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Sample records for cosmetics

  1. Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    Cosmetics are products you apply to your body to clean it, make it more attractive, or change ... include Hair dyes Makeup Perfumes Skin-care creams Cosmetics that treat or prevent diseases are also drugs. ...

  2. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Body Looking and feeling your best Cosmetic surgery Cosmetic surgery Teens might have cosmetic surgery for a ... about my body? What are the risks of cosmetic surgery? top People who have cosmetic surgery face ...

  3. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...

  4. Cosmetic Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... image Body image and your kids Cosmetic surgery Eating disorders Pregnancy and body image Subscribe to Body Image ... Association of America http://www.adaa.org National Eating Disorders Association National Institute of Mental Health Information Center, ...

  5. Cosmetic Dentistry

    MedlinePlus

    ... its normal shape and appearance. Due to their cost, they are used in cases where other procedures will not be effective. Crowns have the longest life expectancy of all cosmetic restorations, but are the most time-consuming. ; Veneers ; ...

  6. Nail cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  7. Bad Reaction to Cosmetics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Reactions From Cosmetics More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  8. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... when they are new. FDA has an Import Alert in effect for cosmetics -- including eye cosmetics -- contaminated ... in the area of the eye. An import alert for cosmetics containing illegal colors lists several eye ...

  9. Hair cosmetics.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue, M N

    1987-07-01

    Porosity, elasticity, and texture influence the hair's ability to be changed. The types of color--temporary, gradual, natural, semipermanent, and permanent--depend upon the size of the "coloring" molecule to determine whether they penetrate the cortex (permanent) or precipitate on the cuticle. Different types of hair--thick or coarse, fine or thin--have varying affinity for different products and coloring/waving methods. Damaged hair is treated differently from hair with healthy, less porous shafts. Because so many people have color-treated hair today, dermatologists should be aware of all the latest changes and improvements, in order to assist patients with damaged or congenitally deformed hair. Acid-based permanents are becoming the most commonly used. Daily care with shampooing and conditioning has attained its most sophisticated level with the use of anionic and cationic surfactants in all hair-care products. It is also important for the dermatologist to be aware of what help is available for his or her patients. Cosmetic companies are eager to help any patient with severe problems with texture, dullness, over-fine or congenitally defective hair. The physician should send the patient with a severe problem directly to the nearest company headquarters or major city office to have a hair analysis, and receive suggestions from the experts of that company. For patients with moderate to mild problems, the dermatologist should be able to recommend three or four good salons in the local area with which he or she is familiar. Our main goal as physicians is to take care of the entire patient and to enable him or her to have a good self-image.

  10. Cosmetics and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... have FDA approval before they go on the market. However, cosmetics must be safe when consumers use ... customarily used. Companies and individuals who manufacture or market cosmetics are legally responsible for making sure their ...

  11. Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000273.htm Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. You had cosmetic breast surgery to change the size or shape ...

  12. Cosmetic ear surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  13. Aging and cosmetic enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Honigman, Roberta; Castle, David J

    2006-01-01

    Obsession with a youthful appearance has become commonplace in modern society and has resulted in an upswing in cosmetic procedures trying to reverse the aging process. We selectively review the literature on aging and cosmetic surgery, with particular regard for the aging face. We pay attention to psychosocial aspects of response to such cosmetic procedures, both in terms of outcome and with respect to risk factors for a poor outcome. PMID:18044108

  14. Nanotechnology in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Katz, Linda M; Dewan, Kapal; Bronaugh, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Nanomaterials are being used in cosmetic products for various effects. However, their use also raises potential safety concerns. Some of these concerns can be addressed by determining the type of nanomaterials used, as well as stability, potential for skin absorption, route of exposure, and how they are formulated in cosmetic products. There has been considerable effort internationally to harmonize approaches in order to address definitional issues and safety concerns related to the use of nanomaterials in cosmetic products.

  15. Hair Cosmetics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Gavazzoni Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis

    2015-01-01

    Hair cosmetics are an important tool that helps to increase patient's adhesion to alopecia and scalp treatments. This article reviews the formulations and the mode of action of hair cosmetics: Shampoos, conditioners, hair straightening products, hair dyes and henna; regarding their prescription and safetiness. The dermatologist's knowledge of hair care products, their use, and their possible side effects can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources and help dermatologists to better treat hair and scalp conditions according to the diversity of hair types and ethnicity. PMID:25878443

  16. [Acute intoxication by cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Larcan, A; Lambert, H; Laprevote-Heully, M C; Nida, F

    1975-01-01

    Intoxications due to cosmetics are of various types, but certain substances may be particularly harmful, especially when the constituants include acetone, boric acid and borates, ethyl alcohol, bromates, formol, methyl alcohol, propylene glycol, thallium, thioglycolate.. Every cosmetic substance may induce accidental intoxications. Most often, fluid cosmetics are absorbed either by children or by feeble-minded subjects. In all intoxication, one must take account of the age and weight of the patient, of the quantity absorbed, of the toxicity and of the constituants of the substance.

  17. Non-comedogenic cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Bradley, S; Aqundez, A; Black, T

    1976-02-01

    The need for a "comedogenic-free" cosmetic for acne patients led to this study using the only available mode, the rabbit. To facilitate the formulation of this benign cover-up, a range of cosmetics and ingredients was tested. Many cosmetics, fractions, and modifications of lanolins were comedogenic, as were emulsifiers such as butyl sterate, isopropyl myristate and sodium lauryl sulfate. From this data we incorporated non-comedogenic, into an acceptable cosmetic formulation for patients. The use of this formulation in susceptible acne-prone women reduced the rate of "acne cosmetica" in our clinic patients from 25% to less than 5%. We were unable to confirm a recent study suggesting that sulfur was a potent acnegen.

  18. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    PubMed

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Park, Michelle E; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products is an increasing concern given the continual creation and introduction of new cosmetics to the public. This article presents an overview of how to evaluate a patient for patch testing, including common areas for cosmetic-induced dermatitis, common cosmetic allergens, and proper management.

  20. Nanotechnology in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Howard A

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is a subject of extensive global interest. The ability to control matter at the nanoscale level presents a revolutionary opportunity to benefit society in numerous disciplines. Nanotechnology is currently found in cosmetic products, particularly sunscreen products containing titanium dioxide and zinc oxide. Published information in scientific journals suggests that nano-sized ingredients used in cosmetic products pose no more risk to human health than larger sized counterparts. The issue remains under investigation.

  1. Microbiological analysis of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetics are products of chemical or natural origin dedicated specifically for use in skin and mucosa. The constant development of the cosmetic industry has generated the necessity to carry out microbiological analysis on the raw materials used in the industrial production of cosmetics as well as the final products, with the purpose of obtaining products of good microbiological quality. Cosmetic products are recognized to be substrates for the survival and development of a large variety of microorganisms, since they possess some of the nutrients that facilitate growth such as: lipids, polysaccharides, alcohol, proteins, amino acids, glucosides, esteroids, peptides, and vitamins. Also, the conditions of readiness (oxygenation, pH, temperature, osmotic degree, superficial activity, perfume, and essential oils) present in the cosmetic products favor microbial multiplication. Routine analyses to determine the microbiological quality of a cosmetic product include the following: Count of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms. Most probable number (MPN) of total coliforms. Count of molds and yeasts. Absence/presence of Staphylococcus aureus probe. Absence/presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa probe.

  2. Hair cosmetics: dyes.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E

    2014-11-01

    Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions.

  3. Cosmetic surgery: medicolegal considerations

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Mauro; Delbon, Paola; Conti, Adelaide; Capasso, Emanuele; Niola, Massimo; Bin, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cosmetic surgery is one of the two branches of plastic surgery. The characteristic of non-necessity of this surgical speciality implies an increased severity in the evaluation of the risk-benefit balance. Therefore, great care must be taken in providing all the information necessary in order to obtain valid consent to the intervention. We analyzed judgments concerning cosmetic surgery found in national legal databases. A document of National Bioethics Committee (CNB) was also analyzed. Conclusion: The receipt of valid, informed consent is of absolute importance not only to legitimise the medical-surgical act, but it also represents the key element in the question concerning the existence of an obligation to achieve certain results/use of certain methods in the cosmetic surgery. PMID:28352816

  4. [Cosmetic treatments and acne].

    PubMed

    Poli, Florence

    2002-04-15

    Cosmetic products contribute to the efficacy of anti-acneic treatment. Cleaning bars without soap and lotions are to be preferred to soaps. Morning application of moisturizing creams compensate for dryness and irritation induced by topical treatment. Some of these cosmetic products may have a limited efficacy of the shiny appearance and/or acne lesions. Scrubs, abrasive sponges, masks and patches have a very limited usefulness. Make up and camouflage techniques are authorized, provided that the products have been tested non comedogenic and non acne-genic.

  5. Cosmetics in acne and rosacea.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2001-09-01

    Cosmetics that are appropriate for use in patients with rosacea and acne must be noncomedogenic, nonacnegenic, nonirritating, and hypoallergenic. This requires a basic understanding of cosmetic fromulation and the selection of products that meet guidelines for sensitive skin.

  6. Cosmetic Behavior Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, W. Paul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the theoretical and practical applications of cosmetic behavior therapy in a private practice. Enhancement of physical appearance will frequently result in an enhancement of self-concept, and the client's attainment of physical attractiveness contributes to the probability of success in current culture. (Author/JAC)

  7. Allergy to selected cosmetic ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Adamczuk, Piotr; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoliński, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Krasowska, Ewelina; Galińska, Elżbieta M.; Cholewa, Grażyna; Piątek, Jacek; Koźlik, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In an era in which cosmetics are commonly used, their often prolonged contact with the human body should determine the safety of their use. Often cosmetics are the cause of many side effects, mainly hypersensitivity reactions. Common groups of cosmetic components responsible for side effects are fragrances, preservatives and dyes. This paper focuses on the most allergenic components. PMID:24353491

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Shannon; Zippin, Jonathan

    2012-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common dermatologic condition that can result from exposure to allergens at home or at work. Cosmetics represent a large diverse group of products that Americans apply to their skin to treat disease or enhance beauty. With increased use of cosmetics, the rate of sensitization to many allergenic components has increased. We review the more common allergens present in cosmetics as well as the types of cosmetics that are known to contain them. With proper education and patch testing, dermatologists will be able to identify contact allergies to cosmetic ingredients and help patients avoid the offending products.

  9. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decrease the signs of aging includes the forehead lift, eyebrow and eyelid lift, rhytidectomy, liposuction and chemical peeling. Newer controversial trends in cosmetic facial surgery include collagen implantation and fat transfer for contour defects, and eyelid tattooing. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:21263984

  10. [Cosmetic eyelid surgery].

    PubMed

    Ruban, J-M; Barbier, J; Malet, T; Baggio, E

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetic eyelid surgery is becoming increasingly popular. It can rejuvenate the patient's appearance with relatively minor side effects. Its risk/benefit ratio is one of the best in facial cosmetic surgery. However, the patient does not always accurately assess the aesthetic appearance of his or her eyelids. This underscores the importance of clinical examination in order to determine the patient's wishes, and then make an accurate diagnosis and potential surgical plan. We currently oppose, in general, surgical techniques involving tissue removal (skin-muscle and/or fat) in favor of those involving tissue repositioning and grafting (autologous fat pearl transposition, obtained by liposuction, and lipostructure). Furthermore, the place of adjuvant therapies to blepharoplasty is steadily increasing. They mainly include surface treatments (peels and lasers), dermal fillers and anti-wrinkle botulinum toxin injections. They are also increasingly used in isolation in novel ways. In all cases, a perfect knowledge of anatomy and relevant skills and experience remain necessary.

  11. COSMETIC CAMOUFLAGE IN VITILIGO

    PubMed Central

    Sarveswari, K N

    2010-01-01

    Vitiligo is not a life–threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water–free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient’s skin, thereby concealing vitiligo patches. The article highlights the content and technique of application of these creams. PMID:21063508

  12. New and emerging cosmetic allergens.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rosie F; Johnston, Graham A

    2011-01-01

    Human skin is exposed to a large variety of cosmetic allergens. Most allergic contact dermatitis occurs after exposure to fragrance, preservatives, and hair dyes. Such reactions can often be occult. As a result, a high index of suspicion is needed in assessing the patient with facial or cosmetic dermatitis. This contribution looks at why such a large number of chemicals are in everyday usage, at how dermatologists monitor trends in allergy to cosmetics, and at a number of new and emerging allergens to consider in the assessment of suspected cosmetic allergy.

  13. Esthetic and cosmetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto; Berger, Uwe; Abdel-Naser, Mohammed Badawy

    2008-01-01

    The field of esthetic and cosmetic dermatology has gained remarkable interest all over the world. The major advantage of recent years is the high scientific levels of the most significant new developments in techniques and pharmacotherapy and other nonsurgical approaches. The present paper reviews selected fields of interest under this view. Sexual hormones are involved in the aging process of men and women. Skin function, in particular the epidermal barrier, is affected by a loss of endocrine activity. Hormone replacement therapy has only recently been introduced in treatment of aging males. This is an area of gender-medicine in dermatology with a strong well-aging attempt. Botulinum toxin therapy for hyperfunctional lines has become not only well-established but evidence-based medicine on its highest level. Recent advantages were gained in objective evaluation and monitoring the effect. Digital imaging techniques with various facets have been introduced to assess the achievements of treatment in the most objective way. This may become an example for other techniques as peeling, laser therapy, or radiofrequency in esthetic and cosmetic dermatology. Botulinum toxin has become a valuable tool for brow lifts. Details of the technique are discussed. Cellulite is a strongly female gender-related condition. During the past decades numerous treatments had been recommended but only recently a more critical scientific approach led to improvements in therapy of this common and disfiguring condition. Three major approaches are developed: (a) skin loosing with techniques such as subcision, (b) skin tightening with radiofrequency and other approaches, and (c) improving circulation in blood and lymphatic microvasculature using both physical treatments and pharmacotherapy. The last two chapters are devoted to body sculpturing by lipotransfer and lipolysis. Lipotransfer for facial or body sculpturing has a history of about 100 years. Nevertheless, recently the role of adult stem

  14. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.

  15. Cosmetic surgery and conscientious objection.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, I analyse the issue of conscientious objection in relation to cosmetic surgery. I consider cases of doctors who might refuse to perform a cosmetic treatment because: (1) the treatment aims at achieving a goal which is not in the traditional scope of cosmetic surgery; (2) the motivation of the patient to undergo the surgery is considered trivial; (3) the patient wants to use the surgery to promote moral or political values that conflict with the doctor's ones; (4) the patient requires an intervention that would benefit himself/herself, but could damage society at large.

  16. The teratology testing of cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.

  17. [Acne vulgaris. Role of cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Korting, H C; Borelli, C; Schöllmann, C

    2010-02-01

    Appropriate cosmetics for skin cleansing are capable of contributing to a reduction of especially inflammatory lesions in acne-prone patients and to support pharmacological intervention in patients with manifest acne. Cleansing of acne-prone skin should employ acidified synthetic cleansers with a pH of 5.5 rather than soap. Furthermore, the ingredients of certain skin care products, i.e. nicotinamide, lactic acid, triethyl acetate/ethyllineolate, and prebiotic plant extracts, affect different mechanisms of acne pathogenesis and therefore may contribute to a decrease in acne lesions. At least some of these ingredients underscore the concept of evidence-based cosmetics. In contrast, the problem of acne lesions caused by comedogenic ingredients in cosmetics today is negligible.

  18. Biosurfactants in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K

    2015-09-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described.

  19. Female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy; Lefebvre, Guylaine; Bouchard, Celine; Shapiro, Jodi; Blake, Jennifer; Allen, Lisa; Cassell, Krista; Leyland, Nicholas; Wolfman, Wendy; Allaire, Catherine; Awadalla, Alaa; Best, Carolyn; Dunn, Sheila; Heywood, Mark; Lemyre, Madeleine; Marcoux, Violaine; Menard, Chantal; Potestio, Frank; Rittenberg, David; Singh, Sukhbir; Shapiro, Jodi; Akhtar, Saima; Camire, Bruno; Christilaw, Jan; Corey, Julie; Nelson, Erin; Pierce, Marianne; Robertson, Deborah; Simmonds, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Objectif : Fournir aux gynécologues canadiens des directives factuelles en matière de chirurgie esthétique génitale chez la femme, en réponse au nombre grandissant de demandes (et d’interventions) de chirurgie vaginale et vulvaire se situant bien au-delà des reconstructions traditionnellement indiquées sur le plan médical. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed ou MEDLINE, CINAHL et The Cochrane Library en 2011 et en 2012 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé et de mots clés appropriés (« female genital cosmetic surgery »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Aucune restriction n’a été appliquée en matière de date ou de langue. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en mai 2012. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des critères décrits dans le rapport du Groupe d’étude canadien sur les soins de santé préventifs (Tableau). Recommandations 1. Un des rôles importants des obstétriciens-gynécologues devrait consister à aider les femmes à comprendre leur anatomie et à en respecter les variantes qui leur sont propres. (III-A) 2. Lorsqu’une femme demande la tenue d’interventions esthétiques vaginales, une anamnèse médicale, sexuelle et gynécologique exhaustive devrait être obtenue et l’absence de tout dysfonctionnement

  20. How Smart Are You About Cosmetics?

    MedlinePlus

    ... story + ' U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics and Colors ... hide --> U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics and Colors ...

  1. Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Cosmetic Surgery: What to Know Beforehand

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to save a rocky relationship, gain a promotion or improve your social life. Expense. Cosmetic surgery ... and found a surgeon you like at a price you can afford — the decision to pursue cosmetic ...

  3. FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162726.html FDA Suggests Limits on Lead in Cosmetics Agency notes most products already below recommended level ... limit on how much lead can be in cosmetics ranging from lipstick and eye shadow to blush ...

  4. Do underarm cosmetics cause breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Gikas, Panagiotis D; Mansfield, Lucy; Mokbel, Kefah

    2004-01-01

    Although animal and laboratory studies suggest a possible link between certain chemicals used in underarm cosmetics and breast cancer development, there is no reliable evidence that underarm cosmetics use increases breast cancer risk in humans. This article reviews the evidence for and against the possible link between breast cancer and underarm cosmetics and highlights the need for further research to clarify this issue.

  5. Comparison of Marketed Cosmetic Products Constituents with the Antigens Included in Cosmetic-related Patch Test

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Seung Hyun; Choi, You Won; Myung, Ki Bum

    2010-01-01

    Background Currently, cosmetic series (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Sweden) is the most widely used cosmetic-related patch test in Korea. However, no studies have been conducted on how accurately it reflects the constituents of the cosmetics in Korea. Objective We surveyed the constituents of various cosmetics and compare with the cosmetic series, to investigate whether it is accurate in determining allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics sold in Korea. Methods Cosmetics were classified into 11 categories and the survey was conducted on the constituents of 55 cosmetics, with 5 cosmetics in each category. The surveyed constituents were classified by chemical function and compared with the antigens of cosmetic series. Results 155 constituents were found in 55 cosmetics, and 74 (47.7%) of constituents were included as antigen. Among them, only 20 constituents (27.0%) were included in cosmetic series. A significant number of constituents, such as fragrance, vehicle and surfactant were not included. Only 41.7% of antigens in cosmetic series were found to be in the cosmetics sampled. Conclusion The constituents not included in the patch test but possess antigenicity are widely used in cosmetics. Therefore, the patch test should be modified to reflect ingredients in the marketed products that may stimulate allergies. PMID:20711261

  6. Metals in cosmetics: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Borowska, Sylwia; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2015-06-01

    Cosmetics, preparations repeatedly applied directly to the human skin, mucous membranes, hair and nails, should be safe for health, however, recently there has been increasing concern about their safety. Unfortunately, using these products in some cases is related to the occurrence of unfavourable effects resulting from intentional or the accidental presence of chemical substances, including toxic metals. Heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and nickel, as well as aluminium, classified as a light metal, are detected in various types of cosmetics (colour cosmetics, face and body care products, hair cosmetics, herbal cosmetics, etc.). In addition, necessary, but harmful when they occur in excessive amounts, elements such as copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are also present in cosmetic products. Metals occurring in cosmetics may undergo retention and act directly in the skin or be absorbed through the skin into the blood, accumulate in the body and exert toxic effects in various organs. Some cases of topical (mainly allergic contact dermatitis) and systemic effects owing to exposure to metals present in cosmetics have been reported. Literature data show that in commercially available cosmetics toxic metals may be present in amounts creating a danger to human health. Thus, the present review article focused on the problems related to the presence of heavy metals and aluminium in cosmetics, including their sources, concentrations and law regulations as well as danger for the health of these products users. Owing to the growing usage of cosmetics it is necessary to pay special attention to these problems.

  7. Camouflage Cosmetics in Dermatologic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shear, Neil H.; Graff, Lee

    1987-01-01

    Psychological well-being is based on multiple factors, one of which is satisfaction with physical appearance. The use of cosmetics is helpful for many women, as has been shown in psychological studies and implied by market sales. People with obvious cutaneous defects (e.g., port-wine stains, pigmentary disorders) may suffer a range of distress reactions, including diminished self-esteem. Specially designed camouflage cosmetics are an ideal adjunct to other therapies for successful treatment of such skin conditions. New products are appealing because they are readily available, safe, and inexpensive. To enjoy optimum use of these products, patients should be assessed and advised in a professional setting. The results are extremely gratifying for both patients and physicians. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:21263958

  8. Nail cosmetics in nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca Maria; Tosti, Antonella

    2007-03-01

    The clinical features of nail dystrophies depend on the part of the nail that has been damaged. Due to the important functions of fingernails and toenails, any abnormality of the nail causes impaired function of the hand or foot. Moreover, the aesthetic aspect of the nail may affect employability, self-esteem, and interaction with other people. Because the nails are often difficult to treat, cosmetology may be an effective support to medical treatment. Nail cosmetics may help the patient to cope with his or her nail dystrophy while waiting for treatment to show its efficacy. It may also be the only choice to hide nail dystrophy where the nail is irreversibly damaged. Nail cosmetics may also function at treatment for onychtillomania, nail biting, and nail ingrowing.

  9. Cosmetic surgery in Australia: a risky business?

    PubMed

    Parker, Rhian

    2007-08-01

    Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.

  10. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  11. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  12. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  13. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  14. 21 CFR 700.11 - Cosmetics containing bithionol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics containing bithionol. 700.11 Section 700...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.11 Cosmetics containing bithionol. (a) Bithionol has been used to some extent as an antibacterial agent in cosmetic preparations such as...

  15. Kant and the cosmetic surgeon.

    PubMed

    Carey, J S

    1989-07-01

    Philosophers know that modern philosophy owes a great debt to the intellectual contributions of the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. This essay attempts to show how cosmetic surgeons, and all surgeons at that, could learn much from his work. Not only did Kant write about the structure of human reasoning and how it relates to appearances but he also wrote about the nature of duties and other obligations. His work has strongly influenced medical ethics. In a more particular way, Kant wrote the most important work on aesthetics. His theory still influences how philosophers understand the meaning of the beautiful and how it pertains to the human figure. This essay presents an exercise in trying to apply Kantian philosophy to aesthetic plastic surgery. Its intention is to show cosmetic surgeons some of the implicit and explicit philosophical principles and potential arguments undergirding their potential surgical evaluations. It is meant to challenge the surgeon to reconsider how decisions are made using philosophical reasoning instead of some of the more usual justifications based on psychology or sociology.

  16. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. (a)...

  18. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. (a)...

  19. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including...) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.13 Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. (a)...

  20. COLOR PRESCRIPTION FORM FOR COSMETIC GLOVES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A technique is described for achieving more custom-like coloring of cosmetic gloves. The method involves the use of a color prescription form which...can be used to describe in greater detail the characteristics of those portions of the human hand of greater cosmetic significance.

  1. Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, Robin S S; Ward, Robert

    2014-10-01

    Women use cosmetics to enhance their attractiveness. How successful they are in doing so remains unknown--how do men and women respond to cosmetics use in terms of attractiveness? There are a variety of miscalibrations where attractiveness is concerned--often, what one sex thinks the opposite sex finds attractive is incorrect. Here, we investigated observer perceptions about attractiveness and cosmetics, as well as their understanding of what others would find attractive. We used computer graphic techniques to allow observers to vary the amount of cosmetics applied to a series of female faces. We asked observers to optimize attractiveness for themselves, for what they thought women in general would prefer, and what they thought men in general would prefer. We found that men and women agree on the amount of cosmetics they find attractive, but overestimate the preferences of women and, when considering the preferences of men, overestimate even more. We also find that models' self-applied cosmetics are far in excess of individual preferences. These findings suggest that attractiveness perceptions with cosmetics are a form of pluralistic ignorance, whereby women tailor their cosmetics use to an inaccurate perception of others' preferences. These findings also highlight further miscalibrations of attractiveness ideals.

  2. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S

    2014-11-01

    Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics.

  3. REACH: impact on the US cosmetics industry?

    PubMed

    Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada

    2009-03-01

    The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.

  4. Professionalism and Commercialism on Cosmetic Surgeons' Websites.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee

    2016-07-15

    This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.

  5. Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Silpa; Jose, Shoma; Sumod, U. S.; Sabitha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them. PMID:22923959

  6. Biosurfactants in cosmetic formulations: trends and challenges.

    PubMed

    Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B; Rodrigues, L R

    2017-01-12

    Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities. The current trend among consumers is the pursuit for natural ingredients in cosmetic products, as many of these products exhibit equal, better or additional benefits in comparison with the chemical-based products. In this sense, biosurfactants are natural compounds with great potential in the formulation of cosmetic products given by their biodegradability and impact in health. Indeed, many of these biosurfactants could exhibit a "prebiotic" character. This review covers the current state-of-the-art of biosurfactant research for cosmetic purposes and further discusses the future challenges for cosmetic applications.

  7. Emergent and unusual allergens in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, David; Moreau, Linda; Sasseville, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics is a common problem that is occasionally caused by new or rare allergens. When a patient has a positive patch test to a cosmetic product but to none of the common or commercially available allergens, it is important to further patch-test this patient to the ingredients of the product. Thorough testing with the breakdown of ingredients, usually obtained through cooperation with the manufacturer, often allows identification of the culprit allergen in the cosmetic product. In this article, we discuss emerging or rare allergens discovered by this method, including nail lacquer and lipstick allergens, copolymers, shellac, alkyl glucosides, glycols, protein derivatives, idebenone, and octocrylene.

  8. Marketing strategies for the cosmetic practice.

    PubMed

    Austin, C J

    1994-01-01

    Appropriate marketing business systems need to be in place to attract and sustain a cosmetic dentistry patient base. Marketing for this sector is most effective when consistently patterned after businesses with high-end consumer services and products. Motivating patients of record and potential new patients to choose cosmetic dental services involves implementing both basic marketing and a series of cosmetic-specific marketing strategies. Consultants are valuable for the process of developing a strategic plan and making recommendations for developing new marketing business systems.

  9. Facial Cosmetics and Attractiveness: Comparing the Effect Sizes of Professionally-Applied Cosmetics and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Robin S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Forms of body decoration exist in all human cultures. However, in Western societies, women are more likely to engage in appearance modification, especially through the use of facial cosmetics. How effective are cosmetics at altering attractiveness? Previous research has hinted that the effect is not large, especially when compared to the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals due to differences in identity. In order to build a fuller understanding of how cosmetics and identity affect attractiveness, here we examine how professionally-applied cosmetics alter attractiveness and compare this effect with the variation in attractiveness observed between individuals. In Study 1, 33 YouTube models were rated for attractiveness before and after the application of professionally-applied cosmetics. Cosmetics explained a larger proportion of the variation in attractiveness compared with previous studies, but this effect remained smaller than variation caused by differences in attractiveness between individuals. Study 2 replicated the results of the first study with a sample of 45 supermodels, with the aim of examining the effect of cosmetics in a sample of faces with low variation in attractiveness between individuals. While the effect size of cosmetics was generally large, between-person variability due to identity remained larger. Both studies also found interactions between cosmetics and identity–more attractive models received smaller increases when cosmetics were worn. Overall, we show that professionally-applied cosmetics produce a larger effect than self-applied cosmetics, an important theoretical consideration for the field. However, the effect of individual differences in facial appearance is ultimately more important in perceptions of attractiveness. PMID:27727311

  10. Anti-aging cosmetics: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Celem, Livia Ribeiro; Ramos-e-Silva, Stella; Fucci-da-Costa, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    The authors review ageing in its extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms, as well as the therapies available for improving its effects, and present some of the facts and controversies related to anti-aging cosmetics.

  11. [Adjuvant dermato-cosmetic acne therapy].

    PubMed

    Bayerl, Christiane; Degitz, Klaus; Meigel, Eva; Kerscher, Martina

    2010-03-01

    Adjuvant dermato-cosmetic therapy in acne is an essential part of the concept of treating acne after initiation and during maintenance therapy. Those are mechanical peeling, chemical peeling and its combination. It needs supervision by an experienced dermatologist.

  12. Characterization of suspected illegal skin whitening cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Van Hoeck, E; Rogiers, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2014-03-01

    An important group of suspected illegal cosmetics consists of skin bleaching products, which are usually applied to the skin of the face, hands and décolleté for local depigmentation of hyper pigmented regions or more importantly, for a generalized reduction of the skin tone. These cosmetic products are suspected to contain illegal active substances that may provoke as well local as systemic toxic effects, being the reason for their banning from the EU market. In that respect, illegal and restricted substances in cosmetics, known to have bleaching properties, are in particular hydroquinone, tretinoin and corticosteroids. From a legislative point of view, all cosmetic products containing a prohibited whitening agent are illegal and must be taken off the EU market. A newly developed screening method using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-time off flight-mass spectrometry allows routine analysis of suspected products. 163 suspected skin whitening cosmetics, collected by Belgian inspectors at high risk sites such as airports and so-called ethnic cosmetic shops, were analyzed and 59% were classified as illegal. The whitening agents mostly detected were clobetasol propionate and hydroquinone, which represent a serious health risk when repeatedly and abundantly applied to the skin.

  13. Assessing cosmetic results after breast conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Maria João; Oliveira, Helder; Cardoso, Jaime

    2014-07-01

    "Taking less treating better" has been one of the major improvements of breast cancer surgery in the last four decades. The application of this principle translates into equivalent survival of breast cancer conserving treatment (BCT) when compared to mastectomy, with a better cosmetic outcome. While it is relatively easy to evaluate the oncological results of BCT, the cosmetic outcome is more difficult to measure due to the lack of an effective and consensual procedure. The assessment of cosmetic outcome has been mainly subjective, undertaken by a panel of expert observers or/and by patient self-assessment. Unfortunately, the reproducibility of these methods is low. Objective methods have higher values of reproducibility but still lack the inclusion of several features considered by specialists in BCT to be fundamental for cosmetic outcome. The recent addition of volume information obtained with 3D images seems promising. Until now, unfortunately, no method is considered to be the standard of care. This paper revises the history of cosmetic evaluation and guides us into the future aiming at a method that can easily be used and accepted by all, caregivers and caretakers, allowing not only the comparison of results but the improvement of performance.

  14. Motives for cosmetic procedures in Saudi women.

    PubMed

    Al-Natour, Sahar H

    2014-01-01

    The media-fuelled obsession with beauty in modern society has led more women to seek elective cosmetic procedures to meet the portrayed ideals of beauty in different cultures. This study gives insights into incentives and desires to undergo cosmetic procedures in a conservative society with strict religious practices where women are veiled. Questionnaire data were obtained from 509 Saudi women who responded to a survey distributed randomly to a sample of Saudi women aged 17 to 72 years. At least 1 elective cosmetic procedure was performed in 42% of the women, of whom 77.8% wore a veil. Another 33% considered having a procedure. The motives for seeking a cosmetic procedure were to improve self-esteem in 83.7%, attract a husband in 63.3%, or prevent a husband from seeking another wife in 36.2%. The decision to seek a procedure was affected by the media, with high peer influence. Motivation for elective cosmetic procedures in Saudi women is influenced by a combination of emotional and cultural factors, level of education, marital status, and religious beliefs. The veil is not an impediment for seeking such procedures. The limitation of the study was missing data analysis as some items in the questionnaire were completed inaccurately or left unanswered.

  15. Contact-Allergic Reactions to Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, An

    2011-01-01

    Contact-allergic reactions to cosmetics may be delayed-type reactions such as allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and more exceptionally also immediate-type reactions, that is, contact urticaria. Fragrances and preservative agents are the most important contact allergens, but reactions also occur to category-specific products such as hair dyes and other hair-care products, nail cosmetics, sunscreens, as well as to antioxidants, vehicles, emulsifiers, and, in fact, any possible cosmetic ingredient. Patch and prick testing to detect the respective culprits remains the golden standard for diagnosis, although additional tests might be useful as well. Once the specific allergens are identified, the patients should be informed of which products can be safely used in the future. PMID:21461388

  16. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  17. Using technology to market cosmetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, S M

    1997-01-01

    The presentation of proposed dental treatment has been hampered by the absence of visual communication technologies. New high tech dentistry-related tools permit efficient production of case presentations for cosmetic dentistry and restorative dentistry. This review describes how to create computer-based case presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) and visual treatment proposals using Microsoft Word for Windows.

  18. Cosmetics Advertising: A Look at the Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Nancy

    Social, economic, and popular scientific trends converged in the early twentieth century to support the mass popularity of cosmetics. Twentieth-century magazine ads for personal care and beauty products reflected the contemporary belief that "science" was on the verge of being able to cure almost anything, including physical flaws and…

  19. Establishing a multidisciplinary academic cosmetic center.

    PubMed

    Rao, Venkat K; Schmid, Daniel B; Hanson, Summer E; Bentz, Michael L

    2011-12-01

    The demand for cosmetic services has risen rapidly in recent years, but has slowed down with the current economic downturn. Managed care organizations and Medicare have been steadily reducing their reimbursements for physician services. The payment for reconstructive surgical procedures has been decreasing and is likely to worsen with healthcare reform, and many plastic surgery residency programs are facing fiscal challenges. An adequate volume of patients needing cosmetic services is necessary to recruit and train the best candidates to the residency programs. Self-pay patients will help ensure the fiscal viability of plastic surgery residency programs. Attracting patients to an academic healthcare center will become more difficult in a recession without the appropriate facilities, programs, and pricing strategies. Setting up a modern cosmetic services program at an academic center has some unique challenges, including funding, academic politics, and turf. The authors opened a free-standing academic multidisciplinary center at their medical school 3 years ago. The center is an off-site, 13,000-sq ft facility that includes faculty from plastic surgery, ear, nose, and throat, dermatology, and vascular surgery. In this article, the authors discuss the process of developing and executing a plan for starting an aesthetic services center in an academic setting. The financing of the center and factors in pricing services are discussed. The authors show the impact of the center on their cosmetic surgery patient volumes, resident education, and finances. They expect that their experience will be helpful to other plastic surgery programs at academic medical centers.

  20. [Cosmetic acne and a test of comedogenicity].

    PubMed

    Valentino, A; Fimiani, M; Baiocchi, R; Bilenchi, R; Perotti, R; Castelli, A; Mancianti, M L; Raffaelli, M

    1984-10-30

    A comedogenic test was carried out on the internal ear canal of four adult, masculine, albino rabbits, using butter of cacao and linseed oil, both known to be present in various cosmetic products. Histologic observation after 14 days showed follicular hyperkeratosis conferming the validity of this test.

  1. Increasing your practice with cosmetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Cathy

    2006-05-01

    Incorporate these guidelines into your practice, and utilize patient financing to maximize your treatment acceptance, and the cosmetic aspect of your practice will likely boom. No matter how much you want to do something, or how great your ideas are, if you aren't able to execute the project, nothing will happen. Plan. Prepare. Present. Persevere.

  2. Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  3. 75 FR 33763 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and cosmetics companies...

  4. 75 FR 33740 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services... follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.0-3 is the same.... Subpart G is added to read as follows: Subpart G--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor...

  5. Nonsurgical Cosmetic Procedures For Men: Trends And Technique Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Arisa E.

    2016-01-01

    Once sought nearly exclusively by women, nonsurgical cosmetic procedures are increasingly being sought after by men. Reviewed here are survey data that characterize the spectrum of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures men are preferentially utilizing, the percentage of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures consumers who are men, and how some of these figures are changing with time. while men still comprise a small minority (approximately 10–20%) of those pursuing nonsurgical cosmetic procedures, this sector is growing, in particular for injection of neurotoxins. Practitioners performing nonsurgical cosmetic procedures on male patients need to be aware of anatomical, physiological, behavioral, and psychological factors unique to this demographic. PMID:28210397

  6. Practice and Educational Gaps in Cosmetic Dermatologic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Abigail; Sobanko, Joseph F; Alam, Murad

    2016-07-01

    This article identifies gaps in the practice of cosmetic dermatology and cosmetics education, and how to overcome these limitations. There is a rapid development of new devices and procedures, with limited data, patient-reported outcomes, and comparative effectiveness research from which to develop best cosmetic practice. There is a need for increased research and funding dedicated to these goals, improved and convenient training for staff to adopt new devices/procedures, and continuous evolution of databases to pool outcome data and develop outcome sets. Resident education can be improved by dedicated resident cosmetic clinics, didactic teaching from visiting professors, attendance of cosmetic dermatology courses and meetings, and encouraging postresidency training.

  7. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed.

  8. Brief encounters: Assembling cosmetic surgery tourism.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking.

  9. Cosmetic allergy: incidence, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Orton, David I; Wilkinson, John D

    2004-01-01

    A recent epidemiologic survey in the UK revealed that 23% of women and 13.8% of men experience some sort of adverse reaction to a personal care product over the course of a year. Although most of these reactions may be due to subjective sensory irritation, various studies reveal that up to 10% of dermatologic patients who are patch tested are allergic to cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients. Causative products include deodorants and perfumes, skin care products, hair care products, and nail cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis mainly results from fragrance chemicals and preservatives. Recent work has suggested that additional fragrance chemicals may need to be tested in order to identify those patients 'missed' by the current fragrance mix; in particular, hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPPC Lyral) has been singled out as an important sensitizing agent. The increased usage of natural fragrances and botanic extracts can also cause problems in their own right or through co-reactivity. The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile has also been recognized as an increasingly important sensitizer in Europe, which has led to the recent recommendation that it should be prohibited from 'leave-on' products until information on 'safe' consumer levels becomes available. Other emerging allergens include UV filters, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, and nail acrylates. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy should be confirmed with patch testing, including testing of 'whole' products, when necessary, and repeat open application tests can be used to confirm the relevance of reactions in cases of doubt.

  10. Phytoconstituents as photoprotective novel cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, S.; Kaur, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Phytoconstituents are gaining popularity as ingredients in cosmetic formulations as they can protect the skin against exogenous and endogenous harmful agents and can help remedy many skin conditions. Exposure of skin to sunlight and other atmospheric conditions causes the production of reactive oxygen species, which can react with DNA, proteins, and fatty acids, causing oxidative damage and impairment of antioxidant system. Such injuries damage regulation pathways of skin and lead to photoaging and skin cancer development. The effects of aging include wrinkles, roughness, appearance of fine lines, lack of elasticity, and de- or hyperpigmentation marks. Herbal extracts act on these areas and produce healing, softening, rejuvenating, and sunscreen effects. We have selected a few photoprotective phytoconstituents, such as curcumin, resveratrol, tea polyphenols, silymarin, quercetin and ascorbic acid, and have discussed the considerations to be undertaken for the development of herbal cosmetic formulations that could reduce the occurrence of skin cancer and delay the process of photoaging. This article is aimed at providing specific and compiled knowledge for the successful preparation of photoprotective herbal cosmetic formulations. PMID:22228936

  11. Cosmetic Outcomes of Sutureless Closure in Gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Andrzej; Bogusz, Bartosz; Soltysiak, Piotr; Tomasik, Przemyslaw; Wolnicki, Michal; Wedrychowicz, Andrzej; Wojciechowski, Piotr; Gorecki, Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Purpose A sutureless gastroschisis repair allows for spontaneous closure of abdominal wall defect. We report our experience focusing on final esthetic outcome. Methods Retrospective data were collected from medical reports of all neonates with gastroschisis operated from January 2009 to December 2013. Variables recorded included patients descriptors, management modality, and cosmetic outcome. Results From the overall group of 38 patients with gastroschisis, 20 infants treated with sutureless closure were included in this study. In the analyzed cohort, 17 (85%) children were operated under general anesthesia and 3 (15%) without intubation. Primary reduction was possible in 15 (75%) cases, and in 5 (25%) we used silo. There were two (10%) deaths in late postoperative course due to septic complications. Three (15%) infants needed laparotomy because of adhesions and bowel obstruction. There were no infectious complications of the wound. Only 55% (10/18) of children presented umbilical hernia prior to discharge. Only two (11%) children with umbilical hernia were operated until now. Almost all patients (16/18; 89%) present excellent final cosmetic result without scar formation. Conclusion Sutureless closure of uncomplicated gastroschisis is a safe technique that reduces need of intubation and provides excellent cosmetic results.

  12. The enlightenment from Malaysian consumers’ perspective toward cosmetic products

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers’ perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products’ quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem. PMID:27413352

  13. Quality of life before and after cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bensoussan, Jean-Charles; Bolton, Michael A; Pi, Sarah; Powell-Hicks, Allycin L; Postolova, Anna; Razani, Bahram; Reyes, Kevin; IsHak, Waguih William

    2014-08-01

    This article reviews the literature regarding the impact of cosmetic surgery on health-related quality of life (QOL). Studies were identified through PubMed/Medline and PsycINFO searches from January 1960 to December 2011. Twenty-eight studies were included in this review, according to specific selection criteria. The procedures and tools employed in cosmetic surgery research studies were remarkably diverse, thus yielding difficulties with data analysis. However, data indicate that individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery began with lower values on aspects of QOL than control subjects, and experienced significant QOL improvement post-procedurally, an effect that appeared to plateau with time. Despite the complexity of measuring QOL in cosmetic surgery patients, most studies showed an improvement in QOL after cosmetic surgery procedures. However, this finding was clouded by measurement precision as well as heterogeneity of procedures and study populations. Future research needs to focus on refining measurement techniques, including developing cosmetic surgery-specific QOL measures.

