, and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in 102 branded hair sprays, perfumes, deodorants, and nail polishes. DBP was detected in 19 of the 21 nail polishes and in 11 of the 42 perfumes, and DEP was detected in 24 of the 42 perfumes and 2 of the 8 deodorants. Median exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics by dermal absorption were estimated to be 0.0006 g/kg body weight (bw)/d for DEHP, 0.6 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 0.103 g/kg bw/d for DBP. Furthermore, if phthalates in cosmetics were assumed to be absorbed exclusively via 100% inhalation, the median daily exposure levels to phthalates in cosmetics were estimated to be 0.026 g/kg bw/d for DEHP, 81.471 g/kg bw/d for DEP, and 22.917 g/kg bw/d for DBP, which are far lower than the regulation levels set buy the Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity, and the Environment (CSTEE) (37 g/kg bw/d, DEHP), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (7000 g/kg bw/d, DEP), and International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) (66 g/kg bw/d, DBP), respectively. Based on these data, hazard indices (HI, daily exposure level/regulation level) were calculated to be 0.0007 for DEHP, 0.012 for DEP, and 0.347 for DBP. These data suggest that estimated exposure to-phthalates in the cosmetics mentioned are relatively small. However, total exposure levels from several sources may be greater and require further investigation.

  13. Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients: the role of culture and social contact.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery. PMID:22822685

  14. Attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients: the role of culture and social contact.

    PubMed

    Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery.

  15. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  16. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  17. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  18. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  19. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  20. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  1. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  2. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  3. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  4. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil. PMID:26777540

  5. Possibility for the development of cosmetics with PLGA nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fuminori; Takahashi, Tadahito; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Kawakami, Hiroyoshi

    2013-05-01

    The optimized preparation of Poly-(lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanospheres containing ubiquinone (UQ) for cosmetic products was pursued. By investigating various conditions for the preparation of UQ/PLGA nanospheres such as the molecular weight of PLGA, PLGA concentration, and UQ concentration, UQ/PLGA nanospheres with increased stability and slower drug release at a higher drug loading efficiency were prepared. Permeation tests on the prepared nanospheres using iontophoresis via electric dermal administration on membrane filters (200 nm pore size) and hairless mouse skin samples were also carried out. After iontophoresis, the nanospheres choked the membrane filter and remained on the horny layer of the hairless mouse skin, even after washing. Therefore, the prepared UQ/PLGA nanospheres and the established iontophoresis technique with the PLGA nanospheres in the present study can be applied to the future development of cosmetics. PMID:22725249

  6. Kinetics of moisturizing and firming effects of cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Xhauflaire-Uhoda, E; Fontaine, K; Piérard, G E

    2008-04-01

    The assessment of cosmetic efficacy is rarely performed in studies comparing different concentrations of active compounds. The aim of the present study was to determine the skin hydrating and the skin firming dose-response effects of cosmetic formulations enriched in compounds derived from algae and fish collagen. A series of factors were studied including the type of formulation (cream or serum), the concentration in active ingredients, the effect of repetitive applications, as well as any residual effect of the formulations after stopping their applications. The serum enriched in marine compounds showed a better moisturizing effect in short term. The cream appeared more active later, particularly following repeat applications. A sustained tensor (firming) effect was observed during treatment with both the lotion and the cream. However, no remnant firming effect was perceived after stopping treatment.

  7. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil.

  8. Microwave sanitization of color additives used in cosmetics: feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jasnow, S B; Smith, J L

    1975-08-01

    Microwave exposure has been explored as a method of microbiologically sanitizing color additives used in cosmetic products. Selected microbiologically unacceptable cosmetic color additives, D&C red no. 7 Ca lake (certified synthetic organic color), carmine (natural organic color not subject to certification), and chromium hydroxide green (inorganic color not subject to certification), were submitted to microwave exposure. Gram-negative bacteria were eliminated, as verified by enrichment procedures, and levels of gram-positive bacteria were reduced. Generally, analytical and dermal safety studies indicated no significant alterations in physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of the colors. Sanitization was also successfully performed on other colors (D&C red no. 9 Ba lake, D&C red no. 12 Ba lake, D&C green no. 5, and FD&C red no. 4); initial physical and chemical tests were satisfactory. Results indicated that this method of sanitization is feasible and warrants further investigation.

  9. Beauty and the body: the origins of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Dávila, F

    2000-03-01

    Ancient cultures were as preoccupied with the aesthetics of appearance as individuals are today. Dermabrasion for skin resurfacing has been performed with salt, pumice, ground grains, bone, and horn. Chemical peels have been performed with acids, metals, botanical extracts, or animal fats. Tattoos, ear piercing, makeup, skin treatments, and massages have existed for the past 5000 years. According to history, when the rise of more complex societies brought an ever-increasing demand for cosmesis, perfumers, cosmetologists, barbers, and gentlewomen became pioneers, undertaking and developing the cosmetic practices that had evolved through the ages. With the consolidation of medical specialties concerned with the management of skin care, the scientific method has been applied to adapt and perfect many of the procedures that had been carried out with only empirical knowledge. To have a better perspective from which to envision future technical and technological developments, plastic surgeons should be familiar with the origins of cosmetics and some cosmetology practices that society demands.

  10. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products.

    PubMed

    Pardeike, Jana; Hommoss, Aiman; Müller, Rainer H

    2009-01-21

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are distinguishable from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) by the composition of the solid particle matrix. Both are an alternative carrier system to liposomes and emulsions. This review paper focuses on lipid nanoparticles for dermal application. Production of lipid nanoparticles and final products containing lipid nanoparticles is feasible by well-established production methods. SLN and NLC exhibit many features for dermal application of cosmetics and pharmaceutics, i.e. controlled release of actives, drug targeting, occlusion and associated with it penetration enhancement and increase of skin hydration. Due to the production of lipid nanoparticles from physiological and/or biodegradable lipids, this carrier system exhibits an excellent tolerability. The lipid nanoparticles are a "nanosafe" carrier. Furthermore, an overview of the cosmetic products currently on the market is given and the improvement of the benefit/risk ratio of the topical therapy is shown. PMID:18992314

  11. Production of mannosylerythritol lipids and their application in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2013-06-01

    Mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs) are glycolipid biosurfactants abundantly produced by different basidiomycetous yeasts such as Pseudozyma, and show not only excellent interfacial properties but also versatile biochemical actions. These features of MELs make their application in new technology areas possible. Recently, the structural and functional variety of MELs was considerably expanded by advanced microbial screening methods. Different types of MELs bearing different hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts have been reported. The genes responsible for MEL biosynthesis were identified, and their genetic study is now in progress, aiming to control the chemical structure. The excellent properties leading to practical cosmetic ingredients, i.e., moisturization of dry skin, repair of damaged hair, activation of fibroblast and papilla cells and antioxidant and protective effects in skin cells, have been demonstrated on the yeast glycolipid biosurfactants. In this review, the current status of research and development on MELs, particularly the commercial application in cosmetics, is described. PMID:23584242

  12. Regulating bodily integrity: cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2012-12-01

    Cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation share a number of features. Both procedures are patient-driven forms of body shaping that can only be performed by surgeons, and therefore the procedures require the imprimatur of the medical profession to be lawful. Both invoke identity construction as a central legitimating factor that renders the procedures therapeutic. The legal regulation of surgery is subsumed within general principles regulating medical practice, where autonomy and consent are constituted as fundamental authorising principles. The legitimacy of consent to surgical intervention operates unevenly in relation to these two forms of surgery. Amputation of healthy limbs is presumed to be non-therapeutic. Capacity is closely interrogated and minutely scrutinised. Consent to cosmetic surgery, by contrast, is presumed to be a valid expression of autonomy and self-determination.

  13. Electroanalytical determination of the sunscreen agent octocrylene in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Júnior, J B G; Araujo, T A; Trindade, M A G; Ferreira, V S

    2012-02-01

    An electroanalytical method was developed to detect and quantify the sunscreen agent octocrylene (OCR) in cosmetic products. The method was based on electrochemical reduction, using voltammetric techniques. OCR was reduced at -0.97 V vs. Ag/AgCl on a glassy carbon electrode using a mixture of Britton-Robinson buffer (0.04 mol L(-1)) and ethanol (7 : 3, v/v) as the supporting electrolyte solution. Under optimized conditions and square-wave voltammetry, OCR response was linear from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 8.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) (r = 0.9995), with a limit of detection of 2.8 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The proposed electroanalytical method proved simple, fast and suitable for detection and quantification of OCR in samples of cosmetic products, with satisfactory results in the recovery test and analytical determination in real samples.

  14. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    PubMed

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  15. Moisturizing effect of topical cosmetic products applied to dry skin.

    PubMed

    Polaskova, Jana; Pavlackova, Jana; Vltavska, Pavlina; Mokrejs, Pavel; Janis, Rahula

    2013-01-01

    One of the complications of "diabetes mellitus" is termed diabetic foot syndrome, the first symptoms of which include changes in the skin's condition and properties. The skin becomes dehydrated, dry, and prone to excessive formation of the horny layer, its barrier function becoming weakened. This function can be restored by applying suitable cosmetic excipients containing active substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of commercially available cosmetic products (CPs) designed for the care of diabetic foot, through a group of selected volunteers using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Statistical surveys (p < 0.05) evaluated these CPs as regards to their hydration effect and barrier properties. Special attention was devoted to CPs with the declared content of 10% urea, and that the influence of this preparation's ability to hydrate and maintain epidermal water in the epidermis was confirmed.

  16. [EU-Cosmetics: timetables for the replacement of animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela Wiltrud

    2005-01-01

    According to the 7(th) Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive the European Commission had to establish timetables for the phasing out of the various animal tests for the safety evaluation of ingredients used in cosmetics. However, the published timetables do not reflect the objectives of the 7(th) Amendment but contain longer deadlines for the ban on animal experiments of several endpoints. The European Commission also had to draw up a Directive for establishing an Annex IX that should list validated alternative methods which are not already listed in Annex V of the Dangerous Substances Directive. Although various alternative methods could have been listed in this Annex IX, the Commission published an empty table. From the point of view of the German Animal Welfare Federation amendments of the timetables and the Directive establishing Annex IX are urgently required. Additionally, the Commission has to provide optimal conditions for the replacement of alternative methods.

  17. Beauty and the body: the origins of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Dávila, F

    2000-03-01

    Ancient cultures were as preoccupied with the aesthetics of appearance as individuals are today. Dermabrasion for skin resurfacing has been performed with salt, pumice, ground grains, bone, and horn. Chemical peels have been performed with acids, metals, botanical extracts, or animal fats. Tattoos, ear piercing, makeup, skin treatments, and massages have existed for the past 5000 years. According to history, when the rise of more complex societies brought an ever-increasing demand for cosmesis, perfumers, cosmetologists, barbers, and gentlewomen became pioneers, undertaking and developing the cosmetic practices that had evolved through the ages. With the consolidation of medical specialties concerned with the management of skin care, the scientific method has been applied to adapt and perfect many of the procedures that had been carried out with only empirical knowledge. To have a better perspective from which to envision future technical and technological developments, plastic surgeons should be familiar with the origins of cosmetics and some cosmetology practices that society demands. PMID:10724281

  18. A survey of phthalate esters in consumer cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Certain phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in animal models. For this reason, the FDA has been monitoring the use of phthalate esters in cosmetics. In this study, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a limited survey of 84 adult-use and baby-care cosmetic products for the presence of five phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (Figure 1). The analytes were extracted from a cosmetic product/Celite mixture with hexane, and the extract was then analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on an instrument equipped with an ultraviolet radiation (UV) detector set at 230 nm. The analytes were separated on a Partisil octadecylsilane (ODS)-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 50% water, 34% acetonitrile, 13% 2-propanol, and 3% methanol that was changed linearly (35 minutes) to 15% water, 55% acetonitrile, 25% 2-propanol, and 5% methanol and held for an additional ten minutes. Spiked recoveries in antiperspirant and nail color ranged from 88% to 104%. Thirty-one of the 60 adult-use cosmetic products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. Twenty products contained DEP and 11 nail products contained DBP. Concentrations of DBP ranged from 123 μg/g to 62,607 μg/g. Concentrations of DEP ranged from 80 μg/g to 36,006 μg/g. Five of the 24 baby-care products contained DEP at concentrations ranging from 10 μg/g to 274 μg/g.

  19. [The dark face of cosmetics. A justified or excessive diatribe?].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Lesuisse, M; Hermanns, J-F; Hermanns-Lê, T

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the population and producers of consumer products became aware of deleterious effects of some substances on human health and environment. Cosmetic products are part of such concern. What are the risks currently involved? The so-called "natural", "bio" or "green" products, do they represent an ideal panacea? This topic has a complex issue because documents available for the general public are of unequal quality, and objective scientifc publications remain rare and prone to controversies.

  20. [The dark face of cosmetics. A justified or excessive diatribe?].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Lesuisse, M; Hermanns, J-F; Hermanns-Lê, T

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the population and producers of consumer products became aware of deleterious effects of some substances on human health and environment. Cosmetic products are part of such concern. What are the risks currently involved? The so-called "natural", "bio" or "green" products, do they represent an ideal panacea? This topic has a complex issue because documents available for the general public are of unequal quality, and objective scientifc publications remain rare and prone to controversies. PMID:26727839

  1. Influence of cosmetics on emotional, autonomous, endocrinological, and immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Pössel, P; Ahrens, S; Hautzinger, M

    2005-12-01

    Recent findings indicate that cosmetics increase positive valence of emotions and thereby influence the autonomous nerve system. Other studies showed the effects of emotions on the endocrinological and the immune system. Based on this preliminary conclusion, the aim of the present study was to prove whether cosmetics are able to decrease the level of the stress hormone cortisol and strengthen the immune system. Four slides of made up or unvarnished women each, integrated in another 16 slides each of equivalent valence and arousal, were presented to 60 women. During stimulus presentation, subjective (valence), autonomous (heart rate), endocrinological (salivary cortisol) as well as immunological reactions [secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA)] were recorded. As expected subjective ratings concerning the slides of made up women reported more positive valence than those concerning unvarnished women. Furthermore, heart rate decreased under presentation of made up women, which indicates the positive influence of these slides on the autonomous nerve system. Furthermore, in half of the volunteers a decrease of cortisol and an increase of sIgA level while presenting the made up women was measurable in contrast to the presentation of unvarnished women. Maybe this is due to a short presentation time and the endocrinological as well as the immune system can be hardly influenced that quick. Another explanation could be that the volunteers were in part so called psychophysiological non-responders who show no reaction to emotional stimuli in the endocrinological and the immune system. It has to be considered that only the influence of visual stimuli and not the influence of social care (e.g. positive statements of other, etc.), which is normally connected with the use of cosmetics, was assessed, so that these delineated positive results show the lower limit of cosmetic effects.

  2. Evaluation of the efficiency and safety in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Uckaya, Meryem; Uckaya, Fatih; Demir, Nazan; Demir, Yasar

    2016-02-29

    Chemicals used in cosmetics have to interact with enzymes for beneficial or destroy purpose after they enter in our body. Active sections of enzymes that catalyze reactions have three dimensions and they are active optically. When these limitations of catalytic sections are considered, it may be considered that defining geometric specifications of chemical materials and functional groups they contain may contribute on safety evaluations of cosmetic products. In this study, defining similarities and differences of geometric structures of chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and chemical that are allowed to be used by using group theory and analyze of functional groups that are often encountered in these chemicals are aimed. Molecule formulas related to chemical material of, 276 pieces chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and 65 pieces chemicals that are allowed, are used as the material. Two and three-dimension structures of these formulas are drawn and types and quantity of functional groups they contain are defined. And as a method, freeware (Free Trial) version of "Chem-BioOffice Ultra 13.0 Suite" chemical drawing program to draw two and three-dimension of formulas, "Campus-Licensed" version that are provided for use by our university of "Autodesk 3DS Max" for three-dimension drawings are used. In order to analyze geometric specifications of drawn molecules according to Group Theory and define type and quantity of available functional groups, Excel applications developed by Prof. Dr. Yaşar Demir are used. PMID:26773597

  3. Nanoemulsion: process selection and application in cosmetics--a review.

    PubMed

    Yukuyama, M N; Ghisleni, D D M; Pinto, T J A; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, considerable and continuous growth in consumer demand in the cosmetics field has spurred the development of sophisticated formulations, aiming at high performance, attractive appearance, sensorial benefit and safety. Yet despite increasing demand from consumers, the formulator faces certain restrictions regarding the optimum equilibrium between the active compound concentration and the formulation base taking into account the nature of the skin structure, mainly concerning to the ideal penetration of the active compound, due to the natural skin barrier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible phases, and the interest in nanoscale emulsion has been growing considerably in recent decades due to its specific attributes such as high stability, attractive appearance and drug delivery properties; therefore, performance is expected to improve using a lipid-based nanocarrier. Nanoemulsions are generated by different approaches: the so-called high-energy and low-energy methods. The global overview of these mechanisms and different alternatives for each method are presented in this paper, along with their benefits and drawbacks. As a cosmetics formulation is reflected in product delivery to consumers, nanoemulsion development with prospects for large-scale production is one of the key attributes in the method selection process. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the main high- and low-energy methods applicable in cosmetics and dermatological product development, their specificities, recent research on these methods in the cosmetics and consideration for the process selection optimization. The specific process with regard to inorganic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles and nanocapsule formulation is not considered in this paper.

  4. Borrowed beauty? Understanding identity in Asian facial cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Yves Saint James; Steinkamp, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher's Index, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and Communication Abstracts using key terms "cosmetic surgery," "ethnic*," "ethics," "Asia*," and "Western*." The study included all types of papers written in English that discuss the debate on rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty in East Asians. No limit was put on date of publication. Combining both narrative and systematic review methods, a total of 31 articles were critically appraised on their contribution to ethical reflection founded on the debates regarding the surgical alteration of Asian features. Sources of knowledge were drawn from four main disciplines, including the humanities, medicine or surgery, communications, and economics. Focusing on cosmetic surgery perceived as a westernising practice, the key debate themes included authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships and socio-economic utility in the context of Asian culture. The study shows how cosmetic surgery of ethnic features plays an important role in understanding female identity in the Asian context. Based on the debate themes authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships, and socio-economic utility, this article argues that identity should be understood as less individualistic and more as relational and transformational in the Asian context. In addition, this article also proposes to consider cosmetic surgery of Asian features as an interplay of cultural imperialism and cultural nationalism, which can both be a source of social pressure to modify one's appearance.

  5. Borrowed beauty? Understanding identity in Asian facial cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Yves Saint James; Steinkamp, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher's Index, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and Communication Abstracts using key terms "cosmetic surgery," "ethnic*," "ethics," "Asia*," and "Western*." The study included all types of papers written in English that discuss the debate on rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty in East Asians. No limit was put on date of publication. Combining both narrative and systematic review methods, a total of 31 articles were critically appraised on their contribution to ethical reflection founded on the debates regarding the surgical alteration of Asian features. Sources of knowledge were drawn from four main disciplines, including the humanities, medicine or surgery, communications, and economics. Focusing on cosmetic surgery perceived as a westernising practice, the key debate themes included authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships and socio-economic utility in the context of Asian culture. The study shows how cosmetic surgery of ethnic features plays an important role in understanding female identity in the Asian context. Based on the debate themes authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships, and socio-economic utility, this article argues that identity should be understood as less individualistic and more as relational and transformational in the Asian context. In addition, this article also proposes to consider cosmetic surgery of Asian features as an interplay of cultural imperialism and cultural nationalism, which can both be a source of social pressure to modify one's appearance. PMID:26983846

  6. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  7. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee's Honey - A review.

    PubMed

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Premarathna, N Y S

    2012-04-01

    Bee's honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee's honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and 'Makshika' is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee's honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee's honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of 'Kalahe' in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee's honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee's honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee's honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses. PMID:23559786

  8. A five-year study of cosmetic reactions.

    PubMed

    Adams, R M; Maibach, H I

    1985-12-01

    During 64 months (1977 to 1983), twelve dermatologists from various sections of the United States studied a total of 713 patients with cosmetic dermatitis out of an estimated total of 13,216 patients with contact dermatitis. The number of patients seen for all causes during this period was 281,100. An important finding was that half of the patients or physicians were unaware that a cosmetic was responsible for their dermatitis. Skin care products, hair preparations (including colors), and facial makeup were responsible for the majority of the reactions. The most important objective was identification of causative ingredients. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects had patch tests. Fragrance, preservatives (Quaternium-15, formaldehyde, imidazolidinyl urea, and parabens), p-phenylenediamine, and glyceryl monothioglycolate were the most frequently identified allergic sensitizers, in that order. In addition to the clinical data, the study permitted assessment of the frequency of cosmetic reactions, although the data may not be entirely representative of the country at large because of the special interests of the dermatologists involved.

  9. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure. PMID:24447976

  10. [Generic method for determination of volatile organic solvents in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Da, Jing; Huang, Xianglu; Wang, Gangli; Cao, Jin; Zhang, Qingsheng

    2014-11-01

    A generic screening, confirmation and determination method was established based on 36 commonly used volatile organic solvents in cosmetics by headspace gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method included a database for pilot screening and identifi- cation of those solvents and their quantitative method. Pilot screening database was composed by two sections, one was household section built by two columns with opposite polarities (col- umn VF-1301 ms and DB-5 ms) using retention index in different column systems as qualitative parameter, and the other was NIST MS search version 2.0. Meanwhile, the determination method of the 36 volatile solvents was developed with GC-MS. Cosmetic samples were dissolved in water and transferred to a headspace vial. After 30 min equilibration at 60 °C, the samples were analyzed by GC-MS equipped with a capillary chromatographic column VF-1301 ms. The external calibration was used for quantification. The limits of detection were from 0.01 to 3.3 μg/g, and the recoveries were from 60.77% to 126.6%. This study provided a generic method for pilot screening, identification, and quantitation of volatile organic solvents in cosmetics, and may solve the problem that different analytical methods need to be developed for different targeted compounds and pilot screening for potential candidate solvent residues.

  11. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure.

  12. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3. PMID:26206496

  13. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility". PMID:26825071

  14. Safety and risk assessment of ceramide 3 in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seul Min; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 3 is used mainly as a moisturizer in various cosmetic products. Although several safety studies on formulations containing pseudo-ceramide or ceramide have been conducted at the preclinical and clinical levels for regulatory approval, no studies have evaluated the systemic toxicity of ceramide 3. To address this issue, we conducted a risk assessment and comprehensive toxicological review of ceramide and pseudo-ceramide. We assumed that ceramide 3 is present in various personal and cosmetic products at concentrations of 0.5-10%. Based on previously reported exposure data, the margin of safety (MOS) was calculated for product type, use pattern, and ceramide 3 concentration. Lipsticks with up to 10% ceramide 3 (MOS = 4111) are considered safe, while shampoos containing 0.5% ceramide 3 (MOS = 148) are known to be safe. Reported MOS values for body lotion applied to the hands (1% ceramide 3) and back (5% ceramide 3) were 103 and 168, respectively. We anticipate that face cream would be safe up to a ceramide 3 concentration of 3% (MOS = 149). Collectively, the MOS approach indicated no safety concerns for cosmetic products containing less than 1% ceramide 3.

  15. Cosmetics use and age at menopause: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Chow, Erika T; Mahalingaiah, Shruthi

    2016-09-15

    Cosmetics contain a vast number of chemicals, most of which are not under the regulatory purview of the Food and Drug Administration. Only a few of these chemicals have been evaluated for potential deleterious health impact: parabens, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and siloxanes. A review of the ingredients in the best-selling and top-rated products of the top beauty brands in the world, as well as a review of highlighted chemicals by nonprofit environmental organizations, reveals 11 chemicals and chemical families of concern: butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene, coal tar dyes, diethanolamine, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, phthalates, 1,4-dioxane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, siloxanes, talc/asbestos, and triclosan. Age at menopause can be affected by a variety of mechanisms, including endocrine disruption, failure of DNA repair, oxidative stress, shortened telomere length, and ovarian toxicity. There is a lack of available studies to make a conclusion regarding cosmetics use and age at menopause. What little data there are suggest that future studies are warranted. Women with chronic and consistent use of cosmetics across their lifespan may be a population of concern. More research is required to better elucidate the relationship and time windows of vulnerability and the effects of mixtures and combinations of products on ovarian health.

  16. Cosmetics use and age at menopause: is there a connection?

    PubMed

    Chow, Erika T; Mahalingaiah, Shruthi

    2016-09-15

    Cosmetics contain a vast number of chemicals, most of which are not under the regulatory purview of the Food and Drug Administration. Only a few of these chemicals have been evaluated for potential deleterious health impact: parabens, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and siloxanes. A review of the ingredients in the best-selling and top-rated products of the top beauty brands in the world, as well as a review of highlighted chemicals by nonprofit environmental organizations, reveals 11 chemicals and chemical families of concern: butylated hydroxyanisole/butylated hydroxytoluene, coal tar dyes, diethanolamine, formaldehyde-releasing preservatives, parabens, phthalates, 1,4-dioxane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, siloxanes, talc/asbestos, and triclosan. Age at menopause can be affected by a variety of mechanisms, including endocrine disruption, failure of DNA repair, oxidative stress, shortened telomere length, and ovarian toxicity. There is a lack of available studies to make a conclusion regarding cosmetics use and age at menopause. What little data there are suggest that future studies are warranted. Women with chronic and consistent use of cosmetics across their lifespan may be a population of concern. More research is required to better elucidate the relationship and time windows of vulnerability and the effects of mixtures and combinations of products on ovarian health. PMID:27545020

  17. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly. PMID:24976614

  18. Establishing a cosmetic surgery practice: an algorithm to management of the cosmetic surgery patient in your practice.

    PubMed

    Bolding, Scott L

    2004-09-01

    As oral and maxillofacial surgeons, we have the skills to provide this service at an exceptional level. Each of us must obtain the proper training and continually update our knowledge in this area so that we can continue to advance the specialty of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Our forefathers in the specialty paved the way for us, and that is why we have privilege to practice our specialty. Providing cosmetic surgery in your practice can be rewarding.

  19. A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and interest in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M

    2010-03-01

    Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program. PMID:20089464

  20. The role of media and peer influences in Australian women's attitudes towards cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2014-09-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of media and peers on attitudes towards cosmetic surgery using a sociocultural framework. A sample of 351 Australian women aged 18-69 years completed measures of media exposure, friend conversations, internalisation of appearance ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. Correlational analysis showed that almost all media and friend variables were significantly correlated with positive attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. A structural equation model based on the sociocultural model showed a good level of fit to the data. The effects of media exposure and friend conversations on body dissatisfaction and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery were mediated by internalisation. We concluded that media exposure and friend conversations affected attitudes towards cosmetic surgery both directly and indirectly. Our results contribute to the understanding of the sociocultural mechanisms underlying women's motivations for cosmetic surgery.

  1. A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and interest in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M

    2010-03-01

    Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program.

  2. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  3. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.

  4. Controversies on cosmetic outcomes in black women after breast conservation therapy: hyperperception or hyperpigmentation?

    PubMed

    Edwards-Bennett, Sophia M; Brown, Carol L

    2011-01-01

    Multiple studies have reported inferior cosmetic outcomes after breast conservation surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy in black women. However, cosmetic analysis scales contemporarily utilized in the field of radiation oncology rely largely on subjective visual and tactile perception. These methods are undeniably fraught with intraobserver and interobserver variability. Herein, we uncover how and why these methods may unwittingly and disparately misjudge cosmetic outcomes in black women, and the clinical ramifications thereof. In addition, we highlight more objective cosmetic outcomes assessment programs that promise to yield more reproducible and unbiased results.

  5. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients.

  6. Awareness and attitude of healthcare workers to cosmetic surgery in osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Opeyemi Adeniyi; Oseni, Ganiyu Oladiran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the level of awareness and elucidates the attitude and disposition of healthcare workers to cosmetic surgery in Osogbo, Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was done at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, in 2012. Questionnaires were administered to 213 workers and students in the hospital. These were then analysed using SPSS version 16.0 with frequencies, means, and so forth. Respondents were 33 doctors, 32 nurses, 79 medical students, 60 nursing students, 4 administrative staff, 1 pharmacist, and 4 ward maids. There is fair awareness about cosmetic surgery generally with 94.5% and its availability in Nigeria with 67.0%. A fewer proportion of the respondents (44.5%) were aware of the facility for cosmetic surgery in their locality. A large percentage (86.5%) favorably considers facilities outside Nigeria when making choice of facility to have cosmetic surgery done. 85.5% considered the information about cosmetic surgery reliable while 19.0% objected going for cosmetic surgery of their choice even if done free. Only 34.0% consider cosmetic surgery socially acceptable. Although the awareness of health workers about cosmetic surgery is high, their disposition to it is low. There is a need to increase the awareness in order to increase cosmetic surgery practice in Nigeria.

  7. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  8. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics: a review on legislation, usage, infections, and contact allergy.

    PubMed

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2009-02-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly, and this may indicate that some cosmetic products are over preserved. As development and elicitation of contact allergy is dose dependent, over preservation of cosmetics potentially leads to increased incidences of contact allergy. Very few studies have investigated the antimicrobial efficiency of preservatives in cosmetics, but the results indicate that efficient preservation is obtainable with concentrations well below the maximum allowed.

  9. Evaluation of headache relief with cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA injections.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Neal D; Dorton, Leighanne H; Marcum, Kristin K; Gilbert, Ryan M; Sandoval, Laura F

    2014-09-01

    Chronic headaches are common and can have a significant effect on quality of life. Approved treatment options are vast and include the use botulinum toxin injections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of purely cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX) injections on the frequency and severity of chronic headaches. Patients seeking treatment of hyperfunctional facial lines were enrolled to complete pre- and posttreatment questionnaires assessing headache symptoms. Quantitative data was compared using paired two-tailed student t-tests between groups of patients who received onabotulinumtoxinA injections, both onabotulinumtoxinA and hyaluronic acid (Restylane) injections, and hyaluronic acid injections. One hundred and ten patients were enrolled; 73 completed the study. Of the 45 patients with pretreatment headaches, 76% (22/29) that received cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA injections alone and 69% (27/39) that received onabotulinumtoxinA with or without hyaluronic acid injections reported overall improvement in headaches. Patients who received only onabotulinumtoxinA reported a significant decrease in the frequency (P = 0.0016) and severity (P = 0.0002) of headaches, and the number of days over-the-counter medications were taken (P = 0.0238). It took an average 9.5 days for headache improvement vs. 4.4 days for an appearance change. In patients who received only hyaluronic acid injections (n = 6), no significant improvement in headaches was reported. Overall satisfaction was high and unaffected by whether patients experienced headache relief. The majority of patients (93%) reported that they would "definitely" or "likely" receive onabotulinumtoxinA injections again in the future. Purely cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA injections of doses between 15-50 units can significantly decrease the severity and frequency of headaches.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity study of cosmetics colorants.

    PubMed

    Tomankova, K; Kejlova, K; Binder, S; Daskova, A; Zapletalova, J; Bendova, H; Kolarova, H; Jirova, D

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the work was early identification of preventable risk factors connected with the consumers usage of products of everyday use, such as cosmetics, toys and children products, and other materials intended for contact with human skin. The risk factor is represented by substances with irritation potential and subsequent possible sensitisation, resulting in negative impact on human physical and psychical health with social and societal consequences. The legislation for cosmetics, chemical substances and other products requires for hazard identification the application of alternative toxicological methods in vitro without the use of animals. For this reason we used a battery of alternative assays in vitro, based on cell cultures. Progressive methods of molecular biology, based on fluorimetry and fluorescence, were employed for identification of early morphological and functional changes on cellular level. Four colorants frequently used in cosmetics (P-WS Caramel, Chlorophyllin, Unicert Red K 7054-J and Unicert Red K 7008-J) were tested on cell line NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast cell) and 3T3 Balb/c with/without UV irradiation (dose 5 J cm(-2)). Fluorescence methods for the study of cell damage using fluorescence probes offer results for the evaluation of cytotoxicity and cell viability of adherent cells. We detected intracellular production of ROS investigated by molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA, which is primarily sensitive to the increased production of hydrogen peroxide or its downstream products. Toxic effects on the cellular level were identified by viability tests using Neutral Red uptake and MTT assay, where the live cells reduce yellow soluble 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to insoluble formazan crystals. The reaction was investigated on mitochondrial membrane of living cells and the type of cell death was determined using Apoptosis detection kit. Cytotoxicity tests revealed health risks of using Chlorophyllin and Unicert Red

  11. Promoting Health Literacy in the Nonsurgical Cosmetic Patient.

    PubMed

    Warren, Hermine

    2016-01-01

    Significant numbers of adults, when presented with basic health care information, have been shown to struggle with their abilities to comprehend and integrate materials presented to them. This lack of perception underscores the essence of health literacy. Even though health literacy is a newer concept, its impact is gathering momentum, as politicians, health care providers, researchers, and the media become more aware of the extent this disparity is seen within the health care system and how it affects patient care. This article explores how nursing philosophy and knowledge development have the capacity to provide a solid infrastructure that may promote increased health literacy among patients within the nonsurgical cosmetic arena.