  14. Safety assessment of modified terephthalate polymers as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The safety of 6 modified terephthalate polymers as cosmetic ingredients was assessed. These ingredients mostly function as exfoliants, bulking agents, hair fixatives, and viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used in leave-on products up to 100% and in rinse-off products up to 2%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered that the PET used in cosmetics is chemically equivalent to that used in medical devices. The Panel determined that the Food and Drug Administration's determination of safety of PET in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, can be used as the basis for the determination of safety of PET and related polymers used in cosmetics. Use studies of cosmetic eye products that contain PET demonstrated no ocular irritation or dermal sensitization. The Panel concluded that modified terephthalate polymers were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  15. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  16. Safety Assessment of Galactomannans as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 galactomannans as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are legume polysaccharides that function mostly as hair/skin-conditioning agents and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Their substantial molecular sizes suggest that skin penetration of these ingredients would be unlikely. The Panel concluded that these galactomannans are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  17. Safety Assessment of Synthetic Fluorphlogopite as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) reviewed the safety of synthetic fluorphlogopite as used in cosmetics. Synthetic fluorphlogopite functions as a bulking agent and a viscosity-increasing agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to this ingredient along with a previous safety assessment of other magnesium silicates. The Panel concluded that synthetic fluorphlogopite was safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  18. Cosmetic Fillers: Perspectives on the Industry.

    PubMed

    Basta, Steven L

    2015-11-01

    The cosmetic filler industry has evolved substantially over the last 30 years. The market is characterized by multiple fillers and a competitive dynamic among major aesthetics companies. Marketing in the United States and Europe has been different owing to regulatory constraints. Differences have led to more rapid growth in the European market. The US market has evolved owing to growth of major companies with multiple product portfolios and leverage in consumer promotion and aesthetics office marketing owing to scale. The evolution of the filler market will include new materials, injection techniques, and facilitation devices, and new areas of injection.

  19. Cosmetic and medical causes of hair weathering.

    PubMed

    Dawber, Rodney

    2002-12-01

    To experts in any aesthetic field, scalp hair has 'life'. But in any scientific sense it is a dead structure made up of highly organized and orientated keratinized fibres and fibrils; and these can be modified by cosmetic procedures to give a seemingly infinite variety of beautiful and exciting styles. As the hair grows away from the scalp it degenerates or 'weathers' to some degree and this can be exaggerated by physical and chemical procedures such as overzealous brushing, bleaching, permanent waving and tricotillomania.

  20. Contact allergy caused by isothiazolinone derivatives: an overview of non-cosmetic and unusual cosmetic sources.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Olivier; Goossens, An; Lambert, Julien; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    The isothiazolinone derivatives, methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), methylisothiazolinone (MI), benzisothiazolinone (BIT), and octylisothiazolinone (OIT), owing to their strong bactericide, fungicide and algicide properties, are widely used in non-cosmetic products, such as chemical (industrial) products, household detergents, and water-based paints, and the former two derivatives are also used in cosmetic products. However, given their inherent sensitization potential (with MCI > MI > BIT > OIT), allergic contact dermatitis is frequently observed, both in consumers as well as workers in various industries. In this review, we provide an update on the use of MCI/MI and MI in cosmetics, highlighting certain aspects of MI; the use of excessive concentrations, the presence in some less familiar cosmetic products, and the association with unusual clinical manifestations. Furthermore, the use of isothiazolinones in dish-washing and washing-machine liquids, cleaning agents for dental care, and their general presence in multi-purpose household detergents, which may elicit (airborne) allergic contact dermatitis, is discussed. Finally, we provide a brief overview of the use of isothiazolinone derivatives in the paint and textile industry, and of OIT in the leather industry in particular.

  1. [Research progress of Chinese herbal medicine raw materials in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-jun; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Yang, Shi-hai

    2015-10-01

    Advocating green, nature, environmental protection, safety and the pursuit of efficacy are the trends of cosmetics in the world. In recent years, more and more Chinese herbal extracts with mild, high safety and small irritation are applied to cosmetics as the natural additives. This has become a new hot spot. The recent application advances of Chinese medicine raw materials in cosmetics are overviewed according to their main functions. This review will provide useful references for the future development and application of Chinese medicinal herbs cosmetics.

  2. Accenting Fashion: Cosmetics, Toiletries and Fragrances. Resources in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, K. Denise; Ritz, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Presents information on the manufacture of cosmetics, toiletries, and fragrances. Includes a design brief, giving context, challenge, objectives, material and equipment needs, evaluation, student outcomes, and quiz. (SK)

  3. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. (a)(1) The label of a cosmetic packaged in a self-pressurized container and...

  4. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. (a)(1) The label of a cosmetic packaged in a self-pressurized container and...

  5. 21 CFR 740.11 - Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. 740.11... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.11 Cosmetics in self-pressurized containers. (a)(1) The label of a cosmetic packaged in a self-pressurized container and...

  6. Psychiatric issues in cosmetic plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ericksen, William Leif; Billick, Stephen Bates

    2012-09-01

    The objective of cosmetic surgery is increased patient self-esteem and confidence. Most patients undergoing a procedure report these results post-operatively. The success of any procedure is measured in patient satisfaction. In order to optimize patient satisfaction, literature suggests careful pre-operative patient preparation including a discussion of the risks, benefits, limitations and expected results for each procedure undertaken. As a general rule, the patients that are motivated to surgery by a desire to align their outward appearance to their body-image tend to be the most satisfied. There are some psychiatric conditions that can prevent a patient from being satisfied without regard aesthetic success. The most common examples are minimal defect/Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the patient in crisis, the multiple revision patient, and loss of identity. This paper will familiarize the audience with these conditions, symptoms and related illnesses. Case examples are described and then explored in terms of the conditions presented. A discussion of the patient's motivation for surgery, goals pertaining to specific attributes, as well as an evaluation of the patient's understanding of the risks, benefits, and limitations of the procedure can help the physician determine if a patient is capable of being satisfied with a cosmetic plastic surgery procedure. Plastic surgeons can screen patients suffering from these conditions relatively easily, as psychiatry is an integral part of medical school education. If a psychiatric referral is required, then the psychiatrist needs to be aware of the nuances of each of these conditions.

  7. Knowledge and Behavior Regarding Cosmetics in Koreans Visiting Dermatology Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sohee; Kim, Nack In; Ro, Young Suck; Kim, Joung Soo; Park, Young Min; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Weon Ju; Kim, Dong Kun; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Sang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background Cosmetics can affect the skin condition profoundly, and yet no survey has been performed in Koreans visiting dermatology clinics. Objective To assess knowledge and consumer behavior regarding cosmetics in Koreans visiting dermatology clinics. Methods A questionnaire consisting of 43 questions concerning demographics and use/knowledge/selection/purchase of cosmetics was given to patients and accompanying persons who visited dermatologic clinics in university and private clinic settings. Results In total 1,015 subjects (73.2% females, mean age 32.5 years) completed the survey. Education level was college or higher in 72.8%. Thirty-one percent had been diagnosed with a skin disorder, atopic dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis being the most frequent diagnoses (33.7% and 16.8%, respectively). The frequency of makeup/sunscreen/functional cosmetics use, amount of sunscreen use, recognition of functional cosmetics, and knowledge of shelf life were significantly correlated with level of education. Among “functional cosmetics,” whitening products were used most frequently (29.2%). Regardless of education level, 79.2% purchased cosmetics without checking ingredients, and 85.7% were unaware of the all-ingredient-labelling regulations, and yet subjects considered ingredient the most important factor when purchasing a product. Conclusion Outpatient subjects in their twenties and thirties are the most knowledgeable about cosmetics in Korea. PMID:28392645

  8. Evaluation of Polyurethane as a Cosmetic Glove Material.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Polyurethane latex was evaluated for possible use as a cosmetic glove material. A two component latex system was used with a number of films and a... cosmetic glove being fabricated and evaluated with varying amounts of the two components. The mechanical properties indicate that the material is

  9. 75 FR 21595 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India (New Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore), November 15-19, 2010. Led by a senior Department of Commerce official, the mission will assist U.S. beauty and...

  10. [Nanomaterials in cosmetics--present situation and future].

    PubMed

    Masunaga, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.

  11. Better understanding of the EU regulatory frameworks for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kirsten; Mech, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    This letter to the editor corrects some misunderstandings regarding the EU regulations covering cosmetic products stated in a recent publication by A. Sobek et al. "In the shadow of the cosmetics directive - Inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters" published in Science of the Total Environment 461-462 (2013) 706-711.

  12. 77 FR 24722 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Cosmetic Products; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... ``Guidance for Industry: Safety of Nanomaterials in Cosmetic Products.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent FDA's current thinking on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetic...

  13. 75 FR 12546 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on information collection provisions in FDA's cosmetic labeling regulations. DATES: Submit written or... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Cosmetic Labeling Regulations--21 CFR Part 701...

  14. Cosmetic surgery in inpatients with eating disorders: attitudes and experience.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Janelle W; Schreyer, Colleen C; Sarwer, David B; Heinberg, Leslie J; Redgrave, Graham W; Guarda, Angela S

    2012-01-01

    Body image disturbance is frequent among individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery and core to the pathology of eating disorders (ED); however, there is little research examining cosmetic surgery in ED. This study examined body image related measures, ED behaviors, and depression as predictors of attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in 129 women with ED. Patients who had undergone surgery (n=16, 12%) were compared to those who had not. Having a purging diagnosis, linking success to appearance, and making physical appearance comparisons were predictive of more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. All of those who had undergone surgery had purging diagnoses and, on average, were older, had higher BMIs, and were more likely to make physical appearance comparisons and know someone who had undergone surgery. In ED, acceptance and pursuit of cosmetic surgery appears to be related to social group influences more than weight and shape disturbance, media influences, or mood.

  15. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted.

  16. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations.

  17. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic dermal products.

    PubMed

    Müller, R H; Petersen, R D; Hommoss, A; Pardeike, J

    2007-07-10

    The first generation of lipid nanoparticles was introduced as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), the second, improved generation as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). Identical to the liposomes, the lipid nanoparticles (NLC) appeared as products first on the cosmetic market. The article gives an overview of the cosmetic benefits of lipid nanoparticles, that means enhancement of chemical stability of actives, film formation, controlled occlusion, skin hydration, enhanced skin bioavailability and physical stability of the lipid nanoparticles as topical formulations. NLC are on the market as concentrates to be used as cosmetic excipients, special formulation challenges for these products are discussed. NLC appeared also in a number of finished cosmetic products world-wide. An overview of these products is provided including their special effects due to the lipid nanoparticles, lipids used for their production and incorporated cosmetic actives.

  18. Preparing Colorful Astronomical Images III: Cosmetic Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattare, L. M.; Levay, Z. G.

    2003-12-01

    We present cosmetic cleaning techniques for use with mainstream graphics software (Adobe Photoshop) to produce presentation-quality images and illustrations from astronomical data. These techniques have been used on numerous images from the Hubble Space Telescope when producing photographic, print and web-based products for news, education and public presentation as well as illustrations for technical publication. We expand on a previous paper to discuss the treatment of various detector-attributed artifacts such as cosmic rays, chip seams, gaps, optical ghosts, diffraction spikes and the like. While Photoshop is not intended for quantitative analysis of full dynamic range data (as are IRAF or IDL, for example), we have had much success applying Photoshop's numerous, versatile tools to final presentation images. Other pixel-to-pixel applications such as filter smoothing and global noise reduction will be discussed.

  19. Factors Affecting Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051

  20. 21 CFR 700.13 - Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... topical application and is accumulated in the body, giving rise to numerous adverse effects. Mercury is a... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of mercury compounds in cosmetics including use as skinbleaching agents in cosmetic preparations also regarded as drugs. 700.13 Section 700.13...

  1. Cosmetic Surgery Makeover Programs and Intentions to Undergo Cosmetic Enhancements: A Consideration of Three Models of Media Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, Robin L.

    2009-01-01

    The recent proliferation of reality-based television programs highlighting cosmetic surgery has raised concerns that such programming promotes unrealistic expectations of plastic surgery and increases the desire of viewers to undergo such procedures. In Study 1, a survey of 170 young adults indicated little relationship between cosmetic surgery…

  2. 75 FR 10332 - In the Matter of: Corridor Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Communications Corp., International Cosmetics Marketing Co., PNV, Inc., Questron Technology, Inc. (n/k/a Quti... current and accurate information concerning the securities of International Cosmetics Marketing...

  3. Metal Concentrations in Cosmetics Commonly Used in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Otaraku, Jonathan Oye

    2013-01-01

    Trace amounts of potentially toxic metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. In the present study, the levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and mercury have been assessed in 28 body creams and lotions, 10 powders, 3 soaps, 5 eye make-ups, and 4 lipsticks widely available on Nigerian markets. The increases over suggested or mandated levels of lead in these creams and lotions ranged from 6.1 to 45.9 and from 1.2 to 9.2 mg kg−1 when compared with Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel 2007 and German safe maximum permissible limit of lead in cosmetics, respectively. About 61% of the body cosmetics, the lotions, and the creams contained detectable levels of nickel ranging from 1.1 to 6.4–9.2 mg kg−1. Chromium and mercury were undetected in 100% of the cosmetic product. Taken together, lead and cadmium were high in creams and lotions. Most of the imported creams and creamy white coloured cosmetics contained higher levels of metal contaminants than the other colours. Regulatory Agencies in developing nations should take appropriate action for cosmetics that contain lead and cadmium beyond the reference limits. PMID:24385889

  4. Safety assessment of chromium by exposure from cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Myungsil; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ja Young; Son, Bo Kyung; Yang, Seong Jun; Yun, Mi Ok; Choi, Sang Sook; Jang, Dong Deuk; Yoo, Tae Moo

    2009-02-01

    Low level impurities often reside in cosmetic products. The aim of the present study was to estimate the human exposure to chromium from cosmetic products purchased at a local market in South Korea, and to assess the risk on public health. Hexavalent chromium is an impurity substance that contaminates cosmetic products during manufacture. The potential for chromium to induce and elicit allergic contact dermatitis, as well as the degree of chromium exposure from cosmetic products, were assessed. Chromium exposure was estimated using the chromium concentrations found in cosmetic samples taken from the local market along with the expected user pattern data that was taken from the literature. Of the cosmetics we tested and available for purchase on the Korean market, seven had chromium contents above the detection limit of 0.1 ppm (0.1 microg/mL), ranging from 0.2 to 3.15 ppm. In risk assessment, scientifically defensible dose-response relationships must be established for the end points of concern. In the case of chromium contaminated cosmetic products, this includes conducting dose-response assessments for allergic contact dermatitis following dermal exposure. This dose-response information can then be integrated with site-specific exposure assessments to regulate consumer safety by use of these products. We found that dermal exposure to chromium concentrations ranging from 0.0002 to 0.003 microg/cm(2) does not appear to cause concern for eliciting allergic contact dermatitis.

  5. Metal concentrations in cosmetics commonly used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Otaraku, Jonathan Oye

    2013-01-01

    Trace amounts of potentially toxic metals can be either intentionally added to cosmetics or present as impurities in the raw materials. In the present study, the levels of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and mercury have been assessed in 28 body creams and lotions, 10 powders, 3 soaps, 5 eye make-ups, and 4 lipsticks widely available on Nigerian markets. The increases over suggested or mandated levels of lead in these creams and lotions ranged from 6.1 to 45.9 and from 1.2 to 9.2 mg kg⁻¹ when compared with Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel 2007 and German safe maximum permissible limit of lead in cosmetics, respectively. About 61% of the body cosmetics, the lotions, and the creams contained detectable levels of nickel ranging from 1.1 to 6.4-9.2 mg kg⁻¹. Chromium and mercury were undetected in 100% of the cosmetic product. Taken together, lead and cadmium were high in creams and lotions. Most of the imported creams and creamy white coloured cosmetics contained higher levels of metal contaminants than the other colours. Regulatory Agencies in developing nations should take appropriate action for cosmetics that contain lead and cadmium beyond the reference limits.

  6. Toxic metals contained in cosmetics: a status report.

    PubMed

    Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic.

  7. Inframammary pulse generator placement for maximizing cosmetic effect.

    PubMed

    Belott, P H; Bucko, D

    1983-11-01

    Today with the expanding clinical role of cardiac pacing and more advanced methods of detecting pacing problems, more and more young patients are being identified as candidates for permanent pacing. Concern has been expressed by young female patients over the cosmetic effects of pacemaker surgery. Two young female patients were evaluated from a physiologic and cosmetic point of view. The electrodes were placed via the percutaneous approach. The pulse generator was treated as a breast implant using the usual recommended plastic surgeon's inframammary approach. In both cases, optimal cosmetic effect was achieved without any external evidence of the pacemaker system.

  8. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Ho; Choi, Hong Lim; Jeong, Eui Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty. PMID:27462563

  9. Safety Assessment of Ethanolamides as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) rereviewed the safety of 28 ethanolamides and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration when they are formulated to be nonirritating, and that these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed. Most of the ethanolamides are reported to function in cosmetics as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents, and surfactant-foam boosters. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports.

  10. The influence of cosmetics on the properties of skin autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamošiūnas, M.; Bertulytė, I.; Rečiūnaitė, I.; Jakštys, B.; Šatkauskienė, I.; Čepurnienė, K.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the changes of autofluorescence and sensitized fluorescence under the effect of cosmetics. We used a method of fluorescence spectroscopy in vivo and examined the mouse skin covering the tumour. Analysis of fluorescence spectral changes was made after differentiation of the cosmetics according to its effects: i) inducing temporary changes of skin autofluorescence after absorbtion into skin (lipsticks, face powders, body lotions, mascaras); ii) permanently changing the fluorescence of the skin (collagen containing products). Cosmetics have been shown to be optically active and capable to alter the fluorescence of exogenously accumulated photosensitizers and endogenous tissue fluorophores.

  11. Therapies to improve the cosmetic symptoms of rosacea.

    PubMed

    Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Rosacea is a commonly encountered chronic inflammatory skin disease with a predilection for highly visible areas of the skin such as the face. The cosmetic symptoms of rosacea can be substantial and may greatly reduce a patient's quality of life. Although there is no definitive cure for rosacea, effective treatment of symptoms can mitigate the deleterious effects of this condition and improve quality of life. In this article, we review both existing and emerging cosmetic treatments for rosacea, including topical medications, systemic pharmacologic therapies, light-based modalities, and procedural interventions, and assess their ability to improve the cosmetic symptoms of rosacea.

  12. Exploring the potential of using algae in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Min David; Chen, Ching-Chun; Huynh, Pauline; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    The applications of microalgae in cosmetic products have recently received more attention in the treatment of skin problems, such as aging, tanning and pigment disorders. There are also potential uses in the areas of anti-aging, skin-whitening, and pigmentation reduction products. While algae species have already been used in some cosmetic formulations, such as moisturizing and thickening agents, algae remain largely untapped as an asset in this industry due to an apparent lack of utility as a primary active ingredient. This review article focuses on integrating studies on algae pertinent to skin health and beauty, with the purpose of identifying serviceable algae functions in practical cosmetic uses.

  13. Environmentally compatible surfactants for the cosmetic industry.

    PubMed

    Berger, H

    1997-10-01

    From the application pattern of surfactant-containing cosmetic products, it is inevitable that the major part of the chemicals will be discharged into waste water and eventually will enter the environment. Because the environmental compatibility of the products is based on the ecological properties of their raw meterials, the biodegradability and ecotoxicological behaviour of the product components and particularly the surfactants, form the central elements of the environmental compatibility assessment. The tools for this evaluation are standardized test systems, which are described and discussed on the basis of the ecological data of selected surfactants. De par le type d'application des produits cosmetiques contenant des tensioactifs, il est inevitable que la plus grande partie des substances chimiques soit evacuee dans les eaux usees et finisse par arriver dans l'environnement. Puisque la compatibilite environnementale des produits est basee sur les proprietes ecologiques de leurs matieres premieres, la biodegradabilite et le comportement ecotoxicologique des composants des produits, et en particulier des tensioactifs, forment les elements majeurs de l'evaluation de la compatibilite environnementale. Les outils de cette evaluation sont des systemes d'essai normalises, qui sont decrits et commentes d'apres les donnees ecologiques de tensioactifs choisis.

  14. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  15. Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Moruś, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology.

  16. Safety assessment of alkyl benzoates as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    'Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    The functions of alkyl benzoates in cosmetics include fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, preservatives, solvents, and plasticizers. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed the relevant animal and human data and noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the alkyl benzoates. Similar structure activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage allowed the available data of many of the alkyl benzoates to be extended to the entire group. Carcinogenicity data were not available, but available data indicated that these alkyl benzoate cosmetic ingredients are not genotoxic. Also benzoic acid and tested component alcohols were not reproductive or developmental toxicants, are not genotoxic in almost all assays, and are not carcinogenic. These ingredients were determined to be safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  17. BELOW-ELBOW COSMETIC CONDYLE-SUSPENDED PROSTHESIS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    particular appeal to those amputees who desire a prosthesis for cosmetic reasons. However this type of prosthesis can be so built to provide a means for operating the active mechanical terminal device. (Author)

  18. Case Reports: Low Back Pain in the Cosmetic Athlete.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carol E.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies indicate that the cosmetic athlete, who exercises primarily to attain or maintain an attractive physical appearance, may overwork unconditioned muscles and stress the spine and other structures. (Author/CB)

  19. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 237 alkyl esters for use in cosmetics. The alkyl esters included in this assessment have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, with skin-conditioning agent being the most common function. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety on these ingredients, and where there were data gaps, similarity in structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  20. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Ethylhexanoates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 16 alkyl ethylhexanoates for use in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentrations when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl ethylhexanoates primarily function as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetics. The highest concentration of use reported for any of the alkyl ethylhexanoates is 77.3% cetyl ethylhexanoate in rinse-off formulations used near the eye, and the highest leave-on use reported is 52% cetyl ethylhexanoate in lipstick formulations. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data related to these ingredients, and the similarities in structure, properties, functions, and uses of ingredients from previous CIR assessments on constituent alcohols that allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group.

  1. Cosmetic results of supracondylar osteotomy for correction of cubitus varus.

    PubMed

    Barrett, I R; Bellemore, M C; Kwon, Y M

    1998-01-01

    From 1984 to 1995, 19 patients with cubitus varus resulting from supracondylar humeral fractures underwent lateral closing-wedge osteotomies at The Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children. As the indication for osteotomy in all cases was the cosmetically unacceptable cubitus varus, we reviewed the cosmetic results. Seventeen patients were available for review. Subjective reports from patients and parents, as well as objective clinical assessment by one of the authors, were used to assess these results. According to our grading system, 12 (76%) patients had excellent results. These patients and their parents were satisfied with the cosmetic results, and there was no clinical evidence of a bony prominence over the lateral condylar region or an unsightly operative scar. One patient had a poor result with a lateral bony prominence and an unsightly scar, both of which were clinically obvious. We report that lateral closing osteotomies in children who have not yet reached skeletal maturity produce excellent cosmetic results.

  2. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  3. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  4. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  5. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  6. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  7. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  8. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  9. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  10. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  11. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  12. 21 CFR 700.15 - Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products....

  13. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  14. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  15. 21 CFR 710.6 - Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number....

  16. 21 CFR 720.7 - Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form...

  17. Materialism, Sociocultural Appearance Messages, and Paternal Attitudes Predict College Women's Attitudes about Cosmetic Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson-King, Donna; Brooks, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of cosmetic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, but only recently have studies of cosmetic surgery attitudes among the general population begun to appear in the literature. The vast majority of those who undergo cosmetic surgery are women. We examined cosmetic surgery attitudes among 218…

  18. Body Odor Based Personality Judgments: The Effect of Fragranced Cosmetics

    PubMed Central

    Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Sorokowski, Piotr; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor (BO) alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use); the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = 0.20) than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = 0.15). Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = 0.34 for natural BO and rs = 0.21 for BO+cosmetics), whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor. PMID:27148138

  19. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  20. OCT monitoring of cosmetic creams in human skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Hee; Yoon, Chang Han; Conroy, Leigh; Vitkin, I. Alex

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a tool currently used for noninvasive diagnosis of human disease as well as for monitoring treatment during or after therapy. In this study, OCT was used to examine penetration and accumulation of cosmetic creams on human hand skin. The samples varied in collagen content with one formulation containing soluble collagen as its primary active ingredient. Collagen is a major connective tissue protein that is essential in maintaining health vitality and strength of many organs. The penetration and localization of collagen in cosmetic creams is thought to be the main determinant of the efficacy of new collagen synthesis. Detection and quantification of collagen in cosmetic creams applied to skin may thus help predict the eventual efficacy of the product in skin collagen regeneration. We hypothesize that the topically applied collagen may be detectable by OCT through its modulation of skin scattering properties. To test this hypothesis, we used a FDML swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. A particular location on the skin of two male adult volunteers was used to investigate 4 different cosmetic creams. The duration of OCT monitoring of cosmetic penetration into skin ranged from 5 minutes to 2 hours following topical application. The results showed that OCT can discriminate between a cream with collagen and other collagen-free formulations. Thus it seems feasible that OCT intensity can monitor the in vivo effects of topical application of collagen contained in cosmetic formulations.

  1. Cosmetic psychopharmacology and the President's Council on Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience and biotechnology have heightened the urgency of the debate over "cosmetic psychopharmacology," the use of drugs to enhance mood and temperament in the absence of illness. Beyond Therapy: Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness (2003), the report of the President's Council on Bioethics, has criticized the use of cosmetic psychopharmacology. The Council claimed that cosmetic psychopharmacology will necessarily lead to "severing the link between feelings of happiness and our actions and experiences in the world," but it provided no satisfactory arguments to support this claim and ignored the possibility that cosmetic psychopharmacology might actually enhance the link between happiness and experience. The Council's arguments against cosmetic psychopharmacology depend heavily on the mistaken belief that Prozac and similar antidepressants are mood brighteners in healthy subjects. The empirical evidence, however, clearly indicates that these drugs are not forms of cosmetic psychopharmacology, thus negating much of the Council's arguments. The use of pharmaceutical agents to enhance mood or personality in normal individuals should not be rejected a priori. Instead, the effects of each agent on the individual and on society must be weighed using sound ethical reasoning and the best evidence available.

  2. Cosmetic textiles with biological benefits: gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun Wah; Kan, Chi Wai; Cheuk, Kevin Ka Leung; Chui, Chung Hin; Lam, Kim Hung

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, textile materials with special applications in the cosmetic field have been developed. A new sector of cosmetic textiles is opened up and several cosmetic textile products are currently available in the market. Microencapsulation technology is an effective technique to control the release properties of active ingredients that prolong the functionality of cosmetic textiles. This study discusses the development of cosmetic textiles and addresses microencapsulation technology with respect to its historical background, significant advantages, microencapsulation methods and recent applications in the textile industry. Gelatin microcapsules containing vitamin C were prepared using emulsion hardening technique. Both the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the newly developed microcapsules were in the form of core-shell spheres with relatively smooth surface. The particle size of microcapsules ranged from 5.0 to 44.1 microm with the average particle size being 24.6 microm. The gelatin microcapsules were proved to be non-cytotoxic based on the research findings of the toxicity studies conducted on human liver and breast cell lines as well as primary bone marrow culture obtained from patient with non-malignant haematological disorder. The gelatin microcapsules were successfully grafted into textile materials for the development of cosmetic textiles.

  3. Skin-lightening cosmetics: frequent, potentially severe adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2011-09-01

    Skin-lightening cosmetics are used by many women and men around the world. The products contain a variety of substances, which are often unknown to the users. Most of these products include topical corticosteroids, hydroquinone and mercury salts. Many other substances may be added. Several surveys and cohort studies, including several thousand individuals, have shown that regular application of skin-lightening cosmetics to large surface areas can have irreversible cutaneous adverse effects, such as patchy hyper- or hypopigmentation, skin atrophy, stretch marks and delayed wound healing, and can also mask or, on the contrary, promote or reactivate skin infections. Cases of skin cancer have been attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics. A Senegalese cohort study of 147 women showed a statistically significant increase in the risk of hypertension and diabetes linked to the use of skin-lightening agents. Other systemic adverse effects attributed to skin-lightening cosmetics include Cushing's syndrome, adrenal insufficiency, nephrotic syndrome, neurological disorders, and ocular disorders. Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis, have also been attributed to these products. Many skin-lightening cosmetics contain substances that can harm the unborn child. For example, tretinoin is teratogenic while salicylic acid is feto-toxic. In practice, users are often unaware of the risk of severe adverse effects associated with skin-lightening cosmetics. Users should be informed of these adverse effects and encouraged to stop using these products, especially when skin disorders appear.

  4. The impact of cosmetic interventions on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S

    2008-08-15

    In the last decade, the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has rapidly increased. While physicians historically have focused on minimizing side effects and optimizing the physical outcome, a broad spectrum of patient needs also factors in treatment success. Unfortunately, few data are available regarding the effects of cosmetic procedures on patient's self-esteem, confidence, relationships, and acceptance by others. Quality of life represents a relevant and important long-term measurement of outcomes in these patients. Studies have shown that cosmetic surgery can have a positive impact on patient quality of life. In contrast, fewer data are available regarding the effects of nonsurgical cosmetic procedures on quality of life. Much of the quality-of-life data regarding nonsurgical cosmetic procedures focuses on patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated facial lipoatrophy, a condition associated with depression, problems with self-esteem and interpersonal relationships, in addition to nonadherence to the treatment. Recent data indicate that cosmetic treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-related facial lipoatrophy with injectable facial rejuvenators can improve quality of life in these patients. However, there is a dearth of quality-of-life data on patients who undergo facial rejuvenation procedures using the newer injectable devices, such as hyaluronic acid, calcium hydroxylapatite, and poly-L-lactic acid. Future studies should focus on developing standardized tests to assess quality of life in patients undergoing facial rejuvenation interventions. More data obtained from validated assessment tools are needed to systematically evaluate the effects specific treatments have on satisfying the needs of the cosmetic patient.

  5. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  6. Formaldehyde may be found in cosmetic products even when unlabelled

    PubMed Central

    Blaziene, Audra; Chomiciene, Anzelika; Isaksson, Marléne

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant contact allergy to formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers remains common among patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Concentration of free formaldehyde in cosmetic products within allowed limits have been shown to induce dermatitis from short-term use on normal skin. The aim of this study was to investigate the formaldehyde content of cosmetic products made in Lithuania. 42 samples were analysed with the chromotropic acid (CA) method for semi-quantitative formaldehyde determination. These included 24 leave-on (e.g., creams, lotions) and 18 rinse-off (e.g., shampoos, soaps) products. Formaldehyde releasers were declared on the labels of 10 products. No formaldehyde releaser was declared on the label of the only face cream investigated, but levels of free formaldehyde with the CA method was >40 mg/ml and when analysed with a high-performance liquid chromatographic method – 532 ppm. According to the EU Cosmetic directive, if the concentration of formaldehyde is above 0.05% a cosmetic product must be labelled “contains formaldehyde“. It could be difficult for patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid contact with products containing it as its presence cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling with certainty. The CA method is a simple and reliable method for detecting formaldehyde presence in cosmetic products.

  7. Cosmetic Surgery: Regulatory Challenges in a Global Beauty Market.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex

    2017-02-28

    The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.

  8. [Spectroscopic analysis of sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreen cosmetic].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zheng-Jun; Lu, Jiang-Feng; He, Yong; Fang, Hui

    2007-07-01

    Sunscreen index is the primary indicator of the protection effect of sunscreen cosmetics. A handheld spectrometer was used to study the relationship between sunscreen index and reflectance spectra. Three kinds of Dingjiayi brand sunscreen cosmetics, which is SPF15, SPF20 and SPF30, were chosen as experimental material. The sunscreen cosmetics were divided into 75 samples, and 60 of them were used as calibrated samples, while the other 15 samples were used as prediction samples. The reflectance spectra data were collected by the spectrometer. The data from the wavelength range between 400 and 960 nm were processed by principal component analysis method, and the results showed that the cumulate reliabilities of PC1 and PC2 (the first two principal components) reached 91%. Then partial least square analysis method was applied to build prediction models, and the remaining 15 prediction samples were disposed by this model. The results show that the prediction correlation coefficient is 0.967 7, and the prediction precision is good. So the spectral analysis method proposed in the present paper has good performance in classification and discrimination of sunscreen cosmetics, and is a new approach to test the SPF of cosmetics.

  9. In vivo studies of substances used in the cosmetic industry

    PubMed Central

    Gościańska, Joanna; Witkowska, Beata; Nowak, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic producers are obliged to guarantee the safety and stability of their products. The current legal regulations are based on the European Union Directive (1223/2009) of 30 November 2009. The main aim of the directive is to formulate criteria of safety of a cosmetic product and requirements that it must meet to be placed on the market. A new cosmetic product is subjected to thorough investigation prior to its introduction on the market. It should be studied not only with respect to its safety, but also with respect to its effectiveness declared by the producer. The studies are performed in vivo, by the contact or epidermal patch tests on the human skin. PMID:27512349

  10. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest.

  11. Caffeine's mechanisms of action and its cosmetic use.

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Herman, A P

    2013-01-01

    Caffeine is being increasingly used in cosmetics due to its high biological activity and ability to penetrate the skin barrier. This alkaloid is frequently used as a hydrophilic model substance in human and animal skin penetration as well as different synthetic membrane using Franz diffusion cell experiments. The commercially available topical formulations of caffeine normally contain 3% caffeine. As for a cosmetic purpose, caffeine is used as an active compound in anti-cellulite products because it prevents excessive accumulation of fat in cells. This alkaloid stimulates the degradation of fats during lipolysis through inhibition of the phosphodiesterase activity. Caffeine has potent antioxidant properties. It helps protect cells against the UV radiation and slows down the process of photoaging of the skin. Moreover, caffeine contained in cosmetics increases the microcirculation of blood in the skin and also stimulates the growth of hair through inhibition of the 5-α-reductase activity.

  12. [Human vulnerability under cosmetic surgery. A bioethic analysis].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Rocha de Viesca, Mariablanca

    2012-01-01

    Cosmetic surgery is one of the best examples of the current health empowerment. Aesthetic surgical interventions have been criticized because they expose the healthy individual to an unnecessary risk. In modern society the body has turned into a beauty depository with a commercial value. In published bioethics papers, analyses of the cosmetic problem pointed their attention on the freedom, autonomy and distributive justice. Mexico occupies fifth place in the world of cosmetic surgeries. Vulnerability is an inherent condition of man's existence and marks the limit of human dignity. UNESCO agrees that some populations are more inclined to vulnerability. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that those who wish to make a physical change had given up to social coercion and psychological problems.

  13. Factors that motivate people to undergo cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Levitas, James

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 204 British participants completed a questionnaire that assessed their attitude toward cosmetic surgery as well as measures of self-esteem, life satisfaction, self-rated physical attractiveness, religiosity and media consumption. Two factors emerged from a factor analysis of their attitudes toward surgery: likelihood to undergo, and benefits of undergoing, cosmetic surgery. Females with low self-esteem, low life satisfaction, low self-rated attractiveness and little religious beliefs who were heavy television watchers reported a greater likelihood of undergoing cosmetic surgery. Stepwise regression analysis with the two attitude factors as criterion variables showed two major predictors for likelihood: religiousness and low self-esteem, and four major predictors for benefit: religousness, media consumption, life satisfaction and sex. The role of religion is considered in this context.

  14. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  15. Characterisation, quantity and sorptive properties of microplastics extracted from cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C

    2015-10-15

    Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment.

  16. Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Hydroquinone is an aromatic compound that functions in cosmetics as an antioxidant, fragrance, reducing agent, or polymerization inhibitor. Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent. Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates. Hydroquinone is associated with altered immune function in vitro and in vivo in animals and an increased incidence of renal tubule cell tumors and leukemia in F344 rats, but the relevance to humans is uncertain. Quantitatively, however, the use of hydroquinone in cosmetics is unlikely to result in renal neoplasia through this mode of action. Thus, hydroquinone is safe at concentrations of ≤1% in hair dyes and is safe for use in nail adhesives. Hydroquinone should not be used in other leave-on cosmetics.

  17. The Real Cost of "Cosmetic Tourism" Cost Analysis Study of "Cosmetic Tourism" Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    "Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.

  18. Safety Assessment of Dimethicone Crosspolymers as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 62 dimethicone crosspolymer ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as absorbents, bulking agents, film formers, hair-conditioning agents, emollient skin-conditioning agents, slip modifiers, surface modifiers, and nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to these polymers and addressed the issue of residual monomers. The Panel concluded that these dimethicone crosspolymer ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  19. [Analysis of preservatives in cosmetics by gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-fang

    2002-05-01

    The wide bore capillary column HP-1701(15 m x 0.53 mm i.d. x 1.0 micron) has been used to analyze benzyl alcohol, methyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, ethyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, propyl-p-hydroxy benzoate, and butyl-p-hydroxy benzoate in cosmetics. The results showed that these preservatives could be separated with the capillary column completely and their peaks were not interfered with those of other components in cosmetics. The detection limits were 13 ng, 70 ng, 70 ng, 100 ng and 100 ng respectively and the linear range was 50 ng-500 ng.

  20. Safety assessment of nylon as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of nylon polymers, which function in cosmetics primarily as bulking and opacifying agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these large polymers and determined that they are not likely to penetrate the skin. Whatever residual monomers may be present were not present at a sufficient level to cause any reactions in test subjects at the maximum ingredient use concentration. Accordingly, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  1. Safety Assessment of Dialkyl Malates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6 dialkyl malate compounds used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-emollients. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the ingredients along with a previous safety assessment of malic acid. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these dialkyl maleate compounds are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  2. Safety Assessment of Pentaerythrityl Tetraesters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds as used in cosmetics. These ingredients mostly function as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and binders, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous, and skin-conditioning agents-emollient. The Panel reviewed the available animal and human data related to these ingredients and previous safety assessments of the fatty acid moieties. The Panel concluded that pentaerythrityl tetraisostearate and the other pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds were safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  3. Discount cosmetic surgery: industry trends and strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-08-01

    Discount cosmetic surgery is a topic of interest to plastic surgeons. To understand this trend and its effects on plastic surgeons, it is necessary to review the economics of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery's practice environment, and the broader business principles of service industries. Recent work looked at the economics of the plastic surgery market. This analysis demonstrated that increased local density of plastic surgeons was associated with lower adjusted fees for cosmetic procedures. A survey of plastic surgeons about their practice environment revealed that 93 percent categorized the majority of their patients as very or moderately price-sensitive. Fully 98 percent described their business climate as very or moderately competitive and most plastic surgeons thought they lost a sizable number of cosmetic patients within the last year for reasons of price.A standard industry analysis, when applied to cosmetic surgery, reveals the following: an increased number of surgeons leads to lower fees (reducing their bargaining power as suppliers), patients are price-sensitive (increasing their bargaining power as buyers), and there are few barriers to entry among providers (allowing potential new entrants into the market). Such a situation is conducive to discounting taking hold-and even becoming the industry norm. In this environment, business strategy dictates there are three protocols for success: discounting, differentiation, and focus. Discounting joins the trend toward cutting fees. Success comes from increasing volume and efficiency and thus preserving profits. Differentiation creates an industrywide perception of uniqueness; this requires broadly positioning plastic surgeons as holders of a distinct brand identity separate from other "cosmetic surgeons." The final strategy is to focus on a particular buyer group to develop a market niche, such as establishing a "Park Avenue" practice catering to patients who demand a prestigious surgeon, although this is

  4. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  5. Long-term Evaluation of Cosmetic Appearance of Repaired Lacerations: Validation of Telephone Assessment.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Judd E; Valentine, Sharon M; McCuskey, Charles F; Turque, Theo; Singer, Adam J

    1998-01-01

    See editorial Objective: Patients with lacerations are most concerned about the ultimate cosmetic appearance of their wound. We evaluated methods to assess the long-term cosmetic appearance by telephone survey.

  6. Facial cosmetics have little effect on attractiveness judgments compared with identity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Kramer, S S

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of women in modern societies use facial cosmetics, which modify facial cues to attractiveness. However, the size of this increase remains unclear--how much more attractive are individuals after an application of cosmetics? Here, we utilised a 'new statistics' approach, calculating the effect size of cosmetics on attractiveness using a within-subjects design, and compared this with the effect size due to identity--that is, the inherent differences in attractiveness between people. Women were photographed with and without cosmetics, and these images were rated for attractiveness by a second group of participants. The proportion of variance in attractiveness explained by identity was much greater than the variance within models due to cosmetics. This result was unchanged after statistically controlling for the perceived amount of cosmetics that each model used. Although cosmetics increase attractiveness, the effect is small, and the benefits of cosmetics may be inflated in everyday thinking.