  12. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants. PMID:27613289

  13. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  14. Cosmetics and the esthetic patient and laboratory communication.

    PubMed

    Feeley, R T

    1995-08-01

    With increasing consumer awareness of the innovative procedures available for cosmetic dentistry, this area of practice is growing rapidly and has become an excellent source for patient referrals. Unfortunately, it can also be a large source of stress for the practitioner. Esthetics has been described by The Pocket Oxford Dictionary as "the philosophy of beautiful"; its perception varies from individual to individual. In the field of dentistry, there are criteria which define one tooth as being more esthetic than another and one individual's smile as more pleasing than another. However, that which is esthetically pleasing to the clinician may not be esthetically pleasing to the patient. PMID:8779733

  15. [Analysis on the dermal irritation caused by imported cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xing, S; Yuan, L; Song, R; Xu, F

    2001-11-01

    Dermal irritation tests on 902 kinds of cosmetics were conducted. The acute dermal irritation/corrosion tests for 175 samples showed no irritation in 65.1% of them, and 34.9% of them were considered as slight irritation. The chronic dermal irritation/corrosion tests for another 727 samples showed no irritation for 32.2% of them, and 67.8% of them were considered as slight irritation, most of which are lipsticks, eye shadows, fluid powder foundations and powder foundations.

  16. Cosmetics and the esthetic patient and laboratory communication.

    PubMed

    Feeley, R T

    1995-08-01

    With increasing consumer awareness of the innovative procedures available for cosmetic dentistry, this area of practice is growing rapidly and has become an excellent source for patient referrals. Unfortunately, it can also be a large source of stress for the practitioner. Esthetics has been described by The Pocket Oxford Dictionary as "the philosophy of beautiful"; its perception varies from individual to individual. In the field of dentistry, there are criteria which define one tooth as being more esthetic than another and one individual's smile as more pleasing than another. However, that which is esthetically pleasing to the clinician may not be esthetically pleasing to the patient.

  17. Cosmetic neurology: the controversy over enhancing movement, mentation, and mood.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2004-09-28

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and neuropharmacology are yielding exciting treatments for neurologic diseases. Many of these treatments are also likely to have uses for people without disease. Here, I review the ways in which medicine might make bodies and brains function better by modulating motor, cognitive, and affective systems. These potential "quality of life" interventions raise ethical concerns, some related to the individual and others related to society. Despite these concerns, I argue that major restraints on the development of cosmetic neurology are not likely. Neurologists and other clinicians are likely to encounter patient-consumers who view physicians as gatekeepers in their own pursuit of happiness.

  18. Biosynthesis of the food and cosmetic plant pigment bixin (annatto).

    PubMed

    Bouvier, Florence; Dogbo, Odette; Camara, Bilal

    2003-06-27

    Bixin, also known as annatto, is a seed-specific pigment widely used in foods and cosmetics since pre-Columbian times. We show that three genes from Bixa orellana, native to tropical America, govern bixin biosynthesis. These genes code for lycopene cleavage dioxygenase, bixin aldehyde dehydrogenase, and norbixin carboxyl methyltransferase, which catalyze the sequential conversion of lycopene into bixin. Introduction of these three genes in Escherichia coli engineered to produce lycopene induced bixin synthesis, thus expanding the supply of this economically important plant product. PMID:12829782

  19. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.

  20. Engineered inorganic nanoparticles and cosmetics: facts, issues, knowledge gaps and challenges.

    PubMed

    Wiechers, Johann W; Musee, Ndeke

    2010-10-01

    The cosmetic industry is among the first adaptors of nanotechnology through the use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) to enhance the performance of their products and meet the customers' needs. Recently, there have been increasing concerns from different societal stakeholders (e.g., governments, environmental activist pressure groups, scientists, general public, etc.) concerning the safety and environmental impact of ENPs used in cosmetics. This review paper seeks to address the twin concerns of the safety of cosmetics and the potential environmental impacts due to the constituent chemicals-the ENPs. The safety aspect is addressed by examining recently published scientific data on the possibility of ENPs penetrating human skin. Data indicates that although particular types of ENPs can penetrate into the skin, until now no penetration has been detected beyond the stratum corneum of the ENPs used in cosmetics. Yet, important lessons can be learned from the more recent studies that identify the characteristics of ENPs penetrating into and permeating through human skin. On the part of the environmental impact, the scientific literature has very limited or none existent specific articles addressing the environmental impacts of ENPs owing to the cosmetic products. Therefore, general ecotoxicological data on risk assessment of ENPs has been applied to ascertain if there are potential environmental impacts from cosmetics. Results include some of the first studies on the qualitative and quantitative risk assessment of ENPs from cosmetics and suggest that further research is required as the knowledge is incomplete to make definitive conclusions as is the case with skin penetration. The authors conclude that the cosmetic industry should be more transparent in its use of nanotechnology in cosmetic products to facilitate realistic risk assessments as well as scientists and pressure groups being accurate in their conclusions on the general applicability of their findings

  1. Nursing students' perceptions of clients undergoing elective cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leah Beth

    2007-01-01

    Aesthetic obsession is commonplace in current society. Supermarket a isles dedicated to beauty products, makeup, and anti-aging creams seem to expand daily. Television and publications flood the public with messages of what constitutes beauty and how to achieve the ideal. Surgical alteration of the body is swiftly becoming a form of self-care technique along with other heath-promoting behavior. Since 2003, the general acceptance of plastic surgery among all Americans surpassed 50% (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2003). Elective cosmetic surgical procedures have increased by an astounding 444% since 1997 (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2006). This quest for body satisfaction based on modern cultural norms increases the public's need for accurate information and understanding from those in the healthcare profession. Despite a transformation in the general population's conception of cosmetic surgery and its clients, stigma still lies in many individuals, including those in the healthcare profession. As this progressively growing patient population emerges, many in healthcare question their attitudes toward plastic surgery and the patients receiving aesthetic operations. With clients undergoing plastic surgery becoming increasingly visible within the healthcare system, some unique aspects of patient care must be addressed. PMID:17901826

  2. Neural activity associated with enhanced facial attractiveness by cosmetics use.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Aya; Ito, Ayahito; Kawasaki, Iori; Kawachi, Yousuke; Yoshida, Kazuki; Murakami, Yui; Sakai, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2014-04-30

    Previous psychological studies have shown that make-up enhances facial attractiveness. Although neuroimaging evidence indicates that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) shows greater activity for faces of attractive people than for those of unattractive people, there is no direct evidence that the OFC also shows greater activity for the face of an individual wearing make-up than for the same face without make-up. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated neural activity while subjects viewed 144 photographs of the same faces with and without make-up (48 with make-up, 48 without make-up, and 48 scrambled photographs) and assigned these faces an attractiveness rating. The behavioral data showed that the faces with make-up were rated as more attractive than those without make-up. The imaging data revealed that the left OFC and the right hippocampus showed greater activity for faces with make-up than for those without make-up. Furthermore, the activities of the right anterior cingulate cortex, left hippocampus, and left OFC increased with increasing facial attractiveness resulting from cosmetics use. These results provide direct evidence of the neural underpinnings of cosmetically enhanced facial attractiveness.

  3. Probabilistic modelling of European consumer exposure to cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Rohan, D; Golden, D; Gibney, M; Hall, B; Tozer, S; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Leneveu-Duchemin, M C; Steiling, W

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we describe the statistical analysis of the usage profile of the European population to seven cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to construct a reliable model of exposure of the European population from use of the selected products: body lotion, shampoo, deodorant spray, deodorant non-spray, facial moisturiser, lipstick and toothpaste. The first step in this process was to gather reliable data on consumer usage patterns of the products. These data were sourced from a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study by the trade association Colipa. The market information study contained a large number of subjects, in total 44,100 households and 18,057 habitual users (males and females) of the studied products, in five European countries. The data sets were then combined to generate a realistic distribution of frequency of use of each product, combined with distribution of the amount of product used at each occasion using the CREMe software. A Monte Carlo method was used to combine the data sets. This resulted in a new model of European exposure to cosmetic products being constructed.

  4. Natural ingredients based cosmetics. Content of selected fragrance sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S C; Johansen, J D; Menné, T

    1996-06-01

    In the present study, we have investigated 42 cosmetic products based on natural ingredients for content of 11 fragrance substances: geraniol, hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, isoeugenol, cinnamic aldehyde, cinnamic alcohol, alpha-amylcinnamic aldehyde, citral, coumarin, dihydrocoumarin and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde. The study revealed that the 91% (20/22) of the natural ingredients based perfumes contained 0.027%-7.706% of 1 to 7 of the target fragrances. Between 1 and 5 of the chemically defined synthetic constituents of fragrance mix were found in 82% (18/22) of the perfumes. 35% (7/20) of the other cosmetic products (shampoos, creams, tonics, etc) were found to contain 0.0003-0.0820% of 1 to 3 of the target fragrances. Relatively high concentrations of hydroxycitronellal, coumarin, cinnamic alcohol and alpha-amyl cinnamic aldehyde were found in some of the investigated products. The detection of hydroxycitronellal and alpha-hexylcinnamic aldehyde in some of the products demonstrates that artificial fragrances, i.e., compounds not yet regarded as natural substances, may be present in products claimed to be based on natural ingredients.

  5. Normal use levels of respirable cosmetic talc: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Aylott, R I; Byrne, G A; Middleton, J D; Roberts, M E

    1979-06-01

    Synopsis This preliminary study was undertaken to provide data from which a more comprehensive investigation to establish the safety in-use of cosmetic talcs could be designed. Methods for collecting and analysing respirable talc generated during the use of loose face powder and adult and baby dusting powders were established. Respirable particles in the air were separated from larger size particles by means of a cyclone and were collected on membrane filters. The collected dust was dissolved in acid and the solution was analysed for magnesium by atomic absorption spectroscopy. From the results the concentrations of talc in the air samples were calculated. The method was used to monitor the in-use levels of a range of cosmetic talcs. Mean concentrations in air sampled for 5 min from the start of use of Chinese grades and Italian 00000 grades of talc formulated for use as loose face powder, adult dusting powder and baby dusting powder were 0.48, 1.13 and 0.21 mg m(-3), respectively. Higher levels were found with micronised adult dusting powder (mean concentration 1.9 mg m(-3)). There was no evidence that the presence of perfume in the talc or the ambient relative humidity in the range 54-74% during use affected the levels of respirable talc, but high relative humidity <90% reduced the amount of respirable talc.

  6. Cosmetic applications of selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Lin, Rong-Dih; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Huang, Yen-Hua; Chang, Hsien-Chang; Huang, Ching-Yi; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2006-07-19

    Because tyrosinase catalyzes melanin synthesis, tyrosinase inhibitors are important in cosmetic skin-whitening. Oxidative stress contributes to skin aging and can adversely affect skin health, which means antioxidants active in skin cells may support skin health. We examined 25 traditional Chinese herbal medicines that might be useful for skin-whitening and skin health. Extracts (100microg/mL) were tested for cytotoxicity on human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn); 12 exhibited low cytotoxicity. Their effects on tyrosinase and melanin inhibitory activities and free radical scavenging activities were further assessed. Phenolic contents were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Four herbs, Pharbitis nil, Sophora japonica, Spatholobus suberectus, and Morus alba, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase (IC(50) values 24.9, 95.6, 83.9, and 78.3microg/mL, respectively). Melanin inhibition was not dose-dependent. Sophora japonica (IC(50): 14.46microg/mL, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 1.95microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) and Spatholobus suberectus (IC(50): 10.51microg/mL, DPPH; 4.36microg/mL, hydroxyl radical) showed good antioxidative activities and high phenolic contents (255 and 189mg of gallic acid/g extract, respectively). Among active anti-tyrosinase extracts, Sophora japonica and Spatholobus suberectus were especially potent in HEMn cells in terms of free radical scavenging effects and high phenolic contents, making them the strongest candidates for cosmetic application found in the current study. PMID:16497459

  7. Metals in cosmetics: an a posteriori safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marinovich, Marina; Boraso, Maria Serena; Testai, Emanuela; Galli, Corrado L

    2014-08-01

    According to EU Regulation No. 1223/2009/CE cosmetic products for daily use can contain 'technically unavoidable traces' of metals. This definition is too vague. Authorities should set well-defined limits, considering the risks associated with metal contamination of personal care products (PCPs). This paper characterizes the risk arising from a number of metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) that may occur in 'unavoidable traces" in raw materials and, consequently, in PCPs. A 'worst case scenario' was adopted, based on the following assumptions: (i) the individual ingredients contained the maximum amount in traces allowed for each metal; (ii) the hypothetical PCP was produced exclusively with that single ingredient; (iii) when absorption through the skin was not known, data related to oral absorption were used. Risk characterization was performed calculating the Systemic Exposure Dosage (SED) and the Margin of Safety (MoS=NOAEL or BMDL10/SED). Exposure to the allegedly 'technically unavoidable' maximum amounts of metals in cosmetic ingredients resulted in MoSs exceeding 100 (safety threshold) with one exception. This suggests that the availability of experimental dermal absorption rates could enable significant improvement in MoS, thus increasing safety levels. Although results are reassuring, the authors recommend minimization of contamination, according to the state of the art of manufacturing methods.

  8. Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution in Cosmetic Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Kuen; Chen, Kuen-Tasnn; Cheng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Cheng-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The use of lasers in cosmetic surgery has increased dramatically in the past decade. To achieve minimal damage to tissues, the study of the temperature distribution of skin in laser irradiation is very important. The phenomenon of the thermal wave effect is significant due to the highly focused light energy of lasers in very a short time period. The conventional Pennes equation does not take the thermal wave effect into account, which the thermal relaxation time (τ) is neglected, so it is not sufficient to solve instantaneous heating and cooling problem. The purpose of this study is to solve the thermal wave equation to determine the realistic temperature distribution during laser surgery. The analytic solutions of the thermal wave equation are compared with those of the Pennes equation. Moreover, comparisons are made between the results of the above equations and the results of temperature measurement using an infrared thermal image instrument. The thermal wave equation could likely to predict the skin temperature distribution in cosmetic laser surgery.

  9. Cosmetic mesotherapy: between scientific evidence, science fiction, and lucrative business.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Dibo, Saad A

    2008-11-01

    Mesotherapy, originally conceived in Europe, is a minimally invasive technique that consists of the intra- or subcutaneous injection of variable mixtures of natural plant extracts, homeopathic agents, pharmaceuticals, vitamins, and other bioactive substances in microscopic quantities through dermal multipunctures. Its application in cosmetic medicine and surgery is gaining in popularity and acceptance and is rapidly growing in profile at an alarming rate. Despite their attraction as purported rejuvenating and ''fat-dissolving'' injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous, making mesotherapy vulnerable to criticism by the generally more skeptical medical community. The technique is shrouded in mystery and the controversy surrounding it pertains to its efficacy and potential adverse effects that are subject of much concern. As with any new technology, it is important to assess the benefits, safety, experience, and standardization of mesotherapy. More studies are necessary before it can be advocated as a safe and effective treatment for body contouring and facial rejuvenation. Although the claims made about mesotherapy may be hard to believe at face value, we must be cautious about rejecting new ideas. Just as absence of proof is not proof of absence, lack of scientific validation is not proof that it does not work. PMID:18663517

  10. Modeling and analysis of cosmetic treatment effects on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderstaedt, Reinhart A.; Hopermann, Hermann; Hillemann, Thomas

    2000-10-01

    In view of treatment effects of cosmetics, quality management becomes more and more important. Due to the efficiency reasons it is desirable to quantify these effects and predict them as a function of time. For this, a mathematical model of the skin's surface (epidermis) is needed. Such a model cannot be worked out purely analytically. It can only be derived with the help of measurement data. The signals of interest as output of different measurement devices consist of two parts: noise of high (spatial) frequencies (stochastic signal) and periodic functions (deterministic signal) of low (spatial) frequencies. Both parts can be separated by correlation analysis. The paper introduces in addition to the Fourier Transform (FT) with the Wavelet Transform (WT), a brand new, highly sophisticated method with excellent properties for both modeling the skin's surface as well as evaluating treatment effects. Its main physical advantage is (in comparison to the FT) that local irregularities in the measurement signal (e.g. by scars) remain at their place and are not represented as mean square values as it is the case when applying the FT. The method has just now been installed in industry and will there be used in connection with a new in vivo measurement device for quality control of cosmetic products. As texture parameter for an integral description of the human skin the fractal dimension D is used which is appropriate for classification of different skin regions and treatment effects as well.

  11. Retrospective analysis of the mutagenicity/genotoxicity data of the cosmetic ingredients present on the Annexes of the Cosmetic EU legislation (2000-12).

    PubMed

    Ates, Gamze; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of cosmetic ingredients at the regulatory level, usually a battery of three in vitro tests is applied. This battery, designed to be very sensitive, produces a high number of positive results, imposing the need for in vivo follow-up testing to clear the substance under study. In Europe, the use of experimental animals has become impossible for cosmetic ingredients due to the implementation of animal testing and marketing bans. Consequently, the possibility to 'de-risk' substances with positive in vitro results disappear and potentially safe cosmetic substances will be lost for the EU market unless currently used in vitro assays can be adapted or new non-animal mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies become available. Described strategies to improve the specificity of existing in vitro assays include optimisation of the used cell type and cytotoxicity assay and lowering of the applied top concentration. A reduction of the number of tests in the battery from three to two also has been suggested. In this study, the performance of the 'standard' in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity testing battery is analysed for a number of cosmetic ingredients. We composed a database with toxicological information on 249 cosmetic ingredients, mainly present on the Annexes of the European cosmetic legislation. Results revealed that the in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests showed a low specificity for the cosmetic ingredients concerned, comparable to the specificity published for chemicals. Non-confirmed or 'misleading' positive results amounted up to 93% for the in vitro test batteries. The cell type and top concentrations did not have a major impact on the specificity. With respect to cytotoxicity determinations, different end points were used, potentially leading to different testing concentrations, suggesting the need for a consensus in this matter. Overall, the results of this retrospective analysis point to an urgent need of better regulatory

  12. Retrospective analysis of the mutagenicity/genotoxicity data of the cosmetic ingredients present on the Annexes of the Cosmetic EU legislation (2000-12).

    PubMed

    Ates, Gamze; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of cosmetic ingredients at the regulatory level, usually a battery of three in vitro tests is applied. This battery, designed to be very sensitive, produces a high number of positive results, imposing the need for in vivo follow-up testing to clear the substance under study. In Europe, the use of experimental animals has become impossible for cosmetic ingredients due to the implementation of animal testing and marketing bans. Consequently, the possibility to 'de-risk' substances with positive in vitro results disappear and potentially safe cosmetic substances will be lost for the EU market unless currently used in vitro assays can be adapted or new non-animal mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies become available. Described strategies to improve the specificity of existing in vitro assays include optimisation of the used cell type and cytotoxicity assay and lowering of the applied top concentration. A reduction of the number of tests in the battery from three to two also has been suggested. In this study, the performance of the 'standard' in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity testing battery is analysed for a number of cosmetic ingredients. We composed a database with toxicological information on 249 cosmetic ingredients, mainly present on the Annexes of the European cosmetic legislation. Results revealed that the in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests showed a low specificity for the cosmetic ingredients concerned, comparable to the specificity published for chemicals. Non-confirmed or 'misleading' positive results amounted up to 93% for the in vitro test batteries. The cell type and top concentrations did not have a major impact on the specificity. With respect to cytotoxicity determinations, different end points were used, potentially leading to different testing concentrations, suggesting the need for a consensus in this matter. Overall, the results of this retrospective analysis point to an urgent need of better regulatory

  13. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  14. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846

  15. Is It a Cosmetic, a Drug, or Both? (or Is It Soap?)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of product. Firms sometimes violate the law by marketing a cosmetic with a drug claim or by marketing a drug as if it were a cosmetic, ... that FDA approve a pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the United States. FDA only approves an ...

  16. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  17. [Simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid and D-panthenol in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiqin; Hu, Xia; Pan, Wei

    2010-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and sample pretreatment method were developed for the simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and D-panthenol (provitamin B5) in cosmetics with different matrices (including of creams, lotions, aqueous cosmetics, oily cosmetics, wax-based cosmetics, nail polish etc). A liquid-liquid extraction system composed of water and water-immiscible solvent was used to preliminarily separate the target components from other oil-soluble components and surfactants in cosmetics, then macromolecular water-soluble matrices in cosmetics were removed by coprecipitation with potassium ferrocyanide-zinc acetate precipitating agent, and then under acid condition, pantothenic acid and D-panthenol were enriched on a C18 solid-phase extraction sorbent. After the removal of other water-soluble impurities, target components were eluted by 40% methanol and then separated and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with external standard method. Good linear relationship was achieved in the concentration range of 0.1-10 microg/g for pantothenic acid and D-panthenol. The linear correlation coefficients were separately 0.998 9 and 0.999 6. The average recoveries of the target components in cosmetics were more than 90%. Limit of detection of the method was 30 microg/g and the limit of quantification was 100 microg/g. This method can be used to simultaneously determine pantothenic acid and D-panthenol in cosmetics. The results are accurate and reliable. PMID:21381423

  18. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A

    2015-01-01

    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure.

  19. Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

  20. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc... International Cosmetics Marketing Co. because it has not filed any periodic reports since the period ended...

  1. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A

    2015-01-01

    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure. PMID:26665979

  2. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women’s changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  3. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy.

  4. Cosmetics alter biologically-based factors of beauty: evidence from facial contrast.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Ward, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The use of cosmetics by women seems to consistently increase their attractiveness. What factors of attractiveness do cosmetics alter to achieve this? Facial contrast is a known cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, and cosmetics exaggerate sexual dimorphisms in facial contrast. Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males. Red-green and yellow-blue color contrasts were not found to differ consistently between the sexes. We also show that women use cosmetics not only to exaggerate sexual dimorphisms of brow and eye contrasts, but also to increase contrasts that decline with age. These findings refine the notion of facial contrast, and demonstrate how cosmetics can increase attractiveness by manipulating factors of beauty associated with facial contrast. PMID:25725411

  5. Application of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy technology on cosmetics testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xinfeng; Yu, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Zhang, Cunlin

    2008-03-01

    As a new technology, the terahertz technology had made a great progress in security inspection and medical field. This paper shows the application of the terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technology on cosmetic testing. We obtain the THz spectra of three kinds of usual cosmetics powders. Two kind of powder have an obvious absorption peak at 1.14 THz, but the third one has no absorption peak. The positions of absorption peaks in the infrared spectra of three kinds of powders are approximately identical. These results show that THz-TDS technology has the advantage and potential application on the cosmetic testing. In addition, we also measure some solid and liquid cosmetic components, such as Titanium-dioxide, Magnesium Stearate, Kaolin, Glycerol, etc. THz spectra of their refractive index and absorption coefficient are obtained experimentally. We are trying to establish the fingerprint spectra database of cosmetic components for further research and application.

  6. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue. PMID:24389794

  7. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized.

  8. Cosmetics alter biologically-based factors of beauty: evidence from facial contrast.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Ward, Robert

    2015-02-28

    The use of cosmetics by women seems to consistently increase their attractiveness. What factors of attractiveness do cosmetics alter to achieve this? Facial contrast is a known cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, and cosmetics exaggerate sexual dimorphisms in facial contrast. Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males. Red-green and yellow-blue color contrasts were not found to differ consistently between the sexes. We also show that women use cosmetics not only to exaggerate sexual dimorphisms of brow and eye contrasts, but also to increase contrasts that decline with age. These findings refine the notion of facial contrast, and demonstrate how cosmetics can increase attractiveness by manipulating factors of beauty associated with facial contrast.

  9. Overview of skin whitening agents with an insight into the illegal cosmetic market in Europe.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; Grosber, M; Deconinck, E; De Paepe, K

    2016-06-01

    Lightening skin tone is an ancient and well-documented practice, and remains common practice among many cultures. Whitening agents such as corticosteroids, tretinoin and hydroquinone are medically applied to effectively lighten the skin tone of hyperpigmented lesions. However, when these agents are used cosmetically, they are associated with a variety of side-effect. Alternative agents, such as arbutin and its derivatives kojic acid and nicotinamide have been subsequently developed for cosmetic purposes. Unfortunately, some cosmetics contain whitening agents that are banned for use in cosmetic products. This article provides an overview of the mode of action and potential side-effects of cosmetic legal and illegal whitening agents, and the pattern of use of these types of products. Finally, an EU analysis of the health problems due to the presence of illegal products on the market is summarized. PMID:26953335

  10. Exposure method development for risk assessment to cosmetic products using a standard composition.

    PubMed

    Chevillotte, G; Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Roudot, A C

    2014-06-01

    In a risk assessment of cosmetic products, it is necessary to know both qualitative and quantitative compositions. Currently, European Regulation No. 1223/2009 requires the industries to provide ingredient lists for finished cosmetic products but not their concentrations. Ingredient concentrations are available in few bibliographic references but in an incomplete and approximate way. In this study, we propose a method to qualitatively and quantitatively estimate the composition of a cosmetic product. This method has the advantages of being applicable to all cosmetic products and supplying concentration data for all ingredients. The results obtained seem quite fair compared to literature data. Applied to nail polish as an example, this method can be used to assess exposure per ingredient according to the Monte Carlo probabilistic method. It should be promising to assess the consumer risk to cosmetic product compositions. PMID:24636944

  11. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue.

  12. Body appreciation, media influence, and weight status predict consideration of cosmetic surgery among female undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2009-09-01

    The current study examined the association between consideration of cosmetic surgery, body appreciation, media influence, and participant demographics. In total, 322 female university students completed the Consider subscale of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale, the third revision of Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Scale (SATAQ-3), the Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), and provided their demographic details. Bivariate correlations showed that consideration of cosmetic surgery was significantly and positively correlated with three of the SATAQ-3 subscales and negatively correlated with BAS scores, age, and body mass index (BMI). A multiple regression showed that the only significant predictors of consideration of cosmetic surgery were greater media influence, less body appreciation, and lower BMI. These results are discussed in relation to the extant literature on attitudes towards cosmetic surgery.

  13. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  14. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: a legally imposed challenge to science.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, M; Rogiers, V

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  15. HPLC determination of imidazole antimycotis in antidandruff cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Luigi; De Orsi, Daniela; Chimenti, Paola; Porra', Rita; Tonelli, Domenica

    2003-08-01

    A simple HPLC method for the determination of imidazole antimycotics in cosmetic antidandruff formulations has been developed. HPLC was carried out on a Discovery RP-Amide C16 column and spectrophotometric detection was performed at 220 nm. The initial mobile phase was a mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous 10(-3) M NaClO4 (pH 3.0) in the ratio of 15:85 (v/v); then a linear gradient up to 46% acetonitrile in 70 min, and up to 50% in 80 min. The extraction procedure has been validated by analyzing samples of shampoo and lotion spiked with 1% of the active principles. The recoveries were greater than 95% and the reproducibility was within 3%.

  16. Hair as a filler material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaakedjian, G; Taylor, P

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible use of hair as a filler material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery. Many implant materials tested so far have proved to be of limited usefulness due to a lack of staying power or to fears of a host immune response, among other problems. In this study, pellets of rat hair were placed subcutaneously or beneath the pectoral muscle of Lewis rats (10 rats per group). A thin vascularized fibrous pouch containing inflammatory cells had formed around the hair pellet at 4 months. By 8 to 12 months, the hair had compacted, and the fibrous matrix of the pouch showed very few inflammatory cells surrounding the embedded hairs. There was no evidence of implant rejection, granuloma formation, or hair degradation up to 12 months after implantation. The results indicate that hair merits further study as a surgical implant material.

  17. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  18. Microvascular complications associated with injection of cosmetic facelift dermal fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Prendes, Mark; Chang, Shu-Hong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Minimally-invasive cosmetic surgeries such as injection of subdermal fillers have become very popular in the past decade. Although rare, some complications may follow injections such as tissue necrosis and even blindness. There exist two hypothesis regarding source of these complications both of which include microvasculature. The first hypothesis is that fillers in between the tissue structures and compress microvasculature that causes blockage of tissue neutrition and oxygen exchange in the tissue. In another theory, it is hypothesized that fillers move inside major arteries and block the arteries/veins. In this paper, we study these hypotheses using optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography technologies with different hyaluronic-acid fillers in a mouse ear model. Based on our observations, the fillers eventually block arteries/veins if injected directly into them that eventually causes tissue necrosis.

  19. Cosmetic wastewater treatment by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Puyol, D; Monsalvo, V M; Mohedano, A F; Sanz, J L; Rodriguez, J J

    2011-01-30

    Anaerobic treatment of pre-settled cosmetic wastewater in batch and continuous experiments has been investigated. Biodegradability tests showed high COD and solid removal efficiencies (about 70%), being the hydrolysis of solids the limiting step of the process. Continuous treatment was carried out in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. High COD and TSS removal efficiencies (up to 95% and 85%, respectively) were achieved over a wide range of organic load rate (from 1.8 to 9.2g TCODL(-1)day(-1)). Methanogenesis inhibition was observed in batch assays, which can be predicted by means of a Haldane-based inhibition model. Both COD and solid removal were modelled by Monod and pseudo-first order models, respectively.

  20. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar

  1. Applications of ternary systems in specific cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Comelles, F; Megias, V; Sánchez, J; Parra, J L; Coll, J; Balaguer, F; Pelejero, C

    1989-02-01

    Synopsis The study of ternary systems leads to the understanding of the physico-chemical aspect and allows the contribution of the different components to a cosmetic formulation to be developed. The present investigation was centred in the zone of transparent get belonging to a previously studied ternary system containing a broad variety of different structural compositions. The possibility of including an active sunscreen as well as the ability to increase the water content of the gel was studied. The microscopical study of the compositions with polarized light allowed us to assign the corresponding different structures. A correlation between these structures and their physico-chemical properties, with special emphasis to rheology, has been established.

  2. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  3. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  4. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  5. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  6. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  7. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  8. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  9. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  10. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  11. 76 FR 72003 - Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... BUDGET Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services rates referenced are effective upon publication...

  12. 78 FR 62709 - Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... BUDGET Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery rates referenced are effective upon publication of...