  7. Cosmetic Surgery and the Cultural Construction of Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Lorrie; Shalmon, Maya

    2005-01-01

    Throughout history, certain members of nearly all cultures have deliberately altered their body's natural appearance. Today, people live in a time when medicine can cure the body and also reshape it. Hence, many people use biomedical means, such as steroids and hormones to alter their bodies. Additionally, cosmetic surgery is becoming increasingly…

  8. Influence of the cosmetic treatment of hair on drug testing.

    PubMed

    Jurado, C; Kintz, P; Menéndez, M; Repetto, M

    1997-01-01

    An important issue of concern for drug analysis in hair is the change in the drug concentration induced by the cosmetic treatment of hair. The products used for this treatment are strong bases and they are expected to cause hair damage. As a result drugs may be lost from the hair matrix or, under conditions of environmental contamination, be more easily incorporated into the hair matrix. We investigated the effects of cosmetic treatment in vivo by analysing hair samples selected from people who had treated their hair by bleaching or dyeing before sample collection. All of the subjects admitted a similar drug consumption during the time period for which the strands were analysed. Samples were viewed under a microscope to establish the degree of hair damage. Treated and untreated portions from each lock of hair were then selected, separated and analysed by standard detection procedures for cocaine, opiates, cannabinoids and nicotine. In all cases the drug content in hair that had undergone cosmetic treatment decreased in comparison to untreated hair. The majority of the mean differences were in the range of 40%-60% (cocaine, benzoylecgonine, codeine, 6-acetylmorphine and THC-COOH). For morphine the mean difference was higher than 60%, and two cases (THC and nicotine) differed by approx. 30%. These differences depended not only on the type of cosmetic treatment, as bleaching produced higher decreases than dyeing, but also on the degree of hair damage i.e. the more damaged the hair, the larger the differences in the concentration levels of drugs.

  9. Adverse reactions to cosmetics and methods of testing.

    PubMed

    Nigam, P K

    2009-01-01

    Untoward reactions to cosmetics, toiletries, and topical applications are the commonest single reason for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. In most cases, these are only mild or transient and most reactions being irritant rather than allergic in nature. Various adverse effects may occur in the form of acute toxicity, percutaneous absorption, skin irritation, eye irritation, skin sensitization and photosensitization, subchronic toxicity, mutagenicity/genotoxicity, and phototoxicity/photoirritation. The safety assessment of a cosmetic product clearly depends upon how it is used, since it determines the amount of substance which may be ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes. Concentration of ingredients used in the different products is also important. Various test procedures include in vivo animal models and in vitro models, such as open or closed patch test, in vivo skin irritation test, skin corrosivity potential tests (rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance test, Episkin test), eye irritation tests (in vivo eye irritancy test and Draize eye irritancy test), mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation test and in vitro mammalian cell chromosome aberration test), and phototoxicity/photoirritation test (3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity test). Finished cosmetic products are usually tested in small populations to confirm the skin and mucous membrane compatibility, and to assess their cosmetic acceptability.

  10. Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Kyu-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are products of condensed ethylene oxide and water that can have various derivatives and functions. Since many PEG types are hydrophilic, they are favorably used as penetration enhancers, especially in topical dermatological preparations. PEGs, together with their typically nonionic derivatives, are broadly utilized in cosmetic products as surfactants, emulsifiers, cleansing agents, humectants, and skin conditioners. The compounds studied in this review include PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate, PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil, and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil. Overall, much of the data available in this review are on PEGylated oils (PEG-40 and PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oils), which were recommended as safe for use in cosmetics up to 100% concentration. Currently, PEG-20 glyceryl triisostearate and PEGylated oils are considered safe for cosmetic use according to the results of relevant studies. Additionally, PEG/PPG-17/6 copolymer should be further studied to ensure its safety as a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:26191379

  11. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... structure or function of the body comes within the definition of a drug in section 201(g)(1) of the act... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35 Section 700.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  12. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... structure or function of the body comes within the definition of a drug in section 201(g)(1) of the act... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35 Section 700.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. Selection of fragrance for cosmetic cream containing olive oil.

    PubMed

    Parente, María Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucía; Roascio, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Perceptions of essences for potential use in the development of a line of cosmetic emulsions containing olive oil were studied. Six cream samples prepared with six essences selected in a preliminary study were evaluated for overall liking and intention to purchase by a 63-women sample. A check-all-that-apply (CATA) question consisting of 32 terms was used to gather information about consumer perceptions of fragrance, affective associations, effects on the skin, price, target market, zones of application, and occasions of use. Hierarchical cluster analysis led to the identification of two consumer clusters with different frequency of use of face creams. The two clusters assigned different overall liking scores to the samples and used the CATA terms differently to describe them. A fragrance with jasmine as its principal note was selected for further development of cosmetic creams, as it was awarded the highest overall liking scores by respondents of the two clusters, and was significantly associated with cosmetic features including nourishing, moisturizing, softening, with a delicious and mild smell, and with a natural image, as well as being considered suitable for face and body creams. The use of CATA questions enabled the rapid identification of attributes associated by respondents with a cosmetic cream's fragrance, in addition to contributing relevant information for the definition of marketing and communication strategies.

  14. Evaluation of the efficiency and safety in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Uckaya, Meryem; Uckaya, Fatih; Demir, Nazan; Demir, Yasar

    2016-02-29

    Chemicals used in cosmetics have to interact with enzymes for beneficial or destroy purpose after they enter in our body. Active sections of enzymes that catalyze reactions have three dimensions and they are active optically. When these limitations of catalytic sections are considered, it may be considered that defining geometric specifications of chemical materials and functional groups they contain may contribute on safety evaluations of cosmetic products. In this study, defining similarities and differences of geometric structures of chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and chemical that are allowed to be used by using group theory and analyze of functional groups that are often encountered in these chemicals are aimed. Molecule formulas related to chemical material of, 276 pieces chemicals that are prohibited to be used in cosmetic products and 65 pieces chemicals that are allowed, are used as the material. Two and three-dimension structures of these formulas are drawn and types and quantity of functional groups they contain are defined. And as a method, freeware (Free Trial) version of "Chem-BioOffice Ultra 13.0 Suite" chemical drawing program to draw two and three-dimension of formulas, "Campus-Licensed" version that are provided for use by our university of "Autodesk 3DS Max" for three-dimension drawings are used. In order to analyze geometric specifications of drawn molecules according to Group Theory and define type and quantity of available functional groups, Excel applications developed by Prof. Dr. Yaşar Demir are used.

  15. Myth 6: Cosmetic Use of Multiple Selection Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman-Nimz, Reva

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-five years ago, armed with the courage of her convictions and a respectable collection of empirical evidence, the author articulated what she considered to be a compelling argument against the cosmetic use of multiple selection criteria as a guiding principle for identifying children and youth with high potential. To assess the current…

  16. 76 FR 46677 - Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Parts 40 and 49 RIN 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing...

  17. 21 CFR 720.4 - Information requested about cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... preparations. (i) Hair dyes and colors (all types requiring caution statement and patch test). (ii) Hair tints... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Information requested about cosmetic products. 720.4 Section 720.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. Makeup and Menstrual Cycle: Near Ovulation, Women Use More Cosmetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that women near ovulation change their appearance in order to look more attractive. I hypothesized that, near ovulation, women would use more cosmetics. In a first study, female participants received an LH test in a laboratory setting to determine their fertility risk. Participants estimated the time they had spent…

  19. Galloyl-RGD as a new cosmetic ingredient

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The cosmetics market has rapidly increased over the last years. For example, in 2011 it reached 242.8 billion US dollars, which was a 3.9% increase compared to 2010. There have been many recent trials aimed at finding the functional ingredients for new cosmetics. Gallic acid is a phytochemical derived from various herbs, and has anti-fungal, anti-viral, and antioxidant properties. Although phytochemicals are useful as cosmetic ingredients, they have a number of drawbacks, such as thermal stability, residence time in the skin, and permeability through the dermal layer. To overcome these problems, we considered conjugation of gallic acid with a peptide. Results We synthesized galloyl-RGD, which represents a conjugate of gallic acid and the peptide RGD, purified it by HPLC and characterized by MALDI-TOF with the aim of using it as a new cosmetic ingredient. Thermal stability of galloyl-RGD was tested at alternating temperatures (consecutive 4°C, 20°C, or 40°C for 8 h each) on days 2, 21, 41, and 61. Galloyl-RGD was relatively safe to HaCaT keratinocytes, as their viability after 48 h incubation with 500 ppm galloyl-RGD was 93.53%. In the group treated with 50 ppm galloyl-RGD, 85.0% of free radicals were removed, whereas 1000 ppm galloyl-RGD suppressed not only L-DOPA formation (43.8%) but also L-DOPA oxidation (54.4%). Conclusions Galloyl-RGD is a promising candidate for a cosmetic ingredient. PMID:25103826

  20. 76 FR 18767 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics... Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR-5 Meeting in Paris, France'' to provide information and receive comments on the International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR) as well...

  1. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... in cosmetics and/or cosmetics that are also drugs, as, for example, aerosol antiperspirants....

  2. 26 CFR 49.0-3T - Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). 49... Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). On and after July 1, 2010, this part 49 also applies to taxes imposed by chapter 49 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to cosmetic services. See part 40 of...

  3. 26 CFR 49.0-3T - Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). 49... Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). On and after July 1, 2010, this part 49 also applies to taxes imposed by chapter 49 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to cosmetic services. See part 40 of...

  4. 26 CFR 49.0-3T - Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). 49... Introduction; cosmetic services (temporary). On and after July 1, 2010, this part 49 also applies to taxes imposed by chapter 49 of the Internal Revenue Code, relating to cosmetic services. See part 40 of...

  5. Moisturizing effect of topical cosmetic products applied to dry skin.

    PubMed

    Polaskova, Jana; Pavlackova, Jana; Vltavska, Pavlina; Mokrejs, Pavel; Janis, Rahula

    2013-01-01

    One of the complications of "diabetes mellitus" is termed diabetic foot syndrome, the first symptoms of which include changes in the skin's condition and properties. The skin becomes dehydrated, dry, and prone to excessive formation of the horny layer, its barrier function becoming weakened. This function can be restored by applying suitable cosmetic excipients containing active substances. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of commercially available cosmetic products (CPs) designed for the care of diabetic foot, through a group of selected volunteers using noninvasive bioengineering methods. Statistical surveys (p < 0.05) evaluated these CPs as regards to their hydration effect and barrier properties. Special attention was devoted to CPs with the declared content of 10% urea, and that the influence of this preparation's ability to hydrate and maintain epidermal water in the epidermis was confirmed.

  6. Risk assessment of nanomaterials in cosmetics: a European union perspective.

    PubMed

    Henkler, Frank; Tralau, Tewes; Tentschert, Jutta; Kneuer, Carsten; Haase, Andrea; Platzek, Thomas; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario E

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, the data requirements for the hazard and exposure characterisation of chemicals are defined according to the REACH regulation and its guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment (Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), and its guidance documents; available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:396:0001:0849:EN:PDF ; and at: http://guidance.echa.europa.eu/docs/guidance_document/information_requirements_en.htm ). This is the basis for any related risk assessment. The standard reference for the testing of cosmetic ingredients is the SCCP's 'Notes of Guidance for the Testing of Cosmetic Ingredients and their Safety Evaluation' (The SCCP's Notes of Guidance for the testing of cosmetic ingredients and their safety evaluation (2006); available at: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_sccp/docs/sccp_o_03j.pdf ), which refers to the OECD guidelines for the testing of chemicals (The OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals as a collection of the most relevant internationally agreed testing methods used by government, industry and independent laboratories to assess the safety of chemical products; available at: http://www.oecd.org/topic/0,2686,en_2649_34377_1_1_1_1_37407,00.html ). According to the cosmetics directive [76/768/EEC], compounds that are classified as mutagenic, carcinogenic or toxic to reproduction are banned for the use in cosmetic products. Since December 2010, the respective labelling is based on the rules of regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006, Official Journal L 353, 31

  7. Electroanalytical determination of the sunscreen agent octocrylene in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Júnior, J B G; Araujo, T A; Trindade, M A G; Ferreira, V S

    2012-02-01

    An electroanalytical method was developed to detect and quantify the sunscreen agent octocrylene (OCR) in cosmetic products. The method was based on electrochemical reduction, using voltammetric techniques. OCR was reduced at -0.97 V vs. Ag/AgCl on a glassy carbon electrode using a mixture of Britton-Robinson buffer (0.04 mol L(-1)) and ethanol (7 : 3, v/v) as the supporting electrolyte solution. Under optimized conditions and square-wave voltammetry, OCR response was linear from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 8.0 × 10(-5) mol L(-1) (r = 0.9995), with a limit of detection of 2.8 × 10(-6) mol L(-1). The proposed electroanalytical method proved simple, fast and suitable for detection and quantification of OCR in samples of cosmetic products, with satisfactory results in the recovery test and analytical determination in real samples.

  8. Medicinal and cosmetics soap production from Jatropha oil.

    PubMed

    Shahinuzzaman, M; Yaakob, Zahira; Moniruzzaman, M

    2016-06-01

    Soap is the most useful things which we use our everyday life in various cleansing and cosmetics purposes. Jatropha oil is nonedible oil which has more benefits to soap making. It has also cosmetics and medicinal properties. But the presence of toxic Phorbol esters in Jatropha oil is the main constrains to use it. So it is necessary to search a more suitable method for detoxifying the Jatropha oil before the use as the main ingredient of soap production. This review implies a more suitable method for removing phorbol esters from Jatropha oil. Several parameters such as the % yield of pure Jatropha oil soap, TFM value of soap, total alkali content, free caustic alkalinity content, pH, the antimicrobial activity, and CMC value of general soap should be taken into consideration for soap from detoxified Jatropha oil.

  9. Dr. Newell Sill Jenkins: progenitor of cosmetic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hyson, John M; Swank, Scott D

    2003-08-01

    Dr. Newell Sill Jenkins was one of the pioneer American dentists who took "American dentistry" to Europe. Among his patients were Composer Richard Wagner, and among his friends, Author Mark Twain. He treated some of the crown head of Europe, and yet found time to participate in organized dentistry and conduct research in cosmetic dentistry. He was the father of the porcelain revival in both Europe and America. Unfortunately, Jenkins' Legacy as the chief proponent of cosmetic dentistry in the late 19th and early 20th centuries has been largely ignored by dental historians. In a 20-year period (1896 to 1916), Jenkins published 32 articles in the dental literature on the esthetic advantages of porcelain fillings. It is time to give Jenkins his just recognition.

  10. Regulating bodily integrity: cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Aileen

    2012-12-01

    Cosmetic surgery and voluntary limb amputation share a number of features. Both procedures are patient-driven forms of body shaping that can only be performed by surgeons, and therefore the procedures require the imprimatur of the medical profession to be lawful. Both invoke identity construction as a central legitimating factor that renders the procedures therapeutic. The legal regulation of surgery is subsumed within general principles regulating medical practice, where autonomy and consent are constituted as fundamental authorising principles. The legitimacy of consent to surgical intervention operates unevenly in relation to these two forms of surgery. Amputation of healthy limbs is presumed to be non-therapeutic. Capacity is closely interrogated and minutely scrutinised. Consent to cosmetic surgery, by contrast, is presumed to be a valid expression of autonomy and self-determination.

  11. [EU-Cosmetics: timetables for the replacement of animal experiments].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, Irmela Wiltrud

    2005-01-01

    According to the 7(th) Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive the European Commission had to establish timetables for the phasing out of the various animal tests for the safety evaluation of ingredients used in cosmetics. However, the published timetables do not reflect the objectives of the 7(th) Amendment but contain longer deadlines for the ban on animal experiments of several endpoints. The European Commission also had to draw up a Directive for establishing an Annex IX that should list validated alternative methods which are not already listed in Annex V of the Dangerous Substances Directive. Although various alternative methods could have been listed in this Annex IX, the Commission published an empty table. From the point of view of the German Animal Welfare Federation amendments of the timetables and the Directive establishing Annex IX are urgently required. Additionally, the Commission has to provide optimal conditions for the replacement of alternative methods.

  12. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products.

    PubMed

    Pardeike, Jana; Hommoss, Aiman; Müller, Rainer H

    2009-01-21

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) are distinguishable from nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) by the composition of the solid particle matrix. Both are an alternative carrier system to liposomes and emulsions. This review paper focuses on lipid nanoparticles for dermal application. Production of lipid nanoparticles and final products containing lipid nanoparticles is feasible by well-established production methods. SLN and NLC exhibit many features for dermal application of cosmetics and pharmaceutics, i.e. controlled release of actives, drug targeting, occlusion and associated with it penetration enhancement and increase of skin hydration. Due to the production of lipid nanoparticles from physiological and/or biodegradable lipids, this carrier system exhibits an excellent tolerability. The lipid nanoparticles are a "nanosafe" carrier. Furthermore, an overview of the cosmetic products currently on the market is given and the improvement of the benefit/risk ratio of the topical therapy is shown.

  13. Influence of cosmetics on emotional, autonomous, endocrinological, and immune reactions.

    PubMed

    Pössel, P; Ahrens, S; Hautzinger, M

    2005-12-01

    Recent findings indicate that cosmetics increase positive valence of emotions and thereby influence the autonomous nerve system. Other studies showed the effects of emotions on the endocrinological and the immune system. Based on this preliminary conclusion, the aim of the present study was to prove whether cosmetics are able to decrease the level of the stress hormone cortisol and strengthen the immune system. Four slides of made up or unvarnished women each, integrated in another 16 slides each of equivalent valence and arousal, were presented to 60 women. During stimulus presentation, subjective (valence), autonomous (heart rate), endocrinological (salivary cortisol) as well as immunological reactions [secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA)] were recorded. As expected subjective ratings concerning the slides of made up women reported more positive valence than those concerning unvarnished women. Furthermore, heart rate decreased under presentation of made up women, which indicates the positive influence of these slides on the autonomous nerve system. Furthermore, in half of the volunteers a decrease of cortisol and an increase of sIgA level while presenting the made up women was measurable in contrast to the presentation of unvarnished women. Maybe this is due to a short presentation time and the endocrinological as well as the immune system can be hardly influenced that quick. Another explanation could be that the volunteers were in part so called psychophysiological non-responders who show no reaction to emotional stimuli in the endocrinological and the immune system. It has to be considered that only the influence of visual stimuli and not the influence of social care (e.g. positive statements of other, etc.), which is normally connected with the use of cosmetics, was assessed, so that these delineated positive results show the lower limit of cosmetic effects.

  14. Borrowed beauty? Understanding identity in Asian facial cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Yves Saint James; Steinkamp, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    This review aims to identify (1) sources of knowledge and (2) important themes of the ethical debate related to surgical alteration of facial features in East Asians. This article integrates narrative and systematic review methods. In March 2014, we searched databases including PubMed, Philosopher's Index, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and Communication Abstracts using key terms "cosmetic surgery," "ethnic*," "ethics," "Asia*," and "Western*." The study included all types of papers written in English that discuss the debate on rhinoplasty and blepharoplasty in East Asians. No limit was put on date of publication. Combining both narrative and systematic review methods, a total of 31 articles were critically appraised on their contribution to ethical reflection founded on the debates regarding the surgical alteration of Asian features. Sources of knowledge were drawn from four main disciplines, including the humanities, medicine or surgery, communications, and economics. Focusing on cosmetic surgery perceived as a westernising practice, the key debate themes included authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships and socio-economic utility in the context of Asian culture. The study shows how cosmetic surgery of ethnic features plays an important role in understanding female identity in the Asian context. Based on the debate themes authenticity of identity, interpersonal relationships, and socio-economic utility, this article argues that identity should be understood as less individualistic and more as relational and transformational in the Asian context. In addition, this article also proposes to consider cosmetic surgery of Asian features as an interplay of cultural imperialism and cultural nationalism, which can both be a source of social pressure to modify one's appearance.

  15. Efficacy, safety, and ethics of cosmetic neurology far from settled.

    PubMed

    Flower, K; Li, L; Chen, C-Y A; Baggott, M J; Galloway, G P; Mendelson, J

    2010-10-01

    In this issue, Larriviere and colleagues discuss the emerging use of drugs to enhance cognitive function. Several cautions they raise warrant amplification. People have tried to pharmacologically improve cognitive function for millennia, but Larriviere and colleagues postulate that new, more effective drugs will lead to the emergence of  "cosmetic neurology." The ethics of using drugs to improve performance, as opposed to treating disease or restoring normal function, are far from settled.

  16. Nanoemulsion: process selection and application in cosmetics--a review.

    PubMed

    Yukuyama, M N; Ghisleni, D D M; Pinto, T J A; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, considerable and continuous growth in consumer demand in the cosmetics field has spurred the development of sophisticated formulations, aiming at high performance, attractive appearance, sensorial benefit and safety. Yet despite increasing demand from consumers, the formulator faces certain restrictions regarding the optimum equilibrium between the active compound concentration and the formulation base taking into account the nature of the skin structure, mainly concerning to the ideal penetration of the active compound, due to the natural skin barrier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible phases, and the interest in nanoscale emulsion has been growing considerably in recent decades due to its specific attributes such as high stability, attractive appearance and drug delivery properties; therefore, performance is expected to improve using a lipid-based nanocarrier. Nanoemulsions are generated by different approaches: the so-called high-energy and low-energy methods. The global overview of these mechanisms and different alternatives for each method are presented in this paper, along with their benefits and drawbacks. As a cosmetics formulation is reflected in product delivery to consumers, nanoemulsion development with prospects for large-scale production is one of the key attributes in the method selection process. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the main high- and low-energy methods applicable in cosmetics and dermatological product development, their specificities, recent research on these methods in the cosmetics and consideration for the process selection optimization. The specific process with regard to inorganic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles and nanocapsule formulation is not considered in this paper.

  17. Para rubber seed oil: new promising unconventional oil for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lourith, Nattaya; Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Sucontphunt, Apirada; Ondee, Thunnicha

    2014-01-01

    Para rubber seed was macerated in petroleum ether and n-hexane, individually, for 30 min. The extraction was additionally performed by reflux and soxhlet for 6 h with the same solvent and proportion. Soxhlet extraction by petroleum ether afforded the greatest extractive yield (22.90 ± 0.92%). Although antioxidant activity by means of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was insignificantly differed in soxhleted (8.90 ± 1.15%) and refluxed (9.02 ± 0.71%) by n-hexane, soxhlet extraction by n-hexane was significantly (p < 0.05) potent scavenged 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothaiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid) or ABTS radical with trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of 66.54 ± 6.88 mg/100 g oil. This extract was non cytotoxic towards normal human fibroblast cells. In addition, oleic acid and palmitic acid were determined at a greater content than in the seed of para rubber cultivated in Malaysia, although linoleic and stearic acid contents were not differed. This bright yellow extract was further evaluated on other physicochemical characters. The determined specific gravity, refractive index, iodine value, peroxide value and saponification value were in the range of commercialized vegetable oils used as cosmetic raw material. Therefore, Para rubber seed oil is highlighted as the promising ecological ingredient appraisal for cosmetics. Transforming of the seed that is by-product of the important industrial crop of Thailand into cosmetics is encouraged accordingly.

  18. [Analysis of the phthalates in cosmetics by capillary gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiming; Wang, Chao; Wang, Xing

    2004-05-01

    A capillary gas chromatographic method with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) for the detection of the six phthalates (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DOP)) in the cosmetics was developed. The phthalates were extracted from cosmetics with methanol under ultrasonication and then separated with high-speed centrifugation. The supernatant was dehydrated and filtrated through membrane with 0.5 microm pore diameter. The filtrate was injected into the GC system for analysis. Then the positive results observed in the GC-FID chromatogram were confirmed by gas chromatography-electron impact-mass detection (GC-EI-MS) analysis. Retention times of the peaks could be applied for qualitative analysis. External standard method was used for quantitative analysis. The recoveries of the six phthalates were between 82.90% and 109.50%. The relative standard deviations were between 2.1% and 4.6%. The detection limits of the method were: 0.1 ng for DMP, DEP, DBP and BBP, and 0.5 ng for DEHP and DOP, respectively. The method presented the advantages of high precision, high sensitivity, small sample size, and simple pretreatment. The method can be used to test the six phthalates in the cosmetics.

  19. [Generic method for determination of volatile organic solvents in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Da, Jing; Huang, Xianglu; Wang, Gangli; Cao, Jin; Zhang, Qingsheng

    2014-11-01

    A generic screening, confirmation and determination method was established based on 36 commonly used volatile organic solvents in cosmetics by headspace gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This method included a database for pilot screening and identifi- cation of those solvents and their quantitative method. Pilot screening database was composed by two sections, one was household section built by two columns with opposite polarities (col- umn VF-1301 ms and DB-5 ms) using retention index in different column systems as qualitative parameter, and the other was NIST MS search version 2.0. Meanwhile, the determination method of the 36 volatile solvents was developed with GC-MS. Cosmetic samples were dissolved in water and transferred to a headspace vial. After 30 min equilibration at 60 °C, the samples were analyzed by GC-MS equipped with a capillary chromatographic column VF-1301 ms. The external calibration was used for quantification. The limits of detection were from 0.01 to 3.3 μg/g, and the recoveries were from 60.77% to 126.6%. This study provided a generic method for pilot screening, identification, and quantitation of volatile organic solvents in cosmetics, and may solve the problem that different analytical methods need to be developed for different targeted compounds and pilot screening for potential candidate solvent residues.

  20. Cosmetic dentistry for patients who can't afford it.

    PubMed

    Kurthy, R

    2000-12-01

    As I noted earlier, all things being equal, patients prefer tooth-colored restorations. This technique has removed virtually all the barriers to treatment and makes things a lot more equal. There's the cost factor (Dramatically reduced!) There's the fear-of-needle factor (Gone!) There's the time factor (Minimized!). In fact, prepping and placing these occlusal veneers is so fast I can now do 8 to 10 amalgam rehabs in one appointment. Doing so many in a short time is extremely profitable, even at the reduced fee. This technique certainly does not qualify as "great dentistry," but it brings "desire-motivated" cosmetic dentistry to an entirely new universe and those patients are appreciative. They're even referring their friends! In my practice, veneering amalgam has brought cosmetic dentistry to many patients who would never agree to have their restorations replaced with traditional composite resin. And it has brought me several additional thousand dollars in collections each month. So this is a classic "win-win" situation. Patients are getting cosmetic restorations they didn't think they could afford, and I'm making a great profit doing it.

  1. Cosmetics as endocrine disruptors: are they a health risk?

    PubMed

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Hens, Luc; Sasco, Annie J

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to chemicals from different sources in everyday life is widespread; one such source is the wide range of products listed under the title "cosmetics", including the different types of popular and widely-advertised sunscreens. Women are encouraged through advertising to buy into the myth of everlasting youth, and one of the most alarming consequences is in utero exposure to chemicals. The main route of exposure is the skin, but the main endpoint of exposure is endocrine disruption. This is due to many substances in cosmetics and sunscreens that have endocrine active properties which affect reproductive health but which also have other endpoints, such as cancer. Reducing the exposure to endocrine disruptors is framed not only in the context of the reduction of health risks, but is also significant against the background and rise of ethical consumerism, and the responsibility of the cosmetics industry in this respect. Although some plants show endocrine-disrupting activity, the use of well-selected natural products might reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Instruments dealing with this problem include life-cycle analysis, eco-design, and green labels; in combination with the committed use of environmental management systems, they contribute to "corporate social responsibility".

  2. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    PubMed

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure.

  3. Cosmetic Concerns Related to the Posttraumatic Nose without Nasal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Farrior, Edward H; Eisler, Lindsay S

    2015-06-01

    Because of its prominent position on the facial skeleton, the nose is commonly injured. Though significant trauma can result in nasal obstruction, there is also considerable concern for potential cosmetic deformity. Repairing traumatic deformities is complex and can involve all aspects of the nose, including the bony and cartilaginous framework as well as the soft tissue envelope. Trauma can result in deflection, asymmetry, and deformity of the bony nasal dorsum, midvault, and nasal tip. Any serious nasal trauma places patients at risk for complications that may include nasal septal hematoma, septal perforation, and possible cerebral spinal fluid leak. Unrecognized or untreated septal hematomas can result in cartilaginous septal necrosis followed by saddle nose deformity. Though damage to structural scaffolding is often the cause of cosmetic deformity following nasal trauma, the nasal soft tissue envelope is also commonly affected. This can result in lacerations, avulsions, and traumatic tattooing. The following will discuss the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these cosmetic concerns relating to nasal trauma.

  4. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  5. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  6. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  7. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  8. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  9. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  10. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  11. 21 CFR 700.14 - Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... propellant of cosmetic aerosol products. 700.14 Section 700.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.14 Use of vinyl chloride as an ingredient, including propellant of cosmetic aerosol...

  12. 21 CFR 740.10 - Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not been obtained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS COSMETIC PRODUCT WARNING STATEMENTS Warning Statements § 740.10 Labeling of cosmetic products for which adequate substantiation of safety has not...

  13. A systematic review of the factors predicting the interest in cosmetic plastic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Milothridis, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Leonidas; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Panagopoulou, Efharis

    2016-01-01

    Background: A systematic review of the literature was performed to clarify the psychosocial characteristics of patients who have an interest in cosmetic plastic surgery. Methods: Medical literature was reviewed by two independent researchers, and a third reviewer evaluated their results. Results: Twelve studies addressing the predictors of interest in cosmetic surgery were finally identified and analysed. Interest in cosmetic surgery was associated with epidemiological factors, their social networks, their psychological characteristics, such as body image, self-esteem and other personality traits and for specific psychopathology and found that these may either positively or negatively predict their motivation to seek and undergo a cosmetic procedure. Conclusions: The review examined the psychosocial characteristics associated with an interest in cosmetic surgery. Understanding cosmetic patients’ characteristics, motivation and expectation for surgery is an important aspect of their clinical care to identify those patients more likely to benefit most from the procedure. PMID:28216822

  14. The role of media and peer influences in Australian women's attitudes towards cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika; Mattiske, Julie

    2014-09-01

    The study aimed to examine the influence of media and peers on attitudes towards cosmetic surgery using a sociocultural framework. A sample of 351 Australian women aged 18-69 years completed measures of media exposure, friend conversations, internalisation of appearance ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. Correlational analysis showed that almost all media and friend variables were significantly correlated with positive attitudes towards cosmetic surgery. A structural equation model based on the sociocultural model showed a good level of fit to the data. The effects of media exposure and friend conversations on body dissatisfaction and attitudes towards cosmetic surgery were mediated by internalisation. We concluded that media exposure and friend conversations affected attitudes towards cosmetic surgery both directly and indirectly. Our results contribute to the understanding of the sociocultural mechanisms underlying women's motivations for cosmetic surgery.

  15. A correlational and experimental examination of reality television viewing and interest in cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Markey, Charlotte N; Markey, Patrick M

    2010-03-01

    Two studies are presented that examine the influence of media messages about cosmetic surgery on youths' interest in altering their own physical appearance. In Study 1, 170 participants (59% female; M age=19.77 years) completed surveys assessing their impression of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery, appearance satisfaction, self-esteem, and their interest in cosmetic surgery. Results indicated that participants who reported favorable impressions of reality television shows featuring cosmetic surgery were more likely to indicate interest in pursuing surgery. One hundred and eighty-nine participants (51% female; M age=19.84 years) completed Study 2. Approximately half of the participants were exposed to a television message featuring a surgical make-over; the other half was exposed to a neutral message. Results indicated that participants who watched a television program about cosmetic surgery wanted to alter their own appearance using cosmetic surgery more than did participants who were not exposed to this program.

  16. In vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity study of cosmetics colorants.

    PubMed

    Tomankova, K; Kejlova, K; Binder, S; Daskova, A; Zapletalova, J; Bendova, H; Kolarova, H; Jirova, D

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the work was early identification of preventable risk factors connected with the consumers usage of products of everyday use, such as cosmetics, toys and children products, and other materials intended for contact with human skin. The risk factor is represented by substances with irritation potential and subsequent possible sensitisation, resulting in negative impact on human physical and psychical health with social and societal consequences. The legislation for cosmetics, chemical substances and other products requires for hazard identification the application of alternative toxicological methods in vitro without the use of animals. For this reason we used a battery of alternative assays in vitro, based on cell cultures. Progressive methods of molecular biology, based on fluorimetry and fluorescence, were employed for identification of early morphological and functional changes on cellular level. Four colorants frequently used in cosmetics (P-WS Caramel, Chlorophyllin, Unicert Red K 7054-J and Unicert Red K 7008-J) were tested on cell line NIH3T3 (mouse fibroblast cell) and 3T3 Balb/c with/without UV irradiation (dose 5 J cm(-2)). Fluorescence methods for the study of cell damage using fluorescence probes offer results for the evaluation of cytotoxicity and cell viability of adherent cells. We detected intracellular production of ROS investigated by molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA, which is primarily sensitive to the increased production of hydrogen peroxide or its downstream products. Toxic effects on the cellular level were identified by viability tests using Neutral Red uptake and MTT assay, where the live cells reduce yellow soluble 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to insoluble formazan crystals. The reaction was investigated on mitochondrial membrane of living cells and the type of cell death was determined using Apoptosis detection kit. Cytotoxicity tests revealed health risks of using Chlorophyllin and Unicert Red

  17. Investigation of a low cost method to quantify cosmetic defect.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Thomas; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-01-01

    For many patients, the motivation in seeking treatment is the improvement of their appearance rather than to correct an underlying skeletal deformity, so cosmetic concerns and the psychosocial impacts of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are important factors in the clinical decision-making process. In the current environment of evidence based medicine there is a growing need to quantify back surface shape and general body asymmetry with the objective of producing an agreed scoring to be used in developing treatment plans and assessing outcomes but to date many clinics continue to rely on qualitative or expensive methods to describe cosmetic deformity. In November 2010, Microsoft® Corporation launched the low cost Kinect™ camera with 18 million units sold (as at January 2012) throughout the world. The device incorporates proprietary light coding technology that reconstructs the three dimensional location of an estimated 50,000 projected points illuminating objects within its field of view in approximately 1/30th of a second. The aim of the research was to investigate the capabilities of a low cost, reliable and inherently safe apparatus based on Kinect depth sensing and video technology to simultaneously acquire back surface shape and the locations of bony landmarks with the goal of providing data to describe cosmetic defect. Work has been completed using both the apparatus and a commercially available optical motion capture system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, U.K.) to acquire data from a test object representing an unaffected human torso. Results were obtained to compare tri-dimensional bony landmark reconstruction accuracy and combined with analyses of point cloud data to describe back shape. Early indications are that the proposed apparatus has potential to be a clinically useful tool.

  18. Evaluation of headache relief with cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA injections.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Neal D; Dorton, Leighanne H; Marcum, Kristin K; Gilbert, Ryan M; Sandoval, Laura F

    2014-09-01

    Chronic headaches are common and can have a significant effect on quality of life. Approved treatment options are vast and include the use botulinum toxin injections. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of purely cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA (BOTOX) injections on the frequency and severity of chronic headaches. Patients seeking treatment of hyperfunctional facial lines were enrolled to complete pre- and posttreatment questionnaires assessing headache symptoms. Quantitative data was compared using paired two-tailed student t-tests between groups of patients who received onabotulinumtoxinA injections, both onabotulinumtoxinA and hyaluronic acid (Restylane) injections, and hyaluronic acid injections. One hundred and ten patients were enrolled; 73 completed the study. Of the 45 patients with pretreatment headaches, 76% (22/29) that received cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA injections alone and 69% (27/39) that received onabotulinumtoxinA with or without hyaluronic acid injections reported overall improvement in headaches. Patients who received only onabotulinumtoxinA reported a significant decrease in the frequency (P = 0.0016) and severity (P = 0.0002) of headaches, and the number of days over-the-counter medications were taken (P = 0.0238). It took an average 9.5 days for headache improvement vs. 4.4 days for an appearance change. In patients who received only hyaluronic acid injections (n = 6), no significant improvement in headaches was reported. Overall satisfaction was high and unaffected by whether patients experienced headache relief. The majority of patients (93%) reported that they would "definitely" or "likely" receive onabotulinumtoxinA injections again in the future. Purely cosmetic onabotulinumtoxinA injections of doses between 15-50 units can significantly decrease the severity and frequency of headaches.

  19. Simultaneous determination of chlorinated bacteriostats in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Hao; Tso, Mey; Chin, Chun-Yu

    2005-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for simultaneous determination of triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenyl ether) and triclocarban (3,4,4'-trichlorocarbanilide) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The two compounds could be separated on a Nucleosil C(18) column and eluted with acetonitrile and water (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase and detected with a differential refractive index detector. The retention times of triclosan and triclocarban were 5.81 and 2.99 min, respectively. The results obtained were in good agreement with those obtained by a differential pulse voltammetric method.

  20. Nanosystems for skin delivery: from drugs to cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Reis, Catarina P; Rijo, Patrícia; Pereira, Paula; Antunes, Ana F

    2017-03-05

    Skin delivery is an exciting and challenging area. There are numerous skin delivery systems currently available on the market. However, this market still remains limited to a narrow range of substances. Thus, several strategies have been developed to improve the performance of those substances, including the development of nanosystems. The aim of this review is to elucidate the nanosystems applied to the skin. In order to contextualize this subject, anatomy and physiology of the skin will be first briefly described and then general concepts and the various examples of these nanosystems, both cosmetic and pharmaceutical field, will be also accessed.

  1. Ulcerative lupus vulgaris over nose, leading to cosmetic deformity.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Mehta, Malay J; Patel, Bhumi B

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV), is a chronic and progressive form of secondary cutaneous tuberculosis. In India, it is commonly seen over buttocks, thighs, and legs whereas involvement of nose is quite rare. Ulcerative variant particularly over nose causes destruction of cartilage, leading to irreversible deformities and contracture. High-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prevention of cosmetic deformity. A case of LV over nose in a young male with ulceration is reported who responded well to anti-tubercular therapy, but left with scarring of nose, which could have been prevented if adequate awareness regarding extra-pulmonary cases would have been practiced.

  2. Negative pressure pulmonary edema in healthy cosmetic surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Dieu, Tam; Upjohn, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Anesthetic complications are uncommon in young and healthy patients undergoing cosmetic surgery. We report 2 cases of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) in young patients, 1 who underwent rhinoplasty and another who underwent augmentation mammaplasty and suction-assisted lipoplasty of the thighs and buttocks This rare and potentially fatal complication requires admission to an intensive-care unit and delayed discharge. Although cases of NPPE have been reported in the medical and anesthetic literature, NPPE in plastic surgery has never been reported previously.

  3. Cosmetic neurology: the controversy over enhancing movement, mentation, and mood.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2004-09-28

    Advances in cognitive neuroscience and neuropharmacology are yielding exciting treatments for neurologic diseases. Many of these treatments are also likely to have uses for people without disease. Here, I review the ways in which medicine might make bodies and brains function better by modulating motor, cognitive, and affective systems. These potential "quality of life" interventions raise ethical concerns, some related to the individual and others related to society. Despite these concerns, I argue that major restraints on the development of cosmetic neurology are not likely. Neurologists and other clinicians are likely to encounter patient-consumers who view physicians as gatekeepers in their own pursuit of happiness.

  4. Comedogenicity in rabbit: some cosmetic ingredients/vehicles.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Shawn H; Dang, Thao P; Maibach, Howard I

    2007-01-01

    The rabbit external ear canal was used to define which chemicals caused comedone formation on topical application. Some of the tested ingredients are currently used in topically applied formulations. Certain raw materials have been shown to produce follicular hyperkeratosis in the rabbit ear assay. This study quantifies comedogenic potential of cosmetic materials, including: isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl myristate, butyl stearate, isopropyl isostearate, decyl oleate, isostearyl neopentanoate, isocetyl stearate, myristle myristate, cocoa butter, cetyl alcohol, paraffin, stearyl alcohol sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and petrolatum. The first nine were deemed positive. Factors aiding clinical relevance are listed.

  5. Assessment of metals in cosmetics commonly used in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salama, Ahmed K

    2015-10-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most important sources of releasing heavy metals. Different varieties of chemicals are used in cosmetic products as ingredients and some are used as preservatives. There are concerns regarding the presence of harmful chemicals in these products. Among the harmful chemicals, cosmetic products contain heavy metals. The present study was conducted to determine the content of certain heavy metals in the products made in different countries and marketed in Saudi Arabia. Thirty-one products of different brands or misbrands of commonly used cosmetic products (hair cream, beauty cream, skin cream, hair food formula, hair gel, whitening daily scrub, shampoo, shower gel, body care, body lotion, hand wash, daily fairness, shaving cream, toothpaste, germ and beauty soap, and cream soap) were purchased from local markets of Saudi Arabia. Samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of ten metals (lead, aluminum, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel, mercury, and arsenic) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Based on the maximum concentrations, the heavy metal contents were arranged in the following decreasing order: Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Ni > Hg > Co > As > Cd in cream products, Al > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni > Hg > As > Co > Cd in shampoo products, Al > Cu > Pb > Cr > Mn > Ni > As > Co > Hg > Cd in soap products, and Al > Cu > Mn > Pb > Cr > Co > Ni > Cd > As > Hg in toothpaste products. Since the metal concentrations may relate to specific brands, product type, color, or cost, industrialist would have to check the raw materials before they are gathered into the final products to track the source of these contaminants.

  6. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  7. Awareness and attitude of healthcare workers to cosmetic surgery in osogbo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adedeji, Opeyemi Adeniyi; Oseni, Ganiyu Oladiran; Olaitan, Peter Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at understanding the level of awareness and elucidates the attitude and disposition of healthcare workers to cosmetic surgery in Osogbo, Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was done at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, in 2012. Questionnaires were administered to 213 workers and students in the hospital. These were then analysed using SPSS version 16.0 with frequencies, means, and so forth. Respondents were 33 doctors, 32 nurses, 79 medical students, 60 nursing students, 4 administrative staff, 1 pharmacist, and 4 ward maids. There is fair awareness about cosmetic surgery generally with 94.5% and its availability in Nigeria with 67.0%. A fewer proportion of the respondents (44.5%) were aware of the facility for cosmetic surgery in their locality. A large percentage (86.5%) favorably considers facilities outside Nigeria when making choice of facility to have cosmetic surgery done. 85.5% considered the information about cosmetic surgery reliable while 19.0% objected going for cosmetic surgery of their choice even if done free. Only 34.0% consider cosmetic surgery socially acceptable. Although the awareness of health workers about cosmetic surgery is high, their disposition to it is low. There is a need to increase the awareness in order to increase cosmetic surgery practice in Nigeria.