  13. Standardized extract of Syzygium aqueum: a safe cosmetic ingredient.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, U D; Ling, L T; Manaharan, T; Sivapalan, V; Subramaniam, T; Helme, M H; Masilamani, T

    2011-06-01

    Syzygium aqueum, a species in the Myrtaceae family, commonly called the water jambu is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is well documented as a medicinal plant, and various parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine, for instance as an antibiotic. In this study, we show S. aqueum leaf extracts to have a significant composition of phenolic compounds, protective activity against free radicals as well as low pro-oxidant capability. Its ethanolic extract, in particular, is characterized by its excellent radical scavenging activity of EC(50) of 133 μg mL(-1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 65 μg mL(-1) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 71 μg mL(-1) (Galvinoxyl), low pro-oxidant capabilities and a phenolic content of 585-670 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The extract also displayed other activities, deeming it an ideal cosmetic ingredient. A substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity with an IC(50) of about 60 μg mL(-1) was observed. In addition, the extract was also found to have anti-cellulite activity tested for its ability to cause 98% activation of lipolysis of adipocytes (fat cells) at a concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). In addition, the extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cell lines up to a concentration of 600 μg mL(-1). Although various parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine, this is the first time it has been shown to have cosmeceutical properties. Therefore, the use of this extract, alone or in combination with other active principles, is of interest to the cosmetic industry. PMID:21284663

  14. Sex Differences in the Perceived Dominance and Prestige of Women With and Without Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Viktoria R; Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Little, Anthony C

    2016-10-01

    Women wearing cosmetics have been associated with a higher earning potential and higher status jobs. However, recent literature suggests that status can be accrued through two distinct routes: dominance and prestige. In two experiments, we applied a standardized amount of cosmetics to female faces using computer software. We then asked participants to rate faces with and without cosmetics for various traits including attractiveness, dominance, and prestige. Men and women both rated the faces with cosmetics added as higher in attractiveness. However, only women rated faces with cosmetics as higher in dominance, while only men rated them as higher in prestige. In a follow-up study, we investigated whether these enhanced perceptions of dominance from women were caused by jealousy. We found that women experience more jealousy toward women with cosmetics, and view these women as more attractive to men and more promiscuous. Our findings suggest that cosmetics may function as an extended phenotype and can alter other's perceptions differently depending on the perceiver's sex.

  15. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  16. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  17. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  18. Is urine an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol?

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Dufaux, Bertin; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Nadulski, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This study attempts to assess the utility of the urine matrix as an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol for driving licence re-granting in 1026 cosmetically treated hair samples and 33 262 urine routine samples. No significant difference was observed between the percentage positive samples in cosmetically treated hair to those in urine at both the 95% and 99% significance level for amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, and methadone. Significant difference was found between the positivity rates of cannabinoids in cosmetically treated hair and that in urine indicating urine to be a better alternative to the use of the hair matrix even when cosmetically treated. The opposite was observed for the alcohol consumption marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for which the positivity rate in cosmetically treated hair was twice that in urine samples. Particularly for alcohol abstinence monitoring, as for the rehabilitative driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) programme in Germany, it seems that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair presents a much better alternative than urine testing, even when cosmetically treated hair is analyzed. Moreover, segmentation is an additional advantage of hair testing which can provide additional useful information. PMID:24817057

  19. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  20. The cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy scar and factors affecting it

    PubMed Central

    Waly, Mostafa A; Shalaby, Osama E; Elbakary, Molham A; Hashish, Aiman A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the cosmetic outcome of external dacryocystorhinostomy (Ex-DCR) and to detect the factors affecting it. Patients and Methods: Prospective randomized interventional study included forty patients who were treated by 40 Ex-DCRs. In twenty patients, medial canthal vertical incision was used and in the other twenty cases, subciliary incision was used. The skin was closed using vicryl 6-0 or prolene 6-0 interrupted sutures, and each one was randomly used in twenty patients (10 patients of each incision type). Cosmetic outcome was evaluated 6 months postoperative by the patients and by an oculoplastic surgeon on a four grades scale. Cosmetic results and its correlation to patients’ age, sex, skin complexion, type of incision, and type of skin sutures were studied. Results: The mean scar grading was 0.98 ± 1.0 and 1.3 ± 1.0 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. About 27.5% described their scars as cosmetically significant. The cosmetic outcome was significantly affected by the type of incision with only 5% significant scars in subciliary incision group. Prolene 6-0 suture was associated with better cosmetic results with 15% significant scars. 50% of dark-skinned patients showed cosmetically significant scars. Although no correlation was found between patients’ age and cosmetic outcome, pediatric patients showed higher tendency to scar visibility with mean scar grade 1.2 ± 1.0 and 1.5 ± 0.9 in patients’ and examiner's assessment. Conclusion: Dark skinned and pediatric patients are more prone to visible Ex-DCR scar. The use of subciliary approach and prolene 6-0 skin sutures is associated with more favorable cosmetic outcome. PMID:27221676

  1. Motivating factors for seeking cosmetic surgery: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haas, Cynthia Figueroa; Champion, Angela; Secor, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The fascination in physical beauty is becoming more and more prevalent in today's society. Beauty in American culture is defined by the media through magazines, television, and music. The perfect career, the perfect family, social status, and high self-esteem all revolve around having an impeccable figure. Research shows that 94% of the covers of women's magazines showcase a woman with a thin physique (A. R., Malkin, K., Wornian, & J. C. Chrisler, 1999). Therefore, it is not surprising that year after year, millions of people elect for cosmetic surgery. According to the , approximately 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed and Americans spent $13.2 billion on these procedures. This is a 457% increase since 1997. As the demand for elective cosmetic surgery continues to rise, it is important for healthcare employees to recognize the motive behind the decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The purpose of this literature review project was to ascertain those factors that influence or motivate patients to seek cosmetic surgery. This project investigated physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors associated with individuals who undergo elective cosmetic surgery. It has been shown that the motivation for cosmetic surgery is based on a combination of psychological and emotional factors. Researchers surmise that body image, teasing history, and self-esteem were associated with motivational factors for those patients who elected to seek cosmetic surgery (T. Soest, I. L. Kvalem, K. C. Skolleborg, & H. E. Roald, 2006). In addition, the researchers concluded that body dysmorphic disorder, education, and culture are also predicting factors in the decision to have cosmetic surgery. PMID:19092582

  2. Safety assessment of 1,2-glycols as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Caprylyl glycol and related 1,2-glycols are used mostly as skin and hair conditioning agents and viscosity agents in cosmetic products, and caprylyl glycol and pentylene glycol also function as cosmetic preservatives. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel noted that, while these ingredients are dermally absorbed, modeling data predicted decreased skin penetration of longer chain 1,2-glycols. Because the negative oral toxicity data on shorter chain 1,2-glycols and genotoxicity data support the safety of the 1,2-glycols reviewed in this safety assessment, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  3. Are opera-house artistes afflicted with contact allergy to colophony and cosmetics?

    PubMed

    Färm, G; Karlberg, A T; Lidén, C

    1995-05-01

    The frequencies of cosmetics intolerance and contact allergy to colophony were investigated among 116 singers and dancers and 16 make-up artists. Participants were interviewed, examined and patch tested with a standard series and materials from the opera house. Common skin lesions were found in 1/3 of participants and more than 50% had a history of intolerance to cosmetics. Colophony gave positive patch test reactions in only 3 subjects. The prevalence of positive patch test reactions to fragrance mix and balsam of Peru was about the same as among dermatitis patients generally. Contact allergy to colophony did not seem to be a problem regarding cosmetics.

  4. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Evan A; Tosti, Antonella

    2016-04-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  5. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  6. The Real Cost of “Cosmetic Tourism” Cost Analysis Study of “Cosmetic Tourism” Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic Tourism,” the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from “cosmetic tourism” and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve “cosmetic tourism” patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The “cosmetic tourism” model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider. PMID:26240672

  7. Final report of the safety assessment of Kojic acid as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2010-01-01

    Kojic acid functions as an antioxidant in cosmetic products. Kojic acid was not a toxicant in acute, chronic, reproductive, and genotoxicity studies. While some animal data suggested tumor promotion and weak carcinogenicity, kojic acid is slowly absorbed into the circulation from human skin and likely would not reach the threshold at which these effects were seen. The available human sensitization data supported the safety of kojic acid at a use concentration of 2% in leave-on cosmetics. Kojic acid depigmented black guinea pig skin at a concentration of 4%, but this effect was not seen at 1%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the 2 end points of concern, dermal sensitization and skin lightening, would not be seen at use concentrations below 1%; therefore, this ingredient is safe for use in cosmetic products up to that level.

  8. Amended safety assessment of Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) has issued an amended safety assessment of 7 Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. A common name for this plant is St John wort. These ingredients function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and antimicrobial agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the H perforatum-derived ingredients. Because formulators may use more than 1 botanical ingredient in a formulation, caution was urged to avoid levels of toxicological concern for constituent chemicals and impurities. The Panel concluded that H perforatum-derived ingredients were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

  9. Final report of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients derived from Zea mays (corn).

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2011-05-01

    Many cosmetic ingredients are derived from Zea mays (corn). While safety test data were not available for most ingredients, similarities in preparation and the resulting similar composition allowed extrapolation of safety data to all listed ingredients. Animal studies included acute toxicity, ocular and dermal irritation studies, and dermal sensitization studies. Clinical studies included dermal irritation and sensitization. Case reports were available for the starch as used as a donning agent in medical gloves. Studies of many other endpoints, including reproductive and developmental toxicity, use corn oil as a vehicle control with no reported adverse effects at levels used in cosmetics. While industry should continue limiting ingredient impurities such as pesticide residues before blending into a cosmetic formulation, the CIR Expert Panel determined that corn-derived ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration described in the assessment.

  10. Enhanced female attractiveness with use of cosmetics and male tipping behavior in restaurants.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Jacob, Celine

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have found that cosmetics improve female facial attractiveness when judgments are made based on photographs. However, these studies were conducted only in the laboratory, while field studies are scarce in the literature. In fact, only one study has tested the effect of cosmetics on behavior. In this study the effect of cosmetics on tipping behavior and the link between behavior and judgment on the physical attractiveness of waitresses wearing or not wearing cosmetics were tested. A female waitress with or without makeup was instructed to act in her usual way with her patrons. Results showed that the makeup condition was associated with a significant increase in the tipping behavior of male customers. It was also found that the effect of makeup on tipping behavior was mediated by the perception of the physical attractiveness of the waitress, but only when considering male customers.

  11. A sex difference in facial contrast and its exaggeration by cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates the existence of a sex difference in facial contrast. By measuring carefully controlled photographic images, female faces were shown to have greater luminance contrast between the eyes, lips, and the surrounding skin than did male faces. This sex difference in facial contrast was found to influence the perception of facial gender. An androgynous face can be made to appear female by increasing the facial contrast, or to appear male by decreasing the facial contrast. Application of cosmetics was found to consistently increase facial contrast. Female faces wearing cosmetics had greater facial contrast than the same faces not wearing cosmetics. Female facial beauty is known to be closely linked to sex differences, with femininity considered attractive. These results suggest that cosmetics may function in part by exaggerating a sexually dimorphic attribute-facial contrast-to make the face appear more feminine and hence attractive.

  12. Toxicological profile of diethyl phthalate: a vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Api, A M

    2001-02-01

    Diethyl phthalate (DEP; CAS No. 84-66-2) has many industrial uses, as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients and subsequent skin contact. This review focuses on its safety in use as a solvent and vehicle for fragrance and cosmetic ingredients. Available data are reviewed for acute toxicity, eye irritation, dermal irritation, dermal sensitization, phototoxicity, photoallergenicity, percutaneous absorption, kinetics, metabolism, subchronic toxicity, teratogenicity, reproductive toxicity, estrogenic potential, genetic toxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, in vitro toxicity, ecotoxicity, environmental fate and potential human exposure. No toxicological endpoints of concern have been identified. Comparison of estimated exposure (0.73 mg/kg/day) from dermal applications of fragrances and cosmetic products with other accepted industrial (5 mg/m(3) in air) and consumer exposures (350 mg/l in water; 0.75 mg/kg/day oral exposure) indicates no significant toxic liability for the use of DEP in fragrances and cosmetic products.

  13. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment. PMID:26684797

  14. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  15. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International...

  16. [Cosmetic dental treatment. Its impact on happiness and quality of life].

    PubMed

    de Jongh, A; Cheung, S; Khoe, L H L; Asmi, N El

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed the impact on happiness and quality of life of the cosmetic treatment of frontal teeth. This was compared with the impact of a restorative, not primarily cosmetic, treatment in the (pre)molar region on happiness and quality of life. The hypothesis that a cosmetic dental treatment makes a person happier or improves the quality of one's life was not supported by the results of the present study. In fact, oral health-related quality of life appeared to decline after the dental cosmetic treatment. Further research is needed to assess whether the results of the present study can be replicated in a larger sample and how the findings can be explained.

  17. Odor and color of cosmetic products: correlations between subjective judgement and autonomous nervous system response.

    PubMed

    Barkat, S; Thomas-Danguin, T; Bensafi, M; Rouby, C; Sicard, G

    2003-12-01

    The color and odor of cosmetics have been shown to be crucial for affective states and able to influence autonomic responses. We report an original procedure to measure the effect on subjects of the color and odor of cosmetic products, and to quantify the correlation between objective (psychophysiological recording) and subjective (psychophysics) responses. Several cosmetic products (lipsticks and nail varnishes) of different colors (white, brown, red, orange, and pink) and odors (two per product) were presented. In a first step, autonomous parameters (skin conductance (SC) and heart rate (HR)) were recorded, and in the second step, subjects rated their sensations on subjective scales (overall appreciation, pleasantness, and emotional arousal). Results indicated that certain color and odor additives in cosmetics act on relaxation, excitation, perceived pleasantness, and emotional arousal. It was also found that certain colors, perceived as pleasant, decreased HR, and that the perception of an 'arousing' perfume significantly increased SC.

  18. Relationship between everyday use cosmetics and female breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Konduracka, Ewa; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof; Gajos, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Data of the European Cancer Registries indicate that the incidence of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer among women, tends to increase not only in postmenopausal but also in very young women. The potential causes of breast cancer are genetic predisposition, long -term hormonal replacement therapy, alcohol, environmental pollution, and possibly modern lifestyle. The controversial results of several studies suggest that certain everyday-use products (including cosmetic ingredients) may be linked to breast cancer. Some of these ingredients, such as ethylene oxide, have recently been classified by the International Agency for Research for Cancer as carcinogenic and mutagenic to humans, with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity for breast cancer. Other ingredients, such as xenoestrogens, are chemicals which have an estrogen -like effect or disrupt the normal metabolism of the natural estrogen and thus act as carcinogens. Some of them have been shown to result in DNA damage in animal and human mammary epithelial cells and, therefore, have the potential to generate genomic instability in the breast tissue. Examples of xenoestrogens with such properties include parabens, aluminium salts, phthalates, or bisophenol A. No sufficient epidemiological data on humans have been published so far, and the effects of a mixture of chemicals to which women are exposed during lifetime on the incidence of breast cancer have not been investigated. However, the results of the available studies emphasize the need for analysis of adverse environmental factors, which, in addition to a genetic predisposition and natural aging, may contribute to the increased incidence of breast cancer. PMID:24694726

  19. [Safety assessment of nanomaterials for development of nano-cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    A diverse array of nanomaterials (NMs), such as amorphous nanosilica (nSP), carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide, has become widespread in use due to the development of nanotechnology. NMs are already being applied in universal fields because they have unique physicochemical properties. On the other hands, the safety of NMs has not been well assessed, because NMs have been considered as safe as common larger sized materials which are known not to be absorbed by the body. Because NMs have the potential to improve the quality of human life, it is essential to ensure the safety of NMs and provide information for designing safer NMs. In this regard, we studied the biological distribution and hazard identification of nSP following dermal administration, because nSP is used NMs in the cosmetics field. In the future, our study would help to set the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI), and be useful information for the safety/hazard assessment and evaluation.

  20. Mechanisms of cytotoxicity by cosmetic ingredients in sea urchin eggs.

    PubMed

    Amouroux, I; Pesando, D; Noël, H; Girard, J P

    1999-01-01

    The acute cytotoxicities of four cosmetic ingredients: a preservative, imidazolidinylurea (IU) and three mild surfactants, cocamido propyl hydroxy sultaine (CAS), magnesium laureth sulfate (Mg LES), and decyl glucoside (APG) were studied using sea urchin eggs. The cellular targets of these compounds were identified by studying the effects on calcium homeostasis, intracellular pH, sodium and potassium contents, protein and DNA synthesis, and protein phosphorylation. These compounds inhibited the first cleavage of sea urchin eggs in a dose-dependent fashion with half maximal doses (IC50) from 30 microg/ml for Mg LES, 60 microg/ml for IU, 83 microg/ml for CAS, to above 400 microg/ml for APG. The time at which a compound showed the greatest toxicity to the cell cycle was definable for APG (between 20 and 50 min postfertilization) and IU (from fertilization to 50 min later); the other compounds being toxic throughout division. Compounds exhibited toxicity to a wide range of cellular targets. IU, the least toxic, mainly operates through inhibition of protein and DNA syntheses. CAS and Mg LES produced nonspecific cytotoxicity related to alterations of membrane and endomembrane permeabilities resulting in ionic disequilibrium (Na+, K+, Ca2+) and inhibition of intracellular storage of Ca2+. The APG effect mainly involved intracellular pH and DNA synthesis, a hypothesis suggested by the narrow postfertilization period of maximal toxicity. PMID:9828259

  1. [Studies for analyzing prohibited ingredients such as estriol in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Orie; Uchino, Tadashi; Ando, Masanori

    2004-01-01

    Estriol (EO) is nominated as the prohibited ingredients in cosmetics in Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. So the analytical method using HPLC for EO was investigated. After placing 1.0 ml of EO solution at 50 microg/ml and 0.5 g of the lotion into a 10-ml volumetric flask, the methanol was added to make until that volume and this solution was used as the testing solution. Milky lotion was procedured as follows: After placing 1.0 ml of EO solution at 50 microg/ml and 0.5 g of the milky lotion into a 10-ml volumetric flask, the methanol was added to make until that volume. The suspending mixture was moved to a centrifuging tube with a cap. After centrifuging at 3000 rpm for 5 minutes, the supernatant was used as the testing solution. The testing solution of 20 microl was determined by HPLC using the ODS column (CAPCELL PAK C18 column, 4.6 x 250 mm), the mixture of water and acetonitrile (31:9) and the detection wavelength of 285 nm. The working curve from 1.0 to 6.0 microg/ml showed a linear line between the concentrations of EO and the peak area. There was no interference of peak of EO from the lotion and milky lotion.

  2. [Contact allergy for perfume ingredients in cosmetics and toilet articles].

    PubMed

    de Groot, A C

    1997-03-22

    Fragrance materials are not only present in products primarily used for their scent such as perfume, eau de toilette, deodorant and aftershave, but also in cosmetics, toiletries, household products and industrial materials. Of the general population, approximately one percent are allergic to fragrance materials, men nearly as frequent as women. Of patients consulting the dermatologist because of dermatitis, 6-11% have a positive patch test to the fragrance mix. Allergic contact dermatitis due to fragrances usually consists of erythema and desquamation, often localized in the neck, behind the ears, in the arm-pits or around the eyes. It can worsen pre-existing dermatoses such as hand eczema, atopic dermatitis, perianal dermatitis or vulvar dermatitis. The diagnosis of contact allergy to fragrances is made by epicutaneous tests with the European standard series (including some markers for fragrance sensitivity: the fragrance mix, balsam of Peru and colophony) and the patient's own contact materials. A positive patch test reaction must be followed by evaluation of its relevance. Advice to the patient is directed towards avoidance of fragranced products, if possible, and explanation of how use tests can identify fragranced products which can be used without ill effects.

  3. Cosmetic leg veins: evaluation using duplex venous imaging.

    PubMed

    Thibault, P; Bray, A; Wlodarczyk, J; Lewis, W

    1990-07-01

    The records of 305 consecutive patients who had presented with cosmetic symptoms related to varicose and/or spider veins over a 12-month period were studied. Following clinical assessment, 250 (82%) patients were referred for duplex venous imaging. A total of 500 lower limbs were evaluated; 236 (47%) were documented to have incompetence in the superficial venous system (long or short saphenous veins). Only 6 (1%) limbs had deep venous incompetence and 45 (9%) limbs were found to have perforator incompetence. Short saphenous vein incompetence was found in 59 (12%) limbs. In the long saphenous vein there was a consistent pattern of an increasing incidence of incompetence from the saphenofemoral junction down to the below-knee segment. The duplex imaging findings were applied to determine the optimal treatment, ie, whether surgery, sclerotherapy, or a combination of both would provide the best short- and long-term results. The possible etiology and pathophysiology of spider and varicose veins are discussed in relation to these results.

  4. Determination of thioglycolic acid in cosmetics by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Na; Ding, Xiaojing; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    A new and simple method for the accurate determination of thioglycolic acid (TGA) in cosmetics was developed using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection at 236nm. The CE separation was performed on an uncoated fused silica capillary with a separation buffer solution containing 300mmolL(-1) tri-sodium phosphate and 0.5mmolL(-1) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at a voltage of -5kV. Both the intra- and inter-day precisions of the method were 1.4%. The calibration curve between the corrected peak areas and the concentrations of the TGA was linear within the concentration range of 0.006-1.0mgmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.002mgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and 0.006mgmL(-1) (S/N=10), respectively. The average recoveries at the spiked levels of 0.125, 0.250 and 0.500mgmL(-1) were 96.9%, 102.3% and 94.0% with the relative standard derivations of 2.1%, 3.9% and 2.2%, respectively. The method was cross-validated by both high performance liquid chromatographic and ion chromatographic method. Eighty-five commercial depilatory creams and hair-treatment products were analyzed with satisfactory results.

  5. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted.

  6. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted. PMID:23320641

  7. Panophthalmoplegia and vision loss after cosmetic nasal dorsum injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shi Nae; Byun, Dae Sup; Park, Jung Hyun; Han, Sang Won; Baik, Jong Sam; Kim, Jeong Yeon; Park, Jae Hyeon

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of unilateral blindness and panophthalmoplegia after hyaluronic acid injection into the dorsum of the nose in a healthy young woman. Microspheres of hyaluronic acid are popular fillers for facial rejuvenation. While ocular side effects from injections in the nose and face have been reported following turbinate injection, rhinoplasty and infraorbital nerve block, ocular side effects from injection into the dorsum of the nose are extremely rare. We presume that the symptoms were due to obstruction of the branches of the ophthalmic artery. Under high injection pressure, the microspheres travelled to the ophthalmic artery and were propelled by the blood flow to the central retinal artery and the anterior and posterior long ciliary arteries, leading to her symptoms. Alternatively, there are several arterio-venous anastomotic channels in the nasal mucosa that aid heat exchange. These may have been the conduit for reflux of the filler into the arterial side of the regional circulation. Physicians must remain aware of serious complications during cosmetic injections to this region. PMID:24210801

  8. Rapid bacteriological screening of cosmetic raw materials by using bioluminescence.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, P; Van Dellen, E

    1989-01-01

    Incoming cosmetic raw materials are routinely tested for microbial content. Standard plate count methods require up to 72 h. A rapid, sensitive, and inexpensive raw material screening method was developed that detects the presence of bacteria by means of ATP (bioluminescence). With a 24-h broth enrichment, the minimum bacterial ATP detection threshold of 1 cfu/g sample can be achieved using purified firefly luciferin-luciferase and an ATP releasing reagent. By using this rapid screen, microbiologically free material may be released for production within 24 h, while contaminated material undergoes further quantitative and identification testing. In order for a raw material to be validated for this method it must be evaluated for (1) a potential nonmicrobial light-contributing reaction resulting in a false positive or, (2) degradation of the ATP giving a false negative, and (3) confirmation that the raw material has not overwhelmed the buffering capacity of the enrichment broth. The key criteria for a rapid screen was the sensitivity to detect less than one colony forming unit per g product, the speed to do this within 24 h, and cost efficiency. Bioluminescence meets these criteria. With an enrichment step, it can detect less than one cfu/g sample. After the enrichment step, analysis time per sample is approximately 2 min and the cost for material and reagents is less than one dollar per sample.

  9. Q-switched ruby laser in cosmetic dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopera, Daisy

    1996-12-01

    The q-switched ruby laser has shown promising results in the treatment of blue and black tattoos. The red light of the ruby laser, 694 nm wavelength, selectively absorbed by dark pigments, is converted into heat and pigments are immediately vaporized. Energy levels range between 4, 5 and 12 J/cm2. Short exposure time does not exceed the thermal relaxation time of the target structures. Thus, thermal damage of the surrounding tissue is minimal. Not only exogenous pigment as tattoo ink but also physiological pigmented structures as melanocytes, melanosome loaden keratinocytes, and melanophages are affected by this type of laser application. Therefore the ruby laser represents a new option in the treatment of a variety of benign pigmented lesions in cosmetic dermatology. The benefit of this source can be seen in efficient clearing of the lesions without scarring. As a side effect transient hypopigmentation may occur. Ruby laser treatment of melanocytic lesions cannot be recommended because unpigmented nevus cells do not absorb red light and persist unaltered. They still bear the potency of further transformation, as into malignancy.

  10. Monitoring of clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate as undeclared steroids in cosmetic products manufactured in Korea.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yun Sik; Kwon, Il Keun; Lee, Kang-Bong

    2011-07-15

    Some cosmetic products manufactured in Korea have been suspected to contain anti-inflammatory corticosteroids, such as clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, for the treatment of eczema, seborrhea and psoriasis, without any indication on the label of the cosmetic products. Due to their severe side effects, such as permanent skin atopy, these two corticosteroids in cosmetic products need to be monitored from a forensic point of view. Cosmetic product samples (number of samples=47) of manufacturers charged by consumers have been collected in local and online markets of Korea, and they were validated and analyzed by a simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD). LC-MS/MS and LC-MS were used to confirm these steroids in cosmetic samples with diagnostic ions (m/z) and isotope ratio. Linearity was studied with 0.5-10μg/mL range in both steroids. Good correlation coefficients (r(2)≥0.999) were found, and their limits of quantifications were 0.59μg/mL and 0.66μg/mL in clobetasol propionate and betamethasone dipropionate, respectively. At three different concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges, mean recoveries were always higher than 93%, and precisions for intra-day and inter-day analyses were both less than 3.5%. The results show 32-96.4μg/g levels of clobetasol propionate in five different cosmetic products. Also, betamethasone dipropionate in a sample was monitored at the level of 195.1μg/g. This fact reveals that some manufacturers have added these steroids in their cosmetic products to advertise the treatment effect for skin atopy. Thus, these cosmetic products need to be monitored carefully, and ultimately removed from the market. PMID:21474261

  11. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image. PMID:15731697

  12. The Epidemiology of Cosmetic Treatments for Corneal Opacities in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ki Cheol; Han, Young Keun; Wee, Won Ryang; Lee, Jin Hak

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To describe etiologies and clinical characteristics of corneal opacities leading patients to seek cosmetic treatments. Methods The medical records of 401 patients who presented for cosmetic improvement in corneal opacities between May 2004 and July 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The following parameters were analyzed: age, gender, cause of corneal opacity, time course of the corneal disease, associated diseases, prior and current cosmetic treatments, visual acuity, location and depth of the corneal opacity, and the presence of either corneal neovascularization or band keratopathy. A single practitioner examined all patients. Results The most common causes of corneal opacity were ocular trauma (203 eyes, 50.6%), retinal disease (62 eyes, 15.5%), measles (38 eyes, 9.5%), and congenital etiologies (22 eyes, 5.5%). Prior treatments included iris colored contact lenses (125 eyes, 31.1%) and corneal tattooing (34 eyes, 8.46%). A total of 321 of 401 eyes underwent cosmetic treatment for corneal opacities. The most common treatment performed after the primary visit was corneal tattooing (261 eyes, 64.92%). Conclusions This is the first study to investigate the causes and clinical characteristics of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment of corneal opacities rather than for functional improvement. Various cosmetic interventions are available for patients with corneal opacities, and these should be individualized for the needs of each patient. PMID:20532140

  13. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges. PMID:26080054

  14. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    PubMed

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image.

  15. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer.

  16. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Andreana

    2015-09-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a somatoform disorder characterised by a distressing obsession with an imagined or slight appearance defect, which can significantly impair normal day-to-day functioning. Patients with BDD often first present, and are hence diagnosed, in cosmetic surgery settings. Several studies have investigated the prevalence rate of BDD in the general population or have done so for patients referring to cosmetic medical centers. To date, however, no review has been undertaken to compare the prevalence in the general community versus in a cosmetic surgery setting. Despite the lack of such a review it is a commonly held belief that BDD is more common in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. The current study aims to review the available literature in order to investigate whether BDD is indeed more prevalent in patients requesting cosmetic surgery, and if that is the case, to provide possible reasons for the difference in prevalence. In addition this review provides evidence on the effectiveness of cosmetic surgery as a treatment of BDD.

  17. Simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Airin; Doi, Takahiro; Tagami, Takaomi; Kajimura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There exist numerous restrictions regarding the maximum allowable levels of preservatives in cosmetics. We analyzed 11 regulated preservatives in commercial cosmetics and manufacturers need to analyze their products for quality control purposes. However, methods used in previous studies to date have been inadequate for use by public institutions and manufacturers. Therefore, an effective, scalable method for the analysis of preservatives in cosmetics is required. We developed a novel method for the simultaneous determination of 11 regulated preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We applied the samples to a C18 column in a simple mobile phase (5 mmol/L ammonium formate solution and acetonitrile) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at a single wavelength (230 nm). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.997. The percent recoveries were 92.8-111.9% and the relative standard deviations were <4.3% (n = 6). The peak resolution for all preservatives was >1.9. Because of the simple conditions for isolation and complete separation, the HPLC method can be effectively applied to the analysis of preservatives in commercially retailed cosmetics.

  18. Patch testing with hair cosmetic series in Europe: a critical review and recommendation.

    PubMed

    Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne

    2015-08-01

    Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges.

  19. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 1. Characterization, frequency and relevance of sensitization, and frequency of use in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton C; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this part of a series of review articles on formaldehyde-releasers and their relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics are discussed. In this first part of the article, key data are presented including frequency of sensitization and of their use in cosmetics. In Europe, low frequencies of sensitization have been observed to all releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol 0.4-1.2%, diazolidinyl urea 0.5-1.4%, imidazolidinyl urea 0.3-1.4%, quaternium-15 0.6-1.9% (for DMDM hydantoin no recent data are available). All releasers score (far) higher prevalences in the USA; the possible explanations for this are discussed. The relevance of positive patch test reactions has been insufficiently investigated. In the USA, approximately 20% of cosmetics and personal care products (stay-on products: 17%, rinse-off products 27%) contain a formaldehyde-releaser. The use of quaternium-15 is decreasing. For Europe, there are no comparable recent data available. In the second part of the article, the patch test relationship of the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy will be reviewed and it will be assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals who have contact allergy to formaldehyde. PMID:20136875

  20. [Assessment of the sensitizing potency of cosmetic ingredients and commodities. How will the ingredients of cosmetics and commodities be tested in Europe today and tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Peiser, M; Platzek, T; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetics and certain commodities are applied or used by consumers directly on the skin. Creams may remain on the skin for longer periods, hair is dyed multiple times per year, nickel ions can be released from studs and piercings in areas of skin damage or migrate from toy materials into the skin of children. Accordingly, using or handling such products always entails a risk for developing a contact allergy. Moreover, daily usage and repeated contacts to certain cosmetics and commodities might lead to repeated elicitation of contact eczema in people already sensitized against allergenic ingredients. Unfortunately, contact allergy is not curable. For the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals, only testing based on animal experiments was available in the past. In 2003, the 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EWG laid down a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and from 2013 a general marketing ban of such products as well. Therefore, the development and validation of non-animal methods for assessing the toxicological endpoint sensitization/allergenic potency of chemicals is a major task for the years ahead and remains equally a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies. PMID:22373851

  1. [Assessment of the sensitizing potency of cosmetic ingredients and commodities. How will the ingredients of cosmetics and commodities be tested in Europe today and tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Peiser, M; Platzek, T; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetics and certain commodities are applied or used by consumers directly on the skin. Creams may remain on the skin for longer periods, hair is dyed multiple times per year, nickel ions can be released from studs and piercings in areas of skin damage or migrate from toy materials into the skin of children. Accordingly, using or handling such products always entails a risk for developing a contact allergy. Moreover, daily usage and repeated contacts to certain cosmetics and commodities might lead to repeated elicitation of contact eczema in people already sensitized against allergenic ingredients. Unfortunately, contact allergy is not curable. For the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals, only testing based on animal experiments was available in the past. In 2003, the 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EWG laid down a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and from 2013 a general marketing ban of such products as well. Therefore, the development and validation of non-animal methods for assessing the toxicological endpoint sensitization/allergenic potency of chemicals is a major task for the years ahead and remains equally a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

  2. Skin nonpenetrating sunscreens for cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Elka; Godin, Biana

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation produces harmful effects on the skin including sunburn, local immunosuppression, skin photoaging, and cutaneous malignancies. Although application of sunscreens is the "gold standard" for protecting the skin from UV radiation, studies have shown that currently used sunscreens can cause adverse skin and systemic reactions, owing to their penetration into the viable cutaneous strata and to transdermal absorption. This paper presents new nonpermeating sunscreens (NPSUN) suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The basic idea behind the design of the new photoprotectors was to immobilize UV-absorbing moieties in the Jojoba oil chemical backbone. The physicochemical characteristics of NPSUNs allow these derivatives to remain confined to the upper stratum corneum where the sunscreen molecule acts, with no further clearance to deeper dermal strata or systemic circulation. As an example, no permeation across the skin of methoxycinnamate-NPSUN was observed during 24-hour in vitro experiments, after topical application of either unformulated substances or of methoxycinnamate-NPSUNs formulated in oil-in-water cream, in water-in-oil cream, or in Jojoba oil. Another approach to increase the photoprotective effect against the UV radiation is targeting the delivery of alpha tocopherol into the deeper skin layers and across the cell membranes. This is necessary for optimal photoprotection and prevention of malignant processes. For this purpose, ethosomal vitamin E compositions were designed, characterized, and tested. Efficient intracellular and dermal accumulation of vitamin E from ethosomes was demonstrated. A good clinical strategy could be the use of NPSUNs during direct UV exposure followed by the application of alpha-tocopherol compositions after short- or long-term solar radiation.