  8. Safety assessment of animal- and plant-derived amino acids as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of animal- and plant-derived amino acid mixtures, which function as skin and hair conditioning agents. The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established, based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures and the Panel previously has reviewed the safety of individual α-amino acids in cosmetics. The Panel focused its review on dermal irritation and sensitization data relevant to the use of these ingredients in topical cosmetics. The Panel concluded that these 21 ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as used in cosmetics.

  9. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  10. Nursing students' perceptions of clients undergoing elective cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leah Beth

    2007-01-01

    Aesthetic obsession is commonplace in current society. Supermarket a isles dedicated to beauty products, makeup, and anti-aging creams seem to expand daily. Television and publications flood the public with messages of what constitutes beauty and how to achieve the ideal. Surgical alteration of the body is swiftly becoming a form of self-care technique along with other heath-promoting behavior. Since 2003, the general acceptance of plastic surgery among all Americans surpassed 50% (American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, 2003). Elective cosmetic surgical procedures have increased by an astounding 444% since 1997 (American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2006). This quest for body satisfaction based on modern cultural norms increases the public's need for accurate information and understanding from those in the healthcare profession. Despite a transformation in the general population's conception of cosmetic surgery and its clients, stigma still lies in many individuals, including those in the healthcare profession. As this progressively growing patient population emerges, many in healthcare question their attitudes toward plastic surgery and the patients receiving aesthetic operations. With clients undergoing plastic surgery becoming increasingly visible within the healthcare system, some unique aspects of patient care must be addressed.

  11. Prediction of Skin Temperature Distribution in Cosmetic Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Kuen; Chen, Kuen-Tasnn; Cheng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Wen-Shiung; Chang, Cheng-Ren

    2008-01-01

    The use of lasers in cosmetic surgery has increased dramatically in the past decade. To achieve minimal damage to tissues, the study of the temperature distribution of skin in laser irradiation is very important. The phenomenon of the thermal wave effect is significant due to the highly focused light energy of lasers in very a short time period. The conventional Pennes equation does not take the thermal wave effect into account, which the thermal relaxation time (τ) is neglected, so it is not sufficient to solve instantaneous heating and cooling problem. The purpose of this study is to solve the thermal wave equation to determine the realistic temperature distribution during laser surgery. The analytic solutions of the thermal wave equation are compared with those of the Pennes equation. Moreover, comparisons are made between the results of the above equations and the results of temperature measurement using an infrared thermal image instrument. The thermal wave equation could likely to predict the skin temperature distribution in cosmetic laser surgery.

  12. Cosmetic evaluation of surgical scars after external dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Syed Ali Raza; Saquib, Mohammad; Maheshwari, Rakesh; Gupta, Yogesh; Iqbal, Zafar; Maheshwari, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the surgical scars of external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) cosmetically. METHODS Totally 50 consecutive cases of primary acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (PANDO) were included in the study. Surgical scars were assessed by the patients and two independent observers at 2, 6 and 12wk postoperatively on the basis of visibility of the scars and still photographs respectively and were graded from 0-3. Kappa test was utilised to check the agreement of scar grading between the two observers. Wilcoxan signed ranks test was used to analyse the improvement of scar grading. RESULTS Thirty-four (68%) patients graded their incision site as very visible (grade 3) at 2wk. At 6 and 12wk, incision site was observed as grade 3 by 7 (14%) and 1 (2%) patients respectively. Photographic evaluation of patients by 2 observers showed an average score of 2.75, 1.94 and 0.94 at 2, 6 and 12wk respectively. Change in scar grading from grade 3 to grade 0 in consecutive follow-up (2, 6 and 12wk) was found to be highly significant both for the patient as well for the observers (P<0.0001). CONCLUSION The external DCR is a highly effective and safe procedure and in view of low percentage of cases who complained of marked scarring in the present study, thus scarring should not be the main ground for deciding the approach to DCR surgery, even in young cosmetically conscious patients. PMID:28003973

  13. Metals in cosmetics: an a posteriori safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Marinovich, Marina; Boraso, Maria Serena; Testai, Emanuela; Galli, Corrado L

    2014-08-01

    According to EU Regulation No. 1223/2009/CE cosmetic products for daily use can contain 'technically unavoidable traces' of metals. This definition is too vague. Authorities should set well-defined limits, considering the risks associated with metal contamination of personal care products (PCPs). This paper characterizes the risk arising from a number of metals (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead) that may occur in 'unavoidable traces" in raw materials and, consequently, in PCPs. A 'worst case scenario' was adopted, based on the following assumptions: (i) the individual ingredients contained the maximum amount in traces allowed for each metal; (ii) the hypothetical PCP was produced exclusively with that single ingredient; (iii) when absorption through the skin was not known, data related to oral absorption were used. Risk characterization was performed calculating the Systemic Exposure Dosage (SED) and the Margin of Safety (MoS=NOAEL or BMDL10/SED). Exposure to the allegedly 'technically unavoidable' maximum amounts of metals in cosmetic ingredients resulted in MoSs exceeding 100 (safety threshold) with one exception. This suggests that the availability of experimental dermal absorption rates could enable significant improvement in MoS, thus increasing safety levels. Although results are reassuring, the authors recommend minimization of contamination, according to the state of the art of manufacturing methods.

  14. Neural activity associated with enhanced facial attractiveness by cosmetics use.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Aya; Ito, Ayahito; Kawasaki, Iori; Kawachi, Yousuke; Yoshida, Kazuki; Murakami, Yui; Sakai, Shinya; Iijima, Toshio; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2014-04-30

    Previous psychological studies have shown that make-up enhances facial attractiveness. Although neuroimaging evidence indicates that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) shows greater activity for faces of attractive people than for those of unattractive people, there is no direct evidence that the OFC also shows greater activity for the face of an individual wearing make-up than for the same face without make-up. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated neural activity while subjects viewed 144 photographs of the same faces with and without make-up (48 with make-up, 48 without make-up, and 48 scrambled photographs) and assigned these faces an attractiveness rating. The behavioral data showed that the faces with make-up were rated as more attractive than those without make-up. The imaging data revealed that the left OFC and the right hippocampus showed greater activity for faces with make-up than for those without make-up. Furthermore, the activities of the right anterior cingulate cortex, left hippocampus, and left OFC increased with increasing facial attractiveness resulting from cosmetics use. These results provide direct evidence of the neural underpinnings of cosmetically enhanced facial attractiveness.

  15. Modeling and analysis of cosmetic treatment effects on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunderstaedt, Reinhart A.; Hopermann, Hermann; Hillemann, Thomas

    2000-10-01

    In view of treatment effects of cosmetics, quality management becomes more and more important. Due to the efficiency reasons it is desirable to quantify these effects and predict them as a function of time. For this, a mathematical model of the skin's surface (epidermis) is needed. Such a model cannot be worked out purely analytically. It can only be derived with the help of measurement data. The signals of interest as output of different measurement devices consist of two parts: noise of high (spatial) frequencies (stochastic signal) and periodic functions (deterministic signal) of low (spatial) frequencies. Both parts can be separated by correlation analysis. The paper introduces in addition to the Fourier Transform (FT) with the Wavelet Transform (WT), a brand new, highly sophisticated method with excellent properties for both modeling the skin's surface as well as evaluating treatment effects. Its main physical advantage is (in comparison to the FT) that local irregularities in the measurement signal (e.g. by scars) remain at their place and are not represented as mean square values as it is the case when applying the FT. The method has just now been installed in industry and will there be used in connection with a new in vivo measurement device for quality control of cosmetic products. As texture parameter for an integral description of the human skin the fractal dimension D is used which is appropriate for classification of different skin regions and treatment effects as well.

  16. Cosmetic mesotherapy: between scientific evidence, science fiction, and lucrative business.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, Bishara S; Ibrahim, Amir E; Dibo, Saad A

    2008-11-01

    Mesotherapy, originally conceived in Europe, is a minimally invasive technique that consists of the intra- or subcutaneous injection of variable mixtures of natural plant extracts, homeopathic agents, pharmaceuticals, vitamins, and other bioactive substances in microscopic quantities through dermal multipunctures. Its application in cosmetic medicine and surgery is gaining in popularity and acceptance and is rapidly growing in profile at an alarming rate. Despite their attraction as purported rejuvenating and ''fat-dissolving'' injections, the safety and efficacy of these novel cosmetic treatments remain ambiguous, making mesotherapy vulnerable to criticism by the generally more skeptical medical community. The technique is shrouded in mystery and the controversy surrounding it pertains to its efficacy and potential adverse effects that are subject of much concern. As with any new technology, it is important to assess the benefits, safety, experience, and standardization of mesotherapy. More studies are necessary before it can be advocated as a safe and effective treatment for body contouring and facial rejuvenation. Although the claims made about mesotherapy may be hard to believe at face value, we must be cautious about rejecting new ideas. Just as absence of proof is not proof of absence, lack of scientific validation is not proof that it does not work.

  17. Retrospective analysis of the mutagenicity/genotoxicity data of the cosmetic ingredients present on the Annexes of the Cosmetic EU legislation (2000-12).

    PubMed

    Ates, Gamze; Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the mutagenicity/genotoxicity of cosmetic ingredients at the regulatory level, usually a battery of three in vitro tests is applied. This battery, designed to be very sensitive, produces a high number of positive results, imposing the need for in vivo follow-up testing to clear the substance under study. In Europe, the use of experimental animals has become impossible for cosmetic ingredients due to the implementation of animal testing and marketing bans. Consequently, the possibility to 'de-risk' substances with positive in vitro results disappear and potentially safe cosmetic substances will be lost for the EU market unless currently used in vitro assays can be adapted or new non-animal mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies become available. Described strategies to improve the specificity of existing in vitro assays include optimisation of the used cell type and cytotoxicity assay and lowering of the applied top concentration. A reduction of the number of tests in the battery from three to two also has been suggested. In this study, the performance of the 'standard' in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity testing battery is analysed for a number of cosmetic ingredients. We composed a database with toxicological information on 249 cosmetic ingredients, mainly present on the Annexes of the European cosmetic legislation. Results revealed that the in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity tests showed a low specificity for the cosmetic ingredients concerned, comparable to the specificity published for chemicals. Non-confirmed or 'misleading' positive results amounted up to 93% for the in vitro test batteries. The cell type and top concentrations did not have a major impact on the specificity. With respect to cytotoxicity determinations, different end points were used, potentially leading to different testing concentrations, suggesting the need for a consensus in this matter. Overall, the results of this retrospective analysis point to an urgent need of better regulatory

  18. Attitudes toward Cosmetic Surgery in Middle-Aged Women: Body Image, Aging Anxiety, and the Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2010-01-01

    Our study investigated factors that influence attitudes toward cosmetic surgery in middle-aged women. A sample of 108 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of body dissatisfaction, appearance investment, aging anxiety, media exposure (television and magazine), and attitudes toward cosmetic surgery (delineated in…

  19. [Simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid and D-panthenol in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiqin; Hu, Xia; Pan, Wei

    2010-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and sample pretreatment method were developed for the simultaneous determination of pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and D-panthenol (provitamin B5) in cosmetics with different matrices (including of creams, lotions, aqueous cosmetics, oily cosmetics, wax-based cosmetics, nail polish etc). A liquid-liquid extraction system composed of water and water-immiscible solvent was used to preliminarily separate the target components from other oil-soluble components and surfactants in cosmetics, then macromolecular water-soluble matrices in cosmetics were removed by coprecipitation with potassium ferrocyanide-zinc acetate precipitating agent, and then under acid condition, pantothenic acid and D-panthenol were enriched on a C18 solid-phase extraction sorbent. After the removal of other water-soluble impurities, target components were eluted by 40% methanol and then separated and quantitatively analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with external standard method. Good linear relationship was achieved in the concentration range of 0.1-10 microg/g for pantothenic acid and D-panthenol. The linear correlation coefficients were separately 0.998 9 and 0.999 6. The average recoveries of the target components in cosmetics were more than 90%. Limit of detection of the method was 30 microg/g and the limit of quantification was 100 microg/g. This method can be used to simultaneously determine pantothenic acid and D-panthenol in cosmetics. The results are accurate and reliable.

  20. Cosmetic Contact Sensitivity in Patients with Melasma: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Prabha, Neel; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Some of the patients with melasma perhaps have pigmented cosmetic dermatitis. However, cosmetic contact sensitivity in melasma remains poorly studied particularly in the Indian context. Objectives. To study cosmetic contact sensitivity in patients with melasma. Materials and Methods. 67 (F : M = 55 : 12) consecutive patients with melasma between 19 and 49 years of age were patch tested sequentially during January–December, 2012, with Indian Cosmetic and Fragrance Series, Indian Sunscreen Series, p-phenylenediamine, and patient's own cosmetic products. Results. 52 (78%) patients were in the age group of 20–40 years. The duration of melasma varied from 1 month to 20 years. Centrofacial, malar, and mandibular patterns were observed in 48 (72%), 18 (27%), and 1 (1%) patients, respectively. Indian Cosmetics and Fragrance Series elicited positive reactions in 29 (43.3%) patients. Cetrimide was the most common contact sensitizers eliciting positivity in 15 (52%) patients, followed by gallate mix in 9 (31%) patients and thiomersal in 7 (24%) patients. Only 2 of the 42 patients showed positive reaction from their own cosmetics while the other 5 patients had irritant reaction. Indian Sunscreen Series did not elicit any positive reaction. Conclusion. Cosmetics contact sensitivity appears as an important cause of melasma not associated with pregnancy, lactation, or hormone therapy. PMID:25132846

  1. Is It a Cosmetic, a Drug, or Both? (or Is It Soap?)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of product. Firms sometimes violate the law by marketing a cosmetic with a drug claim or by marketing a drug as if it were a cosmetic, ... that FDA approve a pharmaceutical for sale and marketing in the United States. FDA only approves an ...

  2. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women’s changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy. PMID:27043593

  3. 77 FR 55455 - Foreign-Trade Zone 235-Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 235--Lakewood, NJ, Authorization of Production Activity, Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC, (Fragrance Bottling), Holmdel, NJ Cosmetic Essence Innovations, LLC...

  4. Cooperative Education. Cosmetic Science: A Career Option for Majors in Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtin, J. Leon; Radd, Billie L.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the growing field of cosmetic science as a career option for chemistry majors. Outlines the design, formulation, manufacture, stabilization, evaluation, control management, safety, mechanism of action, and claim substantiation of cosmetic products. Provides information on the concerns and professional responsibilities of the cosmetic…

  5. Changes in Cosmetics Use during Pregnancy and Risk Perception by Women.

    PubMed

    Marie, Cécile; Cabut, Sophie; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-30

    Cosmetic products contain various chemical substances that may be potential carcinogen and endocrine disruptors. Women's changes in cosmetics use during pregnancy and their risk perception of these products have not been extensively investigated. The main objective of this study was to describe the proportion of pregnant women changing cosmetics use and the proportion of non-pregnant women intending to do so if they became pregnant. The secondary objectives were to compare, among the pregnant women, the proportions of those using cosmetics before and during pregnancy, and to describe among pregnant and non-pregnant women, the risk perception of these products. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a gynaecology clinic and four community pharmacies. One hundred and twenty-eight women (60 non-pregnant and 68 pregnant women) replied to a self-administered questionnaire. Cosmetics use was identified for 28 products. The results showed that few women intended to change or had changed cosmetics use during pregnancy. Nail polish was used by fewer pregnant women compared to the period before pregnancy (p < 0.05). Fifty-five percent of the women considered cosmetics use as a risk during pregnancy and 65% would have appreciated advice about these products. Our findings indicate that all perinatal health professionals should be ready to advise women about the benefits and risks of using cosmetics during pregnancy.

  6. Human health risk assessment of heavy metals in cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nduka, John K; Odiba; Orisakwe, Orish E; Ukaebgu, Linda D; Sokaibe, Chinwetuto; Udowelle, Nnaemeka A

    2015-01-01

    Forty two different cosmetics were purchased from supermarkets and cosmetic shops within Unitsha Main Market and Eke-Awka markets in Anambra, Nigeria. Of the cosmetics, 16% were locally manufactured in Nigeria while 83.33% were imported into Nigeria. The cosmetics were ashed before digestion and filtration. The filtrates were assayed for lead, cadmium, manganese, nickel, chromium, mercury, and arsenic with atomic absorption spectrophotometry at 205 Å. The health risk assessment methods developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency were employed to explore the potential human health risk of heavy metals in cosmetics. About 61.91% of the cosmetic samples contained lead with concentration in the range of 0.10-42.12 mg/kg. Cadmium levels of the cosmetics ranged from 0.01 to 1.32 mg/kg, manganese from 0.02 to 67.65 mg/kg, nickel from 0.05 to 17.34 mg/kg, chromium from 0.11 to 9.81 mg/kg, mercury from 0.003 to 0.07 mg/kg, and arsenic from 0.002 to 0.005 mg/kg. Although the target hazard quotients and the hazard indices suggest a measure of safety, cosmetics may add to the body burden of potential toxic metals after chronic exposure.

  7. Self-reported psychological development in cosmetic breast surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Arias-Moreno, María Jesús; Rincón-Fernández, María Esther; Ortega-Martínez, José Ignacio

    2016-12-01

    Cosmetic breast surgery is the only therapeutic alternative for psychological and physical complications associated with micromasty, breast ptosis, and macromasty. We analyzed the effects of 2 variables, time, and type of cosmetic breast surgery, on anxiety symptomatology and quality of life.Following a mixed 3 × 4 design, 3 groups of women with breast augmentation (n = 63), mastopexy (n = 42), and breast reduction (n = 30) were selected and evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at 4 different times, the preoperative stage, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperative. Pearson's chi square, Welch's U, Games-Howell tests, mixed analysis of variance, and Cohen's d and w for effect size were calculated.Results relating to anxiety (state and trait) showed that the time factor was significant (P < 0.001) with differences between the preoperative stage (higher anxiety levels) and the 3 postoperative stages: at 1 month (P < 0.001), 6 months (P < 0.001), and 12 months (P < 0.001). In quality of life, type of surgery and time factors were found to have interactive effects on vitality (P = 0.044) and role-emotional (P = 0.023) dimensions. Compared to the other 2 groups, women who had undergone mastopexy felt worse (vitality) at 1 month since surgery than in the other stages, and better at 6 months since surgery (role-emotional). In the rest of the dimensions, and focusing on the most relevant effect sizes, the type of surgery made a difference in the physical functioning (P = 0.005) and role-physical (P = 0.020) dimensions, where women who had had breast reduction felt worse than those who had had augmentation. Time also resulted in differences in the physical functioning (P < 0.001), role-physical (P < 0.001), and bodily pain (P < 0.001) dimensions, where women felt worse at 1 month since surgery than during the rest of the stages, as well as in the social functioning dimension (P < 0

  8. Self-reported psychological development in cosmetic breast surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, María Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Arias-Moreno, María Jesús; Rincón-Fernández, María Esther; Ortega-Martínez, José Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cosmetic breast surgery is the only therapeutic alternative for psychological and physical complications associated with micromasty, breast ptosis, and macromasty. We analyzed the effects of 2 variables, time, and type of cosmetic breast surgery, on anxiety symptomatology and quality of life. Following a mixed 3 × 4 design, 3 groups of women with breast augmentation (n = 63), mastopexy (n = 42), and breast reduction (n = 30) were selected and evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at 4 different times, the preoperative stage, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperative. Pearson's chi square, Welch's U, Games-Howell tests, mixed analysis of variance, and Cohen's d and w for effect size were calculated. Results relating to anxiety (state and trait) showed that the time factor was significant (P < 0.001) with differences between the preoperative stage (higher anxiety levels) and the 3 postoperative stages: at 1 month (P < 0.001), 6 months (P < 0.001), and 12 months (P < 0.001). In quality of life, type of surgery and time factors were found to have interactive effects on vitality (P = 0.044) and role-emotional (P = 0.023) dimensions. Compared to the other 2 groups, women who had undergone mastopexy felt worse (vitality) at 1 month since surgery than in the other stages, and better at 6 months since surgery (role-emotional). In the rest of the dimensions, and focusing on the most relevant effect sizes, the type of surgery made a difference in the physical functioning (P = 0.005) and role-physical (P = 0.020) dimensions, where women who had had breast reduction felt worse than those who had had augmentation. Time also resulted in differences in the physical functioning (P < 0.001), role-physical (P < 0.001), and bodily pain (P < 0.001) dimensions, where women felt worse at 1 month since surgery than during the rest of the stages, as well as in the social functioning dimension (P

  9. Different element ratios of red cosmetics excavated from ancient burials of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Minami, T; Yamada, G; Tohno, Y; Tohno, S; Ikeda, Y; Tashiro, T; Kohno, Y; Kawakami, K

    1997-07-01

    Marker elements of red cosmetics, collected from ancient burials of Matsuyama, Tokushima and Nara Japan, were determined by emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). The mass ratios of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Zn were different between samples. Element levels were compared with reference to relative amounts of sulfur. Of the possible contaminants from the bone and sand of burials, the relative amounts of Hg and Fe to S were most commonly available to evaluate the difference between the cosmetics. The cosmetics were divided into four groups; type I (high Hg with less Fe), type II (both moderate Hg and Fe), type III (moderate Hg with high Fe) and type IV (less Hg with high Fe). The main constituents of cosmetics are mercury sulfide (cinnabar) or ferric oxide mixed with trace metals. Zinc contents differ between the Fe and Hg amounts for the three areas. Cosmetic compositions varied with each burial site, suggesting that they were derived from different mines of ancient Japan.

  10. Literature Review of Cosmetic Procedures in Men: Approaches and Techniques are Gender Specific.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Brandon E; Bashey, Sameer; Wysong, Ashley

    2017-02-01

    The proportion of men receiving non-surgical cosmetic procedures has risen substantially in recent years. Various physiologic, anatomic, and motivational considerations differentiate the treatments for male and female patients. Nevertheless, research regarding approaches to the male cosmetic patient is scarce. We sought to provide an overview and sex-specific discussion of the most popular cosmetic dermatologic procedures pursued by men by conducting a comprehensive literature review pertaining to non-surgical cosmetic procedures in male patients. The most common and rapidly expanding non-surgical interventions in men include botulinum toxin, filler injection, chemical peels, microdermabrasion, laser resurfacing, laser hair removal, hair transplantation, and minimally invasive techniques for adipose tissue reduction. Important sex-specific factors associated with each of these procedures should be considered to best serve the male cosmetic patient.

  11. Cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women: Appearance esteem, weight esteem, and fear of negative appearance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Jamie L; Schulz, Jessica L; Markey, Charlotte N

    2016-04-25

    Previous research has examined factors thought to influence individuals' interest in cosmetic surgery, yet few studies have examined these issues among midlife women. This study examines predictors of cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women (N = 114; age = 45-65 years; Mage = 53.7) and considers a previously unexplored variable: fear of negative appearance evaluation. Results indicated that lower weight and appearance esteem were associated with more positive cosmetic surgery attitudes and greater fear of negative appearance evaluation. Furthermore, fear of negative appearance evaluation mediated the relationship between appearance and weight esteem and cosmetic surgery attitudes. We conclude that fear of negative appearance evaluation is an important factor to consider in examining cosmetic surgery attitudes.

  12. Safety assurance of cosmetics in Japan: current situation and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Law distinguishes cosmetics from quasi-drugs, and specifies that they must have a mild effect on the human body and must be safe to use over the long term. Therefore, the safety of cosmetics needs to be thoroughly evaluated and confirmed, taking into account the type of cosmetic, application method, conditions of use and so on. Post-marketing surveys of customers' complaints and case reports of adverse effects are important to monitor and confirm the safety of products. Although manufacturing and marketing of cosmetics are becoming more globalized, the regulations relevant to cosmetics safety still vary from country to country. Thus, compliance with different regulations in various markets is a major issue for producers. In particular, further development of alternatives to animal testing remains an urgent global issue.

  13. Cosmetics alter biologically-based factors of beauty: evidence from facial contrast.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Ward, Robert

    2015-02-28

    The use of cosmetics by women seems to consistently increase their attractiveness. What factors of attractiveness do cosmetics alter to achieve this? Facial contrast is a known cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, and cosmetics exaggerate sexual dimorphisms in facial contrast. Here, we demonstrate that the luminance contrast pattern of the eyes and eyebrows is consistently sexually dimorphic across a large sample of faces, with females possessing lower brow contrasts than males, and greater eye contrast than males. Red-green and yellow-blue color contrasts were not found to differ consistently between the sexes. We also show that women use cosmetics not only to exaggerate sexual dimorphisms of brow and eye contrasts, but also to increase contrasts that decline with age. These findings refine the notion of facial contrast, and demonstrate how cosmetics can increase attractiveness by manipulating factors of beauty associated with facial contrast.

  14. Microvascular complications associated with injection of cosmetic facelift dermal fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefi, Siavash; Prendes, Mark; Chang, Shu-Hong; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-02-01

    Minimally-invasive cosmetic surgeries such as injection of subdermal fillers have become very popular in the past decade. Although rare, some complications may follow injections such as tissue necrosis and even blindness. There exist two hypothesis regarding source of these complications both of which include microvasculature. The first hypothesis is that fillers in between the tissue structures and compress microvasculature that causes blockage of tissue neutrition and oxygen exchange in the tissue. In another theory, it is hypothesized that fillers move inside major arteries and block the arteries/veins. In this paper, we study these hypotheses using optical coherence tomography and optical microangiography technologies with different hyaluronic-acid fillers in a mouse ear model. Based on our observations, the fillers eventually block arteries/veins if injected directly into them that eventually causes tissue necrosis.

  15. Applications of ternary systems in specific cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Comelles, F; Megias, V; Sánchez, J; Parra, J L; Coll, J; Balaguer, F; Pelejero, C

    1989-02-01

    Synopsis The study of ternary systems leads to the understanding of the physico-chemical aspect and allows the contribution of the different components to a cosmetic formulation to be developed. The present investigation was centred in the zone of transparent get belonging to a previously studied ternary system containing a broad variety of different structural compositions. The possibility of including an active sunscreen as well as the ability to increase the water content of the gel was studied. The microscopical study of the compositions with polarized light allowed us to assign the corresponding different structures. A correlation between these structures and their physico-chemical properties, with special emphasis to rheology, has been established.

  16. Mercury toxicity due to use of a cosmetic cream.

    PubMed

    McRill, C; Boyer, L V; Flood, T J; Ortega, L

    2000-01-01

    The Arizona Department of Health Services performed an investigation to determine the health effects associated with the use of a mercury-containing beauty cream. A urine test for mercury was offered to cream users who contacted the Arizona Department of Health Services. Those with urine mercury levels > 20 micrograms/L were offered clinical evaluation. Eighty-nine urine specimens were submitted for testing. Of these, 66 showed an elevated urine mercury level (> 20 micrograms/L), and 55 people were evaluated in clinic. There were no major abnormalities found through physical examination or laboratory testing. Urine mercury levels declined from an initial mean of 170 micrograms/L to 32 micrograms/L at the final test (mean, 139 days later). The high urine mercury levels indicate that the use of this cosmetic cream constitutes a significant exposure. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were frequently reported, but few objective signs were noted.

  17. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar

  18. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawhney, Mossum K.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Over the last few years, low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be beneficial to the field of aesthetic medicine, specifically aesthetic dermatology. LLLT encompasses a broad spectrum of procedures, primarily cosmetic, which provide treatment options for a myriad of dermatological conditions. Dermatological disorders involving inflammation, acne, scars, aging and pigmentation have been investigated with the assistance of animal models and clinical trials. The most commercially successful use of LLLT is for managing alopecia (hair loss) in both men and women. LLLT also seems to play an influential role in procedures such as lipoplasty and liposuction, allowing for noninvasive and nonthermal methods of subcutaneous fat reduction. LLLT offers a means to address such conditions with improved efficacy versatility and no known side-effects; however comprehensive literature reports covering the utility of LLLT are scarce and thus the need for coverage arises.

  19. [Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity of certain preservative agents in cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Jantová, S; Hojerová, J; Hanusová, B; Mikulásová, M

    2001-09-01

    Cytotoxic effects of the preservative compounds for cosmetics JMAC TD, Bronopol, CA 24, and Euxyl K100 were studied. Bronopol demonstrated the highest cytotoxic effect on the proliferation of V79 and VH10 fibroblast cell lines--the IC100 values being 10 mg/l during the whole experiment. The preservatives CA 24 and Euxyl K100 showed 4-times and 5-times smaller cytotoxic activity than Bronopol IC100 = 42 or 50.3 mg/l). The preservative compounds on silver chloride ions JMAC TD manifested the lowest cytotoxicity of the preservatives tested (IC100 = 150 mg/l); 15-times smaller than Bronopol, 3.5-times smaller than CA 24 and 3-times smaller than Euxyl K100. The biocide JMAC TD did not exhibit mutagenic effects on the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100.

  20. Hair as a filler material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kaakedjian, G; Taylor, P

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible use of hair as a filler material for reconstructive or cosmetic surgery. Many implant materials tested so far have proved to be of limited usefulness due to a lack of staying power or to fears of a host immune response, among other problems. In this study, pellets of rat hair were placed subcutaneously or beneath the pectoral muscle of Lewis rats (10 rats per group). A thin vascularized fibrous pouch containing inflammatory cells had formed around the hair pellet at 4 months. By 8 to 12 months, the hair had compacted, and the fibrous matrix of the pouch showed very few inflammatory cells surrounding the embedded hairs. There was no evidence of implant rejection, granuloma formation, or hair degradation up to 12 months after implantation. The results indicate that hair merits further study as a surgical implant material.

  1. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: a legally imposed challenge to science.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, M; Rogiers, V

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  2. Human health safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU: A legally imposed challenge to science

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, M.; Rogiers, V.

    2010-03-01

    As stated in the European legislation, cosmetic products present on the European market must be safe for the consumer. Safety evaluation of the products is carried out by a qualified safety assessor who needs to consider potential exposure scenarios next to the physicochemical and toxicological profiles of all composing ingredients. Whereas, until recently, the tools to determine the toxicological profile of cosmetic ingredients mainly consisted of animal experiments, they have now been narrowed down substantially by the legally imposed animal testing ban on cosmetic ingredients, taken up in the Cosmetic Products Directive (76/768/EEC). This Directive, however, is not a stand-alone piece of European legislation, since as well directly as indirectly it is influenced by a complex web of related legislations. Vertical legislations deal with different categories of chemicals, including dangerous substances, biocides, plant protection products, food additives, medicinal products, and of course also cosmetics. Horizontal legislative texts, on the contrary, cover more general fields such as protection of experimental animals, consumer product safety, misleading of consumers, specific provisions for aerosols, and others. Experience has learnt that having a general overview of these related legislations is necessary to understand their impact on the cosmetic world in general terms and on cosmetic safety evaluation in particular. This goes for a variety of concerned parties, including national and European regulators/agencies, contract laboratories, raw material suppliers, cosmetic companies, research and educational centers. They all deal with a number of aspects important for the quality and toxicity of cosmetics and their ingredients. This review summarises the most relevant points of the legislative texts of different types of product categories and emphasises their impact on the safety evaluation of cosmetics.

  3. Standardized extract of Syzygium aqueum: a safe cosmetic ingredient.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, U D; Ling, L T; Manaharan, T; Sivapalan, V; Subramaniam, T; Helme, M H; Masilamani, T

    2011-06-01

    Syzygium aqueum, a species in the Myrtaceae family, commonly called the water jambu is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is well documented as a medicinal plant, and various parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine, for instance as an antibiotic. In this study, we show S. aqueum leaf extracts to have a significant composition of phenolic compounds, protective activity against free radicals as well as low pro-oxidant capability. Its ethanolic extract, in particular, is characterized by its excellent radical scavenging activity of EC(50) of 133 μg mL(-1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 65 μg mL(-1) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 71 μg mL(-1) (Galvinoxyl), low pro-oxidant capabilities and a phenolic content of 585-670 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The extract also displayed other activities, deeming it an ideal cosmetic ingredient. A substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity with an IC(50) of about 60 μg mL(-1) was observed. In addition, the extract was also found to have anti-cellulite activity tested for its ability to cause 98% activation of lipolysis of adipocytes (fat cells) at a concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). In addition, the extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cell lines up to a concentration of 600 μg mL(-1). Although various parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine, this is the first time it has been shown to have cosmeceutical properties. Therefore, the use of this extract, alone or in combination with other active principles, is of interest to the cosmetic industry.

  4. 78 FR 62709 - Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... BUDGET Calendar Year 2013 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery rates referenced are effective upon publication of...

  5. 76 FR 72003 - Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... the cost of outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... BUDGET Calendar Year 2011 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by... outpatient medical, dental, and cosmetic surgery services rates referenced are effective upon publication...

  6. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  7. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  8. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  9. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  10. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  11. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  12. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  13. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  14. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  15. 40 CFR 2.308 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 2.308 Section 2.308 Protection of... § 2.308 Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic... Cosmetic Act, as amended, 21 U.S.C. 301 et seq. (2) Petition means a petition for the issuance of...

  16. Insights on in vitro models for safety and toxicity assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Andreia; Sarmento, Bruno; Rodrigues, Francisca

    2017-01-16

    According to the current European legislation, the safety assessment of each individual cosmetic ingredient of any formulation is the basis for the safety evaluation of a cosmetic product. Also, animal testing in the European Union is prohibited for cosmetic ingredients and products since 2004 and 2009, respectively. Additionally, the commercialization of any cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animal models was forbidden in 2009. In consequence of these boundaries, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) proposes a list of validated cell-based in vitro models for predicting the safety and toxicity of cosmetic ingredients. These models have been demonstrated as valuable and effective tools to overcome the limitations of animal in vivo studies. Although the use of in vitro cell-based models for the evaluation of absorption and permeability of cosmetic ingredients is widespread, a detailed study on the properties of these platforms and the in vitro-in vivo correlation compared with human data are required. Moreover, additional efforts must be taken to develop in vitro models to predict carcinogenicity, repeat dose toxicity and reproductive toxicity, for which no alternative in vitro methods are currently available. This review paper summarizes and characterizes the most relevant in vitro models validated by ECVAM employed to predict the safety and toxicology of cosmetic ingredients.

  17. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  18. Safety evaluation of cosmetics in the EU. Reality and challenges for the toxicologist.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2004-06-15

    Council Directive 76/768/EEC, its seven amendments and 30 adaptations to technical progress form the basis of the cosmetic EU legislation today. There are actually four key principles for safety in the cosmetic legislation. (i) The full responsibility for the safety of cosmetics for human health is placed on the manufacturer, first importer in the EU or marketer. (ii) The safety evaluation of finished products is based on safety of individual ingredients, more specifically on their chemical structure, toxicological profile and their level of exposure. (iii) A compilation of information on each cosmetic product (dossier) must be kept readily available for inspection by the competent authorities of the Member State concerned. This information source, usually called a technical information file (TIF) or product information file/requirements (PIF(R)), contains, as the most important part, the safety assessment of the product undersigned by a competent safety assessor. (iv) The use of validated replacement alternative methods instead of animal testing forms the 4th key principle for safety of cosmetic products on the EU market. The 7th amendment imposes strict deadlines for the abolition of animal in vivo studies on cosmetic ingredients. These legal requirements induce a number of important challenges for the cosmetic industry and more specifically for the toxicologist involved as safety assessor.

  19. Allergic contact dermatitis due to cosmetics: A clinical and epidemiological study in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ninet, V; Blasco Encinas, R; Vilata-Corell, J J; Pérez-Ferriols, A; Sierra-Talamantes, C; Esteve-Martínez, A; de la Cuadra-Oyanguren, J

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to cosmetics in the general population is rising with the increasing use of cosmetic products and their proliferation and diversification. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of ACD to cosmetics in our setting, analyze changes over time, describe the clinical and epidemiological features of this allergic reaction, and identify the allergens and cosmetics involved. We performed a prospective study at the skin allergy unit in Hospital General Universitario de Valencia in Spain between 2005 and 2013 and compared our findings with data collected retrospectively for the period 1996 to 2004. The 5419 patients who underwent patch testing during these 2 periods were included in the study. The mean prevalence of ACD to cosmetics increased from 9.8% in the first period (1996-2004) to 13.9% in the second period (2005-2013). A significant correlation was found between ACD to cosmetics and female sex but not atopy. Kathon CG (blend of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone), fragrances, and paraphenylenediamine were the most common causes of ACD to cosmetics during both study periods, and acrylates and sunscreens were identified as emerging allergens during the second period.

  20. Sex Differences in the Perceived Dominance and Prestige of Women With and Without Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Mileva, Viktoria R; Jones, Alex L; Russell, Richard; Little, Anthony C

    2016-10-01

    Women wearing cosmetics have been associated with a higher earning potential and higher status jobs. However, recent literature suggests that status can be accrued through two distinct routes: dominance and prestige. In two experiments, we applied a standardized amount of cosmetics to female faces using computer software. We then asked participants to rate faces with and without cosmetics for various traits including attractiveness, dominance, and prestige. Men and women both rated the faces with cosmetics added as higher in attractiveness. However, only women rated faces with cosmetics as higher in dominance, while only men rated them as higher in prestige. In a follow-up study, we investigated whether these enhanced perceptions of dominance from women were caused by jealousy. We found that women experience more jealousy toward women with cosmetics, and view these women as more attractive to men and more promiscuous. Our findings suggest that cosmetics may function as an extended phenotype and can alter other's perceptions differently depending on the perceiver's sex.

  1. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  2. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion.

  3. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-28

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  4. Is urine an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol?

    PubMed

    Agius, Ronald; Dufaux, Bertin; Kahl, Hans-Gerhard; Nadulski, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This study attempts to assess the utility of the urine matrix as an alternative to cosmetically treated hair for the detection of drugs and alcohol for driving licence re-granting in 1026 cosmetically treated hair samples and 33 262 urine routine samples. No significant difference was observed between the percentage positive samples in cosmetically treated hair to those in urine at both the 95% and 99% significance level for amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, benzodiazepines, and methadone. Significant difference was found between the positivity rates of cannabinoids in cosmetically treated hair and that in urine indicating urine to be a better alternative to the use of the hair matrix even when cosmetically treated. The opposite was observed for the alcohol consumption marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) for which the positivity rate in cosmetically treated hair was twice that in urine samples. Particularly for alcohol abstinence monitoring, as for the rehabilitative driving licence re-granting medical and psychological assessment (MPA) programme in Germany, it seems that ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair presents a much better alternative than urine testing, even when cosmetically treated hair is analyzed. Moreover, segmentation is an additional advantage of hair testing which can provide additional useful information.

  5. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in a general population in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) due to common cosmetic allergens in standard series has been extensively studied; however, the prevalence of contact allergy to other cosmetic allergens other than those in standard series is largely unknown. In this study, the frequency of contact sensitization to a European cosmetic series of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Vellinge, Sweden) in healthy university student volunteers were detected in Beijing. Of 201 students studied, fifty-eight exhibited positive results, and 9 of them reported had cosmetics related dermatitis previously. The total positivity rate was not correlated to gender. The leading allergens were thimerosal (19.4%), shellac (3.0%), cocamidopropyl betaine (2.0%), hexamethylenetetramine (1.5%), dodecyl gallate (1.5%), hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (1.0%) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.0%). The positivity rate of thimerosal patch test in men (9.8%) was lower than that of women (23.6%, P < 0.05, Chi square test), but no difference could be found between the prevalence of other cosmetic allergens in men and women (P > 0.05, Chi square test). These results suggested that some cosmetic-related contact allergies may be missed by just testing patients with the European standard series or T.R.U.E. test system only, we recommend shellac, cocamidopropyl betaine, hexamethylenetetramine and dodecyl gallate as the additionally candidates for patch testing in patients with suspected CACD.

  6. Motivating factors for seeking cosmetic surgery: a synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haas, Cynthia Figueroa; Champion, Angela; Secor, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    The fascination in physical beauty is becoming more and more prevalent in today's society. Beauty in American culture is defined by the media through magazines, television, and music. The perfect career, the perfect family, social status, and high self-esteem all revolve around having an impeccable figure. Research shows that 94% of the covers of women's magazines showcase a woman with a thin physique (A. R., Malkin, K., Wornian, & J. C. Chrisler, 1999). Therefore, it is not surprising that year after year, millions of people elect for cosmetic surgery. According to the , approximately 11.7 million cosmetic surgical and nonsurgical procedures were performed and Americans spent $13.2 billion on these procedures. This is a 457% increase since 1997. As the demand for elective cosmetic surgery continues to rise, it is important for healthcare employees to recognize the motive behind the decision to seek cosmetic surgery. The purpose of this literature review project was to ascertain those factors that influence or motivate patients to seek cosmetic surgery. This project investigated physical, psychiatric, and psychosocial factors associated with individuals who undergo elective cosmetic surgery. It has been shown that the motivation for cosmetic surgery is based on a combination of psychological and emotional factors. Researchers surmise that body image, teasing history, and self-esteem were associated with motivational factors for those patients who elected to seek cosmetic surgery (T. Soest, I. L. Kvalem, K. C. Skolleborg, & H. E. Roald, 2006). In addition, the researchers concluded that body dysmorphic disorder, education, and culture are also predicting factors in the decision to have cosmetic surgery.