  3. Determination of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the development and validation of a reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for the determination of the hormones estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone in topically applied products. The developed method was then used to conduct a postmarket survey of consumer products for these hormones. Each product was first mixed with Celite and then extracted with methanol. Extracts were cleaned on a Waters Oasis HLB solid phase extraction cartridge, and then analyzed using reversed phase HPLC. The analytes were separated using an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse XDB C8 (5 μm, 250 mm by 4.6 mm) analytical column and detected by their absorbance at 230 nm. Chromatographic separation was achieved by a 1.0-ml/min linear gradient from 30% acetonitrile and 70% water to 80% acetonitrile and 20% water over 30 min. A final 5 min hold time and a re-equilibration time of 10 min were used to prepare the column for subsequent analysis. Recovery from two different brand lotions spiked with three different levels of estriol, estradiol, estrone, and progesterone ranged from 81.8% to 101%. In this study, a total of 70 cosmetic products were surveyed. Twenty two (63%) of the 35 products were labeled as containing an estrogen and/ or progesterone and also provided quantitative label information about the hormone ingredient. The most frequently labeled hormones were progesterone (66%), estriol (46%), estradiol (11%), and estrone (6%). Six products labeled as containing estriol were found to contain estradiol. An estrogen and/or progesterone were found in 34 products at concentrations ranging from 86.0 to 26,800 μg/g. Progesterone was not found in one product labeled as containing this hormone. An additional 35 products, which did not list hormones on their labels, were analyzed and estrogen or progesterone was not detected in these products. PMID:26454975

  4. Slice them up or slice them out? Legal liability for operating on the troublesome patient in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2015-09-01

    The practice of cosmetic surgery is constructed as psychologically beneficial. This therapeutic promise transforms cosmetic surgery into proper medical treatment. However, there is emerging evidence that a significant percentage of cosmetic surgery patients suffer from the condition of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD), which is characterised by excessive preoccupation with imagined or minor defects in appearance. BDD is uniformly identified as a strong contra-indication for cosmetic surgery. Articles in scholarly journals on cosmetic surgery identify the "red flag" indicators to assist in screening out problem patients. However, a close examination of the most common indicators reveals that most are ineffective in identifying BDD in prospective patients. This article also considers the legal liability of cosmetic surgeons who operate on patients with BDD, and concludes that there is little likelihood of liability in trespass or negligence under current Australia law. PMID:26554204

  5. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches.

  6. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches. PMID:26995636

  7. Evaluation of Human Exposure to metals from some popular brands of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn and Al) were determined in thirty brands of popular of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the levels of metals and the risk of exposure to metals by humans through long time usage of these products. The concentrations of metals in these samples of underarm cosmetics were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentrations of metals in these types of underarm cosmetics studied ranged from <0.15 to 1.2 μg g(-1)Cd, <0.02 to 11.2 μg g(-1)Pb, <0.03 to 4.9 μg g(-1)Ni, <0.1 to 25.0 μg g(-1), <0.02 to 2.8 μg g(-1)Co, 2.0 to 6.4 μg g(-1)Cu, 4.7 to 91.2 μg g(-1)Fe, <0.05 to 14.1 μg g(-1)Mn, 77.9 to 132 μg g(-1) and 69.2 to 83,500 μg g(-1)Al. The results of this study indicate that Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co were presents in these types of underarm cosmetics at concentrations below the regulatory control limits for metal impurities in color additives for cosmetics and suggested limits following good manufacturing practice. The estimated margin of safety (MoS) indicated that the concentrations of the examined metals in these underarm cosmetic products present no potential risk to the users. The continuous use of these brands of underarm cosmetics represents a potential source of human exposure to metals such as aluminum in the local area of the breast, particularly to the upper outer quadrant. PMID:26009314

  8. Evaluation of Human Exposure to metals from some popular brands of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn and Al) were determined in thirty brands of popular of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the levels of metals and the risk of exposure to metals by humans through long time usage of these products. The concentrations of metals in these samples of underarm cosmetics were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentrations of metals in these types of underarm cosmetics studied ranged from <0.15 to 1.2 μg g(-1)Cd, <0.02 to 11.2 μg g(-1)Pb, <0.03 to 4.9 μg g(-1)Ni, <0.1 to 25.0 μg g(-1), <0.02 to 2.8 μg g(-1)Co, 2.0 to 6.4 μg g(-1)Cu, 4.7 to 91.2 μg g(-1)Fe, <0.05 to 14.1 μg g(-1)Mn, 77.9 to 132 μg g(-1) and 69.2 to 83,500 μg g(-1)Al. The results of this study indicate that Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co were presents in these types of underarm cosmetics at concentrations below the regulatory control limits for metal impurities in color additives for cosmetics and suggested limits following good manufacturing practice. The estimated margin of safety (MoS) indicated that the concentrations of the examined metals in these underarm cosmetic products present no potential risk to the users. The continuous use of these brands of underarm cosmetics represents a potential source of human exposure to metals such as aluminum in the local area of the breast, particularly to the upper outer quadrant.

  9. Investigating incidence of bacterial and fungal contamination in shared cosmetic kits available in the women beauty salons

    PubMed Central

    Dadashi, Leila; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rich texture of cosmetics can provide a suitable medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, skin microflora of anyone is unique which might be harmful to another person. Skin and eye pathogenicity could be communicated by sharing cosmetics in beauty saloons. The main objective of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of in-use skin and eye cosmetics which are available as public make-up kits for women in the beauty salons. Methods: Fifty-two in-use skin and eye cosmetics were included in this cross sectional study.The specimens from all the cosmetics were collected following the owner’s informed consent, and then about 1 g of the cosmetics was added to nine ml of liquid Eugon LT100 broth medium,two for each product. Ten beauty salons randomly selected from different regions of Tabriz city between June and August 2016. Cosmetics were sampled and carried to the laboratory in sterile condition and then examined to determine bacterial and fungal species in the samples. Results: All of in-use cosmetic were contaminated with bacteria (95% CI = 93.1%-100.0%) and about 19.2% by fungus and yeast (95% CI = 10.8%-31.9%). Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella,Citrobacter, Rhodotorula and Candida were dominant species which were isolated from the cosmetics. Powders with 38.5% (95% CI = 17.7%-64.5%) and eyeliners with 30.0% (95%CI = 6.7%-65.2%) were the most fungal contaminated products. Conclusion: Shared cosmetics in beauty salons are almost contaminated by bacteria and fungus.Therefore, it is suggested to avoid sharing cosmetics by women and prevent use of public cosmetics in toilet saloons. PMID:27579260

  10. Blame it on patriarchy: more sexist attitudes are associated with stronger consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stewart, Natasha; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Shannon, Samantha; Voracek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we examined associations between oppressive, sexist beliefs and consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and also endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's romantic partner. A total of 554 German-speaking volunteers from the community, mainly in Austria, completed measures of consideration of cosmetic surgery and three measures of sexist attitudes, while a subset of participants in romantic relationships completed a measure of endorsement of cosmetic surgery for their partners along with the measures of sexism. Preliminary analyses showed that women and single respondents were more likely to consider having cosmetic surgery than men and committed respondents, respectively. Further analyses showed that consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself was significantly associated with sexist attitudes, particularly hostile attitudes to women. In addition, among participants in a relationship, sexist attitudes were associated with endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's partner. These results indicate that attitudes to cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner are shaped by gender-ideological belief systems in patriarchal societies. Possible implications for understanding the motivations for having cosmetic surgery, among both single respondents and couples, are discussed.

  11. [Replacement of Kathon CG by Euxyl K 400 in cosmetics; from the frying pan into the fire?].

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, R F; van der Kley, A M; Weyland, J W; de Groot, A C

    1992-03-21

    The recent negative publicity on the cosmetics preservative Kathon CG has made many cosmetic manufacturers look for safer alternatives. The most popular substitute appears to be Euxyl K 400, containing phenoxyethanol and methyldibromoglutaronitrile. Unfortunately, this preservative also induces allergic reactions to cosmetics and (at least in the Netherlands) to 'moist toilet paper'. Therefore, in cases of apparent reactions to cosmetics and of eczema ani, allergy to methyldibromoglutaronitrile should be suspected. Testing the finished products often results in false-negative reactions, and consequently the allergen (suggested concentration 0.05% in petrolatum) should preferably be tested separately.

  12. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics.

  13. The 19th Century Origins of Facial Cosmetic Surgery and John H. Woodbury.

    PubMed

    Denkler, Keith A; Hudson, Rosalind F

    2015-09-01

    John H. Woodbury was an incredibly entrepreneurial, self-trained dermatologist who, between 1870 and 1909, built an empire of cosmetic surgery institutes in 6 states, with 25 physician/surgeon employees and an advertising budget of $150,000/year (1892 data). Under his management, his surgeons, and perhaps Woodbury himself, performed multiple facial cosmetic surgeries, including early versions of browlifts, frown excisions, lower facelifts, mid-face lifts, rhinoplasties, double-chin reductions, and dimple creation. In addition, Woodbury developed a proprietary soap and cosmetic line, which he sold to Jergens for $212,500 in 1901 (retaining a 10% royalty). Woodbury's story has been unknown until now because this nonacademic concentrated his publishing in articles and advertisements in lay magazines. Woodbury's life ended in bankruptcy, litigation, and suicide when the corporate practice of medicine and advertising were made illegal. In his legal proceedings, Woodbury conceded that he was not a doctor, although he went by the title. Regardless, his surgical innovations are of major historical significance, as these cosmetic procedures are the first of their kind to be noted in the lay or academic press and predate, by years and even decades, the previously earliest known cosmetic surgeries in the United States.

  14. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru; Date, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Niacinamide is known to have effectiveness on sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing niacinamide. A randomized, placebo-controlled, split face study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese females who had wrinkles in the eye areas. The tested cosmetic containing 4% niacinamide was applied on wrinkles of one side for 8 weeks, and a control cosmetic without niacinamide on another site. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated with two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photographs based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) average roughness of skin surface (Ra value) using skin replica. This cosmetic showed marked and moderate improvement in 64% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control site (P < 0.001). Wrinkle grades in the tested area significantly reduced more than pre-application (P < 0.001) and the control (P < 0.001). Reduction in Ra value on the tested area was more than pre-application (P < 0.01) and the control site (P < 0.05) with significant differences. Only one subject stopped the study with minimal irritation. These results indicated that the tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles in the eye areas.

  15. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  16. European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Hall, B; Tozer, S; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Steiling, W; Leneveu-Duchemin, M C; McNamara, C; Gibney, M

    2007-11-01

    Access to reliable exposure data is essential to evaluate the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study was carried out by European cosmetic manufacturers acting within the trade association Colipa, with the aim to construct a probabilistic European population model of exposure. The study updates, in distribution form, the current exposure data on daily quantities of six cosmetic products. Data were collected using a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study. In total 44,100 households and 18,057 individual consumers in five European countries provided data using their own products. All product use occasions were recorded, including those outside of home. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between frequency of product use and quantity used per application for body lotion, facial moisturiser, toothpaste and shampoo. Thus it is not appropriate to calculate daily exposure to these products by multiplying the maximum frequency value by the maximum quantity per event value. The results largely confirm the exposure parameters currently used by the cosmetic industry. Design of this study could serve as a model for future assessments of population exposure to chemicals in products other than cosmetics.

  17. Derivatization procedure and HPLC determination of 2-ethoxyethanol in cosmetic samples.

    PubMed

    Mariani, E; Villa, C; Neuhoff, C; Dorato, S

    1999-06-01

    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether or 2-ethoxyethanol finds a wide industrial application as a solvent for lacquers, inks, dyes, household products and as a surfactant. It is also found in cosmetics such as nail products, face cleansers, liquid soaps, oral care products, hair colours and fixatives. The potential hazard to human health of 2-ethoxyethanol following inhalation and dermal exposure has been recently reviewed and the European Cosmetic, Toiletry and Perfumery Association (COLIPA) has issued recommendations suggesting its non-use as a cosmetic ingredient. Therefore a simple and fast monitoring method is necessary for routine control to identify and quantify 2-ethoxyethanol in raw materials and finished cosmetics. We have developed a sensitive and selective method to determine 2-ethoxyethanol in complex matrices by precolumn derivatization with 1-naphthyl isocyanate and RP-HPLC analysis. Four laboratory-made cosmetic formulations (a nail lacquer remover, a baby oil, a skin lotion and an emollient O/W emulsion) containing three known amounts of 2-ethoxyethanol (0.1%, 2.0%, 5.0%) have been studied. The obtained results show that this chromatographic procedure provides a good estimate of the true concentration of 2-ethoxyethanol in complex matrices and it is reliable for routine analyses in quality control.

  18. The 19th Century Origins of Facial Cosmetic Surgery and John H. Woodbury.

    PubMed

    Denkler, Keith A; Hudson, Rosalind F

    2015-09-01

    John H. Woodbury was an incredibly entrepreneurial, self-trained dermatologist who, between 1870 and 1909, built an empire of cosmetic surgery institutes in 6 states, with 25 physician/surgeon employees and an advertising budget of $150,000/year (1892 data). Under his management, his surgeons, and perhaps Woodbury himself, performed multiple facial cosmetic surgeries, including early versions of browlifts, frown excisions, lower facelifts, mid-face lifts, rhinoplasties, double-chin reductions, and dimple creation. In addition, Woodbury developed a proprietary soap and cosmetic line, which he sold to Jergens for $212,500 in 1901 (retaining a 10% royalty). Woodbury's story has been unknown until now because this nonacademic concentrated his publishing in articles and advertisements in lay magazines. Woodbury's life ended in bankruptcy, litigation, and suicide when the corporate practice of medicine and advertising were made illegal. In his legal proceedings, Woodbury conceded that he was not a doctor, although he went by the title. Regardless, his surgical innovations are of major historical significance, as these cosmetic procedures are the first of their kind to be noted in the lay or academic press and predate, by years and even decades, the previously earliest known cosmetic surgeries in the United States. PMID:26069152

  19. Assessment of lead and cadmium levels in frequently used cosmetic products in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nourmoradi, H; Foroghi, M; Farhadkhani, M; Vahid Dastjerdi, M

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08-5.2  µ g/g and 4.08-60.20  µ g/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85-6.90  µ g/g and a cadmium level of 1.54-55.59  µ g/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  20. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  1. [Simultaneous determination of 10 synthetic colorants in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Haishan; Qian, Xiaoyan; Lü, Chunhu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xiaomei; Mo, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 synthetic colorants in cosmetics. The cosmetics were extracted by the ultrasonic technique with tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol sequentially. Then the extracts were centrifuged for purification and separated on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 4.60, adjusted with acetic acid). A diode array detector was used to determine the colorants with the wavelengths ranging from 417 nm to 640 nm. The linear relationships of the 10 colorants between the peak areas and the mass concentrations were obtained in the range of 0.5-20.0 mg/L (r > 0.999). The limits of quantitation ranged from 10 to 20 mg/kg. The average recoveries at three concentration levels ranged from 92.9% to 108.8% with the relative standard deviations in the range of 0.5% to 6.1% (n = 6). The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the 10 colorants in the oil cosmetics, cream cosmetics and powder cosmetics.

  2. Cosmetic sequelae after oncoplastic surgery of the breast. Classification and factors for prevention.

    PubMed

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Cereijo Garea, Carmen; García Novoa, Alejandra

    2015-02-01

    Oncoplastic surgery is an essential tool in the surgical approach to women with breast cancer. These techniques are not absolute guarantee for a good cosmetic result and therefore some patients will have cosmetic sequelae secondary to poor surgical planning, the effects of adjuvant treatments or the need for resection greater than originally planned. The high frequency of these cosmetic sequelae in oncology practice makes it necessary to classify them for optimal surgical planning. The aim of this paper is to present a classification of cosmetic sequelae after oncoplastic procedures to identify those factors that are crucial to its prevention. This classification contains 4 groups: breast contour deformities, asymmetries, alterations in nipple-aréola complex (NAC) and defects in the three dimensional structure of the breast. A significant group of these sequelae (asymmetries and deformities) are associated with breast irradiation and need an accurate information process with patients to set realistic expectations about cosmetic results. Finally, there is another group of sequelae (NAC disorders and three-dimensional structure) that are related to poor planning and deficiencies in surgical approach, therfore specific training is essential for learning these surgical techniques. PMID:25438776

  3. [Hygienic evaluation of the content of heavy metals (lead and copper) in cosmetic products].

    PubMed

    Tsankov, Iu; Iordanova, I; Lolova, D; Uzunova, S; Dinoeva, S

    1982-01-01

    Heavy metals /lead and copper/ content was studied in various cosmetic articles: creams and cleansing milk, shampoos, hair dyes, eye shadows, rouge, lipsticks, powders, fond de teint, tooth pastes. The method flame atom-absorption spectrometry with chelation and extraction was used for their determination. The subacute dermal toxicity on albino rats was studied with working doses: lead--1,10 and 100 mg/kg, and copper--5,50 and 500 mg/kg. The content of lead and copper was established to be low in the majority of the cosmetic articles studied /lead--to 2.08 mg/kg, copper--to 6,28 mg/kg/and only in some of the articles of decorative cosmetic, it is considerably higher /lead--to 41,1 mg/kg, copper--to 138,6 mg/kg. That is due to the inadequate purification of the initial raw materials or to the presence of copper-containing dyes in the composition of the respective cosmetic article. As a result from the toxicological and pathoanatomical studies the small doses /lead 1 mg/kg and copper 5 mg/kg are defined as ineffective, and the high doses--with a light biological effect. The maximum allowable concentration of lead is proposed to be--10 mg/kg, and copper--50 mg/kg as side /technical/ pollutants in the production of cosmetic articles.

  4. Assessment of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Frequently Used Cosmetic Products in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nourmoradi, H.; Foroghi, M.; Farhadkhani, M.; Vahid Dastjerdi, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the content of lead and cadmium in most frequently used brands of cosmetic products (lipstick and eye shadow) in Iran. Fifty samples of lipstick (5 colors in 7 brands) and eye shadow (3 colors in 5 brands) were selected taken from large cosmetic stores in Isfahan (Iran) and lead and cadmium of them were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of lead and cadmium in the lipsticks was within the range of 0.08–5.2 µg/g and 4.08–60.20 µg/g, respectively. The eye shadow samples had a lead level of 0.85–6.90 µg/g and a cadmium level of 1.54–55.59 µg/g. The content range of the heavy metals in the eye shadows was higher than that of the lipsticks. There was significant difference between the average of the lead content in the different brands of the lipsticks and eye shadows. Thus, the continuous use of these cosmetics can increase the absorption of heavy metals, especially Cd and Pb, in the body when swallowing lipsticks or through dermal cosmetic absorption. The effects of heavy metals such as lead can be harmful, especially for pregnant women and children. Therefore, effort must be made to inform the users and the general public about the harmful consequences of cosmetics. PMID:24174937

  5. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  6. Patient Preferences for Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Importance of Cure and Cosmetic Outcome.

    PubMed

    Martin, Isabelle; Schaarschmidt, Marthe-Lisa; Glocker, Anne; Herr, Raphael; Schmieder, Astrid; Goerdt, Sergij; Peitsch, Wiebke K

    2016-03-01

    Treatment options for localized resectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) include micrographically controlled surgery, simple excision, curettage, laser ablation, cryosurgery, imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the preferences of patients with BCC for outcome (cure and recurrence rate, cosmetic outcome, risk of temporary and permanent complications) and process attributes (type of therapy, treatment location, anaesthesia, method of wound closure, duration of wound healing, out-of-pocket costs) of these treatments with conjoint analysis. Participants (n = 124) attached greatest importance to recurrence rate (relative importance score (RIS) = 17.28), followed by cosmetic outcome (RIS = 16.90) and cure rate (RIS = 15.02). Participants with BCC on the head or neck were particularly interested in cosmetic outcome. Those with a recurrence were willing to trade risk of recurrence, treatment location and duration of wound healing for a better cosmetic result. In summary, participants particularly valued cure and cosmetic outcome, although preferences varied with individual and tumour-associated characteristics.

  7. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

  8. The use and interpretation of in vitro data in regulatory toxicology: cosmetics, toiletries and household products.

    PubMed

    Indans, Ian

    2002-02-28

    There is currently a drive to eliminate animal testing for cosmetics, toiletries and household products; indeed, the European Union Cosmetics Directive aims to prohibit the use of experimental animals for the testing of finished cosmetic products after 2002. At present, national prohibitions are in place in the UK, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for the testing of finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. In the USA animal testing for certain types of finished products is mandatory. Against this background, the currently available regulatory in vitro tests comprise methods for eye irritation, skin corrosivity, genotoxicity, dermal penetration and photoirritation. The draft updates to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines for eye and skin irritation advocate the use of in vitro or ex vivo methods prior to the commencement of animal studies. At present, testing for these endpoints cannot be completed in vitro, but potentially corrosive substances and products can be classified without the need for animal studies. Regulatory genotoxicity testing can be completed using only in vitro methods, provided that a clear negative outcome is obtained for each test. Data from dermal penetration studies may be used to refine risk assessments. Current developments in areas such as skin sensitisation and skin irritation promise that in the reasonably near future such information may be generated without the use of animals.

  9. Increasing antibiotic resistance in preservative-tolerant bacterial strains isolated from cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Orús, Pilar; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Leranoz, Sonia; Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    To ensure the microbiological quality, consumer safety and organoleptic properties of cosmetic products, manufacturers need to comply with defined standards using several preservatives and disinfectants. A drawback regarding the use of these preservatives is the possibility of generating cross-insusceptibility to other disinfectants or preservatives, as well as cross resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms of Enterobacter gergoviae, Pseudomonas putida and Burkholderia cepacia that are involved in recurrent contamination in cosmetic products containing preservatives. Diminished susceptibility to formaldehyde-donors was detected in isolates but not to other preservatives commonly used in the cosmetics industry, although increasing resistance to different antibiotics (β-lactams, quinolones, rifampicin, and tetracycline) was demonstrated in these strains when compared with the wild-type strain. The outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanism activities responsible for the resistance trait were evaluated. The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms due to the selective pressure from preservatives included in cosmetic products could be a risk for the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance in the environment. Nevertheless, the large contribution of disinfection and preservation cannot be denied in cosmetic products.

  10. Amended safety assessment of formaldehyde and methylene glycol as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ivan J; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde and methylene glycol may be used safely in cosmetics if established limits are not exceeded and are safe for use in nail hardeners in the present practices of use and concentration, which include instructions to avoid skin contact. In hair-smoothing products, however, in the present practices of use and concentration, formaldehyde and methylene glycol are unsafe. Methylene glycol is continuously converted to formaldehyde, and vice versa, even at equilibrium, which can be easily shifted by heating, drying, and other conditions to increase the amount of formaldehyde. This rapid, reversible formaldehyde/methylene glycol equilibrium is distinguished from the slow, irreversible release of formaldehyde resulting from the so-called formaldehyde releaser preservatives, which are not addressed in this safety assessment (formaldehyde releasers may continue to be safely used in cosmetics at the levels established in their individual Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessments). PMID:24335968

  11. Impact of Medical Tourism on Cosmetic Surgery in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States. PMID:25289258

  12. Plastic Antibodies for Cosmetics: Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Scavenge Precursors of Malodors.

    PubMed

    Nestora, Sofia; Merlier, Franck; Beyazit, Selim; Prost, Elise; Duma, Luminita; Baril, Bérangère; Greaves, Andrew; Haupt, Karsten; Tse Sum Bui, Bernadette

    2016-05-17

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic antibody mimics capable of specific molecular recognition. Advantageously, they are more stable, easy to tailor for a given application and less expensive than antibodies. These plastic antibodies are raising increasing interest and one relatively unexplored domain in which they could outplay these advantages particularly well is cosmetics. Here, we present the use of a MIP as an active ingredient of a cosmetic product, for suppressing body odors. In a dermo-cosmetic formulation, the MIP captures selectively the precursors of malodorous compounds, amidst a multitude of other molecules present in human sweat. These results pave the way to the fabrication of a novel generation of MIPs with improved selectivities in highly complex aqueous environments, and should be applicable to biotechnological and biomedical areas as well. PMID:27060928

  13. [Detection of the preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Miyazawa, Norimasa; Shimamura, Kimio; Sato, Nobuo; Yoshizawa, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masahito; Takano, Katsuhiro; Miyamoto, Michiko; Kojima, Takashi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiio, Makiko

    2009-01-01

    A simple determination method for preservative chlorphenesin in cosmetics was developed. Cosmetic samples were dissolved in methanol. The sample solution was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ODS column, using water-methanol (55:45) or water-acetonitrile (3:1) adjusted to pH 2.5 with phosphoric acid as the mobile phase. Chlorphenesin was detected with ultraviolet light detection at 280 nm. A linear relation was obtained between the peak areas and the concentrations of chlorphenesin in the range of 1-500 microg/ml. The determination limit of chlorphenesin was 1-2 microg/ml. Recoveries of chlorphenesin spiked in lotion and milky lotion at the levels of 0.03% and 0.3% were 98.8-100.0%. This method was applied for cosmetics including 0.03% and 0.3% of chlorphenesin and their content corresponded with the determined values.

  14. [Simultaneous determination of 9 ultraviolet absorbers in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Yamada, Mai; Uchino, Tadashi; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous determination for 9 ultraviolet absorbers those set a limit to the amount in cosmetics was performed. Ultraviolet absorbers were extracted from cosmetics with tetrahydrofuran (THF) by ultrasonication. After centrifugation, the supernatant was collected, and the sample solution was injected into the HPLC. Separation was archived using an ODS column with the mixture of THF and water as the mobile phase. Detection wavelength was set at 310 nm. The linearity was obtained between the peak areas and the concentrations of each ultraviolet absorber in the range of 5 - 100 microg/ml. In 70 commercial cosmetic products, such as sunscreen, face powder, foundation, massage cream, moisture lotion, lip balm and essence, 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (EMC), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (HMB), 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMB) and 2-ethylhexyl salicylate (ES) were detected.

  15. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG/PPG Ethers as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 131 alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polypropylene glycol ethers as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of the alkyl PEG/PPG ethers included in this review are reported to function in cosmetics as surfactants, skin-conditioning agents, and/or emulsifying agents. The alkyl PEG/PPG ethers share very similar physiochemical properties as the alkyl PEG ethers, which were reviewed previously by the CIR Expert Panel and found safe when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl PEG ethers differ by the inclusion of PPG repeat units, which are used to fine-tune the surfactant properties of this group. The Panel relied heavily on data on analogous ingredients, extracted from the alkyl PEG ethers and PPG reports, when making its determination of safety.

  16. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG/PPG Ethers as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2016-07-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of 131 alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polypropylene glycol ethers as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment when formulated to be nonirritating. Most of the alkyl PEG/PPG ethers included in this review are reported to function in cosmetics as surfactants, skin-conditioning agents, and/or emulsifying agents. The alkyl PEG/PPG ethers share very similar physiochemical properties as the alkyl PEG ethers, which were reviewed previously by the CIR Expert Panel and found safe when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl PEG ethers differ by the inclusion of PPG repeat units, which are used to fine-tune the surfactant properties of this group. The Panel relied heavily on data on analogous ingredients, extracted from the alkyl PEG ethers and PPG reports, when making its determination of safety. PMID:27383199

  17. Evaluation of 'nuez de barinas' (caryodendron orinocense) oil for possible use in cosmetic.

    PubMed

    Pérez de R, M N; Alfaro, M de J; Padilla, F C

    1999-06-01

    Caryodendron orinocense, Karst., is a tree that grows along the eastern base of the Andes mountains in Venezuela, Ecuador, and Colombia. It is known in Venezuela as 'Nuez de Barinas, nuez or nogal de Barquisimeto' and in other countries as 'inchi', 'taque', 'abay' or 'palo de nuez'. The oil extracted from the 'nuts' (seeds) is edible. The objective of this study was to assess the potential use of the oil extracted from the seeds in cosmetics. The organoleptic characteristics, some physical (viscosity, specific density, extensibility, UV absorbance), and chemical (fatty acid profile, titratable acidity, saponification index, unsaponifiable matter and peroxide value) characteristics, were determined by official methods. The results show a high polyunsaturated fatty acid content (75.13%) and good physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics appropriate for use in cosmetics. It was concluded that the Caryodendron oil should be useful in cosmetic formulations.

  18. Consumption of cosmetic products by the French population second part: Amount data.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Chevillotte, G; Wesolek, N; Morisset, T; Dornic, N; Bernard, A; Bertho, A; Romanet, A; Leroy, L; Mercat, A C; Creusot, T; Simon, E; Roudot, A C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the amount per use of cosmetic products consumed at home by the adult, child and baby French population. 1078 men and women participated in the study which was performed in four cities of France. This enquiry was performed on 106 cosmetics including general hygiene, skin care, hair care, hair styling, make-up, fragrances, solar, shaving and depilatory, and baby products. Coupled to frequency data previously obtained (Ficheux et al., 2015), these amounts per use data will be used in order to assess the exposure to cosmetics by the French population. These current exposure values could be useful for safety assessors and for safety agencies. PMID:26898167

  19. Safety Assessment of Ethanolamine and Ethanolamine Salts as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of ethanolamine and 12 salts of ethanolamine as used in cosmetics. Ethanolamine functions as a pH adjuster. The majority of the salts are reported to function as surfactants, and the others are reported to function as pH adjusters, hair fixatives, or preservatives. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous relevant CIR reports. Because data were not available for each individual ingredient and because the salts dissociate freely in water, the Panel extrapolated from those previous reports to support safety. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentrations (rinse-off products only) when formulated to be nonirritating, and these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed.

  20. Comparison of cosmetic and physicochemical properties of six topical corticosteroid creams.

    PubMed

    Hadzija, B W; Ambrose, W W

    1996-02-01

    The cosmetic and physicochemical properties of six topical corticosteroid creams were evaluated and compared. The following creams were provided in blinded tubes: Elocon, Westcort, Lidex, Kenalog, Valisone, and Cutivate. The following properties were evaluated in vitro: stiffness (hardness), grittiness, color, odor, homogeneity (phase separation), pH, weight loss, and tackiness (stickiness). Samples of the creams were evaluated by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to identify particle and droplet distribution, particulate contamination, and microscopic homogeneity of the products. Cutivate ranked number 1 in each category and received the best overall score for each of the cosmetic and physicochemical properties evaluated. The cosmetic and physicochemical properties of Elocon, Westcort, Lidex, and Kenalog were found to be similar to one another with regard to overall score but inferior to Cutivate. Valisone was also good with regard to overall score but was ranked less acceptable due to a strong odor. PMID:8646864