  7. The Real Cost of “Cosmetic Tourism” Cost Analysis Study of “Cosmetic Tourism” Complications Presenting to a Public Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic Tourism,” the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from “cosmetic tourism” and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve “cosmetic tourism” patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The “cosmetic tourism” model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider. PMID:26240672

  8. Cosmetically Induced Disorders of the Nail with Update on Contemporary Nail Manicures

    PubMed Central

    Tosti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The nail carries a significant cosmetic impact and plays an integral role in the multi-billion dollar salon industry. This review focuses on nail disorders that are induced by nail cosmetics via procedures, equipment, or materials that are intended to beautify or adorn the nail. The authors give specific attention to clinical presentations that are common, novel, and underreported, but may be misdiagnosed easily by the competent dermatologist. They also provide an update on the controversies surrounding contemporary nail cosmetic procedures, such as acrylic and gel manicures. PMID:27462387

  9. Bioprocesses for the manufacture of ingredients for foods and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Peter S J

    2004-01-01

    This chapter describes the rapid growth in the use of biotransformation processes to manufacture food and cosmetic ingredients. Newly introduced processes include those to produce both ingredients not previously available, and also improved processes to make ingredients previously produced by chemical synthesis, fermentation or extraction from natural sources. What can we learn from what has already been achieved that will help us in the future? This question is very important because the key challenge is not just to do innovative research, but also to develop such research into cost-effective industrial scale processes that deliver products of proven utility to the end customer, and at prices that give good returns on R&D investments to the manufacturer. Therefore biotransformation R&D information is presented in the real-life context of manufacturing, IP, regulatory and safety, product costs and quality etc. Examples of new ingredients and processes are given that illustrate the great variety of ingredients produced biochemically, and the range of raw materials and enzyme reactions used to make them. These examples also illustrate how the technical advances made in developing these processes and products are inseparable from economic factors, especially production costs and functional benefits that create the demand and set the performance, cost, and quality standards for the product. Many of the key factors necessary for the translation of research into commercial successes are identified and described, as well as some special features that have helped individual processes to become successful. This review also proves that a key factor for success is management that can successfully integrate and implement the large number of different technical and commercial factors involved. The wide range of examples provided also prove that very many of the technical advances made in the field of applied biocatalysis have actually been made while developing processes for

  10. The cosmetic dye quinoline yellow causes DNA damage in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chequer, Farah Maria Drumond; Venâncio, Vinícius de Paula; de Souza Prado, Maíra Rocha; Campos da Silva e Cunha Junior, Luiz Raimundo; Lizier, Thiago Mescoloto; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Rodríguez Burbano, Rommel; Bianchi, Maria Lourdes Pires; Antunes, Lusânia Maria Greggi

    2015-01-01

    Quinoline yellow (QY) is a chinophthalon derivative used in cosmetic compositions for application to the skin, lips, and/or body surface. However, regulatory data about the genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity of this compound are still controversial. Therefore, this work evaluated the genotoxicity of QY using the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-Cyt) in the metabolically competent cell line HepG2, which closely mimics phase I metabolism. This research also identified the products formed after electrochemical oxidation of the QY dye, which simulates hepatic biotransformation. The primary products generated after the oxidation process were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with a Diode Array Detector (HPLC/DAD), which detected the production of 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane, 2-methoxy-5-methylaniline and 4,4'-oxydianiline. The results demonstrated that low (from 0.5 to 20 μg mL(-1)) QY concentrations were genotoxic in HepG2 cells on both assays and those harmful compounds were detected after the oxidation process. Our findings suggest that this colorant could cause harmful effects to humans if it is metabolized or absorbed through the skin.

  11. Cosmetic assessment of the human hair by confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hadjur, Christophe; Daty, Gérard; Madry, Geneviève; Corcuff, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The optical sectioning property of the confocal microscope offers a breakthrough from the classic observation of the hair in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Confocal microscopy requires minimal sampling preparation, and the hair can be observed in its natural environment with less damage than by other microscopic methods such as SEM. While used in the reflection mode, the true morphology of the cuticle and the various exogenous deposits at the surface can be identified and quantified. This relatively noninvasive, nondestructive technique is routinely used by us to monitor the efficiency of cleansing shampoos, to assess the homogeneity of layering polymers, and to evaluate the changes they induce in the optical properties of the hair surface in terms of opacity, transparency, and brilliancy. A second important field of investigation uses the fluorescence channel which reveals the internal structure of the hair. Fluorescent probes (rhodamine and its derivatives) demonstrate the routes of penetration and outline the geometry of cortical cells and of the medulla according to their lipophilic or hydrophilic properties. A volume rendering of a hair cylinder provides a better understanding of the interrelationships between cuticle cells, cortical cells, and the medullar channel. This recent technology is becoming an invaluable tool for the cosmetic assessment of the hair.

  12. [Cosmetic blepharoplasty complicated by necrotizing periorbital fasciitis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Laouar, K; Ruban, J-M; Baggio, E; Dupeyron, G

    2012-06-01

    Necrotizing periorbital or palpebro-orbital fasciitis represents a unique anatomical site for necrotizing fasciitis, which is an extremely rare and very severe, potentially devastating bacterial infection, rapidly leading to facial necrosis with loss of vision and even death of the patient from toxic shock. In this paper, we report a case of necrotizing periorbital fasciitis as a complication of cosmetic lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Necrotizing fasciitis most often affects the upper and lower limbs, the trunk and the perineal area. It is rarely observed in the facial region due to the rich blood supply in this area. The most commonly implicated pathogen is group A, β-hemolytic "pyogenic"Streptococcus, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, such as staphylococcus or pseudomonas. Mortality varies according to the series and anatomical site. The mortality rate for necrotizing fasciitis is approximately 28 %. It is slightly lower in the periorbital area (15 %). Risk factors for death include alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, immunocompromise, hematologic or pulmonary diseases, and the identity of the causative agent (group A Streptococcus), although approximately 50 % of patients have no predisposing conditions. Management of periorbital necrotizing fasciitis is based on early detection of initial symptoms and on aggressive multidisciplinary treatment including surgical debridement of necrotic areas and antibiotic coverage. The timeliness of treatment and the multidisciplinary approach are considered to be the two essential factors in influencing the mortality and morbidity of this condition.

  13. Q-switched ruby laser in cosmetic dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopera, Daisy

    1996-12-01

    The q-switched ruby laser has shown promising results in the treatment of blue and black tattoos. The red light of the ruby laser, 694 nm wavelength, selectively absorbed by dark pigments, is converted into heat and pigments are immediately vaporized. Energy levels range between 4, 5 and 12 J/cm2. Short exposure time does not exceed the thermal relaxation time of the target structures. Thus, thermal damage of the surrounding tissue is minimal. Not only exogenous pigment as tattoo ink but also physiological pigmented structures as melanocytes, melanosome loaden keratinocytes, and melanophages are affected by this type of laser application. Therefore the ruby laser represents a new option in the treatment of a variety of benign pigmented lesions in cosmetic dermatology. The benefit of this source can be seen in efficient clearing of the lesions without scarring. As a side effect transient hypopigmentation may occur. Ruby laser treatment of melanocytic lesions cannot be recommended because unpigmented nevus cells do not absorb red light and persist unaltered. They still bear the potency of further transformation, as into malignancy.

  14. [Fetal experimentation, transplantations, cosmetics and their connection with induced abortion].

    PubMed

    Redondo Calderón, José Luis

    2012-01-01

    The increase in induced abortion produces large numbers of cells, tissues and organs, which are used in several fields of Medicine, either in research or in treatment. The main uses are in Cardiology, Hematology, Metabolism, Embryology, Neurology, Immunology, Ophthalmology, Dermatology and Transplantations. Flavor enhancers and cosmetics also benefit. Utilitarianism has led to an increase in abortion-originated cell and tissue banks. Abortion is justified through the manipulation of language. Vested interests give rise to complicity in researchers and society as a whole. Abortion and tissue 'donation' cannot be split; since fresh tissues are involved there is a symbiotic relationship between them. Valid consent is not possible. A contradiction emerges, the nasciturus is not desired or valued but fetal organs are. When someone is deprived of his rights it is because another wants to enslave them. Research must have a moral base. Knowledge should not be increased at any price. Something that is legal and well intentioned is not always morally acceptable. The duty of omission is applicable. Means to achieve a goal must be ethical means. Educational efforts to restore respect for the human embryo and fetus must be promoted. Technical advances are not always in accordance with human nature and dignity. Research and treatment that do not resort to cells, tissues and organs obtained from induced abortions should be promoted.

  15. Microbiological characterisation of southern African medicinal and cosmetic clays.

    PubMed

    Mpuchane, Sisai F; Ekosse, Georges-Ivo E; Gashe, Berhanu A; Morobe, Isaac; Coetzee, Stephan H

    2010-02-01

    The effects of traditionally used medicinal and cosmetic clays in southern Africa on selected microorganisms were studied using microbiological media. The clay pH, microchemical composition, kind of associated microorganisms and antimicrobial activity of clays against test microorganisms were determined. The clays contained varying numbers of microorganisms which ranged from 0 up to 105 CFU/g. Clay pH ranged from 2.3-8.9. Neither Escherichia coli, nor other faecal coliforms were detected. Clays of pH value of <4 displayed antimicrobial activities. Clays which were active against test microorganisms had Na(2)O, Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), SO(3), CuO or Cl(2)O as major components. Microbial activity of clays was attributed mainly to low pH but cations such as Cu, Al, S or Cl and various anions might have contributed to the microbicidal effects. No antimicrobial activity was established for many of the clays commonly used in the treatment of common ailments of microbial origin.

  16. Multi-pathway exposure modelling of chemicals in cosmetics ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quantified based on the chemical mass originally applied via a product, multiplied by the product intake fractions (PiF, the fraction of a chemical in a product that is taken in by exposed persons) to yield intake rates. The average PiFs for the evaluated chemicals in shampoo ranged from 3 × 10− 4 up to 0.3 for rapidly absorbed ingredients. Average intake rates ranged between nano- and micrograms per kilogram bodyweight per day; the order of chemical prioritization was strongly affected by the ingredient concentration in shampoo. Dermal intake and inhalation (for 20% of the evaluated chemicals) during use dominated exposure, while the skin permeation coefficient dominated the estimated uncertainties. The fraction of chemical taken in by a shampoo user often exceeded, by orders of magnitude, the aggregated fraction taken in by the population through post-use environmental emissions. Chemicals with relatively high octanol-water partitioning and/or volatility, and low molecular weight tended to have higher use stage exposure. Chemicals with low intakes during use (< 1%) and subsequent high post-use emissions, however, may yield comparable intake for a member of the general population. The pre

  17. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally... customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that the use of methylene...

  18. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally... customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that the use of methylene...

  19. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally... customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that the use of methylene...

  20. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as an ingredient of aerosol cosmetic products, principally hair sprays, at concentrations generally... customary use of hair sprays, the Food and Drug Administration concludes that the use of methylene...

  1. Amended safety assessment of Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) has issued an amended safety assessment of 7 Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. A common name for this plant is St John wort. These ingredients function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and antimicrobial agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the H perforatum-derived ingredients. Because formulators may use more than 1 botanical ingredient in a formulation, caution was urged to avoid levels of toxicological concern for constituent chemicals and impurities. The Panel concluded that H perforatum-derived ingredients were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

  2. Final report of the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients derived from Zea mays (corn).

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2011-05-01

    Many cosmetic ingredients are derived from Zea mays (corn). While safety test data were not available for most ingredients, similarities in preparation and the resulting similar composition allowed extrapolation of safety data to all listed ingredients. Animal studies included acute toxicity, ocular and dermal irritation studies, and dermal sensitization studies. Clinical studies included dermal irritation and sensitization. Case reports were available for the starch as used as a donning agent in medical gloves. Studies of many other endpoints, including reproductive and developmental toxicity, use corn oil as a vehicle control with no reported adverse effects at levels used in cosmetics. While industry should continue limiting ingredient impurities such as pesticide residues before blending into a cosmetic formulation, the CIR Expert Panel determined that corn-derived ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration described in the assessment.

  3. 21 CFR 700.19 - Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Program, methylene chloride produced a significant increase in benign and malignant tumors of the lung and... in cosmetic products poses a significant cancer risk to consumers, and that the use of...

  4. 78 FR 20662 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics... Drug Administration (FDA or we) is announcing a public meeting entitled, ``International Cooperation...

  5. Safety Assessment of Panax spp Root-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 13 Panax spp root-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Panax "spp" indicates that multiple species within the genus are used in cosmetics, but not all species within that genus. Four species are being considered in this safety assessment. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous, fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents-humectant, skin-conditioning agents-emollient, and cosmetic astringents. The Panel reviewed available data related to these ingredients and addressed the issue of pulegone, a constituent of these ingredients and other ingredients, such as peppermint oil. The Panel concluded that these Panax spp root-derived ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  6. 75 FR 56506 - Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Beauty and Cosmetics Trade Mission to India; Application Deadline Extended and Acceptance To Participate Changed to First-Come First- Serve Basis AGENCY: International...

  7. Anesthesia and safety considerations for office-based cosmetic surgery practice.

    PubMed

    Bogan, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    With more surgical procedures than ever before being performed in office settings, office-based anesthesia is a rapidly growing area of anesthesia practice. Although there are many advantages to office-based practice, limitations inherent to this setting, if not recognized and addressed, may threaten patient safety. The demand for cosmetic surgery is considered one of the driving factors in the exponential growth of office-based anesthesia. Anesthesia for cosmetic surgery procedures in the office setting is frequently performed under monitored anesthesia care (MAC) with its own unique safety considerations. Anesthetists practicing in office-based cosmetic surgery practices must understand the special characteristics of this setting, the MAC-based approach often used, the anesthesia and safety considerations for the cosmetic surgical procedures performed, and the importance of prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism.

  8. Final report of the amended safety assessment of Quaternium-15 as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Hill, Ronald; Leibler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Quaternium-15 is an antimicrobial agent used in cosmetics as a cosmetic preservative and antistatic agent. Little systemic toxicity was reported in most single-dose or repeated-dose animal studies. Quaternium-15 was an oral teratogen, but not a dermal teratogen, in rats at doses that exceeded the expected cumulative exposure from cosmetics. The frequency of sensitization increased in North America but not in Europe, where Quaternium-15 is used less often. In almost all animal and human studies, Quaternium-15 at 0.2% was not a sensitizer. The weight of evidence suggested that a 0.2% concentration is not a sensitizer and that cosmetic products containing Quaternium-15 up to that level are safe.

  9. Safe usage of cosmetics in Bangladesh: a quality perspective based on microbiological attributes.

    PubMed

    Noor, Rashed; Zerin, Nagma; Das, Kamal Kanta; Nitu, Luthfun Naher

    2015-12-01

    The present review attempted to emphasize on the microbiological quality of the commonly used cosmetics item by the majority of the Bangladeshi community. The abundance of contaminating microorganisms has been quantitatively discussed and the possible health risk has been focused upon usage of these items. Only a very few research efforts have been conducted on the cosmetic items in Bangladesh so far. The microbiological contamination aspects have been portrayed in this review using the information collected from a substantial number of cosmetic items which were earlier subjected to extensive microbiological and biochemical analyses. The prevalence of bacteria, fungi and the specific pathogenic microorganisms has been discussed based on research so far locally conducted on the finished items sold in markets, especially within the Dhaka metropolis. The laboratory scale experiments revealed the presence of enormous number of bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi within the commonly used cosmetics. Conversely, the anti-bacterial activity was noticed in some of the products which might be in favor of the user safety. The prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms in the cosmetic items certainly raises a substantial public health issue. The necessity of the routine microbiological testing of the commonly used cosmetic items as well as the legislative measures to mitigate the contamination problem is thus of great significance.

  10. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Andreana

    2015-09-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a somatoform disorder characterised by a distressing obsession with an imagined or slight appearance defect, which can significantly impair normal day-to-day functioning. Patients with BDD often first present, and are hence diagnosed, in cosmetic surgery settings. Several studies have investigated the prevalence rate of BDD in the general population or have done so for patients referring to cosmetic medical centers. To date, however, no review has been undertaken to compare the prevalence in the general community versus in a cosmetic surgery setting. Despite the lack of such a review it is a commonly held belief that BDD is more common in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. The current study aims to review the available literature in order to investigate whether BDD is indeed more prevalent in patients requesting cosmetic surgery, and if that is the case, to provide possible reasons for the difference in prevalence. In addition this review provides evidence on the effectiveness of cosmetic surgery as a treatment of BDD.

  11. A rapid and sensitive method for the detection of aromatic amines in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Hailong, Xiao; Fen, Qian; Ying, Xu; Jianhong, Pan; Haiyun, Tu; Hongqing, Wang; Saijun, Lin; Jichun, Han

    2014-02-01

    Aromatic amines (AAs) are common chemical pollutants and banned ingredients in cosmetics. In this study, a rapid, simple and stable method for the detection of nine AAs in cosmetics was established based on the optimization of cation exchange solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method displayed good linearity within a range of 2-1,000 µg/kg, with limits of quantitation at the level of µg/kg for cosmetic samples. The recoveries obtained for all analyzed amines ranged between 83.6 and 97.8%, and the repeatability (r) and reproducibility (R) values indicated that all nine AAs showed good precision (r ≤ 4.5% and R ≤ 7.7%). The method was applied for the detection of 36 cosmetic samples. It was found that the primary pollutants of AAs were 3, 3'-dichlorobenzidine and 4-aminoazobenzene. The total amine concentration in cosmetic samples ranged from 880 to 5,200 µg/kg. The proposed method is applicable for the analysis of most cosmetic samples.

  12. Simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Airin; Doi, Takahiro; Tagami, Takaomi; Kajimura, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    Preservatives prevent the growth of microorganisms in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. There exist numerous restrictions regarding the maximum allowable levels of preservatives in cosmetics. We analyzed 11 regulated preservatives in commercial cosmetics and manufacturers need to analyze their products for quality control purposes. However, methods used in previous studies to date have been inadequate for use by public institutions and manufacturers. Therefore, an effective, scalable method for the analysis of preservatives in cosmetics is required. We developed a novel method for the simultaneous determination of 11 regulated preservatives in cosmetics by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We applied the samples to a C18 column in a simple mobile phase (5 mmol/L ammonium formate solution and acetonitrile) with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at a single wavelength (230 nm). The correlation coefficients of the calibration curves were >0.997. The percent recoveries were 92.8-111.9% and the relative standard deviations were <4.3% (n = 6). The peak resolution for all preservatives was >1.9. Because of the simple conditions for isolation and complete separation, the HPLC method can be effectively applied to the analysis of preservatives in commercially retailed cosmetics.

  13. HS-GC-MS method for the analysis of fragrance allergens in complex cosmetic matrices.

    PubMed

    Desmedt, B; Canfyn, M; Pype, M; Baudewyns, S; Hanot, V; Courselle, P; De Beer, J O; Rogiers, V; De Paepe, K; Deconinck, E

    2015-01-01

    Potential allergenic fragrances are part of the Cosmetic Regulation with labelling and concentration restrictions. This means that they have to be declared on the ingredients list, when their concentration exceeds the labelling limit of 10 ppm or 100 ppm for leave-on or rinse-off cosmetics, respectively. Labelling is important regarding consumer safety. In this way, sensitised people towards fragrances might select their products based on the ingredients list to prevent elicitation of an allergic reaction. It is therefore important to quantify potential allergenic ingredients in cosmetic products. An easy to perform liquid extraction was developed, combined with a new headspace GC-MS method. The latter was capable of analysing 24 volatile allergenic fragrances in complex cosmetic formulations, such as hydrophilic (O/W) and lipophilic (W/O) creams, lotions and gels. This method was successfully validated using the total error approach. The trueness deviations for all components were smaller than 8%, and the expectation tolerance limits did not exceed the acceptance limits of ± 20% at the labelling limit. The current methodology was used to analyse 18 cosmetic samples that were already identified as being illegal on the EU market for containing forbidden skin whitening substances. Our results showed that these cosmetic products also contained undeclared fragrances above the limit value for labelling, which imposes an additional health risk for the consumer.

  14. Skin nonpenetrating sunscreens for cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Elka; Godin, Biana

    2008-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation produces harmful effects on the skin including sunburn, local immunosuppression, skin photoaging, and cutaneous malignancies. Although application of sunscreens is the "gold standard" for protecting the skin from UV radiation, studies have shown that currently used sunscreens can cause adverse skin and systemic reactions, owing to their penetration into the viable cutaneous strata and to transdermal absorption. This paper presents new nonpermeating sunscreens (NPSUN) suitable for use in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. The basic idea behind the design of the new photoprotectors was to immobilize UV-absorbing moieties in the Jojoba oil chemical backbone. The physicochemical characteristics of NPSUNs allow these derivatives to remain confined to the upper stratum corneum where the sunscreen molecule acts, with no further clearance to deeper dermal strata or systemic circulation. As an example, no permeation across the skin of methoxycinnamate-NPSUN was observed during 24-hour in vitro experiments, after topical application of either unformulated substances or of methoxycinnamate-NPSUNs formulated in oil-in-water cream, in water-in-oil cream, or in Jojoba oil. Another approach to increase the photoprotective effect against the UV radiation is targeting the delivery of alpha tocopherol into the deeper skin layers and across the cell membranes. This is necessary for optimal photoprotection and prevention of malignant processes. For this purpose, ethosomal vitamin E compositions were designed, characterized, and tested. Efficient intracellular and dermal accumulation of vitamin E from ethosomes was demonstrated. A good clinical strategy could be the use of NPSUNs during direct UV exposure followed by the application of alpha-tocopherol compositions after short- or long-term solar radiation.

  15. Biological Properties of Acidic Cosmetic Water from Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei-Ting; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Pan, Jian-Liang; Liang, Shih-Shin; Chen, Bing-Hung; Chen, Shi-Hui; Liu, Po-Len; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hui-Min; Hsiao, Shu-Wen

    2012-01-01

    This current work was to investigate the biological effects of acidic cosmetic water (ACW) on various biological assays. ACW was isolated from seawater and demonstrated several bio-functions at various concentration ranges. ACW showed a satisfactory effect against Staphylococcus aureus, which reduced 90% of bacterial growth after a 5-second exposure. We used cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to test the properties of ACW in inflammatory cytokine release, and it did not induce inflammatory cytokine release from un-stimulated, normal PBMCs. However, ACW was able to inhibit bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory cytokine TNF-α released from PBMCs, showing an anti-inflammation potential. Furthermore, ACW did not stimulate the rat basophilic leukemia cell (RBL-2H3) related allergy response on de-granulation. Our data presented ACW with a strong anti-oxidative ability in a superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. In mass spectrometry information, magnesium and zinc ions demonstrated bio-functional detections for anti-inflammation as well as other metal ions such as potassium and calcium were observed. ACW also had minor tyrosinase and melanin decreasing activities in human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn-MP) without apparent cytotoxicity. In addition, the cell proliferation assay illustrated anti-growth and anti-migration effects of ACW on human skin melanoma cells (A375.S2) indicating that it exerted the anti-cancer potential against skin cancer. The results obtained from biological assays showed that ACW possessed multiple bioactivities, including anti-microorganism, anti-inflammation, allergy-free, antioxidant, anti-melanin and anticancer properties. To our knowledge, this was the first report presenting these bioactivities on ACW. PMID:22754342

  16. [Assessment of the sensitizing potency of cosmetic ingredients and commodities. How will the ingredients of cosmetics and commodities be tested in Europe today and tomorrow?].

    PubMed

    Peiser, M; Platzek, T; Luch, A

    2012-03-01

    Cosmetics and certain commodities are applied or used by consumers directly on the skin. Creams may remain on the skin for longer periods, hair is dyed multiple times per year, nickel ions can be released from studs and piercings in areas of skin damage or migrate from toy materials into the skin of children. Accordingly, using or handling such products always entails a risk for developing a contact allergy. Moreover, daily usage and repeated contacts to certain cosmetics and commodities might lead to repeated elicitation of contact eczema in people already sensitized against allergenic ingredients. Unfortunately, contact allergy is not curable. For the assessment of the allergenic potential of chemicals, only testing based on animal experiments was available in the past. In 2003, the 7(th) amendment of the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EWG laid down a ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and from 2013 a general marketing ban of such products as well. Therefore, the development and validation of non-animal methods for assessing the toxicological endpoint sensitization/allergenic potency of chemicals is a major task for the years ahead and remains equally a challenge for industry and regulatory agencies.

  17. Positive lists of cosmetic ingredients: Analytical methodology for regulatory and safety controls - A review.

    PubMed

    Lores, Marta; Llompart, Maria; Alvarez-Rivera, Gerardo; Guerra, Eugenia; Vila, Marlene; Celeiro, Maria; Lamas, J Pablo; Garcia-Jares, Carmen

    2016-04-07

    Cosmetic products placed on the market and their ingredients, must be safe under reasonable conditions of use, in accordance to the current legislation. Therefore, regulated and allowed chemical substances must meet the regulatory criteria to be used as ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products, and adequate analytical methodology is needed to evaluate the degree of compliance. This article reviews the most recent methods (2005-2015) used for the extraction and the analytical determination of the ingredients included in the positive lists of the European Regulation of Cosmetic Products (EC 1223/2009): comprising colorants, preservatives and UV filters. It summarizes the analytical properties of the most relevant analytical methods along with the possibilities of fulfilment of the current regulatory issues. The cosmetic legislation is frequently being updated; consequently, the analytical methodology must be constantly revised and improved to meet safety requirements. The article highlights the most important advances in analytical methodology for cosmetics control, both in relation to the sample pretreatment and extraction and the different instrumental approaches developed to solve this challenge. Cosmetics are complex samples, and most of them require a sample pretreatment before analysis. In the last times, the research conducted covering this aspect, tended to the use of green extraction and microextraction techniques. Analytical methods were generally based on liquid chromatography with UV detection, and gas and liquid chromatographic techniques hyphenated with single or tandem mass spectrometry; but some interesting proposals based on electrophoresis have also been reported, together with some electroanalytical approaches. Regarding the number of ingredients considered for analytical control, single analyte methods have been proposed, although the most useful ones in the real life cosmetic analysis are the multianalyte approaches.

  18. Cosmetic procedures among youths: a survey of junior college and medical students in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jia Hui; Yeak, Seth; Phoon, Natalie; Lo, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Although cosmetic procedures have become increasingly popular among the younger population in recent years, limited research on this subject has been done in the Asian context. We aimed to explore the views and knowledge regarding cosmetic procedures among junior college (JC) and medical students in Singapore. METHODS In the first phase of the study, a cross-sectional, self-administered survey of 1,500 JC students aged 16–21 years from six JCs was conducted in 2010. The same survey was then conducted on a random sample of Year 2–5 medical students from an undergraduate medical school in 2011. RESULTS In total, 1,164 JC and 241 medical students responded to the surveys. There was an overall female to male ratio of 1.3:1. Of all the respondents, 2.5% of the JC students and 3.0% of the medical students admitted to having undergone cosmetic procedures. Among those who claimed to have never had cosmetic procedures done, 9.0% and 44.0% of the JC and medical students, respectively, responded that they would consider such procedures in the future. Those who disapproved of their peers undergoing cosmetic surgery comprised 35.0% of JC students and 56.8% of medical students. Among the JC and medical students, 52.0% and 36.1%, respectively, were unaware of any risks associated with cosmetic procedures. CONCLUSION The younger population is increasingly accepting of cosmetic procedures. However, there is a general lack of understanding of the risks associated with such procedures. Education of both the general public and medical students may help prevent potential medicolegal issues. PMID:25189303

  19. Evaluation of Human Exposure to metals from some popular brands of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2015-08-01

    The concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn and Al) were determined in thirty brands of popular of underarm cosmetics in Nigeria with a view to providing information on the levels of metals and the risk of exposure to metals by humans through long time usage of these products. The concentrations of metals in these samples of underarm cosmetics were measured by using atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The concentrations of metals in these types of underarm cosmetics studied ranged from <0.15 to 1.2 μg g(-1)Cd, <0.02 to 11.2 μg g(-1)Pb, <0.03 to 4.9 μg g(-1)Ni, <0.1 to 25.0 μg g(-1), <0.02 to 2.8 μg g(-1)Co, 2.0 to 6.4 μg g(-1)Cu, 4.7 to 91.2 μg g(-1)Fe, <0.05 to 14.1 μg g(-1)Mn, 77.9 to 132 μg g(-1) and 69.2 to 83,500 μg g(-1)Al. The results of this study indicate that Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co were presents in these types of underarm cosmetics at concentrations below the regulatory control limits for metal impurities in color additives for cosmetics and suggested limits following good manufacturing practice. The estimated margin of safety (MoS) indicated that the concentrations of the examined metals in these underarm cosmetic products present no potential risk to the users. The continuous use of these brands of underarm cosmetics represents a potential source of human exposure to metals such as aluminum in the local area of the breast, particularly to the upper outer quadrant.

  20. Investigating incidence of bacterial and fungal contamination in shared cosmetic kits available in the women beauty salons

    PubMed Central

    Dadashi, Leila; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rich texture of cosmetics can provide a suitable medium for growth of pathogenic microorganisms. In addition, skin microflora of anyone is unique which might be harmful to another person. Skin and eye pathogenicity could be communicated by sharing cosmetics in beauty saloons. The main objective of this study was to evaluate microbial contamination of in-use skin and eye cosmetics which are available as public make-up kits for women in the beauty salons. Methods: Fifty-two in-use skin and eye cosmetics were included in this cross sectional study.The specimens from all the cosmetics were collected following the owner’s informed consent, and then about 1 g of the cosmetics was added to nine ml of liquid Eugon LT100 broth medium,two for each product. Ten beauty salons randomly selected from different regions of Tabriz city between June and August 2016. Cosmetics were sampled and carried to the laboratory in sterile condition and then examined to determine bacterial and fungal species in the samples. Results: All of in-use cosmetic were contaminated with bacteria (95% CI = 93.1%-100.0%) and about 19.2% by fungus and yeast (95% CI = 10.8%-31.9%). Streptococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter, Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella,Citrobacter, Rhodotorula and Candida were dominant species which were isolated from the cosmetics. Powders with 38.5% (95% CI = 17.7%-64.5%) and eyeliners with 30.0% (95%CI = 6.7%-65.2%) were the most fungal contaminated products. Conclusion: Shared cosmetics in beauty salons are almost contaminated by bacteria and fungus.Therefore, it is suggested to avoid sharing cosmetics by women and prevent use of public cosmetics in toilet saloons. PMID:27579260

  1. Blame it on patriarchy: more sexist attitudes are associated with stronger consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stewart, Natasha; Nader, Ingo W; Stieger, Stefan; Shannon, Samantha; Voracek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, we examined associations between oppressive, sexist beliefs and consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself and also endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's romantic partner. A total of 554 German-speaking volunteers from the community, mainly in Austria, completed measures of consideration of cosmetic surgery and three measures of sexist attitudes, while a subset of participants in romantic relationships completed a measure of endorsement of cosmetic surgery for their partners along with the measures of sexism. Preliminary analyses showed that women and single respondents were more likely to consider having cosmetic surgery than men and committed respondents, respectively. Further analyses showed that consideration of cosmetic surgery for oneself was significantly associated with sexist attitudes, particularly hostile attitudes to women. In addition, among participants in a relationship, sexist attitudes were associated with endorsement of cosmetic surgery for one's partner. These results indicate that attitudes to cosmetic surgery for oneself and one's partner are shaped by gender-ideological belief systems in patriarchal societies. Possible implications for understanding the motivations for having cosmetic surgery, among both single respondents and couples, are discussed.

  2. Designing 'older' rather than denying ageing: problematizing anti-ageing discourse in relation to cosmetic surgery undertaken by older people.

    PubMed

    Garnham, Bridget

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematizes anti-ageing discourse and interpretations that cosmetic surgery is an ageist practice and older people who undergo cosmetic surgery are denying ageing. It argues that conceptions of cosmetic surgery as anti-ageing are premised on an essentialist conception of the 'naturally ageing body'. Interview data and media texts are used to demonstrate how, through the notion of "re" suggested by terms such as rejuvenation, reversal and renewal, anti-ageing discourses inscribe 'ageing' in the practice of cosmetic surgery by older people. The oppressive interpretation that older people who undergo cosmetic surgery are 'denying ageing,' and associated subjection to moral critique, are effects of this discourse. To counter interpretations of cosmetic surgery as 'anti-ageing', the paper takes up the idea that cosmetic surgery is undertaken to look better not younger. To advance this argument, the paper suggests that the forms of rationality associated with cosmetic surgery constitute a contemporary regimen of 'care of the self' which enable ethical agency and creative self-stylisation. Through this framework cosmetic surgery can be re-imagined as a practice for designing 'older' rather than denying ageing.

  3. Investigation of friction and perceived skin feel after application of suspensions of various cosmetic powders.

    PubMed

    Timm, K; Myant, C; Nuguid, H; Spikes, H A; Grunze, M

    2012-10-01

    The perceived skin feel during and after application of skin care products is highly important to the consumer and therefore to cosmetic formulators. Powder particles are commonly incorporated in cosmetic formulations to improve their sensory properties. Although a large variety of cosmetic powders is available, it is presently uncertain how the particles' properties affect the perceived skin feel. Well-trained panellists usually assess the perceived skin feel; however, these tests are time-consuming and by nature subjective. To address this complexity, the authors have systematically investigated various suspensions of cosmetic powders with regard to the perceived skin feel after application. Furthermore, an in vitro friction measurement set-up was developed which features a tribological contact similar to the mechanical properties and the topography of the contact between finger tip and human skin. A correlation was found between the friction coefficients determined in vitro and the perceived skin feel after sample application (as assessed by a descriptive panel). The results indicate that cosmetic powder particles should be small with a rather irregular shape to better lubricate the tribological contact between finger tip and skin surface, which leads to a more 'powdery' skin feel. It is suggested to carry out further tests with different powder particles or other skin care formulations to fully understand the underlying mechanisms of skin feel improvement and to validate or even partly replace the results of panel testing.

  4. Possible contaminant origins of the red cosmetics decorating ancient burial sites in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M O; Okayama, M; Chikamori, K; Yamada, G; Moriwake, Y; Minami, T; Tohno, S; Takeuchi, R; Tohno, Y

    2000-11-01

    Marker elements were estimated from the red cosmetics collected from different ancient burials and mine ruins in three separate districts of Japan. Element levels were displayed in reference to the relative amount to sulfur (RA/S), by which the cosmetics were divided into five types: I--a low Hg/S with a low Fe/S; II--both moderate Hg/S and Fe/S; III--a moderate Hg/S with a high Fe/S; III 2--a high Hg/S with a moderate Fe/S; IV--a high Hg/S with a high Fe/S. The cosmetics can be further characterized by referring to other contaminants such as Zn, Cu, and Mn. These combined analyses with contaminant metals were capable of characterizing the origins of the cosmetics; it is useful to compare them to each other. The cosmetics were identified as being due to several groups of contaminants from ancient mines in Japan, and also with this system analysis of the markers it is possible to identify them from neighboring countries.

  5. Assessment of embryotoxicity of compounds in cosmetics by the embryonic stem cell test.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Jing; Cheng, Shujun; Qin, Jie; Li, Weiqiang; Zhang, Lirong; Jiao, Hong; Yu, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiuming; Lahn, Bruce T; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2010-03-01

    The new EU legislations for cosmetics (Seventh Amendment) have laid down deadlines for the replacement of animal tests in cosmetics. This policy stimulates the acceptance of in vitro approaches to test embryotoxic potentials of compounds in cosmetics products. The embryonic stem cell test (EST) designed by The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) is currently the most promising in vitro assay to predict the embryotoxic potential of compounds. In this study, six selected compounds (hydroquinone, eugenol, dibutyl phthalate, antimony (III) oxide, neodymium (III) nitrate hydrate, melamine) formerly involved in cosmetic products were selected to test their embryotoxic potentials by the EST. 5-Fluorouracil and penicillin G were separately set as positive and negative control. The embryotoxic potential was determined by the prediction model (PM), which was calculated from three endpoints, the IC(50) 3T3, IC(50) ES, and ID(50). Hydroquinone, eugenol, and antimony (III) oxide indicated with strong embryotoxicity, while dibutyl phthalate, neodymium (III) nitrate hydrate, and melamine exhibited a weak embryotoxicity. These results may provide a valuable attempt to expand the application of EST to the cosmetics field.

  6. Cosmetic sequelae after oncoplastic surgery of the breast. Classification and factors for prevention.

    PubMed

    Acea Nebril, Benigno; Cereijo Garea, Carmen; García Novoa, Alejandra

    2015-02-01

    Oncoplastic surgery is an essential tool in the surgical approach to women with breast cancer. These techniques are not absolute guarantee for a good cosmetic result and therefore some patients will have cosmetic sequelae secondary to poor surgical planning, the effects of adjuvant treatments or the need for resection greater than originally planned. The high frequency of these cosmetic sequelae in oncology practice makes it necessary to classify them for optimal surgical planning. The aim of this paper is to present a classification of cosmetic sequelae after oncoplastic procedures to identify those factors that are crucial to its prevention. This classification contains 4 groups: breast contour deformities, asymmetries, alterations in nipple-aréola complex (NAC) and defects in the three dimensional structure of the breast. A significant group of these sequelae (asymmetries and deformities) are associated with breast irradiation and need an accurate information process with patients to set realistic expectations about cosmetic results. Finally, there is another group of sequelae (NAC disorders and three-dimensional structure) that are related to poor planning and deficiencies in surgical approach, therfore specific training is essential for learning these surgical techniques.

  7. Emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage in the treatment of facial skin conditions: personal experience and review

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Lauren L; Emer, Jason J

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies highlighting the psychological benefits of medical treatment for dermatological skin conditions have demonstrated a clear role for medical therapy in psychological health. Skin conditions, particularly those that are overtly visible, such as those located on the face, neck, and hands, often have a profound effect on the daily functioning of those affected. The literature documents significant emotional benefits using medical therapy in conditions such as acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, and rosacea, but there is little evidence documenting similar results with the use of cosmetic camouflage. Here we present a review highlighting the practical use of cosmetic camouflage makeup in patients with facial skin conditions and review its implications for psychological health. Methods A search of the Medline and Scopus databases was performed to identify articles documenting the emotional benefit of cosmetic camouflage. Results Cosmetic camouflage provides a significant emotional benefit for patients with facial skin conditions, and this is substantiated by a literature review and personal experience. More clinical studies are needed to assess and validate the findings reported here. Conclusion Patients with visible skin conditions have increased rates of depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem. It is prudent for us to consider therapies that can offer rapid and dramatic results, such as cosmetic camouflage. PMID:23152694

  8. Topical delivery of cosmetics and drugs. Molecular aspects of percutaneous absorption and delivery.

    PubMed

    Förster, Matthias; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Fessi, Hatem; Briançon, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Percutaneous penetration/permeation is a useful tool for obtaining qualitative and/or quantitative information on the amount of a drug, a cosmetic substance, or any chemical that may enter a skin compartment or the systemic circulation of the human body for pharmaceutical or cosmetic purposes, or for toxicological studies. In the latter case, the extent entering can then be taken into consideration in order to calculate the margin of safety using the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) of an appropriate repeated dose toxicity study with the respective substance. This paper is a short overview of various aspects of skin penetration/permeation of drugs or cosmetic agents. The literature reports numerous studies on skin structure and skin properties influencing drug/cosmetic agent permeation profiles and kinetic parameters. The extensive research concerning the skin structure for determining the key parameters of the penetration/permeation process is therefore described first. Mathematical models of the skin absorption process for a drug are then discussed. Finally new developments in pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields to enhance drug permeation or to modify the stratum corneum structure are considered.

  9. Investigation of the cosmetic ingredient distribution in the stratum corneum using NanoSIMS imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanji, N.; Okamoto, M.; Katayama, Y.; Hosokawa, M.; Takahata, N.; Sano, Y.

    2008-12-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of action of cosmetic ingredients, it is important to establish the distribution of the component agents within the epidermis of the skin. To date, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has been used to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. However, it is technically difficult to investigate the distribution of the agents in the stratum corneum using TOF-SIMS. Therefore, an analytical method with higher spatial resolution is required. In this study, we investigated an imaging analysis technique based on NanoSIMS to detect cosmetic ingredients in the skin. Pig skin was used as a model for human skin. The sample was treated with a cosmetic formulation containing 15N-labelled pseudo-ceramide (SLE). The sample was frozen with liquid nitrogen and cross-sections were cut using a cryomicrotome. As a result, the fine layer structure of the corneocytes was clearly observed by using NanoSIMS. Our studies indicate that SLE penetrates into the stratum corneum via an intercellular route. We conclude that application of NanoSIMS analysis can contribute to a better understanding of the function of cosmetic ingredients in the skin.

  10. Application of microencapsulated essential oils in cosmetic and personal healthcare products - a review.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, I T; Estevinho, B N; Santos, L

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the consumers around the world are increasingly focused on health and beauty. The renewed consumer interest in natural cosmetic products creates the demand for new products and reformulated others with botanical and functional ingredients. In cosmetic products, essential oils (EOs) play a major role as fragrance ingredients. They can optimize its proprieties and preservation, as well as the marketing image of the final product. Microencapsulation of EOs can protect and prevent the loss of volatile aromatic ingredients and improve the controlled release and stability of this core materials. The importance of EOs for cosmetic industry and its microencapsulation was reviewed in this study. Also a briefly introduction about the preparation of microparticles was presented. Some of the most important and usual microencapsulation techniques of EOs, as well as the conventional encapsulating agents, were discussed. Despite the fact that microencapsulation of EOs is a very promising and extremely attractive application area for cosmetic industry, further basic research needs to be carried out, for a better understanding of the biofunctional activities of microencapsulated EOs and its release modulation, as well as the effects of others cosmetic ingredients and the storage time in the microparticles properties.

  11. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru; Date, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Niacinamide is known to have effectiveness on sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing niacinamide. A randomized, placebo-controlled, split face study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese females who had wrinkles in the eye areas. The tested cosmetic containing 4% niacinamide was applied on wrinkles of one side for 8 weeks, and a control cosmetic without niacinamide on another site. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated with two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photographs based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) average roughness of skin surface (Ra value) using skin replica. This cosmetic showed marked and moderate improvement in 64% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control site (P < 0.001). Wrinkle grades in the tested area significantly reduced more than pre-application (P < 0.001) and the control (P < 0.001). Reduction in Ra value on the tested area was more than pre-application (P < 0.01) and the control site (P < 0.05) with significant differences. Only one subject stopped the study with minimal irritation. These results indicated that the tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles in the eye areas.

  12. Psychological effects of a cosmetic education programme in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, H Y; Kim, J H; Choi, S; Kang, E; Oh, S; Kim, J Y; Kim, S W

    2015-07-01

    Treatments for breast cancer often include interventions related to psychosocial issues such as negative body image, loss of femininity, and low self-esteem. We identified the psychological effects of a cosmetics education programme in patients with breast cancer. Cosmetic programme is a specific care designed to help patients handle appearance-related side effects. Thirty-one women with breast cancer at a university hospital in South Korea who received a cosmetics education programme were compared with 29 subjects in a control group who received the treatment as usual. Psychological factors including distress, self-esteem, and sexual functioning were assessed three times (before and after the programme, and at the 1-month follow-up). After the programme, patients in the treatment group were significantly less likely than those in the control group to rely on distress (P = 0.038) and avoidance coping (P < 0.001) but not on self-esteem. The mean scores in the treatment group for sexual functioning were higher than those in the control group after the treatment. Our results suggest the potential usefulness of a brief cosmetics education programme for reducing distress and reliance on negative coping strategies. Implementing a cosmetics programme for patients with breast cancer may encourage patients to control negative psychological factors.

  13. The use and interpretation of in vitro data in regulatory toxicology: cosmetics, toiletries and household products.

    PubMed

    Indans, Ian

    2002-02-28

    There is currently a drive to eliminate animal testing for cosmetics, toiletries and household products; indeed, the European Union Cosmetics Directive aims to prohibit the use of experimental animals for the testing of finished cosmetic products after 2002. At present, national prohibitions are in place in the UK, Germany, Austria and the Netherlands, for the testing of finished cosmetic products and cosmetic ingredients. In the USA animal testing for certain types of finished products is mandatory. Against this background, the currently available regulatory in vitro tests comprise methods for eye irritation, skin corrosivity, genotoxicity, dermal penetration and photoirritation. The draft updates to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines for eye and skin irritation advocate the use of in vitro or ex vivo methods prior to the commencement of animal studies. At present, testing for these endpoints cannot be completed in vitro, but potentially corrosive substances and products can be classified without the need for animal studies. Regulatory genotoxicity testing can be completed using only in vitro methods, provided that a clear negative outcome is obtained for each test. Data from dermal penetration studies may be used to refine risk assessments. Current developments in areas such as skin sensitisation and skin irritation promise that in the reasonably near future such information may be generated without the use of animals.

  14. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials.

  15. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health.

  16. Part 1 of a 4-part series Facial Cosmetics: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Cha, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of facial cosmetics. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain were copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Alternatives Group core series allergens in facial cosmetics is reported along with suitable alternative products for individuals with contact allergy. Conclusion: Data on allergen usage and alternatives for facial cosmetics is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in facial cosmetics, including blushers and bronzers, concealers, eyeliners, eyeshadows, foundations, loose and pressed powders, and mascaras. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779413

  17. [Simultaneous determination of 10 synthetic colorants in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Haishan; Qian, Xiaoyan; Lü, Chunhu; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xiaomei; Mo, Weimin

    2013-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 synthetic colorants in cosmetics. The cosmetics were extracted by the ultrasonic technique with tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methanol sequentially. Then the extracts were centrifuged for purification and separated on an Eclipse XDB-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with gradient elution by acetonitrile and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 4.60, adjusted with acetic acid). A diode array detector was used to determine the colorants with the wavelengths ranging from 417 nm to 640 nm. The linear relationships of the 10 colorants between the peak areas and the mass concentrations were obtained in the range of 0.5-20.0 mg/L (r > 0.999). The limits of quantitation ranged from 10 to 20 mg/kg. The average recoveries at three concentration levels ranged from 92.9% to 108.8% with the relative standard deviations in the range of 0.5% to 6.1% (n = 6). The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. It is suitable for the simultaneous determination of the 10 colorants in the oil cosmetics, cream cosmetics and powder cosmetics.

  18. A Web-based Alternative Non-animal Method Database for Safety Cosmetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung Won; Kim, Bae-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Animal testing was used traditionally in the cosmetics industry to confirm product safety, but has begun to be banned; alternative methods to replace animal experiments are either in development, or are being validated, worldwide. Research data related to test substances are critical for developing novel alternative tests. Moreover, safety information on cosmetic materials has neither been collected in a database nor shared among researchers. Therefore, it is imperative to build and share a database of safety information on toxicological mechanisms and pathways collected through in vivo, in vitro, and in silico methods. We developed the CAMSEC database (named after the research team; the Consortium of Alternative Methods for Safety Evaluation of Cosmetics) to fulfill this purpose. On the same website, our aim is to provide updates on current alternative research methods in Korea. The database will not be used directly to conduct safety evaluations, but researchers or regulatory individuals can use it to facilitate their work in formulating safety evaluations for cosmetic materials. We hope this database will help establish new alternative research methods to conduct efficient safety evaluations of cosmetic materials. PMID:27437094

  19. [Compensation of unforeseeable medical complications following cosmetic surgery finally made possible by ONIAM].

    PubMed

    Theissen, A; Pujol, N; Lascar, T; Flavin, P; Fuz, F; Niccolai, P

    2015-02-01

    In the absence of any proven medical fault by a plastic surgeon, the patient could not obtain compensation through national solidarity (as stipulated by the Law of March 4th 2002). Indeed ONIAM (France's National Office for Medical Accidents' Compensation) has always rejected any claims on the grounds that cosmetic surgery differs from medical care. Through its judgment of February 5th 2014, France's final Court of Appeals settled the question and considered cosmetic surgery as medical care; in case of serious injuries following unforeseeable medical complications, the patient may be compensated by ONIAM, as with any other medical act. This jurisprudence will certainly result in medical liability insurers be no longer those only responsible for compensation of injuries following cosmetic surgery. Plastic surgeons' insurance premiums should logically become cheaper.

  20. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  1. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    PubMed Central

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Coelho, Sergio G.; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs) and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented. PMID:22675344

  2. Impact of Medical Tourism on Cosmetic Surgery in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Developing countries have been attracting more international patients by building state-of-the-art facilities and offering sought-after healthcare services at a fraction of the cost of the US healthcare system. These price differentials matter most for elective procedures, including cosmetic surgeries, which are paid for out of pocket. It is unclear how this rise in medical tourism will affect the practice of plastic surgery, which encompasses a uniquely large number of elective procedures. By examining trends in the globalization of the cosmetic surgery market, we can better understand the current situation and what plastic surgeons in the United States can expect. In this article, we explore both domestic and foreign factors that affect surgical tourism and the current state of this industry. We also discuss how it may affect the practice of cosmetic surgery within the United States. PMID:25289258

  3. Comparison of mechanical properties of silicone and PVC (polyvinylchloride) cosmetic gloves for articulating hand prostheses.

    PubMed

    Smit, Gerwin; Plettenburg, Dick H

    2013-01-01

    Current articulating electric and body-powered hands have a lower pinch force (15-34 N) than electric hands with stiff fingers (55-100 N). The cosmetic glove, which covers a hand prosthesis, negatively affects the mechanical efficiency of a prosthesis. The goal of this study is to mechanically compare polyvinylchloride (PVC) and silicone cosmetic gloves and quantify the stiffness of the finger joints, the required actuation energy, and the energy dissipation during joint articulation. Six cosmetic gloves, identical in size but made from different materials, were mechanically tested: three PVC and three silicone. The silicone gloves required less work and dissipated less energy during flexing. They also had a lower joint stiffness and required a lower maximum joint torque. Based on energy requirements, joint stiffness, and required joint torque, the tested silicone glove is most suitable for application on an articulating hand prosthesis.

  4. Effects of cosmetic formulations containing hydroxyacids on sun-exposed skin: current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Coelho, Sergio G; Hearing, Vincent J

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs) and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  5. Determination of prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products by high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wittenberg, James B; Zhou, Wanlong; Wang, Perry G; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2014-09-12

    A method was developed and validated for the determination of 16 prostaglandin analogs in cosmetic products. The QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Efficient, Rugged, Safe) liquid-liquid extraction method, typically used for pesticide residue analysis, was utilized as the sample preparation technique. The prostaglandin analogs were chromatographically separated and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Thirty-one cosmetic products were surveyed, and 13 products were determined to contain a prostaglandin analog with amounts ranging from 27.4 to 297μg/g. The calculated concentrations for the cosmetic products were in a similar range when compared to the concentrations of three different prostaglandin analog-containing prescription products.

  6. Final safety assessment of thiodipropionic acid and its dialkyl esters as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Diamante, Catherine; Fiume, Monice Zondlo; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Dilauryl thiodipropionate (DLTDP), dicetyl thiodipropionate, dimyristyl thiodipropionate, distearyl thiodipropionate, and ditridecyl thiodipropionate are dialkyl esters of their respective alcohols and thiodipropionic acid (TDPA) used in cosmetics. Ingested DLTDP was excreted in the urine as TDPA. Single-dose acute oral and parenteral studies and subchronic and chronic repeated dose oral studies did not suggest significant toxicity. Neither DLTDP nor TDPA was irritating to animal skin or eyes and they were not sensitizers. TDPA was neither a teratogen nor a reproductive toxicant. Genotoxicity studies were negative for TDPA and DLTDP. Clinical testing demonstrated some evidence of irritation but no sensitization or photosensitization. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel considered that the data from DLTDP reasonably may be extrapolated to the other dialkyl esters and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use in cosmetic products that are formulated to be nonirritating.

  7. Safety Assessment of Ethanolamine and Ethanolamine Salts as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of ethanolamine and 12 salts of ethanolamine as used in cosmetics. Ethanolamine functions as a pH adjuster. The majority of the salts are reported to function as surfactants, and the others are reported to function as pH adjusters, hair fixatives, or preservatives. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous relevant CIR reports. Because data were not available for each individual ingredient and because the salts dissociate freely in water, the Panel extrapolated from those previous reports to support safety. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentrations (rinse-off products only) when formulated to be nonirritating, and these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed.

  8. Comparison of cosmetic and physicochemical properties of six topical corticosteroid creams.

    PubMed

    Hadzija, B W; Ambrose, W W

    1996-02-01

    The cosmetic and physicochemical properties of six topical corticosteroid creams were evaluated and compared. The following creams were provided in blinded tubes: Elocon, Westcort, Lidex, Kenalog, Valisone, and Cutivate. The following properties were evaluated in vitro: stiffness (hardness), grittiness, color, odor, homogeneity (phase separation), pH, weight loss, and tackiness (stickiness). Samples of the creams were evaluated by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to identify particle and droplet distribution, particulate contamination, and microscopic homogeneity of the products. Cutivate ranked number 1 in each category and received the best overall score for each of the cosmetic and physicochemical properties evaluated. The cosmetic and physicochemical properties of Elocon, Westcort, Lidex, and Kenalog were found to be similar to one another with regard to overall score but inferior to Cutivate. Valisone was also good with regard to overall score but was ranked less acceptable due to a strong odor.

  9. Evaluation of 'nuez de barinas' (caryodendron orinocense) oil for possible use in cosmetic.

    PubMed

    Pérez de R, M N; Alfaro, M de J; Padilla, F C

    1999-06-01

    Caryodendron orinocense, Karst., is a tree that grows along the eastern base of the Andes mountains in Venezuela, Ecuador, and Colombia. It is known in Venezuela as 'Nuez de Barinas, nuez or nogal de Barquisimeto' and in other countries as 'inchi', 'taque', 'abay' or 'palo de nuez'. The oil extracted from the 'nuts' (seeds) is edible. The objective of this study was to assess the potential use of the oil extracted from the seeds in cosmetics. The organoleptic characteristics, some physical (viscosity, specific density, extensibility, UV absorbance), and chemical (fatty acid profile, titratable acidity, saponification index, unsaponifiable matter and peroxide value) characteristics, were determined by official methods. The results show a high polyunsaturated fatty acid content (75.13%) and good physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics appropriate for use in cosmetics. It was concluded that the Caryodendron oil should be useful in cosmetic formulations.

  10. Single-Fraction Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer: Early Cosmetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, Kathryn McCormick, Beryl; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Borgen, Patrick; Fey, Jane; Goldberg, Jessica; Sacchini, Virgilio

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cosmetic outcome of patients treated with wide local excision and intraoperative radiotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 women were treated on a pilot study to evaluate the feasibility of intraoperative radiotherapy at wide local excision. The eligibility criteria included age >60, tumor size {<=}2.0 cm, clinically negative lymph nodes, and biopsy-established diagnosis. After wide local excision, a custom breast applicator was placed in the excision cavity, and a dose of 20 Gy was prescribed to a depth of 1 cm. After 18 patients were treated, the dose was constrained laterally to 18 Gy. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated by photographs at baseline and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Four examiners graded the photographs for symmetry, edema, discoloration, contour, and scarring. The grades were evaluated in relationship to the volume of irradiated tissue, tumor location, and dose at the lateral aspects of the cavity. Results: The median volume of tissue receiving 100% of the prescription dose was 47 cm{sup 3} (range, 20-97 cm{sup 3}). Patients with {<=}47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue had better cosmetic outcomes than did the women who had >47 cm{sup 3} of treated tissue. Women who had received 18 Gy at the lateral aspects of their cavities had better cosmetic outcomes than did women who had received 20 Gy at the lateral aspects. When comparing the 6- and 12-month results, the scores remained stable for 63%, improved for 17%, and worsened for 20%. Conclusion: Intraoperative radiotherapy appears feasible for selected patients. A favorable cosmetic outcome appears to be related to a smaller treatment volume. The cosmetic outcome is acceptable, although additional follow-up is necessary.

  11. Malaysian consumers’ awareness, perception, and attitude toward cosmetic products: Questionnaire development and pilot testing

    PubMed Central

    Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hadi, Hazrina; Jaffri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased usage of cosmetic products has caused a growing concern about the safety of these products, and yet little is known about cosmetics from the consumers’ perspective. Hence, this study's aim is to develop a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was developed in the English language based on information collected from a literature search, in-depth interviews conducted with consumers prior to this study and consultations with experts. Subsequently, the questionnaire was subjected to translation, validation, and test-retest reliability. A final version of the questionnaire was piloted among 66 consumers via convenient sampling. A descriptive analysis was performed, and the internal consistency and the differences between variables in the questionnaire were analyzed. Results: The developed and translated questionnaire produced repeatable data for each of the domains (Spearman's correlation ≥ 0.7, P < 0.001). The internal consistency for awareness, perceptions and attitudes indicates good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha value of more than 0.7 for each domain). Significant differences were found between the perception scores for the race, religion, and monthly expenses for cosmetic products, respectively, and the same pattern was found for the attitude scores, but monthly expenses for cosmetic products was replaced by monthly income. Conclusion: The results achieved via the Bahasa Malaysia questionnaire indicated that the developed and translated questionnaire can be used as a valid and reliable tool for assessing consumers’ awareness, perceptions, and attitudes toward cosmetic products in Malaysia in future studies. PMID:27413348

  12. Non-animal photosafety assessment approaches for cosmetics based on the photochemical and photobiochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Satomi; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Hirota, Morihiko; Nishida, Hayato; Kitagaki, Masato; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-12-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to establish a non-animal photosafety assessment approach for cosmetics using in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical screening systems. Fifty-one cosmetics, pharmaceutics and other chemicals were selected as model chemicals on the basis of animal and/or clinical photosafety information. The model chemicals were assessed in terms of photochemical properties by UV/VIS spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). Most phototoxins exhibited potent UV/VIS absorption with molar extinction coefficients of over 1000M(-1)cm(-1), although false-negative prediction occurred for 2 cosmetic phototoxins owing to weak UV/VIS absorption. Among all the cosmetic ingredients, ca. 42% of tested chemicals were non-testable in the ROS assay because of low water solubility; thereby, micellar ROS (mROS) assay using a solubilizing surfactant was employed for follow-up screening. Upon combination use of ROS and mROS assays, the individual specificity was 88.2%, and the positive and negative predictivities were estimated to be 94.4% and 100%, respectively. In the 3T3 NRU PT, 3 cosmetics and 4 drugs were incorrectly predicted not to be phototoxic, although some of them were typical photoallergens. Thus, these in vitro screening systems individually provide false predictions; however, a systematic tiered approach using these assays could provide reliable photosafety assessment without any false-negatives. The combined use of in vitro assays might enable simple and fast non-animal photosafety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

  13. Cosmetic approach for placement of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in young women.

    PubMed

    Curiale, S; Rosenfeld, L E; Elefteriades, J A

    1991-12-01

    A surgical approach is described for a more cosmetically acceptable placement of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in young women. The transvenous sensing lead and the vena caval spring electrode are placed through a small subclavicular incision. The left ventricular patch electrode is placed through an anterior minithoracotomy in the crease under the left breast. A small transverse incision in the left lower quadrant is used to place the generator under the external oblique fascia in the low abdominal wall. Minimal cosmetic impairment from incisions and hardware results.

  14. [Investigation, identification and dosage of local anesthetics and antihistaminics in cosmetic products].

    PubMed

    Barbato, F; La Rotonda, M I; Morrica, P; Santagada, V

    1990-08-01

    A rapid and accurate reversed-phase HPLC method for separation and simultaneous quantitation of some local anesthetics, antihistamines and preservatives in skin cosmetics is described. The investigated compounds (procaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, bupivacaine, benzocaine, brompheniramine, benzoic acid, methyl, ethyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, o-phenylphenol) are extracted by ultrasonic treatment in methanol from cosmetic form. Methanol-aqueous orthophosphoric acid (pH 2.8) containing 0.9% dibutylamine has been used as eluent. The influence of different percentages of methanol on chromatographic behaviour has been studied using both isocratic conditions and gradient elution program. The gradient program allows a rapid resolution and quantitation also for acidic preservatives.

  15. Preparation and stability of cosmetic formulations with an anti-aging peptide.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M A; Clares, B; Morales, M E; Cazalla, S; Gallardo, V

    2007-01-01

    Wrinkling of the skin is the most obvious sign of deterioration of the human body with age. This process involves a number of genetic, constitutional, hormonal, nutritional, and environmental factors, in addition to the influence of frequently repeated facial movements during laughing, smoking, etc. This article reviews the physiological basis and mechanism of action of the active cosmetic ingredient acetyl hexapeptide-8 (Argireline). We prepared two formulations: an emulsion with an external aqueous phase for normal to dry skin, and a gel for oily skin. Laboratory analyses, rheology tests and in vitro release assays were used to evaluate the stability of these formulations for cosmetic treatment.

  16. Safety assessment of Tin(IV) oxide as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tin(IV) oxide functions as an abrasive, bulking, and opacifying agent in cosmetic products and is used at concentrations up to 0.4% in rinse-off products and up to 1.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that tin(IV) oxide is a water-insoluble inorganic metal compound and should not be percutaneously absorbed; therefore, systemic exposure is not likely. Studies of dermal application of tin(IV) oxide were considered to determine toxicity at the site of application. The Panel concluded that tin(IV) oxide is safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  17. Predictors of Adverse Cosmetic Outcome in the RAPID Trial: An Exploratory Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, David; Truong, Pauline T.; Parpia, Sameer; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Berrang, Tanya; Kim, Do-Hoon; Kong, Iwa; Germain, Isabelle; Nichol, Alan; Akra, Mohamed; Roy, Isabelle; Reed, Melanie; Fyles, Anthony; Trotter, Theresa; Perera, Francisco; Balkwill, Susan; Lavertu, Sophie; Elliott, Elizabeth; and others

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate factors associated with adverse cosmesis outcome in breast cancer patients randomized to accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) using 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy or whole-breast irradiation in the RAPID (Randomized Trial of Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation) trial. Methods and Materials: Subjects were trial participants with nurse-assessed global cosmetic scores at baseline and at 3 years. Adverse cosmesis was defined as a score of fair or poor. Cosmetic deterioration was defined as any adverse change in score from baseline to 3 years. The analysis is based on data from the previously reported interim analysis. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of risk factors for these outcomes among all patients and those treated with APBI only. Results: Clinicopathologic characteristics were similar between subjects randomized to APBI (n=569) or whole-breast irradiation (n=539). For all subjects, factors associated with adverse cosmesis at 3 years were older age, central/inner tumor location, breast infection, smoking, seroma volume, breast volume, and use of APBI; factors associated with cosmetic deterioration were smoking, seroma volume, and use of APBI (P<.05). For APBI subjects, tumor location, smoking, age, and seroma volume were associated with adverse cosmesis (P<.05), and smoking was associated with cosmetic deterioration (P=.02). An independent association between the V95/whole-breast volume ratio and adverse cosmesis (P=.28) or cosmetic deterioration (P=.07) was not detected. On further exploration a V95/whole-breast volume ratio <0.15 was associated with a lower risk of cosmetic deterioration (p=.04), but this accounted for only 11% of patients. Conclusion: In the RAPID trial, a number of patient tumor and treatment-related factors, including the use of APBI, were associated with adverse cosmesis and cosmetic deterioration. For patients treated with APBI alone, the high-dose treatment

  18. Communication strategies in cosmetic surgery websites: an application of Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony; Wu, Lei; Taylor, Ronald E

    2013-01-01

    Using Taylor's six-segment message strategy wheel as a theoretical framework, this study examines the communication approach (transmission or ritual) and message strategy (ego, social, sensory, routine, acute need, or ration) of cosmetic surgery websites. A content analysis revealed a fairly even division between transmission and ritual approaches. Ration strategy was the exclusive strategy in the websites adopting a transmission approach. No routine or acute need strategies were observed. Websites incorporating the ritual approach used ego, social, and sensory strategies. Human female models and natural objects were incorporated to deliver emotional persuasion. Implications for cosmetic surgery web marketers are discussed.

  19. Minimally invasive eyelid care in dermatology: medical, laser, and cosmetic therapies.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Ramin; Pfeiffer, Margaret L; Tsoukas, Maria

    2015-01-01

    There is a high demand for facial aesthetic enhancement, and the periorbital region is one of the first areas to show signs of aging. Many nonsurgical therapies exist to tackle these problems. These therapies are becoming more efficacious while reducing postprocedural recovery time. The goal is to restore the natural youthful appearance rather than to create an effect that differs from the patient's appearance earlier in life. Eyelid care, and cosmetic dermatology in general, intends to restore balance and symmetry. We discuss the initial consultation, relevant anatomy for the dermatologist, and medical, laser and cosmetic therapies.

  20. Pulmonary talcosis 10 years after brief teenage exposure to cosmetic talcum powder.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Amarah; Rahatullah, Arsalan; Shah, Adil Aijaz; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar

    2011-09-19

    Pulmonary talcosis is a rare but debilitating variant of pneumoconiosis often presenting with isolated non-specific symptoms of progressive exertional dyspnoea or cough. Occupational exposure to talc dust and intravenous drug abuse are well-recognised aetiological factors with only a few cases related to cosmetic talc exposure being reported to date. The authors report a case of a young woman in whom a mere 4 month ritual of inhaling cosmetic talcum powder led to full-blown pulmonary talcosis being diagnosed 10 years later. The importance of a taking a pertinent history relating to environmental exposures in all patients presenting with respiratory symptoms is re-established here.

  1. Pulmonary talcosis 10 years after brief teenage exposure to cosmetic talcum powder

    PubMed Central

    Shakoor, Amarah; Rahatullah, Arsalan; Shah, Adil Aijaz; Zubairi, Ali Bin Sarwar

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary talcosis is a rare but debilitating variant of pneumoconiosis often presenting with isolated non-specific symptoms of progressive exertional dyspnoea or cough. Occupational exposure to talc dust and intravenous drug abuse are well-recognised aetiological factors with only a few cases related to cosmetic talc exposure being reported to date. The authors report a case of a young woman in whom a mere 4 month ritual of inhaling cosmetic talcum powder led to full-blown pulmonary talcosis being diagnosed 10 years later. The importance of a taking a pertinent history relating to environmental exposures in all patients presenting with respiratory symptoms is re-established here. PMID:22679260

  2. Are Cosmetics Used in Developing Countries Safe? Use and Dermal Irritation of Body Care Products in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Amasa, Wayessa; Santiago, Dante; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rabbit skin model was used to test skin irritation of the most commonly used cosmetic products in Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia. The most commonly used cosmetics were Dove, Glysolid, College, Top Society, Fair and Lovely, Nivea, Lux, Magic fruit world, Solea, Body talk, Kris, Holly, Victoria, and Sweet Heart. Methods. Intact and abraded rabbit skins were tested for erythema and edema under shade and under sun exposure. Draize Primary Irritation Index (PII) was used to calculate skin irritation of each cosmetic. Cosmetic ingredients were analyzed from the labels. Results and Discussion. Only Dove cream caused no skin irritation except for an abraded skin under sun exposure for five consecutive days. It has been identified that application of cosmetics on abraded skin under sunny condition worsens the irritation. Cosmetic labels revealed that most ingredients used in all products were those restricted chemicals due to their adverse health effects. Conclusion. This study has concluded that use of cosmetics under sunshine and also on abraded skin increases skin irritation. Hence, those users who have abraded skin are advised not to apply those cosmetics on continuous basis specifically under sun exposure. PMID:23209460

  3. 21 CFR 2.125 - Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs... Specific Products Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act § 2.125 Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (a) As used in this section, ozone-depleting...

  4. 21 CFR 2.125 - Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs... Specific Products Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act § 2.125 Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (a) As used in this section, ozone-depleting...

  5. 21 CFR 2.125 - Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs... Specific Products Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act § 2.125 Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (a) As used in this section, ozone-depleting...

  6. 21 CFR 2.125 - Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs... Specific Products Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act § 2.125 Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (a) As used in this section, ozone-depleting...

  7. 21 CFR 1310.10 - Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.10 Section 1310.10 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a) The...

  8. 21 CFR 1310.10 - Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.10 Section 1310.10 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  9. 76 FR 15349 - Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-21

    ... the cost of outpatient medical, dental and cosmetic surgery services furnished by military treatment... BUDGET Fiscal Year 2010 Cost of Outpatient Medical, Dental, and Cosmetic Surgery Services Furnished by Department of Defense Medical Treatment Facilities; Certain Rates Regarding Recovery From Tortiously...

  10. 40 CFR 23.10 - Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 23.10 Section 23.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  11. 40 CFR 23.10 - Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 23.10 Section 23.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  12. 21 CFR 1310.10 - Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.10 Section 1310.10 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a) The...

  13. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 23.10 - Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 23.10 Section 23.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  15. 21 CFR 1310.11 - Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.11 Section 1310.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Reinstatement of exemption for drug products distributed under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 23.10 - Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 23.10 Section 23.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  17. 21 CFR 1310.10 - Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. 1310.10 Section 1310.10 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT... Removal of the exemption of drugs distributed under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. (a)...

  18. 40 CFR 23.10 - Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 23.10 Section 23.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

  19. Acceptance of cosmetic surgery, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading among late adolescents in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Carolina

    2013-09-01

    This study examined adolescents' attitudes of cosmetic surgery, as well as the relationships between these attitudes, body appreciation, body ideal internalization, and fashion blog reading. The sample comprised 110 (60 boys, 50 girls) late adolescents (mean age 16.9 years) from a Swedish high school. The results indicated that younger adolescents seem somewhat more accepting of cosmetic surgery. This was especially the case for boys' acceptance of social motives for obtaining cosmetic surgery (boys' M=2.3±1.55 vs. girls' M=1.7±0.89). Girls', and to a limited extent boys', internalization of the thin ideal was related to more favorable cosmetic surgery attitudes. Athletic ideal internalization and body appreciation were unrelated to these attitudes. Finally, girls who frequently read fashion blogs reported higher thin ideal internalization, and also demonstrated a slight tendency of more cosmetic surgery consideration.

  20. Survey of cosmetics for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel content.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Nancy M; Mindak, William R; Gasper, John W; Thompson, Christopher B; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    As part of efforts to assess amounts of inorganic element contamination in cosmetics, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration contracted a private laboratory to determine the total content of seven potentially toxic or allergenic elements in 150 cosmetic products of 12 types (eye shadows, blushes, lipsticks, three types of lotions, mascaras, foundations, body powders, compact powders, shaving creams, and face paints). Samples were analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for mercury by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The methods used to determine the elements were tested for validity by using standard reference materials with matrices similar to the cosmetic types. The cosmetic products were found to contain median values of 0.21 mg/kg arsenic, 3.1 mg/kg chromium, 0.91 mg/kg cobalt, 0.85 mg/kg lead, and 2.7 mg/kg nickel. The median values for cadmium and mercury were below the limits of detection of the methods. The contract requirements, testing procedures, and findings from the survey are described.

  1. A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation?

    PubMed

    Domicio Da Silva Souza, Ivan; Juliana Pinheiro, Bárbara; Passarini Takahashi, Vania

    2012-01-01

    Patents represent a free and open source of data for studying innovation and forecasting technological trends. Thus, we suggest that new discussions about the role of patent information are needed. To illustrate the relevance of this issue, we performed a survey of patents involving skin care products, which were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 2006 and 2010, to identify opportunities for innovation and technological trends. We quantified the use of technologies in 333 patents. We plotted a life cycle of technologies related to natural ingredients. We also determined the cross impact of the technologies identified. We observed technologies related to processes applied to cosmetics (2.2%), functional packaging and applicators (2.9%), excipients and active compounds (21.5%), and cosmetic preparations (73.5%). Further, 21.6% of the patents were related to the use of natural ingredients. Several opportunities for innovation were discussed throughout this paper, for example, the use of peptides as active compounds or intracellular carriers (only 3.9% of the technologies in cosmetic preparations). We also observed technological cross impacts that suggested a trend toward multifunctional cosmetics, among others. Patent surveys may help researchers with product innovation because they allow us to identify available and unexplored technologies and turn them into whole new concepts.

  2. News media reports of patient deaths following 'medical tourism' for cosmetic surgery and bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-04-01

    Contemporary scholarship examining clinical outcomes in medical travel for cosmetic surgery identifies cases in which patients traveled abroad for medical procedures and subsequently returned home with infections and other surgical complications. Though there are peer-reviewed articles identifying patient deaths in cases where patients traveled abroad for commercial kidney transplantation or stem cell injections, no scholarly publications document deaths of patients who traveled abroad for cosmetic surgery or bariatric surgery. Drawing upon news media reports extending from 1993 to 2011, this article identifies and describes twenty-six reported cases of deaths of individuals who traveled abroad for cosmetic surgery or bariatric surgery. Over half of the reported deaths occurred in two countries. Analysis of these news reports cannot be used to make causal claims about why the patients died. In addition, cases identified in news media accounts do not provide a basis for establishing the relative risk of traveling abroad for care instead of seeking elective cosmetic surgery at domestic health care facilities. Acknowledging these limitations, the case reports suggest the possibility that contemporary peer-reviewed scholarship is underreporting patient mortality in medical travel. The paper makes a strong case for promoting normative analyses and empirical studies of medical travel. In particular, the paper argues that empirically informed ethical analysis of 'medical tourism' will benefit from rigorous studies tracking global flows of medical travelers and the clinical outcomes they experience. The paper contains practical recommendations intended to promote debate concerning how to promote patient safety and quality of care in medical travel.

  3. Anterior retention with a reinforced composite resin splint after cosmetic orthodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Georgaklis, Clifton C

    2002-01-01

    Even in the most stable types of orthodontic treatment, any relapse at all may be unacceptable cosmetically. Through the placement of a reinforced composite splint, the teeth can be held in position and more significantly recontoured, thus augmenting the final result. Subsequent splint removal can be done incrementally 3 to 5 years after placement as the patient desires.

  4. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    PubMed

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future.

  5. Investigation of parabens in commercial cosmetics for children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Li, Jie; Tian, Hanmei; Ding, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    Parabens are one of the most common preservatives in cosmetics. Because allergenicity and cytotoxicity potential values are major aspects of preservative safety and parabens are xenoestrogens, safety levels of parabens have been restricted in "Hygienic Standard for Cosmetics" (2007 edition) by the Ministry of Public Health of China, and a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous determination of parabens is recommended. To investigate whether the commonly used parabens in children's cosmetics were at a safety level, 105 cosmetics for children were randomly purchased from the local market in Beijing and analyzed by the proposed HPLC method. The detection rate of methylparaben was the highest and the next was propylparaben. Among the 105 samples, two or more kinds of parabens were detected in 72 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.02% to 0.75%; 18 samples contained one kind of paraben with concentrations ranging from 0.002% to 0.06%. In this study, the contents of parabens in the 105 samples were all below the restricted levels.

  6. To cut or not to cut: cosmetic surgery usage and women's age-related experiences.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Shelley J

    2012-01-01

    Part of the developmental trajectory of middle and late life presumes the adjustment to physical aging, an adjustment that is complicated for women for whom the prioritization of beauty is central to their social value in Western societies. A 60-item written questionnaire was distributed to a volunteer community sample of 202 women ages 19-86. From these data, this study tested whether women's cosmetic surgery usage would act as a protective factor in age-related experiences related to body image, self-esteem, and aging attitudes. Cosmetic surgery recipients evidenced less body satisfaction, and more appearance investment with age increases while only non-recipients showed improvements in self-esteem ratings with advancing age. Both recipients and non-recipients showed declines in body care with age, a greater felt discrepancy between actual and perceived age, and less aging anxiety--but non-recipients more so than recipients. Thus, despite having undertaken action to improve their appearance through surgical means at some point in their adult lives, cosmetic surgery recipients did not inevitably feel younger than their years, or better about themselves, compared to those who have not pursued surgery. Study limitations and implications are outlined, and given that cosmetic surgery may become normative practice in future cohorts of aging adults, it concludes with a call for nationally-representative studies using matched-control group research designs typical of public health inquiry more generally.

  7. Introducing Students to Rheological Classification of Foods, Cosmetics, and Pharmaceutical Excipients Using Common Viscous Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faustino, Ce´lia; Bettencourt, Ana F.; Alfaia, Anto´nio; Pinheiro, Lídia

    2015-01-01

    Rheological measurements are very important tools for the characterization of the flow and deformation of a material, as well as for optimization of the rheological parameters. The application and acceptance of pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and foodstuffs depends upon their rheological characteristics, such as texture, consistency, or…

  8. Issues in the practice of cosmetic surgery: consumers' use of information and perceptions of service quality.

    PubMed

    Babakus, E; Remington, S J; Lucas, G H; Carnell, C G

    1991-09-01

    The information sources consumers use and consumers' perceptions of the quality of services they receive are examined in the context of breast augmentation surgery. Consumers who received breast implants for reconstructive purposes (i.e., after a mastectomy) were compared with those who received them solely for cosmetic purposes. Implications for health care marketers at a time of federal scrutiny are discussed.

  9. [Is cosmetic surgery proposal to children and adolescents well-founded?

    PubMed

    Duquennoy-Martinot, V; Aljudaibi, N; Belkhou, A; Depoortère, C; Guerreschi, P

    2016-10-01

    Cosmetic surgery for children and adolescents experiencing an international increase. Their physical and psychological development is incomplete; establishment of an indication for cosmetic surgery requires several essential prerequisites. The motivations of surgery, often multiple and intricate, must be understood. There is a difference in motivation between adult, trying to be more "competitive" and the young patient, wishing to comply with a social group to integrate. We must identify who made the request to respond to requests from the child himself. The role of parents is crucial. Their presence, legal obligation, gives variable contribution: asset to a non-participating children, role of information relay delivered, organizational aspects of care but sometimes leads to difficulties if parent-child relationship is confrontational. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgery, 63,623 cosmetic surgery procedures occurred in 2013 in adolescents from 13 to 19 years old. Mainly rhinoplasties, otoplasties, breast surgery (breast augmentations, breast reductions, gynecomasties). From a purely technical viewpoint, cosmetic surgery is not riskier in young patients. However, surgery only targets "surgical problems"; we must make a distinction between "complex" and "depression", be able to identify a psychiatric underlying disease or understand that surgery is a hidden demand. If surgical art requires a real expertise, only a well-indication establishment will process to a successful result.

  10. Simultaneous determination of eleven preservatives in cosmetics by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Ding, Xiaojing; Li, Yun; Yang, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the simultaneous quantitation of 11 preservatives-imidazolidinyl urea, benzyl alcohol, dehydroacetic acid, sorbic acid, phenoxyethanol, benzoic acid, salicylic acid, and four parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl)-in cosmetics by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was established and validated. The separation was performed using an uncoated fused-silica capillary (50 pm id x 60.2 cm, effective length 50 cm) with a running buffer consisting of 15 mmol/L sodium tetraborate, 60 mmol/L boric acid, and 100 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate. A 1:10 dilution of the running buffer was used as the sample buffer to extract the cosmetic samples. The key factors, such as the concentration and pH of the running and sample buffers, which influence quantitative analysis of the above 11 preservatives in cosmetic samples, were investigated in detail. The linear ranges of the calibration curves for imidazolidinyl urea and the other 10 preservatives were 50-1000 and 10-200 mg/L, respectively. The correlation coefficients of the standard curves were all higher than 0.999. The recoveries at the concentrations studied ranged from 93.0 to 102.7%. RSDs were all less than 5%. The new method with simple sample pretreatment met the needs for routine analysis of the 11 preservatives in cosmetics.

  11. Corrective cosmetics adjunctive to the fields of ophthalmology and plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Roberts, N C

    1988-02-01

    An effective, stable cosmetic cover creme useful for ophthalmologists is presented. In a series of 52 patients, there was a high degree of patient acceptance. If properly used, the creme is effective and involves minimal risk because it has been subjected to sensitivity, photosensitivity, comedogenic, and sun blocking tests. The author recommends this camouflage creme for adjunctive use.

  12. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. 700.18 Section 700.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... products. Recent information has become available associating chloroform with carcinogenic effects...

  13. Cosmetic Medicine: Innovative Beauty Care as Popular Medicine in Days Gone By.

    PubMed

    Locher, Wolfgang G

    2016-06-01

    Throughout the ages, people yearned for beauty and longevity. This article examines how European physicians began to engage with the field of cosmetics over a century ago, thus introducing the category of aesthetics into medical practice. This historical phenomenon is currently repeating itself.

  14. Non-animal photosafety screening for complex cosmetic ingredients with photochemical and photobiochemical assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Hayato; Hirota, Morihiko; Seto, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Gen; Kato, Masashi; Kitagaki, Masato; Sugiyama, Mariko; Kouzuki, Hirokazu; Onoue, Satomi

    2015-08-01

    Previously, a non-animal screening approach was proposed for evaluating photosafety of cosmetic ingredients by means of in vitro photochemical and photobiochemical assays; however, complex cosmetic ingredients, such as plant extracts and polymers, could not be evaluated because their molecular weight is often poorly defined and so their molar concentration cannot be calculated. The aim of the present investigation was to establish a photosafety screen for complex cosmetic ingredients by using appropriately modified in vitro photosafety assays. Twenty plant extracts were selected as model materials on the basis of photosafety information, and their phototoxic potentials were assessed by means of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light (VIS) spectral analysis, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/micellar ROS (mROS) assays, and 3T3 neutral red uptake phototoxicity testing (3T3 NRU PT). The maximum UV/VIS absorption value was employed as a judgment factor for evaluating photoexcitability of samples, and the value of 1.0 was adopted as a tentative criterion for photosafety identification. The ROS/mROS assays were conducted at 50 μg/mL, and no false negative prediction was obtained. Furthermore, the ROS/mROS assays at 50 μg/mL had a similar predictive capacity to the ROS/mROS assays in the previous study. A systematic tiered approach for simple and rapid non-animal photosafety evaluation of complex cosmetic ingredients can be constructed using these modified in vitro photochemical assays.

  15. 75 FR 32798 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Theater at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive Meeting Center, 1750 Rockville Pike... constructive dialogue with their relevant cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European Directorate General for Enterprise and Industry; the Ministry...

  16. 77 FR 14405 - Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... will be held in the Washington Theater Room at the Hilton Washington DC/Rockville Hotel & Executive... authority members will enter into constructive dialogue with their relevant cosmetics' industry trade... and Industry; the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare of Japan; and the U.S. Food and...

  17. [Determination of 25 quinolones in cosmetics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Yi; Tu, Xiaoke; Xie, Liqi; Yue, Zhenfeng; Kang, Haining; Wu, Weidong; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 25 quinolones, including danofloxacin mesylate, enrofloxacin, flumequine, oxloinic acid, ciprofloxacin, sarafloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin etc in cosmetics using direct extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Cosmetic sample was extracted by acidified acetonitrile, defatted by n-hexane and separated on Poroshell EC-C18 column with gradient elution program using acetonitrile and water (both containing 0. 1% formic acid) as the mobile phases and analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS under the positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The interference of matrix was reduced by the matrix-matched calibration standard curve. The method showed good linearities over the range of 1-200 mg/kg for the 25 quinolones with good linear correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.999). The method detection limit of the 25 quinolones was 1.0 mg/kg, and the recoveries of all analytes in lotion, milky and cream cosmetics matrices ranged from 87.4% to 105% at the spiked levels of 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg with the relative standard deviations (RSD) of 4.54%-19.7% (n = 6). The results indicated that this method is simple, fast and credible, and suitable for the simultaneous determination of the quinolones in the above three types of cosmetics.

  18. Simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Shuang; Bai, Hua; Zhang, Qing; Lv, Qing; Chen, Yun-Xia; Ma, Hui-Juan; Li, Jing-Rui; Ma, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive and reliable analytical method based on HPLC/MSIMS has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics. A diversity of cosmetic samples, including powder, lotion, shampoo, and cream were collected. The samples were ultrasonically extracted with aqueous methanol, and the extracts were then subjected to cleanup bySPE using an Oasis HLB cartridge followed by filtration with a 0.20 pm membrane filter. Afterwards, chromatographic separation was performed on an XSelect CSH C18 column (2.1 x 150 mm, 3.5 pm) maintained at 30°C within 15 min by a gradient of acetonitrile-0.1% aqueous formic acid solution at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The mass spectrometric detection was carried, out using electrospray positive ionization under the multiple reaction monitoring mode. A good linearity was observed over the concentration range from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The intraday and interday precisions, which were investigated by determining all target compounds in cosmetics seven times/day and on 7 consecutive days, were below 5.00%. The mean recoveries at three spiked levels ranged from 80.42 to 100.83% with the RSDs from 0.45 to 9.02%. The LOQs were determined to be between 0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg. The method was sufficiently rapid, reliable, and sensitive for the determination of 15 nitroimidazoles in cosmetics.

  19. Speech Adaptation to a Self-Inflicted Cosmetic Tongue Split: Perceptual and Ultrasonographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim

    2006-01-01

    In the cosmetic tongue split operation, the anterior tongue blade is split along the midline of the tongue. The goal of this case study was to obtain preliminary data on speech and tongue motility in a participant who had performed this operation on himself. The participant underwent an articulation test and a tongue motility assessment, as well…

  20. 21 CFR 700.16 - Use of aerosol cosmetic products containing zirconium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... zirconium. 700.16 Section 700.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... cosmetic products containing zirconium. (a) Zirconium-containing complexes have been used as an ingredient... indicates that certain zirconium compounds have caused human skin granulomas and toxic effects in the...

  1. Caryodendron orinocense ('nuez de Barinas') oil: tocopherol content and use in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, M de J; Padilla, F C; Pérez, M N

    2000-10-01

    Preliminary studies showed the possibility of using the oil extracted from the 'nuez de Barinas' (Caryodendron orinocense Karst.) (also known as 'taque nut'), in cosmetic formulation, due to its UV absorbance spectrum as well as other physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics. Some Amerindians have used this oil as unction. The tree, also called in Venezuela 'nueza' or 'nogal de Barquisimeto', and in other countries 'Inchi' or 'taque', belongs to the Euphorbiaceae, and grows wild along the base of the Andes mountains in Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Colombia. The oil presented a high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, especially linoleic acid (75.13%), which makes it susceptible to oxidation. alpha, beta, gamma and delta-tocopherols are chemical compounds that have antioxidant and vitamin E activity. Tocopherols are used in cosmetics owing to these two characteristics. These properties vary depending on the isomer, the alpha-tocopherol having higher vitamin activity, while the delta-tocopherol has the highest antioxidant power, acting as free radical scavenger. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of tocopherols in the oil, as well as the emollient efficiency and activity of the oil after incorporation as a base in formulation of cosmetic products. Results showed good emollient efficiency and activity, and the presence of alpha, beta, gamma and delta-tocopherols, which means that the oil will be stable in cosmetic formulations.

  2. Efficacy evaluation of a multifunctional cosmetic formulation: the benefits of a combination of active antioxidant substances.

    PubMed

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Maia Campos, Patrícia M B G

    2014-11-10

    This study presents the association of active antioxidants substances in a multifunctional cosmetic formulation with established efficacy against signs of aging. A multifunctional cosmetic formulation containing an association of UV filters and antioxidant substances (liposoluble vitamins A, C and E, Ginkgo biloba and Phorphyra umbilicalis extracts) was evaluated. This formulation was submitted to a clinical efficacy study using biophysics techniques and skin images analysis (digital photography imaging systems, 20 MHz ultrasound, and reflectance confocal microscopy). The volunteers applied the formulation containing the UV filters and antioxidant substances during the day and the formulation with antioxidant substances and without the UV filters at night, for 90 days. The formulation increased the hydration and protected the skin barrier function after a single application. At the long term assessment the formulation provided an improvement in skin barrier function and skin hydration to the deeper layers of the epidermis, leading to an improvement in skin appearance by reducing wrinkles and skin roughness. The multifunctional cosmetic formulation studied can be suggested to preventing signs of aging and improving skin conditions. In addition, this study presents the benefits of associating different active antioxidants substances in a single cosmetic formulation to prevent skin aging.

  3. Multi-pathway exposure modelling of chemicals in cosmetics with application to shampoo

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present a novel multi-pathway, mass balance based, fate and exposure model compatible with life cycle and high-throughput screening assessments of chemicals in cosmetic products. The exposures through product use as well as post-use emissions and environmental media were quant...

  4. A cosmetic evaluation of breast cancer treatment: A randomized study of radiotherapy boost technique

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Sylvie . E-mail: sylvie.vass@ssss.gouv.qc.ca; Bairati, Isabelle

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: To compare cosmetic results of two different radiotherapy (RT) boost techniques used in the treatment of breast cancer after whole breast radiotherapy and to identify factors affecting cosmetic outcomes. Methods and Materials: Between 1996 and 1998, 142 patients with Stage I and II breast cancer were treated with breast conservative surgery and adjuvant RT. Patients were then randomly assigned to receive a boost dose of 15 Gy delivered to the tumor bed either by iridium 192, or a combination of photons and electrons. Cosmetic evaluations were done on a 6-month basis, with a final evaluation at 36 months after RT. The evaluations were done using a panel of global and specific subjective scores, a digitized scoring system using the breast retraction assessment (BRA) measurement, and a patient's self-assessment evaluation. As cosmetic results were graded according to severity, the comparison of boost techniques was done using the ordinal logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) are presented. Results: At 36 months of follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups with respect to the global subjective cosmetic outcome (OR = 1.40; 95%CI = 0.69-2.85, p = 0.35). Good to excellent scores were observed in 65% of implant patients and 62% of photon/electron patients. At 24 months and beyond, telangiectasia was more severe in the implant group with an OR of 9.64 (95%CI = 4.05-22.92, p < 0.0001) at 36 months. The only variable associated with a worse global cosmetic outcome was the presence of concomitant chemotherapy (OR = 3.87; 95%CI = 1.74-8.62). The BRA value once adjusted for age, concomitant chemotherapy, and boost volume showed a positive association with the boost technique. The BRA value was significantly greater in the implant group (p 0.03). There was no difference in the patient's final self-assessment score between the two groups. Three variables were statistically associated with

  5. Parabens, oestrogenicity, underarm cosmetics and breast cancer: a perspective on a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2003-01-01

    A recent review by Darbre (2003) published in this journal (J. Appi. Toxicol. 23: 89-95) has attracted public and scientific interest that requires perspective, particularly on the use of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens) as preservatives in underarm cosmetics. Although parabens are generally regarded as safe, recent reports suggest that they are oestrogenic in a variety of in vitro (including MCF7 and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell lines) and in vivo tests for oestrogenicity (uterotrophic assays in both rat and mouse). There are also recent reports of adverse reproductive and developmental outcomes in rodent toxicity studies. Of interest is the lack of activity by the oral route but clear activity by the subcutaneous and topical routes, which is of some relevance to the use of underarm cosmetics. There would seem to be a case now to supplement these emerging toxicity data with longer term regulatory standard tests examining other oestrogenic endpoints and at least to consider these findings in more up-to-date risk assessments specific for cosmetic use. Further, there are few data on the use of underarm cosmetics and the risk of breast cancer, and although one recent retrospective interview-based study found no association there is a need for more thorough investigation taking into account the type of chemicals used. Darbre has forwarded a hypothesis and called for further work to establish whether or not the use of underarm cosmetics (particularly containing oestrogenic formulants) contributes to the rising incidence of breast cancer. It would seem prudent to conduct this work because the current database is sparse and the effects of long-term low-level exposures to weakly oestrogenic chemicals on human health, particularly their application to the underarm and the risks of breast cancer, are unknown. The role of oestrogens in breast cancer, however, is undisputed.

  6. Determination of optimal dead sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion using rheology and stability measurements.

    PubMed

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A; Bsoul, Abeer

    2008-01-01

    Dead Sea mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The presence of Dead Sea (DS) salts in different types of cosmetics has affected the stability and the flow properties of the finished products. In this study, an attempt was made to find the optimum Dead Sea salt content in a cosmetic emulsion (model of body cream) using both rheology and stability measurements. The rheological properties were tested during a four-month storage period at three different storage temperatures: 8 degrees C, room temperature, and 45 degrees C. In addition to rheological measurements and centrifuge tests, the conductivities of the emulsion samples were also determined. The centrifuge tests showed that the cream samples containing more than 0.25 wt% of DS salt showed phase separation. The addition of DS salt to the cosmetic emulsion led to two maxima in the emulsion viscosity at salt contents of 0.07 wt% and 0.15 wt%. However, the emulsion samples containing 0.15% of DS salt was considered the optimum sample since it contained the maximum amount of salt and exhibited the maximum viscosity at all tested conditions. It was found that the viscosity of the emulsion is increased with storage time and storage temperature. This behavior was accompanied by a decrease in conductivity. This behavior was explained by water evaporation from the emulsion. However, it has been shown that the presence of DS salt in the cosmetic emulsion significantly reduces the rate of water evaporation. The conductivity measurements reflect the rate of water evaporation, and the presence of DS salt reduces the rate of conductivity. Conductivity is observed to decrease with storage time and temperature.

  7. Automatic detection of non-cosmetic soft contact lenses in ocular images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Gizem; Ross, Arun

    2013-05-01

    Recent research in iris recognition has established the impact of non-cosmetic soft contact lenses on the recognition performance of iris matchers. Researchers in Notre Dame demonstrated an increase in False Reject Rate (FRR) when an iris without a contact lens was compared against the same iris with a transparent soft contact lens. Detecting the presence of a contact lens in ocular images can, therefore, be beneficial to iris recognition systems. This study proposes a method to automatically detect the presence of non-cosmetic soft contact lenses in ocular images of the eye acquired in the Near Infrared (NIR) spectrum. While cosmetic lenses are more easily discernible, the problem of detecting non-cosmetic lenses is substantially difficult and poses a significant challenge to iris researchers. In this work, the lens boundary is detected by traversing a small annular region in the vicinity of the outer boundary of the segmented iris and locating candidate points corresponding to the lens perimeter. Candidate points are identified by examining intensity profiles in the radial direction within the annular region. The proposed detection method is evaluated on two databases: ICE 2005 and MBGC Iris. In the ICE 2005 database, a correct lens detection rate of 72% is achieved with an overall classification accuracy of 76%. In the MBGC Iris database, a correct lens detection rate of 70% is obtained with an overall classification accuracy of 66:8%. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the earliest work attempting to detect the presence of non-cosmetic soft contact lenses in NIR ocular images. The results of this research suggest the possibility of detecting soft contact lenses in ocular images but highlight the need for further research in this area.

  8. Cosmetic medical treatments: why are we so obsessed with beauty-is it nature or nurture?

    PubMed

    Jonzon, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become mainstream, and images of beauty surround us on television, in magazines, and in advertising. It is no wonder that the quest for beauty has become so prevalent. This paper explores why individuals choose to undergo cosmetic procedures, and looks at the nature versus nurture debate surrounding this phenomenon. It is important for nurses, physicians, nurse practitioners, or other healthcare professionals involved in the cosmetic surgery field to understand the underlying motivations for choosing to undergo elective cosmetic procedures in order to make appropriate choices about their patients' care. The first theory in this article is rooted in the "nature" school-of-thought and explores the evolutionary basis behind the quest for beauty. It shows that we may be 'hardwired' to think that our appearance signals our reproductive capability (D. B. Sarwer, L. Magee, & V. Clark, 2004) and that human physical attractiveness is merely a collection of physical traits that signal fecundity and health (V. Swami, C. Greven, & A. Furnham, 2007). The "nurture" concept focuses on the second theory, the sociocultural theory, which implies that people who choose to use cosmetic medical treatments to enhance their appearance may be attempting to increase their self-image or self-perception, improve their social relationships, and increase their probability of success across a variety of social situations. Other minor theories such as the estrogen theory and the psychological theory are discussed, along with implications for practice. All of these theories are valuable to the healthcare professional and allow a deeper understanding of the psyche of their patients.

  9. Spatial distribution of cosmetic-procedure businesses in two U.S. cities: a pilot mapping and validation study.

    PubMed

    Austin, S Bryn; Gordon, Allegra R; Kennedy, Grace A; Sonneville, Kendrin R; Blossom, Jeffrey; Blood, Emily A

    2013-12-06

    Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA) and Seattle (WA), USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Cosmetic-Procedure Businesses in Two U.S. Cities: A Pilot Mapping and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S. Bryn; Gordon, Allegra R.; Kennedy, Grace A.; Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Blossom, Jeffrey; Blood, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Cosmetic procedures have proliferated rapidly over the past few decades, with over $11 billion spent on cosmetic surgeries and other minimally invasive procedures and another $2.9 billion spent on U.V. indoor tanning in 2012 in the United States alone. While research interest is increasing in tandem with the growth of the industry, methods have yet to be developed to identify and geographically locate the myriad types of businesses purveying cosmetic procedures. Geographic location of cosmetic-procedure businesses is a critical element in understanding the public health impact of this industry; however no studies we are aware of have developed valid and feasible methods for spatial analyses of these types of businesses. The aim of this pilot validation study was to establish the feasibility of identifying businesses offering surgical and minimally invasive cosmetic procedures and to characterize the spatial distribution of these businesses. We developed and tested three methods for creating a geocoded list of cosmetic-procedure businesses in Boston (MA) and Seattle (WA), USA, comparing each method on sensitivity and staff time required per confirmed cosmetic-procedure business. Methods varied substantially. Our findings represent an important step toward enabling rigorous health-linked spatial analyses of the health implications of this little-understood industry. PMID:24322394

  11. A perspective on the safety of cosmetic products: a position paper of the American Council on Science and Health.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Over the years, some activist groups have targeted cosmetics as possible human health threats, claiming that cosmetic ingredients are not adequately tested for safety and may pose risks to consumers. The groups allege that industry practices related to safety testing are flawed, that there is little government oversight, and that cosmetics contain cancer-causing chemicals and other toxicants. A critical review of the scientific data related to these claims indicates the following: (1) Industry has the primary responsibility to ensure that all ingredients, preservatives, and coformulants used in products are safe for their intended uses. (2) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulatory oversight of the cosmetic industry. Its authority includes the banning or restriction of ingredients for safety reasons. (3) The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR), an independent, scientific review board, critically evaluates chemical ingredients used in cosmetics and publishes the results of its findings in the peer-reviewed literature. (4) Health-related allegations about cosmetic ingredients are generally based on the results of high-dose laboratory testing in animals and have little relevance for humans. As true now as when Paracelsus said it in the 16th century, "It is the dose that makes the poison." (5) The health-related allegations involving specific chemicals (e.g., phthalates, parabens, and 1,3-butadiene) fail to consider important scientific studies and recent regulatory conclusions about these chemicals, which have found that they are not hazardous. (6) Animal and human physiology differ in crucial ways, further invalidating simplistic attempts to extrapolate rodent testing to human health risks. The cosmetic industry should be encouraged to publish more of its toxicity studies and safety evaluations, which would aid in dispelling the uncertainty that some consumers have about cosmetic safety.

  12. Final amended report on the safety assessment of oxyquinoline and oxyquinoline sulfate as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Oxyquinoline is a heterocyclic phenol and Oxyquinoline Sulfate is its salt, both of which are described as cosmetic biocides for use in cosmetic formulations. In an earlier Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) safety assessment, the available data were found insufficient to support safety. Currently, some uses are reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) by industry, but industry reports to CIR indicate no use. In Europe, Oxyquinoline and Oxyquinoline Sulfate are accepted for use as stabilizers for hydrogen peroxide in rinse-off and leave-on hair care preparations, with concentration limitations. Oxyquinoline is metabolized and excreted in the urine as glucuronides. Oxyquinoline and Oxyquinoline Sulfate exhibit little acute or subchronic toxicity in animal studies. A 100-mg dose of Oxyquinoline was only slightly irritating to the eye. Oxyquinoline and Oxyquinoline Sulfate were genotoxic in certain Salmonella typhimirium strains with metabolic activation and in a mouse lymphoma assay. There was some evidence of increased chromosome aberrations in an in vitro study, and an increase in sister-chromatid exchanges (but not chromosome aberrations) in rats treated with Oxyquinoline, but no genotoxicity was found in a Drosophilia sex-linked recessive lethal test, mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, a rat bone marrow and hepatocyte micronucleus test, and unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat hepatocytes. Oxyquinoline did bind to DNA in the presence of liver enzymes. Although the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that the existing evidence is inadequate to determine carcinogenicity in animals, Oxyquinoline was noncarcinogenic in several rodent feeding studies, and newly available studies using genetically altered mice, in one case carrying the human c-Ha-ras gene, demonstrated that Oxyquinoline was not carcinogenic. In clinical tests, Oxyquinoline is neither an irritant nor a sensitizer when tested at 1% in petrolatum. The available data demonstrate

  13. Comedogenicity of current therapeutic products, cosmetics, and ingredients in the rabbit ear.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Pay, S R; Fulton, J E

    1984-01-01

    Cosmetics continue to be used by acne-prone individuals. Often as more acne develops, more cosmetics are applied. In order to protect against this natural tendency, physicians should provide more patient information on the currently available products and ingredients. This presentation is designed to help in that effort. The data presented were gleaned from the rabbit ear assay, which is not an ideal animal model but is the best we have. If an ingredient is negative in the rabbit ear assay, we feel it is safe on the acne-prone skin. A strong, positive ingredient or cosmetic should be avoided. Ingredient offenders include isopropyl myristate and its analogs, such as isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl isostearate, butyl stearate, isostearyl neopentanoate, myristyl myristate, decyl oleate, octyl stearate, octyl palmitate or isocetyl stearate, and new introductions by the cosmetic industry, such as propylene glycol-2 (PPG-2) myristyl propionate. Lanolins continue to be a problem, especially derivatives such as acetylated or ethoxylated lanolins. Our most troublesome recent finding is the comedogenic potential of the D & C Red dyes. They are universally used in the cosmetic industry, especially in blushers. This may explain the predominance of cosmetic acne in the cheekbone area. All of these D & C Red dyes tested to date, the xanthenes, monoazoanilines, fluorans, and indigoids, are comedogenic. Actually, this is not surprising as they are coal tar derivatives. The natural red pigment, carmine, is noncomedogenic and can serve as a substitute for D & C dyes in blushers. Many finished products are comedogenic. Most troublesome to the dermatologists are the therapeutic tools that we use, such as Liquimat, Retin-A cream, Hytone, Staticin, Sulfoxl, Desquam-X, and Persadox HP cream. These should be reformulated. We have been unable to confirm that precipitated sulfur (U.S.P.) is a potent comedogen in the rabbit ear assay. Clinically, we still find sulfur quite effective as an

  14. Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fruijtier-Pölloth, Claudia

    2005-10-15

    This assessment focusses on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and on anionic or nonionic PEG derivatives, which are currently used in cosmetics in Europe. These compounds are used in a great variety of cosmetic applications because of their solubility and viscosity properties, and because of their low toxicity. The PEGs, their ethers, and their fatty acid esters produce little or no ocular or dermal irritation and have extremely low acute and chronic toxicities. They do not readily penetrate intact skin, and in view of the wide use of preparations containing PEG and PEG derivatives, only few case reports on sensitisation reactions have been published, mainly involving patients with exposure to PEGs in medicines or following exposure to injured or chronically inflamed skin. On healthy skin, the sensitising potential of these compounds appears to be negligible. For some representative substances of this class, information was available on reproductive and developmental toxicity, on genotoxicty and carcinogenic properties. Taking into consideration all available information from related compounds, as well as the mode and mechanism of action, no safety concern with regard to these endpoints could be identified. Based on the available data it is therefore concluded that PEGs of a wide molecular weight range (200 to over 10,000), their ethers (laureths. ceteths, ceteareths, steareths, and oleths), and fatty acid esters (laurates, dilaurates, stearates, distearates) are safe for use in cosmetics. Limited data were available for PEG sorbitan/sorbitol fatty acid esters, PEG sorbitan beeswax and PEG soy sterols. Taking into account all the information available for closely related compounds, it can be assumed that these compounds as presently used in cosmetic preparations will not present a risk for human health. PEG castor oils and PEG hydrogenated castor oils have caused anaphylactic reactions when used in intravenous medicinal products. Their topical use in cosmetics is

  15. Safety assessment of xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Hill, Ronald; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2011-12-01

    Xylene sulfonic acid, toluene sulfonic acid, and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes used in cosmetics as surfactants, hydrotropes, were reviewed in this safety assessment. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these ingredients. The panel concluded that xylene sulfonic acid and alkyl aryl sulfonate hydrotropes are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment, when formulated to be nonirritating.

  16. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB).

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina L; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and related amidopropyl betaines are zwitterions used mainly as surfactants in cosmetics. These cosmetic ingredients are similar in their chemistry, in particular with respect to the presence of 3,3-dimethylamino-propylamine (DMAPA) and fatty acid amidopropyl dimethylamine (amidoamine) impurities, which are known as sensitizers. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that because these ingredients present no other significant toxicity, when formulated to be nonsensitizing (which may be based on a quantitative risk assessment), these ingredients are safe for use as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.

  17. Brief analysis of causes of sensitive skin and advances in evaluation of anti-allergic activity of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Fan, L; He, C; Jiang, L; Bi, Y; Dong, Y; Jia, Y

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the causes of sensitive skin and elaborates on the relationship between skin sensitivity and skin irritations and allergies, which has puzzled cosmetologists. Here, an overview is presented of the research on active ingredients in cosmetic products for sensitive skin (anti-sensitive ingredients), which is followed by a discussion of their experimental efficacy. Moreover, several evaluation methods for the efficacy of anti-sensitive ingredients are classified and summarized. Through this review, we aim to provide the cosmetic industry with a better understanding of sensitive skin, which could in turn provide some theoretical guidance to the research on targeted cosmetic products.

  18. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing retinol using the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Momma, Tomoyuki; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru

    2009-11-01

    Retinol is known to be effective in the treatment of sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing retinol. An open study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese women who had wrinkles at the corners of the eyes. The tested lotion, Retin-OX+ (RoC SA, Colombes, France), was applied on wrinkles of one side of the face for 8 weeks, and not on the other site as a control. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated by two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photos based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) the Robo Skin Analyzer. This lotion showed marked and moderate improvement in 34% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control sites (P < 0.05). Moreover, the length and area decreased in the applied site more than the control site with a significant difference (P < 0.01). All the patients completed the study without significant adverse reactions. The tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles at the corner of the eyes.

  19. Severe endobronchitis and airway stricture caused by inhalation of cosmetic talc.

    PubMed

    Ong, Thun How; Takano, Angela

    2012-08-01

    Pulmonary disease caused by talc is well described, but previous reports mainly describe lung parenchymal involvement. We describe what is, to our knowledge, the first case in which inhalation of cosmetic talc led to intense endobronchitis and airway stricture. A 70-year-old woman presented with new-onset wheezing and was found to have right upper lobe collapse on chest radiography. CT imaging of the thorax showed right upper lobe collapse with occlusion of the right upper lobe. Bronchoscopy showed severe endobronchitis with thickened mucosa throughout the right and left main stem bronchi and a fibrotic stricture occluding the right upper lobe. Bronchial biopsy specimens showed foreign-body granulomatosis encasing birefringent crystalline material. Spectral analysis confirmed the crystals to be consistent with cosmetic talc used by the patient. We hypothesize that the patient inhaled a large amount of talc, which was trapped in the larger airways and resulted in intense foreign-body granulomatosis, leading to an airway stricture.

  20. Final report on the safety assessment of pentasodium pentetate and pentetic acid as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Benes, Dina M; Burnett, Christina L

    2008-01-01

    Pentasodium Pentetate and Pentetic Acid function as chelating agents in cosmetics. Pentasodium Pentetate is readily soluble in water, but the corresponding free acid is not. Pentasodium Pentetate is used in almost 400 cosmetic products over a wide range of product categories, although it is mostly used in hair dyes and colors at use concentrations of 0.1% to 1.0%. Pentetic Acid is used in 150 cosmetic products, mostly in hair dyes and colors. Chelating agents are used in cosmetics to remove calcium and magnesium cations, which impede foaming and cleansing performance and which can cause a haze in clear liquids. The acute oral LD(50) of Pentasodium Pentetate in rats was > 5 g/kg. The acute dermal LD(50) of Pentapotassium Pentetate using rats was reported to be > 2 g/kg. The intraperitonal LD(50) of Pentetic Acid was reported to be 585 mg/kg. Short-term studies of the calcium and sodium salts of Pentetic Acid in male mice demonstrated no dose-related toxicity over the dose range of 10, 100, and 250 mg/kg. In a 4-week dermal toxicity study, daily topical application of 0.05% Pentasodium Pentetate to shaved and abraded rabbit skin produced moderate erythema after the first week and throughout the study, but no systemic toxicity. Pentasodium Pentetate or Pentapotassium Pentetate applied to intact albino rabbit skin were not irritating. A 40% solution of Pentapotassium Pentetate was not sensitizing in a guinea pig maximization test. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) for rats given 40% Pentapotassium Pentetate by oral gavage was reported to be 83 mg/kg day(-1). Subchronic inhalation evaluation of a bath freshener containing 0.05% or 0.09% Pentasodium Pentetate using albino rats determined that there was no cumulative systemic toxicity attributable to the ingredient at either concentration. The no observed effect level (NOEL) for maternal toxicity in pregnant rats was 400 mg/kg body weight and for fetal toxicity was 100 mg/kg body weight. Another reproductive

  1. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided. PMID:26378575

  2. Quantitative analysis of virgin coconut oil in cream cosmetics preparations using fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rohman, A; Man, Yb Che; Sismindari

    2009-10-01

    Today, virgin coconut oil (VCO) is becoming valuable oil and is receiving an attractive topic for researchers because of its several biological activities. In cosmetics industry, VCO is excellent material which functions as a skin moisturizer and softener. Therefore, it is important to develop a quantitative analytical method offering a fast and reliable technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with sample handling technique of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) can be successfully used to analyze VCO quantitatively in cream cosmetic preparations. A multivariate analysis using calibration of partial least square (PLS) model revealed the good relationship between actual value and FTIR-predicted value of VCO with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.998.

  3. Ethical issues, dilemmas and controversies in 'cosmetic' or aesthetic dentistry. A personal opinion.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, M

    2012-04-27

    Stephen Hancocks' elegant editorial of 11 December 2011 raises interesting questions which deserve discussion. Most experienced dentists would agree that the less that is done to teeth for cosmetic reasons, the lesser are the risks of disappointment, failure of expectation, or threat of litigation. Yet there is an increasing number of cases where aesthetics are the primary concern for dentists and patients alike and some patients are consenting to treatment without being properly informed of the destructive nature of the procedures to their sound tooth tissue and structures to achieve the desired 'cosmetic' outcome. This raises ethical issues, as much of this overtreatment is unnecessarily destructive and goes against the healing and caring principles of the dental profession.

  4. Plastic paradise: transforming bodies and selves in Costa Rica's cosmetic surgery tourism industry.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Sara L

    2010-10-01

    Long popular as a nature tourism destination, Costa Rica has recently emerged as a haven for middle class North Americans seeking inexpensive, state-of-the-art cosmetic surgery. This paper examines "cosmetic surgery tourism" in Costa Rica as a form of medicalized leisure, situated in elite private spaces and yet inextricably linked to a beleaguered national medical program. Through historical context and ethnographic analysis of activities at medical hotels and clinics, I describe how the recovery industry operates on the embodied subjectivities of visiting patients and their local caretakers. Recovery sociality and healing landscapes facilitate patients' transition through a period of post-surgical liminality and provide nostalgic transport to an imagined medical arcadia, while clinicians are attracted by a neoliberal promise of prosperity and autonomy. Ultimately, Costa Rica's transformation into a paradise of medical consumption and self-optimization is contingent on a mythology that obscures growing uncertainties and inequities in the nation's broader medical landscape.

  5. Antibacterial Effects of Cinnamon: From Farm to Food, Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Industries.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Izadi, Morteza; Sobarzo-Sánchez, Eduardo; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-09-11

    Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens. Some species belonging to the genus Cinnamomum, commonly used as spices, contain many antibacterial compounds. This paper reviews the literature published over the last five years regarding the antibacterial effects of cinnamon. In addition, a brief summary of the history, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents, and clinical impact of cinnamon is provided.

  6. Do Surgical Interventions Influence Psychosexual and Cosmetic Outcomes in Women with Disorders of Sex Development?

    PubMed Central

    Callens, Nina; van der Zwan, Yvonne G.; Drop, Stenvert L. S.; Cools, Martine; Beerendonk, Catharina M.; Wolffenbuttel, Katja P.; Dessens, Arianne B.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice developed to promote psychosexual well-being in DSD is under scrutiny. Although techniques for genital surgery have much improved lately, long-term studies on psychosexual functioning and cosmetic outcome on which to base treatment and counseling are scarce. We studied 91 women with a DSD. Feminizing surgery was performed in 64% of the women; in 60% of them, resurgery in puberty was needed after a single-stage procedure. Both patients and gynecologists were satisfied with the cosmetic appearance of the genitalia. However, forty percent of these females experienced sexuality-related distress and 66% was at risk for developing a sexual dysfunction, whether they had surgery or not. Recognizing the difficulty of accurate assessment, our data indicate that feminizing surgery does not seem to improve nor hamper psychosexual outcome, especially in patients with severe virilization. PMID:22462013

  7. Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use. The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG). Propylene glycol is generally nontoxic and is noncarcinogenic. Clinical studies demonstrated an absence of dermal sensitization at use concentrations, although concerns about irritation remained. The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs. The Expert Panel concluded that PG, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs ≥3 are safe as used in cosmetic formulations when formulated to be nonirritating.

  8. Differences in perceptions of beauty and cosmetic procedures performed in ethnic patients.

    PubMed

    Talakoub, Lily; Wesley, Naissan O

    2009-06-01

    The United States has become progressively more multicultural, with the ethnic population growing at record rates. The US Census Bureau projects that, by the year 2056, greater than 50% of the US population will be of non-Caucasian descent. Ethnic patients have different cosmetic concerns and natural features that are unique. The cosmetic concerns of ethnic patients also differ as the result of differences in skin pathophysiology, mechanisms of aging, and unique anatomic structure. There is no longer a single standard of beauty. We must now adapt to the more diverse population and understand how to accommodate the diversity of beauty in the United States. Ethnic patients do not necessarily want a Westernized look because what constitutes beauty is determined by racial, cultural, and environmental influences. We as leaders in skin care must understand these differences and adapt our practices accordingly. This article will focus on the differences in aging in different ethnic populations and highlight procedures unique to skin of color.

  9. Final report of the cosmetic ingredient review expert panel on the safety assessment of Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene are homopolymers of isobutene. These ingredients are produced in a wide range of molecular weights. Polybutene is a chemically related cosmetic ingredient previously determined to be safe as used in cosmetic products. Polyisobutene is used in cosmetic products as a binder, film former, and nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agent. Hydrogenated Polyisobutene functions as a skin-conditioning agent-emollient and nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agent with a wide range of uses in cosmetic formulations. The estimated octanol water partition coefficient for Hydrogenated Polyisobutene and Polybutene is log K(ow) of 13.27 and the estimated water solubility was 5.6 x 10(-3) ng/L for Hydrogenated Polyisobutene and Polybutene. Acute oral toxicity testing demonstrated no effects other than lethargy in one rat study. The oral LD(50) was > 5.0 g/kg in rats. No short-term or subchronic animal toxicity data were available. A 2-year chronic oral toxicity study of Polybutene revealed no gross or microscopic pathological changes, and no changes in body weights or food consumption, hematological results, urology, or tumor formation that could be correlated with Polybutene ingestion, except that in the 20,000 ppm group, three out of six males that died between weeks 17 and 24 exhibited hematuria. In a 2-year chronic oral toxicity study of Polybutene in Beagle dogs, no abnormalities in body weight, food consumption, survival, behavioral patterns, hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, liver function, gross and histopathologic examinations, or organ weights and ratios were reported. In a three-generation reproductive study in Charles River albino rats that ingested Polybutene, none of the animals in successive generations differed from controls with regard to weight gain, litter size, the number of stillborn, and the number of viable pups during lactation. The survival, body weights, and reactions of test animals were comparable to those of

  10. Utility of Gel Nails in Improving the Appearance of Cosmetically Disfigured Nails: Experience with 25 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Soni; Grover, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8); superficial pitting (n =6); onychorrhexis (n =4); superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3); Beau's lines (n =3) and pterygium (n =1) were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit®. Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10); Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement) and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years). A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient). Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10). The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases); good improvement (56% cases) and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc.) was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities. Further

  11. A Study of the Possible Harmful Effects of Cosmetic Beauty Products on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Kaličanin, Biljana; Velimirović, Dragan

    2016-04-01

    The origins of the usage of different substances in beauty, skin, body, hair, and nails care products can be found in ancient times. To achieve better quality and enhance their effects, some additives such as preservatives, stabilizers, mineral pigments, dye, and shine were added to these products. Some of these substances may also have allergic, irritating, and harmful effects on human health. The aim of this study was the optimization of the potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) for the purpose of determining the content of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, zinc), in some commercial cosmetic beauty products (lipsticks, lip glosses, eye shadows, and henna hair dye). In addition, in order to monitor the potential adverse effects of henna dye on hair quality, as well as the total body burden of heavy metals (Pb, Cd), the paper analyzed hair samples before and after henna dye treatment. Beauty products used for cosmetic purposes can have adverse effects to human health due to the fact that they contain lead, a highly toxic metal. The lead content in the tested samples varied depending on the additives used along with the method of production. The cosmetic products that were analyzed in this study contained a certain amount of zinc, which is an essential element, although its content above the prescribed limit may lead to side effects. Highly toxic metal, cadmium, was not detected in the tested samples. The presence of these metals in cosmetic products certainly indicate that it is necessary to monitor and determinate the content of toxic heavy metals in these products, especially because they are in direct contact with skin or mucous membranes and are often used in daily life.

  12. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions. PMID:26713062

  13. An in vitro tier evaluation for the identification of cosmetic ingredients which are not ocular irritants.

    PubMed

    Hagino, Shigenobu; Okazaki, Yuuko; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    A tier evaluation system was assessed as an alternative method for the identification of cosmetic ingredients which are not ocular irritants. The system employed monolayer cultures of SIRC cells, an established cell line originally derived from the rabbit cornea, and a three-dimensional living dermal model (LDM), MATREXtrade mark, which consists of human dermal fibroblasts in a contracted collagen lattice. Effects on the cell monolayer cultures were determined by using SIRC cell-Crystal Violet staining (SIRC-CVS), and effects on the LDM were assessed by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. A non-irritating ingredient was defined as a compound having a maximal average total score (MAS) of 5 or less in the Draize eye test, as this is the criterion used in the Japanese draft guidance for evaluating cosmetic ingredients. Among 34 test substances with known characteristics, 30 were classified accurately. Based on these encouraging results, the possibility of simplifying the MTT assay on the LDM for more-practical use, by selecting only three concentration levels to discriminate non-irritants from irritants, was assessed. The simplified method, involving a three-dose set (the three-dose method), was confirmed as being suitable for the identification of non-irritating ingredients, with triethanolamine used as a negative reference standard. Finally, the LDM was used to evaluate compounds at similar concentrations to those tested in vivo, aiming to predict the concentration at which an ingredient can be formulated into products without causing eye irritation. On the basis of previous validation data and our additional results, it was found that test samples that resulted in a cell viability of 50% or more in this model, could be classified as non-irritating ingredients. In all, these results indicate that the tier evaluation system may be suitable for the evaluation of ingredients intended to be used in cosmetics and medicated

  14. A new method for quality control of zinc pyritione pharmaceutical and cosmetic forms.

    PubMed

    Zubata, P; Ceresole, R; Pizzorno, M T

    2000-04-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed to determine zinc pyritione in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. Reversed-phase chromatography was conducted using a C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a suitable mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water (30:2.5:20). The effluent was monitored on a ultraviolet (UV) detector at 243 nm. The method was validated following International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) suggestions and proved accurate, precise, and specific.

  15. Reconstructive surgery for hypospadias: A systematic review of long-term patient satisfaction with cosmetic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Julie; Bracka, Aivar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Research on long-term results of hypospadias has focused on surgical techniques and functional outcomes, and it is only recently that patient satisfaction with appearance and psychosocial outcomes have been considered. The aim of this study was to provide an evidence-based systematic review of adolescent and adult patient perceptions of cosmetic outcomes following childhood surgery for hypospadias. Methods: A systematic review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA and PICO guidelines, and studies assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine system. MEDLINE, PsycInfo, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched from 1974 to 2014 for clinical studies containing patient perceptions of appearance, deformity, and social embarrassment following hypospadias surgery. Results: A total of 495 publications were retrieved, of which 28 met the inclusion criteria. Due to study design/outcome measure, heterogeneity data were synthesized narratively. Results indicate (i) patient perceptions of penile size do not differ greatly from the norm; (ii) perceptions of appearance findings are inconsistent, partially due to improving surgical techniques; (iii) patients who are approaching, or have reached, sexual maturity hold more negative perceptions and are more critical about the cosmetic outcomes of surgery than their prepubertal counterparts; (iv) patients report high levels of perceptions of deformity and social embarrassment; and (v) there is a lack of data using validated measurement tools assessing long-term patient perceptions of cosmetic outcomes, particularly with patients who have reached genital maturity. Conclusions: Protocols for clinical postpuberty follow-up and methodologically sound studies, using validated assessment tools, are required for the accurate assessment of cosmetic and psychological outcomes of hypospadias surgery. PMID:27127350

  16. Botulinum Toxin: Non-cosmetic Indications and Possible Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Botulinum toxin (BTX) has gained a great interest in cosmetic dermatology for its effects on hyperkinetic facial lines. Understanding the basic research and analysis of effects of this potent drug can lead to other possible indications of interest for dermatologists. The use of BTX in focal hyperhidrosis is well established, but BTX has also effects on pain perception, itch and inflammation as discussed in this review. PMID:20300330

  17. [Rheologic properties of some pharmaceutical excipients in drug forms and cosmetic preparation technology].

    PubMed

    Tsagareishvili, G V; Bashura, A A; Alekseeva, M A; Bashura, G S

    2012-06-01

    The establishment of mechanisms and principles of the formation of deformation (fracture) of spatial structure of bentonite solutions and various solutions and disperse systems is one or the most important problems of modern pharmaceutical technology. The article presents the results of a long-term research of influence of high-molecular compounds and surfactants on the properties of designed dosage drug forms and cosmetic preparation. Research data, as the basis for drug combinations "gel" with dekamitoksin, extract Aesculus hippocastanum L and probiotics.

  18. Quality of life assessment in cosmetics: specificity and interest of the international BeautyQol instrument.

    PubMed

    Beresniak, Ariel; Auray, Jean-Paul; Duru, Gérard; Aractingi, Selim; Krueger, Gerald G; Talarico, Sergio; Tsutani, Kiichiro; Dupont, Danielle; de Linares, Yolaine

    2015-09-01

    The wide use of cosmetics and their perceived benefits upon well-being imply objective descriptions of their effects upon the different dimensions contributing to the quality of life (QoL). Such a goal pleas for using relevant and validated scientific instruments with robust measurement methods. This paper discusses the interest of the new validated questionnaire BeautyQoL specifically designed to assess the effect of cosmetic products on physical appearance and QoL. After conducting a review of skin appearance and QoL, three phases of the international codevelopment have been carried out in the following sequence: semi-directed interviews (Phase 1), acceptability study (Phase 2), and validation study (Phase 3). Data collection and validation process have been carried out in 16 languages. This review confirms that QoL instruments developed in dermatology are not suitable to assess cosmetic products, mainly because of their lack of sensitivity. General acceptability of BeautyQol was very good. Forty-two questions have been structured in five dimensions that explained 76.7% of the total variance: Social Life, Self-confidence, Mood, Vitality, and Attractiveness. Cronbach's alpha coefficients are between 0.932 and 0.978, confirming the good internal consistency of the results. The BeautyQol questionnaire is the first international instrument specific to cosmetic products and physical appearance that has been validated in 16 languages and could be used in a number of clinical trials and descriptive studies to demonstrate the added value of these products on the QoL.

  19. Proposal of Scope of Clinical Assays of Safety and Effectiveness of Cosmetic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for accreditation for clinical assays involving cosmetic products has led the Division of Laboratory Accreditation (Dicla) to study the possibility of implementing the General Coordination for Accreditation (Cgcre) which is a specific accreditation program for Good Clinical Practice (GCP). This work represents the very beginning of such a study thus conveying a proposed model of scope for clinical assays on safety and effectiveness.

  20. 75 FR 4344 - Foreign-Trade Zone 50-Long Beach, California Application for Subzone Allegro Mfg. Inc. (Cosmetic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... Mfg. Inc. (Cosmetic, Organizer and Electronic Bags and Accessories) Commerce, CA An application has... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Allegro Mfg. Inc. (Allegro), located in Commerce, California. The application was submitted pursuant...

  1. "The first cut is the deepest": a psychological, sexological and gynecological perspective on female genital cosmetic surgery.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Giussy; Facchin, Federica; Meschia, Michele; Vercellini, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    In recent years increased numbers of healthy women and girls have been seeking female genital cosmetic surgery for esthetic reasons and/or to enhance sexual functioning. This phenomenon is associated with the development of a new vulvovaginal standard due to Internet pornography and the increased exposure of female genitalia. This strict standard may negatively affect women's psychological health and cause increased insecurity, which may drive even teenagers to seek female genital cosmetic surgery. Psychological counseling is recommended to inform women that surgery is not a definitive solution to treat psychologically based pain or dysfunction. Moreover, there is no robust evidence supporting the effectiveness of female genital cosmetic surgery, especially regarding sexual enhancement, as underlined by major scientific societies. The importance of a definite regulation of female genital cosmetic surgery should be emphasized and be based on an ethically oriented, multidisciplinary model aimed at providing exhaustive information on all gynecological, sexological, and psychological concerns raised by this type of surgery.

  2. In vitro techniques to assess the proficiency of skin care cosmetic formulations

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amit; Sahu, Ram Kumar; Matlam, Munglu; Deshmukh, Vinay Kumar; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Cosmetics comprising either natural or synthetic components are used almost regularly and universally in different forms to enhance the beauty. The utmost disclosure of human membrane to sunlight and environmental pollution results in the exhibition of free radical, that react with deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins and fatty acids, causation oxidative destruction dysfunction of the antioxidant system. In skin, the formation of reactive oxygen species leads to skin diseases, predominantly cutaneous malignancies, immunosuppression, wrinkles, aging, etc., The human organism fosters a barrier practice against the destructive action of free radicals, comprising mostly of vitamins, carotenoids and enzymes. Cosmetic products are the best option to reduce skin disorders such as hyper pigmentation, skin aging, skin wrinkling and rough skin texture, etc., Hence in this review, we conferred various in vitro methods that are used for the development of novel cosmetic formulation. There is an expanding fascinate employing in vitro techniques because they are less time consuming, more cost-effective and lessen the participation of human volunteers. PMID:24347917

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of triclosan and triclocarban in cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Liu, T; Wu, D

    2012-10-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of triclosan and triclocarban in cosmetic products was developed. Triclosan and triclocarban quantities in 168 of cosmetics were investigated and statistical analyzed with this method. The optimal condition are as follows: An Agilent SB-C8 analytical column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5μm) was utilized, and mixed buffer solution of methanol and 0.01 mol L(-1) phosphate (pH 3.0) (72 : 28, V/V) were used for isocratic elution at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) . It is found the calibration curves had a good linear regression with UV detection (280 nm) within test range of 0-110 μg mL(-1) with the correlation coefficients of 0.999 in all cases. This method is simple, selective, convenient, and reproducible for the determination of triclosan and triclocarban in commercial cosmetic products.

  4. Qualitative identification of permitted and non-permitted color additives in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Bermudez, Enio; Harp, Bhakti Petigara; Barrows, Julie N

    2014-01-01

    Color additives are dyes, pigments, or other substances that can impart color when added or applied to foods, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, or the human body. These substances must be pre-approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and listed in the Code of Federal Regulations before they may be used in FDA-regulated products. Both domestic and imported cosmetic products sold in interstate commerce fall under FDA jurisdiction, and FDA's district laboratories use a combination of analytical methods for identifying or confirming the presence of potentially violative color additives. We have developed a qualitative method for identifying 29 water- and methanol-soluble color additives in various types of cosmetic products. The color additives are extracted with combinations of methylene chloride, methanol, acetic acid, and water and are identified by LC with photodiode array detection. Estimated LOD values ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 mg/L. A survey of lip products, nail polishes, eye products, blushes, body glitter, face paints, bath products, creams, and toothpastes identified permitted and non-permitted color additives. Our new LC method is intended to supplement the visible spectrophotometry and TLC methods currently used by FDA's district laboratories and will help optimize the use of time, labor, and solvents.

  5. Nanoparticles through the skin: managing conflicting results of inorganic and organic particles in cosmetics and pharmaceutics.

    PubMed

    Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Briançon, Stéphanie; Chevalier, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles is a current scientific issue because of the enhanced reactivity of nanomaterials and their possible easy penetration into the body arising from their small size. Because inorganic particles are present in sunscreen cosmetic products, attention has been focused on cutaneous penetration. But organic particles of various sizes are also used in pharmaceutical applications such as skin care and transdermal drug delivery. It appears that organic and inorganic particles penetrate the skin quite differently. The apparent discrepancy is addressed in this review focusing on skin penetration of inorganic sunscreen particles and organic particles for drug delivery. After a short description of the physicochemical properties of these particles, the skin penetration of both types is reviewed with emphasis on the mechanistic issues and the differences that could account for such conflicting results. It appears that investigations by cosmetic and pharmaceutical communities focused on the main issue, i.e., no toxicity in cosmetics and maximum activity of the drug in pharmaceutics. This leaves several fundamental issues as open questions and this does not allow a rigorous comparison between both types of material. While it is claimed that inorganic nanoparticles can only penetrate the outer layer of the skin, it appears that organic submicron particles and even microparticles reach the dermis in an in vitro cell. Besides particle size, the surface chemistry of the particles and the presence of other excipients in the formulations contribute to skin absorption.

  6. Evaluation of dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, L R; Camargo, F B; Gianeti, M D; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2008-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SCE) is used in cosmetics since it can act in oxidative stress and improve skin conditions. This study investigated dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing SCE and/or vitamins A, C and E. The formulation studied was supplemented or not (F1: vehicle) with vitamins A, C and E esters (F2) or with SCE (F3) or with the combination of vitamins and SCE (F4). Formulations were patch tested on back skin of volunteers. For efficacy studies, formulations were applied on volunteers and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin moisture (SM), skin microrelief (SMR) and free radicals protection were analysed after 3h, 15 and 30 days of application. Volunteers were also asked about efficacy perception. It was observed that F4 provoked a slight erythema in one volunteer. All formulations enhanced forearm SM. Only F3 and F4 presented long term effects on SMR and showed higher texture values; F3 had the highest brightness values. Our results suggest that vitamins and SCE showed effects in SM and SMR. Only formulations containing SC had long term effects in the improvement of SMR. Thus, these kinds of evaluations are very important in cosmetics development to evaluate the best risk and benefit correlation.

  7. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    PubMed

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  8. The Cosmetics Europe strategy for animal-free genotoxicity testing: project status up-date.

    PubMed

    Pfuhler, S; Fautz, R; Ouedraogo, G; Latil, A; Kenny, J; Moore, C; Diembeck, W; Hewitt, N J; Reisinger, K; Barroso, J

    2014-02-01

    The Cosmetics Europe (formerly COLIPA) Genotoxicity Task Force has driven and funded three projects to help address the high rate of misleading positives in in vitro genotoxicity tests: The completed "False Positives" project optimized current mammalian cell assays and showed that the predictive capacity of the in vitro micronucleus assay was improved dramatically by selecting more relevant cells and more sensitive toxicity measures. The on-going "3D skin model" project has been developed and is now validating the use of human reconstructed skin (RS) models in combination with the micronucleus (MN) and Comet assays. These models better reflect the in use conditions of dermally applied products, such as cosmetics. Both assays have demonstrated good inter- and intra-laboratory reproducibility and are entering validation stages. The completed "Metabolism" project investigated enzyme capacities of human skin and RS models. The RS models were shown to have comparable metabolic capacity to native human skin, confirming their usefulness for testing of compounds with dermal exposure. The program has already helped to improve the initial test battery predictivity and the RS projects have provided sound support for their use as a follow-up test in the assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients in the absence of in vivo data.

  9. Oxysterols in cosmetics-Determination by planar solid phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Schrack, S; Hohl, C; Schwack, W

    2016-11-18

    Sterol oxidation products (SOPs) are linked to several toxicological effects. Therefore, investigation of potential dietary uptake sources particularly food of animal origin has been a key issue for these compounds. For the simultaneous determination of oxysterols from cholesterol, phytosterols, dihydrolanosterol and lanosterol in complex cosmetic matrices, planar solid phase extraction (pSPE) was applied as clean-up tool. SOPs were first separated from more non-polar and polar matrix constituents by normal phase thin-layer chromatography and then focussed into one target zone. Zone extraction was performed with the TLC-MS interface, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. pSPE showed to be effective for cleaning up cosmetic samples as sample extracts were free of interferences, and gas chromatographic columns did not show any signs of overloading. Recoveries were between 86 and 113% with relative standard deviations of below 10% (n=6). Results of our market survey in 2016 showed that some cosmetics with ingredients of plant origin contained phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) in the low ppm range and therefore in line with levels reported for food. In lanolin containing products, total SOPs levels (cholesterol oxidation products (COPs), lanosterol oxidation products (LOPs), dihydrolanosterol oxidation products (DOPs)) being in the low percent range exceeded reported levels for food by several orders of magnitudes.

  10. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  11. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a critical review of current knowledge and contemporary debates.

    PubMed

    Braun, Virginia

    2010-07-01

    Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures have gained popularity in the West in recent years. Marketing by surgeons promotes the surgeries, but professional organizations have started to question the promotion and practice of these procedures. Despite some surgeon claims of drastic transformations of psychological, emotional, and sexual life associated with the surgery, little reliable evidence of such effects exists. This article achieves two objectives. First, reviewing the published academic work on the topic, it identifies the current state of knowledge around female genital cosmetic procedures, as well as limitations in our knowledge. Second, examining a body of critical scholarship that raises sociological and psychological concerns not typically addressed in medical literature, it summarizes broader issues and debates. Overall, the article demonstrates a paucity of scientific knowledge and highlights a pressing need to consider the broader ramifications of surgical practices. "Today we have a whole society held in thrall to the drastic plastic of labial rejuvenation."( 1 ) "At the present time, the field of female cosmetic genital surgery is like the old Wild, Wild West: wide open and unregulated"( 2 ).

  12. Levels of Evidence in Cosmetic Surgery: Analysis and Recommendations Using a New CLEAR Classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Level of Evidence rating was introduced in 2011 to grade the quality of publications. This system evaluates study design but does not assess several other quality indicators. This study introduces a new “Cosmetic Level of Evidence And Recommendation” (CLEAR) classification that includes additional methodological criteria and compares this new classification with the existing system. Methods: All rated publications in the Cosmetic Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, July 2011 through June 2013, were evaluated. The published Level of Evidence rating (1–5) and criteria relevant to study design and methodology for each study were tabulated. A new CLEAR rating was assigned to each article, including a recommendation grade (A–D). The published Level of Evidence rating (1–5) was compared with the recommendation grade determined using the CLEAR classification. Results: Among the 87 cosmetic articles, 48 studies (55%) were designated as level 4. Three articles were assigned a level 1, but they contained deficiencies sufficient to undermine the conclusions. The correlation between the published Level of Evidence classification (1–5) and CLEAR Grade (A–D) was weak (ρ = 0.11, not significant). Only 41 studies (48%) evaluated consecutive patients or consecutive patients meeting inclusion criteria. Conclusions: The CLEAR classification considers methodological factors in evaluating study reliability. A prospective study among consecutive patients meeting eligibility criteria, with a reported inclusion rate, the use of contemporaneous controls when indicated, and consideration of confounders is a realistic goal. Such measures are likely to improve study quality. PMID:25289261

  13. Laser abrasion for cosmetic and medical treatment of facial actinic damage

    SciTech Connect

    David, L.M.; Lask, G.P.; Glassberg, E.; Jacoby, R.; Abergel, R.P.

    1989-06-01

    Previous studies have shown the carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) laser to be effective in the treatment of actinic cheilitis. After CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion, normal skin and marked cosmetic improvement of the lip were noted. In our study, twenty-three patients were treated with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasions for cosmetic improvement of facial lines and actinic changes. Pre- and postoperative histopathologic examinations were made on two patients. Preoperative examination of specimens from actinically damaged skin showed atypical keratinocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, with overlying dense compact orthokeratosis and parakeratosis. Abundant solar elastosis was seen in the papillary dermis. Postoperative histologic specimens showed a normal-appearing epidermis with fibrosis in the papillary dermis and minimal solar elastosis (about four weeks after laser treatment). At present, various modalities are available for the regeneration of the aged skin, including chemical peels and dermabrasion. Significantly fewer complications were noted with CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion than with these methods. Thus, CO/sub 2/ laser abrasion can be useful in the cosmetic and medical treatment of the aged skin. Marked clinical and histologic improvement has been demonstrated.

  14. Moisturizing and Antiinflammatory Properties of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Centella asiatica Extract

    PubMed Central

    Ratz-Łyko, A.; Arct, J.; Pytkowska, K.

    2016-01-01

    Centella asiatica extract is a rich source of natural bioactive substances, triterpenoid saponins, flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenic steroids, amino acids and sugars. Thus, many scavenging free radicals, exhibit antiinflammatory activity and affect on the stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties of cosmetic formulations (oil-in-water emulsion cream and hydrogel) containing different concentrations of Centella asiatica extract. The study was conducted over four weeks on a group of 25 volunteers after twice a day application of cosmetic formulations with Centella asiatica extract (2.5 and 5%, w/w) on their forearms. The measurement of basic skin parameters (stratum corneum hydration and epidermal barrier function) was performed once a week. The in vivo antiinflammatory activity based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin was evaluated after four weeks application of tested formulations. In vivo tests formulations containing 5% of Centella asiatica extract showed the best efficacy in improving skin moisture by increase of skin surface hydration state and decrease in transepidermal water loss as well as exhibited antiinflammatory properties based on the methyl nicotinate model of microinflammation in human skin. Comparative tests conducted by corneometer, tewameter and chromameter showed that cosmetic formulations containing Centella asiatica extract have the moisturizing and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:27168678

  15. In vitro techniques to assess the proficiency of skin care cosmetic formulations.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amit; Sahu, Ram Kumar; Matlam, Munglu; Deshmukh, Vinay Kumar; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Cosmetics comprising either natural or synthetic components are used almost regularly and universally in different forms to enhance the beauty. The utmost disclosure of human membrane to sunlight and environmental pollution results in the exhibition of free radical, that react with deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins and fatty acids, causation oxidative destruction dysfunction of the antioxidant system. In skin, the formation of reactive oxygen species leads to skin diseases, predominantly cutaneous malignancies, immunosuppression, wrinkles, aging, etc., The human organism fosters a barrier practice against the destructive action of free radicals, comprising mostly of vitamins, carotenoids and enzymes. Cosmetic products are the best option to reduce skin disorders such as hyper pigmentation, skin aging, skin wrinkling and rough skin texture, etc., Hence in this review, we conferred various in vitro methods that are used for the development of novel cosmetic formulation. There is an expanding fascinate employing in vitro techniques because they are less time consuming, more cost-effective and lessen the participation of human volunteers.

  16. New developments in the extraction and determination of parabens in cosmetics and environmental samples. A review.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-González, Juan Antonio; Villar-Navarro, Mercedes; Ramos-Payán, María; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Bello-López, Miguel Angel

    2015-02-09

    Parabens are a family of synthetic esters of p-hydroxibenzoic acid widely used as preservatives in cosmetics and health-care products, among other daily-use commodities. Recently, their potential endocrine disrupting effects have raised concerns about their safety and their potential effects as emerging pollutants, leading to the regulation of the presence of parabens in commercial products by national and trans-national organizations. Also, this has led to an interest in developing sensible and reliable methods for their determination in environmental samples, cosmetics and health-care products. This paper is a comprehensive up-to-date review of the literature concerning the determination of parabens in environmental samples and cosmetic and health-care products. A brief revision of the literature concerning the traditional determination of parabens (1980-2003) is included, followed by an in-depth revision of the recent developments in both measurement and extraction methods for parabens in the last years (2003-2013). Finally, possible future perspectives in this field are proposed.

  17. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production - A Case Study from Southern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glina, Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village). Studied peatland is managed by "Torf Corporation" company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles) Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian), after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface), the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands). Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  18. Interest in cosmetic improvement as a marker for tanning behavior: a survey of 1602 respondents.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Shelley; DeCoster, Jamie; Northington, Marian; Cantrell, Wendy; Elmets, Craig A; Elewski, Boni E

    2011-03-01

    Dermatologists see many patients interested in improving their physical appearance through cosmetic procedures or medical means. Dermatologists frequently counsel patients on sun protection as well, particularly those with a personal or family history of skin cancer, sun-sensitive dermatoses or those with obvious sun damage. Our objective in this study was to identify novel markers of skin cancer risk, which may aid dermatologists in targeting extra sun protection counseling for certain groups. A 16-question survey was distributed to subjects 19 years of age and older in public areas of downtown Birmingham, Alabama in August and September of 2008. Overall, about 40% of both genders reported that they were highly concerned that current sun exposure could cause skin cancer. Participants interested in at least one appearance-related questionnaire item were significantly more likely than those not interested to rate tanned skin as highly important (31.6%vs. 17.5%, P<0.001), and to report regret for previous sun exposure (12.5%vs. 3.6%, P<0.001). Subjects who thought tanned skin was important were significantly more likely to report interest in improving their appearance through cosmetic procedures and medical means. We conclude that individuals with an interest in improving their physical appearance through cosmetic procedures or medical means may be especially in need of sun protection counseling.

  19. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.

  20. Guiding principles for the implementation of non-animal safety assessment approaches for cosmetics: skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre; Ade, Nadège; Alépée, Nathalie; Aptula, Aynur; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Gilmour, Nicola; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Detlef; Kern, Petra; Kirst, Annette; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Maxwell, Gavin; Rowland, Joanna; Safford, Bob; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Seaman, Chris; Teichert, Thomas; Tessier, Nicolas; Teissier, Silvia; Weltzien, Hans Ulrich; Winkler, Petra; Scheel, Julia

    2012-06-01

    Characterisation of skin sensitisation potential is a key endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients especially when significant dermal exposure to an ingredient is expected. At present the mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) remains the 'gold standard' test method for this purpose however non-animal test methods are under development that aim to replace the need for new animal test data. COLIPA (the European Cosmetics Association) funds an extensive programme of skin sensitisation research, method development and method evaluation and helped coordinate the early evaluation of the three test methods currently undergoing pre-validation. In May 2010, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held to analyse to what extent skin sensitisation safety assessments for cosmetic ingredients can be made in the absence of animal data. In order to propose guiding principles for the application and further development of non-animal safety assessment strategies it was evaluated how and when non-animal test methods, predictions based on physico-chemical properties (including in silico tools), threshold concepts and weight-of-evidence based hazard characterisation could be used to enable safety decisions. Generation and assessment of potency information from alternative tools which at present is predominantly derived from the LLNA is considered the future key research area.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of 3 benzalkonium chloride homologs in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Hao; Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Hailiang; Guo, Qilei

    2011-05-01

    An analytical method based on high performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) has been established for the simultaneous determination of 3 benzalkonium chloride homologs (n-C12H25-C9H13NCl, n-C14H29-C9H13NCl, n-C16,H33-C9H13NCl) in cosmetics. The sample was extracted with methanol (including 0.5% formic acid) under ultrasonic operation, the HPLC separation was carried out on a CAPCELL PAK SCX column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), the mobile phases were 40 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution (including 0.1% triethylamine) and acetonitrile with gradient elution, the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, the detection wavelength was 260 nm, the column temperature was 25 degrees C, and the injection volume was 20 microL. The limit of detection was 50.0 mg/kg and the quantitation limit was 200.0 mg/kg for 3 benzalkonium chloride homologs in cosmetics. The linear plots were obtained between 5.0 mg/L and 3000.0 mg/L. Overall recoveries were between 92.5% and 102.1% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.81% and 6.66%. The method is simple, rapid, accurate and suitable for the determination of 3 benzalkonium chloride homologs in cosmetics.

  2. Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Surgery among Females: A Media Literacy Training Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Khazir, Zahra; Dehdari, Tahereh; Majdabad, Mahmood Mahmoodi; Tehrani, Said Pournaghash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study examined the favorable attitude of a sample of female university students regarding elective cosmetic surgery, body dysmorphic disorder, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction following a media literacy training intervention. Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental type. The study sample included 140 female university students who were allocated to either the intervention (n=70) or the control group (n=70). Attitude toward cosmetic surgery, body dysmorphic disorder, self-esteem and, body satisfaction was measured in both groups before the intervention and 4 weeks later. Four media literacy training sessions were conducted over 4 weeks for the intervention group. The data was analyzed through analysis of covariance, student’s paired-samples t test, and Pearson correlation. Results: Our findings showed that favorable attitude, body dysmorphic disorder and body dissatisfaction scores were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the intervention group than the control group. Furthermore, self-esteem score increased significantly in the intervention group. Conclusions: Our results underscores the importance of media literacy intervention in decreasing female’s favorable attitude towards elective cosmetic surgery, body dysmorphic disorder and body dissatisfaction as well as increasing self-esteem. PMID:26383204

  3. Role of macromolecules in the safety of use of body wash cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Bujak, Tomasz; Wasilewski, Tomasz; Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Zofia

    2015-11-01

    One of the most challenging problems related to the use of surfactants in body wash cosmetics is their potential to cause skin irritations. Surfactants can bind with proteins, remove lipids from the epidermal surface, contribute to the disorganization of liquid crystal structures in the intercellular lipids, and interact with living skin cells. These processes can lead to skin irritations and allergic reactions, and impair the epidermal barrier function. The present study is an attempt to assess the effect of polymers and hydrolysed proteins present in the formulations of model body wash cosmetics on product properties. Special attention was given to the safety of use of this product type. The study examined three macromolecules: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydrolysed wheat protein (HWP) and polyvinylpyrrolidone/hydrolysed wheat protein crosspolymer (PVP/HWP). The addition of the substances under study was found to improve the foaming properties of body wash cosmetics, increase their stability during storage, and contribute significantly to an improvement in the safety of product use by reducing the irritant potential. The strongest ability to reduce the skin irritation potential was determined for the formula enriched with the PVP/HWP crosspolymer.

  4. Novel database for exposure to fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Comiskey, D; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S H; Safford, B; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Exposure of fragrance ingredients in cosmetics and personal care products to the population can be determined by way of a detailed and robust survey. The frequency and combinations of products used at specific times during the day will allow the estimation of aggregate exposure for an individual consumer, and to the sample population. In the present study, habits and practices of personal care and cosmetic products have been obtained from market research data for 36,446 subjects across European countries and the United States in order to determine the exposure to fragrance ingredients. Each subject logged their product uses, time of day and body application sites in an online diary for seven consecutive days. The survey data did not contain information on the amount of product used per occasion or body measurements, such as weight and skin surface area. Nevertheless, this was found from the literature where the likely amount of product used per occasion or body measurement could be probabilistically chosen from distributions of data based on subject demographics. The daily aggregate applied consumer product exposure was estimated based on each subject's frequency of product use, and Monte Carlo simulations of their likely product amount per use and body measurements. Statistical analyses of the habits and practices and consumer product exposure are presented, which show the robustness of the data and the ability to estimate aggregate consumer product exposure. Consequently, the data and modelling methods presented show potential as a means of performing ingredient safety assessments for personal care and cosmetics products.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the 26 allergens for cosmetic labeling in fragrance raw materials and perfume oils.

    PubMed

    Leijs, Hans; Broekhans, Joost; van Pelt, Leon; Mussinan, Cynthia

    2005-07-13

    The adoption of the 7th amendment of the European Cosmetic Directive 76/768/EEC requires any cosmetic product containing any of 26 raw materials identified by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products intended for Consumers as likely to cause a contact allergy when present above certain trigger levels to be declared on the package label. Of these 26, 24 are volatile and can be analyzed by GC. This paper describes a method for the quantitative analysis of these volatile raw materials in perfume ingredients as well as complex perfume compositions. The method uses sequential dual-column GC-MS analysis. The full-scan data acquired minimize the false-positive and false-negative identifications that can be observed with alternate methods based on data acquired in the SIM mode. For each sample, allergen levels are determined on both columns sequentially, leading to two numerical results for each allergen. Quantification limits for each allergen in a perfume mixture based on the analysis of a standard are <4 mg/kg. This is well below the level that would trigger label declaration on the consumer good. Calibration curves for all allergens are linear (r > 0.999) and stable for multiple days. Studies on perfumes spiked with multiple allergens at 30, 50, and 70 mg/kg show recoveries close to nominal values.

  6. Screening of repeated dose toxicity data present in SCC(NF)P/SCCS safety evaluations of cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Vinken, Mathieu; Pauwels, Marleen; Ates, Gamze; Vivier, Manon; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2012-03-01

    Alternative methods, replacing animal testing, are urgently needed in view of the European regulatory changes in the field of cosmetic products and their ingredients. In this context, a joint research initiative called SEURAT was recently raised by the European Commission and COLIPA, representing the European cosmetics industry, with the overall goal of developing an animal-free repeated dose toxicity testing strategy for human safety assessment purposes. Although cosmetic ingredients are usually harmless for the consumer, one of the initial tasks of this research consortium included the identification of organs that could potentially be affected by cosmetic ingredients upon systemic exposure. The strategy that was followed hereof is described in the present paper and relies on the systematic evaluation, by using a self-generated electronic databank, of published reports issued by the scientific committee of DG SANCO responsible for the safety of cosmetic ingredients. By screening of the repeated dose toxicity studies present in these reports, it was found that the liver is potentially the most frequently targeted organ by cosmetic ingredients when orally administered to experimental animals, followed by the kidney and the spleen. Combined listing of altered morphological, histopathological, and biochemical parameters subsequently indicated the possible occurrence of hepatotoxicity, including steatosis and cholestasis, triggered by a limited number of cosmetic compounds. These findings are not only of relevance for the in vitro modeling efforts and choice of compounds to be tested in the SEURAT project cluster, but also demonstrate the importance of using previously generated toxicological data through an electronic databank for addressing specific questions regarding the safety evaluation of cosmetic ingredients.

  7. Alternatives to the use of animals in safety testing as required by the EU-Cosmetics Directive 2009.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Ingredients of cosmetic products are no longer allowed to be tested by animal experimentation (EU-Cosmetics Directive 76/768 EEC). For several toxicological endpoints this testing ban applies since March 11, 2009, while repeated dose toxicity tests and the test on skin sensitisation will follow on March 11, 2013. All currently available alternatives meeting the requirements of the first deadline are compiled in the following.

  8. Cosmetic Outcome and Seroma Formation After Breast-Conserving Surgery With Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Senthi, Sashendra; Link, Emma; Chua, Boon H.

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cosmetic outcome and its association with breast wound seroma after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with targeted intraoperative radiation therapy (tIORT) boost for early breast cancer. Methods and Materials: An analysis of a single-arm prospective study of 55 patients with early breast cancer treated with BCS and tIORT boost followed by conventional whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT) between August 2003 and January 2006 was performed. A seroma was defined as a fluid collection at the primary tumor resection site identified clinically or radiologically. Cosmetic assessments using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer rating system were performed at baseline before BCS and 30 months after WBRT was completed. Results: Twenty-eight patients (51%) developed a seroma, with 18 patients (33%) requiring at least 1 aspiration. Tumor location was significantly associated with seroma formation (P=.001). Ten of 11 patients with an upper inner quadrant tumor developed a seroma. Excellent or good overall cosmetic outcome at 30 months was observed in 34 patients (62%, 95% confidence interval 53%-80%). Seroma formation was not associated with the overall cosmetic result (P=.54). Conclusion: BCS with tIORT boost followed by WBRT was associated with an acceptable cosmetic outcome. Seroma formation was not significantly associated with an adverse cosmetic outcome.

  9. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed.

  10. In the shadow of the Cosmetic Directive--inconsistencies in EU environmental hazard classification requirements for UV-filters.

    PubMed

    Sobek, A; Bejgarn, S; Rudén, C; Molander, L; Breitholtz, M

    2013-09-01

    UV-filters are chemicals with potentially environmental hazardous properties. In the European Union (EU), UV-filters contained in sunscreen products are currently regulated by the Cosmetic Directive (from July 2013 by the Cosmetic Products Regulation). Environmental hazard classifications according to the regulation on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) must be determined for UV-filters contained in industrial chemical products, whereas UV-filters contained in sunscreens are exempted from CLP. In this study we determined the potential environmental hazard classifications of UV-filters and sunscreen products if the CLP regulation was to be required for cosmetic products. Two sunscreen products were evaluated in accordance with the aquatic environmental hazard criteria for mixtures. The results highlight that the inconsistencies in the current EU regulation of UV filters hamper the risk management of environmental hazards of UV filters used in cosmetic products. Almost 50% of the investigated UV-filters approved for use in cosmetic products on the European market according to the current Cosmetic Directive were identified to meet the CLP classification as being hazardous to the aquatic environment. Assuming a worst-case scenario, the two examined sunscreens could both be classified as hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects according to CLP classification criteria. Hence, if the CLP regulation was applicable to sunscreen products, both brands could potentially be labelled with the environmental hazard pictogram and associated hazard and precautionary statements. Including cosmetic products, and thereby sunscreens, in the CLP regulation would contribute to a more harmonized and transparent regulation of potentially hazardous substances on the EU market.

  11. What Do Social Media Say About Makeovers? A Content Analysis of Cosmetic Surgery Videos and Viewers' Responses on YouTube.

    PubMed

    Wen, Nainan; Chia, Stella C; Hao, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    This study examines portrayals of cosmetic surgery on YouTube, where we found a substantial number of cosmetic surgery videos. Most of the videos came from cosmetic surgeons who appeared to be aggressively using social media in their practices. Except for videos that explained cosmetic surgery procedures, most videos in our sample emphasized the benefits of cosmetic surgery, and only a small number of the videos addressed the involved risks. We also found that tactics of persuasive communication-namely, related to message source and message sensation value (MSV)-have been used in Web-based social media to attract viewers' attention and interests. Expert sources were used predominantly, although typical-consumer sources tended to generate greater viewer interest in cosmetic surgery than other types of message sources. High MSV, moreover, was found to increase a video's popularity.

  12. Cosmetic Dermatology

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. ... 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission.

  13. Alternative (non-animal) methods for cosmetics testing: current status and future prospects-2010.

    PubMed

    Adler, Sarah; Basketter, David; Creton, Stuart; Pelkonen, Olavi; van Benthem, Jan; Zuang, Valérie; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Angers-Loustau, Alexandre; Aptula, Aynur; Bal-Price, Anna; Benfenati, Emilio; Bernauer, Ulrike; Bessems, Jos; Bois, Frederic Y; Boobis, Alan; Brandon, Esther; Bremer, Susanne; Broschard, Thomas; Casati, Silvia; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Cronin, Mark; Daston, George; Dekant, Wolfgang; Felter, Susan; Grignard, Elise; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Heinonen, Tuula; Kimber, Ian; Kleinjans, Jos; Komulainen, Hannu; Kreiling, Reinhard; Kreysa, Joachim; Leite, Sofia Batista; Loizou, George; Maxwell, Gavin; Mazzatorta, Paolo; Munn, Sharon; Pfuhler, Stefan; Phrakonkham, Pascal; Piersma, Aldert; Poth, Albrecht; Prieto, Pilar; Repetto, Guillermo; Rogiers, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Schwarz, Michael; Serafimova, Rositsa; Tähti, Hanna; Testai, Emanuela; van Delft, Joost; van Loveren, Henk; Vinken, Mathieu; Worth, Andrew; Zaldivar, José-Manuel

    2011-05-01

    The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. In that context, the European Commission invited stakeholder bodies (industry, non-governmental organisations, EU Member States, and the Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety) to identify scientific experts in five toxicological areas, i.e. toxicokinetics, repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity, skin sensitisation, and reproductive toxicity for which the Directive foresees that the 2013 deadline could be further extended in case alternative and validated methods would not be available in time. The selected experts were asked to analyse the status and prospects of alternative methods and to provide a scientifically sound estimate of the time necessary to achieve full replacement of animal testing. In summary, the experts confirmed that it will take at least another 7-9 years for the replacement of the current in vivo animal tests used for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients for skin sensitisation. However, the experts were also of the opinion that alternative methods may be able to give hazard information, i.e. to differentiate between sensitisers and non-sensitisers, ahead of 2017. This would, however, not provide the complete picture of what is a safe exposure because the relative potency of a sensitiser would not be known. For toxicokinetics, the timeframe was 5-7 years to develop the models still lacking to predict lung absorption and renal/biliary excretion, and even longer to integrate the methods to fully replace the animal toxicokinetic models. For the systemic toxicological endpoints of repeated dose toxicity, carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, the time horizon for full replacement could not be estimated.

  14. Assessment of Health Risk from Historical Use of Cosmetic Talcum Powder.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth L; Sheehan, Patrick J; Kalmes, Renee M; Griffin, John R

    2016-07-09

    This study's objective is to assess the risk of asbestos-related disease being contracted by past users of cosmetic talcum powder.  To our knowledge, no risk assessment studies using exposure data from historical exposures or chamber simulations have been published. We conducted activity-based sampling with cosmetic talcum powder samples from five opened and previously used containers that are believed to have been first manufactured and sold in the 1960s and 1970s.  These samples had been subject to conflicting claims of asbestos content; samples with the highest claimed asbestos content were tested.  The tests were conducted in simulated-bathroom controlled chambers with volunteers who were talc users.  Air sampling filters were prepared by direct preparation techniques and analyzed by phase contrast microscopy (PCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectra, and selective area diffraction (SAED).  TEM analysis for asbestos resulted in no confirmed asbestos fibers and only a single fiber classified as "ambiguous."  Hypothetical treatment of this fiber as if it were asbestos yields a risk of 9.6 × 10(-7) (under one in one million) for a lifetime user of this cosmetic talcum powder.  The exposure levels associated with these results range from zero to levels far below those identified in the epidemiology literature as posing a risk for asbestos-related disease, and substantially below published historical environmental background levels.  The approaches used for this study have potential application to exposure evaluations of other talc or asbestos-containing materials and consumer products.

  15. Cosmetic Outcomes and Complications Reported by Patients Having Undergone Breast-Conserving Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill-Kayser, Christine E.; Vachani, Carolyn; Hampshire, Margaret K.; Di Lullo, Gloria A.; Metz, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: Over the past 30 years, much work in treatment of breast cancer has contributed to improvement of cosmetic and functional outcomes. The goal of breast-conservation treatment (BCT) is avoidance of mastectomy through use of lumpectomy and adjuvant radiation. Modern data demonstrate 'excellent' or 'good' cosmesis in >90% of patients treated with BCT. Methods and Materials: Patient-reported data were gathered via a convenience sample frame from breast cancer survivors using a publically available, free, Internet-based tool for creation of survivorship care plans. During use of the tool, breast cancer survivors are queried as to the cosmetic appearance of the treated breast, as well as perceived late effects. All data have been maintained anonymously with internal review board approval. Results: Three hundred fifty-four breast cancer survivors having undergone BCT and voluntarily using this tool were queried with regard to breast cosmesis and perceived late effects. Median diagnosis age was 48 years, and median current age 52 years. 'Excellent' cosmesis was reported by 27% (n = 88), 'Good' by 44% (n = 144), 'Fair' by 24% (n = 81), and 'Poor' by 5% (n = 18). Of the queries posted to survivors after BCT, late effects most commonly reported were cognitive changes (62%); sexual concerns (52%); changes in texture and color of irradiated skin (48%); chronic pain, numbness, or tingling (35%); and loss of flexibility in the irradiated area (30%). Survivors also described osteopenia/osteoporosis (35%), cardiopulmonary problems (12%), and lymphedema (19%). Conclusions: This anonymous tool uses a convenience sample frame to gather patient reported assessments of cosmesis and complications after breast cancer. Among the BCT population, cosmetic assessment by survivors appears less likely to be 'excellent' or 'good' than would be expected, with 30% of BCT survivors reporting 'fair' or 'poor' cosmesis. Patient reported incidence of chronic pain, as well as cognitive and

  16. Medicinal and cosmetic uses of Bee’s Honey – A review

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, E. R. H. S. S.; Premarathna, N. Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Bee’s honey is one of the most valued and appreciated natural substances known to mankind since ancient times. There are many types of bee’s honey mentioned in Ayurveda. Their effects differ and ‘Makshika’ is considered medicinally the best. According to modern scientific view, the best bee’s honey is made by Apis mellifera (Family: Apidae). In Sri Lanka, the predominant honey-maker bee is Apis cerana. The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee’s honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. Synonyms, details of formation, constitution, properties, and method of extraction and the usages of bee’s honey are gathered from text books, traditional and Ayurvedic physicians of Western and Southern provinces, villagers of ‘Kalahe’ in Galle district of Sri Lanka and from few search engines. Fresh bee’s honey is used in treatment of eye diseases, throat infections, bronchial asthma, tuberculosis, hiccups, thirst, dizziness, fatigue, hepatitis, worm infestation, constipation, piles, eczema, healing of wounds, ulcers and used as a nutritious, easily digestible food for weak people. It promotes semen, mental health and used in cosmetic purposes. Old bee’s honey is used to treat vomiting, diarrhea, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and in preserving meat and fruits. Highly popular in cosmetic treatment, bee’s honey is used in preparing facial washes, skin moisturizers, hair conditioners and in treatment of pimples. Bee’s honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses. PMID:23559786

  17. Feasibility and effectiveness of a cosmetic intervention program for institutionalized older women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Yohko; Shoji, Ikuko; Kumon, Hiroko; Tokita, Masumi; Kamata, Masazumi; Arao, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    We examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a cosmetic intervention program for frail older women. Thirty-nine older adults (83.0 ± 8.65 years) from two nursing homes in Tokyo were allocated to a cosmetic (intervention: n = 27) or a light-exercise (control: n = 12) group according to their nursing home residence. Both groups attended weekly classes over a 5-week period from May to June 2009. The program feasibility was examined using class participation, class attendance, and program adherence rates, while the effectiveness of the program was examined using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and participants' engagement in positive activities (i.e., engaging in social activities and going outside). The intervention group showed significantly higher rates on all feasibility measures than did the control group (class participation: 24.1% vs. 13.3%, class attendance: 75.5% vs. 32.6%, program adherence: 70.8% vs. 10.0%). Furthermore, the GDS scores decreased significantly in the intervention group, but not the control group. Although the change in GDS score was larger in the intervention group (- 1.30 ± 2.36) than in the control group (- 0.75 ± 3.53), the inter-group difference in this change was not significant. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-intervention positive activity rates in either group, or in the inter-group comparisons of changes in these rates. Overall, the cosmetic program was highly feasible and effective for improving the mental health of frail older women. However, further studies using longer intervention periods and larger samples would be needed to identify the program effectiveness.

  18. [Measurement of 11 benzophenone ultraviolet-filters in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Qu, Baocheng; Bian, Haitao; Mao, Xiqin; Li, Jin

    2015-12-01

    A sample preparation and analytical method with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed to detect 11 benzophenone ultraviolet-filters in cosmetics. The target compounds were extracted by the mixed solutions of tetrahydrofuran (TH)/methanol/water or dichloromethane/water at proper ratios. The extracts were centrifuged and filtered to remove matrix compounds, and then analyzed by HPLC. The separation of analytes was carried out on a Diamonsil-C18 column (150 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution (containing 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate) as mobile phase A and methanol containing 0.1% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phase B. The spiked recoveries of the method (n = 7) were 93.4%-103.8% with the relative standard deviations of 0.1%-4.2%. The limits of detection (LODs) were in the range of 4.0-30 μg/g and the limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 15 to 100 μg/g. The method was applied to the determination of 42 cosmetic samples randomly purchased from the supermarket in Dalian. Five benzophenone series were always detected, in which the content of benzophenone-3 in sunscreen cream and the content of benzophenone-2 in perfume were very high and reached 2 785 μg/g and 2 106 μg/g, respectively. The results showed that the developed method is efficient, reliable and sensitive, which can be applied to the determination of benzophenones in cosmetics.

  19. Amphiphilic polymeric micelle as pseudostationary phase in electrokinetic chromatography for analysis of eight corticosteroids in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaojin; Ni, Xinjiong; Cao, Yuhua; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Yang, Xiaoxiao; Cao, Guangqun

    2014-03-01

    Amphiphilic polymeric micelle, as a novel pseudostationary phase in EKC was used to determine eight kinds of corticosteroids namely hydrocortisone, prednisolone, hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, cortisone acetate, prednisolone acetate, dexamethasone, and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetics. Amphiphilic random copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) (P(MMA-co-MAA)) was micellizated via neutralization in alkaline aqueous solution. The influences of the molar ratio of monomer MMA to MAA, the concentration of polymer and pH on the polymeric micelle microstructure and EKC performances were investigated. As molar ratio of MMA to MAA in P(MMA-co-MAA) increased, both CMC and environmental polarity of the inner core in polymeric micelle decreased dramatically. With increasing monomer ratio, the size of polymeric micelles increased firstly, and then decreased, finally increased again. ζ potential of the micelle had a slight decline trend. As increment of polymer concentration, the size of the polymeric micelle increased steadily. By optimizing the monomer ratio, the polymer concentration, and pH of the running buffer, as well as operation conditions such as separation voltage and temperature, the eight analytes could be separated within 16.5 min using 7.5 mg/mL polymer with the monomer ratio of 7:3 dissolved in pH 9.2 borax buffer as the running buffer. The method has been used for analysis of corticosteroids in cosmetic samples with simple extraction; the recoveries for eight analytes were between 85.9 and 106%. This method was of accuracy, repeatability, pretreatment simplicity, and could be applied to the quality control of cosmetics.

  20. Is There a Cosmetic Advantage to Single-Incision Laparoscopic Surgical Techniques Over Standard Laparoscopic Surgery? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Evans, Luke; Manley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery represents an evolution of minimally invasive techniques, but has been a controversial development. A cosmetic advantage is stated by many authors, but has not been found to be universally present or even of considerable importance by patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that there is a cosmetic advantage of the technique regardless of the operation type. The treatment effect in terms of cosmetic improvement is of the order of 0.63.